Sample records for kuwait oman qatar

  1. Kuwait Oil Fires, Persian Gulf, Qatar Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view up the Persian Gulf from the Qatar Peninsula into southern Iraq (25.5N, 51.0E) shows an excursion of the smoke plumes from the Kuwait oil fires set during the short Persian Gulf War. Smoke from the fires north of Kuwait City, extends across the Persian Gulf while a larger smoke plume from the southern fires heads into southern Saudi Arabia before beginning to spread out and become more diffuse.

  2. Kuwait.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    The Republic of Kuwait occupies an area of 6,880 square miles at the head of the Persian Gulf, bounded on the north and west by Iraq and on the south by Saudi Arabia. 1.7 million people live in Kuwait, of whom 680,000 are Kuwaitis; the rest are expatriate Arabs, Iranians, and Indians. The annual growth rate of Kuwaitis is 3.8%. The Kuwaitis are 70% Sunni and 30% Shi'a Muslims. Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Kuwait is a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy. Education is free and compulsory, and literacy is 71%. Infant mortality among Kuwaitis is 26.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Medical care is free. Kuwait was first settled by Arab tribes from Qatar. In 1899 the ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, whose descendents still rule Kuwait, signed a treaty with Britain; and Kuwait remained a British protectorate until it became independent in 1961. A constitution was promulgated in 1962, and a National Assembly was elected by adult male suffrage in 1963. However, the Assembly has since been suspended due to internal friction. Kuwait and Iraq have been disputing Kuwait's northern border since 1913, and the southern border includes a Divided Zone, where sovereignty is disputed by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Despite the fall in oil prices in 1982 and the loss of trade due to the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait is one of the world's wealthiest countries with a per capita gross domestic product of $10,175. Oil accounts for 85% of Kuwait's exports, which total $7.42 billion; income from foreign investments (about $60 billion) makes up most of the balance. All petroleum-related activities are managed by the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which includes the nationalized Kuwait Oil Company, petrochemical industries, the 22-vessel tanker fleet, and refineries and service stations in Europe, where Kuwaiti oil is marketed under the brand name Q8. Kuwait has more than 66 billion barrels of recoverable oil but limits production to 999,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel. PMID:12177972

  3. UAE, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar Carnegie Mellon University

    E-print Network

    ·Incidental expenses Exclusions ·Medical with Pharmacy ·Dental ·Vision ·Evacuation/Repatriation ·Pre Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy Paid in Full 80% #12;Healthcare Benefit ­ Dental & Vision Dental* Annual Maximum Dentures ­ Crowns, inlays, mouth guard or occlusal splint Class IV- Orthodontic

  4. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  5. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The number of oil well fires from the Kuwait Oil Fields (29.5N, 48.0E) set afire by the retreating Iraqi Army during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, has been measurably diminished since the last observation although the smoke plumes were still intact as far south as Qatar. Most of the remaining approximately 300 oil fires are in the two largest fields: Sibirayah, north of Kuwait Bay and the larger Magwas-Burgan-Al Ahmadi field south of Kuwait City.

  6. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  7. Species, sex, size and male maturity composition of previously unreported elasmobranch landings in Kuwait, Qatar and Abu Dhabi Emirate.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M; McCarthy, I D; Carvalho, G R; Peirce, R

