Science.gov

Sample records for kuuse picea mariana

  1. Soil physical, chemical and gas-flux characterization from Picea mariana stands near Erickson Creek, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    Fire is a particularly important control on the carbon (C) balance of the boreal forest, and fire-return intervals and fire severity appear to have increased since the late 1900s in North America. In addition to the immediate release of stored C to the atmosphere through organic-matter combustion, fire also modifies soil conditions, possibly affecting C exchange between terrestrial and atmospheric pools for decades after the burn. The effects of fire on ecosystem C dynamics vary across the landscape, with topographic position and soil drainage functioning as important controls. The data reported here contributed to a larger U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, published in the journal Ecosystems by O'Donnell and others (2009). To evaluate the effects of fire and drainage on ecosystem C dynamics, we selected sample sites within the 2003 Erickson Creek fire scar to measure CO2 fluxes and soil C inventories in burned and unburned (control) sites in both upland and lowland black spruce (Picea mariana) forests. The results of this study suggested that although fire can create soil climate conditions which are more conducive to rapid decomposition, rates of C release from soils may be constrained after fire by changes in moisture and (or) substrate quality that impede rates of decomposition. Here, we report detailed site information, methodology, and data (in spreadsheet files) from that study.

  2. Wintertime photosynthetic capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana) in boreal forests in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, T.; Koyama, L. A.; Kielland, K.

    2015-12-01

    In boreal forests, the growing season is short, and winter temperature is low and fluctuates from considerably below freezing point to intermittent warm spells. Under such conditions, it is important for plants to retain their photosynthetic capacity throughout the winter. To understand the importance of wintertime photosynthetic activity for evergreen boreal coniferous species, the light response curve of black spruce (Picea mariana) was monitored in Fairbanks, interior Alaska (64°86'N, 147°84'W) throughout the winter, and compared with those in the summer. Cuttings of black spruce were collected, and gas exchange of their needles was measured in the incubator set to 0 °C using a gas analyzer (LI-6400, Li-Cor Inc.). A non-rectangular hyperbolic model was fitted to these data, and physiological parameters such as the maximum photosynthesis rate, dark respiration rate and quantum yield of photosynthesis were extracted. The apparent quantum yield of photosynthesis remained low throughout the winter for black spruce. The maximum photosynthesis rate was downregulated as air temperature fell in early winter, but did not increase in March when air temperature rose. This suggests that photoinhibition may occur more strongly in March than in early winter. The average maximum rates of photosynthesis in winter were almost 10% of the value measured in summer. On the other hand, the dark respiration rate did not considerably differ between seasons. These results provide new insights into winter photosynthetic activity and its role in boreal forest ecosystems.

  3. Molecular Profiling of Rhizosphere Microbial Communities Associated with Healthy and Diseased Black Spruce (Picea mariana) Seedlings Grown in a Nursery

    PubMed Central

    Filion, M.; Hamelin, R. C.; Bernier, L.; St-Arnaud, M.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal populations associated with the rhizosphere of healthy black spruce (Picea mariana) seedlings and seedlings with symptoms of root rot were characterized by cloned rRNA gene sequence analysis. Triplicate bacterial and fungal rRNA gene libraries were constructed, and 600 clones were analyzed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and grouped into operational taxonomical units (OTUs). A total of 84 different bacterial and 31 different fungal OTUs were obtained and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the different OTUs belonged to a wide range of bacterial and fungal taxa. For both groups, pairwise comparisons revealed that there was greater similarity between replicate libraries from each treatment than between libraries from different treatments. Significant differences between pooled triplicate samples from libraries of genes from healthy seedlings and pooled triplicate samples from libraries of genes from diseased seedlings were also obtained for both bacteria and fungi, clearly indicating that the rhizosphere-associated bacterial and fungal communities of healthy and diseased P. mariana seedlings were different. The communities associated with healthy and diseased seedlings also showed distinct ecological parameters as indicated by the calculated diversity, dominance, and evenness indices. Among the main differences observed at the community level, there was a higher proportion of Acidobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Homobasidiomycetes clones associated with healthy seedlings, while the diseased-seedling rhizosphere harbored a higher proportion of Actinobacteria, Sordariomycetes, and environmental clones. The methodological approach described in this study appears promising for targeting potential rhizosphere-competent biological control agents against root rot diseases occurring in conifer nurseries. PMID:15184155

  4. The role of soil drainage class in carbon dioxide exchange and decomposition in boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forest stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forest stands range from well drained to poorly drained, typically contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), and are often underlain by permafrost. To better understand the role of soil drainage class in carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange and decomposition, we measured soil respiration and net CO2 fluxes, litter decomposition and litterfall rates, and SOC stocks above permafrost in three Alaska black spruce forest stands characterized as well drained (WD), moderately drained (MD), and poorly drained (PD). Soil respiration and net CO2 fluxes were not significantly different among sites, although the relation between soil respiration rate and temperature varied with site (Qw: WD > MD > PD). Annual estimated soil respiration, litter decomposition, and groundcover photosynthesis were greatest at PD. These results suggest that soil temperature and moisture conditions in shallow organic horizon soils at PD were more favorable for decomposition compared with the better drained sites. SOC stocks, however, increase from WD to MD to PD such that surface decomposition and C storage are diametric. Greater groundcover vegetation productivity, protection of deep SOC by permafrost and anoxic conditions, and differences in fire return interval and (or) severity at PD counteract the relatively high near-surface decomposition rates, resulting in high net C accumulation.

  5. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7, 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.

  6. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7,more » 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.« less

  7. Dynamics at the treeline: differential responses of Picea mariana and Larix laricina to climate change in eastern subarctic Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour-Tremblay, Geneviève; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    Treelines are known to be temperature-sensitive ecotones, and therefore could rapidly expand their range limits in response to climate warming. Observations of lack of range expansion, however, indicate that ecological constraints partly control the treeline ecotones. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate Picea mariana and Larix laricina recruitment and growth at and above the altitudinal treeline of Kangiqsualujjuaq (Nunavik), where warmer temperatures since the 1990s have already triggered shrub expansion. We mapped, harvested, dated and measured tree individuals along two altitudinal gradients from the forested stands below the treeline to hilltops. Since the 1990s, a pulse of L. laricina seedling establishment has occurred at and above the treeline. Dendrochronological analysis revealed that L. laricina underwent a rapid vertical growth and radial growth that accelerated from the 1990s. No recruitment was observed for P. mariana in response to the regional warming, suggesting a regeneration failure of this species. Our results indicated that the L. laricina colonization below and above the treeline in recent decades in response to the regional warming should modify the landscape physiognomy of the study area in the near future.

  8. Tracking the progression of speciation: variable patterns of introgression across the genome provide insights on the species delimitation between progenitor-derivative spruces (Picea mariana × P. rubens).

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Prunier, Julien; Gérardi, Sébastien; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-10-01

    The genic species concept implies that while most of the genome can be exchanged somewhat freely between species through introgression, some genomic regions remain impermeable to interspecific gene flow. Hence, interspecific differences can be maintained despite ongoing gene exchange within contact zones. This study assessed the heterogeneous patterns of introgression at gene loci across the hybrid zone of an incipient progenitor-derivative species pair, Picea mariana (black spruce) and Picea rubens (red spruce). The spruce taxa likely diverged in geographic isolation during the Pleistocene and came into secondary contact during late Holocene. A total of 300 SNPs distributed across the 12 linkage groups (LG) of black spruce were genotyped for 385 individual trees from 33 populations distributed across the allopatric zone of each species and within the zone of sympatry. An integrative framework combining three population genomic approaches was used to scan the genomes, revealing heterogeneous patterns of introgression. A total of 23 SNPs scattered over 10 LG were considered impermeable to introgression and putatively under diverging selection. These loci revealed the existence of impermeable genomic regions forming the species boundary and are thus indicative of ongoing speciation between these two genetic lineages. Another 238 SNPs reflected selectively neutral diffusion across the porous species barrier. Finally, 39 highly permeable SNPs suggested ancestral polymorphism along with balancing selection. The heterogeneous patterns of introgression across the genome indicated that the speciation process between black spruce and red spruce is young and incomplete, albeit some interspecific differences are maintained, allowing ongoing species divergence even in sympatry. The approach developed in this study can be used to track the progression of ongoing speciation processes. PMID:26346701

  9. Holocene occurrence of Lophodermium piceae, a black spruce needle endophyte and possible paleoindicator of boreal forest health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, J. P. Paul; Payette, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Holocene occurrences of conifer needle endophytes have not previously been reported. We report the fossil remains of Lophodermium piceae (Fckl.) Hoehn., a fungal endophyte of black spruce ( Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) needles, in macrofossils dating back to 8000 cal yr BP. Spruce budworm head capsules and L. piceae remains were found preceding charcoal layers delineating the transformation of four spruce-moss forest sites to spruce-lichen woodland. As L. piceae is found solely on senescent needles, its increased presence during these transformation periods likely indicates that the forests were in decline due to the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) when they burned. Future paleoecological studies incorporating needle fungi observations could be used to investigate the historical occurrence of tree disease and the role of fungi in forest health and decline.

  10. Sexual and asexual states of some endophytic Phialocephala species of Picea.

    PubMed

    Tanney, Joey B; Douglas, Brian; Seifert, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Unidentified DNA sequences in isolation-based or culture-free studies of conifer endophytes are a persistent problem that requires a field approach to resolve. An investigation of foliar endophytes of Picea glauca, P. mariana, P. rubens and Pinus strobus in eastern Canada, using a combined field, morphological, cultural and DNA sequencing approach, resulted in the frequent isolation of Phialocephala spp. and the first verified discovery of their mollisia-like sexual states in the field. Phialocephala scopiformis and Ph. piceae were the most frequent species isolated as endophytes from healthy conifer needles. Corresponding Mollisia or mollisioid sexual states for Ph. scopiformis, Ph. piceae and several undescribed species in a clade containing Ph. dimorphospora were collected in the sampling area and characterized by analysis of the nuc internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS) and gene for the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1) loci. Four novel species and one new combination in a clade containing Ph. dimorphospora, the type of Phialocephala, are presented, accompanied by descriptions of apothecia and previously undocumented synanamorphs. An epitype culture and corresponding reference sequences for Phialocephala dimorphospora are proposed. The resulting ITS barcodes linked with robust taxonomic species concepts are an important resource for future research on forest ecosystems and endophytes. PMID:26740545

  11. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary...

  13. Soil data from different-age Picea mariana stands near Delta Junction, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2011-01-01

    One objective of the U.S. Geological Survey\\'s Fate of Carbon in Alaskan Landscapes (FOCAL) project is to study the effects of fire and soil drainage on soil carbon storage in boreal forests. For this purpose, the project has measured the soil carbon content in several chronosequences (time since disturbance) of various soil-drainage types. One such chronosequence near Delta Junction, Alaska was initially studied in 2000 and 2001. Additional sites in the Delta Junction area were sampled in 2006 to expand the number of stand ages represented in the chronosequence. This report describes these additional sites, as well as the procedures used to describe, sample, and analyze the soils. We also present data tables containing, but not limited to, field descriptions, bulk density, moisture content, and total carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) content.

  14. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to –3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P 12, being on average around –3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. PMID:25371502

  15. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    PubMed

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to -3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P₁₂, being on average around -3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. PMID:25371502

  16. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  17. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  18. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  19. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  20. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  1. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  2. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  3. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  4. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  5. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.460 Mariana precious coral fisheries....

  6. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.460 Mariana precious coral fisheries....

  7. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.440 Mariana crustacean fisheries....

  8. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.440 Mariana crustacean fisheries....

  9. Soil data from Picea mariana stands near delta junction, Alaska of different ages and soil drainage type

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Silva, Steven R.; Briggs, Paul H.; Schmid, Brian M.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey project Fate of Carbon in Alaskan Landscapes (FOCAL) is studying the effect of fire and soil drainage on soil carbon storage in the boreal forest. This project has selected several sites to study within central Alaska of varying ages (time since fire) and soil drainage types. This report describes the location of these sampling sites, as well as the procedures used to describe, sample, and analyze the soils. This report also contains data tables with this information, including, but not limited to field descriptions, bulk density, particle size distribution, moisture content, carbon (C) concentration, nitrogen (N) concentration, isotopic data for C, and major, minor and trace elemental concentration.

  10. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration (NOAA), intend to prepare the monument management plan (MMP) for the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument (Monument) established by Presidential Proclamation 8335. The MMP will satisfy FWS comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) requirements for two units of the National Wildlife Refuge......

  11. Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extent (> 20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergence of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Alternatively, the authors are proposing that Miocene bathymetry and the volume of terrigenous influx militated against significant reef core formation. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

  12. Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extend (>20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergency of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

  13. Population size and natural history of Mariana fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  14. Magma Piracy in the Southern Mariana Backarc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Fryer, P.; Martinez, F.; Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1997 the southern Mariana convergent margin system has been mapped with Hydrosweep, MR-1, and SeaBeam swath sonar systems on five cruises resulting in 168,500 km2 of bathymetry data and 186,800 km2 of sidescan data, revealing anomalous processes relative to the rest of the Mariana region. Most of the Mariana Arc is characterized by arc volcanism dominated by large, central volcanoes located at the boundary between a backarc basin with slow-spreading ridge morphology and a nonaccretionary forearc composed of Eocene volcanic arc rocks But southwest of Tracey Seamount, the southernmost large central arc volcano, the character of the arc and backarc changes dramatically. The arc volcanoes become small or nonexistent, but those that do occur lie along relict spreading fabric within the backarc basin. Furthermore, the spreading center appears to have an inflated, fast-spreading morphology, including dueling propagator fabric, and this southern backarc basin forms a shallow plateau overall. The spreading center then becomes less well-defined west of 143oE, and the volcanism appears to cease altogether west of 142oE in an area of amagmatic rifting, an observation supported by earthquake focal mechanisms and magnetics. The inflated morphology of the spreading axis, along with the absence or reduced size of nearby arc volcanoes suggests that arc magmas have been entrained into the backarc-spreading magmatic system. This "magma piracy" would result in arc magma being erupted at the backarc spreading center, therefore the backarc crust would be formed in part from arc magmas. Dredge samples from along the active ridge show compositions consistent with this suggestion. We suggest that this magma piracy has dominated the southern backarc basin for at least the last 3 m.y. since the robust spreading began. We suggest that the apparently higher magma production rate and the hybridized crust could account for the shallowness of the basin, as the more evolved arc-lavas would

  15. 75 FR 44231 - Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia and Republic of Palau; Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Mariana Islands Range Complex AGENCY: Department of Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  16. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries....

  17. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries....

  18. Physical volcanology of the submarine Mariana and Volcano Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Sherman H.; Stern, Robert J.; Smoot, N. Christian

    1989-05-01

    Narrow-beam maps, selected dredge samplings, and surveys of the Mariana and Volcano Arcs identify 42 submarine volcanos. Observed activity and sample characteristics indicate 22 of these to be active or dormant. Edifices in the Volcano Arc are larger than most of the Mariana Arc edifices, more irregularly shaped with numerous subsidiary cones, and regularly spaced at 50 70 km. Volcanos in the Mariana Arc tend to be simple cones. Sets of individual cones and volcanic ridges are elongate parallel to the trend of the arc or at 110° counterclockwise from that trend, suggesting a strong fault control on the distribution of arc magmas. Volcanos in the Mariana Arc are generally developed west of the frontal arc ridge, on rifted frontal arc crust or new back-arc basin crust. Volcanos in the central Mariana Arc are usually subaerial, large (> 500 km3), and spaced about 50 70 km apart. Those in the northern and southern Marianas are largely submarine, closer together, and generally less than 500 km3 in volume. There is a shoaling of the arc basement around Iwo Jima, accompanied by the appearance of incompatible-element enriched lavas with alkalic affinities. The larger volcanic edifices must reflect either a higher magma supply rate or a greater age for the larger volcanos. If the magma supply (estimated at 10 20 km3/km of arc per million years at 18° N) has been relatively constant along the Mariana Arc, we can infer a possible evolutionary sequence for arc volcanos from small, irregularly spaced edifices to large (over 1000 km3) edifices spaced at 50 70 km. The volcano distribution and basal depths are consistent with the hypothesis of back-arc propagation into the Volcano Arc.

  19. Mitochondrial introgression and complex biogeographic history of the genus Picea.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jin-Hua; Shen, Ting-Ting; Liu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Pei-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Biogeographic history of plants is much more complex in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere due to that both the Bering and the North Atlantic land bridges contributed to floristic exchanges in the Cenozoic, which led to hybridization between congeneric species from different continents. It would be interesting to know how intercontinental gene flow and introgression have affected plant phylogenetic reconstruction and biogeographic inference. In this study, we reinvestigated the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Picea, a main component of the Northern Hemisphere forest with many species that originated from recent radiation, using two chloroplast (cp), one mitochondrial (mt) and three single-copy nuclear gene markers. The generated gene trees are topologically highly discordant and the geographically closely related species generally show a close affinity of mtDNA rather than cp- or nuclear DNA, suggesting that inter- and intra-continental gene flow and mtDNA introgression might have occurred commonly. However, all gene trees resolved Picea breweriana as the basal-most lineage, which, together with fossil evidence, supports the North American origin hypothesis for the genus. Both dispersal and vicariance have played important roles in the evolution of Picea, and the Bering Land Bridge could have mediated the "North America to Eurasia" dispersal at least two times during the Miocene and Pliocene. Our study again demonstrates the importance of applying data from three genomes for a clear understanding of evolutionary histories in the pine family. Any markers from a single genome alone will not reveal a clear picture of the phylogenetic relationships among closely related congeneric species. In particular, mtDNA markers should be cautiously used, considering that introgression of the maternally inherited mtDNA with a lower rate of gene flow (by seeds) could have occurred much more frequently than that of the paternally inherited cpDNA with

  20. Adaptation and exogenous selection in a Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone: implications for forest management under climate change

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, Amanda R; Wang, Tongli; Jaquish, Barry; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-01-01

    The nature of selection responsible for the maintenance of the economically and ecologically important Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii hybrid zone was investigated. Genomic, phenotypic and climatic data were used to test assumptions of hybrid zone maintenance and to model future scenarios under climate change. Genome-wide estimates of admixture based on a panel of 86 candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were combined with long-term quantitative data on growth and survival (over 20 yr), as well as one-time assessments of bud burst and bud set phenology, and cold hardiness traits. A total of 15 498 individuals were phenotyped for growth and survival. Our results suggest that the P. glauca × P. engelmannii hybrid zone is maintained by local adaptation to growing season length and snowpack (exogenous selection). Hybrids appeared to be fitter than pure species in intermediate environments, which fits expectations of the bounded hybrid superiority model of hybrid zone maintenance. Adaptive introgression from parental species has probably contributed to increased hybrid fitness in intermediate habitats. While P. engelmannii ancestry is higher than P. glauca ancestry in hybrid populations, on average, selective breeding in managed hybrid populations is shifting genomic composition towards P. glauca, potentially pre-adapting managed populations to warmer climates. PMID:24200028

  1. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235.9 Section 1235.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.9 Northern...

  2. Observing the Historic Eruption of Northern Mariana Islands Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Douglas A.; Shore, Patrick J.; Sauter, Allan; Hilton, David R.; Fischer, Tobias; Camacho, Juan T.

    2004-01-01

    Anatahan volcano erupted for the first time in recorded history at about 7:30 GMT on 10 May 2003, covering the island of Anatahan, in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), with ash, and providing scientists with important opportunities to study this volcano. The eruption was first reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Volcanic Ash Advisory Center at 12:32 GMT, based on satellite images of the ash cloud. At about the same time, unusual light flares were observed from an approaching small ship, the Super Emerald, which was carrying a group of seismologists from Washington University in St. Louis, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and the CNMI Emergency Management Office. As morning broke, the ship was approximately 10 km from the island, and those on board witnessed billowing ash and gas rise from the volcano's caldera to form a great cloud exceeding 6 km in altitude (Figure 1). The scientists were in the region installing land seismographs for the Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment, a joint U.S.-Japanese deployment of 20 land broadband seismographs and 58 ocean bottom seismographs funded (on the U.S. side) by the Margins program of the National Science Foundation. The experiment has the goal of imaging the magma production regions and mantle flow patterns within the upper mantle beneath the Mariana arc and backarc (see http://epsc.wustl.edu/seismology/MARIANA).

  3. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  4. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  5. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  6. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  7. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  8. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  9. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  10. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  11. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  12. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  13. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  14. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations..., 1990, unless otherwise noted. Northern Mariana Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated area... October 18, 2000, unless otherwise noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective June 15,...

  15. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations..., 1990, unless otherwise noted. Northern Mariana Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated area... October 18, 2000, unless otherwise noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective June 15,...

  16. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations..., 1990, unless otherwise noted. Northern Mariana Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated area... October 18, 2000, unless otherwise noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective June 15,...

  17. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations..., 1990, unless otherwise noted. Northern Mariana Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated area... October 18, 2000, unless otherwise noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective June 15,...

  18. Preliminary Geologic Map of Mount Pagan Volcano, Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Moore, Richard B.; Sako, Maurice K.

    2006-01-01

    Pagan Island is the subaerial portion of two adjoining Quaternary stratovolcanoes near the middle of the active Mariana Arc, [FAT1]north of Saipan. Pagan and the other volcanic islands that constitute part of the Arc form the northern half of the East Mariana Ridge[FAT2], which extends about 2-4 km above the ocean floor. The > 6-km-deep Mariana Trench adjoins the East Mariana Ridge on the east, and the Mariana Trough, partly filled with young lava flows and volcaniclastic sediment, lies on the west of the Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge. The submarine West Mariana Ridge, Tertiary in age, bounds the western side of the Mariana Trough. The Mariana Trench and Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge) overlie an active subduction zone where the Pacific Plate, moving northwest at about 10.3 cm/year, is passing beneath the Philippine Plate, moving west-northwest at 6.8 cm/year. Beneath the Northern Mariana Islands, earthquake hypocenters at depths of 50-250 km identify the location of the west-dipping subduction zone, which farther west becomes nearly vertical and extends to 700 km depth. During the past century, more than 40 earthquakes of magnitude 6.5-8.1 have shaken the Mariana Trench. The Mariana Islands form two sub-parallel, concentric, concave-west arcs. The southern islands comprise the outer arc and extend north from Guam to Farallon de Medinilla. They consist of Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks and uplifted Tertiary and Quaternary limestone. The nine northern islands extend from Anatahan to Farallon de Pajaros and form part of the inner arc. The active inner arc extends south from Anatahan, where volcanoes, some of which are active, form seamounts west of the older outer arc. Other volcanic seamounts of the active arc surmount the East Mariana Ridge in the vicinity of Anatahan and Sarigan and north and south of Farallon de Pajaros. Six volcanoes (Farallon de Pajaros, Asuncion, Agrigan, Mount Pagan, Guguan, and Anatahan) in the northern islands

  19. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  20. Microbial Community in the Hydrothermal System at Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Itahashi, S.; Kakegawa, T.; Utsumi, M.; Maruyama, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Marumo, K.; Urabe, T.; Yamagishi, A.

    2004-12-01

    There is unique ecosystem around deep-sea hydrothermal area. Living organisms are supported by chemical free energy provided by the hydrothermal water. The ecosystem is expected to be similar to those in early stage of life history on the earth, when photosynthetic organisms have not emerged. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial diversity in the hydrothermal area at southern Mariana trough. In the "Archaean Park Project" supported by special Coordination Fund, four holes were bored and cased by titanium pipes near hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana trough in 2004. Hydrothermal fluids were collected from these cased holes and natural vents in this area. Microbial cells were collected by filtering the hydrothermal fluid in situ or in the mother sip. Filters were stored at -80C and used for DNA extraction. Chimneys at this area was also collected and stored at -80C. The filters and chimney samples were crushed and DNA was extracted. DNA samples were used for amplification of 16S rDNA fragments by PCR using archaea specific primers and universal primers. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. These PCR clones of different samples will be compared. We will extend our knowledge about microbiological diversity at Southern Mariana trough to compare the results obtained at other area.

  1. Education in the Northern Marianas: General Information and Bibliography of English-Language Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Robert

    The Northern Marianas are a chain of 14 islands in the western Pacific, north of Guam, which together constitute the self-governing Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas. The population of the islands in 1987 was approximately 36,000 with most of the inhabitants living on Saipan, the largest island. Sixteen thousand of these people were aliens,…

  2. 77 FR 43416 - Application of Star Marianas Air, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Star Marianas Air, Inc. for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department... tentatively finding Star Marianas Air, Inc., fit, willing, and able to provide scheduled passenger service...

  3. Organellar Genomes of White Spruce (Picea glauca): Assembly and Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Shaun D.; Warren, René L.; Gibb, Ewan A.; Vandervalk, Benjamin P.; Mohamadi, Hamid; Chu, Justin; Raymond, Anthony; Pleasance, Stephen; Coope, Robin; Wildung, Mark R.; Ritland, Carol E.; Bousquet, Jean; Jones, Steven J. M.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Birol, Inanç

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of the plastid and mitochondrion of white spruce (Picea glauca) were assembled from whole-genome shotgun sequencing data using ABySS. The sequencing data contained reads from both the nuclear and organellar genomes, and reads of the organellar genomes were abundant in the data as each cell harbors hundreds of mitochondria and plastids. Hence, assembly of the 123-kb plastid and 5.9-Mb mitochondrial genomes were accomplished by analyzing data sets primarily representing low coverage of the nuclear genome. The assembled organellar genomes were annotated for their coding genes, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA. Transcript abundances of the mitochondrial genes were quantified in three developmental tissues and five mature tissues using data from RNA-seq experiments. C-to-U RNA editing was observed in the majority of mitochondrial genes, and in four genes, editing events were noted to modify ACG codons to create cryptic AUG start codons. The informatics methodology presented in this study should prove useful to assemble organellar genomes of other plant species using whole-genome shotgun sequencing data. PMID:26645680

  4. Status of forest birds on Rota, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the third largest human inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago, and is designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance sampling surveys were conducted to assess population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey revealed general patterns of habitat use and detectability among 11 species that could be reliably modeled. The endangered Mariana crow (Corvus kubaryi) was dispersed around the periphery of the island in steep forested habitats. In contrast, the endangered Rota white-eye (Zosterops rotensis) was restricted to the high-elevation mesa. Precision of detection probabilities and occupancy estimates and effects of habitat types, sampling conditions, and specific observers varied considerably among species, indicating that more narrowly defined classifications and additional observer training may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling. Population estimates of five out of ten native bird species, including collared kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris orii), Mariana crow, Mariana fruit-dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian myzomela (Myzomela rubrata), and white-throated ground-dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura) declined over the 30-year time series. The crow declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals (upper 95% confidence interval). Trends increased for Micronesian starling (Aplonis opaca), rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons mariae), and white tern (Gygis alba). Rota white-eye numbers declined from 1982 to the late 1990s, but returned to 1980s levels by 2012. The trend for the yellow bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis) was inconclusive. The alien Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) apparently increased in number despite an unreliable trend assessment. Declines were noted in the other two alien birds, black drongo (Dicrurus

  5. The response of Picea crassifolia forest to climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhibin; Du, Jun; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Longfei; Zhu, Xi

    2014-05-01

    Picea crassifolia forest, an endemic genus mainly distributing in the Qilian Mountain of Northwest China, is very sensitive to climate warming. In the present study, the response of treeline, phenological period, and sap flow of P. crassifolia forest to climate warming were analyzed though a set of observations and experiments. The result showed: (1) During the past 50 years, the temperature had raised at a mean rate of 0.29° C per decade in this region, especially since 1980s (had increased by a total of more than 1.25° C), obviously higher than increment degree IPCC reported. This resulted in the increase of tree recruitment which was significantly positively correlated with the mean growing season temperature and with the mean minimum temperature in June and in winter. Treeline elevation shifted upward by 5.7 to 13.6 m from 1907 to 1957 and by 6.1 to 10.4 m after 1957. (2) By quantifying the canopy phenology events based on satellite-derived datasets (MODIS-NDVI) from 2001 to 2011, and investigating the correlation with climate factors, a conclusion had been drawn which revealed a 3.7 days/decade advance in the length of growing season. Our results suggested that temperature controlled treeline dynamics and phenological period more strongly than precipitation in the Qilian Mountains. (3) In the case of experimental warming (mean daily temperature was increased 0.83° C, mean daily maximum temperature was increased 4.7° C), the trend for the mass growth of P. crassifolia sapling presented a notable increase under conditions of warming, especially for tree height. The data of sap flow showed that warming facilitated the sap flow of sapling in the end of growing season, which indicated the temperature was a major restriction to sap flow rate, especially in the condition of lower temperature.

  6. Soil data from fire and permafrost-thaw chronosequences in upland Picea mariana stands near Hess Creek and Tok, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Xu, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Soils of the Northern Circumpolar Permafrost region harbor 1,672 petagrams (Pg) (1 Pg = 1,000,000,000 kilograms) of organic carbon (OC), nearly 50 percent of the global belowground OC pool (Tarnocai and others, 2009). Of that soil OC, nearly 88 percent is presently stored in perennially frozen ground. Recent climate warming at northern latitudes has resulted in warming and thawing of permafrost in many regions (Osterkamp, 2007), which might mobilize OC stocks from associated soil reservoirs via decomposition, leaching, or erosion. Warming also has increased the magnitude and severity of wildfires in the boreal region (Turetsky and others, 2011), which might exacerbate rates of permafrost degradation relative to warming alone. Given the size and vulnerability of the soil OC pool in permafrost soils, permafrost thaw will likely function as a strong positive feedback to the climate system (Koven and others, 2011; Schaefer and others, 2011). In this report, we report soil OC inventories from two upland fire chronosequences located near Hess Creek and Tok in Interior Alaska. We sampled organic and mineral soils in the top 2 meters (m) across a range of stand ages to evaluate the effects of wildfire and permafrost thaw on soil C dynamics. These data were used to parameterize a simple process-based fire-permafrost-carbon model, which is described in detail by O’Donnell and others (2011a, b). Model simulations examine long-term changes in soil OC storage in response to fire, permafrost thaw, and climate change. These data also have been used in other papers, including Harden and others (2012), which examines C recovery post-fire, and Johnson and others (2011), which synthesizes data within the Alaska Soil Carbon Database. Findings from these studies highlight the importance of climate and disturbance (wildfire, permafrost thaw) on soil C storage, and loss of soil C from high-latitude ecosystems.

  7. Accumulation of semi-volatile organic compounds in moss (Sphagnum Species) and spruce needles (Picea Mariana): Whole-leaf absorption vs. surface adsorption processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbuckle, K.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    Vapor exchange of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) with plant surfaces may control the fate of SOCS far from their original sources. For example, plants may act as sinks for released SOCs by adsorbing the compounds and burying them upon the plant`s death. Evidence for this hypothesis lies in the accumulation of SOCs in peat moss. Alternatively, plants may act as temporary {open_quote}resting points{close_quote} for long-range transport of the compounds from warmer regions to cooler regions. Studies that show higher SOC concentrations in plants collected from cooler parts of the globe are evidence for this hypothesis. Whether vapor-phase SOCs are taken up or released by plants is expected to depend on characteristics of the compound, the plant, and the local climate. Theoretically, it has been predicted that temperature and SOC hydrophobicity should dominate vapor exchange. The effect of these two factors on vapor-plant exchange has been examined through two concurrent and related studies. The first study concerns the vapor SOC dynamics in a semi-remote forested bog in northern Minnesota. The second study concerns the measured distribution between vapor and plant-associated SOCs in the same bog.

  8. Hf isotope and concentration systematics of the Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollstrup, D. L.; Gill, J. B.

    2004-12-01

    Negative Hf concentration anomalies are common but little-discussed geochemical features of island arcs. Because both light rare earth elements (LREE) and Hf may be mobile even in `fluid-dominated' island arcs, it is important to relate their isotopic and elemental ratios to models of slab-mantle mixing. We report new Hf isotope and trace element data for K-rich submarine basalts from the Kasuga seamounts located 10-20 km behind the volcanic front of the southern Northern Seamount Province (NSP) of the Mariana arc. These data, when combined with published data for other Mariana samples, span the full range from low-K tholeiites to high-K shoshonites. Rear-arc Kasuga seamounts seamounts of the NSP have lower 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf ratios than arc-front volcanoes of the Mariana Central Island Province (CIP). Within the CIP, Hf concentration anomalies correlate positively with 176Hf/177Hf ratios. Radiogenic Hf and little or no concentration anomalies characterize samples from fluid-dominated volcanoes (Guguan and Maug), whereas samples from sediment-melt dominated volcanoes (Anatahan and Sarigan) have less radiogenic Hf and larger concentration anomalies. Samples from the Kasuga and Hiyoshi seamounts have even larger negative concentration anomalies and less radiogenic Hf, although the two are not always correlated. These data are consistent with mixing between a depleted mantle and a partial melt of subducted sediment that is saturated with trace accessory phases including zircon, rutile, and monazite. A more volcaniclastic source is needed for the NSP than the CIP. Implications of these findings are three-fold. Partial melts of subducting sediment affect the HFSE and REE budgets of even fluid-dominated island arcs. Slab temperatures must be high enough for a peraluminous melt to be present, even where old, cold slabs are subducting. Refractory accessory phases have the potential to become exotic "nuggets" in the convecting mantle, potentially controlling the

  9. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  10. [Aquatic heteroptera from Mariana County, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Marco A A; de Melo, Alan L; Vianna, Gustavo J C

    2006-01-01

    In surveys carried out in lotic and lentic environments in Mariana County, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, 35 genera and 64 species of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera were recorded, distributed in 13 families. Thirty four species were collected in lentic environments, while in lotic environments 48 species were collected, some of them common to both environments. Nepomorpha presented the greatest number of species (45), markedly for the family Naucoridae, represented by 12 species. Among the 19 Gerromorpha species collected, eight were Veliidae and six were Gerridae. PMID:17273712

  11. Emplacement and Growth of Serpentinite Seamounts on the Mariana Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, A. J.; Taylor, B.; Moore, G. F.; Fryer, P.; Morgan, J. K.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    Seamounts comprised primarily of serpentinite muds are found on the outer forearc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. They represent some of the first material outputs of the recycling process that takes place in subduction zones. Therefore, understanding their evolution is necessary to correctly quantify the flux of material through the subduction system. Serpentinite seamounts have been described as mud diapirs, mud volcanoes, uplifted blocks of mantle material, and a composite of the latter two. Multi-channel seismic (MCS) data collected in 2002 from the outer Mariana forearc imaged, for the first time, the large-scale internal structure of these seamounts. These data, combined with new bathymetry, have provided insight into how the seamounts grow and deform with time and have allowed us to evaluate proposed models for their formation. The serpentinite seamounts rest on faulted and sedimented Mariana forearc basement. Flank flows of serpentinite muds downlap existing forearc substrate, leaving the underlying stratigraphy largely undisturbed. Reflections located 3.5-5 km beneath forearc basement may represent Moho, suggesting that the seamounts are built on anomalously thin forearc crust. A strong reflection at the summit of Big Blue, the largest serpentinite seamount in the Mariana Forearc, represents a collapse structure that has been partially in-filled by younger muds, supporting the idea that serpentinite seamount growth is episodic. Basal thrusts that incorporate forearc sediments at the toe of Turquoise Seamount provide evidence for seamount settling and lateral growth. We are conducting numerical simulations of seamount growth and evolution using the discrete element method (DEM), previously used to examine gravity spreading phenomena in magmatic volcanoes. Simulations employing distinctly low basal and internal friction coefficients provide a good match to the overall morphology of the serpentinite seamounts, and offer insight into their internal

  12. The crustaceans and pycnogonids of the Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Paulay, Gustav; Kropp, Roy K. ); Ng, Peter K.; Eldredge, Lucius G.

    2003-09-01

    The crustacean and pycnogonid fauna of the Mariana Islands is reviewed, and 829 crustacean and 15 pycnogonid species are documented from the archipelago based on literature records and new collections, including 272 new records. Voucher specimens are listed for 605 and photographic records for 356 species. The bulk of the fauna is marine, including 12 terrestrial and 11 freshwater decapods with marine larvae. Five cladocerans comprise the known freshwater fauna, and 25 peracarids and one copepod are currently documented on land. Coverage reflects a taxonomically uneven effort, and is strongly biased toward macrocrustaceans, with decapods accounting for 80%, and crabs for 50% of the recorded crustacean diversity.

  13. Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands; Part 1, General geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, Preston E., Jr.; Schmidt, Robert George; Burke, Harold W.

    1956-01-01

    Saipan, situated about 15° N. and 146° E., is one of the larger and more southerly of the Mariana Islands. The 15 small islands of this chain are strung along an eastwardly convex ridge for more than 400 miles north to south, midway between Honshu and New Guinea and about 1,200 miles east of the Philippines. Paralleling this ridge 60 to 100 miles further east is a deep submarine trench, beyond which lies the Pacific Basin proper. To the west is the Philippine Sea, generally deeper than 2,000 fathoms. The trench coincides with a zone of negative gravity anomalies, earthquake foci occur at increasing depths westward from it, and silica- and alumina-rich volcanic rocks characterize the emergent island chain itself. The contrast between these features and those of the Pacific Basin proper to the east is held to favor the conclusion that the Mariana island arc and trench define the structural and petrographic front of Asia

  14. Warming-Induced Decline of Picea crassifolia Growth in the Qilian Mountains in Recent Decades

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li; Huang, Lei; Shao, Xuemei; Xiao, Fengjing; Wilmking, Martin; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Warming-induced drought has widely affected forest dynamics in most places of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we assessed how climate warming has affected Picea crassifolia (Qinghai spruce) forests using tree growth-climate relationships and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) along the Qilian Mountains, northeastern Tibet Plateau (the main range of Picea crassifolia). Based on the analysis on trees radial growth data from the upper tree line and the regional NDVI data, we identified a pervasive growth decline in recent decades, most likely caused by warming-induced droughts. The drought stress on Picea crassifolia radial growth were expanding from northeast to southwest and the favorable moisture conditions for tree growth were retreating along the identical direction in the study area over the last half century. Compared to the historical drought stress on tree radial growth in the 1920s, recent warming-induced droughts display a longer-lasting stress with a broader spatial distribution on regional forest growth. If the recent warming continues without the effective moisture increasing, then a notable challenge is developed for Picea crassifolia in the Qilian Mountains. Elaborate forest management is necessary to counteract the future risk of climate change effects in this region. PMID:26121479

  15. Phytochrome types in Picea and Pinus. Expression patterns of PHYA-Related types.

    PubMed

    Clapham, D H; Kolukisaoglu, H U; Larsson, C T; Qamaruddin, M; Ekberg, I; Wiegmann-Eirund, C; Schneider-Poetsch, H A; von Arnold, S

    1999-07-01

    Knowledge of the genes in gymnosperms encoding the apoproteins of the plant photoreceptor phytochrome is currently scanty as for gymnosperm nuclear protein coding sequences in general. Here we report two complete cDNA-derived sequences which code for two different types of gymnosperm phytochrome. One sequence stems from Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the other from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). More detailed studies have shown that both types of phytochrome gene are present in Norway spruce. From phylogenetic analyses, these types appear to branch off from progenitors that are also the common ancestors of the angiosperm PHYA/PHYC and PHYB/PHYD/PHYE lineages. Partial phytochrome sequences of other gymnosperms cluster with either the one type or the other of the gymnosperm phytochrome genes characterized here. Southern blot analysis of Picea DNA using probes derived from the full-length Picea gene indicated a family of at least five members. Whether they code for new types may be doubted since only two phylogenetic clusters were found. Studies using RNA-PCR of Picea RNA extracted from either light- or dark-grown seedlings indicated that the steady-state levels of the transcripts of two PHYA/C-related genes were hardly affected by light. PMID:10480390

  16. The Southern Mariana Forearc: An Active Subduction Initiation (SI) Analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.; Brounce, M. N.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Kelley, K. A.; Martinez, F.; Ohara, Y.; Pujana, I.; Reagan, M. K.; Ribeiro, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to understand how new subduction zones form. Some subduction zones begin spontaneously, with sinking of dense oceanic lithosphere adjacent to a lithospheric weakness. The Eocene evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin is the type example of this process, with an increasingly well-documented evolution including results from IODP 352 drilling. A lack of any active examples of spontaneous SI hinders our understanding, but our studies of the evolution of the southernmost Mariana convergent margin provides important insights. Here the Mariana Trough backarc basin terminates against the Challenger Deep trench segment, where it has opened ~250 km in the past ~4 Ma. This corresponds to GPS opening rate of ~4.5cm/y at the latitude of Guam (Kato et al., 2003). This newly formed and rapidy widening margin faces the NW-converging Pacific plate and causes it to contort and tear. Pacific plate continues to move NW but the upper plate response is illustrative of a newly formed subduction zone. Slab-related earthquakes can be identified to ~200 km deep beneath this margin; with convergence rate of 3cm/yr, this may reflect no more than 7 Ma of subduction. The usual well-defined magmatic arc is missing; its position ~100 km above the subducted slab is occupied by the magma-rich (inflated) Malaguana-Gadao Ridge (MGR), and hydrous MORB-like basalts with ~2 wt. % H2O have erupted unusually close to the trench where they overly mantle peridotites ~6 km water depth. HMR-1 sonar backscatter mapping reveals a chaotic fabric that is at a high angle to the trend of the MGR to the east but is concordant to the west. This unusual spreading fabric may have formed by chaotic upper plate extension in response to rapid rollback of the short, narrow Pacific slab in a manner similar to that thought to occur during SI. Further interdisciplinary studies are needed to understand this rapidly-evolving tectono-magmatic province and what it can teach us about SI.

  17. Magmatic Water Contents in Mariana and Izu Arc Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parman, S.; Grove, T.; Plank, T.

    2002-05-01

    We estimate the magmatic water content of magmas from the Mariana-Izu arc system using experimental phase equilibria. Our goal is to produce primary H2O estimates for Mariana-Izu magmas to compare with along-arc variations in the trace element and isotopic compositions of the magmas. Such correlations can be used to quantify the chemical inputs into the sub-arc mantle wedge from the subducting Pacific plate. The experiments are performed in externally heated, gas-pressure vessels. H2O-saturatation is maintained throughout the experiment, as well as an fO2 at the Ni-NiO buffer. The experimental melts contain between 5.5 and 6.2 wt.% H2O. The observed LLD for Pagan island in the Mariana arc falls midway between the hydrous 200 MPa LLD and an anhydrous LLD modeled using the MELTS program [Ghiorso and Sack, 1995], suggesting an initial H2O content of ~3 wt.%. This in good agreement with the H2O content (2.7 wt.%, Plank, unpub. data) of an olivine-hosted melt inclusion contained in the Pagan samples. Experiments at lower H2O contents are being conducted to verify this estimate. The LLD for Hachijo-jima in the Izu arc follows the 200 MPa, H2O saturated LLD fairly well, though there is significant scatter in the natural sample compositions, likely due to plagioclase accumulation. Thus our preliminary results indicate higher H2O contents in the Hachijo-jima magmas (5-7 wt.%) relative to the Pagan magmas. The compositions of minerals in the mafic Pagan sample (PAF3b; Woodhead, 1989) indicate a history of mixing. Relative to the hydrous experiments, olivine (ol) phenocrysts in the sample have higher Mg#s (0.867 vs. 0.809), while plag phenocrysts have lower anorthite (An) contents (0.889 vs. 0.946). The lower An contents are consistent with the lower estimated H2O contents in the Pagan magmas relative to the experiments, while the higher ol Mg# indicates that even the most mafic Pagan sample is fractionated or a mixed magma. Glomerocrysts in the sample contain ol with lower

  18. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Drastic Changes in Fungal Communities in the Phyllosphere of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Following Invasion of the Spruce Bud Scale (Physokermes piceae).

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Marčiulynas, Adas; Gedminas, Artūras; Lynikienė, Jūratė; Povilaitienė, Aistė

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and composition of fungal communities in damaged and undamaged shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following recent invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae) in Lithuania. Sampling was done in July 2013 and included 50 random lateral shoots from ten random trees in each of five visually undamaged and five damaged 40-50-year-old pure stands of P. abies. DNA was isolated from 500 individual shoots, subjected to amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA), barcoded and sequenced. Clustering of 149,426 high-quality sequences resulted in 1193 non-singleton contigs of which 1039 (87.1 %) were fungal. In total, there were 893 fungal taxa in damaged shoots and 608 taxa in undamaged shoots (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 431 (41.5 %) fungal taxa were exclusively in damaged shoots, 146 (14.0 %) were exclusively in undamaged shoots, and 462 (44.5 %) were common to both types of samples. Correspondence analysis showed that study sites representing damaged and undamaged shoots were separated from each other, indicating that in these fungal communities, these were largely different and, therefore, heavily affected by P. piceae. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that invasive alien tree pests may have a profound effect on fungal mycobiota associated with the phyllosphere of P. abies, and therefore, in addition to their direct negative effect owing physical damage of the tissue, they may also indirectly determine health, sustainability and, ultimately, distribution of the forest tree species. PMID:26054703

  19. Potential of Ophiostoma piceae sterol esterase for biotechnologically relevant hydrolysis reactions

    PubMed Central

    Barba Cedillo, Víctor; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez, María Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete Ophiostoma piceae produces a sterol esterase (OPE) with high affinity toward p-nitrophenol, glycerol, and sterol esters. Recently, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the AOX1 methanol-inducible promoter (PAOX1) using sorbitol as co-susbtrate, and the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant protein (OPE*) turned out to be improved from a kinetic point of view. In this study, we analyze the effects of sorbitol during the expression of OPE*, at first added as an additional carbon source, and methanol as inducer. The O. piceae enzyme was successfully used for PVAc hydrolysis, suggesting its potential applicability in recycled paper production to decrease stickies problems. PMID:23138020

  20. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... BABESIOSIS § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana...

  1. 3 CFR 8335 - Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument 8335 Proclamation 8335 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009 Proc. 8335 Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National MonumentBy the President of the...

  2. Analysis of the Phialocephala subalpina Transcriptome during Colonization of Its Host Plant Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Schlegel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Phialocephala subalpina belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.–Acepphala applanata species complex (PAC) forming one of the major groups belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSE). Depending on the strain, PAC was shown to form neutral to pathogenic associations with its host plant Picea abies. To understand PACs lifestyle we investigated the effect of presence/absence of Picea abies on the transcriptome of strain 6_70_1. Materials and Methods PAC strain 6_70_1 was grown in liquid Pachlewski media either induced by its host plant Picea abies or without host plant as a control. Mycelia were harvested in a time course (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18 days) with and without induction by the host plant and the fungal transcriptome revealed by Illumina sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis over the time course comparing control and treatment at each time point using the ‘edgeR glm approach’ and a gene enrichment analysis using GO categories were performed. Results The three main functional groups within differentially expressed genes were ‘metabolism’, ‘transport’ and ‘cell rescue, defense and virulence’. Additionally, genes especially involved in iron metabolism could be detected by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusion In conclusion, we found PAC strain 6_70_1 to be metabolically very active during colonization of its host plant Picea abies. A major shift in functional groups over the time course of this experiment could not be observed but GO categories which were found to be enriched showed different emphasis depending in the day post induction. PMID:26954682

  3. Rapid detection of Ophiostoma piceae and O. quercus in stained wood by PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Uzunovic, A; Breuil, C

    1999-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and simple method was developed to detect the sapstain fungi Ophiostoma piceae and O. quercus in stained wood. By using microwave heating for DNA extraction and PCR with internal transcribed spacer-derived-specific primers, detection was feasible within 4 h, even with DNA obtained from a single synnema. This method can easily be extended for the detection of other wood-inhabiting fungi. PMID:9872792

  4. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene. PMID:26852572

  5. Conservation and divergence of gene expression plasticity following c. 140 million years of evolution in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (Picea glauca×Picea engelmannii).

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Sam; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Suren, Haktan; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-07-01

    Species respond to environmental stress through a combination of genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, both of which may be important for survival in the face of climatic change. By characterizing the molecular basis of plastic responses and comparing patterns among species, it is possible to identify how such traits evolve. Here, we used de novo transcriptome assembly and RNAseq to explore how patterns of gene expression differ in response to temperature, moisture, and light regime treatments in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (a natural hybrid population of Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii). We found wide evidence for an effect of treatment on expression within each species, with 6413 and 11,658 differentially expressed genes identified in spruce and pine, respectively. Comparing patterns of expression among these species, we found that 74% of all orthologs with differential expression had a pattern that was conserved in both species, despite 140 million yr of evolution. We also found that the specific treatments driving expression patterns differed between genes with conserved versus diverged patterns of expression. We conclude that natural selection has probably played a role in shaping plastic responses to environment in these species. PMID:24750196

  6. Hydrothermal Helium Plumes over Submarine Volcanoes of the Marianas Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J. E.; Baker, E. T.; Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. E.; Massoth, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Greene, R.; Walker, S.; Lebon, G.

    2003-12-01

    During February-March, 2003, as part of the Submarine Ring of Fire project funded by NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program, the R/V T.G. Thompson conducted a comprehensive survey of hydrothermal activity along 1200 km of the Mariana Arc from 13.5° N to 22.5° N [see Embley et al., EOS Trans. AGU, 2003]. Plume surveys were conducted in the water-column above ~50 submarine volcanoes using a CTD/rosette system. A total of 70 CTD casts were completed, and discrete water samples were collected for analysis of a variety of hydrothermal tracers, including 3He, CH4, CO2, H2S, Fe, Mn, pH, and suspended particles. Although shorebased analysis of the samples is still underway, preliminary results indicate that about 11 of the 50 submarine volcanoes surveyed are hydrothermally active. Because many of the Marianas Arc volcanoes rise to within 500 m of the sea surface, hydrothermal plume signals such as light attenuation (suspended particles) and temperature anomaly have limited utility due to masking by near surface effects. For this reason 3He, an unambiguous hydrothermal tracer, has been particularly useful for identifying which of the shallow arc volcanoes are hydrothermally active. Our expectation was that the water-column helium signal might be reduced at shallow depths due to ventilation into the atmosphere. However, we observed very high 3He enrichments at shallow depths both at Maug Islands and at NW Rota #1 (14° 36'N; 144° 46.5'E). The 3He enrichments were strongly correlated with changes in pH, Mn, and other hydrothermal tracers. The three Maug Islands mark the perimeter of a caldera formed by an explosive eruption, and a single hydrocast in the center of the caldera detected a robust helium plume at 120-200 m depth with δ 3He reaching a maximum of 250% at 150m depth. Analysis of the co-variation of [3He] vs. [4He] at Maug gave R/Ra = 6.6 for an estimate of the end-member helium isotope ratio (R = 3He/4He and Ra = Rair). This value falls well within the range of R

  7. Geology and Petrology of the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Anthony, E. Y.; Bloomer, S. H.; Girard, G.; Ishizuka, O.; Kelley, K. A.; Manton, W. I.; Martinez, F.; Merle, S. G.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Ren, M.; Stern, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The southernmost Mariana convergent margin is tectonically and magmatically very active, with submarine arc volcanoes that are sub-parallel to the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge backarc spreading center at ~110km from the trench axis. This activity reflects widening of the S. Mariana Trough. Stretching formed 3 southeast-facing, broad rifts extending from the trench to an extinct arc volcano chain (~80km from the trench axis) that is mostly composed of outcrops and fragments of pillow lavas partially covered by sediments. The 3 rifts comprise the S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) and are 50-56km long and 3600 to 8200m deep, with axial valleys that narrow near the extinct arc. We studied the SEMFR using one Shinkai 6500 dive in 2008 and two Shinkai 6500 dives and 7 deep-tows in 2010. Near the trench, the SEMFR flanks are very steep and dominated by talus slopes of lava, fine-grained gabbro, diabase and peridotite, sometimes covered by thin volcaniclastic sediments. Few outcrops of pillow lavas, lava flows and volcaniclastics are observed, strongly suggesting that SEMFR morphology is dominated by faulting and landsliding. Lava outcrops are smoother and better preserved towards the extinct arc, suggesting that magmatic activity dominates that part of the rift. 40Ar-39Ar ages of 3 SEMFR lavas are 3.0-3.7Ma, so post-magmatic rifting is younger than ~3Ma. SEMFR pillow lavas are vesicular and microporphyritic with crystallite-rich glassy rinds, indicating they erupted underwater at near-liquidus conditions. In contrast, the lava flows are more crystallized and less vesicular. SEMFR lavas exhibit similar ranges in mineral composition with 2 kinds of plagioclase (An>80% and An<80%), clinopyroxene (Mg#≥80% and Mg#<80%), olivine (Fo>90 and Fo<90), suggesting magma mixing. Gabbroic rocks are slightly altered and have olivine and clinopyroxene compositions similar to those of the lavas, but contain less anorthitic plagioclase with a wider range in composition (An20-70) than the lavas

  8. The first Shinkai dive study of the southwestern Mariana arc system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Martinez, F.; Brounce, M. N.; Pujana, I.; Ishii, T.; Stern, R. J.; Ribeiro, J.; Michibayashi, K.; Kelley, K. A.; Reagan, M. K.; Watanabe, H.; Okumura, T.; Oya, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2014-12-01

    The 3000 km long Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system is an outstanding example of an intraoceanic convergent plate margin. The IBM forearc is a typical nonaccretionary convergent plate margin; the inner trench slope exposes lithologies found in many ophiolites. To more clearly delineate the geology of the forearc, we have been investigating a ~500 km long region of the Mariana forearc south of ~13°N using the DSV Shinkai 6500 and deep-tow camera since 2006. Discoveries includes the presence of MORB-like basalts that formed during subduction initiation (~51 Ma) [Reagan et al., 2010, G3], a region of forearc rifting unusually close to the trench axis, the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift [Ribeiro et al., 2013, G3], and a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem near the Challenger Deep, the Shinkai Seep Field [Ohara et al., 2012, PNAS]. However, there have been no studies on the southern Mariana area west of the Challenger Deep except one [Hawkins and Batiza, 1977, EPSL], hindering our understanding of the IBM system. To advance our biogeoscientific understanding of this region, a Shinkai 6500 diving cruise (YK14-13) was conducted in July 2014 on two major sites: the inner trench slope west of the Challenger Deep (Site A), and the southwesternmost tip of the Mariana Trough (Site B). Dives at Site A recovered very fresh mantle peridotite associated with troctolite and limestone. The limestone preserves the remnants of corals, clearly indicating that the limestone is an accreted material originating from the incoming (colliding) Caroline Ridge. The freshness of the peridotites also indicates that the collision is an ongoing event, resulting in a protruding peridotite ridge along the inner trench slope west of the Challenger Deep. Dives at Site B recovered basalt and gabbro, which is either new backarc basin crust or rifted West Mariana Ridge crust. This cruise allowed for continued sampling of the inner trench slope of the Mariana Trench, from south of Guam to the Yap Trench

  9. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Yasuhiko; Reagan, Mark K.; Fujikura, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiromi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Teruaki; Stern, Robert J.; Pujana, Ignacio; Martinez, Fernando; Girard, Guillaume; Ribeiro, Julia; Brounce, Maryjo; Komori, Naoaki; Kino, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Several varieties of seafloor hydrothermal vents with widely varying fluid compositions and temperatures and vent communities occur in different tectonic settings. The discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H2- and CH4-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities supported in highly reduced, alkaline environments. Abundant vesicomyid clam communities associated with a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent system in the southern Mariana forearc were discovered during a DSV Shinkai 6500 dive in September 2010. We named this system the “Shinkai Seep Field (SSF).” The SSF appears to be a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem within a forearc (convergent margin) setting that is supported by fault-controlled fluid pathways connected to the decollement of the subducting slab. The discovery of the SSF supports the prediction that serpentinite-hosted vents may be widespread on the ocean floor. The discovery further indicates that these serpentinite-hosted low-temperature fluid vents can sustain high-biomass communities and has implications for the chemical budget of the oceans and the distribution of abyssal chemosynthetic life. PMID:22323611

  10. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Yasuhiko; Reagan, Mark K; Fujikura, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiromi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Teruaki; Stern, Robert J; Pujana, Ignacio; Martinez, Fernando; Girard, Guillaume; Ribeiro, Julia; Brounce, Maryjo; Komori, Naoaki; Kino, Masashi

    2012-02-21

    Several varieties of seafloor hydrothermal vents with widely varying fluid compositions and temperatures and vent communities occur in different tectonic settings. The discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H(2)- and CH(4)-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities supported in highly reduced, alkaline environments. Abundant vesicomyid clam communities associated with a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent system in the southern Mariana forearc were discovered during a DSV Shinkai 6500 dive in September 2010. We named this system the "Shinkai Seep Field (SSF)." The SSF appears to be a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem within a forearc (convergent margin) setting that is supported by fault-controlled fluid pathways connected to the decollement of the subducting slab. The discovery of the SSF supports the prediction that serpentinite-hosted vents may be widespread on the ocean floor. The discovery further indicates that these serpentinite-hosted low-temperature fluid vents can sustain high-biomass communities and has implications for the chemical budget of the oceans and the distribution of abyssal chemosynthetic life. PMID:22323611

  11. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Yasuhiko; Reagan, Mark K.; Fujikura, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiromi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Teruaki; Stern, Robert J.; Pujana, Ignacio; Martinez, Fernando; Girard, Guillaume; Ribeiro, Julia; Brounce, Maryjo; Komori, Naoaki; Kino, Masashi

    2012-02-01

    Several varieties of seafloor hydrothermal vents with widely varying fluid compositions and temperatures and vent communities occur in different tectonic settings. The discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H2- and CH4-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities supported in highly reduced, alkaline environments. Abundant vesicomyid clam communities associated with a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent system in the southern Mariana forearc were discovered during a DSV Shinkai 6500 dive in September 2010. We named this system the "Shinkai Seep Field (SSF)." The SSF appears to be a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem within a forearc (convergent margin) setting that is supported by fault-controlled fluid pathways connected to the decollement of the subducting slab. The discovery of the SSF supports the prediction that serpentinite-hosted vents may be widespread on the ocean floor. The discovery further indicates that these serpentinite-hosted low-temperature fluid vents can sustain high-biomass communities and has implications for the chemical budget of the oceans and the distribution of abyssal chemosynthetic life.

  12. The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jun; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Parducci, Laura; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sperisen, Christoph; Politov, Dmitry; Ronkainen, Tiina; Väliranta, Minna; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive structure plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west. PMID:27087633

  13. The ant, Aphaenogaster picea, benefits from plant elaiosomes when insect prey is scarce.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert E; King, Joshua R

    2012-12-01

    Myrmecochory is a facultative, mutualistic interaction in which ants receive a protein-rich food reward (elaiosome) in return for dispersing plant seeds. In North American northeastern hardwood forests, Aphaenogaster ants are the primary genus dispersing myrmecochorous plants. In these forests, myrmecochores occur in plant guilds of understory spring ephemerals or seasonal greens. This mutualism has been demonstrated for Aphaenogaster rudis (Emery) and individual plant species, but it has not been demonstrated for other Aphaenogaster species or guilds of myrmecochores as they naturally occur. Aphaenogaster picea (Wheeler) colonies were fed three treatments over 5 mo: 1) a mixture of only elaiosomes from an entire plant guild, 2) a diet of only insect protein and 3) a combination diet of both elaiosomes and insect protein. This experiment investigated two potential hypotheses through which elaiosomes can benefit ants: 1) elaiosome proteins can substitute for protein nutritional requirements when ants are prey-limited, and 2) elaiosome nutrition can supplement insect protein when prey is ample. First, a mixture of elaiosomes from four myrmecochorous plant species provided to A. picea colonies was sufficient to maintain worker production, larval growth, and fat stores when no other food was available. A. picea colonies consuming elaiosomes as their only protein source could be sustained for a growing season (5 mo). Second, colonies fed both elaiosomes and protein did not yield more productive colonies than a control diet of just insect protein. These results support the hypothesis that myrmecochory is indeed a facultative mutualism in which ants take advantage of the protein content of elaiosomes when it is favorable, but when they are not limited by insect prey they do not gain any additional benefit from elaiosomes. PMID:23321086

  14. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material. PMID:26287687

  15. 33 CFR 165.1403 - Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. 165.1403 Section 165.1403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  16. Recruitment and Retention Problems in Paradise? Lessons from the Northern Mariana Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; And Others

    This paper reports on a study that examined teacher recruitment and retention practices in the Northern Mariana Islands public school system. The study was conducted due to shortages of special education teachers and related services personnel. Based on a review of school district documents on recruitment and retention practices and interviews…

  17. Frequent excitations of T waves by earthquakes in the South Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Fei; Chen, Kai-Xun; Cheng, Hui-Yun

    2015-02-01

    We used broadband stations in Taiwan and on the Ryukyu Arc islands to investigate T waves induced by earthquakes in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction zone. Of the 48 earthquakes that took place in 2005, 17 earthquakes exhibited T-wave signals consistent with predicted arrival times at stations. Of theses T-excited events, 13 were located in the South Mariana Arc, where the isobaths exhibit strong concave curvature, and were predominantly of normal faulting type. The energies of observed T waves were used quantitatively to evaluate the relative efficiency of receiver-side acoustic-elastic conversions by Gamma calculations. Results show that the steep slopes of offshore bathymetry together with nearly perpendicular angles of back azimuth relative to local isobaths are suitable conditions for T waves observations. In 2010, two clusters of repeated moderate earthquakes in the north and south ends of the Mariana Arc displayed stark contrasts in terms of T-wave excitations despite their normal faulting type. Examining of this discrepancy indicate that a specific curvature together with a specific radiation pattern accounts for the frequent excitations of T waves from shallow earthquakes in the South Mariana Arc.

  18. Shoshonitic magmas in nascent arcs: New evidence from submarine volcanoes in the northern Marianas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Bloomer, Sherman H.; Lin, Ping-Nan; Ito, Emi; Morris, Julie

    1988-05-01

    Volcanoes in the northern Mariana arc between Uracas (lat 20°N) and Minami Iwo Jima (24°N) are very active yet entirely submarine. In contrast to the predominantly low-K basaltic magmas of the central Mariana arc, the northern Mariana arc is dominated by more siliceous melts in the south and by shoshonites in the north. The northern arc melts have enrichments in Ba (<800 ppm), Rb (<70 ppm), Sr (<1000 ppm), Ce (<50 ppm), and (Ce/Yb)n (<24) which increase to the north as far as Iwo Jima. Lavas from volcanoes north of Iwo Jima lack these enrichments and are indistinguishable from those of the central Maranas. The shoshonites are unusual in occurring along the magmatic front of a primitive, intra-oceanic arc. We hypothesize that they represent the reconstruction of a magmatic arc following melting of enriched mantle due to the propagation of the Mariana Trough spreading center northward through the Volcano arc. Shoshonites thus may characterize the initial stages of arc construction after an episode of back-arc rifting and need not be restricted to the mature stages of arc evolution. This situation contrasts with subduction-zone initiation, where first melts may be boninites or low-K tholeiites. These differing initial melts converge toward tholeiitic and calc-alkaline compositions as arcs evolve.

  19. JROTC Program Earning Distinction in Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koki, Stan

    1997-01-01

    The Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) program at Rota High School in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, which includes over half of the school's students, develops teamwork and helps students excel in academics. Students are instilled with discipline, motivation, pride, and a sense of integrity, trust, and belonging. The…

  20. Trench-parallel flow and seismic anisotropy in the Mariana and Andean subduction systems.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Erik A; van Keken, Peter E

    2007-12-20

    Shear-wave splitting measurements above the mantle wedge of the Mariana and southern Andean subduction zones show trench-parallel seismically fast directions close to the trench and abrupt rotations to trench-perpendicular anisotropy in the back arc. These patterns of seismic anisotropy may be caused by three-dimensional flow associated with along-strike variations in slab geometry. The Mariana and Andean subduction systems are associated with the largest along-strike variations of slab geometry observed on Earth and are ideal for testing the link between slab geometry and solid-state creep processes in the mantle. Here we show, with fully three-dimensional non-newtonian subduction zone models, that the strong curvature of the Mariana slab and the transition to shallow slab dip in the Southern Andes give rise to strong trench-parallel stretching in the warm-arc and warm-back-arc mantle and to abrupt rotations in stretching directions that are accompanied by strong trench-parallel stretching. These models show that the patterns of shear-wave splitting observed in the Mariana and southern Andean systems may be caused by significant three-dimensional flow induced by along-strike variations in slab geometry. PMID:18097407

  1. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN...

  2. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN...

  3. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1403 - Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. 165.1403 Section 165.1403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1403 - Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. 165.1403 Section 165.1403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1022 - American Samoa, Guam, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1022 American Samoa, Guam, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (a) Work in American Samoa, Guam, or the Commonwealth of...