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents data from the first major survey of the diversity, biology and fisheries of elasmobranchs in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. Substantial landings of elasmobranchs, usually as gillnet by-catch, were recorded in Kuwait, Qatar and the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (part of the United Arab Emirates), although larger elasmobranchs from targeted line fisheries were landed in Abu Dhabi. The elasmobranch fauna recorded was distinctive and included species that are undescribed, rare and have a highly restricted known distribution. Numerical abundance was dominated by sharks (c. 80%), of which carcharhinids were by far the most important. The milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus and whitecheek shark Carcharhinus dussumieri together comprised just under half of all recorded individuals. Around 90% of recorded sharks were small (50-90 cm total length, L(T) ) individuals, most of which were mature individuals of species with a small maximum size (<100 cm L(T) ), although immature individuals of larger species (e.g. Carcharhinus sorrah and other Carcharhinus spp.) were also important. The most frequently recorded batoid taxa were cownose rays Rhinoptera spp., an undescribed whipray, and the granulated guitarfish Rhinobatos granulatus. The first size, sex and maturity data for a wide range of Gulf elasmobranch species are presented (including L(T) at 50% maturity for males of four shark species) and include some notable differences from other locations in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. A number of concerns regarding the sustainability of the fishery were highlighted by this study, notably that most of the batoid species recorded are classed by the IUCN Red List as vulnerable, endangered, data deficient or not evaluated. Despite their considerable elasmobranch landings, none of the three countries sampled have developed a 'Shark Plan' as encouraged to do so under the FAO International Plan of Action: Sharks. Furthermore, Kuwait and Qatar currently report zero or no elasmobranch landings to the FAO. PMID:22497401

  8. [Qatar].

    PubMed

    The capital of Qatar is Doha. As of 1995, Qatar had a population of 600,000 governed by an absolute monarchy. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $7.85 billion and $14,540. Per capita income declined by 0.8% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Qatar owed $2.1 billion. For the same year, Qatar exported $3.1 billion in goods and services and imported $1.8 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 2.1% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 71 years, the infant mortality rate was 2.6 per 1000 births, 100% had access to health services, and 89% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347070

  9. [Kuwait].

    PubMed

    The capital of Kuwait is Kuwait City. As of 1995, Kuwait had a population of 1.8 million governed by a monarchy endowed with a parliament regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $25.14 billion and $14,360. Per capita income declined by 1.3% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Kuwait owed $17.24 billion. For the same year, Kuwait exported $10.8 billion in goods and services and imported $6.6 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 3.2% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 74.9 years, the infant mortality rate was 18 per 1000 births, 100% had access to health services, and 100% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347066

  10. Qatar.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    Qatar is an oil-exporting Arab country that juts out from the north coast of Saudi Arabia into the Persian Gulf. Fewer than half of the 320,000 population are Arabs, however, most are Pakistani, Indian, Iranian and Egyptian foreign workers. Education is compulsory to age 16, and 60% are literate. Oil and refined petroleum products account for the $2 billion trade surplus, amounting to a $27,000 annual per capita income. The government is centralized and run by consensus under the Amir, head of the Al Thani, or ruling family. Political parties are banned. Qatar is evolving from a traditional to a modern welfare state. PMID:12177955

  11. [Oman].

    PubMed

    The capital of Oman is Muscat. As of 1995, Oman had a population of 2.2 million governed by an absolute monarchy. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $10.1 billion and $5200. Per capita income grew at 0.6% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Oman owed $3.1 billion, then being serviced at $525 million. For the same year, Oman exported $5.839 billion in goods and services and imported $5.558 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 3.9% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 69.6 years, the infant mortality rate was 30 per 1000 births, 96% had access to health services, and 84% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347068

  12. Tectonic characterization of the area between Qatar-Kazerun and Oman lines (Iran): using spatial analysis of geological and geophysical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkarinejad, K.; Zadeh, R. Mehdi

    2009-04-01

    The Zagros thrust-and-fold belt is part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The general tectonic framework of the area is located between Qatar-Kazerun and Oman lines, southern of this active orogenic belt, is define by Zagros thrust system which is parallel to the belt and a series of transfer fault zones or lateral ramp oblique to the belt, which are associated the crustal shortening in the region. The studies of the spatial patterns of tectonic characteristics of this area has been the subject of many researches. In this research, we introduce a quantitative approach for tectonic characteristic of the area, using of geostatistical modeling. Geostatistical modeling involves the estimation of the spatial correlation described in the sample variograms and fitting models to them. For this purpose, the study area of the Zagros thrust-and-fold belt is divided into blocks using a square grid at 0.5? × 0.5?. An overlapping area of 0.25? × 0.25? (moving step) is made for high resolution and comprehensive study, which inherently maintains the continuity of the data points from grid to grid. It seems that the geological and geophysical characteristics such as faulting, folding, lithology, topography and seismic activities could indicate reliably spatial variations of tectonics in the region. Thus, they have been calculated and recorded as quantitative variables for each block and spatial distribution of variables using of geostatistical modeling. The obtained results and their correlation with tectonic conditions of the region permit us to predict quantitatively characterizes of the tectonics of the study area. Although the Zagros presents a complex spatial distribution of tectonic, but it is possible to find some homogenous sub-areas. It is also possible to differentiate between areas with low and high probability values of the tectonic activities such as density of faulting and folding, frequency of earthquakes and diapirism, which can to be helpful for studies of the oil discovery.