  7. The Mariana Trench: A new view based on multibeam echosounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. V.; Armstrong, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    The entire Mariana Trench, from its northern end at Dutton Ridge to the southwestern terminus at the Yap Trench, was mapped in 2010 using a Kongsberg EM122 12-kHz multibeam echosounder. The region ranges in depths from the shoreline at Guam to almost 11,000 m at the Challenger Deep. The northern part of the trench is receiving seamounts and guyots of the Magellan Seamount chain, whereas the southern section is receiving seafloor that carries the Caroline Ridge to the trench. The area immediately seaward of the trench where the Pacific Plate has bent downward toward the subduction zone has been broken by a series of subparallel horst and graben structures generated by extension on the bending upper surface of the Pacific Plate. Four bathymetric "bridges" span across the trench axis and extend from the Pacific Plate to the inner wall of the trench. The bridges stand as much as 2500 m above the trench axis and are composed of Latest Jurassic to Early Cretaceous accreted seamounts and guyots of the Magellan Seamount chain that are in the process of breaking up and being subducted beneath the Philippine Plate. Only two seamounts of the Caroline Ridge are in the vicinity of the trench and they both presently reside on the outer trench wall. The faults of the horsts and grabens have fractured the seamounts and guyots within the trench depression seaward from the axis outward for about 80 km, but within ~5 km of the trench axis the faults have reactivated to compressional thrust faults. The faults tend to parallel the axis of the trench until the immediate vicinity of an accreting seamount or guyot where the faults bend inward toward the trench axis, as has been observed in many other trenches. Most of the accreted seamounts and guyots are not associated with embayments or reentrants on the inner trench wall, as has been documented in the Middle America and Japan Trenches, perhaps because there is not a large accretionary prism that extends seaward of the forearc. The one

  8. East Mariana Basin tholeiites: Cretaceous intraplate basalts or rift basalts related to the Ontong Java plume?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castillo, P.R.; Pringle, M.S.; Carlson, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns suggest the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in a large area in the western Pacific that includes the East Mariana, Nauru and Pigafetta Basins. Sampling of the igneous crust in this area by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) allows direct evaluation of the age and petrogenesis of this crust. ODP Leg 129 drilled a 51 m sequence of basalt pillows and massive flows in the central East Mariana Basin. 40Ar 39Ar ages determined in this study for two Leg 129 basalts average 114.6 ?? 3.2 Ma. This age is in agreement with the Albian-late Aptian paleontologic age of the overlying sediments, but is distinctively younger than the Jurassic age predicted by magnetic anomaly patterns in the basin. Compositionally, the East Mariana Basin basalts are uniformly low-K tholeiites that are depleted in highly incompatible elements compared to moderately incompatible ones, which is typical of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) erupted near hotspots. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the tholeiites ( 87Sr 86Srinit = 0.70360-0.70374; 143Nd 144Ndinit = 0.512769-0.512790; 206Pb 204Pbmeas = 18.355-18.386) also overlap with some Indian Ocean Ridge MORB, although they are distinct from the isotopic compositions of Jurassic basalts drilled in the Pigafetta Basin, the oldest Pacific MORB. The isotopic compositions of the East Mariana Basin tholeiites are also similar to those of intraplate basalts, and in particular, to the isotopic signature of basalts from the nearby Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. The East Mariana Basin tholeiites also share many petrologic and isotopic characteristics with the oceanic basement drilled in the Nauru Basin at DSDP Site 462. In addition, the new 110.8 ?? 1.0 Ma 40Ar 39Ar age for two flows from the bottom of Site 462 in the Nauru Basin is indistinguishable from the age of the East Mariana Basin flows. Thus, while magnetic anomaly patterns predict that the igneous

  9. Shoshonitic volcanism in the Northern Mariana Arc: 1. Mineralogic and major and trace element characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Sherman H.; Stern, Robert J.; Fisk, Elisha; Geschwind, C. H.

    1989-04-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of samples dredged from 23 submarine volcanic edifices in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs define two distinct rock series. The central and northern Mariana Arc (to 23°N) and the northern Volcano Arc (north of Iwo Jima) are characterized by plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-titantomagnetite bearing subalkaline rocks, including both low-K and medium-K series. The northern Mariana Arc and southern Volcano Arc, from 23°N to Iwo Jima, are erupting rocks of a shoshonitic series with phenocrysts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine, and biotite. These rocks are less saturated than those of the subalkaline provinces and are substantially enriched in Ba (400-900 ppm), Sr (600-1000 ppm), K2O (1-4.5%), and K2O/Na2O (0.4-1.2) relative to the subalkaline lavas. Ba/Y and Ba/Zr increase by a factor of 3 to 4 in the shoshonitic rocks, but K/Rb, Ba/Sr, and K/Ba are relatively constant throughout the arc. There is no relationship between degree of enrichment and volcano volume or degree of fractionation: seamounts and islands within each province have the same range of compositions. Much of the intra-edifice variation in lava composition can be modeled by 10-70% crystallization of plagioclase and clinopyroxene, with smaller amounts of olivine, orthopyroxene, and titanomagnetite, or by accumulation of 10-40% phenocrysts, dominantly plagioclase. The differences between parental lavas in the alkalic and subalkalic provinces require melting of two distinct mantle sources. The occurrence of this enriched mantle in the northern Marianas may be a consequence of the propagation of the Mariana Trough spreading center into the Volcano Arc.

  10. Island-arc magmatic processes beneath South Pagan Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marske, J. P.; Trusdell, F. A.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The island-arc volcanoes that make up the Northern Mariana Islands are among the most historically active stratovolcanoes along the Pacific plate, yet they have been poorly studied due to their remote location and difficult accessibility. One of the least studied areas in the Northern Mariana Islands is Pagan Island, located near the center of the Mariana ridge. Pagan Island consists of two Holocene stratovolcanoes, Mount Pagan and South Pagan. Remarkably little is known about South Pagan including its eruptive history, potential volcanic hazards, and geochemical evolution due to a small population of inhabitants, a short and intermittent recorded history, and few geological studies. There is abundant evidence that eruption of South Pagan could pose significant hazards to both residents of the Northern Mariana Islands and to aircraft flying in the western Pacific. For example, following Mount Pagan's most recent explosive eruption (VEI = 4) in 1981, destructive rain-triggered volcanic debris flows buried large tracts of land, including the site of a village that contained a school, dispensary, church, and power generating buildings. Preliminary field studies in May 2006 by the USGS showed that a full spectrum of hazardous phenomena originated from South Pagan in the past, including pyroclastic flows and surges, caldera collapses, and volcanic debris flows. Two previously unrecognized active fumaroles near the summit of South Pagan were discovered suggesting that potential volcanic hazards currently exist in this area. A majority of the new lava samples are vesicular, clinopyroxene-plagioclase basalts with minor plagioclase xenocrysts and gabbroic xenoliths. The purpose of this study is to understand the compositional history of South Pagan and how it relates to the crustal and mantle magmatic processes beneath the central Northern Mariana Islands. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope ratios, major and trace element abundances, and mineral chemistry were determined and will be

  11. Microarray gene expression profiling of developmental transitions in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) apical shoots.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Michael; Ralph, Steven G; Aeschliman, Dana; Zhuang, Jun; Ritland, Kermit; Ellis, Brian E; Bohlmann, Joerg; Douglas, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    The apical shoot drives the yearly new stem growth of conifer trees, is the primary site for the establishment of chemical and physical defences, and is important in establishing subsequent perennial growth. This organ presents an interesting developmental system, with growth and development progressing from a meristematic tip through development of a primary vascular system, to a base with fully differentiated and lignified secondary xylem on the inside and bark tissue with constitutive defence structures such as resin, polyphenolic phloem parenchyma cells, and sclereids on the outside. A spruce (Picea spp.) microarray containing approximately 16.7K unique cDNAs was used to study transcript profiles that characterize the developmental transition in apical shoots of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) from their vegetative tips to their woody bases. Along with genes involved in cell-wall modification and lignin biosynthesis, a number of differentially regulated genes encoding protein kinases and transcription factors with base-preferred expression patterns were identified, which could play roles in the formation of woody tissues inside the apical shoot, as well as in regulating other developmental transitions associated with organ maturation. Preferential expression of known conifer defence genes, genes encoding defence-related proteins, and genes encoding regulatory proteins was observed at the apical shoot tip and in the green bark tissues at the apical shoot base, suggesting a commitment to constitutive defence in the apical shoot that is co-ordinated with rapid development of secondary xylem. PMID:17220514

  12. Quorum-Sensing Mechanisms Mediated by Farnesol in Ophiostoma piceae: Effect on Secretion of Sterol Esterase

    PubMed Central

    de Salas, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Ophiostoma piceae CECT 20416 is a dimorphic wood-staining fungus able to produce an extracellular sterol-esterase/lipase (OPE) that is of great biotechnological interest. In this work, we have studied the morphological change of this fungus from yeast to hyphae, which is associated with the cell density-related mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS), and how this affects the secretion of OPE. The data presented here confirm that the molecule E,E-farnesol accumulates as the cell number is growing within the population. The exogenous addition of this molecule or spent medium to the cultures increased the extracellular activity of OPE 2.5 times. This fact was related not to an increase in microbial biomass or in the expression of the gene coding for OPE but to a marked morphological transition in the cultures. Moreover, the morphological transition also occurred when a high cell density was inoculated into the medium. The results suggest that E,E-farnesol regulates through QS mechanisms the morphological transition in the dimorphic fungus O. piceae and that it is associated with a higher extracellular esterase activity. Furthermore, identification and transcriptional analysis of genes tup1 and cyr1, which are involved in the response, was carried out. Here we report enhanced production of a sterol-esterase/lipase of biotechnological interest by means of QS mechanisms. These results may be useful in increasing the production of secreted enzymes of other dimorphic fungi of biotechnological interest. PMID:25888179

  13. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yaning; Ling, Yu; Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components. PMID:26710276

  14. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components. PMID:26710276

  15. Different heavy metals have various effects on Picea wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Shasha; Gao, Yuan; Lü, Wengeng; Sheng, Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has became one of the realistic matters of globality. Previous reports indicated that heavy metals could significantly inhibit pollen germination and tube growth. In the present study, comparative studies on the effects of different heavy metals (As, Hg, Cd, Cr and Cu) on in-vitro picea wilsonii pollen gernimation and tube growth were carried out. Microscopic evaluation revealed that different heavy metals had various degree of toxicity on P. wilsonii pollen tube development. As showed the most toxic effects on pollen germination, which was followed by Hg and Cd, while Cr and Cu showed relatively lower toxicity. Besides, pollentubes showed varying shapes in response to different heavy metal stress. Pollen tubes treated with Cd, Hg and As were usually characterized by irregularly increasing diameters and swelling tips with distinct cytoplasimic vacuolation. On the other hand, except for the slightly increased diameters, no obvious abnormal shape were observed in tubes treated with Cr or Cu. Lyso-Tracker Green staining indicated that only Cd-treated pollen tubes showed numerous vacuole-like acidic organelles, though cytoplasmic vacuolization were also observed in pollen tubes treated with Hg and A. In brief, our data indicated that different heavy metals have various effects on Picea wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth, and that in-vitro pollen culture might be used as a competent system for biomonitoring of air pollution. PMID:25830714

  16. The 2014 Submarine Eruption of Ahyi Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, M. M.; Chadwick, W.; Merle, S. G.; Buck, N. J.; Butterfield, D. A.; Coombs, M. L.; Evers, L. G.; Heaney, K. D.; Lyons, J. J.; Searcy, C. K.; Walker, S. L.; Young, C.; Embley, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    On April 23, 2014, Ahyi Volcano, a submarine cone in the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), ended a 13-year-long period of repose with an explosive eruption lasting over 2 weeks. The remoteness of the volcano and the presence of several seamounts in the immediate area posed a challenge for constraining the source location of the eruption. Critical to honing in on the Ahyi area quickly were quantitative error estimates provided by the CTBTO on the backazimuth of hydroacoustic arrivals observed at Wake Island (IMS station H11). T-phases registered across the NMI seismic network at the rate of approximately 10 per hour until May 8 and were observed in hindsight at seismic stations on Guam and Chichijima. After May 8, sporadic T-phases were observed until May 17. Within days of the eruption onset, reports were received from NOAA research divers of hearing explosions underwater and through the hull on the ship while working on the SE coastline of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas), a distance of 20 km NW of Ahyi. In the same area, the NOAA crew reported sighting mats of orange-yellow bubbles on the water surface and extending up to 1 km from the shoreline. Despite these observations, satellite images showed nothing unusual throughout the eruption. During mid-May, a later cruise leg on the NOAA ship Hi'ialakai that was previously scheduled in the Ahyi area was able to collect some additional data in response to the eruption. Preliminary multibeam sonar bathymetry and water-column CTD casts were obtained at Ahyi. Comparison between 2003 and 2014 bathymetry revealed that the minimum depth had changed from 60 m in 2003 to 75 m in 2014, and a new crater ~95 m deep had formed at the summit. Extending SSE from the crater was a new scoured-out landslide chute extending downslope to a depth of at least 2300 m. Up to 125 m of material had been removed from the head of the landslide chute and downslope deposits were up to 40 m thick. Significant particle plumes were detected at all three

  17. Recent Results of Hadal Investigations in the Southern Mariana Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P. B.; Hellebrand, E.; Sharma, S. K.; Acosta-Maeda, T.; Jicha, B. R.; Cameron, J.

    2014-12-01

    The deepest parts of the southern Mariana Trench have variously been interpreted to 1) indicate strike-slip motion along the trench, 2) contain a series of 3 sediment ponds at greater than 10,900 m depth separated from one another by fault-controlled ridges on the subducting plate, and 3) have an even deeper feature in the western-most pond (Vitiaz Deep). Recent lander deployments in all three ponds and the Deepsea Challenger submersible dive by J. Cameron in 2012 showed that the deepest ponds within the Challenger Deep area have nearly unbroken, flat surfaces. One point explored showed veined serpentinite at a depth of 10,800+ m. The potential for active serpentinite-hosted seeps and vent communities was demonstrated for the Shinkai Vent Field at 5,800m depth. Rocks collected using the Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution's hybrid remotely operated vehicle, Nereus, in 2009 from deep (10,879 m) on the incoming plate south of the Challenger Deep, were recovered from the base of a fault scarp where large, columnar-jointed blocks are draped with sediment. Optical microscopy, electron-microprobe and Raman analysis show that they are partially altered massive diabase with altered interstitial glass and containing microbial tubules in vug-filling secondary phases. The chain of seamounts striking NNW, colinear with the Lyra Trough, has been interpreted as a boundary between the Pacific Plate and the seafloor north of the Caroline Ridge. Sediments, drilled from above postulated basement north of the Caroline Ridge are no older that Oligocene. Ar/Ar age dates completed for one rock collected by Nereus in 2009 give a weighted mean plateau age, based on two experiments, of 24.6 +/- 3.2 Ma. Thus, the igneous basement of the subducting plate south of the Challenger Deep is, far younger than the Jurassic Pacific Plate subducting further east. This represents a previously unidentified tectonic plate. With new vehicles and technologies the future for hadal exploration is ripe.

  18. Chlorine isotope variations across the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jaime D.; Sharp, Zachary D.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2008-11-01

    Chlorine isotope ratios were determined for volcanic gas, geothermalwell, ash, and lava samples along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana volcanicfront, serpentinite clasts and muds from serpentine seamounts(Conical, South Chamorro, Torishima), basalts from the Guguancross-chain, and sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)Sites 800, 801, 802, and 1149. There is no systematic variationin {delta}37Cl values along the volcanic front in either gas or ashsamples. In contrast, distinct variations occur across the arc,implying variations in the fluid source at different depthswithin the subduction zone. Serpentinite clasts and serpentinemuds from the seamounts tap a source of 30 km depth and have{delta}37Cl values of structurally bound chloride of +0.4{per thousand} ±0.4{per thousand} (n = 24), identical to most seafloor serpentinites, suggestinga serpentinite (chrysotile and/or lizardite to antigorite transition)fluid source. Tapping deeper levels of the subduction zone ( 115-130km depth), volcanic gases and ashes have {delta}37Cl values averaging-1.1{per thousand} ± 1.0{per thousand} (n = 29), precisely overlapping therange measured in sediments from ODP cores (-1.1{per thousand} ±+0.7{per thousand}, n = 11) and limited altered oceanic crust (AOC). Bothsediments and AOC are possible Cl sources in the volcanic front.The Guguan cross-chain basalts come from the greatest depthsand have an average {delta}37Cl value of +0.2{per thousand} ± 0.2{per thousand</p>
      </li>

      <li>
      <p><a target=Submarine Explosive Eruptions: Physical Volcanology of NW Rota-1, Marianas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorff, N. D.; Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.; Cashman, K. V.

    2006-12-01

    The discovery of an actively erupting submarine arc volcano is a scientific breakthrough that greatly extends our understanding of submarine volcanism. NW Rota-1, located at 14¢X40'N in the Mariana volcanic arc, is a conical basaltic andesite volcano with a summit at 517 m b.s.l, a base at 2700 m, and a diameter of 16- km. In April 2006, on the most recent cruise of the "Submarine Ring of Fire" (SROF) expeditions, violently explosive submarine eruptions were observed and sampled at the active vent, Brimstone Pit (550 m depth), through the use of JASON II remotely operated vehicle (ROV). During six dives repeated observations made at close range over a week documented a diverse and increasingly energetic range of activity that culminated in explosive bursts of glowing red lava propelled by violently expanding gases. Preliminary work shows erupted clasts to vary greatly in density (vesicularity) and crystallinity. Densities of representative larger clasts are moderately high (1700-1900 kg/m3, or ~ 30-40% vesicularity assuming a solid density of 2800 kg/m3; Fig 5b), although the more vigorous activity clearly produced some lower density (< 1000 kg/m3;> 66% vesicularity) material. Grain sizes were measured in 1.0 intervals from -5 to 3 using dry sieving techniques. The grain size distribution is approximately log normal with a mode at -1 (2 mm). Clast morphology consists of three components: (1) very glassy juveniles ranging from light to dark brown (sideromelane), often fluidal and irregularly shaped with obvious vesicle stretching, (2) phenocryst-rich blocky juveniles ranging from dark brown to black (tachylite), (3) non-juvenile lithics are equant, often rounded, ranging from light grey to dark grey and are often coated with altered material. Initial FTIR analyses show a lack of CO2 and a range of H20 from 0.3-1.15wt%, with the average approximately in equilibrium for 550 m water depth. The high vesicularity of the samples collected directly from Brimstone Pit and

  19. Wide-Angle Imaging of the Mariana Subduction Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, B. C.; Klemperer, S.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 we collected wide-angle refraction data using 53 OBSIP ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in an effort to elucidate the structure of lower crust and upper mantle of the Mariana arc. The OBSs were deployed in 3 arc-parallel lines along the magmatic arc, frontal arc, and forearc. We used the R/V Ewing's 20-gun, 10,810 c.i. air-gun array to shoot 2603 km of arc-parallel and perpendicular lines with 200-m or 250-m shot spacings. We also concurrently recorded 15-fold or 12-fold, 240-channel seismic data, as well as magnetic, gravity, and swath bathymetry data. Twenty-five OBSs were deployed along the volcanic arc with a 10-km spacing, twenty OBSs along the frontal arc at 15-km spacing, and eight OBSs along the forearc (roughly halfway between the magmatic arc and the trench) at 20-km spacing. The lines were located between 14.5 and 18.5 degrees north. All 53 OBSs were successfully recovered, with all but two successfully recording every shot. Preliminary examination of the data shows refracted arrivals from shots in excess of 200 km from some OBSs. Major bathymetric variation (0.1 to 3 km) along the volcanic-arc line and the frontal-arc line makes preliminary estimates of crustal structure difficult. So far, mid-to-deep crustal reflections can not be consistently identified between adjacent OBSs, especially along the magmatic arc for which topographic variation is most dramatic. F-K and F-X filters are being tested to better identify reflected arrivals. Preliminary first-arrival analysis of the frontal-arc line suggests velocities of c. 6.4 km/s at 5-10 km depth, and c. 7.3 km/s at 15-25 km depth. These preliminary estimates of "continental-type" velocities in the upper crust, and very high velocities in the lower crust, are directly analogous to results from a Japanese study across the Izu arc at 32 degrees north, despite changes in tectonic style along the arc. Possible scattered Moho reflections are seen at 25-30 km depth beneath the northern end of the

  1. Melt Inclusions in Mariana Arc Lavas: Volatiles, Trace Elements and Linkages to Subducted Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.; Newman, S.; Plank, T.; Grove, T. L.; Parman, S.

    2001-12-01

    Melt inclusions (MIs) are particularly useful to study in volcanic arcs because they may provide samples of primitive liquids prior to extensive magma fractionation, assimilation, or crystal accumulation. Although volatile contents can also be inferred by a number of indirect petrological techniques, MIs also provide the only direct means of measuring volatile (H2O, CO2, etc.) concentrations in arc magmas, as most all other eruptive products are degassed. Volatiles are critical to the operation of the subduction factory since they are both the transport medium of material from the slab and the driver of melting in the mantle wedge. The presence of ``fluid components'' originating from subducted sediment or basaltic crust in arc magmas, however, is typically deduced from trace element compositions more than it is directly measured. We studied MI populations within four basaltic scoria samples from Guguan, Pagan and Agrigan islands of the Mariana arc. All MIs selected for study are hosted by olivine (Fo 68-82), are 50-200 †m in size, and are brown glass with no visible evidence of devitrification. We have analyzed these MIs for H2O and CO2 by FTIR, major elements by EMP and trace elements by laser ablation ICP-MS. H2O data reveal a range in water content of ~1-4 wt%, and a tighter grouping of 2-4 wt% for basaltic inclusions (<52% SiO2, Fo 72-82), higher than the highest water content reported for the Mariana back-arc trough. The single inclusion with detectable dissolved CO2 (630 ppm) also had the highest H2O content, which may indicate that lower H2O contents in the other inclusions could be due to degassing. The MIs are broadly similar in both major and trace elements to lavas from the same islands, and appear to define liquid lines of descent consistent with plagioclase suppression increasing with water concentrations. These Mariana MIs do not include high-Ca compositions like those reported by Schiano, et al. (2000), rather they are normal tholeiitic arc

  2. Higher thermal acclimation potential of respiration but not photosynthesis in two alpine Picea taxa in contrast to two lowland congeners.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao Wei; Wang, Jing Ru; Ji, Ming Fei; Milne, Richard Ian; Wang, Ming Hao; Liu, Jian-Quan; Shi, Sheng; Yang, Shu-Li; Zhao, Chang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The members of the genus Picea form a dominant component in many alpine and boreal forests which are the major sink for atmospheric CO2. However, little is known about the growth response and acclimation of CO2 exchange characteristics to high temperature stress in Picea taxa from different altitudes. Gas exchange parameters and growth characteristics were recorded from four year old seedlings of two alpine (Picea likiangensis vars. rubescens and linzhiensis) and two lowland (P. koraiensis and P. meyeri) taxa. Seedlings were grown at moderate (25°C/15°C) and high (35°C/25°C) day/night temperatures, for four months. The approximated biomass increment (ΔD2H) for all taxa decreased under high temperature stress, associated with decreased photosynthesis and increased respiration. However, the two alpine taxa exhibited lower photosynthetic acclimation and higher respiratory acclimation than either lowland taxon. Moreover, higher leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen content per unit area (Narea), and a smaller change in the nitrogen use efficiency of photosynthesis (PNUE) for lowland taxa indicated that these maintained higher homeostasis of photosynthesis than alpine taxa. The higher respiration rates produced more energy for repair and maintenance biomass, especially for higher photosynthetic activity for lowland taxa, which causes lower respiratory acclimation. Thus, the changes of ΔD2H for alpine spruces were larger than that for lowland spruces. These results indicate that long term heat stress negatively impact on the growth of Picea seedlings, and alpine taxa are more affected than low altitude ones by high temperature stress. Hence the altitude ranges of Picea taxa should be taken into account when predicting changes to carbon fluxes in warmer conditions. PMID:25874631

  3. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  4. New evidence for the symbiosis between Tuber aestivum and Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Ulrich; Stobbe, Annika; Sproll, Ludger; Tegel, Willy; Peter, Martina; Büntgen, Ulf; Egli, Simon

    2013-11-01

    The Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.), an ectomycorrhizal fungus living in association with host plants, is one of the most exclusive delicacies. The symbiosis with deciduous oak, beech, and hazel dominates our concept of truffle ecophysiology, whereas potential conifer hosts have rarely been reported. Here, we present morphological and molecular evidence of a wildlife T. aestivum symbiosis with Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and an independent greenhouse inoculation experiment, to confirm our field observation in southwest Germany. A total of 27 out of 50 P. abies seedlings developed T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae with a mean mycorrhization rate of 19.6 %. These findings not only suggest P. abies to be a productive host species under suitable biogeographic conditions but also emphasize the broad ecological amplitude and great symbiotic range of T. aestivum. While challenging common knowledge, this study demonstrates a significant expansion of the species' cultivation potential to the central European regions, where P. abies forests occur on calcareous soils. PMID:23674121

  5. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the timing of bud burst in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Partanen, Jouni; Koski, Veikko; Hänninen, Heikki

    1998-12-01

    We examined the effects of several photoperiod and temperature regimes imposed during the winter-spring period on the timing of bud burst in rooted cuttings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) grown in a greenhouse in Finland. The treatments were initiated in November and December after the cuttings had been exposed to natural chilling and freezing events. Irrespective of the treatments applied, time to bud burst decreased with increased duration of previous exposure to natural chilling and freezing events. Fluctuating day/night temperatures and continuous lengthening of the photoperiod hastened bud burst. Shortening the photoperiod delayed bud burst, suggesting that little or no ontogenetic development toward bud burst takes place during mild periods before the winter solstice. In the case of climatic warming, this phenomenon may prevent the premature onset of growth that has been predicted by computer simulations with models that only consider temperature regulation of bud burst. PMID:12651402

  6. Ectomycorrhizal specificity patterns in a mixed Pinus contorta and Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K. W.; Vogler, D. R.; Parker, V. T.; Finley, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to test two hypotheses, (i) that host plant specificity among ectomycorrhizal fungi would be common in a closed-canopy, mixed Pinus contorta-Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park and (ii) that specificity would be more common in the early successional tree species, P. contorta, than in the invader, P. engelmannii. We identified 28 ectomycorrhizal fungal species collected from 27 soil cores. The proportion of P. engelmannii to P. contorta ectomycorrhizae was nearly equal (52 and 48%, respectively). Of the 28 fungal species, 18 composed greater than 95% of the fungal community. No species was associated exclusively with P. contorta, but four species, each found in only one core, and one species found in two cores were associated exclusively with P. engelmannii. These fungi composed less than 5% of the total ectomycorrhizae. Thus, neither hypothesis was supported, and hypothesized benefits of ectomycorrhizal specificity to both trees and fungi probably do not exist in this system.

  7. Vicilin-like seed storage proteins in the gymnosperm interior spruce (Picea glauca/engelmanii).

    PubMed

    Newton, C H; Flinn, B S; Sutton, B C

    1992-10-01

    A seed storage protein cDNA was characterized from a library of interior spruce (Picea glauca/engelmanii complex) cotyledonary stage somatic embryos. The deduced amino acid sequence predicts a 448 amino acid (50 kDa) polypeptide with 28-38% identity with angiosperm vicilin-like 7S globulins. XXC/G codon usage is low (47%) relative to monocot angiosperms while pairwise comparisons show that spruce, monocot, and dicot vicilins are approximately equal in amino acid divergence. Although small by comparison, the spruce vicilin contains an N terminal hydrophilic region characteristic of angiosperm 'large' vicilins. Genomic Southern blotting predicts that the cDNA is encoded by a gene family. PMID:1391775

  8. Norway spruce (Picea abies) genetic transformation with modified Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Bříza, Jindřich; Pavingerová, Daniela; Vlasák, Josef; Niedermeierová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Modified versions of the Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were transferred into Norway spruce (Picea abies). Both the biolistic approach and Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated procedure were employed for transformation of embryogenic tissue (ET) cultures. The latter method proved to be more efficient yielding 70 transgenic embryogenic tissue lines compared with 18 lines obtained by biolistics. The modified Cry3A genes were driven by a 35S promoter and the nptII screenable selection marker gene was used in all vectors. The transgenic ETs were molecularly characterized and converted into mature somatic embryos. Germinating embryos formed plantlets which were finally planted into perlite and their Cry3A gene transcription activities were demonstrated by RT-PCR. PMID:23888296

  9. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-01-01

    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation. PMID:26413905

  10. Extracellular lipase production by a sapwood-staining fungus, Ophiostoma piceae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Breuil, C

    1995-11-01

    The extracellular lipase production of a sapwood-staining fungus, Ophiostoma piceae, grown in liquid media, was optimally active at pH 5.5 and 37°C. Although glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and dextrin, as carbon sources for growth gave similar mycelial yields, which were higher than those obtained with arabinose, galactose or raffinose, the cells growing on those carbohydrates produced little extracellular lipase. However, both high biomass and lipase activity were obtained when plant oils (olive, soybean, corn, sunflower seed, sesame, cotton seed or peanut) were used as carbon sources. Among the nitrogen sources examined, Casamino acids gave the best growth, whereas (NH4)2SO4 gave the best lipase production. The highest lipase productivity seen was obtained in a medium with olive oil as carbon source and a combination of (NH4)2SO4and peptone as nitrogen source. PMID:24415011

  11. Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands; Part 4, Submarine topography and shoal-water ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, Preston E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    The topography of the sea floor within 10 miles of Saipan broadly resembles that of the land. Eastward, toward the Mariana trench, slopes are about 6°, without prominent benches or scarps. This is inferred to indicate easterly continuation of generally pyroclastic bedrock. The westward slope averages 2° to 3° and consists mainly of nearly flat benches and westfacing scarps. This is taken to imply westward continuation of a limestone bench-and-fault-scarp topography. Projection of known faults to sea and through Tinian, on the basis of topographic trends, suggests a pattern of west-dipping normal faults that parallel the strike of the Mariana ridge and affect the shape and position of islands at the crest of the ridge.

  12. Isotopic and trace element geochemistry of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern volcano arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Pingnan.

    1989-01-01

    Samples from submarine volcanoes and islands were analyzed for concentrations of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, REE, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and some selected samples for {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd. These data show strong variations along the arc, being relatively depleted in the tholeiitic and low-K calc-alkaline volcanoes of the Volcano Arc (VA) and the Mariana Central Island Province (CIP). All of the Mariana Northern Seamount Province (NSP) and Volcano arc Iwo Jima (IJ) are enriched in LIL and LREE, particularly in the northern half, where the lavas have strong shoshonitic affinities. Chemical characteristics of these lavas suggest source- or melt-mixing, with the NSP shoshonites being derived from a LIL- and LREE-enriched OIB-like source or melt, while Mariana CIP and Volcano Arc melts are derived from a depleted MORB-like mangle that has been recharged with K, Rb, Sr and Ba by hydrous fluids. Neodymium and strontium isotopic data reveal {var epsilon}{sub Nd} values ranging from +2.4 to +9.5 and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr from 0.70320 to 0.70405. Anomalous trends of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Ba/La found in some S-NSP lavas suggest that the addition of a sedimentary component may be superimposed on the two component mixing. The lavas from the Mariana and Volcano arcs, therefore, are interpreted as resulting from mixing of at least three components. The bulk of the lavas derive from an OIB-like mantle source (or melt) mixing with various proportions of a metasomatized depleted mantle source (or melt). These hybrid sources may be contaminated with minor amounts of subducted sediment and fluxed by multistage-fractionated metasomatic fluid which is derived from subducted sediment and slab after the mixing of the first two components.

  13. Mechanism for Normal Faulting in the Subducting Plate at the Mariana Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Lin, J.; Behn, M. D.; Olive, J. A. L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the characteristics of normal faulting between the trench and outer rise in the subducting Pacific plate through analysis of high-resolution multi-beam bathymetry and geophysical data and geodynamic modeling. Analysis of multi-beam bathymetry data reveals significant variations in normal faulting characteristics along the Mariana trench: (1) The vast majority of the observed surface normal faulting scarps are observed to be sub-parallel to the local strike of the Mariana trench axis, indicating that the orientation of normal faults is predominantly controlled by subduction-related stresses rather than by pre-existing abyssal hill fabrics. (2) Trench-parallel normal fault scarps become apparant as the subducting plate approaches the outer rise of the Mariana trench, indicating that normal faulting initiates in this region. (3) Along the Mariana trench, the Challenger Deep region is associated with the greatest trench depth and largest average values of normal fault throw, while regions with seamounts near the trench axis show the smallest average values of fault throw. To explore the mechanisms that control normal faulting in a subducting plate, we perform numerical simulations of elasto-plastic plate subjected to tectonic loading, bending, and horizontal forces from slab pull. Modeling results suggest that bending-induced extensional stresses in the upper plate reaches maximum values near the outer rise, consistent with the onset of normal faulting in this region. However, bending alone does not predict the continued growth of normal faults toward the trench. We hypothesize that this additional fault growth could be related to (1) tectonic stresses induced by steep topographic slopes; and/or (2) slab pulling forces that are originated in the upper mantle due to the negative buoyancy of a subducted slab but are transmitted to the shallower part of the lithospheric plate prior to its subduction.

  14. MARGINS mini-lessons: A tour of the Mariana Subduction System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodliffe, A. M.; Oakley, A.

    2009-12-01

    MARGINS mini-lessons provide an efficient way to quickly move cutting edge MARGINS research into the university classroom. Instructors who are not necessarily familiar with the MARGINS program can easily use mini-lessons in a variety of educational settings. The mini-lesson described herein is centered on bathymetric and multi-channel seismic data collected during a 2003 NSF-MARGINS funded marine geophysical survey in the Mariana Basin. Designed as an approximately sixty minute lecture segment, the lesson covers both the techniques used to collect marine geophysical data and a description of the geology of the system. All geological provinces are included, from the subducting Pacific Plate in the east to the remnant arc in the west. Representative seismic lines and bathymetric images are presented for each province, along with a description of key processes including deformation of the subducting plate, serpentinite mud volcanism, forearc faulting, potentially tsunamigenic landslides, arc volcanism, and backarc spreading. The Mariana subduction system mini-lesson requires a computer with an internet connection, powerpoint, Google Earth, and a web-browser. Questions are embedded in the powerpoint presentation that can be adapted to a specific interactive response system as needed. Optimally the lesson should be used in parallel with a GeoWall. A 3-dimensional ArcScene visualization of the Mariana system is available for download through the MARGINS mini-lessons web site. Such visualizations are particularly effective in helping students understand complex three-dimensional systems. If presented in a computer lab students will benefit from being able to explore the Mariana system using tools such as GeoMapApp.

  15. Multi-Channel Seismic Images of the Mariana Forearc: EW0202 Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, A. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Taylor, B.; Moore, G. F.; Fryer, P.

    2002-12-01

    During the Spring of 2002, the Mariana Subduction Factory was surveyed using multi-channel seismics (MCS) as the first major phase of a US-Japanese collaborative NSF-MARGINS funded project. The resulting geophysical transects extend from the Pacific Plate to the West Mariana remnant arc. For details of this survey, including the results from the back-arc, refer to Taylor et al. (this session). The incoming Pacific Plate and its accompanying seamounts are deformed by plate flexure, resulting in extension of the upper crust as it enters the subduction zone. The resultant trench parallel faults dominate the bathymetry and MCS data. Beneath the forearc, in the southern transects near Saipan, the subducting slab is imaged to a distance of 50-60 km arcward. In addition to ubiquitous trench parallel normal faulting, a N-S transect of the forearc clearly shows normal faults perpendicular to the trench resulting from N-S extension. On the east side of the Mariana Ridge, thick sediment packages extend into the forearc. Directly east of Saipan and Tinian, a large, deeply scouring slide mass is imaged. Several serpentine mud volcanoes (Big Blue, Turquoise and Celestial) were imaged on the Mariana Forearc. Deep horizontal reflectors (likely original forearc crust) are imaged under the flanks of some of these seamounts. A possible "throat" reflector is resolved on multiple profiles at the summit of Big Blue, the northern-most seamount in the study area. The flanks of Turquoise seamount terminate in toe thrusts that represent uplift and rotation of surrounding sediments as the volcano grows outward. These thrusts form a basal ridge around the seamount similar to that previously noted encircling Conical Seamount. Furthermore, MCS data has revealed that some forearc highs previously thought to be fault blocks are in actuality mud volcanoes.

  16. Mollusk collecting and environmental change during the Prehistoric Period in the Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amesbury, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    Archaeological research in the Mariana Islands has revealed changes in mollusk collecting during the Prehistoric Period (approximately 1500 BC to AD 1521). The earliest people at Tumon Bay, Guam and Chalan Piao, Saipan collected mostly bivalves, especially the arc clam Anadara antiquata. After several hundred years, they no longer collected A. antiquata, but collected smaller bivalves instead. By AD 1000, they collected mostly gastropods, primarily the coral reef species Strombus gibberulus gibbosus. One possible explanation is that the people preferred the large arc clam but overharvested it until they were forced to eat the smaller bivalves and then the snails. However, recent evidence in the form of mangrove wood and mangrove pollen supports another explanation, one of non-anthropogenic environmental change. In this case, the relative sea-level decline, which took place in the Marianas within the last 4,000 years, caused the demise of mangrove habitats and of the arc clam at Tumon Bay, Guam and Chalan Piao, Saipan. As mangrove habitats were diminished by sea-level decline, collecting effort shifted to coral reefs, and S. gibberulus gibbosus was harvested throughout the remainder of the Prehistoric Period and into the Historic Period. Southern Guam is the only area in the Marianas in which A. antiquata increased in abundance during the Prehistoric Period. The same types of evidence, mangrove wood and mangrove pollen, indicate that, in contrast to the situation at Tumon Bay and Chalan Piao, mangroves increased in abundance in southern Guam.

  17. Isolated communities of Epsilonproteobacteria in hydrothermal vent fluids of the Mariana Arc seamounts.

    PubMed

    Huber, Julie A; Cantin, Holly V; Huse, Susan M; Welch, David B Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L; Butterfield, David A

    2010-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal vent fluids represent access points to diverse microbial communities living in oceanic crust. This study examined the distribution, relative abundance, and diversity of Epsilonproteobacteria in 14 low-temperature vent fluids from five volcanically active seamounts of the Mariana Arc using a 454 tag sequencing approach. Most vent fluids were enriched in cell concentrations compared with background seawater, and quantitative PCR results indicated that all fluids were dominated by bacteria. Operational taxonomic unit-based statistical tools applied to 454 data show that all vents from the northern end of the Mariana Arc grouped together, to the exclusion of southern arc seamounts, which were as distinct from one another as they were from northern seamounts. Statistical analysis also showed a significant relationship between seamount and individual vent groupings, suggesting that community membership may be linked to geographical isolation and not geochemical parameters. However, while there may be large-scale geographic differences, distance is not the distinguishing factor in the microbial community composition. At the local scale, most vents host a distinct population of Epsilonproteobacteria, regardless of seamount location. This suggests that there may be barriers to exchange and dispersal for these vent endemic microorganisms at hydrothermal seamounts of the Mariana Arc. PMID:20533947

  18. Large, pre-digital earthquakes of the Bonin-Mariana subduction zone, 1930-1974

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Reymond, Dominique; Hongsresawat, Sutatcha

    2013-02-01

    The Bonin-Mariana subduction zone is the end-member example of a decoupled system, as described by Uyeda and Kanamori (1979), with no interplate thrust solutions of moments greater than 8 × 1025 dyn cm known in the CMT catalog, although a number of earthquakes are reported with assigned magnitudes around or above 7, both during the WWSSN period and the historical pre-1962 era. We present a systematic study of these events, including relocation and inversion of moment tensors. We obtain 15 new moment tensor solutions, featuring a wide variety of focal mechanisms both in the fore-arc and the outer rise, and most importantly a shallow-dipping interplate thrust mechanism with a moment of 4 × 1027 dyn cm for the event of 28 December 1940 at a location 175 km East of Pagan. Our results show that the modern CMT catalog still undersamples the seismicity of the Mariana arc, which is thus not immune to relatively large, albeit rare, interplate thrust events, with moments 40 times that of the largest Global-CMT solution. Frequency-magnitude relations would then suggest a return time of 320 years for a magnitude 8 interplate thrust faulting earthquake in the Bonin-Mariana system.

  19. Children in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Results of the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    Using 2000 U.S. Census data, this report compares the situation of children in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands to children's situations in neighboring territories and the nation overall. Between 1990-2000, the number of children in the Northern Mariana Islands increased 49 percent, while the number increased nationwide by only 14…

  20. Diets of the Sympatric Pacific Sheath-Tailed Bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Wiles, Gary J.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat.

  1. Asymmetry in the slow-spreading Mariana back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, A.; Fujiwara, T.; Goto, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Mariana Trough is an active back-arc basin opening behind the Mariana subduction zone. Its spreading history is fairly complicated, due to ridge segments propagations and trenchward jumps. The basin is asymmetric, with its spreading center located closer to the active arc than next to the West Mariana remnant arc. At latitude 18°N, the spreading axis is located 185 km from the remnant West Mariana Ridge, and 110 km from the active arc to the east. In the central part of the basin, the rift valley has a morphology that is typical of slow-spreading ridges. Its shape varies between a fairly symmetric graben and an asymmetric half-graben with a single large fault scarp on one side of the valley, generally on its eastern side. This asymmetry is well expressed at latitudes 17°20'N and 18°35'N for example. Between 17°40'N and 18°25'N, the neovolcanic zone is expressed as an unfaulted region within the valley floor, which covers an area wide of 6 km in average. The series of hummocky to linear axial volcanic ridges (AVRs) mark the locus of the most active recent accretion. The AVRs ranges in size up to 1 km high, 1-5 km wide, and tens of kilometers long. Along this segment, spreading occurs following a N75E direction at a half rate of 1.4 cm/yr. One striking feature is the location of the Brunhes anomaly, which is not centered on the AVRs. At 18°N for example, the eastern and western sides of the central Brunhes anomaly have markedly different widths, and are 15km and 10km, respectively, from the AVR, suggesting different spreading rates on both sides of the valley. We observe similar pattern more to the north, between latitudes 19°20'N and 19°50'N. We hypothesize that the asymmetry of the Mariana basin is not only due to eastward ridge jumps, but also to asymmetric magmatic accretion. It is probable that the magmatic accretion is one sided with new crust mainly added to the western flank. Along the eastern flank, spreading is mainly accommodated by significant

  2. Stress assessment and spectral characterization of suspected acid deposition damage in red spruce (Picea Rubens) from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of acid deposition on Picea rubens are studied. The Picea rubens located at Camels Hump Mt., Mt. Ascutney, and Ripton, VT were analyzed using stress level evaluations, in situ spectral data, pressure bomb analysis, and aircraft sensors. Spruce stress per circular plot and percent spruce mortality are calculated. The relation between stress levels and elevation and exposure and weather patterns is examined. It is observed that variations in the reflectance curves of the foliage and branches are related to cellular health, the type of cellular arrangement, and the degree of leaf tissue hydration; the leaf and twig specimens from high stress sites are more reflective in the red portion of the visible and less reflective in the NIR portion of the spectrum. The pressure bomb data reveal that the xylem water tension is higher in specimens from high stress sites. It is noted that remote sensing permits discrimination and mapping of suspected acid deposition damage.

  3. Behavioral and Reproductive Response of White Pine Weevil (Pissodes strobi) to Resistant and Susceptible Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis)

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jeanne A.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi, Peck.) is a native forest insect pest in the Pacific Northwest of North America that attacks species of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.). Young Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] trees are particularly susceptible to weevil attack. Pockets of naturally occurring Sitka spruce resistance have been identified in high weevil hazard areas in coastal British Columbia. In this study, we characterize behavioral, physiological and reproductive responses of weevils to an extremely resistant Sitka spruce genotype (H898) in comparison to a highly susceptible genotype (Q903). The experiments relied on a large number of three-year-old clonally propagated trees and were therefore restricted to two contrasting Sitka spruce genotypes. When exposed to resistant trees, both male and female weevils were deterred during host selection and mating, females showed delayed or reduced ovary development, and successful reproduction of weevils was prevented on resistant trees. PMID:26467397

  4. Molybdenum mobility and isotopic fractionation during subduction at the Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymuth, Heye; Vils, Flurin; Willbold, Matthias; Taylor, Rex N.; Elliott, Tim

    2015-12-01

    The fate of crustal material recycled into the convecting mantle by plate tectonics is important for understanding the chemical and physical evolution of the planet. Marked isotopic variability of Mo at the Earth's surface offers the promise of providing distinctive signatures of such recycled material. However, characterisation of the behaviour of Mo during subduction is needed to assess the potential of Mo isotope ratios as tracers for global geochemical cycles. Here we present Mo isotope data for input and output components of the archetypical Mariana arc: Mariana arc lavas, sediments from ODP Sites 800, 801 and 802 near the Mariana trench and the altered mafic, oceanic crust (AOC), from ODP Site 801, together with samples of the deeper oceanic crust from ODP Site 1256. We also report new high precision Pb isotope data for the Mariana arc lavas and a dataset of Pb isotope ratios from sediments from ODP Sites 800, 801 and 802. The Mariana arc lavas are enriched in Mo compared to elements of similar incompatibility during upper mantle melting, and have distinct, isotopically heavy Mo (high 98Mo/95Mo) relative to the upper mantle, by up to 0.3 parts per thousand. In contrast, the various subducting sediment lithologies dominantly host isotopically light Mo. Coupled Pb and Mo enrichment in the Mariana arc lavas suggests a common source for these elements and we further use Pb isotopes to identify the origin of the isotopically heavy Mo. We infer that an aqueous fluid component with elevated [Mo], [Pb], high 98Mo/95Mo and unradiogenic Pb is derived from the subducting, mafic oceanic crust. Although the top few hundred metres of the subducting, mafic crust have a high 98Mo/95Mo, as a result of seawater alteration, tightly defined Pb isotope arrays of the Mariana arc lavas extrapolate to a fluid component akin to fresh Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalts. This argues against a flux dominantly derived from the highly altered, uppermost mafic crust or indeed from an Indian

  5. The relationship between species diversity and genetic structure in the rare Picea chihuahuana tree species community, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Simental-Rodríguez, Sergio Leonel; Quiñones-Pérez, Carmen Zulema; Moya, Daniel; Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; López-Sánchez, Carlos Antonio; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Species diversity and genetic diversity, the most basic elements of biodiversity, have long been treated as separate topics, although populations evolve within a community context. Recent studies on community genetics and ecology have suggested that genetic diversity is not completely independent of species diversity. The Mexican Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic species listed as "Endangered" on the Red List. Forty populations of Chihuahua spruce have been identified. This species is often associated with tree species of eight genera in gallery forests. This rare Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been subject of several studies involving different topics such as ecology, genetic structure and climate change. The overall aim of these studies was to obtain a dataset for developing management tools to help decision makers implement preservation and conservation strategies. However, this unique forest tree community may also represent an excellent subject for helping us to understand the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes in determining community structure and dynamics. The AFLP technique and species composition data were used together to test the hypothesis that species diversity is related to the adaptive genetic structure of some dominant tree species (Picea chihuahuana, Pinus strobiformis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides) of the Picea chihuahuana tree community at fourteen locations. The Hill numbers were used as a diversity measure. The results revealed a significant correlation between tree species diversity and genetic structure in Populus tremuloides. Because the relationship between the two levels of diversity was found to be positive for the putative adaptive AFLP detected, genetic and species structures of the tree community were possibly simultaneously adapted to a combination of ecological or environmental factors. The present findings indicate that interactions between

  6. The Relationship between Species Diversity and Genetic Structure in the Rare Picea chihuahuana Tree Species Community, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Simental-Rodríguez, Sergio Leonel; Quiñones-Pérez, Carmen Zulema; Moya, Daniel; Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; López-Sánchez, Carlos Antonio; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Species diversity and genetic diversity, the most basic elements of biodiversity, have long been treated as separate topics, although populations evolve within a community context. Recent studies on community genetics and ecology have suggested that genetic diversity is not completely independent of species diversity. The Mexican Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic species listed as “Endangered” on the Red List. Forty populations of Chihuahua spruce have been identified. This species is often associated with tree species of eight genera in gallery forests. This rare Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been subject of several studies involving different topics such as ecology, genetic structure and climate change. The overall aim of these studies was to obtain a dataset for developing management tools to help decision makers implement preservation and conservation strategies. However, this unique forest tree community may also represent an excellent subject for helping us to understand the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes in determining community structure and dynamics. The AFLP technique and species composition data were used together to test the hypothesis that species diversity is related to the adaptive genetic structure of some dominant tree species (Picea chihuahuana, Pinus strobiformis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides) of the Picea chihuahuana tree community at fourteen locations. The Hill numbers were used as a diversity measure. The results revealed a significant correlation between tree species diversity and genetic structure in Populus tremuloides. Because the relationship between the two levels of diversity was found to be positive for the putative adaptive AFLP detected, genetic and species structures of the tree community were possibly simultaneously adapted to a combination of ecological or environmental factors. The present findings indicate that interactions

  7. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The very rare Mexican Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area of no more than 300 ha in the Sierra Madre Occidental. This special tree community has been the subject of several studies aimed at learning more about the genetic structure and ecology of the species and the potential effects of climate change. The spatial distribution of trees is a result of many ecological processes and can affect the degree of competition between neighbouring trees, tree density, variability in size and distribution, regeneration, survival, growth, mortality, crown formation and the biological diversity within forest communities. Numerous scale-dependent measures have been established in order to describe spatial forest structure. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. In this study, we examined the spatial distribution pattern of trees in the P. chihuahuana tree community in 12 localities, in relation to i) tree stand density, ii) diameter distribution (vertical structure), iii) tree species diversity, iv) geographical latitude and v) tree dominance at a fine scale (in 0.25 ha plots), with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the complex ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Because of the strongly mixed nature of this tree community, which often produces low population densities of each tree species and random tree fall gaps caused by tree death, we expect aggregated patterns in individual Picea chihuahuana trees and in the P. chihuahuana tree community, repulsive Picea patterns to other tree species and repulsive patterns of young to adult trees. Each location was represented by one plot of 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) established in the centre of the tree community. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis of aggregated tree pattern is not applicable to the mean pattern measured by Clark-Evans index, Uniform Angle index and Mean Directional index of the uneven-aged P

  8. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The very rare Mexican Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area of no more than 300 ha in the Sierra Madre Occidental. This special tree community has been the subject of several studies aimed at learning more about the genetic structure and ecology of the species and the potential effects of climate change. The spatial distribution of trees is a result of many ecological processes and can affect the degree of competition between neighbouring trees, tree density, variability in size and distribution, regeneration, survival, growth, mortality, crown formation and the biological diversity within forest communities. Numerous scale-dependent measures have been established in order to describe spatial forest structure. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. In this study, we examined the spatial distribution pattern of trees in the P. chihuahuana tree community in 12 localities, in relation to i) tree stand density, ii) diameter distribution (vertical structure), iii) tree species diversity, iv) geographical latitude and v) tree dominance at a fine scale (in 0.25 ha plots), with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the complex ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Because of the strongly mixed nature of this tree community, which often produces low population densities of each tree species and random tree fall gaps caused by tree death, we expect aggregated patterns in individual Picea chihuahuana trees and in the P. chihuahuana tree community, repulsive Picea patterns to other tree species and repulsive patterns of young to adult trees. Each location was represented by one plot of 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) established in the centre of the tree community. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis of aggregated tree pattern is not applicable to the mean pattern measured by Clark-Evans index, Uniform Angle index and Mean Directional index of the uneven-aged P

  9. PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S M; Thorpe, T A; Moloney, M M

    1989-03-01

    ß-Glucuronidase (GUS) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) were used as reporter proteins in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce). Plasmid DNA enclosing chimeric GUS and CAT constructs, using the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was introduced into Picea glauca protoplasts using polyethylene glycol (PEG). Transient expression was detected 12 to 40 h after PEG-mediated DNA delivery. Dose-response curves using covalently closed circular plasmid DNA, in the absence of carrier DNA, have been obtained for each of these reporter genes. Linearized plasmid DNA gave lower levels of expression than covalently closed circular plasmid DNA when assayed 40 h after PEG-mediated DNA transfer. The use of carrier DNA (herring sperm DNA), in combination with covalently closed circular plasmid DNA, increased the level of expression of GUS by about 50%. CAT expression was enhanced if PEG-mediated delivery was performed on ice rather than at room temperature. The highest level of expression for CAT, and the lowest signal-to-noise ratio, was found 24 h after PEG-mediated DNA transfer. Both GUS and CAT provided results that were quantifiable and can therefore be used as reporter genes in Picea glauca. PMID:24240467

  10. Dehydrin accumulation and extreme low-temperature tolerance in Siberian spruce (Picea obovata).

    PubMed

    Kjellsen, Trygve Devold; Yakovlev, Igor A; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Strimbeck, G Richard

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the role of dehydrins (DHNs) in extreme low-temperature (LT) tolerance, we sampled needle tissue of Siberian spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) from trees growing in an arboretum in Trondheim, Norway from August 2006 to April 2007 and tracked changes in LT tolerance via relative electrolyte leakage. We used western blotting to estimate relative amounts of proteins binding a DHN K-segment antibody, measured relative amounts of nine transcripts for small (<25 kDa) DHNs by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers developed for DHN transcripts in a closely related species, Picea abies (L.) Karsten, and isolated and sequenced PCR products for five P. obovata DHNs. Three protein bands of 53, 35 and 33 kDa were detected on western blots of SDS-PAGE-separated protein extracts. The 53-kDa DHN was already present late in the growing season, but accumulated during acclimation, and levels decreased rapidly during deacclimation. The 33- and 35-kDa proteins, identified as Picg5 class DHNs by mass spectrometry, first appeared in detectable amounts late in the acclimation process and remained at detectable levels throughout the period of maximum LT tolerance. Levels of the 53-kDa DHN correlated with two LT tolerance parameters, while results for the 33- and 35-kDa proteins were equivocal due to limited sample size and variation in LT tolerance during the mid-winter period. Three additional bands of 30, 28 and 26 kDa were detected in extracts from needles collected in November 2010 using an immunity-purified antibody. Immunoblotting of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gels loaded with proteins extracted from October and November samples corroborated the results obtained by SDS-PAGE western blots. One large spot in the 53 kDa range and two trains of spots in the same size range as the 33 and 35 kDa DHNs were detected using the K-segment antibody. Eight of the nine DHN transcripts closely tracked LT tolerance parameters, whereas

  11. Fine-scale isotopic variation in Mariana Trough basalts: evidence for heterogeneity and a recycled component in backarc basin mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Alan M.; Douglas Macdougall, J.; Lugmair, Gunter W.; Hawkins, James W.; Lonsdale, Peter

    1990-10-01

    Fine-scale sampling with ALVIN and by dredging of the axial ridge in the Mariana Trough between 17°40'N and 18°30°N recovered basalts with isotopic compositions that span the range between N-type MORB and Mariana island arc basalts. There is a local tectonic-morphological control on basalt compositions; MORB-like basalts are found on the deeper ridge segment bounded by the Pagan transform and the ridge offset at 17°56'N, while basalts from the shallower ridge to the north are typical Mariana Trough basalts (MTB) having compositions intermediate between the two endmember rock types. Arc-like basalts were recovered from one site on the axial ridge. The discovery of basalts with such diverse isotopic characteristics from a short (100 km) section of this backarc spreading center constrains the chemical characteristics and distribution of mantle source variability in the Mariana Trough. Sr sbnd Nd sbnd Pb isotopic variability suggests that the MTB source is heterogeneous on the scale of individual melt batches. The principal component in the MTB mantle source region is depleted peridotite similar to the source of MORB. The enriched component, most evident in the arc-like basalts and intimately mixed in MTB, has isotopic characteristics similar to those observed in the Mariana arc basalts. The isotopic data suggest that source variability for Mariana axial ridge basalts can be explained by mixed arc-like and MORB-like mantle. We hypothesize that there are fragments of old oceanic lithosphere in the backarc source region. This lithospheric component may reflect remnants of subducted seafloor or forearc-volcanic arc mantle that predate rifting in the backarc basin.

  12. Structure and composition of the Southern Mariana Forearc: new observations and samples from Shinkai 6500 dive studies in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Ishizuka, O.; Stern, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    The 3000-km long Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc system is an outstanding example of an intraoceanic convergent plate margin, and has become the particular focus of Japanese and US efforts to understand the operation of the “Subduction Factory”. In 2006 and 2008, twelve DSV Shinkai 6500 dives (973-977 and 1091-1097) were performed during YK06-12 and YK08-08 Leg 2 cruises along the landward slope of the southern Mariana Trench. The goal was to sample the remaining early arc crust associated with subduction initiation in the IBM system and upper mantle exposed in the forearc in order to gain a clearer understanding of the structure and evolution of Mariana forearc crust and upper mantle. The fruitful results include the recovery of the entire suite of rocks associated with what could be termed a “supra-subduction zone ophiolite” that formed during subduction initiation. An important discovery is that MORB-like tholeiitic basalts crop out over large areas. These “fore-arc basalts” (FAB) underlie boninites and overlie diabasic and gabbroic rocks. Potential origins include eruption at a spreading center before subduction began or eruption during near-trench spreading after subduction began (Reagan et al., 2010, G3). Another important discovery is a region of active forearc rifting at the southern end of the Mariana arc, named SE Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR). The SEMFR was firstly mapped with HMR-1 sonar (Martinez et al., 2000, JGR). Two dives at SEMFR recovered less-depleted backarc related peridotites (at Dive 973; Michibayashi et al., 2009, G3), and fresh basalts and basaltic andesites with petrographic characteristics like backarc basin lavas (at Dive 1096; see Ribeiro et al., AGU FM 2010). Although our previous studies have produced a number of important new observations about the geology of the southern Mariana forearc, our understanding of the region is still primitive. We will be conducting another cruise (YK10-12) during late September, 2010 to tackle

  13. Non-steady state effects in diurnal 180 discrimination by Picea sitchensis branches in the field.

    PubMed

    Seibt, U; Wingate, L; Berry, J A; Lloyd, J

    2006-05-01

    We report diurnal variations in 18O discrimination (18 delta) during photosynthesis (18 delta A) and respiration (18 delta R) of Picea sitchensis branches measured in branch chambers in the field. These observations were compared with predicted 18 delta (18 delta pred) based on concurrent measurements of branch gas exchange to evaluate steady state and non-steady state (NSS) models of foliage water 18O enrichment for predicting the impact of this ecosystem on the Delta 18O of atmospheric CO2. The non-steady state approach substantially improved the agreement between 18 delta pred and observed 18 delta (18 delta obs) compared with the assumption of isotopic steady state (ISS) for the Delta 18O signature of foliage water. In addition, we found direct observational evidence for NSS effects: extremely high apparent 18 delta values at dusk, dawn and during nocturnal respiration. Our experiments also show the importance of bidirectional foliage gas exchange at night (isotopic equilibration in addition to the net flux). Taken together, neglecting these effects leads to an underestimation of daily net canopy isofluxes from this forest by up to 30%. We expect NSS effects to be most pronounced in species with high specific leaf water content such as conifers and when stomata are open at night or when there is high relative humidity, and we suggest modifications to ecosystem and global models of delta 18O of CO2. PMID:17087476

  14. Variations in 13C discrimination during CO2 exchange by Picea sitchensis branches in the field.

    PubMed

    Wingate, Lisa; Seibt, Ulli; Moncrieff, John B; Jarvis, Paul G; Lloyd, Jon

    2007-05-01

    We report diurnal variations in (13)C discrimination ((13)Delta) of Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. branches measured in the field using a branch chamber technique. The observations were compared to predicted (13)Delta based on concurrent measurements of branch gas exchange. Observed (13)Delta values were described well by the classical model of (13)Delta including isotope effects during photorespiration, day respiration and CO(2) transfer through a series of resistances to the sites of carboxylation. A simplified linear of model (13)Delta did not capture the observed diurnal variability. At dawn and dusk, we measured very high (13)Delta values that were not predicted by either of the said models. Exploring the sensitivity of (13)Delta to possible respiratory isotope effects, we conclude that isotopic disequilibria between the gross fluxes of photosynthesis and day respiration can explain the high observed (13)Delta values during net photosynthetic gas exchange. Based on the classical model, a revised formulation incorporating an isotopically distinct substrate for day respiration was able to account well for the high observed dawn and dusk (13)Delta values. PMID:17407538

  15. Crystal structures of Ophiostoma piceae sterol esterase: structural insights into activation mechanism and product release.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, Javier; Vaquero, María Eugenia; Prieto, Alicia; Barriuso, Jorge; Martínez, María Jesús; Hermoso, Juan A

    2014-09-01

    Sterol esterases are able to efficiently hydrolyze both sterol esters and triglycerides and to carry out synthesis reactions in the presence of organic solvents. Their high versatility makes them excellent candidates for biotechnological purposes. Sterol esterase from fungus Ophiostoma piceae (OPE) belongs to the family abH03.01 of the Candida rugosa lipase-like proteins. Crystal structures of OPE were solved in this study for the closed and open conformations. Enzyme activation involves a large displacement of the conserved lid, structural rearrangements of loop α16-α17, and formation of a dimer with a large opening. Three PEG molecules are placed in the active site, mimicking chains of the triglyceride substrate, demonstrating the position of the oxyanion hole and the three pockets that accommodate the sn-1, sn-2 and sn-3 fatty acids chains. One of them is an internal tunnel, connecting the active center with the outer surface of the enzyme 30 Å far from the catalytic Ser220. Based on our structural and biochemical results we propose a mechanism by which a great variety of different substrates can be hydrolyzed in OPE paving the way for the construction of new variants to improve the catalytic properties of these enzymes and their biotechnological applications. PMID:25108239

  16. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking. PMID:25764460

  17. Inheritance and diversity of simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite markers in various families of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Reza; Scotti, Ivan; Jansson, Gunnar; Plomion, Christophe; Mathur, Gaurav

    2003-01-01

    A large number of sequence-specific SSRs were screened by using electrophoresis on metaphore agarose gels with the bands visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Many SSRs appeared as codominant and many as dominant markers, with presence or absence of bands. A simple Mendelian inheritance pattern for most codominant and dominant SSR loci was found. For many codominant SSR markers, null alleles were detected. The proportion of dominant microsatellites detected in this study (close to 50 %) was much higher than that commonly reported in many other studies. A high proportion of dominant markers together with a high frequency of codominant markers with null alleles may represent two important limitations for the use of microsatellites in different studies. On the other hand, many polymorphic codominant SSR microsatellite markers were found to be highly repeatable, and can be used for population studies, seed certification, quality control of controlled crosses, paternity analysis, pollen contamination, and mapping of QTL in related families. In this paper, we report on the inheritance pattern and diversity of codominant and dominant SSR microsatellites in seven families of Picea abies sharing a common mother. PMID:14641487

  18. Heat induced changes in protein expression profiles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) ecotypes from different elevations.

    PubMed

    Valcu, Cristina-Maria; Lalanne, Céline; Plomion, Christophe; Schlink, Katja

    2008-10-01

    Although tree species typically exhibit low genetic differentiation between populations, ecotypes adapted to different environmental conditions can vary in their capacity to withstand and recover from environmental stresses like heat stress. Two month old seedlings of a Picea abies ecotype adapted to high elevation showed lower level of thermotolerance and higher level of tolerance to oxidative stress relative to a low elevation ecotype. Protein expression patterns following exposure to severe heat stress of the two ecotypes were compared by means of 2-DE. Several proteins exhibiting ecotype and tissue specific expression were identified by MS/MS. Among them, small heat shock proteins of the HSP 20 family and proteins involved in protection from oxidative stress displayed qualitative and quantitative differences in expression between the ecotypes correlated with the observed phenotypic differences. On the basis of these results, it can be speculated that the observed interpopulation polymorphism of protein regulation in response to heat stress could underlie their different capacities to withstand and recover from heat stress. These local adaptations are potentially relevant for the species adaptation to the conditions predicted by the current models for climate change. PMID:18814337

  19. Transmissivity of solar radiation within a Picea sitchensis stand under various sky conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, S.; Grace, J.; MacArthur, A.

    2015-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that diffuse radiation from cloudy and overcast skies penetrates the canopy more effectively than direct radiation from clear skies. We compared the flux density and spectral properties of direct and diffuse radiation (around solar noon (±1 h)) above, within and below a forest stand under sunny, cloudy and overcast conditions in a thinned Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) forest (28 years old, with a leaf area index of approximately 5.2 m2 m-2). We recorded vertical profiles of radiation penetration (from 350 to 1050 nm), and we also explored the horizontal pattern of radiation along a 115 m transect. We showed that in "clear sky" conditions, the photosynthetically active radiation in the lower parts of the canopy was substantially attenuated, more so than under cloudy and overcast skies. It was particularly depleted in the blue part of the spectrum, but only slightly blue-depleted when the sky was overcast or cloudy. Moreover, the red : far-red ratio under clear skies fell to values less than 0.3 but only to 0.6 under cloudy or overcast skies. Near the ground, the light climate was strongly influenced by the thinning pattern (carried out in accordance with standard forestry management practice).

  20. Transmissivity of solar radiation within a Picea sitchensis stand under various sky conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, S.; Grace, J.; MacArthur, A.

    2015-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that diffuse radiation from cloudy and overcast skies penetrates the canopy more effectively than direct radiation from clear skies. We compared the flux density and spectral properties of direct and diffuse radiation (around solar noon (±1 h) above, within and below a forest stand under sunny, cloudy and overcast conditions in a thinned Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) forest (28 years old, with an leaf area index of approximately 5.2). We recorded vertical profiles of radiation penetration (from 350 to 1050 nm), and we also explored the horizontal pattern of radiation along a 115 m transect. We showed that in "clear sky" conditions, the photosynthetically-active radiation in the lower parts of the canopy was substantially attenuated, more so than under cloudy and overcast skies. It was particularly depleted in the blue part of the spectrum, but only slightly blue-depleted when the sky was overcast or cloudy. Moreover, the red far-red ratio under clear skies fell to values less than 0.3 but only to 0.6 under cloudy or overcast skies. Near the ground, the light climate was strongly influenced by the thinning pattern (carried out in accordance with standard forestry management practice).

  1. Genetic architecture and genomic patterns of gene flow between hybridizing species of Picea

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, A; Ingvarsson, P K; Aitken, S N

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid zones provide an opportunity to study the effects of selection and gene flow in natural settings. We employed nuclear microsatellites (single sequence repeat (SSR)) and candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) to characterize the genetic architecture and patterns of interspecific gene flow in the Picea glauca × P. engelmannii hybrid zone across a broad latitudinal (40–60 degrees) and elevational (350–3500 m) range in western North America. Our results revealed a wide and complex hybrid zone with broad ancestry levels and low interspecific heterozygosity, shaped by asymmetric advanced-generation introgression, and low reproductive barriers between parental species. The clinal variation based on geographic variables, lack of concordance in clines among loci and the width of the hybrid zone points towards the maintenance of species integrity through environmental selection. Congruency between geographic and genomic clines suggests that loci with narrow clines are under strong selection, favoring either one parental species (directional selection) or their hybrids (overdominance) as a result of strong associations with climatic variables such as precipitation as snow and mean annual temperature. Cline movement due to past demographic events (evidenced by allelic richness and heterozygosity shifts from the average cline center) may explain the asymmetry in introgression and predominance of P. engelmannii found in this study. These results provide insights into the genetic architecture and fine-scale patterns of admixture, and identify loci that may be involved in reproductive barriers between the species. PMID:25806545

  2. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) homeostasis regulates pollen germination and polarized growth in Picea wilsonii.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yu; Chen, Tong; Jing, Yanping; Fan, Lusheng; Wan, Yinglang; Lin, Jinxing

    2013-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid found in a wide range of organisms. Recently, GABA accumulation has been shown to play a role in the stress response and cell growth in angiosperms. However, the effect of GABA deficiency on pollen tube development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that specific concentrations of exogenous GABA stimulated pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii, while an overdose suppressed pollen tube elongation. The germination percentage of pollen grains and morphological variations in pollen tubes responded in a dose-dependent manner to treatment with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP), a glutamate decarboxylase inhibitor, while the inhibitory effects could be recovered in calcium-containing medium supplemented with GABA. Using immunofluorescence labeling, we found that the actin cables were disorganized in 3-MP treated cells, followed by the transition of endo/exocytosis activating sites from the apex to the whole tube shank. In addition, variations in the deposition of cell wall components were detected upon labeling with JIM5, JIM7, and aniline blue. Our results demonstrated that calcium-dependent GABA signaling regulates pollen germination and polarized tube growth in P. wilsonii by affecting actin filament patterns, vesicle trafficking, and the configuration and distribution of cell wall components. PMID:23900837

  3. Exploring Picea glauca aquaporins in the context of needle water uptake and xylem refilling.

    PubMed

    Laur, Joan; Hacke, Uwe G

    2014-07-01

    Conifer needles have been reported to absorb water under certain conditions. Radial water movement across needle tissues is likely influenced by aquaporin (AQP) water channels. Foliar water uptake and AQP localization in Picea glauca needles were studied using physiological and microscopic methods. AQP expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Members of the AQP gene family in spruce were identified using homology search tools. Needles of drought-stressed plants absorbed water when exposed to high relative humidity (RH). AQPs were present in the endodermis-like bundle sheath, in phloem cells and in the transfusion parenchyma of needles. Up-regulation of AQPs in high RH coincided with embolism repair in stem xylem. The present study also provides the most comprehensive functional and phylogenetic analysis of spruce AQPs to date. Thirty putative complete AQP sequences were found. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that AQPs facilitate radial water movement from the needle epidermis towards the vascular tissue. Foliar water uptake may occur in late winter when needles are covered by melting snow and may provide a water source for embolism repair before the beginning of the growing season. PMID:24702644

  4. Transcriptional responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) inner sapwood against Heterobasidion parviporum.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Rommel, S; Fossdal, C G; Hietala, A M; Nemesio-Gorriz, M; Solheim, H; Elfstrand, M

    2015-09-01

    The white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen establishes a necrotrophic interaction with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) causing root and butt rot and growth losses in living trees. The interaction occurs first with the bark and the outer sapwood, as the pathogen enters the tree via wounds or root-to-root contacts. Later, when the fungus reaches the heartwood, it spreads therein creating a decay column, and the interaction mainly occurs in the inner sapwood where the tree creates a reaction zone. While bark and outer sapwood interactions are well studied, little is known about the nature of the transcriptional responses leading to the creation of a reaction zone. In this study, we sampled bark and sapwood both proximal and distal to the reaction zone in artificially inoculated and naturally infected trees. We quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in secondary metabolite, hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An up-regulation of mainly the phenylpropanoid pathway and jasmonic acid biosynthesis was found at the inoculation site, when inoculations were compared with wounding. We found that transcriptional responses in inner sapwood were similar to those reported upon infection through the bark. Our data suggest that the defence mechanism is induced due to direct fungal contact irrespective of the tissue type. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important when considering tree breeding-based resistance strategies to reduce the spread of the pathogen between and within trees. PMID:26209615

  5. Genetic architecture and genomic patterns of gene flow between hybridizing species of Picea.

    PubMed

    De La Torre, A; Ingvarsson, P K; Aitken, S N

    2015-08-01

    Hybrid zones provide an opportunity to study the effects of selection and gene flow in natural settings. We employed nuclear microsatellites (single sequence repeat (SSR)) and candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) to characterize the genetic architecture and patterns of interspecific gene flow in the Picea glauca × P. engelmannii hybrid zone across a broad latitudinal (40-60 degrees) and elevational (350-3500 m) range in western North America. Our results revealed a wide and complex hybrid zone with broad ancestry levels and low interspecific heterozygosity, shaped by asymmetric advanced-generation introgression, and low reproductive barriers between parental species. The clinal variation based on geographic variables, lack of concordance in clines among loci and the width of the hybrid zone points towards the maintenance of species integrity through environmental selection. Congruency between geographic and genomic clines suggests that loci with narrow clines are under strong selection, favoring either one parental species (directional selection) or their hybrids (overdominance) as a result of strong associations with climatic variables such as precipitation as snow and mean annual temperature. Cline movement due to past demographic events (evidenced by allelic richness and heterozygosity shifts from the average cline center) may explain the asymmetry in introgression and predominance of P. engelmannii found in this study. These results provide insights into the genetic architecture and fine-scale patterns of admixture, and identify loci that may be involved in reproductive barriers between the species. PMID:25806545

  6. [Water storage capacity of qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forest canopy in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan-hua; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Xu, Zhong-lin; Peng, Shou-zhang; Wang, Yao

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of direct measurement and regression analysis, this paper estimated the water storage capacity of Picea crassifolia forest canopy in Guantan in Qilianshan Mountains, based on the observed throughfall and the laboratory experimental data about the water storage capacity of various canopy components in 2008. Due to the impacts of various factors, differences existed in the canopy water storage capacity estimated by the two methods. The regression analysis was mainly impacted by the measurement approaches of the throughfall, the maximum water storage capacity estimated being 0.69 mm, whereas the direct measurement was mainly impacted by tree height, diameter at breast height, plant density, and leaf area index, with the estimated maximum water storage capacity being 0.77 mm. The direct measurement showed that the maximum water storage capacity per unit area of the canopy components of the forest was in the order of barks (0.31 mm) > branches (0.28 mm) > leaves (0.08 mm). PMID:22126029

  7. Antibacterial effects of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Peltola, R; Lohi, J; Jokinen, J J; Papp, A; Carlson, P; Sipponen, P

    2007-04-01

    Resin salve made from Norway spruce (Picea abies) is traditionally used in folk medicine to heal skin ulcers and infected wounds. Its antimicrobial properties were studied against certain human bacteria important in infected skin wounds. The sensitivity of the resin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was studied in vitro by methods that are routinely used in microbiology laboratories. The resin salve exhibited a bacteriostatic effect against all tested Gram-positive bacteria but only against Proteus vulgaris of the Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, the resin inhibited the growth of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), both on agar plates and in culture media. The study demonstrated antimicrobial activity of the resin salve and provided objective evidence of its antimicrobial properties. It gives some explanations why the traditional use of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce is experienced as being effective in the treatment of infected skin ulcers. PMID:17504300

  8. Kinetic modeling of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Picea abies bark.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Liliana; Talmaciu, Adina Iulia; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the kinetics of polyphenols extraction from spruce bark (Picea abies) under ultrasounds action was investigated. Studies were performed in order to express the effect of some specific parameters (as: ultrasounds, surface contact between solvent and solid, extraction time and temperature) on the total phenolic content (TPC). Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of ultrasounds, using different contact surfaces between solvent and solid, for times from 5 to 75min and temperatures of 318, 323 and 333K. All these factors have a positive influence on the process, enhancing the extraction rate by recovering higher amounts of polyphenols. The process takes place in two stages: a fast one in the first 20-30min (first stage), followed by a slow one approaching to an equilibrium concentration after 40min (second stage). In these conditions, the second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from P. abies bark. Based on this model, values of second-order extraction rate constant (k), initial extraction rate (h), saturation concentration (Cs) and activation energy (Ea) could be predicted. Model validation was done by plotting experimental and predicted values of TPC's, revealing a very good correlation between the obtained data (R(2)>0.98). PMID:27150760

  9. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants. PMID:25626739

  10. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35–40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550–700 ppm atmospheric CO2), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  11. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K-F

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO(2)-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550-700 ppm atmospheric CO(2)), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO(2) concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  12. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests. PMID:26543154

  13. Autotoxicity and allelopathy of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isolated from Picea schrenkiana needles.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An; Wang, G Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP). The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil), sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure. PMID:22024957

  14. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor. PMID:17471750

  15. Transport of airborne Picea schrenkiana pollen on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains (Xinjiang, China) and its implication for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanfang; Yan, Shun; Behling, Hermann; Mu, Guijin

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of airborne pollen transportation is crucial for the reconstruction of the paleoenvironment. Under favorable conditions, a considerable amount of long-distance-transported pollen can be deposited far from its place of origin. In extreme arid regions, in most cases, such situations occur and increase the difficulty to interpret fossil pollen records. In this study, three sets of Cour airborne pollen trap were installed on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains to collect airborne Picea schrenkiana (spruce) pollen grains from July 2001 to July 2006. The results indicate that Picea pollen disperses extensively and transports widely in the lower atmosphere far away from spruce forest. The airborne Picea pollen dispersal period is mainly concentrated between mid-May and July. In desert area, weekly Picea pollen began to increase and peaked suddenly in concentration. Also, annual pollen indices do not decline even when the distance increased was probably related to the strong wind may pick up the deposited pollen grains from the topsoil into the air stream, leading to an increase of pollen concentration in the air that is irrelevant to the normal and natural course of pollen transport and deposition. This, in turn, may lead to erroneous interpretations of the pollen data in the arid region. This study provided insight into the shift in the Picea pollen season regarding climate change in arid areas. It is recorded that the pollen pollination period starts earlier and the duration became longer. The results also showed that the temperature of May and June was positively correlated with the Picea pollen production. Furthermore, the transport of airborne Picea pollen data is useful for interpreting fossil pollen records from extreme arid regions. PMID:23576840

  16. Tracing slab inputs along the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone: results from volatile emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; Hilton, D. R.; Shaw, A. M.; Hauri, E. R.; Kazahaya, K.; Mitchell, E.; Shimizu, A.; de Moor, M.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2005-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system extends 2800 km from the island of Honshu, Japan to Guam and is a type example of an intra-oceanic convergent margin. Subduction began 45 Ma ago and IBM subducts the oldest seafloor on Earth. A number of parameters vary systematically along the strike of the arc: the slab is steeply plunging in the S and gently dipping in the N; the age of the subducted crust varies from Mid-Jurassic in the S to Mid-Cretaceous in the N. Other parameters remain constant: crustal thickness (~20 km); no accretionary prism; no sediment fill in the trench. The sediment outboard of the arc is characterized based on ODP sites 801 (Marianas) and 1149 (Izu islands). 200 m of volcaniclastics are overlain by a 100 m of pelagic clay and chert in the S. In the N, volcaniclastics are lacking and the 400 m sediment sequence is dominated by 200 m of cherts, overlain by 40 m of pelagic clay and 120 m of volcanic ash and diatom/radiolarian clay. There is also a distinct layer (3 m) of hydrothermally altered MORB in the S. Thus, the IBM system is an ideal location to study the inputs and outputs of the subduction factory and to understand the processes occurring within the factory itself. We collected hydrothermal gas samples from 4 volcanic centers in the Marianas (Alamagan, Pagan, Agrigan, Uracas) and 6 centers in the Izu arc (Aogashima, Hachijojima, Niijima, Shikinejima, Oshima, Hakone). With the exception of Uracas (140C) and a well on Hachijojima (170C), all gas discharges were at or below the boiling temperature of water. As is typical for arc-related samples, the major gases are dominated by H2O, CO2 and S species. We see the following variations in N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of non-air contaminated samples along the arc: Agrigan clearly shows a mantle wedge signature of low N2/Ar (70) and N2/He (210) and negative δ15N (- 2.0 ‰). All other centers have N2/He ratios characteristic of that resulting from the addition of N from subducted sediments (1000 to

  17. The large normal-faulting Mariana Earthquake of April 5, 1990 in uncoupled subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Satake, Kenji; Abe, Katsuyuki

    1992-02-01

    A large, Ms = 7.5, shallow earthquake occurred beneath the Mariana trench on April 5, 1990. From the relocated aftershock distribution, the fault area is estimated to be 70 × 40 km2. A tsunami observed on the Japanese islands verifies that the depth of the main shock is shallow. For waveform analysis, we use long-period surface waves and body waves recorded at global networks of GDSN, IRIS, GEOSCOPE and ERIOS. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution from surface waves indicates normal faulting on a fault whose strike is parallel to the local axis of the Mariana trench, with the tension axis perpendicular to it. The seismic moment is 1.4 × 1020 Nm (× 1027 dyn.cm) which gives Mw = 7.3. Far-field P and SH waves from 13 stations are used to determine the source time function. Since the sea around the epicentral region is about 5 km deep, body waveforms are contaminated with water reverberations. The inversion results in a source time function with a predominantly single event with a duration of 10 sec, a seismic moment of 2.1 × 1020 Nm, and a focal mechanism given by strike = 198°, dip = 48°, slip = 90°. The short duration indicates a small area of the rupture. The location of the main shock with respect to the aftershock area suggests that the nodal plane dipping to the west is preferred for the fault plane. The local stress drop of the single subevent is estimated to be 150 MPa (1.5 Kbars). The Mariana earthquake is considered to have occurred in an uncoupled region, in response to the gravitational pull caused by the downgoing Pacific plate.

  18. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, M.; Beaulieu, S.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W.; Breuer, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 through 2010 and ceased as of 2014. In late 2009, NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This presented an enormous natural disturbance to the community. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching specifically for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. We focused on samples for which profiles with a MAPR sensor indicated hydrothermal plumes in the water column. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument also can act as sources for these planktonic, recolonizing larvae. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both

  19. Results of ODP Leg 125 drilling in the Mariana/Izu-Bonin forearcs

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, P. ); Pearce, J.A. ); Stokking, L. )

    1990-06-01

    ODP Leg 125 drilled a total of nine sites in the Mariana and Izu-Bonin forearcs, the regions between the active volcanic arc and the trench axis. Six sites were located on or adjacent to serpentine seamounts, four of these (Sites 778-781) on Conical Seamount in the Mariana forearc, and two others (783 and 784) on the Torishima Forearc Seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc. The remaining sites (Sites 782, 785, and 786) were drilled into volcanic sequences along the eastern edge of the Izu-Bonin forearc basin. The principal results of the drilling were to achieve (1) the recovery of the first evidence for Pliocene or younger magmatic activity in an extant intraoceanic forearc terrain; (2) the first deep penetration of the Eocene basement of the Izu-Bonin outer-arc high to recover 650 m of boninite flows and hyaloclastite, andesite-dacite flows, breccias, sills, and dikes; (3) the confirmation that some forearc serpentine seamounts can form by flows of clast-bearing serpentine mud from a central conduit, as do mud volcanoes; (4) the discovery of mafic clasts within the serpentine mud flows that have both IAT and MORB affinities, that are metamorphosed in the low to moderate temperature/pressure regimes; (5) the confirmation of high-pH, low-chlorinity fluids at shallow levels near the summit of the seamount which probably originated beneath the forearc and are subduction-related; (6) the recovery of complex hydrocarbon-rich gases also of probable subduction related origin within the Mariana serpentine seamount; and (7) the identification of numerous ash layers within the Izu-Bonin forearc basin that indicate peaks of volcanic activity in the Eocene-Oligocene and from the late Miocene to the Holocene.

  20. Diets of the sympatric pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartscht) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, E.W.; Wiles, G.J.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  1. Migrating shoshonitic magmatism tracks Izu-Bonin-Mariana intra-oceanic arc rift propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Yuasa, M.; Tamura, Y.; Shukuno, H.; Stern, R. J.; Naka, J.; Joshima, M.; Taylor, R. N.

    2010-05-01

    The southernmost Izu-Bonin arc and northernmost Mariana arc are characterized by K-rich and shoshonitic lavas, referred to as the alkalic volcano province (AVP). These compositions are unusual for intra-oceanic arcs and the interpretation of the AVP is controversial. Rifting to form the Mariana Trough back-arc basin occurs just south of the AVP although back-arc seafloor spreading has not begun. Here we report the results of dredge sampling of the West Mariana Ridge (WMR) in the region of rift propagation; this recovered exclusively medium K to shoshonitic basalts that show clear arc-like geochemical signatures. Ar-Ar ages of WMR shoshonitics systematically young northward. Age of c. 6 Ma was obtained at 21.5°N, c. 3 Ma at 23-23.5°N, and zero-age shoshonites occur on Io-to Island (formerly Iwo Jima) at 24.8°N. Shoshonitic magmatism migrated northward at 4.3 cm/year, in advance of northward-propagating Mariana Trough rifting. This implies that AVP shoshonitic magmatism manifests processes and sources that are uniquely associated with earliest back-arc basin rifting. High-precision Pb isotopic analyses reveal that WMR lavas form a single trend between 2 components, one with lower 206Pb/ 204Pb and high Δ7/4 (arc-like), and another with high 206Pb/ 204Pb as well as low Δ 7/4 and 8/4 (HIMU-like). These components could correspond respectively to subducted pelagic sediment and subducted seamounts and volcaniclastics with HIMU isotopic signature. These slab-derived components alone, however, cannot fully explain chemical characteristics of WMR shoshonitic lavas. These lavas require a component with high Δ7/4 and high Ce/Pb, which is not likely to be either pelagic sediment or seamount volcanics. This component is only expressed when rifting begins, suggesting that it resides in enriched lithosphere or uppermost asthenosphere, which is easily melted due to decompression caused by rifting, when the lithosphere is first ruptured. This component might be linked to slow

  2. Thallium as a tracer of fluid-rock interaction in the shallow Mariana forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Klein, Frieder; Kading, Tristan; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wickham, Katie

    2015-11-01

    Fluids driven off the subducting Pacific plate infiltrate the shallow Mariana forearc and lead to extensive serpentinization of mantle peridotite. However, the sources, pathways, and chemical modifications of ascending, slab-derived fluids remain poorly constrained and controversial. In this study, we use thallium (Tl) concentrations and isotopic ratios of serpentinized peridotite and rodingitized diabase from the South Chamorro and Conical Seamounts to discriminate between potential fluid sources with distinct Tl isotope compositions. Serpentinite samples from the Mariana forearc all display ε205 Tl > - 0.5 (where ε205 Tl = 10 , 000 × (205Tl /Tl203sample -205Tl /SRM 997 203Tl) / (205Tl / - 0.5 and, therefore, we interpret the heavy Tl isotope signatures as signifying that the serpentinizing fluids were derived from subducting pelagic sediments. A rodingitized diabase from Conical Seamount was found to have an ε205 Tl of 0.8, suggesting that sediment-sourced serpentinization fluids could also affect diabase and other mafic lithologies in the shallow Mariana forearc. Forearc rodingitization of diabase led to a strong depletion in Tl content and a virtually complete loss of K, Na and Rb. The chemical composition of hybrid fluids resulting from serpentinization of harzburgite with concomitant rodingitization of diabase can be highly alkaline, depleted in Si, yet enriched in Ca, Na, K, and Rb, which is consistent with the composition of fluids emanating from mud volcanoes in the Mariana forearc. Our study suggests that fluid-rock interactions between sedimentary, mafic, and

  3. Larval abundance and dispersal at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Watanabe, H.; Mills, S. W.; Pradillon, F.; Kojima, S.; Mullineaux, L. S.

    2010-12-01

    Since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents over thirty years ago, scientists have been perplexed by the question: “How are the faunal populations established and maintained at these very discrete and often ephemeral habitats?” For the animals that are sessile or have limited mobility as adults, dispersal to these habitats occurs early in the life cycle, as planktonic larvae in the water column. Due to the difficulties in sampling deep-sea larvae, including low abundances (dilute concentrations), we have very few quantitative estimates of larval dispersal between or larval supply to hydrothermal vents. Here, we will present results of an international, collaborative effort to study larval abundance and dispersal at vents near the back-arc spreading center in the southern Mariana Trough. On R/V Yokosuka cruise YK10-11 in September 2010, we will deploy large-volume plankton pumps at approximately 3000-m depth at Snail (also called South Backarc), Archaean, and Pika, three of the Vents (Volcanic) Unit sites in the U.S. Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. These vents are being studied as part of the Japanese multi-disciplinary program TAIGA (Trans-crustal Advection and In-situ biogeochemical proceses of Global sub-sea floor Aquifer). These will be the first collections of vent larvae in the Mariana back-arc, and we will compare the abundances and diversity of larvae to similar work conducted at the Ridge 2000 East Pacific Rise Integrated Studies Site. We will deploy a current meter near the Snail site (on-axis) for preliminary estimates of passive larval transport on the time scale of the cruise. The three study sites are situated in a line perpendicular to the back-arc spreading axis, and thus may be interesting in terms of local dispersal processes. Perhaps more interesting, however, is that the back-arc vents that we will visit are as close as 25 km to known vents on the arc, yet 600 km south of the other known vents in the back-arc. These two

  4. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  5. Flexural bending of the oceanic plates near the Mariana, Japan, and Philippines trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, M.; Lin, J.; Zhang, F.

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a detailed analysis of flexural bending of oceanic plates near the Mariana, Japan, and Philippines trenches to better understand the similarities and differences among these major subduction systems in the western Pacific Ocean. For each of the systems, we first obtained a 3-D deformation surface of the subducting plate by removing from the seafloor bathymetry the estimated topographic effects of sediment thickness, seamounts, and age-related thermal subsidence. We then calculated theoretical models of plate deformation along a series of trench-perpendicular profiles and inverted for the vertical force (Vo) and bending moment (Mo) at the trench axis, as well as variations in the elastic plate thickness (Te) that can best explain the observed plate deformation. From analysis of profiles across all trenches, we found that Te is reduced significantly from a value seaward of the outer rise (TeMax) to a value near the trench (TeMin), with the transition at distance Xr from the trench axis. Results of analysis reveal that the Mariana trench has the greatest amplitude of flexural bending (i.e., the greatest trench depth) in the range of 1.39 - 5.67 km and an average of 2.91 km, comparing to the Japan trench (range of 1.0 - 4.08 km, average of 2.59 km) and the Philippines trench (range of 0.48 - 4.04 km, average of 2.41 km). In contrast, the Philippines trench has the relatively narrow trench width (Xr range of 36 - 107 km, average of 68 km), in comparison to the Japan trench (Xr range of 47 - 122 km, average of 83 km) and the Mariana trench (Xr range of 60 - 125 km, average of 92 km). The best-fitting models reveal that for the Mariana trench, the effective elastic thickness is reduced significantly from a value seaward of the outer rise (TeMax = 45 - 55 km) to a value trench-ward of the outer rise region (TeMin = 19 - 40 km), with a corresponding reduction in Te in the range of 20 - 60%. In comparison, for the Japan trench, TeMax = 35 - 55 km, TeMin = 14

  6. Diffuse Crustal Accretion at the Southern Terminus of the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge, Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeper, J. D.; Martinez, F.; Fryer, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    The mode of extension and crustal accretion in backarc basins is strongly affected by proximity to the arc volcanic front. The factor that likely has the strongest control on these processes is mantle water content. At Mid-Ocean Ridges, the small amount of water in the mantle is efficiently extracted into the melt, dehydrating the residual material and increasing the viscosity and strength of the lithosphere. This may aid in focusing melt generated over a broad (~200+ km wide) zone in the mantle toward a narrow zone of crustal accretion ~1-2 km wide. In the near-arc setting, the continuous flux of water into the mantle wedge should oppose lithospheric dehydration and inhibit strengthening of the lithosphere, which may allow deformation, volcanism, and crustal accretion to occur over a broad area instead of along a narrow axis. A possible example of this process can be observed at the southern terminus of the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge, a backarc spreading center in the Southern Mariana Trough, at the southern end of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin. The spreading axis, which forms an axial high in this area, abruptly terminates at 143˚20'E, 12˚37'N and is replaced by a broad zone of active volcanism and tectonism characterized by short volcanic ridges, volcanic cones, and low-relief grabens. This study uses deep-towed and ship multibeam sonar, gravity, and magnetics data collected during an early 2012 cruise on R/V Thomas G. Thompson (TN273) along with available geophysical and geochemical data in the Southern Mariana Trough to gain insight into the nature of the diffuse crustal accretion process. Evidence of a similar transition from organized to "disorganized" spreading can also be observed at Valu Fa Ridge in the southern Lau basin and other backarc spreading centers. This suggests that this process is not unique to the Southern Mariana Trough, and may be an important mode of crustal accretion in a variety of backarc settings where there is extension in

  7. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marske, J.P.; Pietruszka, A.J.; Trusdell, F.A.; Garcia, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4ka) and post-caldera (<9.4ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and

  8. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: the role of subduction zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marske, Jared P.; Pietruszka, Aaron J.; Trusdell, Frank A.; Garcia, Michael O.

    2011-08-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4 ka) and post-caldera (<9.4 ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and

  9. Reproductive potential of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white spruce (Picea glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana) at the ecotone between mixedwood and coniferous forests in the boreal zone of western Quebec.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Yassine; Bergeron, Yves; Asselin, Hugo

    2007-05-01

    The reproductive potentials of balsam fir and white spruce (co-dominants in mixedwood forests) and black spruce (dominant in coniferous forests) were studied to explain the location of the ecotone between the two forest types in the boreal zone of Quebec. Four sites were selected along a latitudinal gradient crossing the ecotone. Cone crop, number of seeds per cone, percentage filled seeds, and percentage germination were measured for each species. Balsam fir and white spruce cone crops were significantly lower in the coniferous than in the mixedwood forest, while black spruce had greater crop constancy and regularity between both forest types. Mast years were more frequent for black spruce than for balsam fir in both forest types (mast year data not available for white spruce). The number of seeds per cone was more related to cone size than to forest type for all species. Black spruce produced more filled seeds in the coniferous forest than balsam fir or white spruce. The sum of growing degree-days and the maximum temperature of the warmest month (both for the year prior to cone production) significantly affected balsam fir cone production. The climate-related northward decrease in reproductive potential of balsam fir and white spruce could partly explain the position of the northern limit of the mixedwood forest. This could change drastically, however, as the ongoing climate warming might cancel this competitive advantage of black spruce. PMID:21636443

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Diverged Patterns of Codon Bias, Gene Expression, and Rates of Sequence Evolution in Picea Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, Amanda R.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; Ingvarsson, Pär K.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (>50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein length, and gene duplication. We found that gene expression is correlated with rates of sequence divergence and codon bias, suggesting that natural selection is acting on Picea protein-coding genes for translational efficiency. Gene expression, rates of sequence divergence, and codon bias are correlated with the size of gene families, with large multicopy gene families having, on average, a lower expression level and breadth, lower codon bias, and higher rates of sequence divergence than single-copy gene families. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were more common in large gene families with large gene expression divergence than in single-copy families. Recent family expansions combined with large gene expression variation in paralogs and increased rates of sequence evolution suggest that some Picea gene families are rapidly evolving to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Our study highlights the importance of gene expression and natural selection in shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes in Picea species, and sets the ground for further studies investigating the evolution of individual gene families in gymnosperms. PMID:25747252

  11. 42 CFR 431.56 - Special waiver provisions applicable to American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special waiver provisions applicable to American... applicable to American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands. (a) Statutory basis. Section 1902(j) of the Act provides for waiver of all but three of the title XIX requirements, in the case of American...

  12. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the...

  13. Determining the Leisure Needs of People Having Disabilities: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Needs Assessment Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peniston, Lorraine C.

    This needs assessment survey attempted to determine if community recreation programs, including school-based and college-based programs, are meeting the needs of citizens with disabilities living on the Northern Mariana Islands. The survey polled 35 people with disabilities about the effectiveness of community recreation programs and services and…

  14. 26 CFR 1.935-1 - Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. 1.935-1 Section 1.935-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.935-1 Coordination...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  20. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Islands Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1565, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577, January 12, 2009). The proclamations...: Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument'' (74...

  1. A Study of Risk Factors among High School Students in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakami, Alice J.; And Others

    The status of students at risk of failure in public high schools in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) was studied during the 1993-94 school year as part of a larger study of at-risk students in some of the American-affiliated Pacific political entities. In the CNMI, data were collected from 57 student records, and interviews…

  2. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  3. A homeobox gene with potential developmental control function in the meristem of the conifer Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Sundås-Larsson, A.; Svenson, M.; Liao, H.; Engström, P.

    1998-01-01

    Many homeobox genes control essential developmental processes in animals and plants. In this report, we describe the first cDNA corresponding to a homeobox gene isolated from a gymnosperm, the HBK1 gene from the conifer Picea abies (L.) Karst (Norway spruce). The sequence shows distinct similarities specifically to the KNOX (knotted-like homeobox) class of homeobox genes known from different angiosperm plants. The deduced amino acid sequence of HBK1 is strikingly similar within the homeodomain (84% identical) to the maize gene Knotted1 (Kn1), which acts to regulate cell differentiation in the shoot meristem. This similarity suggested that the phylogenetic association of HBK1 with the KNOX genes might be coupled to a conservation of gene function. In support of this suggestion, we have found HBK1 to be expressed in the apical meristem in the central population of nondifferentiated stem cells, but not in organ primordia developing at the flanks of the meristem. This pattern of expression is similar to that of Kn1 in the maize meristem. We show further that HBK1, when expressed ectopically in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, causes aberrations in leaf development that are similar to the effects of ectopic expression of angiosperm KNOX genes on Arabidopsis development. Taken together, these data suggest that HBK1 has a role, similar to the KNOX genes in angiosperms, in the control of cellular differentiation in the apical meristem of spruce. The data also indicate that KNOX-gene regulation of vegetative development is an ancient feature of seed plants that was present in the last common ancestor of conifers and angiosperms. PMID:9844025

  4. Embolism Formation during Freezing in the Wood of Picea abies1

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B.

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of −2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding. PMID:17041033

  5. [Spatial heterogeneity of community structure of Picea crassifolia forest in Qilian Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-jun; Liu, Xian-de; Jing, Wen-mao; Xu, Li-heng; Niu, Yun; Qi, Peng; Zhao, Yong-hong

    2015-09-01

    We selected the grid of 5 m x 5 m in a dynamic monitoring plot (340 m x 300 m) as the sampling unites and chose 5 structural characteristics (density, average crown breadth, coverage, conspicuousness and average height) to study the spatial heterogeneity of community structure of Picea crassifolia forest in Dayekou Basin of Qilian Mountains by the fractal geometry and geostatistics methods. The results showed that the order of spatial variation in these characteristics was: density > average crown breadth > conspicuousness > coverage > average height, with the variation coefficient ranging from 43.7% to 79.6%. Moran's I index indicated that the structural variables had different degrees of spatial autocorrelation, and the order of autocorrelation was density > average height> coverage > average crown breadth > conspicuousness, with the range of -0.047-0.382. The exponential semivariation model well fitted the spatial variability in different structural features, and the range was 24.6-68.1 m. The variables displayed moderate spatial autocorrelation except for coverage, while the other variables had strong spatial autocorrelation, and the fractal dimension of the variables was close to 2, indicating a low spatial dependence among variables. The variables presented a superposing characteristic of zonal and patchy structures except for density and coverage, while the other variables presented strong patchiness property. Density and coverage had a certain spatial dependence on average crown breadth, conspicuousness and average height. Density and coverage for the spatial heterogeneity of community structural of P. crassifolia forests were 10 m and 0.5 hm2, respectively. PMID:26785538

  6. The Post-Glacial Species Velocity of Picea glauca following the Last Glacial Maximum in Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, B. D.; Napier, J.; Kelly, R.; Li, B.; Heath, K.; Hug, B.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is leading to dramatic fluctuations to Earth's biodiversity that has not been observed since past interglacial periods. There is rising concern that Earth's warming climate will have significant impacts to current species ranges and the ability of a species to persist in a rapidly changing environment. The paleorecord provides information on past species distributions in relation to climate change, which can illuminate the patterns of potential future distributions of species. Particularly in areas where there are multiple potential limiting factors on a species' range, e.g. temperature, radiation, and evaporative demand, the spatial patterns of species migrations may be particularly complex. In this study, we assessed the change in the distributions of white spruce (Picea glauca) from the Last Glacial Maxima (LGM) to present-day for the entire state of Alaska. To accomplish this, we created species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated from modern vegetation data and high-resolution, downscaled climate surfaces at 60m. These SDMs were applied to downscaled modern and paleoclimate surfaces to produce estimated ranges of white spruce during the LGM and today. From this, we assessed the "species velocity", the rate at which white spruce would need to migrate to keep pace with climate change, with the goal of determining whether the expansion from the LGM to today originated from microclimate refugia. Higher species velocities indicate locations where climate changed drastically and white spruce would have needed to migrate rapidly to persist and avoid local extinction. Conversely, lower species velocities indicated locations where the local climate was changing less rapidly or was within the center of the range of white spruce, and indicated locations where white spruce distributions were unlikely to have changed significantly. Our results indicate the importance of topographic complexity in buffering the effects of climate change

  7. Population genetic evidence for speciation pattern and gene flow between Picea wilsonii, P. morrisonicola and P. neoveitchii

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jiabin; Sun, Yongshuai; Li, Long; Wang, Gaini; Yue, Wei; Lu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Qian; Liu, Jianquan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic drift due to geographical isolation, gene flow and mutation rates together make it difficult to determine the evolutionary relationships of present-day species. In this study, population genetic data were used to model and decipher interspecific relationships, speciation patterns and gene flow between three species of spruce with similar morphology, Picea wilsonii, P. neoveitchii and P. morrisonicola. Picea wilsonii and P. neoveitchii occur from central to north-west China, where they have overlapping distributions. Picea morrisonicola, however, is restricted solely to the island of Taiwan and is isolated from the other two species by a long distance. Methods Sequence variations were examined in 18 DNA fragments for 22 populations, including three fragments from the chloroplast (cp) genome, two from the mitochondrial (mt) genome and 13 from the nuclear genome. Key Results In both the cpDNA and the mtDNA, P. morrisonicola accumulated more species-specific mutations than the other two species. However, most nuclear haplotypes of P. morrisonicola were shared by P. wilsonii, or derived from the dominant haplotypes found in that species. Modelling of population genetic data supported the hypothesis that P. morrisonicola derived from P. wilsonii within the more recent past, most probably indicating progenitor–derivative speciation with a distinct bottleneck, although further gene flow from the progenitor to the derivative continued. In addition, the occurrence was detected of an obvious mtDNA introgression from P. neoveitchii to P. wilsonii despite their early divergence. Conclusions The extent of mutation, introgression and lineage sorting taking place during interspecific divergence and demographic changes in the three species had varied greatly between the three genomes. The findings highlight the complex evolutionary histories of these three Asian spruce species. PMID:24220103

  8. Numerical Modeling of Sound from the Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Dziak, R. P.; Byun, S.; Fox, C. G.; Matsumoto, H.

    2003-12-01

    NOAA VENTS Program deployed an array of five autonomous underwater hydrophones within the SOFAR channel along the Mariana chain in February 2003 to monitor seafloor volcanic eruptions and submarine earthquakes (sponsored by NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program). These five hydrophones will be recovered in September 2003 using KORDI R/V Onnuri. The first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano in the Mariana Islands began on 10 May 2003. It is expected that the hydrophone data will include the hydroacoustic records of the eruption of Anatahan Volcano. The signals recorded from the eruption will be numerically modeled using a T-wave excitation mechanism developed from the mode scattering theory of Park et al. (2001). They found that scattering from the rough seabottom converts the acoustic energy of seafloor earthquakes from the directly excited ocean crustal/water column modes to the propagating acoustic modes of T-waves, and developed an algorithm to numerically model oceanic earthquake's T-waves. We modified this numerical model of Park et al. (2001) to predict the T-waves generated from volcanic sources by adopting a buried magmatic pipe model (Chouet, 1985). We derived a moment-tensor representation of a volcano-seismic source that is governed by the geometry of the source and the physical properties of magma. Numerical modeling of the sound from the eruption requires us to determine governing factors such as the pipe radius and magma viscosity that will enable us to grasp the inward nature of Anatahan volcano.

  9. A record of spontaneous subduction initiation in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arculus, Richard J.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Bogus, Kara A.; Gurnis, Michael; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Aljahdali, Mohammed H.; Bandini-Maeder, Alexandre N.; Barth, Andrew P.; Brandl, Philipp A.; Drab, Laureen; Do Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; Hamada, Morihisa; Jiang, Fuqing; Kanayama, Kyoko; Kender, Sev; Kusano, Yuki; Li, He; Loudin, Lorne C.; Maffione, Marco; Marsaglia, Kathleen M.; McCarthy, Anders; Meffre, Sebastién; Morris, Antony; Neuhaus, Martin; Savov, Ivan P.; Sena, Clara; Tepley, Frank J., III; van der Land, Cees; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2015-09-01

    The initiation of tectonic plate subduction into the mantle is poorly understood. If subduction is induced by the push of a distant mid-ocean ridge or subducted slab pull, we expect compression and uplift of the overriding plate. In contrast, spontaneous subduction initiation, driven by subsidence of dense lithosphere along faults adjacent to buoyant lithosphere, would result in extension and magmatism. The rock record of subduction initiation is typically obscured by younger deposits, so evaluating these possibilities has proved elusive. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of igneous basement rocks and overlying sediments, sampled from the Amami Sankaku Basin in the northwest Philippine Sea. The uppermost basement rocks are areally widespread and supplied via dykes. They are similar in composition and age--as constrained by the biostratigraphy of the overlying sediments--to the 52-48-million-year-old basalts in the adjacent Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore-arc. The geochemical characteristics of the basement lavas indicate that a component of subducted lithosphere was involved in their genesis, and the lavas were derived from mantle source rocks that were more melt-depleted than those tapped at mid-ocean ridges. We propose that the basement lavas formed during the inception of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction in a mode consistent with the spontaneous initiation of subduction.

  10. Community Structure Comparisons of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Mats Along the Mariana Arc and Back-arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, K. W.; Fullerton, H.; Moyer, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents along the Mariana Arc and back-arc represent a hotspot of microbial diversity that has not yet been fully recognized. The Mariana Arc and back-arc contain hydrothermal vents with varied vent effluent chemistry and temperature, which translates to diverse community composition. We have focused on iron-rich sites where the dominant primary producers are iron oxidizing bacteria. Because microbes from these environments have proven elusive in culturing efforts, we performed culture independent analysis among different microbial communities found at these hydrothermal vents. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina sequencing of small subunit ribosomal gene amplicons were used to characterize community members and identify samples for shotgun metagenomics. Used in combination, these methods will better elucidate the composition and characteristics of the bacterial communities at these hydrothermal vent systems. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and compare taxonomic and metabolic diversity among different communities of microbial mats. We compared communities collected on a fine scale to analyze the bacterial community based on gross mat morphology, geography, and nearby vent effluent chemistry. Taxa richness and evenness are compared with rarefaction curves to visualize diversity. As well as providing a survey of diversity this study also presents a juxtaposition of three methods in which ribosomal small subunit diversity is compared with T-RFLP, next generation amplicon sequencing, and metagenomic shotgun sequencing.

  11. The Origins and Genetic Distinctiveness of the Chamorros of the Marianas Islands: An mtDNA Perspective

    PubMed Central

    VILAR, MIGUEL G.; CHAN, CHIM W; SANTOS, DANA R; LYNCH, DANIEL; SPATHIS, RITA; GARRUTO, RALPH M; LUM, J KOJI

    2013-01-01

    Background Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests the Marianas Islands were settled around 3,600 years before present (ybp) from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Around 1,000 ybp latte stone pillars and the first evidence of rice cultivation appear in the Marianas. Both traditions are absent in the rest of prehistoric Oceania. Objective To examine the genetic origins and postsettlement gene flow of Chamorros of the Marianas Islands. Methods To infer the origins of the Chamorros we analyzed ~360 base pairs of the hypervariable-region 1 (HVS1) of mitochondrial DNA from 105 Chamorros from Guam, Rota, and Saipan, and the complete mitochondrial genome of 32 Guamanian Chamorros, and compared them to lineages from ISEA and neighboring Pacific archipelagoes from the database. Results Results reveal that 92% of Chamorros belong to haplogroup E, also found in ISEA but rare in Oceania. The two most numerous E lineages were identical to lineages currently found in Indonesia, while the remaining E lineages differed by only one or two mutations and all were unique to the Marianas. Seven percent of the lineages belonged to a single Chamorro-specific lineage within haplogroup B4, common to ISEA as well as Micronesia and Polynesia. Conclusions These patterns suggest a small founding population had reached and settled the Marianas from ISEA by 4,000 ybp, and developed unique mutations in isolation. A second migration from ISEA may have arrived around 1,000 ybp, introducing the latte pillars, rice agriculture and the homogeneous minority B4 lineage. PMID:23180676

  12. Temporal Evolution of the Mariana Arc: Mantle Wedge and Subducted Slab Controls Revealed with a Tephra Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, S. M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Arculus, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Tephra recovered by deep-sea drilling from forearc to backarc across the Mariana volcanic arc system record the last 34 million years of the Arc's evolution. Major and trace element abundances and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope ratios have been determined for tephra with high temporal precision and an average resolution of ˜1 million years. Temporal variations of source-sensitive radiogenic isotopes and large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) are decoupled from the steady trends of silica and other archetypical crust-forming major elements. Modeling confirms the temporal isotopic and elemental abundance trends are controlled by subducted slab and mantle sources. Pb and Sr fluxes can be linked to fluids from altered oceanic crust (AOC), Nd is influenced by contributions from the mantle wedge and partial slab melts, while Hf mostly derives from the subarc mantle. Most plausibly, the K2O increase and fluctuations thereafter can be linked to a collision of the Mariana Arc with the leading trace of the Cretaceous-aged Western Pacific Seamount Province. The Province is inferred to have arrived at the Mariana Trench at ˜15-16 Ma coincident with the termination of spreading in the Parece Vela Backarc Basin. A short period of slab melting followed, possibly induced by slab rollback that peaked at ˜8-9 Ma and ended with the incipient rifting in the Mariana Trough at ˜7 Ma. Individual periods of Arc formation (52-24, 22-11, and 10-0 Ma) are characterized by a distinctive melee of source materials which is not repeated through time. Mariana Arc crustal growth has occurred through the addition of predominantly mafic and silicic melts formed during relatively short time intervals traceable via the chemically-distinctive subducted slab inputs.

  13. Subducted Fluid and Sediment Compositions Preserved in Mariana Arc Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.; Newman, S.; Plank, T.; Parman, S.; Grove, T. L.

    2002-12-01

    Melt inclusions (MIs) in arc lavas provide a direct means of measuring the content of volatile species (H2O, CO2, etc.) which are critical to the operation of the subduction factory. Besides preserving pre-eruptive, undegassed magma, MIs may also capture liquids prior to mixing in large magma chambers and thus may retain a broad range of slab-derived characteristics. This study focuses on MI populations from five basaltic scoria samples from Guguan, Pagan and Agrigan islands of the Mariana arc. The MIs studied are olivine-hosted (Fo 68-82), 50-300 æm, clear brown glass with no visible evidence of devitrification. We have analyzed these MIs for H2O and CO2 by FTIR, major elements by EMP and trace elements by laser ablation ICP-MS. The MI's range in water content from 1-4 wt.%, but MI's with detectable CO2 indicate a tighter range of H2O concentrations in undegassed inclusions from 2.5-4 wt.% and averaging 3 wt.% H2O. The MIs are broadly similar in both major and trace elements to lavas from the same islands, but these new data extend the range of trace element compositions observed in Mariana arc lavas. We have analyzed MIs from Agrigan with trace element systematics nearly identical in Ba/La and La/Sm to that of bulk subducting sediment in the Marianas, and from Guguan with a composition very close to the inferred slab-derived fluid composition. One Guguan inclusion is of particular interest. It has 3.5 wt.% H2O with an NMORB REE pattern (La/Sm=0.76), high Ba/La (70) and very high U/Th (1.1). It also has high Pb/U (25) demonstrating a preference for Pb over U in slab-derived fluids. The composition of this inclusion also plots near the y-intercept (zero sediment flux) on global arc-sediment flux correlation diagrams, confirming that it represents close to an average global sediment-free slab fluid composition. Compositions this extreme have never been measured in Mariana arc lavas before. On the other hand, this fluid-rich arc melt has a very different composition

  14. Cavitation in dehydrating xylem of Picea abies: energy properties of ultrasonic emissions reflect tracheid dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic emission (UE) testing is used to analyse the vulnerability of xylem to embolism, but the number of UEs often does not sufficiently reflect effects on hydraulic conductivity. We monitored the absolute energy of UE signals in dehydrating xylem samples hypothesizing that (i) conduit diameter is correlated with UE energy and (ii) monitoring of UE energy may enhance the utility of this technique for analysis of xylem vulnerability. Split xylem samples were prepared from trunk wood of Picea abies, and four categories of samples, derived from mature (I: earlywood, II: 30–50% latewood, III: >50% latewood) or juvenile wood (IV: earlywood) were used. Ultrasonic emissions during dehydration were registered and anatomical parameters (tracheid lumen area, number per area) were analysed from cross-sections. Attenuation of UE energy was measured on a dehydrating wood beam by repeated lead breaks. Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism was analysed on dehydrating branches by hydraulic, UE number or UE energy measurements. In split samples, the cumulative number of UEs increased linearly with the number of tracheids per cross-section, and UE energy was positively correlated with the mean lumen area. Ultrasonic emission energies of earlywood samples (I and IV), which showed normally distributed tracheid lumen areas, increased during dehydration, whereas samples with latewood (II and III) exhibited a right-skewed distribution of lumina and UE energies. Ultrasonic emission energy was hardly influenced by moisture content until ~40% moisture loss, and decreased exponentially thereafter. Dehydrating branches showed a 50% loss of conductivity at −3.6 MPa in hydraulic measurements and at −3.9 and −3.5 MPa in UE analysis based on cumulative number or energy of signals, respectively. Ultrasonic emission energy emitted by cavitating conduits is determined by the xylem water potential and by the size of element. Energy patterns during dehydration are thus influenced by

  15. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    PubMed Central

    Petrek, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Bartusek, Karel; Anjum, Naser A.; Pereira, Eduarda; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis in conifer species has great potential for the forestry industry. Hence, a number of methods have been developed for their efficient and rapid propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Although information is available regarding the previous process-mediated generation of embryogenic cells to form somatic embryos, there is a dearth of information in the literature on the detailed structure of these clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings The main aim of this study was to provide a more detailed structure of the embryogenic tissue clusters obtained through the in vitro propagation of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). We primarily focused on the growth of early somatic embryos (ESEs). The data on ESE growth suggested that there may be clear distinctions between their inner and outer regions. Therefore, we selected ESEs collected on the 56th day after sub-cultivation to dissect the homogeneity of the ESE clusters. Two colourimetric assays (acetocarmine and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining) and one metabolic assay based on the use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride uncovered large differences in the metabolic activity inside the cluster. Next, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The ESE cluster seemed to be compactly aggregated during the first four weeks of cultivation; thereafter, the difference between the 1H nuclei concentration in the inner and outer clusters was more evident. There were clear differences in the visual appearance of embryos from the outer and inner regions. Finally, a cluster was divided into six parts (three each from the inner and the outer regions of the embryo) to determine their growth and viability. The innermost embryos (centripetally towards the cluster centre) could grow after sub-cultivation but exhibited the slowest rate and required the longest time to reach the common growth rate. To confirm our hypothesis on the organisation of the ESE cluster, we

  16. A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Björn; Krger, Krüger; Kahl, Tiemo; Arnstadt, Tobias; Buscot, François; Bauhus, Jürgen; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Deadwood is an important biodiversity hotspot in forest ecosystems. While saproxylic insects and wood-inhabiting fungi have been studied extensively, little is known about deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. The study we present is among the first to compare bacterial diversity and community structure of deadwood under field conditions. We therefore compared deadwood logs of two temperate forest tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure at different stages of decay in forest plots under different management regimes. Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant taxonomic groups in both tree species. There were no differences in bacterial OTU richness between deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Bacteria from the order Rhizobiales became more abundant during the intermediate and advanced stages of decay, accounting for up to 25% of the entire bacterial community in such logs. The most dominant OTU was taxonomically assigned to the genus Methylovirgula, which was recently described in a woodblock experiment of Fagus sylvatica. Besides tree species we were able to demonstrate that deadwood physico-chemical properties, in particular remaining mass, relative wood moisture, pH, and C/N ratio serve as drivers of community composition of deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. PMID:25851097

  17. A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Björn; Krger, Krüger; Kahl, Tiemo; Arnstadt, Tobias; Buscot, François; Bauhus, Jürgen; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Deadwood is an important biodiversity hotspot in forest ecosystems. While saproxylic insects and wood-inhabiting fungi have been studied extensively, little is known about deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. The study we present is among the first to compare bacterial diversity and community structure of deadwood under field conditions. We therefore compared deadwood logs of two temperate forest tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure at different stages of decay in forest plots under different management regimes. Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant taxonomic groups in both tree species. There were no differences in bacterial OTU richness between deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Bacteria from the order Rhizobiales became more abundant during the intermediate and advanced stages of decay, accounting for up to 25% of the entire bacterial community in such logs. The most dominant OTU was taxonomically assigned to the genus Methylovirgula, which was recently described in a woodblock experiment of Fagus sylvatica. Besides tree species we were able to demonstrate that deadwood physico-chemical properties, in particular remaining mass, relative wood moisture, pH, and C/N ratio serve as drivers of community composition of deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. PMID:25851097

  18. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  19. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  20. First results from TN273 studies of the SE Mariana Forearc rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Shaw, A. M.; Shimizu, N.; Martinez, F.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Manton, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    TN 273 aboard R/V Thomas Thompson (Dec. 22 2011- Jan. 22 2012) studied an unusual region of rifting affecting the southern Mariana forearc S.W. of Guam. The S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) formed by diffuse tectonic and volcanic deformation (Martinez and Sleeper, this meeting) ~2.7-3.7 Ma ago to accommodate opening of the southernmost Mariana Trough backarc basin. A total of 730 km linear-track of SEMFR seafloor was surveyed with deep-towed side-scan sonar IMI-30. 14 dredges provided samples of SEMFR igneous rocks, analyzed for whole rock (WR) and glass compositions. These new results coupled with results of earlier investigations confirm that SEMFR is dominated by Miocene lavas along with minor gabbro and diabase. SEMFR lavas range in major element composition from primitive basalt to fractionated andesite (Mg# = 0.36-0.73; SiO2 = 50-57 wt%), mainly controlled by crystal fractionation. Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns range from LREE-depleted, N-MORB-like to flat patterns, reflecting different mantle processes (i.e. different sources, degree of melting …). Glassy rinds and olivine-hosted melt inclusions in these lavas contain variable volatile compositions (F = 75-358 ppm, S = 35-1126 ppm, Cl= 74-1400 ppm, CO2 = 15-520 ppm, 0.36-2.36 wt% H2O). SEMFR lavas show spider diagrams with positive anomalies in LILE and negative anomalies in HSFE. SEMFR lavas have backarc basin-like (BAB-like) chemical composition (H2O < 2.5wt%, Ba/Yb~20, Nb/Yb~1 and ɛNd~9) along with stronger enrichment in Rb and Cs than arc and BAB lavas, as demonstrated by their higher Rb/Th and Cs/Ba ratios in WR and glasses, which may reflect the role of the ultra-shallow fluids. Ultra-shallow fluids are derived from the top of the subducting slab, beneath the forearc, where most of the water and the fluid-mobile elements (Rb, Cs, Ba,) are thought to be released (Schmidt and Poli, 1998, EPSL, Savov et al., 2005, G-3). Our results suggest that i) SEMFR lavas formed by metasomatism of a BAB mantle

  1. Chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids in the central and southern Mariana Trough backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Tsunogai, Urumu; Toki, Tomohiro; Ebina, Naoya; Gamo, Toshitaka; Sano, Yuji; Masuda, Harue; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    We present a geochemical data set from hydrothermal fluids collected from the central and southern Mariana Trough during dive programs conducted in the 1990s. The fluid samples were collected from two hydrothermal fields: (1) the Alice Springs field (18°13‧N, 144°42‧E, water depth: 3600 m) on the axial ridge crest of the central Marana Trough; and (2) the Forecast field (13°24‧N, 143°55‧E, water depth: 1470 m) on Peak B seamount, one of a cluster of small volcanic seamounts which represents a unique tectonic setting in the southern Mariana Trough. Gas geochemistry of the Alice Springs fluid showed He and C isotope ratios in the range of MORB, whereas that of the Forecast fluid showed a higher CO2/3He ratio and 13C-enriched isotope ratio, both of which are commonly recognized in hydrothermal fluids from intraoceanic arc volcanoes. The major and minor element composition of the Alice Springs fluid is characterized by enrichment in mobile alkali elements such as K, Rb and Cs. This geochemical signature is in accordance with the well-known characteristics of basaltic lava collected from the same area, which show substantial enrichment in incompatible elements. As interpreted in previous petrological studies, this signature is considered to be an arc geochemical signal reflecting contribution from the subduction component. The B concentration of the Alice Springs fluid is also high and is another arc geochemical signal. The Forecast fluid, by contrast, did not show enrichment in the mobile alkali elements, although its B concentration is high. The Forecast fluid is characterized instead by enrichment in Ca and Sr coupled with depletion in Na and Li. As discussed in previous studies, this signature is attributed to hydrothermal reactions at rather low temperature due to the shallow water depth. We recognize two different arc geochemical signals in these two hydrothermal fluids: mobile alkali elements in the Alice Spring fluid and gaseous species in the

  2. Sediment and Rock Samples Recovered from the Challenger Deep, Southern Mariana Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Sediments collected with push cores during Nereus hybrid-ROV traverses within the trench axis of the Challenger Deep were squeezed onboard ship (R/V Kilo Moana) to extract pore fluids. The squeeze-cakes were analyzed by XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe. The analysis reveals an assemblage of clays, and volcanic ash that contains plagioclase, clino-pyroxene, opaques and, glass. Chlorite is present as are hydrated iron oxides and fragments of diatoms. The sediment is predominantly very fine-grained and video from both the Nereus traverses across the Challenger Deep in 2009 and from the Deepsea Challenger submersible dive by James Cameron in 2012 indicate recent resurfacing of the trench axis. This is consistent with the high degree of deformation and frequency of earthquakes in the southern Mariana forearc north of the trench. An apron of self-derived talus blankets the lower part of the inner trench slope and fines from submarine landslides are the likely source of the trench axis sediment. Rock samples collected using Nereus from deep (10,879 m) on the incoming plate south of the Challenger Deep are partially altered microgabbros with interstitial glass containing microtubules similar to those observed in a variety of marine settings in lavas and hypabyssal igneous rocks. The tubules are presumed to be caused by tunneling of lithoautotrophic microbes into the glass. The rocks were collected from a site at the base of a fault scarp where large columnar-jointed blocks are draped with sediment. The igneous basement of the subducting plate south of the Challenger Deep is, as yet, undated, but it may be younger than the Jurassic Pacific Plate subducting beneath the southeastern Mariana forearc. There is the suggestion of a boundary between and the Pacific Plate and the shallower sea floor (Caroline plate?) subducing beneath the southernmost arm of the Mariana Trench. Early interpretations by Hegarty and Weissel (1988) and more recently by Lee (2004

  3. Hydroacoustic Records of the First Historical Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R.; Park, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Fox, C.; Byun, S.; Fowler, M.; Haxel, J.; Embley, R.

    2003-12-01

    For the past decade, NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory has monitored volcano-seismic activity from western Pacific island-arc volcanoes using an array of U.S. Navy hydrophones (called SOSUS) deployed at fixed locations throughout the North Pacific Ocean. SOSUS hydrophones are mounted within the SOFAR channel and record the hydroacoustic tertiary phase or T-wave of oceanic earthquakes from throughout the Pacific basin. Since acoustic T-waves obey cylindrical energy attenuation as opposed to the spherical attenuation of solid-earth seismic phases, sound channel hydrophones can detect often smaller and therefore more numerous earthquakes than land-based seismic networks. This property allowed for the detection of harmonic tremor from a submarine volcano in the Volcano Islands on hydrophones >14,000 km away in the eastern Pacific. The first historical eruption of Anatahan Volcano appears to have started (from satellite imagery) at 1730Z on 10 May, with an ash plume visible by 2232Z (BGVN, 5 May 2003). Records from a broadband seismometer deployed on nearby ( ˜6.5 km) Sarigan Island indicate earthquake activity increased at about 1300Z on 10 May (D. Weins, pers com). SOSUS hydrophones in the western Pacific ( ˜4000 km distant) also recorded increased earthquake activity at 1300Z on 10 May as well as continuous, low-frequency (<10 Hz) energy (possible volcanic tremor) that began about a day before the seismicity. The earthquakes and tremor were detected on only two SOSUS hydrophones and therefore it was not possible to estimate their source location. The arrival azimuth of the signals were, however, consistent with a source in the Mariana Islands. To complement the SOSUS hydrophone array coverage in the western Pacific Ocean, an array of five autonomous hydrophones were deployed in February 2003 (sponsored by NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program) within the SOFAR channel along the active island- and back-arc of the Mariana Islands. All five hydrophones (1-110 Hz

  4. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  5. A Fluid Sea in the Mariana Islands: Community Archaeology and Mapping the Seascape of Saipan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Jennifer; Mushynsky, Julie; Cabrera, Genevieve

    2014-06-01

    This paper applies both a community archaeology and seascape approach to the investigation of the sea and its importance to the Indigenous community on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands in western Oceania. It examines data collected during a community project including archaeological sites, oral histories, lived experiences and contemporary understandings of both tangible and intangible maritime heritage to explore Indigenous connections with the sea and better define the seascape. What the seascape of Saipan conveys in the larger sense is the true fluidity of the sea. In this instance fluidity has more than one connotation; it refers to the sea as both a substance and an idea that permeates and flows into all aspects of Indigenous life. Chamorro and Carolinian people of Saipan identify themselves as having an ancestral connection with the sea that they continue to maintain to this day as they engage in daily activities within their seascape.

  6. Capacity Building for Rare Bleeding Disorders in the Remote Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiffany F; Carhill, Pam; Huang, James N; Baker, Judith R

    2016-04-01

    The US Pacific Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands is home to an underserved hemophilia population. We developed a strategy in 2014 to build sustainable island-wide medical, patient and family, and community support for this rare disease. Collaboration with regional bleeding disorder leadership galvanized a weeklong conference series. More than 200 participants attended discipline-specific seminars; pre-post test evaluations documented educational benefits. This time-concentrated island-wide education intervention promoted the rapid identification of new cases and stimulated sustainable bleeding disorder care development. The education series proved feasible, efficient, and effective in increasing knowledge and reducing patient and professional isolation, serving as a model for improving capacity for orphan diseases (those that affect fewer than 200 000 people in any particular country) in underresourced areas. PMID:26890163

  7. Proposed 10 MWe OTEC pilot plant for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, L. E.; Chan, G. L.

    1981-12-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a 10 MWe OTEC pilot plant has been proposed for the island of Saipan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. This unique small OTEC plant is intended as a prototype for commercial plants in the small Pacific Island territories and nations. The system concept minimizes local construction to accommodate a lack of local skilled labor and facilities. The baseline design is a concrete barge-mounted plant built in Portland, Oregon, towed to Saipan, and permanently anchored in near-shore shallow water. Details of key subsystem design features are provided including a bottom-mounted cold water pipe, modular power subsystem, and wave shield for storm protection. The results of economic analyses are presented to illustrate the cost competitiveness of electricity from the OTEC plant compared to the current oil-fired diesel units in Saipan.

  8. Diversity of actinomycetes isolated from Challenger Deep sediment (10,898 m) from the Mariana Trench.

    PubMed

    Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Stach, James E M; Ward, Alan C; Horikoshi, Koki; Bull, Alan T; Goodfellow, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Thirty-eight actinomycetes were isolated from sediment collected from the Mariana Trench (10,898 m) using marine agar and media selective for actinomycetes, notably raffinose-histidine agar. The isolates were assigned to the class Actinobacteria using primers specific for members of this taxon. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to the genera Dermacoccus, Kocuria, Micromonospora, Streptomyces, Tsukamurella and Williamsia. All of the isolates were screened for genes encoding nonribosomal peptide and polyketide synthetases. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase sequences were detected in more than half of the isolates and polyketide synthases type I (PKS-I) were identified in five out of 38 strains. The Streptomyces isolates produced several unusual secondary metabolites, including a PKS-I associated product. In initial testing for piezotolerance, the Dermacoccus strain MT1.1 grew at elevated hydrostatic pressures. PMID:16538400

  9. Application of game theory to the interface between militarization and environmental stewardship in the Mariana Islands.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Wiecko, Greg; Moore, Aubrey

    2012-03-01

    We recently described threats to the terrestrial biological resources on the Mariana islands of Guam and Tinian resulting from the large-scale buildup of military operations. Attitudes that view these military buildup plans in a zero sum context whereby the positives of greater security and improved local economy can be attained only with corresponding negatives of environmental destruction are prevalent. We argue these attitudes oversimplify the complicated interactions between military operations and environmental damage. Here we discuss aspects of our case study that would benefit from application of game theory. Declines in ecosystem health are not unavoidable forms of collateral damage of peace-time military operations. We repeat, conservation of environmental resources is not ancillary to national security, it is integral. PMID:22808331

  10. Pickling Peridotites in the IBM Mantle Wedge: Inferences from the Guguan Cross-Chain, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.; Leybourne, M.; Miller, N. R.; Hargrove, U. S.; Griffin, W. R.; Fouch, M.; Kohut, E.; Vervoort, J.; Prytulak, J.