  13. Evaluation of clinical pharmacy services offered for palliative care patients in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Wilby, Kyle John; Mohamad, Alaa Adil; AlYafei, Sumaya AlSaadi

    2014-09-01

    Palliative care is an emerging concept in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a political and economic union of Arab states bordering the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Clinical pharmacy services have not yet been evaluated in this region. The objectives of this study were to create a baseline inventory of clinical pharmacy interventions in palliative care and to assess the perceived importance of interventions made. This was a prospective, single-center characterization study. Interventions were documented from September 30 to December 1, 2013. They were characterized into predetermined categories and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Physician acceptance rate and intervention rate per patient were calculated. Classification categories were sent to 10 practicing pharmacists in each of Qatar and Canada, who ranked the categories on the basis of perceived importance. A total of 96 interventions were documented, giving 3 interventions per patient and an acceptance rate of 81%. Discontinuing therapy (29%), initiating therapy (25%), and provision of education/counseling (13.5%) were most common. No differences were found between rankings from pharmacists in Qatar or Canada. Clinical pharmacy interventions are frequent, and those relating to alterations in drug therapy are most common. Interventions align with the perceived importance from pharmacists in both Qatar and Canada. PMID:25076019

  14. Maytham Safar Kuwait University, Kuwait

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Emilio

    Maytham Safar Kuwait University, Kuwait Khaled A. Mahdi Kuwait University, Kuwait Social Networking behavior modeling: qualitative and quantitative measures / Maytham Safar and Khaled A. Mahdi, editors. p. Mahdi, Khaled A., 1970- HM741.S6343 2012 302.3--dc23 2011038336 British Cataloguing in Publication Data

  15. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine biota and coastal sediments from the Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen de Mora; Scott W. Fowler; Imma Tolosa; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Chantal Cattini

    2005-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds was investigated in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman based on marine biota (fish and various bivalves) and coastal sediment collected in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 2000–2001. Several potential organic contaminants from agricultural (e.g., DDT and its breakdown products, lindane, endrin, dieldrin, endosulfan) and industrial (PCBs) sources

  16. Tackling cancer burden in the Middle East: Qatar as an example.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert; Kerr, Karen; Haoudi, Abdelali; Darzi, Ara

    2012-11-01

    Cancer prevalence is increasing in the Middle East, partly because of increased life expectancy and adoption of western lifestyle habits. Suboptimum delivery of health care also contributes to late diagnosis and poor survival of people with cancer. Public awareness of cancer risk is frequently low and misconceptions high, thereby preventing patients from seeking treatment early and constituting a substantial barrier to improvement of cancer outcomes. Screening programmes might have low uptake in Arab populations because of social and health beliefs about cancer. This review outlines the opportunities available to Middle Eastern countries and their emerging economies to learn from global experiences in cancer care, service provision, and research partnerships. The Middle East has begun to develop several health-care transformation programmes. Qatar, in particular, has published a National Health Strategy, in which cancer is one of the main commitments; this Strategy provides the focus of this review. The development of effective health-care strategies and evidence-based medicine directly linked to innovative cancer research is needed to improve cancer care. Although the full extent of the proposed solutions are not necessarily implementable in all Middle Eastern countries, wealthy states can lead derivation of population-specific approaches that could have effects throughout the region. Key challenges are outlined-namely, human capacity and training, subspecialisation of services, building on international cancer research initiatives, and the need for earlier diagnosis and awareness in the population. Countries in the Gulf Region (ie, countries bordering the Persian Gulf, including Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, and Oman) need to address these challenges to be at the forefront of integrated cancer care and research and ensure that the latest innovations and best possible care are delivered to their populations. PMID:23084766