    2003-12-01

    Variations in lava compositions observed in arc `cross-chains' reveal chemical and isotopic gradients resulting from 'pickling' of convecting asthenosphere by fluids and melts from the descending slab. This can be studied using lavas from arc cross-chains. We report geochemical and isotopic data for basalts and basaltic andesites from the Guguan cross-chain at 17° 15'N in the Mariana Arc, comprising the active volcanic island Guguan (and submarine cone N. Guguan) along the magmatic front (~125 km above the subducted slab) and two seamounts to the west, W. Guguan (~150km) and Guguan II (~230 km). Guguan lavas represent the `fluid-dominated' endmember of Mariana arc lavas, and comprise fractionated basalts, basaltic andesites, and subordinate andesites (Mg# = 35-51, Ni<30ppm). Lavas from N. Guguan seamount consists of less fractionated basalts (Mg# = 52, ~50ppm Ni). Basalts from W. Guguan (Mg# = 61, 60-80 ppm Ni) and Guguan II (Mg#= 63-75, 100-400 ppm Ni) are much less fractionated. Guguan, N. Guguan, and W. Guguan lavas straddle the Low- to Medium-K boundary on a K2O-SiO2 plot, whereas Guguan II lavas are slightly more enriched and plot in the Medium-K field. Strong enrichments in K and other LIL elements observed for the Kasuga cross-chain farther north in the Mariana arc are absent. Olivine Fo decreases and plagioclase An increases towards the magmatic front. These relations suggest that water contents increase towards the magmatic front in the Guguan cross-chain. Spider diagrams for Guguan cross-chain lavas show the characteristic elemental enrichments of arc lavas, most notably LIL elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U, K, Pb, and Sr); similar but muted enrichments are found in basalts formed by seafloor spreading in the Mariana Trough (MTSB). Trace element variations observed across the Guguan cross-chain indicate that the fluid-dominated `Subduction Component' diminishes away from the magmatic front and is replaced by a component that manifests either sediment melt or the

  11. Rapid time scales of basalt to andesite differentiation at Anatahan volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Mark; Tepley, Frank J.; Gill, James B.; Wortel, Matthew; Hartman, Brian

    2005-08-01

    We present comprehensive U-series data ( 238U- 234U- 230Th- 226Ra- 210Pb- 210Po and ( 230Th)/( 232Th)) for an andesite from an oceanic arc. The juvenile Anatahan andesite has U-Th systematics colinear with other historical Mariana volcanic rocks, and is most similar to those of the other volcano in the Mariana arc with a significant proportion of silicic andesite: Uracas. Like Uracas, the parental basalt for the Anatahan andesite was generated by relatively low degrees of flux melting from a source previously enriched in a sediment component from the subducting slab. However, the Anatahan andesite is much more strongly enriched in 226Ra over 230Th than Uracas lavas, and has one of the highest ( 226Ra)/( 232Th) ratios of siliceous andesites globally. The long-lived disequilibria between 238U- 230Th- 226Ra in the Anatahan andesite are inherited from basalt genesis, not created during differentiation or eruption. Thus, the time between genesis of the parental basalt and eruption of andesite at Anatahan is shorter than for Uracas. Moreover, the near-equilibrium ( 210Pb)/( 226Ra) value indicates that the magma body did not persistently lose or gain 222Rn for more than 2 years before eruption. This permits differentiation of the parental basalt to form andesite within this 2-year time period, although a differentiation time period between 100 and a few thousand years also is possible. The relative activities between 210Po and 210Pb suggest erupted scoria degassed Po less than most lavas despite eruption plume heights of ˜10 km, which further suggests an unusually rapid ascent before eruption. These data also show that juvenile material was ejected from the first day of the eruption. Phreatomagmatic ejecta overlying the main Anatahan scoria is strongly enriched in 210Po over 210Pb, indicating that a significant proportion of the Po degassed from rising magmas sublimes in its shallow fumarolic conduit system.

  12. Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely

  13. Trench Advance By the Subduction of Buoyant Features - Application to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, S. D. B.; Fourel, L.; Morra, G.

    2014-12-01

    Most subduction trenches retreat, not only today but throughout the Cenozoic. However, a few trenches clearly advance during part of the evolution, including Izu-Bonin Marianas (IBM) and Kermadec. Trench retreat is well understood as a basic consequence of slab pull, but it is debated what causes trench advance. The IBM trench underwent a complex evolution: right after its initiation, it rotated clockwise, leading to very fast retreat in the north and slow retreat in the south. But since 10-15 Ma, IBM trench motions have switched to advance at the southern end, and since 5 Ma also the northern end is advancing. Based on 2-D subduction models, it has been proposed proposed that the change in age of the subducting plate at the IBM trench (from 40-70 m.y. at the initiation of the trench 45 m.y. ago to 100-140 m.y. lithosphere subducting at the trench today) and its effect on plate strength could explain the transition from trench retreat to trench advance, and that the age gradient (younger in the north and older in the south) could explain the rotation of the trench. However, with new 3-D coupled fluid-solid subduction model where we can include such lateral age gradients, we find that this does not yield the observed behaviour. Instead, we propose an alternative mechanism, involving the subduction of the buoyant Caroline Island Ridge at the southern edge of the Mariana trench and show that it can explain both trench motion history and the current morphology of the IBM slab as imaged by seismic tomography.

  14. Seismicity associated with back arc crustal spreading in the central Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussong, Donald M.; Sinton, John B.

    Numerous low-magnitude earthquakes were recorded in the central Mariana Trough by an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) array deployed during late 1978. Although shallow seismic activity strong enough to be detected on worldwide seismic stations was seldom observed in this back arc basin, on the basis of other geological and geophysical data the basin was thought to be actively spreading. On this assumption, we deployed our OBS array on seafloor structure that has the morphology of a ridge/transform fault/ridge intersection portion of a roughly east-west valley that we named the Pagan fracture zone. Six OBS's recorded an average of 15 local events per day with magnitudes (based on event durations) ranging from 1.5 to 4.0 and low b values of 0.42 or 0.61, depending on the magnitude-duration relationship used. More than 300 hypocenters were determined. An earthquake swarm was located at 17°14'N latitude, 144°55'E longitude, at the base of a bathymetric high at the intersection of the northern spreading center and the transform valley. Hypocenters are concentrated in a zone roughly 15 km wide and 7.5 km deep that trends N30°E between the offset spreading centers, but which does not follow the Pagan fracture zone strike. Hypocenters in the transform zone are deeper than those in or near the crustal spreading areas. The low b values, maximum event magnitude of less than 4.5, and complex bathymetry and hypocenter trends all suggest that spreading in this back arc basin is unstable and is subject to frequent geometric reorientation. The Mariana volcanic arc is a small plate that is tectonically isolated by subduction on its east side and by subduction of the Philippine plate on its west side, producing a highly stressed region under tension even though it lies between major converging plates.

  15. De-facto marine protection from a Navy bombing range: Farallon De Medinilla, Mariana Archipelago, 1997 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen H; Marx, Donald E

    2016-01-15

    Fourteen surveys were conducted at Farallon De Medinilla (a U.S. Department of Defense bombing range in the Mariana Archipelago) between 1997 and 2012; annual surveys were conducted from 1999 through 2012. There was no evidence that the condition of the biological resources assessed had changed, or been adversely impacted to a significant degree by the training activities being conducted there. Restricted access has resulted in a de-facto preserve effect and outweighs minor negative impacts from training. The health, abundance and biomass of fishes, corals and other marine resources are comparable to or superior to those in similar habitats at other locations within the Mariana Archipelago. Our research suggests that the greatest threat to FDM's marine resources is from fishermen, not military training activities. PMID:26621576

  16. Online Classroom Research and Analysis Activities Using MARGINS-Related Resources for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Subduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Students today have online access to nearly unlimited scientific information in an entirely unfiltered state. As such, they need guidance and training in identifying and assessing high-quality information resources for educational and research use. The extensive research data resources available online for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction system that have been developed with MARGINS Program and related NSF funding are an ideal venue for focused Web research exercises that can be tailored to a range of undergraduate geoscience courses. This presentation highlights student web research activities examining: a) The 2003-2005 eruptions of Anatahan Volcano in the Mariana volcanic arc. MARGINS-supported geophysical research teams were in the region when the eruption initiated, permitting a unique "event response" data collection and analysis process, with preliminary results presented online at websites linked to the MARGINS homepage, and ultimately published in a special issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. In this activity, students will conduct a directed Web surf/search effort for information on and datasets from the Anatahan arc volcano, which they will use in an interpretive study of recent magmatic activity in the Mariana arc. This activity is designed as a homework exercise for use in a junior-senior level Petrology course, but could easily be taken into greater depth for the benefit of graduate-level volcanology or geochemistry offerings. b) Geochemical and mineralogical results from ODP Legs 125 and 195 focused on diapiric serpentinite mud volcanoes, which erupt cold, high pH fluids, serpentine muds, and serpentinized ultramafic clasts at a number of sites in the forearc region of the Mariana subduction zone. The focus of this activity is an examination of the trace element chemistry of the forearc serpentines and their associated upwelling porefluids as a means of understanding the roles of ionic radius, valence, and system

  17. Spring temperatures in the far-western Nepal Himalaya since AD 1640 reconstructed from Picea smithiana tree-ring widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Udya Kuwar; Shah, Santosh K.; Gaire, Narayan Prasad; Bhuju, Dinesh Raj

    2015-10-01

    We developed a new, 422-year long tree-ring width chronology (spanning AD 1591-2012) from Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss in Khaptad National Park, which is located in the far-western Nepalese Himalaya. Seasonal correlation analysis revealed significant indirect relationship with spring temperature and lead to the reconstruction of March-May average temperature for the past 373 years (AD 1640-2012). The reconstruction was found significant based on validation statistics commonly used in tree-ring based climate reconstruction. Furthermore, it was validated through spatial correlation with gridded temperature data. This temperature reconstruction identified several periods of warming and cooling. The reconstruction did not show the significant pattern of cooling during the Little Ice Age but there were few cold episodes recorded. The spring temperature revealed relationship with different Sea Surface Temperature index over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which showed linkages with climatic variability in a global scale.

  18. Defense mechanisms against herbivory in Picea: sequence evolution and expression regulation of gene family members in the phenylpropanoid pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In trees, a substantial amount of carbon is directed towards production of phenolics for development and defense. This metabolic pathway is also a major factor in resistance to insect pathogens in spruce. In such gene families, environmental stimuli may have an important effect on the evolutionary fate of duplicated genes, and different expression patterns may indicate functional diversification. Results Gene families in spruce (Picea) have expanded to superfamilies, including O-methyltransferases, cytochrome-P450, and dirigents/classIII-peroxidases. Neo-functionalization of superfamily members from different clades is reflected in expression diversification. Genetical genomics can provide new insights into the genetic basis and evolution of insect resistance in plants. Adopting this approach, we merged genotype data (252 SNPs in a segregating pedigree), gene expression levels (for 428 phenylpropanoid-related genes) and measures of susceptibility to Pissodes stobi, using a partial-diallel crossing-design with white spruce (Picea glauca). Thirty-eight expressed phenylpropanoid-related genes co-segregated with weevil susceptibility, indicating either causative or reactive effects of these genes to weevil resistance. We identified eight regulatory genomic regions with extensive overlap of quantitative trait loci from susceptibility and growth phenotypes (pQTLs) and expression QTL (eQTL) hotspots. In particular, SNPs within two different CCoAOMT loci regulate phenotypic variation from a common set of 24 genes and three resistance traits. Conclusions Pest resistance was associated with individual candidate genes as well as with trans-regulatory hotspots along the spruce genome. Our results showed that specific genes within the phenylpropanoid pathway have been duplicated and diversified in the conifer in a process fundamentally different from short-lived angiosperm species. These findings add to the information about the role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in

  19. Cycling of sulfur in subduction zones: The geochemistry of sulfur in the Mariana Island Arc and back-arc trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Jackson, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The sulfur contents and sulfur isotopic compositions of 24 glassy submarine volcanics from the Mariana Island Arc and back-arc Mariana Trough were determined in order to investigate the hypothesis that subducted seawater sulfur (??34S = 21???) is recycled through arc volcanism. Our results for sulfur are similar to those for subaerial arc volcanics: Mariana Arc glasses are enriched in 34S (??34S = up to 10.3???, mean = 3.8???) and depleted in S (20-290 ppm, mean = 100 ppm) relative to MORB (850 ppm S, ??34S = 0.1 ?? 0.5???). The back-arc trough basalts contain 200-930 ppm S and have ??34S values of 1.1 ?? 0.5???, which overlap those for the arc and MORB. The low sulfur contents of the arc and some of the trough glasses are attributed to (1) early loss of small amounts of sulfur through separation of immiscible sulfide and (2) later vapor-melt equilibrium control of sulfur contents and loss of sulfur in a vapor phase from sulfide-undersaturated melts near the minimum in sulfur solubility at f{hook}O2 ??? NNO (nickel-nickel oxide). Although these processes removed sulfur from the melts their effects on the sulfur isotopic compositions of the melts were minimal. Positive trends of ??34S with 87Sr 86Sr, LILE and LREE contents of the arc volcanics are consistent with a metasomatic seawater sulfur component in the depleted sub-arc mantle source. The lack of a 34S-rich slab signature in the trough lavas may be attributed to equilibration of metasomatic fluid with mantle material along the longer pathway from the slab to the source of the trough volcanics. Sulfur is likely to have been transported into the mantle wedge by metasomatic fluid derived from subducted sediments and pore fluids. Gases extracted from vesicles in arc and back-arc samples are predominantly H2O, with minor CO2 and traces of H2S and SO2. CO2 in the arc and back-arc rocks has ??13C values of -2.1 to -13.1???, similar to MORB. These data suggest that degassing of CO2 could explain the slightly lower

  20. Ancient mantle trapped in the Mariana arc-basin system: Insights from the platinum group elements and Os isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savov, I. P.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.; Mock, T. D.

    2006-12-01

    Serpentinized harzburgites recently drilled during ODP Leg 195 at South Chamorro Seamount in the Mariana forearc region have been studied for their platinum group element (PGE) concentrations and Os isotopic compositions. The samples allow a look at the slab fluid-modified subarc mantle immediately overlaying the actively subducting Pacific slab at depths of ~ 30 km. The average PGE (Os 2.3 ppb, Ir 1.5 ppb, Ru 5.4 ppb, Pd 1.6 ppb and Pt 16.3 ppb) and Re (60 ppt) abundances are comparable to those measured in other subarc mantle xenolith suites. The PGE and Re abundances are depleted up to 3 orders of magnitude relative to chondrites, with relative order of depletions Ru > Os > Ir> Pt> Re> Pd. The variable Pd contents (0.01-4.5 ppb) and the low Pd/Os (<2) in the Mariana forearc samples differ significantly from that of altered oceanic crust (Pd/Os~ 22), suggesting Os remained relatively unchanged during low temperature subduction-fluid additions. Serpentinitization of the harzburgites occurred in equilibrium with fluids that were both reducing and highly alkaline. Os in its original phases may be stabilized in such an environment, therefore can preserve evidence for ancient melting despite later slab interactions. Finally, the high Pt/Pd (ave. ~ 25) and low Re contents (ave.~ 60 ppt) in the Leg 195 forearc samples are complementary to those measured in boninites from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc-basin system, showing a genetic relationship. Our samples reveal an average 187Os/188Os of 0.123 [range = 0.119- 0.127], making them similar to abyssal peridotites from elsewhere. Radiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios would have been imparted to the serpentinites by slab fluids, so the subchondritic Os isotopic compositions implies that peridotite-slab fluid interactions did not alter the Os isotope systematics of the mantle protoliths. Low alumina abundances (<1 %) and trace element signatures (low HFSE; REE with U-shaped chondrite-normalized patterns and 2-3 times lower than

  1. Decarbonation, Serpentinization, Abiogenic Methane, and Extreme pH beneath the Mariana Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottl, M. J.; Wheat, C. G.; Fryer, P.

    2004-12-01

    Low-chlorinity springs sampled from ten sites on nine serpentinite mud volcanoes show systematic chemical gradients across the outer Mariana forearc that result from progressive devolatilization of the subducting Pacific plate. Sites range from 50 to 90 km from the trench axis corresponding to depths to the top of the plate of ˜15 to 29 km. Dissolved sulfate, Na/Cl, K, Rb, Cs, and B in the springs all increase regularly with distance from the trench, leached from the subducting sediment and altered basalt in response to increasing temperature at depth from ˜100-300° C. Sites nearer the trench have high Ca (up to 75 mmol/kg) and Sr, low alkalinity, and pH 10.7, whereas sites farther from the trench have almost no Ca and Sr, alkalinity (some carbonate but mostly hydroxyl) as high as 69 meq/kg, and pH 12.5. Springs with high alkalinity also have high methane (>44 mmol/kg) that feeds sulfate-reducing microbial communities in the shallow subsurface and macrofauna at the seafloor. These distal springs form chimneys and crusts of CaCO3, whereas the proximal springs form chimneys of brucite. High alkalinity at the distal sites apparently results from decarbonation at the top of the subducting plate; because serpentinization during ascent generates both high pH and H2, the resulting dissolved carbonate is reduced to methane such that carbonate alkalinity is replaced by hydroxyl alkalinity: 4H2 + CO3= = CH4 + H2O + 2OH-. This reaction can account for the much higher pH of the distal springs. Chlorinity of the springs varies from 234-546 mmol/kg and is related more to latitude N-S than to distance from the trench. Distal springs have otherwise similar compositions over this entire range of chlorinity, implying that chloride derives from depth rather than from mixing with seawater within the seamounts themselves. The range in chlorinity can readily be explained by serpentinization at reasonable water/rock mass ratios of 0.2-1.0 if 30-40% of the spring water originates as

  2. Submarine Arc Volcanism in the Southern Mariana Arc: Results of Recent ROV studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, A. R.; Tamura, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Embley, R. W.; Hein, J. R.; Jordan, E.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Sica, N.; Kohut, E. J.; Whattam, S. A.; Hirahara, Y.; Senda, R.; Nunokawa, A.

    2009-12-01

    The submarine Diamante cross-arc volcanoes (~16°N) and the Sarigan-Zealandia Bank Multi-Volcano Complex (SZBMVC; ~16°45’N), north and south, respectively, of Anatahan Island in the southern Mariana Arc, were studied during several dives in June 2009 using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin, cruise NT09-08 (R/V Natsushima); neither has been studied in detail before. The data collected provide a new perspective on how the subduction factory operates to complement previous studies on other cross-arc volcanic chains in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. The Diamante complex consists of three major edifices, two cones (West and Central Diamante) and a more complex caldera-like edifice at the volcanic front (East Diamante). West and Central Diamante are basaltic volcanoes but East Diamante has a more complex history. Our studies indicate initial construction of a basaltic volcano. Magmatic evolution led to a violent caldera-forming and quieter dome-building events. Post-caldera quiescence allowed a carbonate platform to grow, now preserved on the eastern caldera wall. Felsic magma or hot rock provides a heat source for an active hydrothermal field associated with felsic domes in the caldera, which NOAA investigators discovered in 2004. A new type of hydrothermal deposit was discovered in the hydrothermal field, consisting of large sulfide-sulfate mounds topped by bulbous constructions of low-temperature Fe and Mn oxides. Vents on the mounds were observed to emit shimmering water. The SZBMVC consists of six closely spaced edifices whose loci are aligned along two parallel trends, one along the volcanic front (Zealandia Bank, Sarigan and South Sarigan), and one about 15 km west towards the rear-arc (Northwest Zealandia, West Zealandia and West Sarigan). Zealandia Bank dives revealed that, as with East Diamante, initial activity was basaltic and became more evolved with time. The western half of Zealandia Bank is dominated by felsic lavas centered on a small (~2 km diameter) caldera and

  3. Methane Distribution In Plumes Of The South Mariana Back-arc Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, T.; Hirota, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nakamura, K.; Noguchi, T.; Taira, N.; Oomori, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Utsumi, M.

    2004-12-01

    In the South Mariana Back-arc Spreading Center, two methane plumes were observed in water column based on analysis of methane in seawater samples collected during the R/V Thompson expeditions in 2003 around water depth of 2,700 m over the Fryer site on the ridge-axis seamount (12\\deg57.22N, 143\\deg37.16E, depth: 2,850 m). The estimated end-member isotopic compositions of methane in the two plumes are \\delta13C_{CH4} = -5‰ PDB and -50‰ PDB. These values indicated that the two plumes were originated from the different sources. During YK03-09 cruise using the submersible Shinkai 6500 from October to November in 2003, detailed seafloor observation discovered sulfide chimneys emitting black and clear hydrothermal fluid on the off-axis seamount at Pika site (12°55.15N, 143°36.96E, depth: 2,773 m). The result of analysis of isotopic composition of methane in the hydrothermal fluids recovered from the off-axis hydrothermal vents using WHATS (Water and Hydrothermal Atsuryoku Tight Sampler) was averaged value of -4‰ PDB (standard deviation = 1‰ PDB, n = 3). Hydrothermal fluids from the Fryer site were also sampled and were measured: average value = -6.7‰ PDB, standard deviation = 0.3‰ PDB, n = 3. During the R/V Thompson expeditions in March 2004 using ROV ROPOS, 11 ROPOS dives and CTD-RMS plume surveys were conducted, and newly discovered a huge hydrothermal structure with active fluid venting at Achaean site on the ridge skirt (12°56.37N, 143°37.92E, depth: 2,990 m). The δ ^{13}C_{CH4} value of the fluid sample from the site using ROCS (Rotary Clean Seawater sampler) was -14.7‰ PDB. Analysis of isotopic composition of methane in the plume samples collected using the CTD-hydrocast at water depth of 2,500 m over the Archaean site showed -45‰ PDB. Source of methane (δ ^{13}C_{CH4} = -50‰ PDB), however, in the two plumes of the South Mariana Back-arc Spreading Center has been missing. The δ ^{13}C of methane cannot be considered in sediment

  4. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Activity of Deep Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Ohki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Suyehiro, K.

    2003-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) has been started since June 2003 for about one year. It is a part of the MARGINS program (US-JAPAN COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: MULTI-SCALE SEISMIC IMAGING OF THE MARIANA SUBDUCTION FACTORY), and the aim of this observation is the crustal and mantle structure modeling by using passive and active seismic sources. The 50 and 8 LTOBSs are owned by LDEO and ERI, respectively, and they were deployed during the cruise of R/V Kaiyo (Jamstec), KY03-06. Prior to this experiment, we made a pilot long-term seismic array observation in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs, deployed in Oct. 2001 by R/V Yokosuka (Jamstec) and recovered in Feb. 2003 by R/V Kaiyo. This LTOBS has been developed by ERI, which has the PMD sensor (WB2023LP) and a titanium sphere housing (D=50cm) and was already used in several long-term observations (ex. trans-PHS array observation presented at the AGU fall meeting, 2000, S51B-02). Two of 10 LTOBSs could not be recovered due to malfunction of the releasing system, and one recovered had a trouble in the sensor control unit. But, seven others have obtained more than 11 months long data continuously. As passive source studies of these observations use characteristic deep earthquakes in this area, the activity of them will be introduced in this presentation, from the data obtained just above them. At the first step, difference of hypocenters of known events, listed on the PDE catalog, is examined. There are 59 events of epicenters within a circular area centered at 19° N, 145° E with radius of 1000km from the catalog during the observation. P and S arrivals are picked by using the WIN system, and the iasp91 model (only {VP} with {{VP}/{V_S}=1.732}) is used for the hypocenter determination. Station corrections are applied only for the sediment layer, estimated from several arrival time data of P and P-S converted

  5. Patgon-Masala Seamount, Southern Mariana Arc: Recent Observations with the WHOI Nereus HROV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P.; Shank, T. M.; Hulme, S.; Bors, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Patgon-Masala submarine volcano in the southern-most part of the active Mariana arc has the largest caldera in the Mariana system. The seamount rises to 2300 m above the surrounding 3500-m-deep seafloor. The seamount is 20 km long by 12 km wide, elongate NE-SW, paralleling the southern backarc spreading center. The caldera is 5000 m long by 3000 m wide and ~1200 m deep. It has an outer ring soma in the northeast and shows a series of nested inner steps deepening to a maximum of 3159 m in the southwest pit. A Jason-2 lowering in 2003 in this pit permitted us to sample the entire inner north wall of the caldera and recover variably hydrothermally altered lavas of a dominantly basaltic andesite to andesite composition. The lavas are of arc composition, similar to those recovered from the nearby backarc spreading center. This supports the suggestions that the spreading axis and adjacent arc volcanoes share a common magma source (Martinez, et al., 2000; Fryer et al., 2002; Becker, 2005). Below the sill depth of 2650 m, light transmission is less than 75%. Hydrothermal activity was observed in the crater at the contact between the wall and various ledges. In 2000 the Kaiko ROV had performed a dive on the northeast inner wall of the caldera and discovered an active white smoker site, named the Nakayama hydrothermal field (Gamo et al., 2004). In June of 2009 we dove with the Nereus HROV at the same locality during the field-test cruise of the Nereus vehicle. This was the first dive with this vehicle in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal vent. Tether management issues with Nereus on approach to the vent site necessitated a lively collaboration between the scientists, pilots, navigators, and depressor/tether operators. The dive successfully located the Nakayama field and we observed numerous fissures with shimmering water, active hydrothermal venting from a largely pyrite chimney structure, surrounded by a forest of tubeworms, atop an apparent dome of vesicular

  6. Metasomatic modification of oceanic crust during early stages of subduction recorded in Mariana blueschist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, Thomas; Savov, Ivan P.; Pabst, Sonja; Schmitt, Axel K.

    2013-04-01

    Serpentine mud volcanoes from the Mariana forearc bear unique witness of metasomatic processes in an active subduction zone in the form of centimeter-size blueschist-facies xenoliths. Charcateristic metamorphic assemblages point to conditions of ca 400°C and a formation depth of 27 km. Bulk rock compositions of amphibole-talc schists and chlorite-rich schists lie on a mixing line, extending from typical MORB towards SiO2-enriched mantle. Such mixing trends are remarkably similar to findings from the amphibolite-facies assemblages of the Catalina schist, although they equilibrated at much lower temperatures (Pabst et al. 2012). These observations demonstrate that the material experienced severe metasomatic changes at the slab-mantle interface in the shallow forearc. Further supporting evidence derives from δ11B measurements: phengite, amphibole and chlorite within the clasts have boron isotope values of -6±4‰, significantly lighter than oceanic crust, requiring isotopic fractionation by fluids carrying an isotopically heavy B component (Pabst et al. 2012). Although most current models assume that the Mariana blueschists record conditions of the ongoing subduction process, our recent findings indicate otherwise. Large (>100 µm) rutiles with high U (ca 20 ppm) found in one blueschist clast were dated by HR-SIMS at UCLA employing recently established U/Pb dating techniques (Schmitt & Zack 2012). Rutile concordia ages were tightly constrained at 48.1±2.9 Ma and are reproduced by concordia ages of low Th/U zircons at 47.5±1.5 Ma in the same sample. As those ages are interpreted to be formation ages of metasomatically modified blueschists and are only a few million years older than subduction initiation (at ca 50-52 Ma), we draw the following conclusions: (1) fast cooling of the downgoing oceanic crust must occur right after subduction initiation; (2) effective metasomatic and mechanical mixing processes (subduction channels?) must be established early in

  7. Variations in normal faulting and plate deformation along the Mariana trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Lin, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate variations in normal faulting along the Mariana trench through analyzing deformation of the subducting Pacific plate and geodynamic modeling. Detailed investigation was focused on three areas where high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data are available: the Southern (S) region at 140.8-144°E; the Central (C) region at 14.7-16.8°N; and the Northern (N) region at 18-21.2°N. In each of the study regions, we analyzed seafloor normal faults and calculated the statistics of fault parameters including strike, throw, density, and location relative to the trench axis. Our analysis revealed several key constraints: (1) Most of the normal faults are sub-parallel to the local strike of the trench axis, indicating that the normal faults were initiated by bending stresses in the subducting plate and not by pre-existing seafloor abyssal tectonic fabrics. (2) The normal faults were likely initiated within the outer rise region and reached maximum throw toward the trench. (3) The S-region has the largest trench relief (average of ~6 km) as well as the largest fault throw (maximum throw reached ~320 m when averaged over 5 km of trench-perpendicular profiles). In contrast, the N-region has much smaller trench relief (~2 km) and smaller fault throw (maximum fault throw reached only ~180 m). We then modeled the subducting plate as an elasto-plastic slab subjected to tectonic forcing at the trench axis, including vertical load (V0), bending moment (M0), and horizontal tensional force (F0). Using the above observations as constraints, modeling revealed the following key results: (1) The best-fitting solutions for the S-region are V0 = 5.8 x 1012 N/m, M0 = 9.6 x 1016 N, and F0 = 3.6 x 1012 N/m, yielding the horizontal extensional force to vertical loading ratio F0/V0 = 62%. (2) The best-fitting V0 for the N- and C-regions are about 33% and 41% that of the S-region. Meanwhile, the best-fitting M0 for the N- and C-regions are about 80% and 60% that of the S-region. (3

  8. Observations of Flatfish "Spas" From Three Hydrothermally Active Seamounts in the Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dower, J.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Tyler, J.; Juniper, K.; Stevens, C.; Kouris, A.; Takano, B.

    2006-12-01

    During a cruise to the Mariana Islands in spring 2004, dense aggregations of small flatfish were recorded from areas of diffuse flow on two hydrothermally active seamounts known as Kasuga-2 and Daikoku. This is quite novel, as flatfish are not known to be part of vent faunas elsewhere. Based on a single specimen, it was determined to be a new species of tonguefish in the genus Symphurus, and is currently under description. In October 2005, we returned to the Mariana Arc and collected about 60 specimens from Kasuga-2, Daikoku, and a third site, Nikko Seamount. Interestingly, the Nikko specimens were about twice as large as the flatfish from Kasuga-2 and Daikoku. Current molecular work (using the Barcode of Life Data System) will determine the relationship among these populations, and verify whether they are the same species. Under the microscope, the sandy sediments from the flatfish habitat were found to be full of tiny nematodes and polychaete worms. Our current hypothesis is that the fish are feeding on both and, thus, are ultimately supported by chemosynthesis, since the worms likely feed on bacteria in the sediments. However, during our most recent cruise in May 2006, we also observed several instances in which dead (or nearly dead) mid-water fish and shrimp fell out of the water column onto the bottom, after which they were almost immediately fed upon by the flatfish. This suggests that there may also be an additional energy subsidy to the seamount benthos from the water column. We hypothesize that sulfite (or some other toxic chemical) in the plume overlying these active volcanoes either kills or anesthetizes small pelagics that get advected over the seamount summit while feeding in near-surface waters at night. Stable isotope and lipid analysis of samples from these "fish spas" are currently underway to establish trophic relationships. We hope to use otolith microstructure analyses to quantify individual growth trajectories and population age structure of

  9. Emplacement, growth, and gravitational deformation of serpentinite seamounts on the Mariana forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, A. J.; Taylor, B.; Fryer, P.; Moore, G. F.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Morgan, J. K.

    2007-08-01

    Serpentinite seamounts, representing some of the first material outputs of the recycling process that takes place in subduction zones, are found on the outer Mariana forearc. Multichannel seismic (MCS) and bathymetric data collected in 2002 image the large-scale structures of five seamounts, as well as the pre-seamount basement geometry and sediment stratigraphy. We present data from three edifices that provide insights into seamount growth and internal deformation processes and allow us to support the interpretation that serpentinite mud volcanoes are formed by the episodic eruption of mud flows from a central region. The presence of thrust faulting at the base of Turquoise and Big Blue Seamounts, along with the low surface slopes (5°-18°) of all the seamounts studied, lead us to infer that these edifices spread laterally and are subject to gravitational deformation as they grow. Numerical simulations using the discrete element method (DEM) were used to model their growth and the origins of features that we see in MCS sections, such as basal thrusts, inward-dipping reflections and mid-flank benches. The DEM simulations successfully reproduced many of the observed features. Simulations employing very low basal and internal friction coefficients (~0.1 and ~0.4, respectively) provide the best match to the overall morphology and structures of the serpentinite seamounts. However the simulations do not capture all of the processes involved in seamount growth, such as withdrawal of material from a central conduit leading to summit deflation; compaction, dewatering and degassing of mud flows; mass wasting in the form of sector collapse and growth upon a dipping substrate. A strong reflection beneath the summit of Big Blue, the largest serpentinite seamount on the Mariana forearc, represents the floor of a summit depression that has been partially in-filled by younger muds, supporting the idea that serpentinite seamounts grow by episodic mud volcanism. Boundaries of mud

  10. Creation and Deformation of Hydrous Lithosphere at the Southern Mariana Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, F.; Kelley, K. A.; Stern, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Mantle lithosphere formed at mid-ocean seafloor spreading centers is thought to be essentially anhydrous because water is strongly partitioned into melt and removed from the mantle during crustal formation. Since water weakens olivine this dehydration process is also thought to strengthen oceanic mantle lithosphere above solidus depths, perhaps helping to focus deformation and melt delivery to the narrow plate boundary zones observed at mid-ocean ridges. In contrast, convergent margins are sites of high water flux from subducting slabs and thereby provide an opportunity to study the creation and deformation of lithosphere in a hydrous environment. The southern Mariana margin presents a rare case in which the upper plate is undergoing active extension parallel to the trench and directly above the subducting slab. The extension has rifted preexisting Paleogene lithosphere resulting in the present-day creation of new lithosphere in this hydrous environment. Here we present preliminary results from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN273 in December 2011-January 2012 utilizing the Hawaii Mapping Research Group's IMI-30, a 30 kHz deep-towed side-scan sonar, and ship-based Simrad EM302 multibeam bathymetry. The sidescan sonar imagery and multibeam bathymetry map the tectonic and volcanic structure of a 32 x 80 km area referred to as the southeast Mariana forearc rifts (SEMFR), which extend from near the backarc spreading center toward the trench. The sonar imagery shows a complex volcanic and tectonic structure with no single spreading or rifting axis. Volcanism appears to be widely dispersed and separated by faulted areas. Bathymetry data show several rifts spanning this area but no single rift appears to be focusing tectonic activity as earthquake seismicity is broadly distributed across this region. The data depict a broad volcano-tectonic zone of complex deformation and distributed volcanism unlike the narrow plate boundary zones of mid-ocean ridges. This distributed

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Serpentinization in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Convergent Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P.

    2005-12-01

    The degree of serpentinization of the suprasubduction-zone mantle along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) convergent plate margin varies spatially, controlled largely by degree of faulting. Seismic velocity studies in both the Izu-Bonin and the Mariana portions of the system suggest that zones of serpentinized mantle are concentrated above the subducted slab and may have critical influence on the physical properties of the decollement. The metamorphic reactions occurring within the subduction zone are dependent on temperature, pressure conditions and on the composition of slab-derived fluids. Pore fluids recovered from active IBM forearc seeps show systematic changes in composition with distance from the trench, thus demonstrate a down-dip change in the nature of the reactions that release fluid-mobile elements from the subducting slab. These seeps also provide an extremophile microbiological environment, dominated by Archaea and host to unique Bacteria. Macrofauna communities have only been observed at the seeps farthest from the trench. These spatial characteristics of the IBM system can be linked to models of the reactions involved in the dewatering of the subducted slab and of the water-rock interactions in the overlying forearc lithosphere. These models are still controversial, to some degree, but the general serpentinization process is well understood. Serpentinization generates fluids with high pH, abiotic methane, and which react with seawater to precipitate chimney structures of dominantly carbonate and brucite. The same process and products are observed at the peridotite-hosted hydrothermal system at the south wall of the Atlantis Core Complex on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Lost City). Compositional differences between the Lost City site and the IBM seep sites reflect the subduction components that influence the latter. The temporal variability of the processes active at these sites has not yet been explored, however. The nature of fluids interacting with mid

  12. Crustal structure of a short length transform fault in the central Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinton, John B.; Hussong, Donald M.

    The crustal structure of the Pagan fracture zone, a short length transform fault system in the central Mariana Trough, was determined from a detailed seismic refraction study by using ocean bottom seismometers. The Mariana Trough is a back arc basin with a spreading center opening at a half rate of less than 2 cm/yr. Interpretation of both the seismic travel times and amplitudes suggest that the crust within the transform valley is 1-1.5 km thinner than oceanic crust generated at slow spreading centers away from transform faults but is thicker than fracture zone crust in longer transform offset systems. The crustal differences can be accounted for solely by a thickening, relative to longer transforms, of the lower crust by as much as 3.0 km. Other major differences between the Pagan short transform system and transform systems of greater length are (1) the transition from Pagan transform crust to oceanic crust is only 2.0-4.0 km wide, in comparison with a reported 5-10 km for longer transforms, (2) the 50-mgal free air gravity anomaly over the Pagan transform valley is half that of longer transforms, and (3) whereas bathymetric ridges parallel to longer transform systems are underlain by high-density material, the entire valley of the Pagan transform system is underlain by high-density material. These differences can be explained by the different thermal properties of the third wall at the spreading center/transform intersections, and its affect on crustal accretion. As the third wall becomes colder, the crust becomes thinner, the free air gravity anomaly is larger, the transition from transform to oceanic crust is wider, and the bathymetric relief across the valley is greater. No significant difference was observed between crustal structure in the transform zone in comparison with the fracture zone portion of the Pagan transform system. Use of amplitude modeling with extended WKBJ synthetic seismograms, valid in two-dimensional laterally inhomogeneous media, made

  13. Primitive Submarine Basalts and Magmatic Variation of Pagan and Daon, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Stern, R. J.; Nunokawa, A.; Shukuno, H.; Kawabata, H.; Embley, R. W.; Bloomer, S. H.; Nichols, A. R.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Pagan is an active volcano located in the central island province of the Mariana arc (18°07'N) and is one of the largest volcanoes in the Mariana arc; its main edifice rises from a base ~3,000 m below sea level (b.s.l.) and has a volume of 2,160 km3 (Bloomer et al., 1989). Daon is a small reararc seamount 25 km SW of Pagan (17°58'N). We visited the submarine portions of the two volcanoes in 2010 (NT10-12), using ROV Hyper-Dolphin and RV Natsushima. Rocks were collected from the northeastern and southwestern flanks of the Pagan volcano at 1,500-2,000 m b.s.l. (dive HPD1147) and at 2,020-2,330 m b.s.l. (HPD1148), respectively, and from the southern flank of Daon at 2,360-2,580 m b.s.l. (HPD1149). Fresh pillow lavas dominate in all three dives, but the rocks recovered from HPD1147 seem to be the youngest based on very light sediment cover and no Mn coating. Sediment cover is considerably more extensive at HPD1148, and all rocks from Daon (HPD1149) had 0-10 mm thick Mn coating. Submarine Pagan lavas show major element compositions typical of subaerial Pagan basalts (Marske et al., 2011; Elliott et al., 1997; Woodhead, 1989), although the least fractionated compositions recovered from HPD1147 extend to much higher MgO (7-11 wt %) and Mg# (60-70), than the subaerial lavas. We recognize two types of primitive basalts from Pagan and Daon. Daon has plagioclase-olivine basalt (POB) and clinopyroxene-olivine basalt (COB), petrographic types that are similar to those reported from NW Rota-1 volcano (Tamura et al., 2011). Pagan has two types of COB, both having 10-11 wt % MgO; COB-1 has higher Ba/Zr and Sr/Zr and lower Zr/Y than COB-2 at the same MgO content, indicating that COB-1 has a greater subduction component and formed from higher degrees of mantle melting than COB-2. Similar distinct primitive magmas like those recognized from NW Rota-1 also coexist at Pagan and Daon.

  14. Detection and genome sequence of a new betapartitivirus associated with Cucurbitaria piceae Borthw. fungus causing bud blight of spruce in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Petrzik, Karel; Koloniuk, Igor; Sarkisova, Tatiana; Hrabáková, Lenka

    2016-05-01

    A new bisegmented dsRNA virus has been detected in shoots of blue spruce with bud blight disease symptoms and infection by Cucurbitaria piceae (Bortw.) fungus. The virus genome consists of two segments that are 2071 and 2257 nt long, encoding the putative RNA polymerase and capsid protein, respectively. Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 1 is a closely related virus with 45 % amino acid sequence identity in the polymerase, and crimson clover cryptic virus 2 has 36 % amino acid sequence identity in the capsid protein. Based on taxonomic criteria, the virus should be classified as a member of the genus Betapartitivirus (family Partitiviridae). The name Cucurbitaria piceae partitivirus 1 and acronym CpPV1 are proposed. PMID:26874510

  15. Mapping the fluid flow of the Mariana Mounds ridge flank hydrothermal system: Pore water chemical tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheat, C. Geoffrey; McDuff, Russell E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of fluid circulation in a ridge flank hydrothermal system, the Mariana Mounds. The model is based on chemical data from pore waters extracted from piston cores and from push cores collected by deep-sea research vessel Alvin in small, meter-sized mounds situated on a local topographic high. These mounds are located within a region of heat flow exceeding that calculated from a conductive model and are zones of strong pore water upflow. We have interpreted the chemical data with time-dependent transport-reaction models to estimate pore water velocities. In the mounds themselves pore water velocities reach several meters per year to kilometers per year. Within about 100 m from these zones of focused upflow velocities decrease to several centimeters per year up to tens of centimeters per year. A larger area of low heat flow surrounds these heat flow and topographic highs, with upwelling pore water velocities less than 2 cm/yr. In some nearby cores, downwelling of bottom seawater is evident but at speeds less than 2 cm/yr. Downwelling through the sediments appears to be a minor source of seawater recharge to the basaltic basement. We conclude that the principal source of seawater recharge to basement is where basement outcrops exist, most likely a scarp about 2-4 km to the east and southeast of the study area.

  16. A novel large filamentous deltaproteobacterium on hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimneys of the Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shingo; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Unusual large filamentous bacteria (LFB) have been found on the deep seafloor environments. They play a significant role in geochemical cycling in the dark environments. However, our knowledge of the spatial distribution and phylogenetic diversity of the LFB on the deep seafloor are still limited due to the inaccessibility to these environments. Here, we report the discovery of a novel LFB on a hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimney in a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Southern Mariana Trough. Light and electron microscopic observation showed that the width and total length of the LFB were >8 μm and >100 μm, respectively, of which morphology was similar to that of other known LFB such as "cable bacteria" of the Desulfobulbaceae. Analyses of a 16S rRNA gene clone library and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this LFB belongs to the Desulfobulbaceae. The 16S rRNA gene of the LFB showed 94% similarity to those of the reported cable bacteria and cultured deltaproteobacterial species, suggesting that the LFB is a novel cable bacterium of the Desulfobulbaceae. The novel LFB potentially play a role in sulfur cycling on sulfide chimneys at the hydrothermally ceasing or even ceased deep-sea hydrothermal fields.

  17. Ground-water resources of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2000-01-01

    Tinian, which lies in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15°N and longitude 145°W (fig. 1), is the second largest island (39.2 mi2) in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Fresh ground water is obtained from shallow wells that tap the surface of a freshwater lends found in an aquifer composed mainly of coralline limestone. The main water-supply well withdraws water with a chloride concentration ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L. Current (1999) pumping rates adequately supply the island residents but future demand are expected to be higher.. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island and to learn more about the hydrology of oceanic islands, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study with the Municipality of Tinian. The objective of the study, conducted between 1990 and 1997, was to assess the ground-water resources of the is;land. This report presents some of the results of the study including a description of the island's geology and geography, the current land use, the water-production system, the thickness and arcal extent of the freshwater lens, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow. The report also discusses the relation of the changes in water-table elevation to daily and seasonal changes in ocean level.

  18. Review of Mariana Gosnell's 'ICE: The Nature, the History, and the Uses of an Astonishing Substance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2006-01-01

    ICE: The Nature, the History, and the Uses of an Astonishing Substance is a recently published book by Mariana Gosnell about ice. It covers not just the ice that is readily seen, such as sea ice, lake ice, icebergs, glaciers, ice sheets, and ice cubes, but also ice in the ground, in the atmosphere, inside plants and animals, and in outer space, plus new ice forms being created in scientific laboratories. Gosnell treats the reader to a well-written, easy-going mixture of science, adventure, history, applications, science methods and controversies, and philosophy, all centered in one way or another on ice. The book is 563 pages long and is filled with fascinating anecdotes and details, such as beetles in the Canadian Rockies that can supercool to 60 C below freezing and a lake in Minnesota where each winter typically 65,000 fishing shanties are set up on the lake's ice, many with couches, beds, television sets, and bathrooms. Gosnell also includes many practical suggestions. Among them: When driving on lake ice, keep your windows open, in case your vehicle breaks through the ice and you need to make a rapid exit.

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Benjamin L.; Williams, Ivor D.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Williams, Gareth J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research. PMID:22384014

  20. Mapping the fluid flow of the Mariana Mounds ridge flank hydrothermal system: Pore water chemical tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, C.G.; McDuff, R.E.

    1995-05-10

    The authors present a conceptual model of fluid circulation in a ridge flank hydrothermal system, the Mariana Mounds. The model is based on chemical data from pore waters extracted from piston cores and from push cores collected by deep-sea research vessel Alvin in small, meter-sized mounds situated on a local topographic high. These mounds are located within a region of heat flow exceeding that calculated from a conductive model and are zones of strong pore water upflow. The authors have interpreted the chemical data with time-dependent transport-reaction models to estimate pore water velocities. In the mounds themselves pore water velocities reach several meters per year to kilometers per year. Within about 100 m from these zones of focused upflow velocities decrease to several centimeters per year up to tens of centimeters per year. A large area of low heat flow surrounds these heat flow and topographic highs, with upwelling pore water velocities less than 2 cm/yr. In some nearby cores, downwelling of bottom seawater is evident but at speeds less than 2 cm/yr. Downwelling through the sediments appears to be a minor source of seawater recharge to the basaltic basement. The authors conclude that the principal source of seawater recharge to basement is where basement outcrops exist, most likely a scarpt about 2-4 km to the east and southeast of the study area. 71 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Identification of Free-Living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal Regions of the Mariana Trench

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Jonathan; Peoples, Logan M.; Hardy, Kevin; Cameron, James; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs) and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs) within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs). Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1 m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in 34 bacterial and 4 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper regions of the Mariana Trench

  2. Identification of Free-Living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal Regions of the Mariana Trench.

    PubMed

    Tarn, Jonathan; Peoples, Logan M; Hardy, Kevin; Cameron, James; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs) and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs) within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs). Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1 m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in 34 bacterial and 4 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper regions of the Mariana Trench

  3. Demonstration of paternal inheritance of plastids in Picea (Pinaceae). [Hybridization of cloned, sup 32 -P labeled, petunia cpDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, M.

    1988-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was purified from Picea glauca, P. pungens, P. engelmannii, and P. omorika, and was digested with several restriction endonucleases. Interspecific restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of cpDNA were identified. The RFLPs were identified as cpDNA by the hybridization of cloned, {sup 32}-P labeled, petunia cpDNA to the polymorphic bands, and by the lack of hybridization of a cloned and labeled mtDNA probe from maize. Chloroplast DNA RFLPs that showed no intraspecific variation when examined across the natural range for each species, were used as markers to follow the inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids. The inheritance of plastids was determined for F{sub 1}-hybrids from reciprocal crosses of P. glauca and P. pungens, P. glauca and P. omorika, and F{sub 1}-hybrids of P. engelmannii x pungens. All 31 F{sub 1}-hybrids examined showed the cpDNA genotypes of the pollen parent, or the paternal species.

  4. Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Suvi, Triin; Jairus, Teele; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2008-05-01

    Niche differentiation in soil horizons, host species and natural nutrient gradients contribute to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal forests. This study aims at documenting the diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings in five most abundant microsites in three Estonian old-growth forests. Undisturbed forest floor, windthrow mounds and pits harboured more species than brown- and white-rotted wood. Several species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were differentially represented on either hosts, microsites and sites. Generally, the most frequent species in dead wood were also common in forest floor soil. Ordination analyses suggested that decay type determined the composition of EcM fungal community in dead wood. Root connections with in-growing mature tree roots from below affected the occurrence of certain fungal species on seedling roots systems in dead wood. This study demonstrates that ectomycorrhizal fungi differentially establish in certain forest microsites that is attributable to their dispersal and competitive abilities. Elevated microsites, especially decayed wood, act as seed beds for both ectomycorrhizal forest trees and fungi, thus affecting the succession of boreal forest ecosystems. PMID:18266759

  5. Effect of debarking water from Norway spruce (Picea abies) on the growth of five species of wood-decaying fungi.

    PubMed

    Edfeldt, Amelie Fagerlund; Hedenström, Erik; Edman, Mattias; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste. PMID:25711043

  6. VOC emissions from Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. [Karst]) twigs in the field—Results of a dynamic enclosure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabmer, W.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Cojocariu, C.; Graus, M.; Rennenberg, H.; Steigner, D.; Steinbrecher, R.; Hansel, A.

    During the 2002 summer intensive field campaign of BEWA2000 a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used for online determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. [Karst]) twigs in a dynamic sampling enclosure. Emissions of isoprenoids (isoprene and monoterpenes) and oxygenated VOC (OVOC; acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, and ethanol) were investigated. Emissions showed clear diurnal patterns with high daytime emission rates amounting to 1.8 μg C g -1 dwt h -1 for the sum of monoterpenes and in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 μg C g -1 dwt h -1 for isoprene>acetone>ethanol>methanol. Data were used to validate existing models on isoprene and monoterpene emissions and to discuss environmental and physiological factors affecting VOC emissions. Isoprene and acetaldehyde emission rates were best modelled applying the Guenther 1993 temperature and solar radiation algorithm. Emissions of monoterpenes, acetone and ethanol were best described by a temperature-only exponential algorithm. Using these model approaches a maximum emission variability of 66% was covered (isoprene). Poor r2 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.42 were typical for oxygenated VOC emission modelling indicating the need for model improvement e.g. development of process-based models describing the emission as a result of biochemical de novo synthesis as well as physico-chemical transport properties inside the leaves.

  7. Effects of warming on ectomycorrhizal colonization and nitrogen nutrition of Picea asperata seedlings grown in two contrasting forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuejiao; Sun, Didi; Li, Dandan; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhao, Chunzhang; Lin, Honghui; Liu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) plays an important role in plant nitrogen (N) nutrition and regulates plant responded to climate warming. We conducted a field experiment in a natural forest and a plantation in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to estimate the warming effects of open-top chambers (OTC) on ECM and N nutrition of Picea asperata seedlings. Four-year warming significantly decreased ECM colonization, ECM fungal biomass, fine root vigor, and the N concentration of leaf, stem and coarse root, but significantly increased fine root N concentration and N content of leaf, stem, fine root and whole plant in natural forest. Contrarily, warming induced no obvious change in most of these parameters in plantation. Moreover, warming decreased rhizospheric soil inorganic N content in both forests. Our results showed that four-year warming was not beneficial for ECM colonization of P. asperata seedlings in the two forests, and the seedlings in natural forest were more sensitive and flexible to experimental warming than in plantation. The changes of ECM colonization and fine root biomass for effective N uptake would be good for plant growth and remit N leaching under future warming in natural forest. PMID:26655633

  8. Influence of climatic factors on tree-ring maximum latewood density of Picea schrenkiana in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Wang, Lili; Yin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The influence of temperature and precipitation on maximum latewood density (MXD) was mainly discussed in this paper, based on the samples of Picea schrenkiana from the Manas River Basin, Xinjiang, China. The correlation analysis between MXD and instrumental records from the Shihezi Meteorological Station showed that the MXD was positively related to the mean maximum temperature throughout the growing season at high elevations. Comparatively, the ring-width at low altitudes was limited by the precipitation in May-June. The composite chronology by MXD sequences was highly correlated with the mean maximum temperature in July-August ( r = 0.54, p<0.001), which was then reconstructed by the composite chronology. The comparative analysis on the reconstructed temperatures, observed values, and drought indices ( Is) revealed that precipitation would affect MXD when the absolute value of Is was greater than 1.5σ (i.e., | Is|>2.5) in the period of 1953-2008 A.D. or close to 1.5σ for 2-3 consecutive years. The response characteristics are linked with the semiarid climate in the study area. In a single year or consecutive years of extreme dryness, the lack of precipitation would limit the thickening of latewood cell walls and thus impact the MXD. All in all, if a MXD chronology is aimed to reconstruct temperature history, the moisture conditions at the sampling site should be considered prudently.

  9. Effects of warming on ectomycorrhizal colonization and nitrogen nutrition of Picea asperata seedlings grown in two contrasting forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuejiao; Sun, Didi; Li, Dandan; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhao, Chunzhang; Lin, Honghui; Liu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) plays an important role in plant nitrogen (N) nutrition and regulates plant responded to climate warming. We conducted a field experiment in a natural forest and a plantation in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to estimate the warming effects of open-top chambers (OTC) on ECM and N nutrition of Picea asperata seedlings. Four-year warming significantly decreased ECM colonization, ECM fungal biomass, fine root vigor, and the N concentration of leaf, stem and coarse root, but significantly increased fine root N concentration and N content of leaf, stem, fine root and whole plant in natural forest. Contrarily, warming induced no obvious change in most of these parameters in plantation. Moreover, warming decreased rhizospheric soil inorganic N content in both forests. Our results showed that four-year warming was not beneficial for ECM colonization of P. asperata seedlings in the two forests, and the seedlings in natural forest were more sensitive and flexible to experimental warming than in plantation. The changes of ECM colonization and fine root biomass for effective N uptake would be good for plant growth and remit N leaching under future warming in natural forest. PMID:26655633

  10. Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii) as a biological monitor of changes in soil metal loading related to past mining activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witte, K.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) is the dominant tree species in many abandoned mine areas of the Rocky Mountains. It is long-lived, and therefore, may act as a long term biological monitor of changes in soil chemistry caused by past mining activity. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) was used to analyze individual tree rings of Engelmann spruce for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Sr concentrations. Cores were obtained from trees growing in tailings-impacted and control (non-tailings impacted) sites near the Waldorf mine (Waldorf, CO, USA). Zinc, Cu, Fe, Cd, Pb and Sr concentrations remained low and consistent over time in the control tree rings. However, in the tailings impacted cores, concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Cd increase significantly in post-mining rings. In addition, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Cd concentrations in pre-mining rings of both the control and tailings impacted cores are similar, indicating that present day soil concentrations of these elements in the control area are a reasonable estimation of background for this area. Lead and Sr concentrations in control and tailings-impacted rings remained similar and relatively constant through time and are not useful in determining changes in soil chemistry due to past mining activity. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  12. Development of growth media for solid substrate propagation of ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Irmeli; Hamberg, Leena; Müller, Michael; Seiskari, Pekka; Pennanen, Taina

    2015-05-01

    A silica-based propagation medium was developed for large-scale production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal inoculum by solid state fermentation. Development of the medium was started by screening for an optimal growth medium among six different semisynthetic agar media traditionally used in cultivation of ECM fungi. The majority (65 %) of the twenty tested ECM fungal strains that typically colonize Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings grew best on modified Melin-Norkrans (MMN) medium with reduced sugar content (½MMN). In order to develop a nutritionally similar medium for large-scale cultivation of the ECM fungi, we chose silica to form a solid matrix and light brewery malt extract to provide nutrients. The medium was supplemented with a commercial humic acid product that was shown to boost fungal growth. The optimal concentration of the constituents was screened for in two assays by determining the growth rates of seven potential inoculant ECM fungal strains (Amphinema sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Hebeloma sp., Meliniomyces bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Piloderma byssinum, and Tylospora asterophora). As a result, we composed a silica-based mass propagation medium (pH 5.8) containing 2.5 % brewery malt extract and 0.5 g/l humic acid product Lignohumate AM. This medium is easily produced and supported good growth of even the slowly growing and rarely studied Athelioid ECM strains. Furthermore, root systems of Norway spruce nursery seedlings were colonized by the tested ECM fungi by using solid inoculum formulated from the silica medium. PMID:25348909

  13. [Stem radius growth of Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii nearby the tree-line of Luya Mountain].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan-Gang; Dong, Man-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Tao; Ren, Fei-Peng

    2009-06-01

    The stem radius growth (SRG) of six samples of Picea meyeri and five samples of Larix principis-rupprechtii nearby the tree-line of Luya Mountain in North China was measured by the dendrometer in the summer phase from July 15 to August 7 and the autumn phase from September 5 to October 9, 2007, with the environmental factors measured simultaneously. In the summer phase, there was no significant difference in the sensitivity of SRG to the environmental factors fluctuation between the two species; but in the relatively cold and dry autumn phase, the SRG of P. meyeri was more sensitive to the fluctuation of environmental factors. The accumulated SRG of the two species increased linearly in summer phase, but decreased first and kept stable then in autumn phase, with the growth increment of P. meyeri fluctuated more than that of L. principis-rupprechtii. The SRG of the two species correlated positively with hydrological factors and negatively with thermal factors, and the SRG of P. meyeri was strongly affected by air humidity and temperature, while that of L. principis-rupprechtii was mainly affected by soil moisture. PMID:19795632

  14. Natural decay process affects the abundance and community structure of Bacteria and Archaea in Picea abies logs.

    PubMed

    Rinta-Kanto, J M; Sinkko, H; Rajala, T; Al-Soud, W A; Sørensen, S J; Tamminen, M V; Timonen, S

    2016-07-01

    Prokaryotes colonize decaying wood and contribute to the degradation process, but the dynamics of prokaryotic communities during wood decay is still poorly understood. We studied the abundance and community composition of Bacteria and Archaea inhabiting naturally decaying Picea abies logs and tested the hypothesis that the variations in archaeal and bacterial abundances and community composition are coupled with environmental parameters related to the decay process. The data set comprises >500 logs at different decay stages from five geographical locations in south and central Finland. The results show that Bacteria and Archaea are an integral and dynamic component of decaying wood biota. The abundances of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes increase as wood decay progresses. Changes in bacterial community composition are clearly linked to the loss of density of wood, while specific fungal-bacterial interactions may also affect the distribution of bacterial taxa in decaying wood. Thaumarchaeota were prominent members of the archaeal populations colonizing decaying wood, providing further evidence of the versatility and cosmopolitan nature of this phylum in the environment. The composition and dynamics of the prokaryotic community suggest that they are an active component of biota that are involved in processing substrates in decaying wood material. PMID:27127195

  15. Divergent climate response on hydraulic-related xylem anatomical traits of Picea abies along a 900-m altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Castagneri, Daniele; Petit, Giai; Carrer, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Climate change can induce substantial modifications in xylem structure and water transport capacity of trees exposed to environmental constraints. To elucidate mechanisms of xylem plasticity in response to climate, we retrospectively analysed different cell anatomical parameters over tree-ring series in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). We sampled 24 trees along an altitudinal gradient (1200, 1600 and 2100 m above sea level, a.s.l.) and processed 2335 ± 1809 cells per ring. Time series for median cell lumen area (MCA), cell number (CN), tree-ring width (RW) and tree-ring-specific hydraulic conductivity (Kr) were crossed with daily temperature and precipitation records (1926-2011) to identify climate influence on xylem anatomical traits. Higher Kr at the low elevation site was due to higher MCA and CN. These variables were related to different aspects of intra-seasonal climatic variability under different environmental conditions, with MCA being more sensitive to summer precipitation. Winter precipitation (snow) benefited most parameters in all the sites. Descending the gradient, sensitivity of xylem features to summer climate shifted mostly from temperature to precipitation. In the context of climate change, our results indicate that higher summer temperatures at high elevations will benefit cell production and xylem hydraulic efficiency, whereas reduced water availability at lower elevations could negatively affect tracheids enlargement and thus stem capacity to transport water. PMID:26377871

  16. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI. PMID:22720600

  17. ,* Copper transport and accumulation in spruce stems (picea abies(L.) Karsten) revelaed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcarova, Dr. Lucie; Novotny, Dr. Karel; Babula, Dr. Petr; Pravaznik, Dr Ivo; Kucerova, Dr. Petra; Vojtech, Dr. Adam; Martin, Madhavi Z; Kizek, Dr. Rene; Kaiser, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in double pulse configuration (DP LIBS) was used for scanning elemental spatial distribution in annual terminal stems of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten). Cross sections of stems cultivated in Cu2+ solution of different concentrations were prepared and analyzed by DP LIBS. Raster scanning with 150 m spatial resolution was set and 2D (2-dimentional) maps of Cu and Ca distribution were created on the basis of the data obtained. Stem parts originating in the vicinity of the implementation of the cross sections were mineralized and subsequently Cu and Ca contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results provide quantitative information about overall concentration of the elements in places, where LIBS measurements were performed. The fluorescence pictures were created to compare LIBS distribution maps and the fluorescence intensity (or the increase in autofluorescence) was used for the comparison of ICP-MS quantitative results. Results from these three methods can be utilized for quantitative measurements of copper ions transport in different plant compartments in dependence on the concentration of cultivation medium and/or the time of cultivation.

  18. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTRACTS WITH...

  19. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Resources Act of 2008.” A transportation line bringing aliens to Guam or the Commonwealth of the...

  20. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Resources Act of 2008.” A transportation line bringing aliens to Guam or the Commonwealth of the...

  1. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Resources Act of 2008.” A transportation line bringing aliens to Guam or the Commonwealth of the...

  2. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Resources Act of 2008.” A transportation line bringing aliens to Guam or the Commonwealth of the...

  3. The eruption of Mount Pagan volcano, Mariana Islands, 15 May 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Norman G.; Koyanagi, Robert Y.; Sinton, John M.; Honma, Kenneth T.

    1984-10-01

    A major explosive eruption occurred 15 May 1981 at Mount Pagan Volcano, the larger of two historic eruptive centers on Pagan Island, Mariana Islands. The eruption was preceded by increased numbers of locally felt earthquakes beginning in late March or early April and by new ground cracks, new sublimates, and increased gas emissions. A swarm of felt earthquakes began at 0745h (local time = UCT+10 hours) 15 May, and at 0915 h, closely following a loud sonic boom, a strong plinian column issued from the volcano. The high-altitude ash cloud (at least 13.5 km) travelled south-southeast, but ash and scoria deposits were thickest (> 2 m) in the NW sector of the island because of the prevailing low-altitude southeasterly winds. The early activity of 15 May probably involved magmatic eruption along a fissure system oriented about N10°E. However, the eruption became hydromagmatic, possibly within minutes, and was largely restricted to three long-lived vents. The northernmost of these built a substantial new scoria-ash cinder cone. Flows and air-fall deposits, consisting almost entirely of juvenile material, exceeded 105 × 10 6 m 3 in volume (75 × 10 6 m 3 of magma) on land and at least 70-100 × 60 6 m 3 at sea. An unknown volume was carried away by stratospheric winds. Lithic blocks and juvenile bombs as large as 1 m in diameter were thrown more than 2 km from the summit, and evidence for base-surge was observed in restricted corridors as low as 200 m elevation on the north and south slopes of the volcano. Neither of these events resulted in serious injuries to the 54 residents of the island, nor did the eruption produce serious chemical hazards in their water supply. Weak eruptions occurred during the ensuing month, and some of these were monitored by ground observations, seismic monitoring, and deformation studies. Precursory seismicity and possibly deformation occurred with some of the observed eruptions. More vigorous eruptions were reported by visiting residents in

  4. Active Volcanic and Hydrothermal Processes at NW Rota-1 Submarine Volcano: Mariana Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, W. W.; de Ronde, C.; Dower, J.; Evans, L.; Hein, J.; Juniper, K.; Lebon, G.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S.; Metaxas, A.; Nakamura, K.; Resing, J. E.; Roe, K.; Stern, R.; Tunnicliffe, V.

    2004-12-01

    Dives with the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS in March/April 2004 documented a volcanic eruption at NW Rota-1, a submarine volcano of basaltic composition located at 14\\deg 36.0'N, 144\\deg 46.5'E lying 65 km northwest of Rota Island in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The site was chosen as a dive target because of the of the high concentrations of H2S and alunite in the hydrothermal plume overlying its summit in February 2003. The summit of the volcano is composed of curvilinear volcanic ridge oriented NW-SE bounded by NE-SW trending normal faults. Lavas collected on the upper part of the edifice are primitive to moderately fractionated basalts (Mg# = 51-66). The eruptive activity is occurring within a small crater (Brimstone Pit) located on the upper south flank of the volcano at 550 m, about 30 m below the summit. The crater is approximately 15 m wide and at least 20 meters deep. The ROPOS's cameras observed billowing clouds of sulfur-rich fluid rising out of the crater, punctuated by frequent bursts of several minutes duration that entrained glassy volcanic ejecta up to at least 2 cm in diameter. ROPOS recorded a temperature of 38\\degC within the plume. The volcanic activity had substantial temporal variability on the scale of minutes. ROPOS was sometimes completely enveloped by the plume while on the rim of the crater, and its surfaces were coated with large sulfur droplets. Black glassy fragments were entrained in the plume up to least 50 m above the crater and deposits of this material were on ledges and tops of outcrops up to several hundred meters from Brimstone Pit. The pit crater fluids have an extremely high content of particulate sulfur and extremely acidic, with pH around 2.0. This strongly implicates magmatic degassing of SO2 and disproportionation into elemental S and sulfuric acid. Diffuse venting of clear fluids was also present on the summit of the volcano, with temperatures exceeding 100\\degC in volcaniclastic sands

  5. The May 2010 submarine eruption from South Sarigan seamount, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGimsey, R. G.; Neal, C. A.; Searcy, C. K.; Camacho, J. T.; Aydlett, W. B.; Embley, R. W.; Trusdell, F.; Paskievitch, J. F.; Schneider, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    A sudden submarine explosive eruption occurred on May 29, 2010, from a seamount south of Sarigan Island in the Northern Mariana Islands, propelling a diffuse steam and ash cloud to high altitude. Pre-eruptive seismicity was recorded in early April by stations located on Sarigan and Anatahan Island, 42 km to the south, and indicated a source ~12-16 km south of Sarigan. On May 27-28, a change in seismicity—the appearance of tremor-like waveforms—may have marked the onset of volcanic activity. Also on May 27, an elongate patch of discolored ocean water and possible light-colored floating debris about 8-11 km south of Sarigan was observed from a helicopter. This material was likely produced during low-intensity eruptive activity, and an Information Statement from the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) Emergency Management Office (EMO) and USGS issued at 2353 UTC May 28 described the observation. The Guam Weather Forecast Office of the National Weather Service reported that the area of discoloration, visible on satellite images at 2313 and 2330 UTC on May 28, was about 10 km2, about twice the size of Sarigan Island. Pulses of tremor merged into a nearly continuous signal by 0305 UTC on May 29, lasting for ~4.5 hours followed by nearly 4.5 hours of quiescence. The EMO issued a declaration closing the region south of Sarigan to all local boating traffic and issued an advisory to aircraft. The explosive onset of the main plume-producing event occurred at ~1148 UTC as confirmed by seismic records on Anatahan Island, with the strongest phase ending ~1200 UTC. Soon after, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center reported an eruption cloud reaching an estimated 40,000 feet (12 km) ASL that diminished rapidly on satellite imagery suggesting it was water-vapor dominated. Winds carried the cloud southwest over Guam, and although no ash fall was reported, the cloud was visible and was detected in Aura/OMI aerosol index imagery. Biologists on Sarigan Island

  6. The eruption of Mount Pagan volcano, Mariana Islands, 15 May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, N.G.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Sinton, J.M.; Honma, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    A major explosive eruption occurred 15 May 1981 at Mount Pagan Volcano, the larger of two historic eruptive centers on Pagan Island, Mariana Islands. The eruption was preceded by increased numbers of locally felt earthquakes beginning in late March or early April and by new ground cracks, new sublimates, and increased gas emissions. A swarm of felt earthquakes began at 0745h (local time = UCT+10 hours) 15 May, and at 0915 h, closely following a loud sonic boom, a strong plinian column issued from the volcano. The high-altitude ash cloud (at least 13.5 km) travelled south-southeast, but ash and scoria deposits were thickest (> 2 m) in the NW sector of the island because of the prevailing low-altitude southeasterly winds. The early activity of 15 May probably involved magmatic eruption along a fissure system oriented about N10??E. However, the eruption became hydromagmatic, possibly within minutes, and was largely restricted to three long-lived vents. The northernmost of these built a substantial new scoria-ash cinder cone. Flows and air-fall deposits, consisting almost entirely of juvenile material, exceeded 105 ?? 106 m3 in volume (75 ?? 106 m3 of magma) on land and at least 70-100 ?? 606 m3 at sea. An unknown volume was carried away by stratospheric winds. Lithic blocks and juvenile bombs as large as 1 m in diameter were thrown more than 2 km from the summit, and evidence for base-surge was observed in restricted corridors as low as 200 m elevation on the north and south slopes of the volcano. Neither of these events resulted in serious injuries to the 54 residents of the island, nor did the eruption produce serious chemical hazards in their water supply. Weak eruptions occurred during the ensuing month, and some of these were monitored by ground observations, seismic monitoring, and deformation studies. Precursory seismicity and possibly deformation occurred with some of the observed eruptions. More vigorous eruptions were reported by visiting residents in late

  7. Compositional Variations of Paleogene and Neogene Tephra From the Northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepley, F. J., III; Barth, A. P.; Brandl, P. A.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Jiang, F.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Li, H.; Marsaglia, K. M.; McCarthy, A.; Meffre, S.; Savov, I. P.; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    A primary objective of IODP Expedition 351 was to evaluate arc initiation processes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) volcanic arc and its compositional evolution through time. To this end, a single thick section of sediment overlying oceanic crust was cored in the Amami Sankaku Basin where a complete sediment record of arc inception and evolution is preserved. This sediment record includes ash and pyroclasts, deposited in fore-arc, arc, and back-arc settings, likely associated with both the ~49-25 Ma emergent IBM volcanic arc and the evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu volcanic arc. Our goal was to assess the major element evolution of the nascent and evolving IBM system using the temporally constrained record of the early and developing system. In all, more than 100 ash and tuff layers, and pyroclastic fragments were selected from temporally resolved portions of the core, and from representative fractions of the overall core ("core catcher"). The samples were prepared to determine major and minor element compositions via electron microprobe analyses. This ash and pyroclast record will allow us to 1) resolve the Paleogene evolutionary history of the northern IBM arc in greater detail; 2) determine compositional variations of this portion of the IBM arc through time; 3) compare the acquired data to an extensive whole rock and tephra dataset from other segments of the IBM arc; 4) test hypotheses of northern IBM arc evolution and the involvement of different source reservoirs; and 5) mark important stratigraphic markers associated with the Neogene volcanic history of the adjacent evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu arc.

  8. Ten years of satellite observations reveal highly variable sulphur dioxide emissions at Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Brendan; Popp, Christoph; Andrews, Benjamin; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing enables continuous multiyear observations of volcanic activity in remote settings. Anatahan (Mariana Islands) is a remote volcano in the western North Pacific. Available ground-based measurements of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas emissions at Anatahan place it among thelargest volcanic SO2 sources worldwide. These ground-based measurements, however, are restricted to eruptive intervals. Anatahan's activity since 2003 has been dominated temporally by prolonged periods of quiescence. Using 10 years of satellite observations from OMI, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2, we report highly variable SO2 emissions within and between eruptive and quiescent intervals at Anatahan. We find close correspondence between levels of activity reported at the volcano and levels of SO2 emissions detected from space. Eruptive SO2 emission rates have a mean value of ˜6400 t d-1, but frequently are in excess of 20,000 t d-1. Conversely, SO2 emissions during quiescent intervals are below the detection limit of space-based sensors and therefore are not likely to exceed ˜300 t d-1. We show that while Anatahan occupies a quiescent state for 85% of the past 10 years, only ˜15% of total SO2 emissions over this interval occur during quiescence, with the remaining ˜85% released in short duration but intense syn-eruptive degassing. We propose that the integration of multiyear satellite data sets and activity histories are a powerful complement to targeted ground-based campaign measurements in better describing the long-term degassing behavior of remote volcanoes.

  9. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Age model for Site U1438

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Antony; Maffione, Marco; Kender, Sev; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Bandini, Alexandre; Guerra, Rodrigo do Monte

    2015-04-01

    We report preliminary paleomagnetic and paleontological results from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 351, which recovered an unprecedented ~1.4 km thick volcaniclastic sedimentary record documenting the initiation and subsequent evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) intra-oceanic arc-basin system. Magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic constraints provide a high-resolution temporal framework for interpretation of this record. Paleomagnetic analyses of archive half core samples provide a continuous record of the geomagnetic field inclination down to 847 mbsf that allows construction of a detailed site magnetostratigraphy that closely matches the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (Gradstein et al., 2012). A total of 87 geomagnetic reversals have been recognized in the studied succession, extending back to ~36 Ma. Despite sporadic microfossil occurrences in parts, calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians each contribute to the age model for the entire Site. All nannofossil marker species for Oligocene to Eocene Zones NP25 to NP19/20 are recognised. Beneath paleomagnetic control (847-1449 mbsf), foraminifera and radiolarians provide the only age control. The most salient features of the age model are that: (i) average linear sedimentation rates during the Plio-Pleistocene range from 1.4 to 2.2 cm/ka; (ii) there was a reduction in sedimentation rates to 0.25 - 0.5 cm/ka throughout the Miocene; and (iii) sedimentation rates sharply increase again in the Oligocene to Late Eocene to a maximum of ~20 cm/ka. These quantitative constraints closely match (non-quantitative) inferences based on the lithostratigraphy of the site, with fine-grained/coarse-grained sediments dominating in periods with low/high sedimentation rates respectively.

  10. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Age Model for Site U1438

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A.; Aljahdali, M. H.; Bandini, A. N.; do Monte Guerra, R.; Kender, S.; Maffione, M.

    2014-12-01

    We report preliminary paleomagnetic and paleontological results from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 351, which recovered an unprecedented ~1.4 km thick volcaniclastic sedimentary record documenting the initiation and subsequent evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) intra-oceanic arc-basin system. Magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic constraints provide a high-resolution temporal framework for interpretation of this record.Paleomagnetic analyses of archive half core samples provide a continuous record of the geomagnetic field inclination down to 847 mbsf that allows construction of a detailed site magnetostratigraphy that closely matches the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (Gradstein et al., 2012). A total of 87 geomagnetic reversals have been recognized in the studied succession, extending back to ~36 Ma. Despite sporadic microfossil occurrences in parts, calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians each contribute to the age model for the entire Site. All nannofossil marker species for Oligocene to Eocene Zones NP25 to NP19/20 are recognised. Beneath paleomagnetic control (847-1449 mbsf), foraminifera and radiolarians provide the only age control.The most salient features of the age model are that: (i) average linear sedimentation rates during the Plio-Pleistocene range from 1.4 to 2.2 cm/ka; (ii) there was a reduction in sedimentation rates to 0.25 - 0.5 cm/ka throughout the Miocene; and (iii) sedimentation rates sharply increase again in the Oligocene to Late Eocene to a maximum of ~20 cm/ka. These quantitative constraints closely match (non-quantitative) inferences based on the lithostratigraphy of the site, with fine-grained/coarse-grained sediments dominating in periods with low/high sedimentation rates respectively.

  11. Enigmatic Cranial Superstructures among Chamorro Ancestors from the Mariana Islands: Gross Anatomy and Microanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Gary M.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Sava, Vincent J.; Hanson, Douglas B.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and meaning of three enigmatic, geographically-patterned, quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSS), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT, PR and TSP develop at posterior cranial attachment sites of the upper trapezius, superior oblique and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. Marked expression and co-occurrence of these OSS are virtually circumscribed within Oceania and reach highest recorded frequencies in proto-historic Chamorros (CHamoru) of the Mariana Islands. Prior to undertaking scanning electron microscopy (SEM) work, our working multifactorial model for OSS development was that early-onset, long-term, chronic activity-related microtrauma at enthesis sites led to exuberant reactive or reparative responses in a substantial minority of genetically predisposed (and mostly male) individuals. SEM imaging, however, reveals topographic patterning that questions, but does not negate, activity-induction of these superstructures. While OSS appear macroscopically as relatively large and discrete phenomena, SEM findings reveal a unique, widespread and seemingly systemic distribution of structures over the occipital surface that have the appearance of OSS microforms. Nevertheless, apparent genetic underpinnings, anatomic relationships with muscle entheses, and positive correlation of OSS development with humeral robusticity continue to suggest that these superstructures have potential to at once bear witness to Chamorro population history and inform osteobiographical constructions of chronic activity patterns in individuals bearing them. Further work is outlined that would illuminate the proximate and ultimate meanings of OSS. PMID:24753475

  12. Submarine venting of liquid carbon dioxide on a Mariana Arc volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, John; Butterfield, David; Lilley, Marvin; Evans, Leigh; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Chadwick, William; Resing, Joseph; Embley, Robert; Olson, Eric; Proskurowski, Giora; Baker, Edward; de Ronde, Cornel; Roe, Kevin; Greene, Ronald; Lebon, Geoff; Young, Conrad

    2006-08-01

    Although CO2 is generally the most abundant dissolved gas found in submarine hydrothermal fluids, it is rarely found in the form of CO2 liquid. Here we report the discovery of an unusual CO2-rich hydrothermal system at 1600-m depth near the summit of NW Eifuku, a small submarine volcano in the northern Mariana Arc. The site, named Champagne, was found to be discharging two distinct fluids from the same vent field: a 103°C gas-rich hydrothermal fluid and cold (<4°C) droplets composed mainly of liquid CO2. The hot vent fluid contained up to 2.7 moles/kg CO2, the highest ever reported for submarine hydrothermal fluids. The liquid droplets were composed of ˜98% CO2, ˜1% H2S, with only trace amounts of CH4 and H2. Surveys of the overlying water column plumes indicated that the vent fluid and buoyant CO2 droplets ascended <200 m before dispersing into the ocean. Submarine venting of liquid CO2 has been previously observed at only one other locality, in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin (Sakai et al., 1990a), a geologic setting much different from NW Eifuku, which is a young arc volcano. The discovery of such a high CO2 flux at the Champagne site, estimated to be about 0.1% of the global MOR carbon flux, suggests that submarine arc volcanoes may play a larger role in oceanic carbon cycling than previously realized. The Champagne field may also prove to be a valuable natural laboratory for studying the effects of high CO2 concentrations on marine ecosystems.

  13. Direct video and hydrophone observations of submarine explosive eruptions at NW Rota-1 volcano, Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, W. W.; Cashman, K. V.; Embley, R. W.; Matsumoto, H.; Dziak, R. P.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Lau, T. K.; Deardorff, N. D.; Merle, S. G.

    2008-08-01

    Extraordinary video and hydrophone observations of a submarine explosive eruption were made with a remotely operated vehicle in April 2006 at a depth of 550-560 m on NW Rota-1 volcano in the Mariana arc. The observed eruption evolved from effusive to explosive, while the eruption rate increased from near zero to 10-100 m3/h. During the peak in activity, cyclic explosive bursts 2-6 min long were separated by shorter non-eruptive pauses lasting 10-100 s. The size of the ejecta increased with the vigor of the explosions. A portable hydrophone deployed near the vent recorded sounds correlated with the explosive bursts; the highest amplitudes were ˜50 dB higher than ambient noise at frequencies between 10 and 50 Hz. The acoustic data allow us to quantify the durations, amplitudes, and evolution of the eruptive events over time. The low eruption rate, high gas/lava ratio, and rhythmic eruptive behavior at NW Rota-1 are most consistent with a Strombolian eruptive style. We interpret that the eruption was primarily driven by the venting of magmatic gases, which was also the primary source of the sound recorded during the explosive bursts. The rhythmic nature of the bursts can be explained by partial gas segregation in the conduit and upward migration in a transitional regime between bubbly flow and fully developed slug flow. The strongest explosive bursts were accompanied by flashes of red glow and oscillating eruption plumes in the vent, apparently caused by magma-seawater interaction and rapid steam formation and condensation. This is the first time submarine explosive eruptions have been witnessed with simultaneous near-field acoustic recordings.

  14. Anomalous Chlorine Concentrations Indicate Recycling of Submarine Pyroclasts at NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorff, N.; Cashman, K. V.; Chadwick, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    NW Rota-1 is a submarine volcano in the southern Mariana Arc. The active vent, Brimstone Pit, has shown activity that ranged from slow extrusion to explosive bursts that generate a sustained plume tens of meters above the vent. Eruptive activity was observed in April 2006 and 2009 using remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). In 2006, explosive bursts deposited coarse ash, lapilli and bombs within a few meters of the vent. Suppression of the eruptive plume by the overlying seawater caused many of the clasts to fall out of the plume directly over the vent, thus creating the opportunity for extensive recycling of erupted clasts. Recycled material can be identified in quenched pyroclasts as areas of high groundmass crystallinity. The transition from glassy groundmass to the crystalline groundmass of an inclusion is either sharp or gradual, often with a transitional area of apparent mixing. Elevated Cl and Na concentrations have been detected within these inclusions and mixing areas using both x-ray mapping and microprobe analysis. Cl concentrations reach 1.7 wt%, an enrichment of several times over magmatic Cl concentrations of < 3000 ppm. These recycled clasts are observed only in pyroclasts from the most energetic activity observed in 2006. Activity in April, 2009 was less energetic and characterized by slow lava extrusion. Lava extrusion was accompanied by vigorous degassing and the expulsion of tephra. Tephra morphologies are consistent with quench fragmentation driven by subsurface interaction with the surrounding seawater. Rapid changes in the surface color and texture of the extruded lava may provide further evidence of seawater interaction. Analyzing the composition and microcrystalline textures within the lava samples collected in 2009, and comparing them to the 2006 scoria, will allow us to constrain the timing and extent of chemical incorporation of seawater into juvenile material under different eruption conditions.

  15. Spawning Sites of the Japanese Eel in Relation to Oceanographic Structure and the West Mariana Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Jun; Watanabe, Shun; Miller, Michael J.; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150–180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front), longitude (seamount ridge), and depth (top of the thermocline) to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning. PMID:24551155

  16. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Results of the DD inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Oki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

    2004-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) had been performed from June 2003 until April 2004, which is a part of the MARGINS program funded by the NSF. Prior to this observation, a pilot long-term seismic array observation was conducted in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs from Oct. 2001 until Feb. 2003. By using seven LTOBS's data, those are about 11 months long, hypocenter determination was performed at first and more than 3000 local events were found, although the PDE list contains only 59. A 1D velocity structure based on the iasp91 model was used, and a systematic shift of epicenters between the PDE list and this study was seen. To investigate the detail of hypocenter distribution and the 3D velocity structure, the DD inversion (tomoDD: Zhang and Thurber, 2003) was applied for this data set with a 1D structure initial model except for the crust, which has been surveyed by using a dense airgun-OBS system (Takahashi et al., 2003). The result of relocated hypocenters shows double seismic zones until about 200km depth and a lined focuses along the current ridge axis in the back-arc basin, and the result of the tomographic inversion shows a image of subducting slab and a low-Vs region below the Pagan island erupted in 1981 at 80km depth. The mantle structure beneath the back-arc basin was not clearly resolved due to the inadequate source-receiver coverage, which is cleared in the recent experiment.

  17. Vertically migrating micronekton and macrozooplankton communities around Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntsov, Andrey; Domokos, Réka

    2013-01-01

    The distribution, biomass, and assemblages of vertically migrating micronekton/macrozooplankton were studied in relation to oceanographic conditions around Guam and the adjacent Northern Mariana Islands during Spring 2010, using 3-m2 Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The study area was located within the oligotrophic waters of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC). However, southern stations of the survey were situated close to the northern boundary of the more productive North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), where we observed the highest biomass, abundance, species richness, and diversity of pelagic organisms. Overall, we recorded 85 species from 20 families of mostly mesopelagic species in the area, with lanternfishes (Myctophidae-40 species) and dragonfishes (Stomiidae-18 species) being the most taxonomically diverse groups. Three genera of mesopelagic shrimps, Sergestes, Janicella and Sergia, dominated the decapod crustacean component of the micronekton community numerically and by biomass, while the contribution from cephalopods was relatively minor. Assemblages of major micronekton/macrozooplankton groups, based on biomass and abundance showed principal changes with latitude. However, the classification and ordination analysis, based on taxonomically resolved taxa (fishes and decapod shrimps), indicated additional zonal variation, with areas east and west of the island chain showing different community structure. The mean total micronekton biomass for the area near the productive boundary region between the NEC and NECC was 5.8 mg/m3, with a mean biomass of 1.2 mg/m3 obtained for stations in the oligotrophic NEC area. The corresponding biomass of mesopelagic fishes was 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.24 mg/m3 for these two areas, respectively. We reviewed and compared the available information on the quantitative distribution of midwater fish biomass in the western tropical Pacific and outlined major patterns of variation in the equatorial Pacific in

  18. Impact of Heterobasidion root-rot on fine root morphology and associated fungi in Picea abies stands on peat soils.

    PubMed

    Gaitnieks, Talis; Klavina, Darta; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Pennanen, Taina; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Menkis, Audrius

    2016-07-01

    We examined differences in fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and root-inhabiting fungal communities between Picea abies individuals infected by Heterobasidion root-rot compared with healthy individuals in four stands on peat soils in Latvia. We hypothesised that decreased tree vitality and alteration in supply of photosynthates belowground due to root-rot infection might lead to changes in fungal communities of tree roots. Plots were established in places where trees were infected and in places where they were healthy. Within each stand, five replicate soil cores with roots were taken to 20 cm depth in each root-rot infected and uninfected plot. Root morphological parameters, mycorrhizal colonisation and associated fungal communities, and soil chemical properties were analysed. In three stands root morphological parameters and in all stands root mycorrhizal colonisation were similar between root-rot infected and uninfected plots. In one stand, there were significant differences in root morphological parameters between root-rot infected versus uninfected plots, but these were likely due to significant differences in soil chemical properties between the plots. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal nuclear rDNA from ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root morphotypes of P. abies revealed the presence of 42 fungal species, among which ECM basidiomycetes Tylospora asterophora (24.6 % of fine roots examined), Amphinema byssoides (14.5 %) and Russula sapinea (9.7 %) were most common. Within each stand, the richness of fungal species and the composition of fungal communities in root-rot infected versus uninfected plots were similar. In conclusion, Heterobasidion root-rot had little or no effect on fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and composition of fungal communities in fine roots of P. abies growing on peat soils. PMID:26861482

  19. A possible biochemical basis for fructose-induced inhibition of embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2014-06-01

    Sugars play an important role in various physiological processes during plant growth and development; however, the developmental roles and regulatory functions of hexoses other than glucose are still largely unclear. Recent studies suggest that blocked embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) is associated with accumulation of fructose. In the present study, the potential biochemical regulatory mechanism of glucose and fructose was studied during development of somatic embryos of Norway spruce from pro-embryogenic masses to mature embryos. The changes in protein fluorescence, a marker of the Maillard reaction, were monitored in two cell lines of Norway spruce that were grown on media containing sucrose (control), glucose or fructose. Manual time-lapse photography showed that growth of embryogenic cultures on medium containing sucrose was characterized by normal development of mature embryos whereas the embryogenic cultures that were grown on media containing glucose or fructose did not develop mature embryos. The biochemical analyses of embryogenic samples collected during embryo development showed that: (i) the content of glucose and fructose in the embryogenic cultures increased significantly during growth on each medium, respectively; (ii) the accumulation of Maillard products in the embryogenic cultures was highly correlated with the endogenous content of fructose but not glucose; and (iii) the embryogenic cultures grown on fructose displayed the highest protein carbonyl content and DNA damage whereas the highest content of glutathione was recorded in the embryogenic cultures that had grown on sucrose. Our data suggest that blocked development of embryos in the presence of fructose may be associated with the Maillard reaction. PMID:25001865

  20. [Climate-growth relationships of Picea koraiensis and causes of its recent decline in Xiaoxing' an Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi-chao; Wang, Xiao-chun; Xiao, Xing-wei

    2015-07-01

    Two tree-ring width chronologies of Picea koraiensis at two altitudes in Fenglin National Nature Reserve of Xiaoxing'an Mountains, China were developed by using dendrochronological methods. To identify main limiting factors of P. koraiensis radial growth at the two altitudes, the relationships between the chronologies and local temperature, precipitation, Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), and large-scale climatic factors were investigated. Meanwhile, the reasons of P. koraiensis growth decline in recent years were also explored. Results showed that radial growth of P. koraiensis in Xiaoxing'an Mountains was mainly limited by temperatures, especially by the minimum temperature in growing season, while the limiting effect of precipitation was relatively weak. Climate responses of P. koraiensis growth at the different altitudes showed significant differences. Radial growths of P. koraiensis at the low altitude were positively correlated with precipitation in the current growth season (June-September) and whole year, and negatively correlated with soil temperatures at different depths, especially at 80 cm depth in growing season. Meanwhile, it was signi-ficantly positively correlated with PDSI in growing season. However, the relationships between radial growth of P. koraiensis at the high altitude and precipitation, air and soil temperatures, and PDSI were not significant as that at the low altitude. Growth decline of P. koraiensis in Xiaoxing'an Mountains could be related to the phase changes in Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and the significant global warming since 1980. The coupling effects of the above changes might result in increased soil evaporation and exacerbated warming and drying phenomena, consequently causing the growth decline of P. koraiensis at the low altitude. PMID:26710617

  1. Imaging of Dynamic Secretory Vesicles in Living Pollen Tubes of Picea meyeri Using Evanescent Wave Microscopy1[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohua; Teng, Yan; Wang, Qinli; Li, Xiaojuan; Sheng, Xianyong; Zheng, Maozhong; Šamaj, Jozef; Baluška, František; Lin, Jinxing

    2006-01-01

    Evanescent wave excitation was used to visualize individual, FM4-64-labeled secretory vesicles in an optical slice proximal to the plasma membrane of Picea meyeri pollen tubes. A standard upright microscope was modified to accommodate the optics used to direct a laser beam at a variable angle. Under evanescent wave microscopy or total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorophores localized near the surface were excited with evanescent waves, which decay exponentially with distance from the interface. Evanescent waves with penetration depths of 60 to 400 nm were generated by varying the angle of incidence of the laser beam. Kinetic analysis of vesicle trafficking was made through an approximately 300-nm optical section beneath the plasma membrane using time-lapse evanescent wave imaging of individual fluorescently labeled vesicles. Two-dimensional trajectories of individual vesicles were obtained from the resulting time-resolved image stacks and were used to characterize the vesicles in terms of their average fluorescence and mobility, expressed here as the two-dimensional diffusion coefficient D2. The velocity and direction of vesicle motions, frame-to-frame displacement, and vesicle trajectories were also calculated. Analysis of individual vesicles revealed for the first time, to our knowledge, that two types of motion are present, and that vesicles in living pollen tubes exhibit complicated behaviors and oscillations that differ from the simple Brownian motion reported in previous investigations. Furthermore, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton had a much more pronounced effect on vesicle mobility than did disruption of the microtubules, suggesting that actin cytoskeleton plays a primary role in vesicle mobility. PMID:16798949

  2. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate–growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April–October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  3. Evolution of gene structure in the conifer Picea glauca: a comparative analysis of the impact of intron size

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A positive relationship between genome size and intron length is observed across eukaryotes including Angiosperms plants, indicating a co-evolution of genome size and gene structure. Conifers have very large genomes and longer introns on average than most plants, but impacts of their large genome and longer introns on gene structure has not be described. Results Gene structure was analyzed for 35 genes of Picea glauca obtained from BAC sequencing and genome assembly, including comparisons with A. thaliana, P. trichocarpa and Z. mays. We aimed to develop an understanding of impact of long introns on the structure of individual genes. The number and length of exons was well conserved among the species compared but on average, P. glauca introns were longer and genes had four times more intronic sequence than Arabidopsis, and 2 times more than poplar and maize. However, pairwise comparisons of individual genes gave variable results and not all contrasts were statistically significant. Genes generally accumulated one or a few longer introns in species with larger genomes but the position of long introns was variable between plant lineages. In P. glauca, highly expressed genes generally had more intronic sequence than tissue preferential genes. Comparisons with the Pinus taeda BACs and genome scaffolds showed a high conservation for position of long introns and for sequence of short introns. A survey of 1836 P. glauca genes obtained by sequence capture mostly containing introns <1 Kbp showed that repeated sequences were 10× more abundant in introns than in exons. Conclusion Conifers have large amounts of intronic sequence per gene for seed plants due to the presence of few long introns and repetitive element sequences are ubiquitous in their introns. Results indicate a complex landscape of intron sizes and distribution across taxa and between genes with different expression profiles. PMID:24734980

  4. Pinus flexilis and Picea engelmannii share a simple and consistent needle endophyte microbiota with a potential role in nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Carrell, Alyssa A.; Frank, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Conifers predominantly occur on soils or in climates that are suboptimal for plant growth. This is generally attributed to symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi and to conifer adaptations, but recent experiments suggest that aboveground endophytic bacteria in conifers fix nitrogen (N) and affect host shoot tissue growth. Because most bacteria cannot be grown in the laboratory very little is known about conifer–endophyte associations in the wild. Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) growing in a subalpine, nutrient-limited environment are potential candidates for hosting endophytes with roles in N2 fixation and abiotic stress tolerance. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to ask whether these conifers host a core of bacterial species that are consistently associated with conifer individuals and therefore potential mutualists. We found that while overall the endophyte communities clustered according to host species, both conifers were consistently dominated by the same phylotype, which made up 19–53% and 14–39% of the sequences in P. flexilis and P. engelmannii, respectively. This phylotype is related to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and other N2 fixing acetic acid bacterial endophytes. The pattern observed for the P. flexilis and P. engelmannii needle microbiota—a small number of major species that are consistently associated with the host across individuals and species—is unprecedented for an endophyte community, and suggests a specialized beneficial endophyte function. One possibility is endophytic N fixation, which could help explain how conifers can grow in severely nitrogen-limited soil, and why some forest ecosystems accumulate more N than can be accounted for by known nitrogen input pathways. PMID:25071746

  5. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. PMID:26342621

  6. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  7. Fine-scale geographic variation in photosynthetic-related traits of Picea glauca seedlings indicates local adaptation to climate.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Villeneuve, Isabelle; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A

    2015-08-01

    Climate-related variations in functional traits of boreal tree species can result both from physiological acclimation and genetic adaptation of local populations to their biophysical environment. To improve our understanding and prediction of the physiological and growth responses of populations to climate change, we studied the role of climate of seed origin in determining variations in functional traits and its implications for tree improvement programs for a commonly reforested boreal conifer, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). We evaluated growth, root-to-shoot ratio (R/S), specific leaf area (SLA), needle nitrogen (N(mass)), total non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and photosynthetic traits of 3-year-old seedlings in a greenhouse experiment using seed from six seed orchards (SO) representing the different regions where white spruce is reforested in Québec. Height and total dry mass (TDM) were positively correlated with photosynthetic capacity (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)). Total dry mass, but not height growth, was strongly correlated with latitude of seed origin (SO) and associated climate variables. A(max), g(s), g(m) and more marginally, photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) were positively associated with the mean July temperature of the SO, while water use efficiency (WUE) was negatively associated. Maximum rates of carboxylation (V(cmax)), maximum rates of electron transport (J(max)), SLA, N(mass), NSC and R/S showed no pattern. Our results did not demonstrate a higher Amax for northern seed orchards, although this has been previously hypothesized as an adaptation mechanism for maintaining carbon uptake in northern regions. We suggest that gs, gm, WUE and PNUE are the functional traits most associated with fine-scale geographic clines and with the degree of local adaptation of white spruce populations to their biophysical environments. These geographic patterns may reflect in situ adaptive genetic

  8. The genome and transcriptome of the pine saprophyte Ophiostoma piceae, and a comparison with the bark beetle-associated pine pathogen Grosmannia clavigera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ophiostoma piceae is a wood-staining fungus that grows in the sapwood of conifer logs and lumber. We sequenced its genome and analyzed its transcriptomes under a range of growth conditions. A comparison with the genome and transcriptomes of the mountain pine beetle-associated pathogen Grosmannia clavigera highlights differences between a pathogen that colonizes and kills living pine trees and a saprophyte that colonizes wood and the inner bark of dead trees. Results We assembled a 33 Mbp genome in 45 scaffolds, and predicted approximately 8,884 genes. The genome size and gene content were similar to those of other ascomycetes. Despite having similar ecological niches, O. piceae and G. clavigera showed no large-scale synteny. We identified O. piceae genes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin, which causes wood discoloration and reduces the commercial value of wood products. We also identified genes and pathways involved in growth on simple carbon sources and in sapwood, O. piceae’s natural substrate. Like the pathogen, the saprophyte is able to tolerate terpenes, which are a major class of pine tree defense compounds; unlike the pathogen, it cannot utilize monoterpenes as a carbon source. Conclusions This work makes available the second annotated genome of a softwood ophiostomatoid fungus, and suggests that O. piceae’s tolerance to terpenes may be due in part to these chemicals being removed from the cells by an ABC transporter that is highly induced by terpenes. The data generated will provide the research community with resources for work on host-vector-fungus interactions for wood-inhabiting, beetle-associated saprophytes and pathogens. PMID:23725015

  9. Geology, Streamflow, and Water Chemistry of the Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Ewart, Charles J., III

    1995-01-01

    A study of the geology, streamflow, and water chemistry of Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was undertaken to determine the flow characteristics of Talufofo Stream and the relation to the geology of the drainage basin. The Commonwealth government is exploring the feasibility of using water from Talufofo Stream to supplement Saipan's stressed municipal water supply. Streamflow records from gaging stations on the principal forks of Talufofo Stream indicate that peak streamflows and long-term average flow are higher at the South Fork gaging station than at the Middle Fork gaging station because the drainage area of the South Fork gaging station is larger, but persistent base flow from ground-water discharge during dry weather is greater in the Middle Fork gaging station. The sum of the average flows at the Middle Fork and South Fork gaging stations, plus an estimate of the average flow at a point in the lower reaches of the North Fork, is about 2.96 cubic feet per second or 1.91 million gallons per day. Although this average represents the theoretical maximum long-term draft rate possible from the Talufofo Stream Basin if an adequate reservoir can be built, the actual amount of surface water available will be less because of evaporation, leaks, induced infiltration, and reservoir-design constraints. Base-flow characteristics, such as stream seepage and spring discharge, are related to geology of the basin. Base flow in the Talufofo Stream Basin originates as discharge from springs near the base of limestones located in the headwaters of Talufofo Stream, flows over low-permeability volcanic rocks in the middle reaches, and seeps back into the high-permeability limestones in the lower reaches. Water sampled from Talufofo Stream during base flow had high dissolved-calcium concentrations (between 35 and 98 milligrams per liter), characteristic of water from a limestone aquifer. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride

  10. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Arculus, R. J.; Bogus, K.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how subduction zones initiate and continental crust forms in intraoceanic arcs requires knowledge of the inception and evolution of a representative intraoceanic arc, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc system. This can be obtained by exploring regions adjacent to an arc, where unequivocal pre-arc crust overlain by undisturbed arc-derived materials exists. IODP Exp. 351 (June-July 2014) specifically targeted evidence for the earliest evolution of the IBM system following inception. Site U1438 (4711 m water depth) is located in the Amami Sankaku Basin (ASB), west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), a paleo-IBM arc. Primary objectives of Exp. 351 were: 1) determine the nature of the crust and mantle pre-existing the IBM arc; 2) identify and model the process of subduction initiation and initial arc crust formation; 3) determine the compositional evolution of the IBM arc during the Paleogene; 4) establish geophysical properties of the ASB. Seismic reflection profiles indicate a ~1.3 km thick sediment layer overlying ~5.5 km thick igneous crust, presumed to be oceanic. This igneous crust seemed likely to be the basement of the IBM arc. Four holes were cored at Site U1438 spanning the entire sediment section and into basement. The cored interval comprises 5 units: uppermost Unit I is hemipelagic sediment with intercalated ash layers, presumably recording explosive volcanism mainly from the Ryukyu and Kyushu arcs; Units II and III host a series of volcaniclastic gravity-flow deposits, likely recording the magmatic history of the IBM Arc from arc initiation until 25 Ma; Siliceous pelagic sediment (Unit IV) underlies these deposits with minimal coarse-grained sediment input and may pre-date arc initiation. Sediment-basement contact occurs at 1461 mbsf. A basaltic lava flow section dominantly composed of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with rare chilled margins continues to the bottom of the Site (1611 mbsf). The expedition successfully recovered pre-IBM Arc

  11. Tilt Recorded by a Portable Broadband Seismograph: The 2003 eruption of Anatahan, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, P. J.; Wiens, D. A.; Pozgay, S.; Sauter, A.; White, R.

    2004-12-01

    The horizontal components of broadband seismographs are highly sensitive to tilt, suggesting that widely deployed portable broadband seismic sensors may record important tilt information associated with volcanic eruptions. We report on a tilt episode that coincides with the first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano on May 10, 2003. The tilt was recorded by a portable PASSCAL STS-2 seismograph fortuitously deployed four days prior to the eruption as part of the Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment. The seismograph, located in an underground insulated chamber about 6 km west of the active vent, recorded continuously throughout the eruption sequence. A long-period signal with a dominant period of several hours was recorded on the EW component beginning at 06:30 GMT on May 10, which coincides with the onset of continuous volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity and is one hour prior to the eruption time estimated by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center based on satellite photos. The signal was much larger than a long period diurnal signal presumably resulting from temperature perturbations. A much smaller signal was recorded on the NS component, and the signal was totally absent on the vertical component, suggesting it results from tilt that is radial with respect to the active vent. An estimate of the tilt as a function of time was recovered by deconvolving to acceleration within a passband of 500-50,000 seconds, and dividing by g. The tilt signal records an initial episode of tilt down away from the volcanic center from 06:30 - 09:30 GMT, which we interpret as inflation of the shallow volcanic source. The tilt reverses and records deflation from 09:30 until 17:50, after which any large tilt signal ceases. The period of inflation corresponds to a period of numerous VT events, whereas fewer events were recorded during the deflation episode, and the VT events resumed again after the end of the deflationary tilt. The maximum tilt is about 2 microradians, although it is

  12. Coral Reef Disturbance and Recovery Dynamics Differ across Gradients of Localized Stressors in the Mariana Islands

    PubMed Central

    Houk, Peter; Benavente, David; Iguel, John; Johnson, Steven; Okano, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The individual contribution of natural disturbances, localized stressors, and environmental regimes upon longer-term reef dynamics remains poorly resolved for many locales despite its significance for management. This study examined coral reefs in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands across a 12-year period that included elevated Crown-of-Thorns Starfish densities (COTS) and tropical storms that were drivers of spatially-inconsistent disturbance and recovery patterns. At the island scale, disturbance impacts were highest on Saipan with reduced fish sizes, grazing urchins, and water quality, despite having a more favorable geological foundation for coral growth compared with Rota. However, individual drivers of reef dynamics were better quantified through site-level investigations that built upon island generalizations. While COTS densities were the strongest predictors of coral decline as expected, interactive terms that included wave exposure and size of the overall fish assemblages improved models (R2 and AIC values). Both wave exposure and fish size diminished disturbance impacts and had negative associations with COTS. However, contrasting findings emerged when examining net ecological change across the 12-year period. Wave exposure had a ubiquitous, positive influence upon the net change in favorable benthic substrates (i.e. corals and other heavily calcifying substrates, R2 = 0.17 for all reeftypes grouped), yet including interactive terms for herbivore size and grazing urchin densities, as well as stratifying by major reeftypes, substantially improved models (R2 = 0.21 to 0.89, lower AIC scores). Net changes in coral assemblages (i.e., coral ordination scores) were more sensitive to herbivore size or the water quality proxy acting independently (R2 = 0.28 to 0.44). We conclude that COTS densities were the strongest drivers of coral decline, however, net ecological change was most influenced by localized stressors, especially herbivore

  13. Ultra-deep drilling to the middle crust of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi, Y.; Kelley, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    This proposal is for the ultra-deep drilling site of a series of IODP proposals in the Izu-Bonin Mariana (IBM) arc that aim at comprehensive understanding of arc evolution and continental crust formation. We propose to drill a deep hole that penetrates through a complete sequence of intra-oceanic arc upper crust and into the in situ arc middle crust, which may be the birthplace of continental crust. The bulk composition of continental crust is andesitic (60 wt.% SiO2), which raises the question of how intra-oceanic arcs produce continental crust if the dominant product of mantle wedge melting and a major proportion of intra-oceanic arc lava is basaltic (50 wt.% SiO2). There is no pre-existing continental crust in the IBM arc, yet recent seismic studies of this arc reveal a thick layer in the middle crust (Vp=6.0-6.5 km/s) that is hypothesized to be intermediate/felsic in composition. The primary goals of sampling the in situ arc crust through drilling are: (1) to identify the structure and lithologies present in the upper and middle arc crust, (2) to constrain the petrologic and chronological relationship of mid-crustal rocks to the overlying upper crust, (3) to establish the temporal evolution of arc crust by relating this site with other regional drill sites and exposed sections of arc and continental crust, and (4) to test competing hypotheses of how the upper and middle crust forms and evolves in an intra-oceanic arc setting. These objectives address questions of global significance, but we have specifically identified the IBM arc system as an ideal locale to conduct this experiment. The composition of the pre-subduction upper plate was normal oceanic crust, and the tectonic and temporal evolution of this arc system is well-constrained. Moreover, the IBM system is perhaps the best-studied intra-oceanic arc on Earth, thanks to extensive sampling of the slab inputs and arc outputs through field studies and drilling, and to a series of recent, focused geophysical

  14. Iron Stable Isotopes, Magmatic Differentiation and the Oxidation State of Mariana Arc Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. M.; Prytulak, J.; Plank, T. A.; Kelley, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arc magmas are widely considered to be oxidized, with elevated ferric iron contents (Fe3+/ΣFe) relative to mid-ocean ridge lavas (1, 2). However, it is unclear whether the oxidized nature of arc basalts is a primary feature, inherited from the sub-arc mantle, or the product of magmatic differentiation and/or post eruptive alteration processes (3). Iron stable isotopes can be used to trace the distribution of Fe during melting and magmatic differentiation processes (4, 5). Here we present Fe isotope data for well-characterized samples (6-8) from islands of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the intra-oceanic Mariana Arc to explore the effect of magmatic differentiation processes on Fe isotope systematics. The overall variation in the Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) of samples from the CVZ islands ranges from -0.10 ±0.04 to 0.29 ± 0.01 ‰. Lavas from Anatahan are displaced to lower overall δ57Fe values (range -0.10 ±0.04 to 0.18 ±0.01 ‰) relative to other CVZ samples. Fe isotopes in the Anatahan suite (range -0.10 ±0.04 to 0.18 ±0.01 ‰) are positively correlated with SiO2 and negatively correlated with Ca, Fe2O3(t), Cr and V and are displaced to lower overall δ57Fe values relative to other CVZ samples. These correlations can be interpreted in terms of clinopyroxene and magnetite fractionation, with magnetite saturation throughout the differentiation sequence. Magnetite saturation is further supported by negative correlations between V, Fe2O3(t), Cr and MgO (for MgO <3.5 wt%). The early saturation of magnetite in the Anatahan and CVZ lavas is likely to be a function of high melt water content (9, 10) and potentially elevated melt oxidation state. Future work will focus on determining the relationships between mineral Fe isotope partitioning effects and melt composition and oxidation state. 1. R. Arculus, Lithos (1994). 2. K. A. Kelley et al., Science (2009). 3. C.-T. A. Lee et al., J. Pet. (2005). 4. N. Dauphas et al., EPSL (2014). 5. P. A. Sossi et al

  15. Low-fold, ultra-deep MCS Profiling of the Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, T.; Klemperer, S. L.; Kerr, B. C.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    We collected 2600 km of 12- and 15-fold MCS profiles in April 2002, using the R/V Ewing 6-km 240-channel streamer and a tuned 20-airgun array (10,810 cu. in.). The unusually low fold resulted because our primary focus was OBS wide-angle recording (Kerr et al., this session), so airguns were fired at a shot-interval of 90 to 110 s (shot-spacing of 200 m or 250 m) to allow water-column noise to decay between shots. As a positive aspect we recorded 60 s record lengths (the Syntrak-480 recording system could not record longer traces), so potentially imaging structure to over 200-km depth. We acquired 4 arc-parallel profiles: along the back-arc margin of the Mariana arc 30 km west of the main arc; along the volcanic line from 14°30'N (near Rota) to 18°00'N (latitude of Pagan), 30 km east of the arc along the uplifted forearc high; and along the forearc 80 km east of the arc but 140 km west of the trench. We also shot 6 arc-perpendicular lines to link the arc-parallel lines. All profiles were processed through post-stack migration during the cruise, but to only 20 s travel-time. Despite the low fold, the data provide excellent images of shallow basins between the volcanoes that shed light on the volumes and relative timings of eruptions along the arc, and of normal faults particularly along our eastern fore-arc line. Large and rapid topographic variations along the volcanic arc and uplifted forearc cause significant problems of sideswipe (Gunther et al., this session); and strong water-bottom multiples make recognition of deep structure almost impossible on the preliminarily processed data. However, beneath the shallowest, smoothest bathymetry (the guyot extending north of Farallon de Mendenilla in the uplifted forearc high) clear reflections are seen to 6 s (c. 15 km). In principle our low-frequency high-power source should penetrate deep into the mantle, and our streamer was towed at 12-m depth to minimize swell noise and enhance low-frequency signals. Currently we

  16. Geological characteristics of the Shinkai Seep Field, a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Martinez, F.; Michibayashi, K.; Reagan, M. K.; Fujikura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Ishii, T.; Kelley, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Most hydrothermal vents along mid-ocean spreading ridges are high-temperature, sulfide-rich, and low pH (acidic environments). For this reason, the discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H2- and CH4-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities adapted to highly reduced, alkaline environments. A new serpentinite-hosted ecosystem, the Shinkai Seep Field (SSF), was discovered by a Shinkai 6500 dive in the inner trench slope of the southern Mariana Trench, near the Challenger Deep, during YK10-12 cruise of R/V Yokosuka in September 2010. Abundant chemosynthetic biological communities, principally consisting of vesicomyid clams are associated with serpentinized peridotite in the SSF. Serpentinization beneath several hydrothermal sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is controlled by interacting seawater and peridotite, variably influenced by magmatic heat. In contrast, the SSF is located in a deep inner trench slope where magmatic heat contribution is unlikely. Instead, serpentinization reactions feeding the SSF may be controlled by persistent fluid flow from the subducting slab. Slab-derived fluid flow is probably controlled by flow through fractures because no serpentinite mud volcano can be discerned along the southern Mariana forearc. Deep-towed IMI-30 sonar backscatter imaging during TN273 cruise of R/V Thomas G. Thompson in January 2012 indicates that the SSF is associated with a small, low backscatter feature that may be a small mound. There are 20 or more of these features in the imaged area, the size of which is ~200 m width and ~200 m to ~700 m long. Since the southern Mariana forearc is heavily faulted, with a deep geology that is dominated by peridotite, more SSF-type seeps are likely to exist along the forearc above the Challenger Deep. The discovery of the SSF suggests that serpentinite-hosted vents may

  17. Submersible- and lander-observed community patterns in the Mariana and New Britain trenches: Influence of productivity and depth on epibenthic and scavenging communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Natalya D.; Cameron, James; Hardy, Kevin; Fryer, Patricia; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2015-05-01

    Deep-sea trenches remain one of the least explored ocean ecosystems due to the unique challenges of sampling at great depths. Five submersible dives conducted using the DEEPSEA CHALLENGER submersible generated video of undisturbed deep-sea communities at bathyal (994 m), abyssal (3755 m), and hadal (8228 m) depths in the New Britain Trench, bathyal depths near the Ulithi atoll (1192 m), and hadal depths in the Mariana Trench Challenger Deep (10908 m). The New Britain Trench is overlain by waters with higher net primary productivity (~3-fold) than the Mariana Trench and nearby Ulithi, and receives substantially more allochthonous input from terrestrial sources, based on the presence of terrestrial debris in submersible video footage. Comparisons between trenches addressed how differences in productivity regime influence benthic and demersal deep-sea community structure. In addition, the scavenger community was studied using paired lander deployments to the New Britain (8233 m) and Mariana (10918 m) trenches. Differences in allochthonous input were reflected in epibenthic community abundance, biodiversity, and lifestyle representation. More productive locations were characterized by higher faunal abundances (~2-fold) at both bathyal and hadal depths. In contrast, biodiversity trends showed a unimodal pattern with more food-rich areas exhibiting reduced bathyal diversity and elevated hadal diversity. Hadal scavenging communities exhibited similar higher abundance but also ~3-fold higher species richness in the more food-rich New Britain Trench compared to the Mariana Trench. High species- and phylum-level diversity observed in the New Britain Trench suggest that trench environments may foster higher megafaunal biodiversity than surrounding abyssal depths if food is not limiting. However, the absence of fish at our hadal sites suggests that certain groups do have physiological depth limits. Submersible video footage allowed novel in situ observation of holothurian

  18. Genetic Adaptation vs. Ecophysiological Plasticity of Photosynthetic-Related Traits in Young Picea glauca Trees along a Regional Climatic Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    Assisted population migration (APM) is the intentional movement of populations within a species range to sites where future environmental conditions are projected to be more conducive to growth. APM has been proposed as a proactive adaptation strategy to maintain forest productivity and to reduce the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to projected climate change. The validity of such a strategy will depend on the adaptation capacity of populations, which can partially be evaluated by the ecophysiological response of different genetic sources along a climatic gradient. This adaptation capacity results from the compromise between (i) the degree of genetic adaptation of seed sources to their environment of origin and (ii) the phenotypic plasticity of functional trait which can make it possible for transferred seed sources to positively respond to new growing conditions. We examined phenotypic variation in morphophysiological traits of six seed sources of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) along a regional climatic gradient in Québec, Canada. Seedlings from the seed sources were planted at three forest sites representing a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient of 2.2°C. During the second growing season, we measured height growth (H2014) and traits related to resources use efficiency and photosynthetic rate (Amax). All functional traits showed an adaptive response to the climatic gradient. Traits such as H2014, Amax, stomatal conductance (gs), the ratio of mesophyll to stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency showed significant variation in both physiological plasticity due to the planting site and seed source variation related to local genetic adaptation. However, the amplitude of seed source variation was much less than that related to plantation sites in the area investigated. The six seed sources showed a similar level of physiological plasticity. H2014, Amax and gs, but not carboxylation capacity (Vcmax), were

  19. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  20. Monitoring intra-annual dynamics of wood formation with microcores and dendrometers in Picea abies at two different altitudes.

    PubMed

    Cocozza, Claudia; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; La Porta, Nicola; Anichini, Monica; Giovannelli, Alessio; Emiliani, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Seasonal analyses of cambial cell production and day-by-day stem radial increment can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Intra-annual dynamics of wood formation were determined with microcores and dendrometers and related to climatic signals in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The seasonal dynamics of these processes were observed at two sites of different altitude, Savignano (650 m a.s.l.) and Lavazè (1800 m a.s.l.) in the Italian Alps. Seasonal dynamics of cambial activity were found to be site specific, indicating that the phenology of cambial cell production is highly variable and plastic with altitude. There was a site-specific trend in the number of cells in the wall thickening phase, with the maximum cell production in early July (DOY 186) at Savignano and in mid-July (DOY 200) at Lavazè. The formation of mature cells showed similar trends at the two sites, although different numbers of cells and timing of cell differentiation were visible in the model shapes; at the end of ring formation in 2010, the number of cells was four times higher at Savignano (106.5 cells) than at Lavazè (26.5 cells). At low altitudes, microcores and dendrometers described the radial growth patterns comparably, though the dendrometer function underlined the higher upper asymptote of maximum growth in comparison with the cell production function. In contrast, at high altitude, these functions exhibited different trends. The best model was obtained by fitting functions of the Gompertz model to the experimental data. By combining radial growth and cambial activity indices we defined a model system able to synchronize these processes. Processes of adaptation of the pattern of xylogenesis occurred, enabling P. abies to occupy sites with contrasting climatic conditions. The use of daily climatic variables in combination with plant functional traits obtained by sensors and/or destructive sampling could provide a suitable tool to better

  1. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  2. Genetic Adaptation vs. Ecophysiological Plasticity of Photosynthetic-Related Traits in Young Picea glauca Trees along a Regional Climatic Gradient.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A

    2016-01-01

    Assisted population migration (APM) is the intentional movement of populations within a species range to sites where future environmental conditions are projected to be more conducive to growth. APM has been proposed as a proactive adaptation strategy to maintain forest productivity and to reduce the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to projected climate change. The validity of such a strategy will depend on the adaptation capacity of populations, which can partially be evaluated by the ecophysiological response of different genetic sources along a climatic gradient. This adaptation capacity results from the compromise between (i) the degree of genetic adaptation of seed sources to their environment of origin and (ii) the phenotypic plasticity of functional trait which can make it possible for transferred seed sources to positively respond to new growing conditions. We examined phenotypic variation in morphophysiological traits of six seed sources of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) along a regional climatic gradient in Québec, Canada. Seedlings from the seed sources were planted at three forest sites representing a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient of 2.2°C. During the second growing season, we measured height growth (H2014) and traits related to resources use efficiency and photosynthetic rate (A max). All functional traits showed an adaptive response to the climatic gradient. Traits such as H2014, A max, stomatal conductance (g s ), the ratio of mesophyll to stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency showed significant variation in both physiological plasticity due to the planting site and seed source variation related to local genetic adaptation. However, the amplitude of seed source variation was much less than that related to plantation sites in the area investigated. The six seed sources showed a similar level of physiological plasticity. H2014, A max and g s , but not carboxylation capacity (V

  3. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability

  4. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    PubMed

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.0001 for the temporal profile and r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.008 for the spatial profile), indicating that phloem water content depends on the total amount of sugar to be transferred. Changes in phloem water content were unrelated to changes in bark thickness. Maximum changes in phloem water content calculated from dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P < 0.0001, in both cases). Changes in bark thickness corresponded with both short- and long-term changes in relative humidity, in both winter and summer. Under controlled conditions at > 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude

  5. Genomic evidence for polyphyletic origins and interlineage gene flow within complex taxa: a case study of Picea brachytyla in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Ru, Dafu; Mao, Kangshan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Lu, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yongshuai

    2016-06-01

    Hybridization and introgression are believed to play important roles in plant evolution. However, few empirical studies have been designed to clarify the ways in which these processes complicate taxonomic delimitation. Recent phylogenetic studies based on a number of different DNA fragments have indicated that Picea brachytyla in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is polyphyletic, a finding that contrasts with traditional taxonomy based on morphological traits. We aimed to test this conflict using transcriptomic data from 26 trees collected from multiple localities for this and related species. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the sampled trees of P. brachytyla cluster into two distinct lineages corresponding to the two taxonomically recognized intraspecific varieties: var. brachytyla and var. complanata. However, var. complanata nested within Picea likiangensis and was sister to one of its three varieties, while var. brachytyla comprised an isolated lineage. The polyphyletic origin hypothesis was further supported by likelihood tree comparisons using Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and by coalescent analyses under the snapp model. However, our abba-baba and ∂a∂i analyses suggest that gene flow between these two independently evolved lineages has been extensive and bidirectional. Introgression, as well as parallel evolution in the arid habitats common to both lineages, may have given rise to their morphological similarity. Our study highlights the importance of genomic evidence and the use of newly developed coalescent analysis methods for clarifying the evolutionary complexity of certain plant taxa. PMID:27093071

  6. Phylogeny of Phaeomollisia piceae gen. sp. nov.: a dark, septate, conifer-needle endophyte and its relationships to Phialocephala and Acephala.

    PubMed

    Grünig, Christoph R; Queloz, Valentin; Duò, Angelo; Sieber, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    Dark, septate endophytes (DSE) were isolated from roots and needles of dwarf Picea abies and from roots of Vaccinium spp. growing on a permafrost site in the Jura Mountains in Switzerland. Two of the isolates sporulated after incubation for more than one year at 4 degrees C. One of them was a hitherto undescribed helotialean ascomycete Phaeomollisia piceae gen. sp. nov., the other was a new species of Phialocephala, P. glacialis sp. nov. Both species are closely related to DSE of the Phialocephala fortinii s. lat.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) as revealed by phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and 18S rDNA regions. Morphologically dissimilar fungi, such as Vibrissea and Loramyces species, are phylogenetically also closely linked to the new species and the PAC. Cadophora lagerbergii and C. (Phialophora) botulispora are moved to Phialocephala because Phialocephala dimorphospora and P. repens are the closest relatives. Several Mollisia species were closely related to the new species and the PAC according to ITS sequence comparisons. One DSE from needles of Abies alba and one from shoots of Castanea sativa formed Cystodendron anamorphs in culture. Their identical 18S sequences and almost identical ITS sequences indicated Mollisia species as closest relatives, suggesting that Mollisia species are highly euryoecious. PMID:19015028

  7. U-Th-Ra-Pa Disequilibria in the Kasuga Seamounts: recent "sediment" flux melting in the Mariana rear arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J.; Holden, P.

    2002-12-01

    Mariana volcanic front lavas define a U-Th isotope mixing line with an apparent age of 30 Ka between U-enriched "basalt fluid"-dominated Guguan and "sediment melt"-dominated Uracas in 238U-230Th equilibrium (Elliott et al., 1997). However, new results for basalts collected by dredging and diving on the shoshonitic Kasuga Seamounts, 10-20 km behind the VF, require re-interpretation of both Mariana components. Kasuga basalts are the local "sediment" extreme, reaching La/Sm = 5, Th/Nb=0.75, and eNd=3 in the most K-rich samples. Despite this extremity, their U-Th disequilibria lie along the same mixing line as for the VF, but extend to 20 percent 230Th-enrichment and (230Th)/(232Th) lower than at the intersection with the equiline. This indicates deeper melting than at the VF, and that the source's Th/U ratio was higher than the intersection. (226Ra)/(230Th) ratios extend to 3.5 even though samples have unknown eruption ages and Ba/Th is only 100, much lower than at the VF. (231Pa)/(235U) is mostly 1.7, higher than at the VF. (231Pa)/(230Th) correlates positively with excess U, consistent with recent flux melting. However, the mantle being melted is more fertile than at the VF, and the flux is more "sedimentary" apart from its disequilibria. Disequilibria in the highest-K Kasuga are most like Kick-em-Jenny, the most sediment-rich part of the Antilles.

  8. Oceanic plate weakened by flexural bending-induced faulting in the outer rise region of the Mariana subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Zhan, W.

    2013-12-01

    Strong flexural bending near trenches could significantly weaken oceanic plates through development of trench-parallel extensional normal faults. We assessed the oceanic plate weakening near the outer rise region of the Mariana subduction zone by analyzing and modeling the plate deformation caused by flexural bending. We first obtained a 3-D deformation surface of the subducting plate by removing from seafloor bathymetry the topographic effects of sediments, seamounts, and age-related thermal subsidence. We then calculated theoretical models of plate deformation and inverted for along-trench changes in the vertical force and bending moment at the trench axis, as well as spatial variations in the effective elastic thickness of the subducting plate, that best explain the observations. We found that to replicate simultaneously the observed steep slope of the seafloor near the trench axis and the long-wavelength flexural profiles seaward of the outer rise region, the effective elastic thickness of the plate must change significantly. The best-fitting models reveal that the effective elastic thickness is about 45-55 km seaward of the outer rise (TeMax), but is reduced to only 19-40 km trench-ward of the outer rise region (TeMin); the transition from TeMax to TeMin occurs at Xr =70-120 km away from the trench axis. The resultant reduction in the calculated effective elastic thickness, i.e., 1 - (TeMin /TeMax), is in the range of 20-60%, being the greatest near the Challenger Deep area, where the plate deforms significantly within a narrow distance from the trench axis and the trench axis is the deepest. Our results revealed that reduction in Te along the Mariana trench does not exceed 60%, implying that an elastic core remains in the subducting plate despite pervasive faulting caused by flexural bending near the trench axis.

  9. P and S velocity tomography of the Mariana subduction system from a combined land-sea seismic deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklage, Mitchell; Wiens, Douglas A.; Conder, James A.; Pozgay, Sara; Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko

    2015-03-01

    Seismic imaging provides an opportunity to constrain mantle wedge processes associated with subduction, volatile transport, arc volcanism, and back-arc spreading. We investigate the seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle across the Central Mariana subduction system using data from the 2003-2004 Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment, an 11 month deployment consisting of 20 broadband seismic stations installed on islands and 58 semibroadband ocean bottom seismographs. We determine the three-dimensional VP and VP/VS structure using over 25,000 local and over 2000 teleseismic arrival times. The mantle wedge is characterized by slow velocity and high VP/VS beneath the fore arc, an inclined zone of slow velocity underlying the volcanic front, and a strong region of slow velocity beneath the back-arc spreading center. The slow velocities are strongest at depths of 20-30 km in the fore arc, 60-70 km beneath the volcanic arc, and 20-30 km beneath the spreading center. The fore-arc slow velocity anomalies occur beneath Big Blue seamount and are interpreted as resulting from mantle serpentinization. The depths of the maximum velocity anomalies beneath the arc and back arc are nearly identical to previous estimates of the final equilibrium depths of mantle melts from thermobarometry, strongly indicating that the low-velocity zones delineate regions of melt production in the mantle. The arc and back-arc melt production regions are well separated at shallow depths, but may be connected at depths greater than 80 km.

  10. Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs: implications for the origin of island arc melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P. N.; Stern, R. J.; Morris, J.; Bloomer, S. H.

    1990-09-01

    Nd- and Sr-isotopic data are reported for lavas from 23 submarine and 3 subaerial volcanoes in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs. Values of ɛNd range from +2.4 to +9.5 whereas 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.70319 to 0.70392; these vary systematically between and sometimes within arc segments. The Nd-and Sr-isotopic compositions fall in the field of ocean island basalt (OIB) and extend along the mantle array. Lavas from the Volcano arc, Mariana Central Island Province and the southern part of the Northern Seamount Province have ɛNd to +10 and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7032 to 0.7039. These are often slightly displaced toward higher 87Sr/86Sr at similar ɛNd. In contrast, those lavas from the northern part of the Mariana Northern Seamount Province as far north as Iwo Jima show OIB isotopic characteristics, with ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7035 to 0.7039. Plots of 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd versus Ba/La and (La/Yb)n support a model in which melts from the Mariana and Volcano arcs are derived by mixing of OIB-type mantle (or melts therefrom) and a metasomatized MORB-type mantle (or melts therefrom). An alternate interpretation is that anomalous trends on the plots of Nd- and Sr-isotopic composition versus incompatible-element ratios, found in some S-NSP lavas, suggest that the addition of a sedimentary component may be locally superimposed on the two-component mixing of mantle end-members.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a commonwealth in political union with the United States that is located in the northern Pacific Ocean. CNMI’s electricity rates for residential customers range from $0.19 to $0.33 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  12. Magnetic Structure of Backarc Spreading Axis with Hydrothermal Vents; the Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Mochizuki, N.; Honsho, C.; Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.; Nakamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems are important in relation to global heat and chemical fluxes as well as habitat of microbial communities. The substantial variation of hydrothermal systems in various tectonic settings has important implications for the magnetic structure of oceanic crust. It has been very difficult to detect the geophysical signature of hydrothermal systems from sea-surface data because the small scale of hydrothermal systems is below the limit of resolution. The advance of near-bottom survey methods using a submersible, deep-tow, ROV and AUV has made possible high-resolution geophysical mapping around hydrothermal areas. Near-bottom magnetic surveys can provide direct information on the magnetization of the shallower oceanic crust, implying hydrothermal alteration both in active and fossil vent sites. Near-bottom three component magnetic measurements on submersible Shinkai 6500 were carried out at hydrothermal fields in the Southern Mariana Trough, a slow spreading backarc basin. Fourteen dive surveys were conducted during cruises YK11-10 and YK10-11. We investigated the magnetic structure of four hydrothermal systems located at on- and off-axis to clarify how the geophysical and geological setting controls the fluid circulation at small scale. Recent researches at slow spreading ridges showed a relationship between crustal magnetic structure and host rock around hydrothermal vents (e.g. Tivey and Dyment, 2010), but no observation at backarc spreading axis has been reported so far. We carefully corrected the effects of induced and permanent magnetizations of the submersible by applying the method of Isezaki [1986] with dumped least-square method (Honsho et al., 2009). After subtracting the IGRF from the corrected observed data, we obtained geomagnetic vector anomalies in geographical coordinate. For three transects of the axis, we applied three methods; 2D inversion technique (Parker and Huestis, 1972), 2D forward modeling technique (Honsho et al

  13. Bubble Plumes above erupting NW Rota-1 submarine volcano, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, B.; Merle, S. G.; Embley, R. W.; Buck, N.; Resing, J. A.; Leifer, I.

    2013-12-01

    NW Rota-1 is a submarine volcano in the Mariana volcanic arc with a summit depth of 517 m, located ~100 km north of Guam. Underwater explosive eruptions driven by magmatic gases were first witnessed here in 2004 and the volcano has remained persistently active ever since. During a March 2010 expedition to NW Rota-1 with the remotely operated vehicle Jason, we observed intermittent explosive activity at five distinct eruptive vents along a line 100-m long near the summit of the volcano (550-590 m depth). The continuous but variable eruptive activity produced CO2 bubble plumes that rose in the water column over the volcano and could be readily imaged by sonar because they provide excellent acoustic reflectors. This study compares the manifestations of NW Rota's eruptive activity as measured by several independent methods, including: (1) an EM122 multibeam sonar system (12 kHz) on the R/V Kilo Moana that imaged bubble plumes in the water column over the volcano, (2) hydrophone data that recorded the sounds of the variable eruptive activity, and (3) visual observations of the activity at the eruptive vents on the seafloor from Jason. Throughout the 2010 expedition numerous passes were made over the volcano's summit to image the bubble plumes with the EM122 multibeam sonar, in order to capture the variability of the plumes over time and to relate them to the eruptive output of the volcano. The mid-water sonar dataset totals >95 hours of observations over a 12-day period. Analysis of the EM122 dataset shows: (1) bubble plumes were visible in the water column on every pass over the summit, (2) separate plumes were resolvable from up to 4 of the 5 eruptive vents at times, (3) plume heights and intensities were variable with time, (4) the highest observed bubble plume rise height was 415 meters above the seafloor to within 175 m of the ocean surface, while lower amplitude wisps rose to heights <100 m from the surface, (5) most of the bubble plumes were deflected to the WSW

  14. Liquid Carbon Dioxide Venting at the Champagne Hydrothermal Site, NW Eifuku Volcano, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J.; Lilley, M.; Butterfield, D.; Evans, L.; Embley, R.; Olson, E.; Proskurowski, G.; Resing, J.; Roe, K.; Greene, R.; Lebon, G.