  17. Water Conservation in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

    1993-01-01

    Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

  18. English Teaching Profile: Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Kuwait begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system in secondary, higher, vocational, adult, and teacher education. Also discussed are characteristics and training of English…

  19. Population Genetic Structure of the People of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Hunter-Zinck, Haley; Musharoff, Shaila; Salit, Jacqueline; Al-Ali, Khalid A.; Chouchane, Lotfi; Gohar, Abeer; Matthews, Rebecca; Butler, Marcus W.; Fuller, Jennifer; Hackett, Neil R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    People of the Qatar peninsula represent a relatively recent founding by a small number of families from three tribes of the Arabian Peninsula, Persia, and Oman, with indications of African admixture. To assess the roles of both this founding effect and the customary first-cousin marriages among the ancestral Islamic populations in Qatar's population genetic structure, we obtained and genotyped with Affymetrix 500k SNP arrays DNA samples from 168 self-reported Qatari nationals sampled from Doha, Qatar. Principal components analysis was performed along with samples from the Human Genetic Diversity Project data set, revealing three clear clusters of genotypes whose proximity to other human population samples is consistent with Arabian origin, a more eastern or Persian origin, and individuals with African admixture. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is greater than that of African populations, and runs of homozygosity in some individuals reflect substantial consanguinity. However, the variance in runs of homozygosity is exceptionally high, and the degree of identity-by-descent sharing generally appears to be lower than expected for a population in which nearly half of marriages are between first cousins. Despite the fact that the SNPs of the Affymetrix 500k chip were ascertained with a bias toward SNPs common in Europeans, the data strongly support the notion that the Qatari population could provide a valuable resource for the mapping of genes associated with complex disorders and that tests of pairwise interactions are particularly empowered by populations with elevated LD like the Qatari. PMID:20579625

  20. Gynaecological malignancies in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Ejeckam, G C; Abdulla, F; el-Sakka, M; Dauleh, W; Haseeb, F

    1994-12-01

    Gynaecological malignancies constitute 6.88% (144 of 2092) of all malignant lesions in Qatar over a 15 year period (1979-1993). Cancer of the cervix was the most common with 54.86% followed by ovarian cancer 22.91%, endometrium 15.97%, vulva and vagina 2.75% and 2.08% respectively. Malignancies of the corpus uteri were rare. No tumours of the Fallopian tubes were registered during the study period. Early marriage, frequent coitus started early in life and increasing number of pregnancies were predisposing factors for the genesis of cancer of the cervix. As in some other developing countries, cervical and ovarian neoplasms tend to occur in the younger age group. Germ cell and gonadal stromal tumours were rare in Qatar and this may suggest rarity of these tumours in women of Arab and Indian subcontinent descent. Increasing number of pregnancies seems to protect against ovarian cancer. Abortions and age at menarche do not influence the incidence of gynaecological malignancies. Our findings provide an adequate data base for planning of gynaecological cancer education, screening programmes and resource allocation in Qatar. PMID:7705247

  1. Qatar NGL2 pipeline problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    El-Jundi

    1985-01-01

    Qatar NGL\\/2 plant, commissioned in December, 1979, was designed to process the associated gas from the offshore crude oil fields of Qatar. The dehydrated sour lean gas and wet sour liquids are transported via two separate lines to Umm Said NGL Complex about 120 kms. from the central offshore station. The liquids line 300 mm diameter (12 inch) has suffered

  2. Leisure and Recreation in Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behbehan, Khalifa; Hashem, Jawad

    1996-01-01

    Recent rapid economic and social development has brought more sophisticated leisure-based activities to a wide sector of Kuwait society. This article examines the development of leisure activities, and factors that affect recreation participation by Kuwait's population, noting the relationship between leisure and the government, education, the…