    2004-12-01

    In March/April 2004, submersible dives with the remotely-operated vehicle ROPOS discovered an unusual CO2-rich hydrothermal system near the summit of NW Eifuku, a submarine volcano located at 21.49° N, 144.04° E in the northern Mariana Arc. Although several sites of hydrothermal discharge were located on NW Eifuku, the most intense venting was found at 1600-m depth at the Champagne site, slightly west of the volcano summit. The Champagne site was found to be discharging two distinct fluids into the ocean: a) several small white chimneys were emitting milky 103° C gas-rich hydrothermal fluid with at least millimolar levels of H2S and b) cold (< 4° C) droplets coated with a milky skin were rising slowly from the sediment. These droplets were later determined to consist mainly of liquid CO2, with H2S as a probable secondary component. The droplets were sticky, and did not tend to coalesce into larger droplets, even though they adhered to the ROV like clumps of grapes. The film coating the droplets was assumed to be CO2 hydrate (or clathrate) which is known to form whenever liquid CO2 contacts water under these P,T conditions. Samples of the 103° C hydrothermal fluids were collected in special gas-tight titanium sampling bottles that were able to withstand the high internal pressures created by the dissolved gases. The Champagne hydrothermal fluids contained a surprising 2.3 moles/kg of CO2, an order of magnitude higher than any CO2 values previously reported for submarine hydrothermal fluids. The overall gas composition was 87% CO2, < 0.1% CH4, < 2 ppm H2, 0.012 mM/kg 4He, with the remaining 13% (322 mM/kg) assumed to be sulfur gases (H2S, SO2, etc.). (Additional analyses planned will confirm the speciation of this sulfur gas component). The helium had R/RA = 7.3, typical of subduction zone systems (R = 3He/4He and RA = Rair). Isotopic analysis of the CO2 yielded δ 13C = -1.75 ‰ , much heavier than the -6.0 ‰ typical for carbon in MOR vent fluids. The C/3He

  15. Mission Immiscible: Distinct subduction components generate two primary magmas of Pagan Volcano, Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Stern, R. J.; Nunokawa, A.; Shukuno, H.; Kawabata, H.; Hirahara, Y.; Chang, Q.; Miyazaki, T.; Kimura, J.; Embley, R. W.; Bloomer, S. H.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Pagan is one of the largest (2,160 km3; Bloomer et al., 1989) volcanoes along the Mariana arc magmatic front. Pagan has a maximum elevation of 570 m (Mt. Pagan), but its submarine flanks descend to 2,000-3,000 m, and most of the volcano is submarine and unexplored. Bathymetric mapping and ROV Hyper-Dolphin (HPD1147) dive on the NE submarine flank of Pagan were carried out during NT10-12 (R/V Natsushima) in July 2010. There are no systematic differences between subaerial and submarine lavas with > 52 wt % SiO2, suggesting derivation from the same magmatic system. Twenty least-fractionated basalts (48.5-50 wt % SiO2) extend to higher MgO (10-11 wt %) and Mg# (66-70) than subaerial lavas. Compositions of olivine (up to Fo94) and spinels (Cr# up to 0.8) suggest that Pagan primitive magmas formed from high degrees of mantle melting. Two geochemical groups of basalts can be distinguished at similar 10-11 wt % MgO; these erupted about the same time, 500 m apart. Both contain clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts, thus, these two groups are referred to as COB1 and COB2. Lower TiO2, FeO, Na2O, K2O, incompatible trace element abundances, and Nb/Yb suggest that COB1 formed from higher degrees of mantle melting. In addition, LREE-enrichment and higher Th/Nb in COB2 contrast with LREE-depletion and lower Th/Nb in COB1. Higher Ba/Th and Ba/Nb and lower Th/Nb indicate that main subduction addition in COB1 was dominated by hydrous fluid, whereas that in COB2 was dominated by sediment melt. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes are also consistent with this scenario. Importantly, the subduction addition, that caused more melting of the COB1 source was mostly hydrous fluid. In contrast to Pagan, we observed two primary magmas (COB and POB) in the NW Rota-1 volcano (NWR1), ~40 km behind the volcanic front. NWR1 COB has a greater subduction component, both hydrous fluid and sediment melt, than POB, perhaps reflecting that the subducting slab below NWR1 is > 100 km deeper than that beneath Pagan. At

  16. Peridotites from a ductile shear zone within back-arc lithospheric mantle, southern Mariana Trench: Results of a Shinkai 6500 dive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michibayashi, K.; Ohara, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Fryer, P.; Kimura, J.-I.; Tasaka, M.; Harigane, Y.; Ishii, T.

    2009-05-01

    Two N-S fault zones in the southern Mariana fore arc record at least 20 km of left-lateral displacement. We examined the eastward facing slope of one of the fault zones (the West Santa Rosa Bank fault) from 6469 to 5957 m water depth using the submersible Shinkai 6500 (YK06-12 Dive 973) as part of a cruise by the R/V Yokosuka in 2006. The dive recovered residual but still partly fertile lherzolite, residual lherzolite, and dunite; the samples show mylonitic, porphyroclastic, and coarse, moderately deformed secondary textures. Crystal-preferred orientations of olivine within the peridotites show a typical [100](010) pattern, with the fabric intensity decreasing from rocks with coarse secondary texture to mylonites. The sampled peridotites therefore represent a ductile shear zone within the lithospheric mantle of the overriding plate. Peridotites were probably exposed in association with a tear in the subducting slab, previously inferred from bathymetry and seismicity. Furthermore, although the dive site is located in the fore arc close to the Mariana Trench, spinel compositions within the sampled peridotites are comparable to those from the Mariana Trough back arc, suggesting that back-arc basin mantle is exposed along the West Santa Rosa Bank fault.

  17. Regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning in the auriferous Mariana anticline, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Koglin, Nikola; Strauss, Harald; Brätz, Helene; Kwitko-Ribeiro, Rogerio

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of mineral deposits, characterised as barite deposits, hematite-rich auriferous deposits and auriferous tourmaline-sulfide deposits, displays a regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning along the thrust-delineated limbs of the Mariana anticline, in the south-eastern part of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cross-cut relationships of barite veins and sulfide lodes indicate that sulfidation occurred in a late-tectonic context, which is here attributed to the collapse of the ˜0.6-Ga Brasiliano thrust front. Reconnaissance S-isotopic data from barite and pyrite (Antônio Pereira barite deposit and its adjacent gold deposit, respectively), and arsenopyrite (Passagem de Mariana gold deposit), suggest a new interpretation for the hydrothermal fluid overprint in the Mariana anticline. The Antônio Pereira barite has Δ33S values that are near zero, constraining the sulfate source to rocks younger than 2.45 Ga. The barite-δ34S values are between +19.6 and +20.8 ‰. The Passagem arsenopyrite and tourmaline have Co/Ni ratios that define a positive linear trend with the Antônio Pereira pyrite. The latter has homogenous δ34S values, between +8.8 and +8.9 ‰, which are compatible with thermochemical reduction of aqueous sulfate with the S-isotopic composition of the Antônio Pereira barite.

  18. Migration and population expansion of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus since 15000 years in and across the Alps, based on pollen-percentage threshold values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, W. O.; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Finsinger, Walter; Gobet, Erika; Pini, Roberta; Schweizer, Astrid; Valsecchi, Verushka; Ammann, Brigitta

    2005-03-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the migration (colonization of new areas) and subsequent population expansion (within an area) since 15 ka cal BP of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus into and through the Alps solely on the basis of high-quality pollen data. Methods: Chronologies of 101 pollen sequences are improved or created. Data from the area delimited by 45.5-48.1°N and 6-14°E are summarized in three ways: (1) in a selection of pollen-percentage threshold maps (thresholds 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 32% of land pollen); (2) in graphic summaries of 250-year time slices and geographic segments (lengthwise and transverse in relation to the main axis of the Alps) as pollen-percentage curves, pollen-percentage difference curves, and pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP graphed against both the length and the transverse Alpine axes; and (3) in tables showing statistical relationships of either pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP or pollen expansion durations (=time lapse between different pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP) with latitude, longitude, and elevation; to establish these relationships we used both simple linear regression and multiple linear regression after stepwise-forward selection. Results: The statistical results indicate that (a) the use of pollen-percentage thresholds between 0.5% and 8% yield mostly similar directions of tree migration, so the method is fairly robust, (b) Abies migrated northward, Fagus southward, Picea westward, and Quercus northward; more detail does not emerge due to an extreme scarcity of high-quality data especially along the southern foothills of the Alps and in the eastern Alps. This scarcity allows the reconstruction of one immigration route only of Abies into the southern Alps. The speed of population expansion (following arrival) of Abies increased and of Picea decreased during the Holocene, of Fagus it decreased especially during the later Holocene, and of Quercus it increased especially at the

  19. A theoretical framework for whole-plant carbon assimilation efficiency based on metabolic scaling theory: a test case using Picea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Mingfei; Deng, Jianming; Milne, Richard I; Ran, Jinzhi; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhexuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Li, Jiangtao; Huang, Heng; Cheng, Dongliang; Niklas, Karl J

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneous and accurate measurements of whole-plant instantaneous carbon-use efficiency (ICUE) and annual total carbon-use efficiency (TCUE) are difficult to make, especially for trees. One usually estimates ICUE based on the net photosynthetic rate or the assumed proportional relationship between growth efficiency and ICUE. However, thus far, protocols for easily estimating annual TCUE remain problematic. Here, we present a theoretical framework (based on the metabolic scaling theory) to predict whole-plant annual TCUE by directly measuring instantaneous net photosynthetic and respiratory rates. This framework makes four predictions, which were evaluated empirically using seedlings of nine Picea taxa: (i) the flux rates of CO(2) and energy will scale isometrically as a function of plant size, (ii) whole-plant net and gross photosynthetic rates and the net primary productivity will scale isometrically with respect to total leaf mass, (iii) these scaling relationships will be independent of ambient temperature and humidity fluctuations (as measured within an experimental chamber) regardless of the instantaneous net photosynthetic rate or dark respiratory rate, or overall growth rate and (iv) TCUE will scale isometrically with respect to instantaneous efficiency of carbon use (i.e., the latter can be used to predict the former) across diverse species. These predictions were experimentally verified. We also found that the ranking of the nine taxa based on net photosynthetic rates differed from ranking based on either ICUE or TCUE. In addition, the absolute values of ICUE and TCUE significantly differed among the nine taxa, with both ICUE and temperature-corrected ICUE being highest for Picea abies and lowest for Picea schrenkiana. Nevertheless, the data are consistent with the predictions of our general theoretical framework, which can be used to access annual carbon-use efficiency of different species at the level of an individual plant based on simple, direct

  20. Petrological Characteristics of Upper Mantle Peridotites from the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana-Palau-Yap and Tonga Forearcs; Relation to Troodos and Semail Ophiolites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ISHII, T.; SATO, H.; FUJIOKA, K.

    2001-12-01

    Many ophiolitic igneous complexes in the ocean floor have been reported along trench inner wall of the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana-Palau-Yap and Tonga trenches. These igneous bodies from the ocean floor are called as proto-ophiolite in this paper. Serpentinite diapiric seamounts have been only reported from the forearc area of the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana (excluding Southern Mariana) arc-trench system in the world. Petrological characteristics of mantle peridotites constituting those seamounts were summarized in comparison with other trench region peridotites. Mantle peridotites drilled from the Conical seamounts during ODP Leg 125 (Site 779) have distinctive compositions both in bulk rock chemistry and mineral chemistry. Their compositions suggest that they underwent a higher degree of partial melting (more than 30 %) that is related to island arc volcanism in the mantle wedge. Most of compositions of mantle peridotites collected by submersible dives from other serpentinite seamounts (the Pacman seamount by Alvin, the Hahajima seamount by Shinkai 2000 and the Chamorro seamount by Shinkai 6500) in the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana forearc have also similar compositions to those from the Conical seamount. It indicates that most mantle peridotites from the seamounts are refractory residues (harzburgite and dunite) derived from partial melting in the high degree during the island-arc volcanism, including boninite and island-arc tholeiite. On the other hand, mantle peridotites recovered from the Tonga forearc exhibit wider chemistry including more fertile and intermediate peridotites as well as deplete peridotites, suggesting that the former are residues of relatively lower degrees of partial melting. It is probable that they are related to the volcanism during the formation of the back arc basin. Furthermore, although mantle peridotites of the Tonga forearc are considered to be derived from a layered sequence from the upper crust through the lower crust to the upper mantle rather than

  1. A life cycle model to enable research of cryostorage recalcitrance in temperate woody species: the case of sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).

    PubMed

    Gale, S; Benson, E E; Harding, K

    2013-01-01

    Empirical testing of protocols and fundamental investigations are the approaches usually applied to study germplasm storage recalcitrance in temperate plants. However, they can fall short of practicable solutions, even after exhaustive experimentation, and the generation of negative survival data makes it difficult to plan further investigations. Picea sitchensis somatic embryos are amenable to cryopreservation whereas in vitro shoot meristems, although able to survive, are incapable of sustained recovery. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) revealed that these disparate responses could not be attributed to biophysical factors. A model is presented hypothesising that in some cases life cycle adaptations (cold hardening, dormancy) may have opposing influences on survival causing delayed-onset, cryogenically-induced loss of viability in temperate tree species. PMID:23435708

  2. Ultramafic clasts from the South Chamorro serpentine mud volcano reveal a polyphase serpentinization history of the Mariana forearc mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder; Alt, Jeffrey C.

    2015-06-01

    Serpentine seamounts located on the outer half of the pervasively fractured Mariana forearc provide an excellent window into the forearc devolatilization processes, which can strongly influence the cycling of volatiles and trace elements in subduction zones. Serpentinized ultramafic clasts recovered from an active mud volcano in the Mariana forearc reveal microstructures, mineral assemblages and compositions that are indicative of a complex polyphase alteration history. Petrologic phase relations and oxygen isotopes suggest that ultramafic clasts were serpentinized at temperatures below 200 °C. Several successive serpentinization events represented by different vein generations with distinct trace element contents can be recognized. Measured in situ Rb/Cs ratios are fairly uniform ranging between 1 and 10, which is consistent with Cs mobilization from sediments at lower temperatures and lends further credence to the low-temperature conditions proposed in models of the thermal structure in forearc settings. Late veins show lower fluid mobile element (FME) concentrations than early veins, suggesting a decreasing influence of fluid discharge from the subducting slab on the composition of the serpentinizing fluids. The continuous microfabric and mineral chemical evolution observed in the ultramafic clasts may have implications as to the origin and nature of the serpentinizing fluids. We hypothesize that opal and smectite dehydration produce quartz-saturated fluids with high FME contents and Rb/Cs between 1 and 4 that cause the early pervasive serpentinization. The partially serpentinized material may then be eroded from the basal plane of the suprasubduction mantle wedge. Serpentinization continued but the interacting fluids did not carry a pronounced sedimentary signature, either because FMEs were no longer released from the slab, or due to an en route loss of FMEs. Late chrysotile veins that document the increased access of fluids in a now fluid-dominated regime are

  3. Stable isotope compositions of serpentinite seamounts in the Mariana forearc: Serpentinization processes, fluid sources and sulfur metasomatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    2006-01-01

    The Mariana and Izu-Bonin arcs in the western Pacific are characterized by serpentinite seamounts in the forearc that provide unique windows into the mantle wedge. We present stable isotope (O, H, S, and C) data for serpentinites from Conical seamount in the Mariana forearc and S isotope data for Torishima seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc in order to understand the compositions of fluids and temperatures of serpentinization in the mantle wedge, and to investigate the transport of sulfur from the slab to the mantle wedge. Six serpentine mineral separates have a restricted range of ??18O (6.5-8.5???). Antigorite separates have ??D values of -29.5??? to -45.5??? that reflect serpentinization within the mantle wedge whereas chrysotile has low ??D values (-51.8??? to -84.0???) as the result of re-equilibration with fluids at low temperatures. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between serpentine and magnetite indicate serpentinization temperatures of 300-375 ??C. Two late cross-fiber chrysotile veins have higher ??18O values of 8.9??? to 10.8??? and formed at lower temperatures (as low as ???100 ??C). Aqueous fluids in equilibrium with serpentine at 300-375 ??C had ??18O = 6.5-9??? and ??D = -4??? to -26???, consistent with sediment dehydration reactions at temperatures <200 ??C in the subducting slab rather than a basaltic slab source. Three aragonite veins in metabasalt and siltstone clasts within the serpentinite flows have ??18O = 16.7-24.5???, consistent with the serpentinizing fluids at temperatures <250 ??C. ??13C values of 0.1-2.5??? suggest a source in subducting carbonate sediments. The ??34S values of sulfide in serpentinites on Conical Seamount (-6.7??? to 9.8???) result from metasomatism through variable reduction of aqueous sulfate (??34S = 14???) derived from slab sediments. Despite sulfur metasomatism, serpentinites have low sulfur contents (generally < 164 ppm) that reflect the highly depleted nature of the mantle wedge. The serpentinites are mostly

  4. Hydrothermal Venting in the Southern Most Portion of the Mariana Backarc Spreading Center at 12.57 Degrees N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheat, C. G.; Fryer, P.; Hulme, S.; Becker, N.; Curtis, A.; Moyer, C.

    2003-12-01

    The southernmost portion of the Mariana Trough is a complex zone of deformation and magmatism. The centerpiece of the trough is the Malaguana-Gadao Spreading Center Ridge, which has a morphology that is inflated relative to all of the other spreading segments in the Mariana Backarc Basin. This inflated morphology is similar to that of the EPR and is consistent with a high rate of eruption. Samples of lavas from the spreading center are island arc tholeiites, which typically contain higher concentrations of CO2 relative to MORBs. In February 2003 the NOAA VENTS program conducted two CTD tow-yos in this area, revealing a hydrothermal plume consistent with the presence of a high temperature hydrothermal site. In May 2003 we used the ROV Jason II to survey a hydrothermal site at 12 degrees 57.214'N, 143 degrees 37.147'E in a water depth of ~2860 m. Here we collected vent fluids, sulfides, basalt, microbial mats, and macrofauna. Two styles of venting were identified within an 80 m by 70 m area. Higher temperature venting was located in cracks among extinct mounds that were 2-5 m high and wide and are nearly monomineralic (sphalerite) in composition. The exterior is soft and vuggy in contrast to the interior that has crystalline layers with bladed habit lining the orifices. Maximum temperatures of 248 degrees C were recorded 30 cm into these cracks, which were covered with abundant large provannid snails, Alvinoconcha Hessleri, and crabs. In contrast, lower temperature diffuse venting (77 degrees C) emanated from mounds that have a porous structure that is composed of amorphous iron oxide and opal. These mounds are covered with microbial mats, which exhibit a high degree of biomass as detected by Cyto-13 nucleic acid epifluorescent staining. Filament and amorphous particulate morphotypes are observed in association with microbial cells, but sheaths have not been detected. These mats have a morphology that is similar to that of neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria. Fluid

  5. Stable isotope compositions of serpentinite seamounts in the Mariana forearc: Serpentinization processes, fluid sources and sulfur metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, Jeffrey C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2006-02-01

    The Mariana and Izu-Bonin arcs in the western Pacific are characterized by serpentinite seamounts in the forearc that provide unique windows into the mantle wedge. We present stable isotope (O, H, S, and C) data for serpentinites from Conical seamount in the Mariana forearc and S isotope data for Torishima seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc in order to understand the compositions of fluids and temperatures of serpentinization in the mantle wedge, and to investigate the transport of sulfur from the slab to the mantle wedge. Six serpentine mineral separates have a restricted range of δ18O (6.5-8.5‰). Antigorite separates have δD values of - 29.5‰ to - 45.5‰ that reflect serpentinization within the mantle wedge whereas chrysotile has low δD values (- 51.8‰ to - 84.0‰) as the result of re-equilibration with fluids at low temperatures. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between serpentine and magnetite indicate serpentinization temperatures of 300-375 °C. Two late cross-fiber chrysotile veins have higher δ18O values of 8.9‰ to 10.8‰ and formed at lower temperatures (as low as ˜100 °C). Aqueous fluids in equilibrium with serpentine at 300-375 °C had δ18O = 6.5-9‰ and δD = - 4‰ to - 26‰, consistent with sediment dehydration reactions at temperatures < 200 °C in the subducting slab rather than a basaltic slab source. Three aragonite veins in metabasalt and siltstone clasts within the serpentinite flows have δ18O = 16.7-24.5‰, consistent with the serpentinizing fluids at temperatures < 250 °C. δ13C values of 0.1-2.5‰ suggest a source in subducting carbonate sediments. The δ34S values of sulfide in serpentinites on Conical Seamount (- 6.7‰ to 9.8‰) result from metasomatism through variable reduction of aqueous sulfate ( δ34S = 14‰) derived from slab sediments. Despite sulfur metasomatism, serpentinites have low sulfur contents (generally < 164 ppm) that reflect the highly depleted nature of the mantle wedge. The serpentinites are

  6. Philippine Sea Plate inception, evolution, and consumption with special emphasis on the early stages of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallemand, Serge

    2016-12-01

    We compiled the most relevant data acquired throughout the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from the early expeditions to the most recent. We also analyzed the various explanatory models in light of this updated dataset. The following main conclusions are discussed in this study. (1) The Izanagi slab detachment beneath the East Asia margin around 60-55 Ma likely triggered the Oki-Daito plume occurrence, Mesozoic proto-PSP splitting, shortening and then failure across the paleo-transform boundary between the proto-PSP and the Pacific Plate, Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction initiation and ultimately PSP inception. (2) The initial splitting phase of the composite proto-PSP under the plume influence at ˜54-48 Ma led to the formation of the long-lived West Philippine Basin and short-lived oceanic basins, part of whose crust has been ambiguously called "fore-arc basalts" (FABs). (3) Shortening across the paleo-transform boundary evolved into thrusting within the Pacific Plate at ˜52-50 Ma, allowing it to subduct beneath the newly formed PSP, which was composed of an alternance of thick Mesozoic terranes and thin oceanic lithosphere. (4) The first magmas rising from the shallow mantle corner, after being hydrated by the subducting Pacific crust beneath the young oceanic crust near the upper plate spreading centers at ˜49-48 Ma were boninites. Both the so-called FABs and the boninites formed at a significant distance from the incipient trench, not in a fore-arc position as previously claimed. The magmas erupted for 15 m.y. in some places, probably near the intersections between back-arc spreading centers and the arc. (5) As the Pacific crust reached greater depths and the oceanic basins cooled and thickened at ˜44-45 Ma, the composition of the lavas evolved into high-Mg andesites and then arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. (6) Tectonic erosion processes removed about 150-200 km of frontal margin during the Neogene, consuming most or all of the Pacific ophiolite

  7. Abundance of Zetaproteobacteria within crustal fluids in back-arc hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Sunamura, Michinari; Takano, Yoshinori; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Utsumi, Motoo; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Takuroh; Kobayashi, Kensei; Moroi, Arimichi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Marumo, Katsumi; Urabe, Tetsuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2009-12-01

    To extend knowledge of subseafloor microbial communities within the oceanic crust, the abundance, diversity and composition of microbial communities in crustal fluids at back-arc hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough (SMT) were investigated using culture-independent molecular techniques based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Seafloor drilling was carried out at two hydrothermal fields, on- and off-ridge of the back-arc spreading centre of the SMT. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for bacterial and archaeal communities were constructed from the fluid samples collected from the boreholes. Phylotypes related to Thiomicrospira in the Gammaproteobacteria (putative sulfide-oxidizers) and Mariprofundus in the Zetaproteobacteria (putative iron-oxidizers) were recovered from the fluid samples. A number of unique archaeal phylotypes were also recovered. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated the presence of active bacterial and archaeal populations in the fluids. The Zetaproteobacteria accounted for up to 32% of the total prokaryotic cell number as shown by FISH analysis using a specific probe designed in this study. Our results lead to the hypothesis that the Zetaproteobacteria play a role in iron oxidation within the oceanic crust. PMID:19691504

  8. Distribution and origin of igneous rocks from the landward slopes of the Mariana Trench: Implications for its structure and evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, S.H.

    1983-09-10

    The landward slope of the Mariana Trench is composed largely of igneous rocks. Serpentinites and serpentinized ultramafic rocks occur at nearly all structural levels on the slope from depths of 8000 to 1200 m. Seamountlike features on the trench slope break are the surface expression of serpentinite diapirs. Cumulate and massive gabbros are found; several varieties of volcanic rocks are common including boninites, altered and metamorphosed basalts, andesites, and dacites. The chemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks indicate that nearly all are products of island arc volcanism. Together with the gabbros, these volcanic rocks represent what is probably a late Eocene arc complex. These rocks were probably the first volcanic products to result from the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Phillippine Sea plate; their exposure on the trench slope today implies a significant amount of tectonic erosion of the landward slope since Eocene time. Most of this removal of material appears to have occurred during the early stages of subduction. There are isolated occurrences on the landward slope of rock assemblages including alkalic basalts, chert, hyaloclastites, upper Cretaceous siliceous sediments, and shallow water limestones. These assemblages are very similar to rocks dredged from seamounts on the offshore flank of the trench, and their presence on the landward slope suggests that since the cessation of vigorous tectonic erosion, there has been episodic accretion of seamount fragments to the landward slope.

  9. Modelling detectability of kiore (Rattus exulans) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands, to inform possible eradication and monitoring efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, A.A.Y.; Stanford, J.W.; Wiewel, A.S.; Rodda, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the detection probability of introduced organisms during the pre-monitoring phase of an eradication effort can be extremely helpful in informing eradication and post-eradication monitoring efforts, but this step is rarely taken. We used data collected during 11 nights of mark-recapture sampling on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands, to estimate introduced kiore (Rattus exulans Peale) density and detection probability, and evaluated factors affecting detectability to help inform possible eradication efforts. Modelling of 62 captures of 48 individuals resulted in a model-averaged density estimate of 55 kiore/ha. Kiore detection probability was best explained by a model allowing neophobia to diminish linearly (i.e. capture probability increased linearly) until occasion 7, with additive effects of sex and cumulative rainfall over the prior 48 hours. Detection probability increased with increasing rainfall and females were up to three times more likely than males to be trapped. In this paper, we illustrate the type of information that can be obtained by modelling mark-recapture data collected during pre-eradication monitoring and discuss the potential of using these data to inform eradication and posteradication monitoring efforts. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  10. An exploration for hydrothermal plume evolution using the AUV "URASHIMA" with fluid sampling system at southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, T.; Sunamura, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Fukuba, T.; Okino, K.; Sugiyama, T.; Okamura, K.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrothermal fluids contain high concentration of anoxic chemical species, i.e. methane and hydrogen sulfide, helium-3, and heavy metals derived from the rock-water interaction. During the hydothermal plume spreading, it is known that several chemical species are oxidized which include available energy source for microorganism, however, few results have been reported on the spatial variation of both of chemical and microbiological concentration and species. In the southern Mariana Trough, some site surveys have been conducted with CTD hydrocasts, the manned submersible, and ROVs since 2003. In this field, three hydrothermal vent sites were discovered within the small area, where the chemistry of each hydrothermal fluid was different from each other. These differences of chemistry are prospected to affect the individual plume evolution. In order to discuss the each hydrothermal plume evolution, we conducted high-resolution plume mapping by the AUV "URASHIMA" with some chemical sensors. Additionally, we loaded 24 bottles of water sampler for the geochemical and microbial analysis. During this cruise, we detected hydrothermal plume anomalies derived from each hydrothermal site with the highly precise topographic results. Based on the results, we will discuss the relationships between the spreading of hydrothermal plume (geochemical evolution) and the ecology of plume microbes.

  11. Fe3+/∑Fe variation in Mariana arc and back-arc magmas and primary fO2 of the mantle wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brounce, M. N.; Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.

    2012-12-01

    Arc basalts are more oxidized than mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), but this could be due to differentiation processes in the Earth's crust or to a fundamental difference in the oxygen fugacity (fO2) in their respective mantle sources. To test between these two hypotheses, we present major element, S and Cl concentrations (EMP), trace element concentrations (LA-ICPMS), volatile concentrations (FTIR) and Fe3+/ΣFe ratios (μ-XANES) determined from naturally glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions with <2% post-entrapment crystallization from single eruptive events at Sarigan, Alamagan, Agrigan, Guguan, Pagan, and Maug volcanoes, and submarine glasses from Pagan and NW Rota-1 volcanoes and the Mariana Trough back-arc spreading center. Near-undifferentiated glass compositions from Pagan and NW Rota-1 submarine volcanoes have high MgO (7.9 - 11.1 wt%) and Fe3+/ΣFe ratios that are significantly oxidized over MORB, ranging from 0.211 to 0.237. Melt inclusions and Mariana Trough glasses range from 2.0 - 7.4 wt% MgO and are consistent with variable quantities of olivine ± clinopyroxene ± plagioclase ± magnetite fractionation as well as CO2 ± H2O ± S degassing. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios in arc melt inclusions range from 0.18 - 0.34 and in back-arc related samples from 0.17 - 0.20. Variations in Fe3+/ΣFe ratio along observed liquid lines of descent (LLDs) are slightly oxidizing, consistent with the fractionation of Fe2+-bearing minerals, or moderately reducing when either sulfur is behaving as a volatile or when magnetite is fractionating, but are insufficient in magnitude to explain why arc basalts are more oxidized than MORB. Melts last in equilibrium with the mantle (i.e. primary melts) are reconstructed from measured compositions by backtracking along empirical and modeled LLDs to yield primary Fe3+/ΣFe ratios. Pressures and temperatures of primary melt equilibration are calculated using the Si-thermobarometer developed by Lee et al. [2009] (EPSL 279(1-2), 20-33). Primary

  12. Collecting, Preserving & Sharing Information in Micronesia. Proceedings of the Annual Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (3rd, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, October 13-15, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives, Guam.

    Participants from Washington, Hawaii, Majuro, Palau, Guam and other points in the Northern Mariana Islands came together to share information relating to the functions of libraries and archives as information banks and as preservers of the cultural heritage of Micronesia. Papers presented were: (1) "Reading Motivation in the Pacific" (Marilyn…

  13. Reconnaissance Study of the Hydrology of American Memorial Park, Island of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perreault, Jeff A.

    2007-01-01

    American Memorial Park, a unit of the National Park Service on the Island of Saipan, includes among its features a 27-acre estuarine system that has become a rarity within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The estuarine system's mosaic of marshy areas interspersed with emergent wetlands and mixed wet forests provides critical habitat for various migratory and resident waterfowl, including two Federally listed endangered species: the Marianas gallinule (Gallinula chloropus guami) and the nightingale reed warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia). With sensitivity to the park's ecologic assets and the uncertainty associated with locally rapid urbanization, a need to better understand the hydrology of American Memorial Park was recognized. To address that need, a reconnaissance study of the park was undertaken during August and September 2005. The goals of the study were (1) to describe the occurrence and salinity of surface and ground water within the park; (2) to develop a hydrologic model of the park area of the island, with emphasis on the 27-acre estuarine system; and (3) to identify additional data needed to further develop this model. With regard to surface water, three freshwater inputs to the park's natural wetland are possible: direct rainfall, seaward-flowing ground water, and overland flow. Direct rainfall, which is an important source of freshwater to the wetland, commonly exceeds evapotranspiration both seasonally and per storm. The seaward flow of ground water is likely to be a source of freshwater to the wetland because ground water generally has an upward vertical component in the nearshore environment. Overland flow upgradient of the park could potentially contribute a significant input of freshwater during periods of intense rainfall, but roads that flank the park's perimeter act as a barrier to surficial inflows. During the reconnaissance, four discrete bodies, or zones, of surface water were observed within the park's natural wetland

  14. A Synthesis of Multibeam Bathymetry and Backscatter, and Sidescan Sonar of the Mariana Submarine Magmatic Arc, Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; Chadwick, W. W.; Stern, R. J.; Merle, S. G.; Bloomer, S. H.; Nakamura, K.; Tamura, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A series of expeditions funded by the NSF MARGINS Program, the NOAA Ocean Exploration Program and JAMSTEC from 2001 to 2006 have collected a large data set that includes multibeam bathymetry and backscatter and surface-towed MR-1 sidescan sonar along more than 1200 km of the Mariana submarine magmatic arc between 12 and 23 degrees N. These data, along with more limited in situ observational data from remotely operated vehicle dives, are interpreted within an ESRI ArcGIS framework to produce a series of preliminary geologic maps showing a wide range of volcanic, tectonic and other morphologic features along the arc. The maps reveal a widespread channelized distribution of volcaniclastic material from volcanoes in the Southern Seamount Province (SSP) and Central Island Provinces (CIP). Giant sediment wave forms (up to 2 km in wavelength) occur on the flanks of many of the volcanoes and can be traced out to up to 60 km (Esmeralda). Relative ages of the activity of the volcanoes can be assigned in some areas where deposits from one edifice overlap others or where erosion has deeply dissected the flanks. Faulting is common on the frontal arc, especially in the SSP and the Northern Seamount Province (NSP). Many of the individual volcanoes have faults that are oriented at a range of azimuths but are commonly at either an arc-parallel or arc- orthogonal orientations. Several large extensional basins (>30 across in arc-parallel direction) occur in the NSP. One of these features exhibits a zone of headless channels on its western flank, implying that the feature may be a very large caldera.

  15. Long period seismicity and very long period infrasound driven by shallow magmatic degassing at Mount Pagan, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, John J.; Haney, Matthew M.; Werner, Cynthia; Kelly, Peter; Patrick, Matthew; Kern, Christoph; Trusdell, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Long period (LP) seismicity and very long period infrasound (iVLP) were recorded during continuous degassing from Mount Pagan, Mariana Islands, in July 2013 to January 2014. The frequency content of the LP and iVLP events and delay times between the two arrivals were remarkably stable and indicate nearly co-located sources. Using phase-weighted stacking over similar events to dampen noise, we find that the LP source centroid is located 60 m below and 180 m west of the summit vent. The moment tensor reveals a volumetric source modeled as resonance of a subhorizontal sill intersecting a dike. We model the seismoacoustic wavefields with a coupled earth-air 3-D finite difference code. The ratios of pressure to velocity measured at the infrasound arrays are an order of magnitude larger than the synthetic ratios, so the iVLP is not the result of LP energy transmitting into the atmosphere at its epicenter. Based on crater shape and dimensions determined by structure from motion, we model the iVLP as acoustic resonance of an exponential horn. The source of the continuous plume from gas analysis is shallow magmatic degassing, which repeatedly pressurized the dike-sill portion of the conduit over the 7 months of observation. Periodic gas release caused the geologically controlled sill to partially collapse and resonate, while venting of gas at the surface triggered resonance in the crater. LP degassing only accounts for ~12% of total degassing, indicating that most degassing is relatively aseismic and that multiple active pathways exist beneath the vent.

  16. Source Evolution After Subduction Initiation as Recorded in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore-arc Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Reagan, M. K.; Pearce, J. A.; Shimizu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Drilling in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc during IODP Expedition 352 and DSDP Leg 60 recovered consistent stratigraphic sequences of volcanic rocks reminiscent of those found in many ophiolites. The oldest lavas in these sections are "fore-arc basalts" (FAB) with ~51.5 Ma ages. Boninites began eruption approximately 2-3 m.y. later (Ishizuka et al., 2011, EPSL; Reagan et al., 2013, EPSL) and further from the trench. First results from IODP Expedition 352 and preliminary post-cruise data suggest that FAB at Sites U1440 and U1441 were generated by decompression melting during near-trench sea-floor spreading, and that fluids from the subducting slab were not involved in their genesis. Temperatures appear to have been unusually high and pressures of melting appear to have been unusually low compared to mid-ocean ridges. Spreading rates at this time appear to have been robust enough to maintain a stable melt lens. Incompatible trace element abundances are low in FAB compared to even depleted MORB. Nd and Hf Isotopic compositions published before the expedition suggest that FAB were derived from typical MORB source mantle. Thus, their extreme deletion resulted from unusually high degrees of melting immediately after subduction initiation. The oldest boninites from DSDP Site 458 and IODP Sites U1439 and U1442 have relatively high concentrations of fluid-soluble elements, low concentrations of REE, and light depleted REE patterns. Younger boninites, have even lower REE concentrations, but have U-shaped REE patterns. Our first major and trace element compositions for the FAB through boninite sequence suggests that melting pressures and temperatures decreased through time, mantle became more depleted though time, and spreading rates waned during boninite genesis. Subduction zone fluids involved in boninite genesis appear to have been derived from progressively higher temperatures and pressures over time as the subducting slab thermally matured.

  17. Tectonic evolution of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: initial results from IODP Expedition 352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, W.; Ferre, E. C.; Robertson, A. H. F.; Avery, A. J.; Kutterolf, S.

    2015-12-01

    During International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352, a section through the volcanic stratigraphy of the outer fore arc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system was drilled to trace magmatism, tectonics, and crustal accretion associated with subduction initiation. Structures within drill cores, borehole and site survey seismic data indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer IBM fore arc is mainly post-magmatic. Extension generated asymmetric sediment basins such as half-grabens at sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442 on the upper trench slope. Along their eastern margins the basins are bounded by west-dipping normal faults. Deformation was localized along multiple sets of faults, accompanied by syn-tectonic pelagic and volcaniclastic sedimentation. The lowermost sedimentary units were tilted eastward by ~20°. Tilted beds were covered by sub-horizontal beds. Biostratigraphic constraints reveal a minimum age of the oldest sediments at ~ 35 Ma; timing of the sedimentary unconformities is between ~ 27 and 32 Ma. At sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441 on the outer fore arc strike-slip faults are bounding sediment basins. Sediments were not significantly affected by tectonic tilting. Biostratigraphy gives a minimum age of the basement-cover contact between ~29.5 and 32 Ma. The post-magmatic structures reveal a multiphase tectonic evolution of the outer IBM fore arc. At sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442, shear with dominant reverse to oblique reverse displacement was localized along subhorizontal fault zones, steep slickensides and shear fractures. These were either re-activated as or cut by normal-faults and strike-slip faults. Extension was also accommodated by steep to subvertical mineralized veins and extensional fractures. Faults at sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441 show mainly strike-slip kinematics. Sediments overlying the igneous basement(maximum Late Eocene to Recent age), document ash and aeolian input, together with mass wasting of the fault-bounded sediment ponds.

  18. Hydrothermal activity on near-arc sections of back-arc ridges: Results from the Mariana Trough and Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Edward T.; Massoth, Gary J.; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Embley, Robert W.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Arculus, Richard J.

    2005-09-01

    The spatial density of hydrothermal venting is strongly correlated with spreading rate on mid-ocean ridges (with the interesting exception of hot spot-affected ridges), evidently because spreading rate is a reliable proxy for the magma budget. This correlation remains untested on spreading ridges in back-arc basins, where the magma budget may be complicated by subduction-induced variations of the melt supply. To address this uncertainty, we conducted hydrothermal plume surveys along slow-spreading (40-60 mm/yr) and arc-proximal (10-60 km distant) sections of the southern Mariana Trough and the Valu Fa Ridge (Lau Basin). On both sections we found multiple plumes overlying ˜15-20% of the total length of each section, a coverage comparable to mid-ocean ridges spreading at similar rates. These conditions contrast with earlier reported results from the two nearest-arc segments of a faster spreading (60-70 mm/yr) back-arc ridge, the East Scotia Ridge, which approaches no closer than 100 km to its arc. There, hydrothermal venting is relatively scarce (˜5% plume coverage) and the ridge characteristics are distinctly slow-spreading: small central volcanic highs bookended by deep median valleys, and axial melt lenses restricted to the volcanic highs. Two factors may contribute to an unexpectedly low hydrothermal budget on these East Scotia Ridge segments: they may lie too far from the adjacent arc to benefit from near-arc sources of melt supply, and subduction-aided migration of mantle from the Bouvet hot spot may reduce hydrothermal circulation by local crustal warming and thickening, analogous to the Reykjanes Ridge. Thus the pattern among these three ridge sections appears to mirror the larger global pattern defined by mid-ocean ridges: a well-defined trend of spreading rate versus hydrothermal activity on most ridge sections, plus a subset of ridge sections where unusual melt delivery conditions diminish the expected hydrothermal activity.

  19. Constraints on the diversity and distribution of coral-reef assemblages in the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houk, P.; Starmer, J.

    2010-03-01

    A central problem for jurisdictional scientists and managers is to reconcile how multiple environmental regimes, encompassing continuous, intermittent and human disturbances, influence pertinent ecological management targets. The presence of heterogeneous environments throughout the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), coupled with the availability of descriptive physical data, form the basis examining environmental-ecological relationships. Since 2003, coral abundances and macrobiota (all visibly recognizable taxa greater than 2 cm) occurrences have been estimated at 42 reef slopes along the volcanic archipelago. Analyses showed that reef types acted as surrogates of coral growth capacity and the modern assemblages residing upon them, being highest and most favorable, respectively, where relatively high salinity levels, low-to-moderate wave exposure, and an absence of volcanic activity for ~90 years existed. However, island size was the greatest constraint on species richness overall, but relations with corals were dampened by volcanic activity and increased for sponges and algae where greater connection with the island aquifer existed (i.e., relatively low salinity levels). The number of years since volcanic activity has occurred was positively related to the residuals of species-area relationships and coral cover, with a ~90-year time frame predicted for recovery. Notably, no relationships with watershed characteristics or distance from CNMI’s main fishing port and coral-reef assemblages or species richness were found. Further examination of specific management concerns, such as fisheries and feral animal populations, should be designed to account for the inherent differences in driving environmental regimes. Management strategies focused upon conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function should be centered at the island level, matching the operational scale of dominant environmental-ecological relationships. Marine reserves represent a strategy pertinent

  20. Hydroacoustic records and a numerical model of the source mechanism from the first historical eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Park, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Byun, S.-K.

    2005-08-01

    Anatahan Volcano in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) erupted for the first time in recorded history on 10 May 2003. The underwater acoustic records ( T-waves) of earthquakes, explosions, and tremor produced during the eruption were recorded on a sound channel hydrophone deployed in February 2003. Acoustic propagation models show that the seismic to acoustic conversion at Anatahan is particularly efficient, aided by the upward slope of the seamount toward the hydrophone. The hydrophone records confirm the onset of earthquake activity between 0100 and 0200Z on 10 May, with a substantial increase in seismicity beginning at ˜ 0620Z. In addition, the onset of continuous, low-frequency (3-40 Hz) acoustic energy that is likely volcanic tremor related to magma intrusion was also observed at 0620Z. The hydrophone recorded 1401 earthquakes during the first 3 days of the eruption. A histogram of seismicity indicates two main periods of explosion/eruption activity, the first beginning at ˜ 0620Z on 10 May and the second at ˜ 0000Z on 11 May. Relative earthquake depth estimates indicate that both eruption periods were accompanied by earthquake activity from deep within the Anatahan volcanic edifice. A numerical representation of the Anatahan volcano-seismic source was developed to examine the character of acoustic signals generated from the eruption governed by the geometry of the source and the physical properties of the magma. A magma pipe source mechanism is used to compute the seismo-acoustic wavefield on the flank of the Anatahan volcanic edifice (on the seafloor and in the water column) due to mode conversion by roughness scattering. A fluid-filled pipe model was chosen because it allows for a more straightforward relation between volcano geometry and spectral features of harmonic tremor as well as its morphologic similarity to a submerged volcanic edifice.

  1. Diffuse Deformation Across the Southern Mariana Margin: Possible Effects of Water on Large-Scale Lithospheric Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, F.; Sleeper, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The southern Mariana margin is extending in an approximately E-W direction at about 45 mm/yr above the subducting Pacific slab. We use earthquake locations, shallow- and new deep-towed side-scan sonar imagery together with compiled multibeam bathymetry to document the nature of the tectonic and volcanic deformation. A well-defined and magmatically robust spreading center takes up part of this extension along the northern part of the southern margin. However, it does not intersect the trench. Instead the spreading center curves westward and becomes a diffuse zone of volcanism extending to the western end of the back-arc basin. The approximately E-W oriented fabric of this diffuse volcanic zone suggest it is taking up a southerly-directed extensional component associated with southward trench rollback in this area. The main E-W oriented extension in the southern margin appears to be distributed broadly across the margin to the south, as indicated by ~N-S-oriented seafloor fabric and the distribution of earthquakes in this area. Near the outer margin, deep-towed side-scan sonar data to near the 6000 m isobath image possible isolated volcanic emplacements within an otherwise tectonized terrain. Possible ~E-W oriented mullion structures are also imaged suggesting low angle tectonic deformation within the margin. The transition of the organized spreading center to a diffuse volcano-tectonic zone and the broadly distributed deformation in the entire southern margin may be consequences of the high water content in the mantle wedge and overlying lithosphere predicted here. Hydrous and therefore weak subduction margin lithosphere may not be able to localize the narrow plate boundary zones characteristic of extension in oceanic lithosphere.

  2. Two isotopically distinct fluid components involved in the Mariana arc: Evidence from Nb/B ratios and B, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tera, Fouad

    1999-01-01

    Nb/B ratios and δ11B values of Mariana lavas reveal the involvement of two isotopically distinct slab-derived fluids in the magma genesis. The evidence of one type of fluid is observed in lavas of the islands of Anatahan, Alamagan, Agrigan, and Uracas, in which simple mixing between fluid with very homogeneous δ11B values (+5.40‰ ± 0.05‰) and the mantle wedge controls the magma compositions. In lavas of the islands of Guguan, Asuncion, and Pagan, however, the fluids that mixed with the mantle wedge are significantly heterogeneous in δ11B (+5.4‰ to +7.6‰) even within a single island. The compositional difference between these two types of fluid can result from different ratios of sediment to altered oceanic crust (AOC) in the slabs, and this hypothesis is consistent with the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data. We propose that the variable isotope compositions of the latter fluid may be derived from local changes in sediment/AOC ratios of the slab that are caused by subduction of the Magellan seamounts beneath the Mariana arc.

  3. Plastic and locally adapted phenology in cambial seasonality and production of xylem and phloem cells in Picea abies from temperate environments.

    PubMed

    Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gryc, Vladimír; Vavrčík, Hanuš; de Luis, Martin; Cufar, Katarina

    2014-08-01

    Despite its major economic importance and the vulnerability of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. to climate change, how its radial growth at intra-annual resolution is influenced by weather conditions in forest stands with a high production capacity has scarcely been explored. Between 2009 and 2011, phenological variation in seasonal cambial cell production (CP) was analysed in adult P. abies trees from three contrasting sites, differing in altitude and latitude. The results indicate that the timing of cambial CP is a highly synchronic process within populations since in all cases the cambium simultaneously started and stopped producing xylem and phloem cells. Our results also demonstrate that the phenology of cambial CP is highly variable and plastic between years, depending on seasonal temperature and precipitation variation. Differences among sites, however, are only partially explained by different environmental (elevation and altitude) and climatic conditions, suggesting that local adaptation may also play a decisive role in the strategy of P. abies for adapting wood and phloem increments to function optimally under local conditions. PMID:24728295

  4. Effects of stump and slash removal on growth and mycorrhization of Picea abies seedlings outplanted on a forest clear-cut.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Uotila, Antti; Arhipova, Natalija; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate impact of stump and slash removal on growth and mycorrhization of Picea abies seedlings outplanted on a forest clear-cut. Four non-replicated site preparation treatments included: (1) mounding (M), (2) removal of stumps (K), (3) mounding and removal of logging slash (HM) and (4) removal of logging slash and stumps (HK). Results showed that height increment of the seedlings was highest in K and lowest in M after the third growing season, and similar pattern remained after the fourth season. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonisation of seedling roots was highest in M (96.6%) and lowest in K (72.3%), and even in HK (76.0%) and HM (76.3%). Morphotyping and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA revealed a total of 13 ECM species. Among those, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum were the most common, found on 27.4% and 26.3% of roots, respectively. The rest of species colonised 26.6% of roots. Richness of ECM species was highest in M (10 species) and lowest in K (three species). Consequently, stump and slash removal from clear-felled sites had a positive effect on growth of outplanted spruce seedlings, but negative effect on their mycorrhization. This suggests that altered soil conditions due to site disturbance by stump and slash removal might be more favourable for tree growth than more abundant mycorrhization of their root systems in less disturbed soil. PMID:20174952

  5. Occurrence and impact of the root-rot biocontrol agent Phlebiopsis gigantea on soil fungal communities in Picea abies forests of northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Burokienė, Daiva; Gaitnieks, Talis; Uotila, Antti; Johannesson, Hanna; Rosling, Anna; Finlay, Roger D; Stenlid, Jan; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess belowground occurrence, persistence and possible impact of the biocontrol agent Phlebiopsis gigantea (Fr.) Jülich on soil fungi. Sampling of soil and roots of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. was carried out at 12 P. gigantea-treated and five nontreated control sites representing 1- to 60-month-old clear-cuts and thinned forest sites in Finland and Latvia. The 454-sequencing of ITS rRNA from fine roots, humus and mineral soil resulted in 8626 high-quality fungal sequences. Phlebiopsis gigantea represented 1.3% of all fungal sequences and was found in 14 treated and nontreated sites and in all three substrates. In different substrates, the relative abundance of P. gigantea at stump treatment sites either did not differ significantly or was significantly lower than in nontreated controls. No significant correlation was found between the time elapsed since the tree harvesting and/or application of the biocontrol and abundance of P. gigantea in different substrates. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that P. gigantea occasionally occurs belowground in forest ecosystems but that stump treatment with the biocontrol agent has little or no impact on occurrence and persistence of P. gigantea belowground, and consequently no significant impact on soil fungi. PMID:22443512

  6. Quantitative structure-property relationships on photolysis of PCDD/Fs adsorbed to spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle surfaces under sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfeng; Huang, Liping; Chen, Jingwen; Yu, Gang; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2005-02-01

    By partial least squares (PLS) regression, quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were developed for photolysis half-life (t1/2) of PCDD/Fs and PAHs sorbed to spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle surfaces and irradiated by sunlight. Quantum chemical descriptors computed by PM3 Hamiltonian were used predictor variables. PLS analysis for the PCDDs and PAHs respectively resulted in no correlation by our statistical methods. The cross-validated Qcum2 value for the optimal QSPR model of PCDFs is 0.722, indicating a good predictive ability for logt1/2 of PCDFs adsorbed to spruce needle surfaces. The QSPR results show that the number of chlorine atoms bonded to the parent structure and (E(LUMO)-E(HOMO))2 has a dominant effect on t1/2 values of PCDFs. Increasing the number of chlorine atoms and (E(LUMO)-E(HOMO))2 values leads to increase of logt1/2 values of PCDFs. PMID:15639263

  7. [Spatial Distribution of Intron 2 of nad1 Gene Haplotypes in Populations of Norway and Siberian Spruce (Picea abies-P. obovata) Species Complex].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Polyakova, T A; Shatokhina, A V; Bondarenko, G N; Politov, D V

    2015-10-01

    The length and sequence variations among intron 2 haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA nad1 gene have been studied in the Norway and Siberian spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.-P. obovata Ledeb.) species complex. Twenty-two native populations and 15 provenances were analyzed. The distribution of the northern European haplogroup (haplotypes 721, 755, 789, 823, 857, 891, and 925) is delimited in the west by the Ural region inclusively. Haplotype 712 is widespread in populations of Siberia, in the Far East and in northeastern Russia. A novel variant of the Siberian haplogroup (780) containing three copies of the first minisatellite motif (34 bp) was found for the first time. The absence of an admixture of the northern European and Siberian haplotypes in the zone of spruce species introgression previously marked by morphological traits and nuclear allozyme loci was demonstrated. This may be evidence of the existence of a sharper geographic boundary between the two haplogroups, as compared to a boundary based on phenotypic and allozyme data. A high proportion of the interpopulation component of variation (65%) estimated by AMOVA indicates a substantial genetic subdivision of European and Siberian populations of the Palearctic spruce complex by mtDNA, which can be putatively explained by natural barriers to gene flow with seeds related, for instance, to the woodless regions of the western Siberian Plain in the Pleistocene and the probable floodplains of large rivers. PMID:27169226

  8. Combined effect of elevated UVB, elevated temperature and fertilization on growth, needle structure and phytochemistry of young Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Virjamo, Virpi; Sutinen, Sirkka; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2014-07-01

    Simultaneously with warming climate, other climatic and environmental factors are also changing. Here, we investigated for the first time the effects of elevated temperature, increased ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation, fertilization and all combinations of these on the growth, secondary chemistry and needle structure of 1-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in an outdoor experiment. After one growing season, elevated temperature increased root : shoot ratio and concentrations of needle piperidine alkaloids, while concentrations of needle catechins and acetophenones and bark flavonoids decreased compared with ambient temperature seedlings. UVB-radiation increased concentrations of bark condensed tannins, while fertilization increased total biomass and concentrations of needle catechins. In addition to the main effects, concentrations of some individual phenolic compounds showed UV × temperature or UV × temperature × fertilization interactions, and fertilization modified temperature response on root : shoot ratio. All the treatments described here affected the defence chemistry profiles of the seedlings, which may imply some changes in plant-herbivore interactions in connection with changing climate. The interactions between treatments indicate a need for further experiments involving several simultaneously affecting environmental changes. PMID:24804850

  9. Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Rajala, Tiina; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Taylor, Andy F S; Pennanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of taxonomical and functional ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in root formation and nutrient uptake by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. Seedlings were grown with an increasing ECM fungal diversity gradient from one to four species and sampled before aboveground growth differences between the two phenotypes were apparent. ECM fungal colonization patterns were determined and functional diversity was assayed via measurements of potential enzyme activities of eight exoenzymes probably involved in nutrient mobilization. Phenotypes did not vary in their receptiveness to different ECM fungal species. However, seedlings of slow-growing phenotypes had higher fine-root density and thus more condensed root systems than fast-growing seedlings, but the potential enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizas did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively. ECM species richness increased host nutrient acquisition potential by diversifying the exoenzyme palette. Needle nitrogen content correlated positively with high chitinase activity of ectomycorrhizas. Rather than fast- and slow-growing phenotypes exhibiting differing receptiveness to ECM fungi, our results suggest that distinctions in fine-root structuring and in the belowground growth strategy already apparent at early stages of seedling development may explain later growth differences between fast- and slow-growing families. PMID:24117652

  10. Late Pleistocene climate change promoted divergence between Picea asperata and P. crassifolia on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau through recent bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hao; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Jiabin; Li, Lili; Liu, Jianquan; Sun, Yongshuai

    2016-07-01

    Divergence during the early stage of speciation can be driven by a population bottleneck via reduced gene flow and enhanced lineage sorting. In this study, we aimed to examine whether such bottlenecks occurred during the initial speciation of two closely related spruce species Picea asperata and P. crassifolia occurring on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). We analyzed sequences of three chloroplast, two mitochondrial DNA fragments and a further 13 nuclear loci from 216 individuals of the two species. Both species showed a low level of genetic diversity in contrast to other congeners occurring in the QTP and adjacent regions. The estimated population sizes of P. asperata and P. crassifolia are less than the ancestral population size before splitting. These results together with multiple statistical tests (Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F*) suggest that these two species underwent recent bottlenecks. Based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), we also determined that the period of the population shrinkage was consistent with the interspecific divergence during the late Pleistocene. The reduced population sizes and the divergent selection may together have triggered the initial divergence under high gene flow between these two species. Our results therefore highlight the importance of climatic oscillations during the late Pleistocene in promoting speciation through changing demographic sizes of the ancestral species on the QTP and in adjacent regions. PMID:27386086

  11. Effects of light availability and tree size on the architecture of assimilative surface in the canopy of Picea abies: variation in needle morphology.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, U; Kull, O

    1995-05-01

    Needle dimensions, needle surface area, needle dry weight per area (LWA) and needle density (ND, needle weight per volume) were measured in terminal current-year shoots in a natural canopy of variably sized Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing along a light gradient. Needle shape was described as a rhomboid. Needle width (D(2)) increased with increasing diffuse site factor, a(d) (relative amount of penetrating diffuse solar radiation), whereas needle thickness (D(1)) remained nearly constant, resulting in an inverse relationship between D(1)/D(2) and a(d) and an increase in the ratio of total (TLA) to projected needle surface area (PLA) with increasing a(d). Because of the variations in needle morphology with respect to light availability, the shoot parameters used in present canopy models are also expected to be light-sensitive, and studies involving shoot morphology should also consider the variability in needle geometry. Needle dimensions and total tree height were not correlated. However, LWA increase with both increasing a(d) and total tree height. When LWA was expressed as the product of ND and needle height (NH, height of the rhomboidal transverse section of a needle), LWA appeared to increase with irradiance, because of changing NH, and with total tree height, because of changing needle density. PMID:14965954

  12. Assay and Electrophoresis of Superoxide Dismutase from Red Spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.), and Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Tandy, Norman E.; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Richardson, Curtis J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a method for extracting the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with high efficiency and free from interfering compounds. The extraction employs phosphate buffer with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and Triton X-100 followed by dialysis overnight. The isozymes of SOD in each species were separated electrophoretically and tested for their sensitivity to KCN and H2O2. An isozyme resistant to these inhibitors was found in the spruce but not the pine needles. The isozymes from the spruce needles were examined for individual responses to aging and H2O2 inhibition. Four of the five CuZn isozymes in spruce were found to have increased significantly but equally by October of their first year and two of those four isozymes were found to be more sensitive to H2O2. The response of the SOD isozymes in loblolly pine seedlings to O3 was also examined and the isozymes were found to be induced equally. Because the SOD activity in the young pine needles was too low to electrophorese, the SOD activity from the pines in the O3 experiment had to be partially purified using CHCl3 and ethanol, then concentrated. PMID:16666837

  13. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest.

    PubMed

    Carfrae, J A; Skene, K R; Sheppard, L J; Ingleby, K; Crossley, A

    2006-05-01

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH4NO3 at 48 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), sulphur (Na2SO4 at 50 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H2SO4 + NH4NO3) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. PMID:16246472

  14. Age-dependent climate-growth relationships and regeneration of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest in the Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Within dry inner Alpine environments climate warming is expected to affect the development of forest ecosystems by changing species composition and inducing shifts in forest distribution. By applying dendroecological techniques we evaluated climate sensitivity of radial growth and establishment of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed-coniferous forest in the Austrian Alps. Time series of annual increments were developed from > 220 trees and assigned to four age classes. While radial growth of old P. abies trees (mean age 121 and 174 yr) responded highly significant to May-June precipitation, young trees (mean age 28 and 53 yr) were insensitive to precipitation in the current year. Because tree age was closely correlated to height and diameter (r2 = 0.709 and 0.784, respectively), we relate our findings to the increase in tree size rather than age per se. Synchronicity found among trend in basal area increment and tree establishment suggests that canopy openings increased light and water availability, which favoured growth and establishment of moderately shade-tolerant P. abies. We conclude that although P. abies is able to regenerate at this drought prone site, increasing inter-tree competition for water in dense stands gradually lowers competitive strength and restricts scattered occurrence to dry-mesic sites. PMID:24027351

  15. Habitat conditions and phenological tree traits overrule the influence of tree genotype in the needle mycobiome-Picea glauca system at an arctic treeline ecotone.

    PubMed

    Eusemann, Pascal; Schnittler, Martin; Nilsson, R Henrik; Jumpponen, Ari; Dahl, Mathilde B; Würth, David G; Buras, Allan; Wilmking, Martin; Unterseher, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Plant-associated mycobiomes in extreme habitats are understudied and poorly understood. We analysed Illumina-generated ITS1 sequences from the needle mycobiome of white spruce (Picea glauca) at the northern treeline in Alaska (USA). Sequences were obtained from the same DNA that was used for tree genotyping. In the present study, fungal metabarcoding and tree microsatellite data were compared for the first time. In general, neighbouring trees shared more fungal taxa with each other than trees growing in further distance. Mycobiomes correlated strongly with phenological host traits and local habitat characteristics contrasting a dense forest stand with an open treeline site. Genetic similarity between trees did not influence fungal composition and no significant correlation existed between needle mycobiome and tree genotype. Our results suggest the pronounced influence of local habitat conditions and phenotypic tree traits on needle-inhabiting fungi. By contrast, the tree genetic identity cannot be benchmarked as a dominant driver for needle-inhabiting mycobiomes, at least not for white spruce in this extreme environment. PMID:27144386

  16. EXTRA SPINDLE POLES (Separase) controls anisotropic cell expansion in Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos independently of its role in anaphase progression.

    PubMed

    Moschou, Panagiotis N; Savenkov, Eugene I; Minina, Elena A; Fukada, Kazutake; Reza, Salim Hossain; Gutierrez-Beltran, Emilio; Sanchez-Vera, Victoria; Suarez, Maria F; Hussey, Patrick J; Smertenko, Andrei P; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2016-10-01

    The caspase-related protease separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES, ESP) plays a major role in chromatid disjunction and cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whether the expansion phenotypes are linked to defects in cell division in Arabidopsis ESP mutants remains elusive. Here we present the identification, cloning and characterization of the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies, Pa) ESP. We used the P. abies somatic embryo system and a combination of reverse genetics and microscopy to explore the roles of Pa ESP during embryogenesis. Pa ESP was expressed in the proliferating embryonal mass, while it was absent in the suspensor cells. Pa ESP associated with kinetochore microtubules in metaphase and then with anaphase spindle midzone. During cytokinesis, it localized on the phragmoplast microtubules and on the cell plate. Pa ESP deficiency perturbed anisotropic expansion and reduced mitotic divisions in cotyledonary embryos. Furthermore, whilst Pa ESP can rescue the chromatid nondisjunction phenotype of Arabidopsis ESP mutants, it cannot rescue anisotropic cell expansion. Our data demonstrate that the roles of ESP in daughter chromatid separation and cell expansion are conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. However, the mechanisms of ESP-mediated regulation of cell expansion seem to be lineage-specific. PMID:27229374

  17. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  18. Chemical response of Picea glehnii seed-epiphytic Penicillium species to Pythium vexans under in vitro competitive conditions for mycelial growth.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Tahara, Satoshi

    2005-04-01

    The potential protection of Picea glehnii seedlings from damping-off by seed-epiphytic Penicillium species was investigated. We studied the chemical response of seed-epiphytic Penicillium species (Pen. cyaneum, Pen. damascenum, and Pen. implicatum) to Pythium vexans, a damping-off fungus, in vitro. Penicillium species were cultured singly or cocultured with Pyt. vexans for 14 or 18 d, and mycelial growth, pH of culture filtrate, antifungal activity of the culture filtrate against Pyt. vexans, and the amount of antifungal compound produced by each Penicillium species, were examined. The filtrate of both the single culture of Penicillium and the coculture of Penicillium and Pyt. vexans showed antifungal activity against Pyt. vexans. In a coculture with Pyt. vexans, Pen. cyaneum produced an antifungal compound (patulin) as in the single culture. Pen. damascenum cocultured with Pyt. vexans produced an antifungal compound (citrinin), as it did in the single culture and in larger amounts on day 10. Pen. implicatum produced two antifungal compounds, frequentin and palitantin, and the ratio of frequentin (with higher antifungal activity than palitantin) to palitantin was higher in the coculture with Pyt. vexans than in the single culture. Our results indicate that these Penicillium species have the ability to produce antifungal compounds and to keep anti-fungal activity under competitive condition with Pyt. vexans. The chemical response of these Penicillium species to Pyt. vexans may contribute to protect P. glehnii seedlings from damage by Pyt. vexans. PMID:16124252

  19. [Spatial distribution pattern of Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica population and its relationships with topographic factors in middle part of Tianshan Mountain].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Tao; Li, Ji-Mei; Chang, Shun-Li; Li, Xiang; Lu, Jian-Jiang

    2011-11-01

    By the method of point pattern analysis, this paper studied the spatial distribution patterns of different age class individuals in the Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica forest in middle part of Tianshan Mountain and the influence of topographic factors on the distribution patterns. It was observed that the density of different age class individuals in the forest decreased with the increasing DBH of the individuals, and except old trees which presented a random distribution at the scale of 0-12 m, the saplings and the small, medium, and big trees were in aggregative distribution at all scales. With the increase of age class, the scale at which the individuals presented the highest aggregation degree increased, whereas the aggregation intensity declined. At small scale (0-16 m), different age class individuals appeared negative association, and the greater difference the tree age, the more significant the negative association presented. Altitude had significant positive effects on the number of medium, big, and old trees but had little effects on the number of saplings and small trees. Slope grade had significant positive effects on the number of saplings and small and medium trees, significant negative effects on the number of old trees, but little effects on the number of big trees. Concavo-convex had significant negative effects on the number of saplings and small and medium trees but had little effects on the number of big and old trees. PMID:22303653

  20. Variations in stable carbon isotope composition and leaf traits of Picea schrenkiana var. tianschanica along an altitude gradient in Tianshan Mountains, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiwen; Ma, Jianying; Sun, Wei; Chen, Fahu

    2014-01-01

    To understand the morphological and physiological responses of leaves to changes in altitudinal gradients, we examined ten morphological and physiological characteristics in one-year-old needles of Picea schrenkiana var. tianschanica at ten points along an altitudinal gradient from 1420 to 2300 m a.s.l. on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northwest China. Our results indicated that LA, SD, LPC, and LKC increased linearly with increasing elevation, whereas leaf δ13C, LNC, Chla+b, LDMC, LMA, and Narea varied nonlinearly with changes in altitude. With elevation below 2100 m, LNC, Narea, and Chla+b increased, while LDMC and LMA decreased with increasing altitude. When altitude was above 2100 m, these properties showed the opposite patterns. Leaf δ13C was positively correlated with Narea and LNC and negatively correlated with SD and LA, suggesting that leaf δ13C was indirectly controlled by physiological and morphological adjustments along altitudinal gradients. Based on the observed maximum values in LNC, Narea, Chla+b, and LA and the minimum values in LMA and LDMC at the elevation of 2100 m, suggesting higher photosynthetic capacity and greater potential for fast growth under superior optimum zone, we concluded that the best growing elevation for P. schrenkiana var. tianschanica in the Tianshan Mountains was approximately 2100 m. PMID:25530993

  1. Overexpression of a NF-YB3 transcription factor from Picea wilsonii confers tolerance to salinity and drought stress in transformed Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Dun; Liu, Yajing; Luo, Chaobing; Zhou, Yanni; Zhang, Lingyun

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a highly conserved transcription factor comprising NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits. To date, the roles of NF-Y subunit in plant still remain elusive. In this study, a subunit NF-YB (PwNF-YB3), was isolated from Picea wilsonii Mast. and its role was studied. PwNF-YB3 transcript was detected in all vegetative and reproductive tissues with higher levels in stem and root and was greatly induced by salinity, heat and PEG but not by cold and ABA treatment. Over-expression of PwNF-YB3 in Arabidopsis showed a significant acceleration in the onset of flowering and resulted in more vigorous seed germination and significant tolerance for seedlings under salinity, drought and osmotic stress compared with wild type plants. Transcription levels of salinity-responsive gene (SOS3) and drought-induced gene (CDPK1) were substantially higher in transgenic Arabidopsis than in wild-type plants. Importantly, CBF pathway markers (COR15B, KIN1, LEA76), but not ABA pathway markers CBF4, were greatly induced under condition of drought. The nuclear localization showed that NF-YB3 acted as a transcription factor. Taken together, the data provide evidence that PwNF-YB3 positively confers significant tolerance to salt, osmotic and drought stress in transformed Arabidopsis plants probably through modulating gene regulation in CBF-dependent pathway. PMID:26093308

  2. Seasonal dynamics of δ(13) C of C-rich fractions from Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) fine roots.