  3. Localized hyper saline waters in Arabian Gulf from desalination activity--an example from South Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Khabbaz, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Desalination is the only means of reliable water supply in most of the Arabian Gulf States including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. Huge desalination capacities are installed on the western margin of the Arabian Gulf contributing to increased salinity off the coast. This paper presents long term salinity observation made near outfall of Az Zour Power and Desalination Plant in South Kuwait. The salinity values peak at around 50 ppt at observation station located in open gulf around 5 km from the outfall of the power and desalination plant. The observation highlights the stress on the local marine environment continued incremental salinity can impair the marine biodiversity in the area. The study suggests that a stringent post construction and operational offshore water quality assessment can help in early detection of potentially complex environmental issues. PMID:21213041

  4. Petroleum geology of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The extremely large oil reserves in Kuwait result from the presence of all conditions necessary for hydrocarbon generation, migration, entrapment, and preservation, which can be ascribed to an exceptionally large trap volume in a simple geological setting and a late expulsion and migration from a huge area of thermally mature source rocks. The Lower and middle Cretaceous sequence of Kuwait is among the world's richest hydrocarbon habitats. The depositional history is dominated by sedimentation on a very stable broad platform characterized by quiescence as reflected by a continuous deposition in a slowly subsiding sea bottom. The reservoirs are composed of thick sandstone of the Wara, Burgan, and Zubar formations. In addition to these, Mauddud Limestone forms a good reservoir in the northern fields and, in the south, the oolitic limestone of the Lower Cretaceous in Greater Burgan, Umm Gudair, and Minagish fields contains substantial hydrocarbon deposits. The sandstone reservoirs are the world's largest over 1,500 ft (450 m) in thickness of perfect reservoir quality and composed of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sands that were deposited in a littoral or on the edge of a deltaic and coastal environment. The source rocks are mostly likely the same reservoir rocks, particularly with downdip more shaly development of widespread thermally mature organic rich facies juxataposed with a carbonate-sandstone shelf.

  5. The Qatar Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubai, K. A.; Parley, N. R.; Bramich, D. M.; Horne, K.; Collier Cameron, A.; West, R. G.; Sorensen, P. M.; Pollacco, D.; Smith, J. C.; Fors, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Qatar Exoplanet Survey (QES) is discovering hot Jupiters and aims to discover hot Saturns and hot Neptunes that transit in front of relatively bright host stars. QES currently operates a robotic wide-angle camera system to identify promising transiting exoplanet candidates among which are the confirmed exoplanets Qatar 1b and 2b. This paper describes the first generation QES instrument, observing strategy, data reduction techniques, and follow-up procedures. The QES cameras in New Mexico complement the SuperWASP cameras in the Canary Islands and South Africa, and we have developed tools to enable the QES images and light curves to be archived and analysed using the same methods developed for the SuperWASP datasets. With its larger aperture, finer pixel scale, and comparable field of view, and with plans to deploy similar systems at two further sites, the QES, in collaboration with SuperWASP, should help to speed the discovery of smaller radius planets transiting bright stars in northern skies.

  6. Wind characteristics of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yusof Sulaiman; Ahmed Mohammed Akaak; Mahdi Abd Wahab; Azmi Zakaria; Z. Abidin Sulaiman; Jamil Suradi

    2002-01-01

    Wind data from four stations in Oman are analyzed. The sites are located at latitudes from 17°N to 23°N and longitudes from 54°E to 59°E with nearly equal elevation (18 m) from sea level. Data are fitted to the Weibull distribution function. Weibull parameters are derived from the empirical cumulative function and used to calculate the mean wind speed and