    PubMed

    Paya, Alex M; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2016-09-01

    The (13/12) C ratio in plant roots is likely dynamic depending on root function (storage versus uptake), but to date, little is known about the effect of season and root order (an indicator of root function) on the isotopic composition of C-rich fractions in roots. To address this, we monitored the stable isotopic composition of one evergreen (Picea abies) and one deciduous (Fagus sylvatica), tree species' roots by measuring δ(13) C of bulk, respired and labile C, and starch from first/second and third/fourth order roots during spring and fall root production periods. In both species, root order differences in δ(13) C were observed in bulk organic matter, labile, and respired C fractions. Beech exhibited distinct seasonal trends in δ(13) C of respired C, while spruce did not. In fall, first/second order beech roots were significantly depleted in (13) C, whereas spruce roots were enriched compared to higher order roots. Species variation in δ (13) C of respired C may be partially explained by seasonal shifts from enriched to depleted C substrates in deciduous beech roots. Regardless of species identity, differences in stable C isotopic composition of at least two root order groupings (first/second, third/fourth) were apparent, and should hereafter be separated in belowground C-supply-chain inquiry. PMID:27155532

  3. Composition and spatial evolution of mantle and fluids released beneath the active Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift: do they have arc or backarc basin signatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Ishizuka, O.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.; Manton, W. I.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Bloomer, S. H.

    2010-12-01

    Fluids of progressively changing composition are released from the subducting slab. Whereas the composition and effects of deep fluids are understood from studying arcs and backarc basin (BAB) lavas, those released at shallower depths beneath forearcs are less well known. Forearc rifts give us a unique opportunity to study the composition of ultra-shallow subduction-related fluids. At the southern end of the Mariana arc, the S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR), was discovered by HMR-1 sonar swath mapping (Martinez et al. 2000, JGR), and investigated in July 2008 by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500. The rift extends from the trench to the BAB spreading axis, where a magma chamber was recently documented (Becker et al., 2010, G-cubed). SEMFR is opening due to continued widening of the Mariana Trough BAB. Two suites of tholeiitic pillow lavas were recovered from the N.E. flank of the rift (dive 1096; slab depth ~ 30 ± 5 km), indicating recent magmatic activity. Dive 1096 lavas consist of upper primitive basalts (Mg# ≥ 60) and lower fractionated, basaltic andesites (Mg# < 60), separated by a thin sediment layer. Geochemical and isotopic studies show that these lavas were produced by extensive hydrous melting (≥ 15%) of a common depleted MORB-like mantle (Nb/Yb ~ 1, ɛNd ~ 9.3), likely S. Mariana BAB mantle, that interacted with < 3% metasomatic fluids. Thermobarometry constraints (Lee et al., 2009, EPSL) suggest that the primary melts equilibrated with the mantle at ~ 28 km, just above the slab, with a mean temperature ~1230°C. The fluid was enriched in fluid-mobile elements (Rb, Ba, K, U, Sr, Pb, Cs), mobilized from the ultra-shallow slab at low temperature, as well as melt-mobile elements (e.g. Th, LREE), released deeper and hotter. These fluids contribute 100% Cs, 97% Rb, 99% Ba, 69% Th, 74% U, 80% K, 83% Pb, 71% Sr, 45% La, 33% Ce, 20% Nd and 11% Sm to the magma. SEMFR lavas acquired BAB-like deep subduction component as well as arc-like ultra

  4. Polyphase serpentinization history of Mariana forearc mantle: observations on the microfabric of ultramafic clasts from ODP Leg 195, Site 1200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder

    2013-04-01

    In the forearc of the Mariana subduction zone system, a number of seamounts form from extrusion of blueschist and serpentine mud. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195 drilled the South Chamorro seamount, where ultramafic clasts occur within the mud matrix. These clasts show a complex serpentinization history, which bears the potential for tracking the alteration history during uplift and cooling of mantle wedge rocks to the seafloor. Moreover, the microfabrics of the highly serpentinized harzburgite and dunite clasts exhibit evidence for multiple fracturing events in the forearc mantle. These, in turn, lead to fluid influx and varied styles of serpentinization of harzburgite and dunite. The serpentinized ultramafic clasts exhibit a variety of microfabrics that range from virtually undeformed to strongly deformed samples. Pervasively serpentinized harzburgites feature either an equigranular fabric of serpentinized olivine and orthopyroxene crystals, or different vein generations related to multiple stages of serpentinization. Several types of fluid pathways in harzburgites are present: (i) veins containing brucite and iron oxides, developed linearly without marked conformance with the rock fabric. In places, these veins developed mm-cm wide halos with finger-shaped serpentinization fronts. Veins of type (i) are either developed as syntaxial veins from a single crack-seal event with large magnetite crystals growing from one wall to the other (as confirmed with high-resolution X-ray microtomography), or formed by multiple fluid events. (ii) serpentine veins that encompass regions of marginally serpentinized, microgranular olivine and large orthopyroxene crystals. (iii) extensional serpentine veins (known as "Frankenstein" type). In the clasts studied, their occurrence is restricted to the halo region of type (i) veins. (iv) as a late-stage feature, extensional veins documenting multiple crack-seal events can be present in the serpentinites (either in undeformed regions with

  5. Construction, Geologic, and Hydrologic Data from Five Exploratory Wells on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carruth, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Rota is the southernmost of the 14 small islands that make up the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Reduced springflow at Matan Hanom and As Onan springs occurred during a drought associated with the 1997-98 El Nino. Water from the two developed springs constituted the only municipal water source for the island at that time. In April 1998, reduced water supplies forced the Commonwealth Utilities Corporation to restrict water service in the principal villages of Songsong and Sinapalu for the duration of the dry season. In 1999, Five exploratory wells, EX-1 through EX-5 (CUC wells SP-MW1, SP-1, -2, -3, and SP-MW2), were drilled in the Sinapalu region of Rota to (1) assess the availability of fresh ground-water resources in an area where no other well information were available, and (2) to provide a new water source to help mitigate the impacts of drought associated with recurring El Nino weather events. The wells penetrated mainly light colored (dirty white to brownish), fragmental limestones containing abundant coral remains. Sustained-rate, recovery, and step-drawdown aquifer tests were attempted at each of the five exploratory wells to estimate aquifer properties in the vicinity of the wells and to assess the potential for new water sources. At wells EX-1 (CUC well SPMW1) and EX-5 (CUC well SP-MW2), attempts to conduct sustained-rate aquifer tests resulted in excessive drawdown to the pump intakes in the vicinity of the wells. At well EX-2 (CUC well SP-1), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.93 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 187 gal/min. At well EX-3 (CUC well SP-2), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 2.31 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 108 gal/min, and at well EX-4 (CUC well SP-3), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.27 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 139 gal/min. Specific conductance at the end of 8 days of

  6. Diffuse flow hydrothermal manganese mineralization along the active Mariana and southern Izu-Bonin arc system, western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, James R.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Dunham, Rachel E.; Stern, Robert J.; Bloomer, Sherman H.

    2008-08-01

    Abundant ferromanganese oxides were collected along 1200 km of the active Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system. Chemical compositions and mineralogy show that samples were collected from two deposit types: Fe-Mn crusts of mixed hydrogenetic/hydrothermal origin and hydrothermal Mn oxide deposits; this paper addresses only the second type. Mn oxides cement volcaniclastic and biogenic sandstone and breccia layers (Mn sandstone) and form discrete dense stratabound layers along bedding planes and within beds (stratabound Mn). The Mn oxide was deposited within coarse-grained sediments from diffuse flow systems where precipitation occurred below the seafloor. Deposits were exposed at the seabed by faulting, mass wasting, and erosion. Scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analyses indicate the presence of both amorphous and crystalline 10 Å and 7 Å manganate minerals, the fundamental chemical difference being high water contents in the amorphous Mn oxides. Alternation of amorphous and crystalline laminae occurs in many samples, which likely resulted from initial rapid precipitation of amorphous Mn oxides from waxing pulses of hydrothermal fluids followed by precipitation of slow forming crystallites during waning stages. The chemical composition is characteristic of a hydrothermal origin including strong fractionation between Fe (mean 0.9 wt %) and Mn (mean 48 wt %) for the stratabound Mn, generally low trace metal contents, and very low rare earth element and platinum group element contents. However, Mo, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co occur in high concentrations in some samples and may be good indicator elements for proximity to the heat source or to massive sulfide deposits. For the Mn sandstones, Fe (mean 8.4%) and Mn (12.4%) are not significantly fractionated because of high Fe contents in the volcaniclastic material. However, the proportion of hydrothermal Fe (nondetrital Fe) to total Fe is remarkably constant (49-58%) for all the sample groups, regardless of the degree of

  7. U-Th and ESR dating of drilled cores from a giant hydrothermal mounds in South Mariana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamasa, A.; Nakai, S.; Sato, F.; Toyoda, S.; Ishibashi, J.

    2012-12-01

    The time scale for hydrothermal activity is an important factor controlling the size of hydrothermal ore deposits and the evolution of chemosynthesis-based communities in a submarine hydrothermal system. We determined the age of hydrothermal deposits samples, both collected samples by submersible and drilled core samples from South Mariana Trough. Samples were collected from four hydrothermal sites, Snail (near the spreading axis), Archean ( 1.5km from the axis), Pika ( 4.9km from the axis) and Urashima ( 4.9km from the axis). 230Th-234U radioactive disequilibrium dating was applied to hydrothermal sufide minerals consisting of pyrite and sphalerite while electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was applied to barite. For 230Th-234U radioactive disequilibrium dating, we carried out magnetic separation for bulk samples, then we digested samples with nitric acid. U and Th were purified by two-step column separations, and isotopic compositions of spiked and unspiked U and Th were measured by a MC-ICP-MS. Analytical methods for ESR age determination were described in a companion abstract by Toyoda et al. We found that the magnetic fractions had significantly higher U/Th ratios, which enabled 230Th-234U age determinations as precise as ±2% (2σ). This probably reflects that pyrite enriched in magnetic fractions has high U/Th ration. In a sulfide crust sample collected from Archean site, the 230Th-234U ages of the sulfide minerals (0.3-2.2 ka) were compared with ESR ages of barites separated from 12 subsamples of the same sulfide crust. ESR ages (0.27 - 1.7 ka) show a spatial pattern broadly resembling that observed in 230Th-234U dating method. While there are some significant offsets, these results illustrate the potential of the two methods for use in provide information on evolution history of a hydrothermal system. Samples from Pika, Archean and Snail sites yield from 0.5 to ~9 ka, from 0.1 to 3 ka and < ~90 a, respectively. The oldest ages from each site are correlated

  8. Crustal Accretion at Subduction Initiation Along Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc and the Link to SSZ Ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Tani, K.; Reagan, M. K.; Kanayama, K.; Umino, S.; Harigane, Y.; Sakamoto, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) forearc preserves the earliest arc magmatic history from subduction initiation to the establishment of the arc. Recent investigations have established a bottom to top igneous stratigraphy of: 1) mantle peridotite, 2) gabbroic rocks, 3) a sheeted dyke complex, 4) basaltic pillow lavas (forearc basalts: FAB), 5) boninites and magnesian andesites, 6) tholeiites and calcalkaline arc lavas. This stratigraphy has many similarities to supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites. One of the most important common characteristics between the SSZ ophiolites and the forearc crust is the occurrence of MORB-like basaltic lavas underlying or accompanying boninites and early arc volcanic suites. A key observation from the IBM forearc is that FAB differs from nearby back-arc lavas in chemical characteristics, including a depletion in moderately incompatible elements. This indicates that FAB is not a pre-existing oceanic basement of the arc, but the first magmatic product after subduction initiation. Sheeted dikes of FAB composition imply that this magmatism was associated with seafloor spreading, possibly triggered by onset of slab sinking. Recognition of lavas with transitional geochemical characteristics between the FAB and the boninites strongly implies genetic linkage between these two magma types. The close similarity of the igneous stratigraphy of SSZ ophiolites to the IBM forearc section strongly implies a common magmatic evolutionary path, i.e., decompressional melting of a depleted MORB-type mantle is followed by melting of an even more depleted mantle with the addition of slab-derived fluid/melt to produce boninite magma. Similarity of magmatic process between IBM forearc and Tethyan ophiolites appears to be reflected on common characteristics of upper mantle section. Peridotite from both sections show more depleted characteristics compared to upper mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges. Age determinations reveal that first magmatism at the IBM arc

  9. A new SO2 emissions budget for Anatahan volcano (Mariana Islands) based on ten years of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Brendan; Popp, Christoph; Andrews, Benjamin; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing offers great potential for the study of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas emissions from volcanoes worldwide. Anatahan is a remote volcano in the Mariana Islands, SW Pacific. Existing SO2 emissions data from Anatahan, from ground-based UV spectrometer measurements, place the volcano among the largest natural SO2 sources worldwide. However, these measurements are limited in number and only available from intervals of eruptive activity. Activity varies widely at Anatahan: over the past decade, records held in the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program Volcanoes of the World database describe the alternation of intense eruptions with long intervals of quiescence, where much lower intensity activity took place. We present ten years of satellite-based measurements of SO2 in the atmosphere over Anatahan, using data from the UV spectrometers OMI, GOME-2, and SCIAMACHY, and the IR spectrometer AIRS. We find Anatahan's emissions to be highly variable both within and between intervals of eruption and quiescence. We demonstrate a close agreement between trends in SO2 emission evident from our remote sensing data and records of activity compiled from a range of other sources and instruments, across daily to annual temporal scales. Mean eruptive SO2 emissions at Anatahan are ~6400 t/d, and range from <1000 to >18000 t/d. Quiescent emissions are below our instrument detection limits and are therefore unlikely to exceed 150-300 t/d. Overall, accounting for both eruptive and quiescent emissions, we calculate a revised decadal mean SO2 emission rate of 1060-1200 t/d. We further calculate a total decadal SO2 yield from Anatahan of 4-5 Mt, significantly lower than the 17-34 Mt calculated if ground-based campaign data are used in isolation. The use of isolated measurements to extrapolate longer term emissions budgets is subject to clear uncertainty, and we argue that our satellite observations, covering a longer interval of Anatahan's history, are better

  10. Continuous, Long-term, Cyclic, Varied Eruptive Activity Observed at NW Rota-1 Submarine Volcano, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, B.; Dziak, R. P.; Baker, E. T.; Cashman, K. V.; Embley, R. W.; Ferrini, V.; de Ronde, C. E.; Butterfield, D. A.; Deardorff, N.; Haxel, J. H.; Matsumoto, H.; Fowler, M. J.; Walker, S. L.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Merle, S. G.

    2009-12-01

    NW Rota-1 is a conical, basaltic-andesite submarine volcano in the Mariana arc with a summit depth of 520 m. Eruptive activity was first witnessed here during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives in 2004, and was also observed during all four subsequent ROV expeditions in 2005, 2006, and 2009. Cyclic explosive bursts were documented by a portable hydrophone during the 2006 ROV dives. More recently, a year of instrumental monitoring data from a moored hydrophone and plume sensor show that the volcano was continuously active from February 2008 to February 2009, and that the cyclic character of the eruptions occurred with variable intensity and periodicity. The 2008-2009 hydrophone record includes explosive bursts every 1-2 minutes, with high acoustic amplitudes in the first half of the year and lower more variable amplitudes in the second half. In contrast, the moored turbidity sensor recorded major eruptive plumes on a time scale of every few days to weeks, and at approximately the same frequency throughout the year. This apparent disparity may be explained by the most recent ROV and portable hydrophone observations at NW Rota-1 in April 2009, which confirmed continuous and diverse eruptive activity with cyclicity over several time scales, from minutes to days. Visual observations at the eruptive vent provided new insight into the process of very slow lava extrusion on the seafloor. During slow extrusion (at rates of 1-2 m3/hr), lava spines rose in the eruptive vent, then gradually disintegrated into angular blocks as they cooled and were shoved aside by the next lava to emerge. Freshly erupted lava blocks periodically tumbled down the sides of a growing cone (40-m high and 300-m wide) that had been constructed by this process since the last visit in 2006. Thus auto-brecciation during slow lava extrusion underwater produces primary deposits that could easily be mistaken as secondary, and can construct substantial landforms on submarine arc volcanoes. Even during

  11. Diffuse flow hydrothermal manganese mineralization along the active Mariana and southern Izu-Bonin arc system, western Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Schulz, M.S.; Dunham, R.E.; Stern, R.J.; Bloomer, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Abundant ferromanganese oxides were collected along 1200 km of the active Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system. Chemical compositions and mineralogy show that samples were collected from two deposit types: Fe-Mn crusts of mixed hydrogenetic/hydrothermal origin and hydrothermal Mn oxide deposits; this paper addresses only the second type. Mn oxides cement volcaniclastic and biogenic sandstone and breccia layers (Mn sandstone) and form discrete dense stratabound layers along bedding planes and within beds (stratabound Mn). The Mn oxide was deposited within coarse-grained sediments from diffuse flow systems where precipitation occurred below the seafloor. Deposits were exposed at the seabed by faulting, mass wasting, and erosion. Scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analyses indicate the presence of both amorphous and crystalline 10 ?? and 7 ?? manganate minerals, the fundamental chemical difference being high water contents in the amorphous Mn oxides. Alternation of amorphous and crystalline laminae occurs in many samples, which likely resulted from initial rapid precipitation of amorphous Mn oxides from waxing pulses of hydrothermal fluids followed by precipitation of slow forming crystallites during waning stages. The chemical composition is characteristic of a hydrothermal origin including strong fractionation between Fe (mean 0.9 wt %) and Mn (mean 48 wt %) for the stratabound Mn, generally low trace metal contents, and very low rare earth element and platinum group element contents. However, Mo, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co occur in high concentrations in some samples and may be good indicator elements for proximity to the heat source or to massive sulfide deposits. For the Mn sandstones, Fe (mean-8.4%) and Mn (12.4%) are not significantly fractionated because of high Fe contents in the volcaniclastic material. However, the proportion of hydrothermal Fe (nondetrital Fe) to total Fe is remarkably constant (49-58%) for all the sample groups, regardless of the degree of

  12. Hf-Nd input flux in the Izu-Mariana subduction zone and recycling of subducted material in the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvel, Catherine; Marini, Jean-Christophe; Plank, Terry; Ludden, John N.

    2009-01-01

    In subduction zones, two major mass fluxes compete: the input flux of altered oceanic crust and sediments subducted into the mantle and the output flux of magma that forms the volcanic arc. While the composition and the amount of material erupted along volcanic arcs are relatively well known, the chemical and isotopic composition of the subducted material (altered oceanic crust and sediments) is poorly constrained and is an important factor in the mass balance calculation. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 185 in the Western Pacific used systematic sampling of the altered basaltic basement and sediment pile and the creation of composite mixtures to quantify the total chemical flux subducted at the Izu-Mariana margin. Here, we report Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of materials recovered from this Leg. The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of altered basalts from Hole 801C are indistinguishable from those of recent unaltered Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalt, suggesting that hydrothermal alteration had no effect on either isotopic systems. The complete Site 1149 sedimentary pile has a weighted average ɛNd of -5.9 and ɛHf of +4.4, values similar to those of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules. Therefore, the Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of the sediments collected at Site 1149 indicate minimal contributions from continental detrital material to the rare earth elements and high field strength elements. However, the Hf isotopic budget of the oldest sediments is more influenced by continental material than the younger sediments, despite the large distances to continental masses 130 Ma ago. In the Izu subduction zone, we calculate a sedimentary input of less than about 2% in the volcanic lava source. In contrast, at least 85% of the sedimentary Nd and Hf are recycled into the mantle to affect its general composition. Assuming that sediments have been recycled in a similar manner into the mantle for millions of years, large chemical heterogeneities must be produced in the mantle. In

  13. Links between shallow slab dehydration, mantle wedge serpentinization and arc volcanism-insights from the Izu-Bonin-Marianas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savov, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    During the last 30 yrs the forearc region of the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Marianas (IBM) convergent margin has been drilled and dredged at several important sites. The recovered samples represent a unique combination of slab-derived pore fluids and metamorphic schists, as well as the associated with them subarc harzburgites and serpentine-dominated melanges. These samples are now well characterized both petrologically and chemically and reveal typical high P and low T (blueschist) metamorphic conditions for the region between 20 and 35 km depth to the slab. Importantly, all of the recovered fluids and rocks reveal dramatic enrichments on fluid mobile elements like B, As, Sb, Cs, Br and I, as well as vast stable and radiogenic isotope fractionations. The distinct forearc elemental and isotope anomalies allow us for the first time to link the processes occurring in the shallow mantle with the geochemical signatures of the deep mantle sources of arc and backarc volcanoes. From combination of mostly low abundance trace elements (B, Li, PGEs,Nb, REE) and B-Li-Sr-Os isotopes, it becomes evident that serpentinized forearc mantle is critical prerequisite for the subduction initiation process and can impact the source characteristics of typical hydrous arc melts erupted as boninites and arc tholeiites. Similar to the IBM forearc metamorphism- arc volcanism connection have also been recognized in Central America and South Sandwich active margins. On the other hand, absence of elevated B and d11B signatures in "hot" subduction systems (Cascades, Garibaldi, Mexico) reveals strong connection between the subduction assemblages, mantle wedge thermal structure and the depth of devolatilization. As the exact nature of the subducted slab assemblage at depths of >50 km is not well constrained and the structure and thermal regime of the subarc mantle and arc crust are still challenging to model, we must make an effort to link the studies of modern subduction zones with exhumed

  14. Detailed Sidescan Imageries Obtained From the Southern Mariana Trough and the Suiyo Seamount of the Izu-Bonin Arc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshima, M.; Kisimoto, K.; Nishimura, K.

    2004-12-01

    Side-scan-sonar (SSS) is a tool to create 2-dimensional imagery of the seafloor, and sub-bottom-profiler (SBP) is for a cross sectional (vertical) structure beneath the seafloor. These 2 instruments were combined into a compact (portable) package (off-line system) to accommodate into various vehicles such as ROVs and deep-tow frame. We named the system _eDAI-PACK: Deep-sea Acoustic Imaging Package_f. During the cruise TN167 at the back-arc spreading area in the southern Mariana, ROPOS-dive#777 was assigned to do the mapping by DAI-PACK. 2 box survey lines were planned at Fryer site and Yamanaka site on the axial hydrothermal area. Mesotech 971 forward-scanning sonar was used and its record was saved digitally. We were able to process the Mesotech 971 data and the images were plotted on maps. 2 boxes and transit between them were successfully processed using smoothed data of LBL positions. The cruise NT03-14 was carried out at the Suiyo seamount using ROV Hyper-Dolphin -dive#262,#265,#266, with SSBL acoustic positioning system. The ROPOS and the Hyper-Dolphin could have been maintained at the height of 3-5m from the sea-bottom. From the records of ROPOS_fs 7.5 hours, 4 and a half survey lines (East-West direction) were successfully recovered from Box-1. Each survey line was separated by 50m and the half swath range of the SSS was set to 30m to make full coverage of the box 1 and 2. We can recognize the rocks of 1m in size from the mosaic imagery, but the preliminary image is skewed and distorted because the vehicle_fs attitude correction is not quite right yet. Although the SSS transmits 10 pulses per second, attitude sensors of the ROPOS were recorded only one per second, which sometimes makes it difficult to relocate every pulse of the SSS to its true position. At the pre-cruise meeting it was announced that ROPOS would be installed with new navigational/scanning tools, i.e. a doppler sonar and a pencil-beam sonar, which could make the post processing of the SSS

  15. Hydrous lithosphere and diffuse crustal accretion and tectonics in the southern Mariana margin: a possible analog for subduction zone infancy and ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, F.; Fryer, P. B.; Sleeper, J. D.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Ohara, Y.; Ribeiro, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The mode of extension and crustal accretion may vary significantly during subduction margin evolution. Mantle water content likely has a strongly influence on this evolution as it strongly affects the mantle solidus and rheology. Effects of mantle hydration on volcanism and tectonics were examined in the southern Mariana margin in 2012 on a R/V Thompson cruise. The southern Mariana margin is actively rifting sub-parallel to the trench forming new crust and lithosphere directly above the de-watering slab (see Ribeiro et al. session T011). Shallow seismicity shows broadly distributed active deformation in the upper plate. Shallow-towed and near-bottom sidescan sonar data map a highly faulted terrain with rotated crustal blocks and distributed volcanic emplacements. The near-bottom sidescan sonar data also image an apparent corrugated core complex structure, the first such described from a convergent margin setting, indicating low-angle normal faulting during the extension. Water content in sampled volcanics is ~2 %, approaching that of the volcanic arc itself. Volcanic rocks from the eastern margin are mostly ~2-4 m.y. old, but younger basaltic volcaniclastics were recovered farther west suggesting that active volcanism may continue. We hypothesize that the broadly distributed volcanism and tectonic activity is due to high mantle water content that weakens the margin lithosphere. Continual water addition from the subducting slab inhibits melting-related dehydration and strengthening as has been proposed for lithosphere formed at mid-ocean ridges. A consequence of a broadening zone of rifting is that extension-related mantle upwelling rates will decrease with time. Surface cooling will thus progressively depress the mantle solidus, perhaps explaining the paucity of current observed volcanism at the margin. The volcano-tectonic processes active today in the southern Mariana margin may be modern analogs of those inferred at subduction zone infancy where broadly

  16. Venting of a separate CO2-rich gas phase from submarine arc volcanoes: Examples from the Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, John; Lilley, Marvin; Butterfield, David; Evans, Leigh; Embley, Robert; Massoth, Gary; Christenson, Bruce; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Schmidt, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Submersible dives on 22 active submarine volcanoes on the Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec arcs have discovered systems on six of these volcanoes that, in addition to discharging hot vent fluid, are also venting a separate CO2-rich phase either in the form of gas bubbles or liquid CO2 droplets. One of the most impressive is the Champagne vent site on NW Eifuku in the northern Mariana Arc, which is discharging cold droplets of liquid CO2 at an estimated rate of 23 mol CO2/s, about 0.1% of the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) carbon flux. Three other Mariana Arc submarine volcanoes (NW Rota-1, Nikko, and Daikoku), and two volcanoes on the Tonga-Kermadec Arc (Giggenbach and Volcano-1) also have vent fields discharging CO2-rich gas bubbles. The vent fluids at these volcanoes have very high CO2 concentrations and elevated C/3He and δ13C (CO2) ratios compared to MOR systems, indicating a contribution to the carbon flux from subducted marine carbonates and organic material. Analysis of the CO2 concentrations shows that most of the fluids are undersaturated with CO2. This deviation from equilibrium would not be expected for pressure release degassing of an ascending fluid saturated with CO2. Mechanisms to produce a separate CO2-rich gas phase at the seafloor require direct injection of magmatic CO2-rich gas. The ascending CO2-rich gas could then partially dissolve into seawater circulating within the volcano edifice without reaching equilibrium. Alternatively, an ascending high-temperature, CO2-rich aqueous fluid could boil to produce a CO2-rich gas phase and a CO2-depleted liquid. These findings indicate that carbon fluxes from submarine arcs may be higher than previously estimated, and that experiments to estimate carbon fluxes at submarine arc volcanoes are merited. Hydrothermal sites such as these with a separate gas phase are valuable natural laboratories for studying the effects of high CO2 concentrations on marine ecosystems.

  17. Composition of the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift pillow lavas : interaction between adiabatic decompression mantle melting and ultra-shallow slab-derived fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Ishizuka, O.; Ren, M.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Bloomer, S.; Anthony, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Mariana intraoceanic arc system is related to the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate. A northward-propagating forearc rift extending from the southernmost backarc basin spreading ridge to the trench, called the SE Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR), has been inferred by regional HMR-1 bathymetric and backscatter mapping south of Guam (see Martinez & Stern abstract). SEMFR formed by lateral stretching as a result of slab rollback and collision of the Caroline ridge with the IBM arc. This forearc rift provides an unusual opportunity to study melts generated very shallow (~ 40 km deep) above a subduction zone. Forearc rifts are extensional zones occurring in subduction settings providing the opportunity to sample rocks produced by adiabatic asthenosphere decompression and fluid-metasomatized mantle melting. During YK08-08 in July 2008, manned submersible Shinkai 6500 Dive 1096 dived in SEMFR and sampled a 663 m thick section of fresh tholeiitic pillow lavas. These lavas are composed of upper primitive basalts (Mg# = 61 - 67) and lower basaltic andesites (Mg# = 49 - 51). The upper series phenocrysts are olivine (Fo85-87), diopside, and plagioclase (An80-83) with scattered olivine xenocrysts (3 mm, Fo92) hosting Cr-spinel (Cr# = 68 - 69). Lower series lavas contain phenocrysts of olivine (Fo76-79), augite and two plagioclases (An66-71 and An80-86), perhaps indicating magma mixing. Flat REE patterns, and high Mg# ( > 60) of the upper basalts indicate generation by fractional melting of spinel peridotite. LA-ICP-MS analysis show that lower series clinopyroxenes formed in equilibrium with more REE-enriched melts than their host rock, also supporting an interpretation of magma mixing. Discrimination diagrams using Th-Ba-Nb-Yb systematics (Pearce, 2008, Lithos, v. 100; Pearce and Stern, 2006, Geophysical Monograph Series 166, AGU) show that both series lavas have composition similar to that of Mariana backarc basin but with higher Ba/Nb content

  18. Studies of the Southern Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Forearc using Shinkai 6500: Watery Glimpses of an In Situ Forearc Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Bloomer, S. H.; Fryer, P.; Fuji, A.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Imoto, H.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Johnson, J.; Michibayashi, K.; Ribiero, J.; Stern, R. J.; Uehara, S.

    2008-12-01

    Two expeditions with research submersible Shinkai 6500 and R/V Yokosuka (YK06-12 and YK08-08-2) studied the lithospheric structure of the Mariana forearc south of Guam. Igneous crustal and mantle rocks are well exposed along the inner trench wall because of the great depth of the trench, low sediment flux, and recent shearing and extension along N-S and E-W faults. A total of 12 dives studied crust between 6500 and 2000 mbsl along ~500km of the forearc. West Santa Rosa Bank Fault (WSRBF), a major N-S fault at ~144°10'E above a tear in the subducted slab, marks an important lithospheric boundary, with very thin crust to the west and thicker crust to the east. 3 of 4 dives west of WSRBF recovered peridotite and a fourth (#1096) sampled a scarp between 6100 and 5400m depth exposing multiple flows of fresh basalt. This may mark a previously unknown, N-S oriented forearc rift (W. Santa Rosa Terrane, WSRT). The zone of thin crust and shallow peridotite continues west as far as ~143°07'E, as demonstrated by the fact that 3 out of 4 Shinkai dives and 15 out of 18 total bottom samplings in this region recovered peridodite; thicker crust lies west of this. The concentration of shallow (<25km deep) seismicity between 143- 144°E further indicates a broad zone of crustal extension in the SE part of the Mariana Trough encompassing the WSRT. In contrast, peridotite was not recovered from 8 dives east of WSRBF and only recovered in 3 out of 19 total samplings; these peridotites may sample incipient serpentinite mud volcanoes forming along the disrupted outer forearc. Diabase was recovered from 3 out of 8 Shinkai dives east of the WSRBF and 4 out of 19 total samplings, indicating that dikes or sills are exposed at depths accessible to Shinkai, consistent with what is likely to be exposed for Mariana inner forearc crustal thicknesses of ~20-25 km. Gabbro and pyroxenite is reasonably common among samples from west of WSRBF (0 of 4 Shinkai dives; 7 of 26 total samples) and scarcer

  19. Formation and spread of callus tissue and tangential rows of resin ducts in Larix decidua and Picea abies following rockfall impacts.

    PubMed

    Schneuwly, Dominique M; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle

    2009-02-01

    After mechanical wounding, callus tissue and tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) are formed in many conifer species. This reaction can be used to date past events of geomorphic processes such as rockfall, debris flow and snow avalanches. However, only few points are known about the tangential spread or the timing of callus tissue and TRD formation after wounding. We analyzed 19 Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) and eight Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) trees that were severely damaged by rockfall activity, resulting in a total of 111 injuries. Callus tissue appeared sparsely on the cross sections and was detected on only 4.2% of the L. decidua samples and 3.6% of the P. abies samples. In contrast, TRDs were present on all cross sections following wounding and were visible on more than one-third (34% in L. decidua and 36.4% in P. abies) of the circumference where the cambium was not destroyed by the rockfall impact. We observe different reactions in the trees depending on the seasonal timing of wounding. The tangential spread of callus tissue and TRDs was more important if the injury occurred during the growth period than during the dormant season, with the difference between seasons being more pronounced for callus tissue formation than for TRD formation. We observed an intra-annual radial migration of TRDs with increasing tangential distance from the wound in 73.2% of the L. decidua samples and 96.6% of the P. abies samples. The persistence of TRD formation in the years following wounding showed that only L. decidua trees produced TRDs 2 years after wounding (10.5%), whereas P. abies trees produced TRDs 5 years after wounding (> 50%). PMID:19203953

  20. Photosynthesis and growth response of red spruce and loblolly pine to soil-applied lead and simulated acid rain. [Picea rubens; Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, J.R.; Paganelli, D.J.

    1987-09-01

    Soils from red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands were amended with either 0, 150, 300, 600 or 1200 mg/kg Pb as PbCl/sub 2/. Six-month-old spruce and six-week-old pine seedlings were planted in their respective native soils and treated for 19 weeks with simulated rain of either pH 4.5 or 3.0. Rain was applied directly to the soil at a rate of 1.5 cm per week. Net photosynthesis, height, and needle, shoot, and root dry weights were measured at the completion of the experiment. In both soils, pH decreased and nitrate concentration increased with the application of a simulated rain solution of pH 3.0. Despite these changes in soil chemistry, simulated rain pH had no significant effect on the growth of either species. Red spruce photosynthesis was 35% higher; however, at a pH of 3.0. Loblolly pine photosynthesis was not affected by solution pH. Growth and photosynthesis of red spruce were inhibited even at the 150 mg/kg Pb level, with additional Pb resulting in increasing inhibition. Growth of loblolly pine seedlings was less sensitive to Pb, and decreased only at the higher concentrations. Loblolly pine photosynthesis exhibited no decline even at the highest Pb level. These results suggest that both red spruce and loblolly pine are more sensitive to soil Pb than to acid precipitation. In addition, loblolly pine appears to be more tolerant of Pb than red spruce, when both species are grown in their respective native soils.

  1. Structural studies of TiO2/wood coatings prepared by hydrothermal deposition of rutile particles from TiCl4 aqueous solutions on spruce (Picea Abies) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pori, Pavel; Vilčnik, Aljaž; Petrič, Marko; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mihelčič, Mohor; Šurca Vuk, Angela; Novak, Urban; Orel, Boris

    2016-05-01

    A low temperature approach was developed for the deposition of rutile TiO2 particles on a wood surface by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solutions acidified with HCl, and crystallization at 75 and 90 °C (1 h). Prior to hydrothermal treatment, Picea Abies wood was first soaked in a 0.5 mmol/l aqueous solution containing anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Sigma Aldrich) for 2 h at 80 °C. The crystal structure of the hydrothermally made rutile particles was determined with XRD, while the morphology of the deposited TiO2 particles and their distribution in the wood were examined with SEM and EDX measurements. The penetration and amount of deposited rutile particles could be modified by changing the deposition conditions. Thicker layers were obtained from more concentrated aqueous TiCl4 solutions with and without added HCl, and with longer deposition times and higher temperatures of the hydrothermal treatment. The interaction of TiO2 particles with hemicellulose and lignin in wood was established from infrared attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) and Raman spectra measurements, from which the spectra of wood were subtracted. Analysis of the subtraction spectra showed the presence of titania particles on the wood surface, revealing also the establishment of TiO2-wood coordinative bonds of titanium ions with hemicellulose and lignin. The red frequency shift of the OH stretching modes suggested interaction of the TiO2 particles with water molecules of wood. TiO2 deposited on wood treated with SDS became hydrophobic (water contact angles (WCA) of 150°), contrasting the properties of untreated wood with a deposited TiO2 particle coating, which remained hydrophilic.

  2. [Spatial distribution pattern of main populations and gap makers in Picea koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis forest of Xiaoxing' an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Duan, Wen-biao; Chen, Li-xin; Wang, Ting; Du, Shan; Zhang, Yu-shuan; Chen, Qi-min

    2015-10-01

    Species composition and diameter class structure were investigated in 1.5 hm2 (100 m x 150 n) permanent plot in Picea koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis forest of Xiaoxing' an Mountains. The spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of main populations and gap makers were analyzed by using point pattern analysis. The results showed that there were a total of 13 species with diameters at breast height greater than 2 cm in tree layer, and great differences were observed in the densities of main populations. The importance values of A. nephrolepis, P. koraiensis, Betula platyphylla and Acer ukurunduense were ranked in the first 4 in the plot. The diameter class structure of their populations presented an inverse 'J' curve. The spatial distribution patterns for A. nephrolepis and P. koraiensis were similar, which changed from aggregated, random to uniform distribution with the spatial scale. For B. platyphylla, the distribution was aggregated at ≤40 m scale, and random at >40 m scale, whereas A. ukurunduense presented an aggregated distribution pattern at the whole research scale. Except that the negative correlation between B. platyphylla and A. ukurunduense existed at the whole research scale, positive correlation between the other populations at small scale and negative correlation at large scale were observed. Only A. nephrolepis and B. platyphylla had significant positive correlation, and generally no significant correlation existed between other populations. Spatial distribution pattern of gap makers was characterized as aggregated distribution at small and middle scales, and random distribution with increasing scale. Spatial point pattern of gap makers formed by uprooting exhibited unimodal type distribution, and random, aggregated, and uniform distribution also occurred. Spatial point pattern of gap makers formed by breaking overall presented a little fluctuation, random and aggregated distributions alternatively appeared at small scale, and random

  3. Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal short roots in Betula sp and Picea abies forests across climate and forest succession gradients: its role in changing environments

    PubMed Central

    Ostonen, Ivika; Rosenvald, Katrin; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Godbold, Douglas; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Lõhmus, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) short roots (known also as first and second order roots with primary development) allows trees to adjust their water and nutrient uptake to local environmental conditions. The morphological traits (MTs) of short-living EcM roots, such as specific root length (SRL) and area, root tip frequency per mass unit (RTF), root tissue density, as well as mean diameter, length, and mass of the root tips, are good indicators of acclimation. We investigated the role of EcM root morphological plasticity across the climate gradient (48–68°N) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and (53–66°N) birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) forests, as well as in primary and secondary successional birch forests assuming higher plasticity of a respective root trait to reflect higher relevance of that characteristic in acclimation process. We hypothesized that although the morphological plasticity of EcM roots is subject to the abiotic and biotic environmental conditions in the changing climate; the tools to achieve the appropriate morphological acclimation are tree species-specific. Long-term (1994–2010) measurements of EcM roots morphology strongly imply that tree species have different acclimation-indicative root traits in response to changing environments. Birch EcM roots acclimated along latitude by changing mostly SRL [plasticity index (PI) = 0.60], while spruce EcM roots became adjusted by modifying RTF (PI = 0.68). Silver birch as a pioneer species must have a broader tolerance to environmental conditions across various environments; however, the mean PI of all MTs did not differ between early-successional birch and late-successional spruce. The differences between species in SRL, and RTF, diameter, and length decreased southward, toward temperate forests with more favorable growth conditions. EcM root traits reflected root-rhizosphere succession across forest succession stages. PMID:24032035

  4. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases sugar storage, antioxidant activity and cold tolerance in native red spruce (Picea rubens).

    PubMed

    Halman, Joshua M; Schaberg, Paul G; Hawley, Gary J; Eagar, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    In fall (November 2005) and winter (February 2006), we collected current-year foliage of native red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in a reference watershed and in a watershed treated in 1999 with wollastonite (CaSiO(3), a slow-release calcium source) to simulate preindustrial soil calcium concentrations (Ca-addition watershed) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Thornton, NH). We analyzed nutrition, soluble sugar concentrations, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and cold tolerance, to evaluate the basis of recent (2003) differences between watersheds in red spruce foliar winter injury. Foliar Ca and total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed during both fall (P=0.037 and 0.035, respectively) and winter (P=0.055 and 0.036, respectively). The Ca-addition treatment significantly increased foliar fructose and glucose concentrations in November (P=0.013 and 0.007, respectively) and foliar sucrose concentrations in winter (P=0.040). Foliar APX activity was similar in trees in both watersheds during fall (P=0.28), but higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed during winter (P=0.063). Cold tolerance of foliage was significantly greater in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed (P<0.001). Our results suggest that low foliar sugar concentrations and APX activity, and reduced cold tolerance in trees in the reference watershed contributed to their high vulnerability to winter injury in 2003. Because the reference watershed reflects forest conditions in the region, the consequences of impaired physiological function caused by soil Ca depletion may have widespread implications for forest health. PMID:18381266

  5. [Variations of Picea crassifolia tree-ring cell structure and their implications to past climate in eastern margin of Qaidam Basin, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liang, Er-Yuan; Shao, Xue-mei

    2008-03-01

    Tree-ring samples of Picea crassifolia were collected from the upper tree-line in the eastern mountainous area of Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province. The tree-ring width and the cell number and size of the tree-ring were measured, and the standard chronologies for the early-wood cell number, late-wood cell number, total cell number of tree-rings, maximum cell size, and minimum cell size were constructed. By using correlation analysis and the response functions between cell characteristic indices and 1970-2000 climate factors at Chaka meteorological station which was close to the sampling site, the relationships between P. crassifolia growth at cell scale and climate factors were discussed. The results showed that the early-wood cell number was positively correlated to the wintertime temperature from previous October to current March, while the late-wood cell number was positively correlated to the minimum temperature in previous November and December and to the mean temperature in current July and August. Both the early-wood and the late-wood cell numbers were negatively correlated to the precipitation in July, and the early-wood cell number was positively correlated to the precipitation in May. The chronology of maximum cell size of early-wood was positively related to the precipitation in February, while that of minimum cell size of late-wood was positivelyrelated to the precipitation in August. It was concluded that the cell number and cell size could not only reveal the information of temperature change, which was recorded by tree ring width as well, but also provide additional information of precipitation. Since different types of tree-ring indices contained different climate information, multiple aspects of climate change information could be extracted from different tree-ring indices of the same species at the same site, and the cell level tree ring characteristics had great potential to supply the information regarding past climate. PMID:18533520

  6. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  7. Fine root biomass, necromass and chemistry during seven years of elevated aluminium concentrations in the soil solution of a middle-aged Picea abies stand.

    PubMed

    Eldhuset, Toril D; Lange, Holger; de Wit, Helene A

    2006-10-01

    Toxic effects of aluminium (Al) on Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) trees are well documented in laboratory-scale experiments, but field-based evidence is scarce. This paper presents results on fine root growth and chemistry from a field manipulation experiment in a P. abies stand that was 45 years old when the experiment started in 1996. Different amounts of dissolved aluminium were added as AlCl3 by means of periodic irrigation during the growing season in the period 1997-2002. Potentially toxic concentrations of Al in the soil solution were obtained. Fine roots were studied from direct cores (1996) and sequential root ingrowth cores (1999, 2001, 2002) in the mineral soil (0-40 cm). We tested two hypotheses: (1) elevated concentration of Al in the root zone leads to significant changes in root biomass, partitioning into fine, coarse, living or dead fractions, and distribution with depth; (2) elevated Al concentration leads to a noticeable uptake of Al and reduced uptake of Ca and Mg; this results in Ca and Mg depletion in roots. Hypothesis 1 was only marginally supported, as just a few significant treatment effects on biomass were found. Hypothesis 2 was supported in part; Al addition led to increased root concentrations of Al in 1999 and 2002 and reduced Mg/Al in 1999. Comparison of roots from subsequent root samplings showed a decrease in Al and S over time. The results illustrated that 7 years of elevated Al(tot) concentrations in the soil solution up to 200 microM are not likely to affect root growth. We also discuss possible improvements of the experimental approach. PMID:16806407

  8. Life history responses to irradiance at the early seedling stage of Picea omorika (Pančić) Purkyňe: adaptiveness and evolutionary limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucić, Branka; Pemac, Danijela; Dučić, Jelena

    2005-05-01

    A multivariate selection analysis has been implemented for testing the adaptiveness of life history plasticity to irradiance during the seedling establishment in Picea omorika plants raised in a growth-room. Siblings of a synthetic population comprising 21 families from six natural populations were exposed to contrasting light levels to explore variation in phenotypic expression of three seedling traits: days from germination to cotyledon opening (DGTOC), days from cotyledon opening to epicotyl appearance (DCTOE), and epicotyl length at 6 weeks (EPL6). Ambient light conditions significantly affected DCTOE and EPL6, but not DGTOC. Phenotypic selection analysis revealed that DGTOC was under negative directional selection in both radiation environments, suggesting that canalization of DGTOC was promoted across different light conditions, as well as that the observed pattern of canalization might be regarded as adaptive. DCTOE was also found to be under negative directional selection in both light treatments, but the plastic responses of this trait were opposite to the values favoured by selection within environments. Since there was evidence for selection against plasticity in DCTOE, the pattern of plastic responses in DCTOE to variation in light conditions could be diagnosed as maladaptive. Multiple regression analysis revealed a cost of canalization in DGTOC regardless of light environment, as well as a cost of plasticity in DCTOE under high light intensity. All genetic correlations across light environments were significantly different from unity, indicating the existence of heritable variation for plasticity in these traits. However, since DGTOC and DCTOE were involved in a genetic trade-off with respect to both trait mean and plasticity, these early life histories would never reach their optimal values across radiation environments.

  9. Mining and visualization of microarray and metabolomic data reveal extensive cell wall remodeling during winter hardening in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).

    PubMed

    Grene, Ruth; Klumas, Curtis; Suren, Haktan; Yang, Kuan; Collakova, Eva; Myers, Elijah; Heath, Lenwood S; Holliday, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    Microarray gene expression profiling is a powerful technique to understand complex developmental processes, but making biologically meaningful inferences from such studies has always been challenging. We previously reported a microarray study of the freezing acclimation period in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) in which a large number of candidate genes for climatic adaptation were identified. In the current paper, we apply additional systems biology tools to these data to further probe changes in the levels of genes and metabolites and activities of associated pathways that regulate this complex developmental transition. One aspect of this adaptive process that is not well understood is the role of the cell wall. Our data suggest coordinated metabolic and signaling responses leading to cell wall remodeling. Co-expression of genes encoding proteins associated with biosynthesis of structural and non-structural cell wall carbohydrates was observed, which may be regulated by ethylene signaling components. At the same time, numerous genes, whose products are putatively localized to the endomembrane system and involved in both the synthesis and trafficking of cell wall carbohydrates, were up-regulated. Taken together, these results suggest a link between ethylene signaling and biosynthesis, and targeting of cell wall related gene products during the period of winter hardening. Automated Layout Pipeline for Inferred NEtworks (ALPINE), an in-house plugin for the Cytoscape visualization environment that utilizes the existing GeneMANIA and Mosaic plugins, together with the use of visualization tools, provided images of proposed signaling processes that became active over the time course of winter hardening, particularly at later time points in the process. The resulting visualizations have the potential to reveal novel, hypothesis-generating, gene association patterns in the context of targeted subcellular location. PMID:23112803

  10. The polar auxin transport inhibitor NPA impairs embryo morphology and increases the expression of an auxin efflux facilitator protein PIN during Picea abies somatic embryo development.

    PubMed

    Hakman, Inger; Hallberg, Henrik; Palovaara, Joakim

    2009-04-01

    Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling embryo patterning and development in angiosperms but less is known from the gymnosperms. The aims of this study were to determine at what stages of conifer embryo development auxin and polar auxin transport are the most important for normal development and to analyze the changes in embryos after treatment with the polar auxin inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). For these studies, somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) were used. Growth on medium containing NPA leads to the formation of embryos with poor shoot apical meristem (SAM) and fused cotyledons, and to a pin-formed phenotype of the regenerated plantlets. The effect of NPA on embryo morphology was most severe if embryos were transferred to NPA-containing medium immediately before cotyledon initiation and SAM specification. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified by immunolocalization in developing embryos. The highest staining intensity was seen in early staged embryos and then decreased as the embryos matured. No clear IAA-maxima was seen, although the apical parts of embryos, particularly the protoderm, and the suspensor cells appear to accumulate more IAA, as reflected by the staining pattern. The NPA treatment also caused expanded procambium and a broader root apical meristem in embryos, and a significant increase in the expression of a PIN1-like gene. Taken together, our results show that, for proper cotyledon initiation, correct auxin transport is needed only during a short period at the transition stage of embryo development, probably involving PIN efflux proteins and that a common mechanism is behind proper cotyledon formation within the species of angiosperms and conifers, despite their cotyledon number which normally differs. PMID:19203973

  11. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    PubMed

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.

    2000-05-01

    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  12. Changes in the Metabolome of Picea balfouriana Embryogenic Tissues That Were Linked to Different Levels of 6-BAP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Q F; Wang, J H; Pulkkinen, P; Kong, L S

    2015-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of Picea balfouriana, which is an important commercial species for reforestation in Southern China, easily lose their embryogenic ability during long-term culture. Embryogenic tissue that proliferated at lower concentrations (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM) of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) were more productive, and generated 113 ± 6 and 89 ± 3 mature embryos per 100 mg embryogenic tissue, respectively. A metabolomic approach was used to study the changes in metabolites linked to embryogenic competence related to three different 6-BAP concentrations (2.5 μM, 3.6 μM, and 5 μM). A total of 309 compounds were obtained, among which 123 metabolites mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. The levels of 35 metabolites were significantly differentially regulated among the three 6-BAP treatments, and 32 metabolites differed between the 2.5 μM and 5 μM treatments. A total of 17 metabolites appeared only once among the three comparisons. The combination of a score plot and a loading plot showed that in the samples with higher embryogenic ability (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM), up-regulated metabolites were mostly amino acids and down-regulated metabolites were mostly primary carbohydrates (especially sugars). These results suggested that 6-BAP may influence embryogenic competence by nitrogen metabolism, which could cause an increase in amino acid levels and higher amounts of aspartate, isoleucine, and leucine in tissues with higher embryogenic ability. Furthermore, we speculated that 6-BAP may affect the amount of tryptophan in tissues, which would change the indole-3-acetic acid levels and influence the embryogenic ability. PMID:26517840

  13. A Picea crassifolia Tree-Ring Width-Based Temperature Reconstruction for the Mt. Dongda Region, Northwest China, and Its Relationship to Large-Scale Climate Forcing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Changfeng; Li, Qiang; Cai, Qiufang

    2016-01-01

    The historical May–October mean temperature since 1831 was reconstructed based on tree-ring width of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) collected on Mt. Dongda, North of the Hexi Corridor in Northwest China. The regression model explained 46.6% of the variance of the instrumentally observed temperature. The cold periods in the reconstruction were 1831–1889, 1894–1901, 1908–1934 and 1950–1952, and the warm periods were 1890–1893, 1902–1907, 1935–1949 and 1953–2011. During the instrumental period (1951–2011), an obvious warming trend appeared in the last twenty years. The reconstruction displayed similar patterns to a temperature reconstruction from the east-central Tibetan Plateau at the inter-decadal timescale, indicating that the temperature reconstruction in this study was a reliable proxy for Northwest China. It was also found that the reconstruction series had good consistency with the Northern Hemisphere temperature at a decadal timescale. Multi-taper method spectral analysis detected some low- and high-frequency cycles (2.3–2.4-year, 2.8-year, 3.4–3.6-year, 5.0-year, 9.9-year and 27.0-year). Combining these cycles, the relationship of the low-frequency change with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Southern Oscillation (SO) suggested that the reconstructed temperature variations may be related to large-scale atmospheric-oceanic variations. Major volcanic eruptions were partly reflected in the reconstructed temperatures after high-pass filtering; these events promoted anomalous cooling in this region. The results of this study not only provide new information for assessing the long-term temperature changes in the Hexi Corridor of Northwest China, but also further demonstrate the effects of large-scale atmospheric-oceanic circulation on climate change in Northwest China. PMID:27509206

  14. Changes in the Metabolome of Picea balfouriana Embryogenic Tissues That Were Linked to Different Levels of 6-BAP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q. F.; Wang, J. H.; Pulkkinen, P.; Kong, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of Picea balfouriana, which is an important commercial species for reforestation in Southern China, easily lose their embryogenic ability during long-term culture. Embryogenic tissue that proliferated at lower concentrations (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM) of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) were more productive, and generated 113 ± 6 and 89 ± 3 mature embryos per 100 mg embryogenic tissue, respectively. A metabolomic approach was used to study the changes in metabolites linked to embryogenic competence related to three different 6-BAP concentrations (2.5 μM, 3.6 μM, and 5 μM). A total of 309 compounds were obtained, among which 123 metabolites mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. The levels of 35 metabolites were significantly differentially regulated among the three 6-BAP treatments, and 32 metabolites differed between the 2.5 μM and 5 μM treatments. A total of 17 metabolites appeared only once among the three comparisons. The combination of a score plot and a loading plot showed that in the samples with higher embryogenic ability (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM), up-regulated metabolites were mostly amino acids and down-regulated metabolites were mostly primary carbohydrates (especially sugars). These results suggested that 6-BAP may influence embryogenic competence by nitrogen metabolism, which could cause an increase in amino acid levels and higher amounts of aspartate, isoleucine, and leucine in tissues with higher embryogenic ability. Furthermore, we speculated that 6-BAP may affect the amount of tryptophan in tissues, which would change the indole-3-acetic acid levels and influence the embryogenic ability. PMID:26517840

  15. Different Alleles of a Gene Encoding Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase (PaLAR3) Influence Resistance against the Fungus Heterobasidion parviporum in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Nemesio-Gorriz, Miguel; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ihrmark, Katarina; Källman, Thomas; Olson, Åke; Lascoux, Martin; Stenlid, Jan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Elfstrand, Malin

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that fungal diseases are a growing menace for conifers in modern silviculture, only a very limited number of molecular markers for pathogen resistance have been validated in conifer species. A previous genetic study indicated that the resistance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to Heterobasidion annosum s.l., a pathogenic basidiomycete species complex, is linked to a quantitative trait loci that associates with differences in fungal growth in sapwood (FGS) that includes a gene, PaLAR3, which encodes a leucoanthocyanidin reductase. In this study, gene sequences showed the presence of two PaLAR3 allelic lineages in P. abies. Higher resistance was associated with the novel allele, which was found in low frequency in the four P. abies populations that we studied. Norway spruce plants carrying at least one copy of the novel allele showed a significant reduction in FGS after inoculation with Heterobasidion parviporum compared to their half-siblings carrying no copies, indicating dominance of this allele. The amount of (+) catechin, the enzymatic product of PaLAR3, was significantly higher in bark of trees homozygous for the novel allele. Although we observed that the in vitro activities of the enzymes encoded by the two alleles were similar, we could show that allele-specific transcript levels were significantly higher for the novel allele, indicating that regulation of gene expression is responsible for the observed effects in resistance, possibly caused by differences in cis-acting elements that we observe in the promoter region of the two alleles. PMID:27317690

  16. A Picea crassifolia Tree-Ring Width-Based Temperature Reconstruction for the Mt. Dongda Region, Northwest China, and Its Relationship to Large-Scale Climate Forcing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Changfeng; Li, Qiang; Cai, Qiufang

    2016-01-01

    The historical May-October mean temperature since 1831 was reconstructed based on tree-ring width of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) collected on Mt. Dongda, North of the Hexi Corridor in Northwest China. The regression model explained 46.6% of the variance of the instrumentally observed temperature. The cold periods in the reconstruction were 1831-1889, 1894-1901, 1908-1934 and 1950-1952, and the warm periods were 1890-1893, 1902-1907, 1935-1949 and 1953-2011. During the instrumental period (1951-2011), an obvious warming trend appeared in the last twenty years. The reconstruction displayed similar patterns to a temperature reconstruction from the east-central Tibetan Plateau at the inter-decadal timescale, indicating that the temperature reconstruction in this study was a reliable proxy for Northwest China. It was also found that the reconstruction series had good consistency with the Northern Hemisphere temperature at a decadal timescale. Multi-taper method spectral analysis detected some low- and high-frequency cycles (2.3-2.4-year, 2.8-year, 3.4-3.6-year, 5.0-year, 9.9-year and 27.0-year). Combining these cycles, the relationship of the low-frequency change with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Southern Oscillation (SO) suggested that the reconstructed temperature variations may be related to large-scale atmospheric-oceanic variations. Major volcanic eruptions were partly reflected in the reconstructed temperatures after high-pass filtering; these events promoted anomalous cooling in this region. The results of this study not only provide new information for assessing the long-term temperature changes in the Hexi Corridor of Northwest China, but also further demonstrate the effects of large-scale atmospheric-oceanic circulation on climate change in Northwest China. PMID:27509206

  17. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change. PMID:26016682

  18. Seafloor structure and uppermost sedimentation in the Pigafetta Basin, Magellan Seamount Chain, and East Mariana Basin of the Central-Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, N. J.; Oakley, A. J.; Lizarralde, D.; Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a marine geophysical survey of the Central-Western Pacific seafloor in 2011 aboard the R/V Thomas G. Thompson (TN272). Our survey imaged some of the oldest seafloor on the planet in a region of sparse data coverage. We present new (3.5 kHz) and bathymetry data from the Mesozoic Hawaiian magnetic lineations (Jurassic Quiet Zone) and a transect from the south end of the Pigafetta Basin (PB), west across the Magellan Seamount Chain (MSC) and the East Mariana Basin (EMB) to the Mariana Trench. The Chirp system penetrates the overlying sediment cover to a depth of ~50 meters below seafloor (mbsf). The deepest part of the Chirp record is marked by a strongly reflecting horizon, which occasionally crops out at the seafloor near volcanic peaks or bathymetric highs. Correlation of these data to DSDP/ODP drill sites (801C, 802, 199, 585) enables us to compare seafloor structure and uppermost sedimentation in the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ), Pigafetta Basin, Magellan Seamounts, and the East Mariana Basin. Within the JQZ, and at the southern end of the PB, a 30- to 50-m-thick, acoustically-transparent sediment layer uniformly overlies the strongly reflecting horizon observed at water depths ranging from 4400m-5900m. We interpret this unit to be composed of pelagic abyssal clay and radiolarian oozes ubiquitous in the central-western Pacific. The basal horizon in this region is most likely formed by a layer of chert-porcelanite. In the southeastern PB (161.3 E, 17 N), this horizon reaches the seafloor at a depth of 5650 m and the transparent sediment package is truncated. In the region of the MSC, ~115 km north of drill sites 199 and 585, Chirp data show numerous volcanic peaks and a 50-m-thick sequence of stratified reflections. Volcaniclastics likely contribute to the layering. We first observe the stratified sediment package near 156.7 E, 15 N after a gap in data coverage. The sediment layer thins to the west and onlaps the basal horizon near the base of a seamount

  19. Deep-Sea decapod crustaceans (Caridea, Polychelida, Anomura and Brachyura) collected from the Nikko Seamounts, Mariana Arc, using a remotely operated vehicle "Hyper-Dolphin".

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Tsuchida, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Samples and images of deep-water benthic decapod crustaceans were collected from the Nikko Seamounts, Mariana Arc, at depths of 520-680 m, by using the remotely operate vehicle "Hyper-Dolphin", equipped with a high definition camera, digital camera, manipulators and slurp gun (suction sampler). The following seven species were collected, of which three are new to science: Plesionika unicolor n. sp. (Caridea: Pandalidae), Homeryon armarium Galil, 2000 (Polychelida: Polychelidae), Eumunida nikko n. sp. (Anomura: Eumunididae), Michelopagurus limatulus (Henderson, 1888) (Anomura: Paguridae), Galilia petricola n. sp. (Brachyura: Leucosiidae), Cyrtomaia micronesica Richer de Forges & Ng, 2007 (Brachyura: Inachidae), and Progeryon mus Ng & Guinot, 1999 (Brachyura: Progeryonidae). Affinities of these three new species are discussed. All but H. armarium are recorded from the Japanese Exclusive Economic Zone for the first time. Brief notes on ecology and/or behavior are given for each species. PMID:24870636

  20. Chemical characteristics of magma and related seafloor sulfide deposits on back-arc spreading center and off-ridge volcanoes in Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, T.; Kanamori, S.; Ishibashi, J.; Kentaro, K.; Sato, H.; Kato, S.; Toyoda, S.

    2012-12-01

    The back-arc basalt in Mariana Trough is characterized by fluid-dominated components (Stolper and Newman, 1994). They suggested that the H2O-enriched magma of the Mariana Trough is formed as melting mixture between MORB-type mantle source and H2O-rich component which is likely to be derived from the subducting slab. Four active and one inactive hydrothermal sites were found within a distance of 5 km in Southern Mariana Trough; that is, Snail site (12o57.19'N, 143o37.16'E, depth:2861m) and Yamanaka site (12o56.64'N, 143o36.80'E, depth: 2823m) on the spreading-axis, Archean site (12o56.35'N, 143o37.89'E, depth: 2986m), and Pika+Urashima sites (12o55.13'N, 143o38.92'E, depth: 2773m) on the off-axis seamount, respectively. We conducted nine BMS (Benthic Multi-coring System) drillings during the Hakurei-Maru No.2 cruise of TAIGA project (see below) in June 2010. Both basalt glasses and associated seafloor massive sulfide ores from these sites are cored and served for ICP-MS analyses. Multi-element plot of basalt glass indicates that both on-axis and off-axis basalts have similar pattern and are categorized as differentiated MORB and basaltic andesite which cannot be produced by fractionation of MORB, respectively. Sulfide ores at on-axis and off-axis sites show similar mineral assemblage of pyrite/marcasite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, barite, and limited occurrence of galena only at on-axis site. Fluid-mobile elements such as As, Ba, Pb and others in sulfide ores show systematic increase at off-axis sites which reflect the influence of subduction zone fluids towards the Mariana arc. The sulfur isotope composition of pyrite/marcasite from on-axis sites shows values (+6.4 - +7.9 permil) typically observed in arc magma-related hydrothermal deposits (Suzuki, unpubl. data). On the other hand, those observed at off-axis sites (Archean; +3.6 - +6.9 permil, Pika; +0.8 - +3.5 permil) are similar to the composition of sulfides on mid-ocean ridges where the influence of sulfur

  1. Habitat occupancy and detection of the pacific sheath-tailed bat (emballonura semicaudata) on aguiguan, commonwealth of the northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P.M.; Bonaccorso, F.J.; Pinzari, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Occupancy analysis was used to quantify Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata) foraging activity and its relationship to forest structure and proximity to cave roosts on Aguiguan Island in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Bat occurrence was most closely associated with canopy cover, vegetation stature and distance to known roosts. The metrics generated by this study can serve as a quantitative baseline for future assessments of the status of this endangered species following changes in habitat due to management activities (e.g., feral goat control) or other factors (e.g., typhoon impacts). Additionally, we provide quantitative descriptions of the echolocation calls of E. semicaudata. Search-phase calls were characterized by a relatively narrow bandwidth and short pulse duration typical of insectivores that forage within vegetative clutter. Two distinctly characteristic frequencies were recorded: 30.97 ?? 1.08 kHz and 63.15 ?? 2.20 kHz ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  2. Studies of Arc Volcanism in the Southern Mariana Arc from Pagan to Tracey: Preliminary results from ROV Hyper-Dolphin Dives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukuno, H.; Tamura, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Ishizuka, O.; Bloomer, S. H.; Hein, J. R.; Leybourne, M. I.; Jordan, E.; Wada, I.; Nichols, A. R.; Hirahara, Y.; Senda, R.; Nunokawa, A.