  7. Hepatoblastomas in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Rabah, Fatma; El-Banna, Nagwa; Bhuyan, Dipali; Al-Ghaithi, Ibrahim; Al-Hinai, Mohamed; Al-Sabahi, Amal; Al-Mashaikhi, Nawal; Beshlawi, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Primary malignant liver tumours account for more than 1% of all paediatric malignancies, with the most common form being hepatoblastomas (HB). Such malignancies among Arab populations have rarely been addressed in the literature. Using data from Oman’s sole national referral centre for childhood solid malignancies, this study aimed to present the nationwide Omani experience with HB over the past 21 years. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of all children with HB who were managed in the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between January 1991 and April 2012. Clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics were examined as well as treatments and outcomes. Results: During the study period, 15 patients with HB were treated. Of these, 10 have survived to date. Nine of the survivors were no longer receiving treatment and one patient still had the disease but was in a stable condition. Of the remaining five patients, three did not survive and two were lost to follow-up. The survival rate among patients who completed therapy was 91%. Conclusion: HB has an excellent prognosis in Oman. The main obstacle to improving outcomes among Omani patients is non-compliance with therapy. PMID:25685391

  8. Health Services Management in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al Mazroei, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess health care delivery system in the State of Qatar and audit it according to the Joint Commission International (JCI) standard. Methods The data for this retrospective descriptive study were taken from the Annual Health Report of the National Health Authority and Hamad Medical Corporation and various additional sources like World Health Organization reports, Annual Report of Saudi Arabia, and Compendium of Health Statistics, UK. Population per physician, per general practitioner, and per hospital bed, and nurses per physician ratio were calculated. Results In 2008, the population per physician in Qatar was 444; the population per general practitioner (GP) was 949; the population per hospital bed was 716; and nurses per physician ratio was 2.6. During the last decade, the population of Qatar has more than doubled, which has resulted in a similar increase in the number of health care providers; moreover, many initiatives launched in cooperation with internationally recognized institutions have greatly improved the quality of the health service. The weighted mean number of visits for 100 population was calculated for the UK and Qatar, taking into consideration the difference in age and sex structure. After comparison with the UK data, population/GP ratio for Qatar should be 1193. Conclusion The Qatar health system has improved in the last decade, but there is still the need for more medical workers in primary health care. PMID:20162749

  9. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  10. A Communications Explosion in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Scrafford

    1976-01-01

    Due to the small size of the country and to available petro dollars, Oman has a unique opportunity to build a completely new telecommunications system. This paper outlines present domestic and international telecommunications networks in Oman and discusses future development programs.

  11. Water demand management in Kuwait

    E-print Network

    Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

  12. Kuwait's 1991 environmental tragedy: lessons learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Mohamed Al-Damkhi; Sabah Ahmed Abdul-Wahab; Nabeel Mansour Al-Khulaifi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990 precipitated an ecological tragedy in the Arabian Gulf region. During the course of the invasion Kuwait suffered severe losses to both its oil industry and its ecological system. The scale of damage was enormous, ranging from destruction as a result of oil fires and spills to the economic deterioration of

  13. John Oman: Orkney’s theologian a contextual study of John Oman’s theology with reference to personal freedom as the unifying principle 

    E-print Network

    McKimmon, Eric George

    2012-06-26

    This thesis is a contextual study of the work of Orkney theologian John Oman (1860- 1939), with reference to personal freedom as the unifying principle. Oman’s early life in Orkney, his philosophical awakening in Edinburgh ...

  14. In Brief: Monitoring ozone in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    Qatar is establishing an ozone and pollution monitoring ground station in West Asia, following discussions between the government, the Qatar Foundation, and the United Nations Environment Programme, according to a 19 November announcement. The station will assist in understanding whether the ozone layer is actually recovering after being damaged by ozone-depleting chemicals. Qatar also announced plans to establish a global center of excellence for research and development of ozone and climate-friendly technology, equipment, and appliances. UNEP executive director Achim Steiner said the announcements by Qatar ``will help plug key data gaps relating to information gathering in West Asia and the Gulf to the benefit of the region and the world.''

  15. How postcapping put Kuwait`s wells back onstream

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D. [ABB Vetco Gray Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In late february 1991, the retreating Iraqi army blew up, or otherwise caused to blowout, some 700 wells in Kuwait. Between March and November, all of the fires were extinguished and the wells were capped. Work began in July 1991 to recomplete the damaged wells with replaced or reworked tubulars and well heads so that production could be resumed. Except for some of the earlier-capped wells into which cement was pumped, thus requiring more extensive downhole work, many of the damaged wells, particularly in Burgan field, were put back into production mode by the procedure described here, which became known as postcapping. This paper describes the equipment and techniques used in postcapping damaged wellheads.

  16. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  17. Daylighting systems for the Kuwait National Museum

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Byoungsoo

    2005-08-29

    Daylight has a deteriorating effect on the museum objects. For this reason, usually museums totally block the daylight. This research is the part of restoration works of Kuwait National Museum (KNM), which was destroyed during the Gulf War in 1990...

  18. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  19. Hemoglobin Electrophoresis and Hemoglobinopathies in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Marouf; T. M. D’souza; A. D. Adekile

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the results of hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE) in the routine laboratory of a tertiary hospital in Kuwait and to review the common types of hemoglobinopathies prevalent in the country. Methods: This was a prospective study of HE performed on 2,386 samples in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, which serves more than 30% of the population of Kuwait, from June 1997

  20. Study of Acid Response of Qatar Carbonate Rocks 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhaohong

    2012-02-14

    reservoirs. Recently papers published from industry discussed the techniques, planning, and optimization of acid stimulation for Qatar carbonate. To the best of author’s knowledge, no study has focused on the acid reaction to Qatar carbonates. The lack...

  1. Developing and Implementing the Qatar Student Assessment System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Broer, Markus; Mariano, Louis T.; Froemel, J. Enrique; Goldman, Charles A.; DaVanzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This research brief summarizes the development of a standards-based student assessment system in Qatar, lessons for policymakers in Qatar and elsewhere, and challenges in aligning the assessment with future changes in the curriculum standards. Analysis of Qatar's standards-based student assessment system, the first in the region, offers several…

  2. The hydrometeorology of Kuwait : characterization and modeling of rainfall distribution

    E-print Network

    Marcella, Marc Pace

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study on the hydrometeorology of Kuwait. The spatial, seasonal, and inter annual variability of Kuwait rainfall is discussed based on rain gauge and satellite datasets. It is found that ...

  3. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade...the Notice regarding the Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published...participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013,...

  4. Invited Review Lunar meteorites from Oman

    E-print Network

    in Antarctica by expeditions sponsored by various governments and only 0.11% of all meteorite stones found among those from Oman than those from Antarctica or Africa. Omani lunar meteorites extend in Antarctica are of lunar origin. Thus, the country of Oman has provided a treasure trove of lunar meteorites

  5. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ?15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  6. The Burden of Asthma in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Nasser; Habibulla, Zulfikar; Bhatnagar, Malvika; Al-Lawati, Nabil; Al-Mahrouqi, Yaqoub

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common lung disease worldwide, although its prevalence varies from country to country. Oman is ranked in the intermediate range based on results from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. A 2009 study revealed that the majority of asthmatic patients in Oman reported both daytime and nocturnal symptoms, while 30% of adults and 52% of children reported absences from work or school due to their symptoms. Despite these findings, there is little data available on the economic burden of asthma in Oman. The only accessible information is from a 2013 study which concluded that Oman’s highest asthma-related costs were attributable to inpatient (55%) and emergency room (25%) visits, while asthma medications contributed to less than 1% of the financial toll. These results indicate a low level of asthma control in Oman, placing a large economic burden on healthcare providers. Therefore, educating asthmatic patients and their families should be prioritised in order to improve the management and related costs of this disease within Oman.