    2010-12-01

    ROV Hyper-Dolphin dives in the Southern Mariana region were carried out during NT10-12 cruise (R/V Natsushima) in July 2010. We focused on the submarine volcanoes within the Pagan-Daon cross-arc chain, and at East Diamante, NW Rota-1, West Rota and Tracey. The newly obtained petrologic and geologic data, together with data from previous studies on the IBM arc, will provide insights into understanding processes occurring in the subduction factory. Here we will present preliminary results of our recent cruises in the Mariana arc. Pagan volcano, the top of which is subaerial, and Daon Seamount form a WSW-ENE cross-arc chain, with Pagan volcano on the volcanic front side. On the NE submarine slopes of Pagan, in water depths of 2000-1500 m, there are many SW-NE trending ridges, which were found to mainly consist of basaltic pillow lavas. Daon seamount, located on the rear-arc side of the cross-chain, has an unusual morphology with many ridges radiating from it. Basaltic lavas were recovered from the ridges on the lower SE flanks of Daon at depths of 2600-2360 m. Basalts from the Pagan-Daon cross-chain are mostly undifferentiated olivine-bearing basalts. The samples collected from Pagan-Daon cross-arc chain will be compared with primitive lavas from NW Rota-1, where two primary magma types have been found. East Diamante caldera is located on the volcanic front side of the Diamante cross-arc chain and has a complex volcanic history. East Diamante is characterized by the existence of a large field of hydrothermal mounds and active chimneys in its summit caldera. Post-caldera collapse intrusions of dacite are believed to provide the heat source for the production and circulation of the hydrothermal fluids that generate the field. During this cruise the chimneys and mounds were sampled from depths of 350-380 m. West Rota volcano is the largest submarine caldera in the Mariana arc. The eastern caldera wall preserves much of the stratigraphic and intrusive relationships. West

  3. Population ecology of the tonguefish Symphurus thermophilus (Pisces; Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae) at sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents on volcanoes of the northern Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena; Tyler, Jennifer; Dower, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Flatfish are a major component of the hydrothermal vent community on three seamounts of the northern Mariana Volcanic Arc in the northwest Pacific. Nikko, Kasuga-2 and Daikoku seamounts host vent fields between 375 and 480 m depth where high temperature vents release molten sulphur. The small cynoglossid tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus Munroe and Hashimoto, is ubiquitous in all vent habitats observed on these seamounts: among extensive fields of tubeworms and mussels and on solid sulphur surfaces on Nikko; on sulphur-rich sediments and barnacle-covered boulders on Kasuga-2; and on recent sulphur flows and on broad areas of loose and semi-consolidated sediments on Daikoku. We recorded repeated forays by individuals onto flows of molten sulphur as these surfaces cooled. Based on observations using ROVs, the mean density is 90 fish/m2 with maximum counts over 200 fish/m2 on Daikoku sediments. Compared to collected tonguefish from Daikoku and Kasuga-2, those from Nikko have significantly greater lengths and, on average, six times the mass. Otolith data indicate upper ages of 13 years with Nikko tonguefish growing significantly faster. Diets of tonguefish on the three seamounts reflect the different habitats and prey availability; in Daikoku specimens, small crustaceans and polychaetes are most common while on Nikko, gut contents are predominantly larger shrimp. We made the unusual observation of stunned midwater fish falling to the seafloor near the vents where S. thermophilus immediately attacked them. This tonguefish has a wide diet range and foraging behaviour that likely influence the differing growth rates and sizes of fish inhabiting the different vent sites. Limited genetic data suggest that larval exchange probably occurs among sites where the common habitat factor is high levels of elemental sulphur forming hard and partly unconsolidated substrata. Here, in the northern range of the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument, S. thermophilus, despite having an

  4. Water-rock interactions in volcaniclastic sediments across the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc: comparison of sites U1438, U1201, 792 and 793.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Land, C.; Sena, C.; Loudin, L. C.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid deposition of volcanogenic sediments, highly susceptible to alteration by seawater has led to distinct pore water geochemical profiles throughout the sedimentary basins of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. Drilling at Site U1438, in the Amami-Sankaku Basin, recovered a 1300 m thick volcaniclastic section overlain by a 160 m thick section of sediments largely devoid of volcanic input. At Site U1438, 67 porewater samples were analyzed onboard for salinity, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and major and trace element concentrations. Here we focus on the depth profiles of elements which were also analyzed at Sites U1201, 792 and 793. Chloride and Bromide concentrations display similar trends; near constant in the upper 160 m and a linear downward increase to maximum concentrations from 600 mbsf onwards. This increase is likely caused by uptake of water by secondary minerals, resulting in chloride and bromide enrichment in the porewater. Calcium and magnesium porewater concentrations display opposite trends in the upper 440 m; the first increases from 11.5 to 140 mM, and the latter decreases from 53 mM until its depletion in the porewater. Leaching of Ca from the glass-rich sediments and underlying igneous basement are potential sources for Ca in the porewater, while Mg, Na and K presumably replace Ca through cation-exchange. Compared to Site U1438, similar trends of major elements concentration in the pore water were observed at the nearby Sites U1201 (serpentine mud volcano in the forearc of the Mariana subduction system), 792 and 793 (both in the Izu-Bonin forearc sedimentary basin). However, differences in depositional rates, thickness and age of the sedimentary basins, geothermal gradients and the influence of serpentine mud flows, have led to distinct pore water geochemical profiles.

  5. Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, R.J.; Pratt, T.K.; Marshall, A.P.; Amidon, F.; Williams, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Mariana Islands, an archipelago in the western Pacific, faces the threats of rapid economic development and the spread of non-native species, particularly a devastating predator, Brown Tree Snake Boiga irregularis. In this paper, we examine the status and trends of the land bird fauna of Saipan Island based on three island-wide surveys conducted in 1982, 1997, and 2007. During this period, the human population on Saipan increased more than four-fold and much of the island has been developed. The surveys employed standard point-transect methods based on Distance Sampling. Remarkably, we found nearly all species of land birds - 11 native species and three introduced species - to be common or abundant. The exception was the Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperouse, a historically rare species that was not observed on the 2007 survey, although it does persist on Saipan and other Mariana islands. A comparison of species densities among the three surveys showed that seven species, mainly fruit and seed-eaters, had increased and three species of insectivorous birds had decreased - Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia, and Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei. Of these three, Nightingale Reed-warbler is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and as an Endangered Species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reed-warbler densities on Saipan decreased by more than half between 1982 and 2007. Although point transect sampling worked well for this species, density estimates and trends assessment could be improved by reallocating sampling stations among habitats and by more frequent sampling. ?? BirdLife International 2009.

  6. Discovery Of An Extensive Hydrothermal Sulfide/Sulfate Mounds Field In East Diamante Caldera, Mariana Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. R.; de Ronde, C. E.; Ditchburn, R.; Leybourne, M. I.; Tamura, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Conrad, T. A.; Nichols, A. R.; Shukuno, H.; Embley, R. W.; Bloomer, S. H.; Ishizuka, O.; Hirahara, Y.; Senda, R.; Nunokawa, A.; Jordan, E.; Wada, I.

    2010-12-01

    An elongate field of hydrothermal mounds was discovered along the NE flank of a cluster of resurgent dacite domes in East Diamante Caldera using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin aboard the R.V. Natsushima in June 2009 and July 2010. East Diamante seamount lies about 80 km north of Saipan and is the northernmost volcano of the Southern Seamount Province of the Mariana magmatic arc. East Diamante is an irregular caldera about 10 km x 4 km that is breached on the north and south sides. The caldera floor has a maximum water depth of about 700 m. After caldera collapse, dacitic domes intruded into the center of the caldera providing the heat source for production and circulation of hydrothermal fluids that generated the large mounds field and two nearby chimney fields, one active and one inactive, found in 2004 during a NOAA Ring-of-Fire cruise. The mounds field is more than 100 m long and about 25-30 m wide and occurs along a NE-SW rift valley at water depths of about 365-400 m b.s.l. Individual hydrothermal mounds and ridges along this trend vary in size and the bases of the mounds are buried beneath hydrothermal sediment so that only minimum dimensions can be determined. Mounds are typically 1-3 m tall and 0.5-2 m wide, with lengths of about 3 to more than 5 m. The sulfide/sulfate mounds are layered and an iron- and manganese-oxide subsidiary mound venting low-temperature fluids caps some of them. Some mounds also support inactive sulfide/sulfate chimneys and spires; chimneys rarely occur as independent structures within the mounds field. The mounds are composed primarily of barite layers and sphalerite (high cadmium, low iron) plus galena layers with up to 470 ppm silver and 3 ppm gold. The subsidiary mounds are composed of 7A manganate and goethite that occur around a delicate network of 2-10 mm diameter anastomosing channels. Similar oxides cover the seabed throughout the mounds field and precipitated from diffuse fluid flow throughout the region, but formed by both diffuse

  7. Mantle to hydrothermal vent sites of the Southern Mariana Trough back-arc Basin: Results from the Taiga Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seama, N.; Okino, K.; Nogi, Y.; Sato, T.; Matsuno, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Mochizuki, N.; Shinohara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The southern Mariana Trough back-arc basin shows an EPR type axial relief in morphology and constant low mantle Bouguer anomaly along the spreading axis (Kitada et al., 2006), suggesting abundance of magma supply, even though the full spreading rate of 40 km/Myr is categorized as slow spreading. Further, five hydrothermal vent sites exist within 5 km near the spreading axis at 13 N; two sites on the spreading axis, one site at the eastern foot of the axial high, and two sites on an off-axis knoll. We selected this area as one of three integrated target sites for the Taiga Project, and we conducted series of JAMSTEC research cruises for four different types of geophysical surveys, together with dive observation and samplings by the submersible Shinkai6500. The geophysical surveys consists of 1) a marine magnetotelluric (MT) survey of a 130 km length transect across the spreading axis using 10 ocean bottom electro-magnetometers, 2) a 15 km scale seismic reflection/refraction survey and seismicity observation using 9 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), 3) near-bottom acoustic and magnetic mapping around all the hydrothermal sites using the AUV Urashima, and 4) a magnetometric resistivity (MMR) survey around the on-axis hydrothermal sites. Two-dimensional electrical resistivity structure of the upper mantle from the MT analysis shows highly asymmetry, which may be affected by hydration driven by water release from the subducting slab; that may result in abundant magma supply to support EPR type axial morphology. Three months OBS observation shows that the seismicity near the hydrothermal vent sites is very low, suggesting that hydrothermal activities are not related to tectonic stress. Moreover, the morphology of the mound and knoll near the three off-axis hydrothermal sites shows undeformed features without any faults, suggesting that their formation is closely related to an off-axis magma upwelling system rather than fault systems. The two on-axis hydrothermal sites

  8. Bubble Plumes at NW Rota-1 Submarine Volcano, Mariana Arc: Visualization and Analysis of Multibeam Water Column Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, S. G.; Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.; Doucet, M.

    2012-12-01

    During a March 2010 expedition to NW Rota-1 submarine volcano in the Mariana arc a new EM122 multibeam sonar system on the R/V Kilo Moana was used to repeatedly image bubble plumes in the water column over the volcano. The EM122 (12 kHz) system collects seafloor bathymetry and backscatter data, as well as acoustic return water column data. Previous expeditions to NW Rota-1 have included seafloor mapping / CTD tow-yo surveys and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2009. Much of the focus has been on the one main eruptive vent, Brimstone, located on the south side of the summit at a depth of ~440m, which has been persistently active during all ROV visits. Extensive degassing of CO2 bubbles have been observed by the ROV during frequent eruptive bursts from the vent. Between expeditions in April 2009 and March 2010 a major eruption and landslide occurred at NW Rota-1. ROV dives in 2010 revealed that after the landslide the eruptive vent had been reorganized from a single site to a line of vents. Brimstone vent was still active, but 4 other new eruptive vents had also emerged in a NW/SE line below the summit extending ~100 m from the westernmost to easternmost vents. During the ROV dives, the eruptive vents were observed to turn on and off from day to day and hour to hour. Throughout the 2010 expedition numerous passes were made over the volcano summit to image the bubble plumes above the eruptive vents in the water column, in order to capture the variability of the plumes over time and to relate them to the eruptive output of the volcano. The mid-water sonar data set totals >95 hours of observations over a 12-day period. Generally, the ship drove repeatedly over the eruptive vents at a range of ship speeds (0.5-4 knots) and headings. In addition, some mid-water data was collected during three ROV dives when the ship was stationary over the vents. We used the FMMidwater software program (part of QPS Fledermaus) to visualize and analyze the data

  9. The Geologic Setting of Hydrothermal Vents at Mariana Arc Submarine Volcanoes: High-Resolution Bathymetry and ROV Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.; de Ronde, C. E.; Stern, R. J.; Hein, J.; Merle, S.; Ristau, S.

    2004-12-01

    Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives were made at 7 submarine volcanoes between 14-23° N in the Mariana Arc in April 2004 with the ROPOS ROV. Six of these volcanoes were known to be hydrothermally active from CTD data collected during a previous expedition in March 2003: NW Rota-1, E Diamante, NW Eifuku, Daikoku, Kasuga-2, and Maug, a partly submerged caldera. The physical setting of hydrothermal venting varies widely from volcano to volcano. High-resolution bathymetric surveys of the summits of NW Rota-1 and NW Eifuku volcanoes were conducted with an Imagenex scanning sonar mounted on ROPOS. Near bottom observations during ROPOS dives were recorded with digital video and a digital still camera and the dives were navigated acoustically from the R/V Thompson using an ultra-short baseline system. The mapping and dive observations reveal the following: (1) The summits of some volcanoes have pervasive diffuse venting (NW Rota-1, Daikoku, NW Eifuku) suggesting that hydrothermal fluids are able to circulate freely within a permeable edifice. At other volcanoes, the hydrothermal venting is more localized (Kasuga-2, Maug, E Diamante), suggesting more restricted permeability pathways. (2) Some volcanoes have both focused venting at depth and diffuse venting near the summit (E Diamante, NW Eifuku). Where the hydrothermal vents are focused, fluid flow appears to be localized by massive lava outcrops that form steep cliffs and ridges, or by subsurface structures such as dikes. High-temperature (240° C) venting was only observed at E Diamante volcano, where the "Black Forest" vent field is located on the side of a constructional cone near the middle of E Diamante caldera at a depth of 350 m. On the side of an adjacent shallower cone, the venting style changed to diffuse discharge and it extended all the way up into the photic zone (167 m). At NW Eifuku, the pattern of both deep-focused and shallow-diffuse venting is repeated. "Champagne vent" is located at 1607 m, ~150 m

  10. Nitrogen geochemistry of subducting sediments: New results from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana margin and insights regarding global nitrogen subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, Seth J.; Bebout, Gray E.

    2004-03-01

    Toward understanding of the subduction mass balance in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) convergent margin, we present an inventory of N and C concentrations and isotopic compositions in sediments obtained on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 129 and 185. Samples from Sites 1149, 800, 801, and 802 contain 5 to 661 ppm total N (organic, inorganic combined) with δ15NAir of -0.2 to +8.2‰ (all δ15N values <+2.5‰ from Site 800). At Site 1149, N content is higher in clay-rich layers and lower in chert and carbonate layers, and δ15N shows a distinct down-section decrease from 0 to 120 mbsf (near +8.0 at shallow levels to near +4.0‰). Reduced-C concentration ranges from 0.02 to 0.5 wt.%, with δ13CVPDB of -28.1 to -21.7‰. The down-section decreases in δ15N and N concentration (and variations in concentrations and δ13C of reduced C, and Creduced/N) at Site 1149 could help reconcile differences between δ15N values of modern deep-sea sediments from near the sediment-water interface and values for forearc metasedimentary rocks. At Site 1149, negative shifts in δ15N, from marine organic values (up to ˜+8‰) toward lower values approaching those for the metasedimentary rocks (+1 to +3‰), are most likely caused by complex diagenetic processes, conceivably with minor effects of changes in productivity and differing proportions of marine and terrestrial organic matter. However, the forearc metamorphic suites (e.g., Franciscan Complex) are known to have been deposited nearer continents, and their lower δ15N at least partly reflects larger proportions of lower-δ15N terrestrial organic matter. Subduction at the Izu-Bonin (IB) margin, of a sediment section like that at Site 1149, would deliver an approximate annual subduction flux of 2.5 × 106 g of N and 1.4 × 107 g of reduced C per linear kilometer of trench, with average δ15N of +5.0‰ and δ13C of -24‰. Incorporating the larger C flux of 9.2 × 108 g/yr/linear-km in carbonate-rich layers of 1149B (average δ13C

  11. Elevation-dependent variations of tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency in Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana) in the western Tianshan Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guoju; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Tuo; Xu, Guobao; Wang, Wenzhi; Zeng, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xuanwen

    2015-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) is expected to accelerate tree growth by enhancing photosynthesis and increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). However, the extent of this effect on long-term iWUE and its interactions with climate remains unclear in trees along an elevation gradient. Therefore, we investigated the variation in the radial growth and iWUE of mature Picea schrenkiana trees located in the upper tree-line (A1: 2700 m a.s.l.), middle elevation (A2: 2400 m a.s.l.), and lower forest limit (A3: 2200 m a.s.l.), in relation to the rising Ca and changing climate in the Wusun Mountains of northwestern China, based on the basal area increment (BAI) and tree-ring δ13C chronologies from 1960 to 2010. We used the CRU TS3.22 dataset to analyze the general response of tree growth to interannual variability of regional climate, and found that BAI and δ13C are less sensitive to climate at A1 than at A2 and A3. The temporal trends of iWUE were calculated under three theoretical scenarios, as a baseline for interpreting the observed gas exchange at increasing Ca. We found that iWUE increased by 12–32% from A1 to A3 over the last 50 years, and showed an elevation-dependent variation in physiological response. The significant negative relationship between BAI and iWUE at A2 and A3 showed that tree growth has been decreasing despite long-term increases in iWUE. However, BAI remained largely stable throughout the study period despite the strongest iWUE increase [at constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) before 1980] at A1. Our results indicate a drought-induced limitation of tree growth response to rising CO2 at lower elevations, and no apparent change in tree growth and diminished iWUE improvement since 1980 in the upper tree-line. This study may contradict the expectation that combined effects of elevated Ca and rising temperatures have increased forest productivity, especially in high-elevation forests. PMID:25999973

  12. Elevation-dependent variations of tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency in Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana) in the western Tianshan Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoju; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Tuo; Xu, Guobao; Wang, Wenzhi; Zeng, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xuanwen

    2015-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (C a) is expected to accelerate tree growth by enhancing photosynthesis and increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). However, the extent of this effect on long-term iWUE and its interactions with climate remains unclear in trees along an elevation gradient. Therefore, we investigated the variation in the radial growth and iWUE of mature Picea schrenkiana trees located in the upper tree-line (A1: 2700 m a.s.l.), middle elevation (A2: 2400 m a.s.l.), and lower forest limit (A3: 2200 m a.s.l.), in relation to the rising C a and changing climate in the Wusun Mountains of northwestern China, based on the basal area increment (BAI) and tree-ring δ(13)C chronologies from 1960 to 2010. We used the CRU TS3.22 dataset to analyze the general response of tree growth to interannual variability of regional climate, and found that BAI and δ(13)C are less sensitive to climate at A1 than at A2 and A3. The temporal trends of iWUE were calculated under three theoretical scenarios, as a baseline for interpreting the observed gas exchange at increasing C a. We found that iWUE increased by 12-32% from A1 to A3 over the last 50 years, and showed an elevation-dependent variation in physiological response. The significant negative relationship between BAI and iWUE at A2 and A3 showed that tree growth has been decreasing despite long-term increases in iWUE. However, BAI remained largely stable throughout the study period despite the strongest iWUE increase [at constant intercellular CO2 concentration (C i) before 1980] at A1. Our results indicate a drought-induced limitation of tree growth response to rising CO2 at lower elevations, and no apparent change in tree growth and diminished iWUE improvement since 1980 in the upper tree-line. This study may contradict the expectation that combined effects of elevated C a and rising temperatures have increased forest productivity, especially in high-elevation forests. PMID:25999973

  13. Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures

    PubMed Central

    Laubhann, Daniel; Eckmüllner, Otto; Sterba, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Since individual tree leaf area is an important measure for productivity as well as for site occupancy, it is of high interest in many studies about forest growth. The exact determination of leaf area is nearly impossible. Thus, a common way to get information about leaf area is to use substitutes. These substitutes are often variables which are collected in a destructive way which is not feasible for long term studies. Therefore, this study aimed at testing the applicability of using substitutes for leaf area which could be collected in a non-destructive way, namely crown surface area and crown projection area. In 8 stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), divided into three age classes and two thinning treatments, a total of 156 trees were felled in order to test the relationship between leaf area and crown surface area and crown projection area, respectively. Individual tree leaf area of the felled sample trees was estimated by 3P-branch sampling with an accuracy of ±10%. Crown projection area and crown surface area were compared with other, more commonly used, but destructive predictors of leaf area, namely sapwood area at different heights on the bole. Our investigations confirmed findings of several studies that sapwood area is the most precise measure for leaf area because of the high correlation between sapwood area and the leaf area. But behind sapwood area at crown base and sapwood area at three tenth of the tree height the predictive ability of crown surface area was ranked third and even better than that of sapwood area at breast height (R2 = 0.656 compared with 0.600). Within the stands leaf area is proportional to crown surface area. Using the pooled data of all stands a mixed model approach showed that additionally to crown surface area dominant height and diameter at breast height (dbh) improved the leaf area estimates. Thus, taking dominant height and dbh into account, crown surface area can be recommended for estimating the leaf area of

  14. Allocation of freshly assimilated carbon into primary and secondary metabolites after in situ ¹³C pulse labelling of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela A; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido L B; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways at various ecophysiological stages. We used compound-specific stable isotope analysis to investigate C partitioning of freshly assimilated C into tree compartments (needles, branches and stem) as well as into needle water-soluble organic C (WSOC), non-hydrolysable structural organic C (stOC) and individual chemical compound classes (amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following in situ (13)C pulse labelling 15 days after bud break. The (13)C allocation within the above-ground tree biomass demonstrated needles as a major C sink, accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C 6 h after labelling. In needles, the highest allocation occurred not only into the WSOC pool (44.1% of recovered needle (13)C) but also into stOC (33.9%). Needle growth, however, also caused high (13)C allocation into pathways not involved in the formation of structural compounds: (i) pathways in secondary metabolism, (ii) C-1 metabolism and (iii) amino acid synthesis from photorespiration. These pathways could be identified by a high (13)C enrichment of their key amino acids. In addition, (13)C was strongly allocated into the n-alkyl lipid fraction (0.3% of recovered (13)C), whereby (13)C allocation into cellular and cuticular exceeded that of epicuticular fatty acids. (13)C allocation decreased along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways: the allocation was highest for precursor fatty acids, lower for elongated fatty acids and lowest for the decarbonylated n-alkanes. The combination of (13)C pulse labelling with compound-specific (13)C analysis of key metabolites enabled tracing relevant C allocation pathways under field conditions. Besides the primary metabolism synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex

  15. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system: characteristics of a shallow low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Cerro Negro district, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Conrado Permuy; Guido, Diego M.; Jovic, Sebastián M.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Moncada, Daniel; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Hames, Willis

    2016-08-01

    The Cerro Negro district, within the Argentinian Deseado Massif province, has become one of the most significant recent epithermal discoveries, with estimated reserves plus resources of ˜6.7 Moz Au equivalent. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system contains about 70 % of the Au-Ag resources in the district. Mineralization consists of Upper Jurassic (155 Ma) epithermal Au- and Ag-rich veins of low to intermediate sulfidation style, hosted in and genetically related to Jurassic intermediate composition volcanic rocks (159-156 Ma). Veins have a complex infill history, represented by ten stages with clear crosscutting relationships that can be summarized in four main episodes: a low volume, metal-rich initial episode (E1), an extended banded quartz episode with minor mineralization (E2), a barren waning stage episode (E3), and a silver-rich late tectonic-hydrothermal episode (E4). The first three episodes are interpreted to have formed at the same time and probably from fluids of similar composition: a 290-230 °C fluid dominated by meteoric and volcanic waters (-3‰ to -0‰ δ18Owater), with <3 % NaCl equivalent salinity and with a magmatic source of sulfur (-1 to -2 ‰ δ34Swater). Metal was mainly precipitated at the beginning of vein formation (episode 1) due to a combination of boiling at ˜600 to 800 m below the paleowater table, and associated mixing/cooling processes, as evidenced by sulfide-rich bands showing crustiform-colloform quartz, adularia, and chlorite-smectite banding. During episodes 2 and 3, metal contents progressively decrease during continuing boiling conditions, and veins were filled by quartz and calcite during waning stages of the hydrothermal system, and the influx of bicarbonate waters (-6 to -8.5 ‰ δ18Owater). Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by proximal illite, adularia, and silica zone with chlorite and minor epidote, intermediate interlayered illite-smectite and a distal chlorite halo. This assemblage is in agreement with

  16. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system: characteristics of a shallow low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Cerro Negro district, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Conrado Permuy; Guido, Diego M.; Jovic, Sebastián M.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Moncada, Daniel; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Hames, Willis

    2016-01-01

    The Cerro Negro district, within the Argentinian Deseado Massif province, has become one of the most significant recent epithermal discoveries, with estimated reserves plus resources of ˜6.7 Moz Au equivalent. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system contains about 70 % of the Au-Ag resources in the district. Mineralization consists of Upper Jurassic (155 Ma) epithermal Au- and Ag-rich veins of low to intermediate sulfidation style, hosted in and genetically related to Jurassic intermediate composition volcanic rocks (159-156 Ma). Veins have a complex infill history, represented by ten stages with clear crosscutting relationships that can be summarized in four main episodes: a low volume, metal-rich initial episode (E1), an extended banded quartz episode with minor mineralization (E2), a barren waning stage episode (E3), and a silver-rich late tectonic-hydrothermal episode (E4). The first three episodes are interpreted to have formed at the same time and probably from fluids of similar composition: a 290-230 °C fluid dominated by meteoric and volcanic waters (-3‰ to -0‰ δ18Owater), with <3 % NaCl equivalent salinity and with a magmatic source of sulfur (-1 to -2 ‰ δ34Swater). Metal was mainly precipitated at the beginning of vein formation (episode 1) due to a combination of boiling at ˜600 to 800 m below the paleowater table, and associated mixing/cooling processes, as evidenced by sulfide-rich bands showing crustiform-colloform quartz, adularia, and chlorite-smectite banding. During episodes 2 and 3, metal contents progressively decrease during continuing boiling conditions, and veins were filled by quartz and calcite during waning stages of the hydrothermal system, and the influx of bicarbonate waters (-6 to -8.5 ‰ δ18Owater). Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by proximal illite, adularia, and silica zone with chlorite and minor epidote, intermediate interlayered illite-smectite and a distal chlorite halo. This assemblage is in agreement with

  17. Evidence for shallow dehydration of the subducting plate beneath the Mariana forearc: New insights into the water cycle at subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Shaw, A. M.; Martinez, F.; Ohara, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water is efficiently recycled at subduction zones. It is fluxed from the surface into the mantle by the subducted plate and back to the surface or crust through explosive arc volcanism and degassing. Fluids released from dehydrating the subducting plate are transfer agents of water. Geophysical modeling [1] and the geochemistry of arc glasses [2] suggest that at cold-slab subduction zones, such as the Mariana convergent margin, the downgoing plate mostly dehydrates beneath the volcanic arc front (≥ ~ 80 -100 km depth to slab) to trigger volcanism. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the water fluxes released beneath forearcs, as examples of forearc magmatism are extremely rare. Here, we investigate the Southernmost Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR), where MORB-like spreading occurred unusually close to the trench, sampling slab-derived aqueous fluids released at ~ 30 to 100 km depth from the subducted plate. Examining the trace element and water contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions and glassy rinds from the young (2 - 4 Ma) and fresh SEMFR pillowed basalts provide new insights into the global water cycle. SEMFR lavas contain ~2 wt % H2O, and the olivine-hosted melt inclusions have the highest subduction-related H2O/Ce ratios (H2O/Ce = 6000 - 19000) ever recorded in arc magmas (H2O/Ce < 10600 and global averaged H2O/Ce < 3000). Our findings show that (i) slab-derived fluids released beneath forearcs are water-rich compared to the deeper fluids released beneath the arc system; and (ii) cold downgoing plates lose most of their water at shallow depths (~ 70 - 80 km slab depth), suggesting that water is efficiently recycled beneath the forearc (≥ 90%). 1. Van Keken, P.E., et al., Subduction factory: 4. Depth-dependent flux of H2O from subducting slabs worldwide. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2011. 116(B1): p. B01401, DOI: 10.1029/2010jb007922. 2. Ruscitto, D.M., et al., Global variations in H2O/Ce: 2. Relationships to arc magma

  18. Memorialization, Graffiti and Artifact Movement: A Case Study of Cultural Impacts on WWII Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Jennifer F.

    2015-04-01

    Cultural tourism in the Pacific has always offered an underwater option for those who snorkel or are certified to dive. In addition to the coral reefs and marine life, World War II (WWII) shipwrecks, aircraft wrecks and other submerged vehicles draw hundreds of tourists to the Pacific each year. While it is encouraging that so many are interested in the cultural heritage of battlefields, these same visitors can cause considerable amounts of damage. This paper presents a case study of cultural impacts on submerged WWII sites in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) where diving heritage tourism is a growing industry. Cultural impacts in the CNMI include a diverse range of direct and indirect impacts including vandalism, the act of memorialization, looting and collecting souvenirs, anchor and mooring damage, and moving artifacts. What is often viewed as detrimental cultural impacts by archaeologists and managers can also be examined as behavior that reflects various stakeholders' values and attitudes towards heritage sites. As such, these behaviors can and should be examined and considered concurrently during research and management discussions.

  19. High-resolution magnetic signature of active hydrothermal systems in the back-arc spreading region of the southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masakazu; Okino, Kyoko; Honsho, Chie; Dyment, Jerome; Szitkar, Florent; Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Asada, Miho

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution vector magnetic measurements were performed on five hydrothermal vent fields of the back-arc spreading region of the southern Mariana Trough using Shinkai 6500, a deep-sea manned submersible. A new 3-D forward scheme was applied that exploits the surrounding bathymetry and varying altitudes of the submersible to estimate absolute crustal magnetization. The results revealed that magnetic-anomaly-derived absolute magnetizations show a reasonable correlation with natural remanent magnetizations of rock samples collected from the seafloor of the same region. The distribution of magnetic-anomaly-derived absolute magnetization suggests that all five andesite-hosted hydrothermal fields are associated with a lack of magnetization, as is generally observed at basalt-hosted hydrothermal sites. Furthermore, both the Pika and Urashima sites were found to have their own distinct low-magnetization zones, which could not be distinguished in magnetic anomaly data collected at higher altitudes by autonomous underwater vehicle due to their limited extension. The spatial extent of the resulting low magnetization is approximately 10 times wider at off-axis sites than at on-axis sites, possibly reflecting larger accumulations of nonmagnetic sulfides, stockwork zones, and/or alteration zones at the off-axis sites.

  20. Pliocene granodioritic knoll with continental crust affinities discovered in the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc: Syntectonic granitic crust formation during back-arc rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kenichiro; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Chang, Qing; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Shukuno, Hiroshi; Hirahara, Yuka; Ishizuka, Osamu; Arima, Makoto; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2015-08-01

    A widely held hypothesis is that modern continental crust of an intermediate (i.e. andesitic) bulk composition forms at intra-oceanic arcs through subduction zone magmatism. However, there is a critical paradox in this hypothesis: to date, the dominant granitic rocks discovered in these arcs are tonalite, rocks that are significantly depleted in incompatible (i.e. magma-preferred) elements and do not geochemically and petrographically represent those of the continents. Here we describe the discovery of a submarine knoll, the Daisan-West Sumisu Knoll, situated in the rear-arc region of the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. Remotely-operated vehicle surveys reveal that this knoll is made up entirely of a 2.6 million year old porphyritic to equigranular granodiorite intrusion with a geochemical signature typical of continental crust. We present a model of granodiorite magma formation that involves partial remelting of enriched mafic rear-arc crust during the initial phase of back-arc rifting, which is supported by the preservation of relic cores inherited from initial rear-arc source rocks within magmatic zircon crystals. The strong extensional tectonic regime at the time of intrusion may have allowed the granodioritic magma to be emplaced at an extremely shallow level, with later erosion of sediment and volcanic covers exposing the internal plutonic body. These findings suggest that rear-arc regions could be the potential sites of continental crust formation in intra-oceanic convergent margins.

  1. Physical Properties and Seismic Structure of Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore Arc crust: Results From IODP Expedition 352 and Comparison with Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeson, G. L.; Morgan, S.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the well-preserved ophiolite complexes are believed to form in supra-subduction zone settings. One of the goals of IODP Expedition 352 was to test the supra-subduction zone ophiolite model by drilling forearc crust at the northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system. IBM forearc drilling successfully cored 1.22 km of volcanic lavas and underlying dikes at four sites. A surprising observation is that basement compressional velocities measured from downhole logging average ~3.0 km/s, compared to values of 5 km/s at similar basement depths at oceanic crust sites 504B and 1256D. Typically there is an inverse relationship in extrusive lavas between velocity and porosity, but downhole logging shows similar porosities for the IBM and oceanic crust sites, despite the large difference in measured compressional velocities. These observations can be explained by a difference in crack morphologies between IBM forearc and oceanic crust, with a smaller fractional area of asperity contact across cracks at EXP 352 sites than at sites 504B and 1256D. Seismic profiles at the IBM forearc image many faults, which may be related to the crack population.

  2. Fore-arc mantle peridotites and back-arc basin basalts from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction factory (ODP LEGs 125 and 195): a modern analogue for Mediterranean ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, A.; D'Antonio, M.; Vannucci, R.; Raffone, N.; Spadea, P.

    2009-04-01

    Serpentinites, basaltic lavas and calc-alkaline volcanoclastic sequences sampled during recent Ocean Drilling Program cruises in the western Pacific Ocean allow comparisons with ophiolites from eastern Mediterranean area, which are believed to be related to marginal seas characterised by rapidly propagating back-arc extension and slab rollback (e.g. Albania and Cyprus). Serpentinites recovered at the Torishima, Conical and South Chamorro Seamounts (ODP Legs 125 and 195), located on the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) forearc, still record complex petrochemical features acquired during their high-T mantle evolution. This latter has been referred to a three-stages-model, involving in chronological sequence: 1) adiabatic mantle upwelling accompanied by 20-25% polybaric partial melting; 2) local depletion in modal orthopyroxene determined by reactive melt migration; 3) late interstitial crystallisation of ultra-depleted to depleted melts. The record of the first stage is preserved in the less-refractory IBM forearc peridotites, which compositions lie on trends describing the decompression melting of uprising asthenospheric mantle. During this stage, the peridotites were actual melt sources. The large average degree of depletion suggests that partial melting events were assisted by particularly hot geotherms. The second stage occurred at relatively lower pressures, according to the large orthopyroxene dissolution, and is guessed to be firmly related to arc volcanism. Nevertheless, the progressive change of oxidation state of the mantle minerals, which decreases from the Torishima (N Izu-Bonin forearc) through the Conical (N Mariana forearc) to the South Chamorro Seamount (S Mariana forearc), highlights a marked gradient in terms of contribution to the uprising melts from slab-derived component. It is argued that the melt compositions changed from boninitic (at Torishima) to depleted-MORB at (South Chamorro). The third stage determined the petrographic and mineralogical features

  3. Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Ewert, J.W.; Gallina, G.M.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Swanson, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes

  4. Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003 2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Ewert, John W.; Gallina, Gregory M.; Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Swanson, Grace L.

    2005-08-01

    Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO 2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes

  5. Discovery and drilling of on- and off-axis hydrothermal sites in backarc spreading center of southern Mariana Trough, Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Maruyama, A.; Marumo, K.; Seama, N.; Utsumi, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Mariana Trough is an actively spreading backarc basin that is located along the eastern margin of Philippine Sea Plate. GPS monitoring indicates that the rate of spreading is about 45 mm/yr in the southern section (Kato et al., 2003). No transform fault offsets exist despite significant changes in the trend of the spreading center. Fryer et al. (1998) pointed out the close proximity of submarine arc volcanoes to the spreading center and tectonic fabric that is at a high angle to the trend of the spreading center on the eastern flank. Three hydrothermal sites were discovered along such tectonic lineament in southern Mariana Trough (12o55-57'N, 143o37-39'E). On-axis site (so-called Fryer site, depth: 2,850 m) consists of a hydrothermal mound about 20 m in diameter that develops on pillow lava of a segment center of the spreading axis. The segment is characterized by highly variable rock composition (up to 68% SiO2). Repeated temperature measurements revealed rapid cooling of the hydrothermal system from 240oC in April 2003, through 112oC in October 2003 to 69oC in March 2004. On the other hand, two off-axis sites seem to have longevity of life: The Archaean site which locates about 2 km off-axis on the eastern (arc side) skirt is characterized by its huge sulfide spire; 50 m in height and 20 m in diameter. It is composed of pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, and is emanating hydrothermal fluids up to 220oC. In the third site (Pika site), active black smokers (max. temp. = 330oC), numerous dead chimneys and sulfide mounds were found on a basaltic seamount about 5 km off-axis. These lines of evidence support the idea of Fryer et al. (1998) that the backarc magma is replenished by arc/off-axis magma along the tectonic lineation. The first and third sites been drilled and cased using a tethered, submarine rock-drill system BMS (Benthic Multi-coring System) on-board the R/V Hakurei-Maru # 2 as a part of Archaean Park Project*. Rocks from two holes (7.5 m and 4.1 m

  6. Iron-Based Microbial Ecosystem on and Below the Seafloor: A Case Study of Hydrothermal Fields of the Southern Mariana Trough

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shingo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Toki, Tomohiro; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Tsunogai, Urumu; Hirota, Akinori; Ohkuma, Moriya; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structures in deep-sea hydrothermal vents fields are constrained by available energy yields provided by inorganic redox reactions, which are in turn controlled by chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids. In the past two decades, geochemical and microbiological studies have been conducted in deep-sea hydrothermal vents at three geographically different areas of the Southern Mariana Trough (SMT). A variety of geochemical data of hydrothermal fluids and an unparalleled microbiological dataset of various samples (i.e., sulfide structures of active vents, iron-rich mats, borehole fluids, and ambient seawater) are available for comparative analyses. Here, we summarize the geochemical and microbiological characteristics in the SMT and assess the relationship between the microbial community structures and the fluid geochemistry in the SMT by thermodynamic modeling. In the high temperature vent fluids, aerobic sulfide-oxidation has the potential to yield large amounts of bioavailable energy in the vent fluids, which is consistent with the detection of species related to sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (such as Thiomicrospira in the Gammaproteobacteria and Sulfurimonas in the Epsilonproteobacteria). Conversely, the bioavailable energy yield from aerobic iron-oxidation reactions in the low-temperature fluids collected from man-made boreholes and several natural vents were comparable to or higher than those from sulfide-oxidation. This is also consistent with the detection of species related to iron-oxidizing bacteria (Mariprofundus in the Zetaproteobacteria) in such low-temperature samples. The results of combination of microbiological, geochemical, and thermodynamic analyses in the SMT provide novel insights into the presence and significance of iron-based microbial ecosystems in deep-sea hydrothermal fields. PMID:22435065

  7. Meso- and microscale structures related to post-magmatic deformation of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheuz, P.; Kurz, W.; Ferre, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 352 aimed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Bonin fore arc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Analysis of structures within drill cores, combined with borehole and site survey seismic data, indicates that tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc is mainly post-magmatic, associated with the development of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins. Within the magmatic basement, deformation was accommodated by shear along cataclastic fault zones, and the formation of tension fractures, hybrid (tension and shear) fractures, and shear fractures. Veins commonly form by mineral filling of tension or hybrid fractures and, generally, show no or limited observable macroscale displacement along the fracture plane. The vein filling generally consists of (Low Mg-) calcite and/or various types of zeolite as well as clay. Vein frequency varies with depth but does not seem to correlate with the proximity of faults. This may indicate that these veins are genetically related to hydrothermal activity taking place shortly after magma cooling. Host-rock fragments are commonly embedded within precipitated vein material pointing to a high fluid pressure. Vein thickness varies from < 1 mm up to 15 mm. The wider veins appear to have formed in incremental steps of extension. Calcite veins tend to be purely dilational at shallow depths, but gradually evolve towards oblique tensional veins at depth, as shown by the growth of stretched calcite and/or zeolites (idiomorphic and/or stretched) with respect to vein margins. With increasing depth, the calcite grains exhibit deformation microstructures more frequently than at shallower core intervals. These microstructures include thin twinning (type I twins), increasing in width with depth (type I and type II twins), curved twins, and subgrain boundaries indicative of incipient plastic deformation.

  8. Biogeography and biodiversity in sulfide structures of active and inactive vents at deep-sea hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Takano, Yoshinori; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Oba, Hironori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Chiyori; Utsumi, Motoo; Marumo, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Ito, Yuki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2010-05-01

    The abundance, diversity, activity, and composition of microbial communities in sulfide structures both of active and inactive vents were investigated by culture-independent methods. These sulfide structures were collected at four hydrothermal fields, both on- and off-axis of the back-arc spreading center of the Southern Mariana Trough. The microbial abundance and activity in the samples were determined by analyzing total organic content, enzymatic activity, and copy number of the 16S rRNA gene. To assess the diversity and composition of the microbial communities, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries including bacterial and archaeal phylotypes were constructed from the sulfide structures. Despite the differences in the geological settings among the sampling points, phylotypes related to the Epsilonproteobacteria and cultured hyperthermophilic archaea were abundant in the libraries from the samples of active vents. In contrast, the relative abundance of these phylotypes was extremely low in the libraries from the samples of inactive vents. These results suggest that the composition of microbial communities within sulfide structures dramatically changes depending on the degree of hydrothermal activity, which was supported by statistical analyses. Comparative analyses suggest that the abundance, activity and diversity of microbial communities within sulfide structures of inactive vents are likely to be comparable to or higher than those in active vent structures, even though the microbial community composition is different between these two types of vents. The microbial community compositions in the sulfide structures of inactive vents were similar to those in seafloor basaltic rocks rather than those in marine sediments or the sulfide structures of active vents, suggesting that the microbial community compositions on the seafloor may be constrained by the available energy sources. Our findings provide helpful information for understanding the biogeography, biodiversity and

  9. Biogeography and Biodiversity in Sulfide Structures of Active and Inactive Vents at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Fields of the Southern Mariana Trough▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shingo; Takano, Yoshinori; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Oba, Hironori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Chiyori; Utsumi, Motoo; Marumo, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Ito, Yuki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    The abundance, diversity, activity, and composition of microbial communities in sulfide structures both of active and inactive vents were investigated by culture-independent methods. These sulfide structures were collected at four hydrothermal fields, both on- and off-axis of the back-arc spreading center of the Southern Mariana Trough. The microbial abundance and activity in the samples were determined by analyzing total organic content, enzymatic activity, and copy number of the 16S rRNA gene. To assess the diversity and composition of the microbial communities, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries including bacterial and archaeal phylotypes were constructed from the sulfide structures. Despite the differences in the geological settings among the sampling points, phylotypes related to the Epsilonproteobacteria and cultured hyperthermophilic archaea were abundant in the libraries from the samples of active vents. In contrast, the relative abundance of these phylotypes was extremely low in the libraries from the samples of inactive vents. These results suggest that the composition of microbial communities within sulfide structures dramatically changes depending on the degree of hydrothermal activity, which was supported by statistical analyses. Comparative analyses suggest that the abundance, activity and diversity of microbial communities within sulfide structures of inactive vents are likely to be comparable to or higher than those in active vent structures, even though the microbial community composition is different between these two types of vents. The microbial community compositions in the sulfide structures of inactive vents were similar to those in seafloor basaltic rocks rather than those in marine sediments or the sulfide structures of active vents, suggesting that the microbial community compositions on the seafloor may be constrained by the available energy sources. Our findings provide helpful information for understanding the biogeography, biodiversity and

  10. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-04-01

    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  11. Quantitation of gibberellins A sub 1 , A sub 3 , A sub 4 , A sub 9 and a putative A sub 9 -conjugate in grafts of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) during the period of shoot elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, T.; Philipson, J.J.; Oden, P.C. Forestry Commission Northern Research Station, Roslin Midlothian )

    1990-08-01

    The levels of endogenous gibberellin A{sub 1}(GA{sub 1}), GA{sub 3}, GA{sub 4}, GA{sub 9}, and a cellulase hydrolyzable GA{sub 9} conjugate in needles and shoot stems of mature grafts of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) grown under environmental conditions that were either inductive, hot, and dry, or noninductive, cool, and wet, for flowering, were estimated by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring using deuterated ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 1}, GA{sub 3}, GA{sub 4}, and GA{sub 9} as internal standards. The results imply differential metabolism between clones treated with conditions inductive and noninductive for flowering. Higher concentrations of putative GA{sub 9} conjugate and free GA{sub 9} in the hot and dry treatment indicate a higher capacity of synthesizing, for flowering, the physiologically important GA{sub 4} in the heat and drought-treated material. This synthesis does not, however, result in a buildup of the GA{sub 4} pool, probably because of a high turnover rate of GA{sub 4}. The cool and wet-treated material had higher amounts of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3}, indicating that the differentiation was preferentially directed toward vegetative growth.

  12. Seasonal dynamics in the stable carbon isotope composition δ¹³C from non-leafy branch, trunk and coarse root CO₂ efflux of adult deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Kuptz, Daniel; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-03-01

    Respiration is a substantial driver of carbon (C) flux in forest ecosystems and stable C isotopes provide an excellent tool for its investigation. We studied seasonal dynamics in δ¹³C of CO₂ efflux (δ¹³C(E)) from non-leafy branches, upper and lower trunks and coarse roots of adult trees, comparing deciduous Fagus sylvatica (European beech) with evergreen Picea abies (Norway spruce). In both species, we observed strong and similar seasonal dynamics in the δ¹³C(E) of above-ground plant components, whereas δ¹³C(E) of coarse roots was rather stable. During summer, δ¹³C(E) of trunks was about -28.2‰ (Beech) and -26.8‰ (Spruce). During winter dormancy, δ¹³C(E) increased by 5.6-9.1‰. The observed dynamics are likely related to a switch from growth to starch accumulation during fall and remobilization of starch, low TCA cycle activity and accumulation of malate by PEPc during winter. The seasonal δ¹³C(E) pattern of branches of Beech and upper trunks of Spruce was less variable, probably because these organs were additionally supplied by winter photosynthesis. In view of our results and pervious studies, we conclude that the pronounced increases in δ¹³C(E) of trunks during the winter results from interrupted access to recent photosynthates. PMID:21054435

  13. Surface wave derived shear velocity structure of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, Transantarctic Mountains, and west Antarctica and shallow seismicity of the Mariana and Tonga subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeszel, David Scott

    Recent advances in seismic instrumentation have allowed researchers to undertake focused investigations of regions previously inaccessible. From the bottom of the sea to the coldest, driest places on earth, we are now able to deploy seismometers to remote locations and be certain of collecting large amounts of useable data. By focusing regionally scaled seismic arrays in locations of tectonic and geodynamic interest we are able to better image the structure of these regions and place them in a global framework. This is particularly important in regions such as Antarctica and the ocean bottom where more traditional tools such as geologic mapping and sampling are difficult, if not currently impossible. This volume utilizes information garnered from several temporary deployments to such locations. In chapter 2 we use data collected from ocean bottom seismometers in the Mariana Islands to investigate the implications of along-arc extension. Small earthquakes that go undetected by the large global seismic network are detected by a temporary ocean bottom seismic array. The locations and timing of this seismicity place constraints on along-arc extension, an important arc process. In chapter 3 we use data collected by a short-term seismic array designed to detect and locate aftershocks associated with the May 3, 2006 MW8.0 Tonga earthquake. The fault mechanism of this earthquake is unusual and has important implications for tsunami hazard associated with the Tonga subduction zone. Through high precision location of aftershocks, we are able to determine the updip and downdip limits of seismicity associated with the mainshock. We are also able to relocate the mainshock location to a high degree of precision. In chapters 4 and 5 we utilize data from seismic arrays in Antarctica to image the crust and upper mantle structure of specific regions of interest using teleseismic surface waves. We focus our efforts on the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in Chapter 4. This mountain

  14. Crustal Structure of the Southern Kyushu-Palau Ridge, the Other Half of the Proto Izu-Bonin-Mariana Island Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, A.; Kaneda, K.; Katagiri, Y.; Kasahara, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a bathymetric high extending north-south direction at the center of the Philippine Sea and considered as a remnant of a proto Izu-Bonin-Mariana island arc separated by the backarc spreading of the Shikoku and Parece Vela (Oki-no-Tori-Shima) Basin. We conducted a wide-angle and multi-channel seismic experiment to investigate variation in crustal structures along the KPR. The experiment consisted of four seismic lines that were selected to represent the variations in seafloor topography of the southern KPR. All of the profiles cross the KPR perpendicularly and their profile lengths range from 175 to 375 km. The controlled seismic source was a tuned array of 36 airguns with a total volume of 8,040 inch3. In the wide-angle seismic survey, we shot the airgun array at an interval of 200 m (90 s) for each line. We used 200 ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) at an interval of 5 km as receivers. The travel time and amplitude data obtained by the OBSs were modeled by a tomographic inversion and two-dimensional ray tracing. The maximum crustal thickness beneath the KPR varies from 14 to 20 km according to the profile and the crust is significantly thicker than those of the both sides of each profile, that is, the oceanic crusts of the West Philippine Basin to the west and of the Parece Vela Basin to the east. The thickest crust among the four profiles is found in the region where the KPR connects with the Oki-no-Tori-Shima island. The thicker crust beneath the KPR is mainly due to a fat lower crust. The thick (> 5 km) middle crust with P wave velocity of 6.0-6.3 km/s that characterizes the northern Izu-Bonin island-arc crust does not exist so clearly in our profiles. This may relate to the fact that the southern KPR is deeper in seawater and does not have a mature island arc crust compared with the northern KPR where existence of a 6 km/s layer has been reported previously.

  15. Quantitative Population Analysis of Some Groups of Epsilon-Proteobacteria, Using in situ Growth Chamber Samples From Hydrothermal Vents in the South Mariana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyako, C.; Higashi, Y.; Maruyama, A.

    2004-12-01

    To reveal deep-sea hydrothermal microbial ecosystems, we have developed and applied several new sampling systems, e.g., in situ filter samplers and in situ growth chambers. The later enables to incubate and accumulate microbes inside a hydrothermal vent with complex physico-chemical gradients naturally created in a vent flow. Using this system, we have found several novel phylotypes of microbes in the Suiyo Seamount. Among them, two novel groups of epsilon-Proteobacteria (SSSV-BE1 and SSSV-BE2; Higashi et al. FEMS-ME 2004) were assumed to originate from sub-vent fields, mainly at the borehole SH-APSK05. Some of the known epsilon groups, i.e., CorreOs Groups D (the hydrothermal vent type) and Group B (the microbial mat type), were also detected in the same samples. Afterwards, we have further improved in situ growth chambers larger to gain enough amounts of microbial RNA samples for quantitative population analyses. A new chamber system named column-II type was then applied to a natural vent at Fryer site in the Mariana Trough, with temperatures of venting fluids beyond 109 C. Through the 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, members of the above epsilon-Proteobacteria groups were frequently found in this column-II chamber sample, as well as the Suiyo Seamout samples. So, we tried to estimate population sizes of these epsilons by a quantitative fluorescent dot-blot hybridization (FDBH) technique. First, we newly designed two novel oligonucleotide probes specific to members of the groups D (26 mer) and SSSV-BE1 (23 mer), in which the stringency was checked using soft wares from Ribosomal Database Project II and DDBJ. Total RNA samples, after extracted and purified from the chamber samples, were applied to a nylon membrane filter and hybridized with these two specific probes, as well as Eubacteria, Universal, and some sub-domain/group-specific probes. After the hybridization, resulting fluorescence intensities were quantified, averaged, and compared each other, and

  16. Molecular ecological analysis of the distribution and diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes and microbes in deep-sea hydrothermal sites of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, and the Mariana Arc-Backarc, Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, A.; Nakagawa, T.; Hase, Y.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Morimoto, Y.; Kimura, H.; Urabe, T.; Fukui, M.

    2004-12-01

    The present study describes the distribution and diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent field at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, and the Mariana Arc-Backarc Western Pacific. We used a PCR-based metabolic molecular ecology approach that targets a conserved region of subunit A and B of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene and subunit A of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase gene. The DSR genes were obtained from microbes that grew in catheter-type in situ growth chamber deployed for three days on a vent, and from the effluent water of drilled holes at 5 degree C and natural vent fluids at 7 degree C in the Suiyo. The DSR clones were not closely related to cultivated species or environmental clones. Similarly, novel APS clones were obtained from the mat developed at hydrothermal sites in the Mariana. Moreover, samples of microbial communities from the Suiyo were examined using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the vent-catheter after a three-day incubation revealed the occurrence of bacterial DGGE bands affiliated with the Aquificae, gamma-, and epsilon-Proteobacteria as well as the occurrence of archaeal phylotypes affiliated with the Thermococcales and of a unique Archaeon sequence clustered with Nanoarchaeota. The DGGE bands obtained from drilled holes and natural vent fluids from 7 to 300 degree C were affiliated with the delta-Proteobacteria, genus Thiomicrospira and Pelodictyon. The dominant DGGE bands retrieved from the effluent water of casing pipes at 3 and 4 degree C were closely related to phylotypes obtained from the Arctic Ocean. Our results suggest the presence of microorganisms corresponding to a unique DSR and APS lineage not detected previously from other geothermal environments.

  17. Interspecific Competition and Trade-offs in Resource Allocation are the Key to Successful Growth of Seedlings of White Spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) at Subarctic Treelines in Warming Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, K.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Alpine treelines in Alaska have advanced for the past 50 years in response to the recent climate warming. However, further increases in temperatures may cause treeline species drought stress and increase susceptibility to insect outbreaks and fire. Complex factors such as soil conditions and plant species composition also impact the growth of seedlings, which are essential to sustain boreal forests. Our goals were to assess 1) the current optimal elevation for the treeline species Picea glauca (white spruce) seedlings and how it is altered by climate change, and 2) their growth/survival strategies at each environmental site. We studied the growth response of spruce seedlings along an altitudinal gradient at 6 sites, consisting of tundra, forest, or transitional ecotone in Denali National Park and one forest site in Fairbanks, AK. In May 2012, four-month old seedlings were planted with or without naturally occurring plants to compare the presence or absence of the interspecific interaction. Summer temperatures were increased by one small greenhouse per site. Over 2 growing seasons, growth was measured non-destructively, and then the seedlings were harvested. Relative growth rate (RGR) in height was increased significantly as the altitude was increased. Elevated temperature increased height only in seedlings at a high-altitude forest. Seedlings with neighboring plants had a higher RGR in height than seedlings that had neighbors removed, while significantly wider diameters were measured from the seedlings without neighbors. A weak trend of declining diameter width with increasing altitudes was seen. Seedlings that grew taller did not grow their stems wider, indicating trade-offs in resource allocation. None of the altitudinal sites had a clear advantage for the growth of the seedlings. Habitat microclimate and the interaction with other species could be more important than the altitude or temperatures and hence, key to the survival and growth of spruce seedlings in

  18. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of Alternative Pumping Distributions and the Effects of Drought on the Ground-Water Flow System of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water in a freshwater lens is the main source of freshwater on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Four major geologic units make up the island with high-permeability limestone units overlying low-permeability volcanic rocks. Estimates of limestone hydraulic conductivity range from 21 to 23,000 feet per day. Estimates of water-budget components for Tinian are 82 inches per year of rainfall, about 6 inches per year of runoff, 46 inches per year of evapotranspiration, and 30 inches per year of recharge. From 1990?97, ground-water withdrawal from the Municipal well, the major source of water, averaged about 780 gallons per minute. A two-dimensional, steady-state, ground-water flow model using the computer code SHARP was developed for Tinian, to enhance the understanding of (1) the distribution of aquifer hydraulic properties, (2) the conceptual framework of the ground-water flow system, and (3) the effects of various pumping distributions and drought on water levels and the freshwater/saltwater transition zone. For modeling purposes, Tinian was divided into three horizontal hydraulic-conductivity zones: (1) highly permeable limestone, (2) less-permeable, clay-rich limestone, and (3) low-permeability volcanic rocks. The following horizontal hydraulic conductivities were estimated: (1) 10,500 feet per day for the highly permeable limestone, (2) 800 feet per day for the less-permeable clay-rich limestone, and (3) 0.2 foot per day for the volcanic rocks. To estimate the hydrologic effects of different pumping distributions on the aquifer, three different steady-state pumping scenarios were simulated, (1) a scenario with no ground-water pumping, (2) a 2001-pumping scenario, and (3) a maximum-pumping scenario. The results of the no-pumping scenario showed that the freshwater/saltwater interface beneath the Municipal well would be about 7 feet deeper and ground-water discharge to the coast would be higher along both the east and west coasts of the

  19. Tracing Mantle and Slab Contributions to the Proto Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Magmatism: Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of a Volcaniclastic Sequence From the Palau-Kyushu Ridge, West Philippine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, M.; Savov, I. P.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Spadea, P.; Lockwood, J.

    2005-05-01

    The submerged Palau-Kyushu Ridge (PKP) is the remnant of a proto-Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) island arc, which was active since about 48 to 35 Ma ago, contemporaneously to subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the spreading West Philippine basin. Volcanic activity along the PKR stopped in response to plate reorganization, and renewed subduction which initiated with an E-W rifting, separating the PKR from the Iwo Jima ridge in the north and the West Mariana Ridge in the south. A 400 m- thick sequence of turbidites containing volcaniclastic sediments, underlain by basin basalt with a magnetic age of 49 Ma, was drilled during ODP Leg 195 at Site 1201, located about 200 km off the western slope of the PKR. These volcaniclastics represent a unique opportunity to sample the past activity of the PKR. Therefore, the mineralogical and geochemical features of these volcaniclastics are used to investigate the petrogenesis of the proto-IBM arc magmas, and the temporal evolution of the currently active intra-oceanic IBM island arc and related back-arc basins. From the recovered turbidite sequence, many volcaniclasts (mm- to cm- sized) and fresh pyroxene and plagioclase grains (xenocrysts) were collected and investigated from a petrological point of view. Most of the clasts are angular (breccias), and no rounded grains occur in the xenocrysts population, suggesting that these materials were incorporated in the turbidites fairly quickly after removal from the slopes of the PKR. The analyzed clasts range in composition from basalt (one sample) to basaltic andesite (the majority); a few samples showing a high total alkalis content like mugearite, are classified as altered basalts enriched in alkalis by hydrothermal alteration. Trace element abundance and distribution are indicative of a calk-alkaline affinity, also evidenced by high LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios. Initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicate derivation of the parental magmas from an arc-like mantle source, suggesting

  20. Anatahan, Northern Mariana Islands: Reconnaissance geological observations during and after the volcanic crisis of spring 1990, and monitoring prior to the May 2003 eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, S.K.; Lockwood, J.P.; Trusdell, F.A.; Moore, R.B.; Sako, M.K.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Kojima, G.

    2005-01-01

    samples, and set up a geophysical monitoring network. Results at this time were inconclusive with respect to determining whether the activity was anomalous. Water in some of the geothermal pits within the pit crater was boiling, and pH values as low as 0.7 were recorded in the field. An electronic distance measurement (EDM) network was installed, and over a ???1-week period, up to 9 cm of extension occurred across some lines but not others. Seismicity was characterized by intermittent local earthquakes but no sustained swarms or tremor. A brief visit in June 1990 revealed that the shallow lake near the boiling pits was gone, but activity in the pits themselves was similar to that of April 1990. Only minor extension had occurred along a single EDM line since the previous visit, and no earthquakes >M2.5 occurred during the visit. Subsequent 1- to 2-day visits occurred in October 1990, May 1992, May 1994, and June 2001. Activity within the geothermal pits was relatively constant during every visit, although during this 11-year period the level of the water in each pit decreased. In June 2001, a ???50-m-wide region of mud pots and steaming ground in the central part of the geothermal area had developed. No geologic evidence, however, suggested that an eruption would occur <2 years afterward. Most of the EDM lines showed slight extension between late 1990 and 1992, followed by very gradual contraction from 1992 to 2001. A more extensive seismic-monitoring system was installed on the Northern Mariana Islands during these visits, and it recorded a small seismic swarm at Anatahan from May to July 1993. The telemetry component of the seismic equipment broke prior to 2001 and had not been repaired by the time of the May 2003 eruption, so no precursory seismic data were recorded to indicate pre-eruption unrest. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Somatic embryogenesis in Picea suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Stasolla, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    Generation of somatic embryos in spruce is achieved through the execution of five steps designated as: (1) induction of embryogenic tissue, (2) maintenance of embryogenic tissue, (3) embryo development, (4) embryo maturation, and (5) conversion into plants. Depending on species and genotypes within the same species, each step must be optimized for obtaining maximum results. In general, embryogenic tissue is generated from immature and mature zygotic embryos and maintained in either liquid or solid conditions in the presence of plant growth regulators auxin and cytokinin. Initiation of embryo development in suspension cultured is induced by removal of plant growth regulators, whereas continuation of development and completion of maturation require applications of abscisic acid and imposition of a desiccation period. Both treatments are needed for conferring morphological and physiological maturation to the embryos. Mature somatic embryos are germinated in the absence of plant regulators and embryo conversion (i.e., formation of a functional shoot and root, occurs after a few weeks in culture). PMID:16673908

  2. Meso- and microscale vein structures in fore-arc basalts and boninites related to post-magmatic tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, Dennis; Micheuz, Peter; Kurz, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352 aimed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc. Two drill sites are situated on the outer fore arc composed of fore arc basalts (FAB) whereas two more sites are located on the upper trench slope penetrating the younger boninites. First results from IODP Expedition 352 and preliminary post-cruise data suggest that FAB were generated by decompression melting during near-trench sea-floor spreading, and that fluids from the subducting slab were not involved in their genesis. Subduction zone fluids involved in boninite genesis appear to have been derived from progressively higher temperatures and pressures over time as the subducting slab thermally matured. Structures within the drill cores combined with borehole and site survey seismic data indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc is mainly post-magmatic associated with the development of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins. Within the magmatic basement deformation was accommodated by shear along cataclastic fault zones and the formation of tension fractures, shear fractures and hybrid (tension and shear) fractures. Veins form by mineral filling of tension or hybrid fractures and show no or limited observable macroscale displacement along the fracture plane. (Low Mg-) Calcite and/or various types of zeolite are the major vein constituents, where the latter are considered to be alteration products of basaltic glass. Micrite contents vary significantly and are related to neptunian dikes. In boninites calcite develops mainly blocky shapes but veins with fibrous and stretched crystals also occur in places indicating antitaxial as well as ataxial growth, respectively. In FAB calcite forms consistently blocky crystals without any microscopic identifiable growth direction suggesting precipitation from a highly supersaturated fluid under dropping fluid pressure conditions. However, fluid pressure

  3. Geochemical Relationships between Volcanic and Plutonic Upper to Mid Crustal Exposures of the Rosario Segment, Alisitos Arc (Baja California, Mexico): An Outstanding Field Analog to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; DeBari, S. M.; Busby, C. J.; Medynski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Exposed paleo-arcs, such as the Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos Arc in Baja California, Mexico, provide an opportunity to explore the evolution of arc crust through time. Remarkable 3-D exposures of the Rosario segment record crustal generation processes in the volcanic rocks and underlying plutonic rocks. In this study, we explore the physical and geochemical connection between the plutonic and volcanic sections of the extensional Alisitos Arc, and elucidate differentiation processes responsible for generating them. These results provide an outstanding analog for extensional active arc systems, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc. Upper crustal volcanic rocks have a coherent stratigraphy that is 3-5 km thick and ranges in composition from basalt to dacite. The most felsic compositions (70.9% SiO2) are from a welded ignimbrite unit. The most mafic compositions (51.5% SiO2, 3.2% MgO) are found in basaltic sill-like units. Phenocrysts in the volcanic units include plagioclase +/- amphibole and clinopyroxene. The transition to deeper plutonic rocks is clearly an intrusive boundary, where plutonic units intrude the volcanic units. Plutonic rocks are dominantly a quartz diorite main phase with a more mafic, gabbroic margin. A transitional zone is observed along the contact between the plutonic and volcanic rocks, where volcanics have coarsely recrystallized textures. Mineral assemblages in the plutonic units include plagioclase +/- quartz, biotite, amphibole, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Most, but not all, samples are low K. REE patterns are relatively flat with limited enrichment. Normalization diagrams show LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, where trends are similar to average IBM values. We interpret plutonic and volcanic units to have similar geochemical relationships, where liquid lines of descent show the evolution of least to most evolved magma types. We provide a model for the formation and magmatic evolution of the Alisitos Arc.

  4. Identifying the pollen of an extinct spruce species in the Late Quaternary sediments of the Tunica Hills region, south-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luke Mander; Jacklyn Rodriguez; Pietra G. Mueller; Jackson, Stephen T.; Surangi W. Punyasena

    2014-01-01

    Late Quaternary fluvial deposits in the Tunica Hills region of Louisiana and Mississippi are rich in spruce macrofossils of the extinct species Picea critchfieldii, the one recognized plant extinction of the Late Quaternary. However, the morphology of P. critchfieldii pollen is unknown, presenting a barrier to the interpretation of pollen spectra f