  7. Indirect Effects of Salinity and Temperature on Kuwait’s Shrimp Stocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Marcus Bishop; Weizhong Chen; Adel Hasan Alsaffar; Hussain Mahmoud Al-Foudari

    Discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab is believed to be a dominating component of the northern Arabian Gulf’s ecology and largely\\u000a responsible for productivity of Kuwait’s fisheries. With major construction of dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in\\u000a Turkey, river discharge has been substantially reduced, and flooding essentially eliminated. We attempted to relate river\\u000a flow and shrimp landings indirectly by

  8. Liberal arts education in Qatar: intercultural perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Rostron

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to sketch a historical, cultural and social background of recent educational developments in Qatar, briefly review the traditions of western liberal arts education with its goals and teaching and learning methodologies, explain its benefits and their relevance to Muslim Qatari students of universities in Education City in Doha, and mention potential disadvantages of a liberal

  9. Liberal Arts Education in Qatar: Intercultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostron, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to sketch a historical, cultural and social background of recent educational developments in Qatar, briefly review the traditions of western liberal arts education with its goals and teaching and learning methodologies, explain its benefits and their relevance to Muslim Qatari students of universities in Education City in…

  10. Teaching across Cultures: Canada and Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prowse, Jacqueline; Goddard, J. Tim

    2010-01-01

    Findings from a comparative case study conducted in Canada and Qatar are presented in this article. The study examined the cultural context of a transnational post-secondary program offered by the Faculty of Business at a Canadian college, with campuses located in both St. John's and Doha. The instructors' perceptions of their students' cultures…

  11. Political Advertising in Kuwait A Functional Analysis

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    Political Advertising in Kuwait A Functional Analysis Jasem Alqaseer Abstract: Most political advertising studies focus on the U.S. or other western democracies like the U.K. and other European countries (Kaid, 2006). In general, political advertising studies focused on the content of political advertising

  12. New Perspectives on Teacher Education in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharaf, Adel

    2006-01-01

    This brief paper is part of a larger research project which examined the historical background of teaching in the Kuwaiti educational system before and after the Gulf War in 1990 in order to propose a new perspective on teacher education in Kuwait, particularly with regard to religious education. The author is interested in whether others have a…

  13. Dietary intake of organophosphate pesticides in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wajih N Sawaya; Fawzia A Al-Awadhi; Talat Saeed; Ali Al-Omair; Adnan Husain; Nissar Ahmad; Husam Al-Omirah; Sameer Al-Zenki; Sherif Khalafawi; Jamla Al-Otaibi; Hanan Al-Amiri

    2000-01-01

    The State of Kuwait, in cooperation with the U.S. FDA, conducted a total diet study (TDS) to estimate pesticide intake by the population. The organophosphate (OP) pesticide levels in 139 food items, constituting the TDS core list, are reported here. The TDS core food list was established through a nationwide food consumption survey. All foods were prepared as eaten, and

  14. Daylighting systems for the Kuwait National Museum 

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Byoungsoo

    2005-08-29

    view of southeast gallery in Building 3 after the Gulf War.............. 6 4 Hourly temperature and solar radiation......................................................... 8 5 Energy-10 weather file summery for Kuwait... ............................................... 45 43 Daylight Factor at the center of the southeast facing gallery (Overcast sky) ............................................................................................... 48 44 Daylight Factor at the center...

  15. Science self-beliefs and science achievement of adolescents in Gulf Cooperation Council countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaljan Areepattamannil

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the predictive effects of science self?beliefs on science achievement for 24,680 13?year?old students from Gulf Cooperation Council member countries – Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates – who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. The performance of adolescent students in Qatar and Saudi Arabia on the

  16. After the oil boom: The holiday ends in the gulf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zanoyan

    1995-01-01

    The most unmanageable risk facing American interests in the Persian Gulf is the slow but sure decay of the economic and political structure of the United States` key regional allies. They are the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states: Saudia Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). External threats to these friendly governments and the direct risks

  17. The unstable Gulf, Threats from within

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Martin offers an analysis of disputes along the borders of countries in the Persian Gulf region and a description of the religious, ethnic, and ideological tensions among the peoples. The pros and cons of various options for protecting American interests are outlined. The discussion covers Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, North and South Yemen, Oman, Soudi Arabia, U.A.E., Bahrain, and Qatar.

  18. Petroleum developments in Middle East countries in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O. (Mobile Oil Corp., New York, NY); Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries in 1979 totaled 7,779,619,000 bbl at an average rate of 21,314,024 b/d, up 0.4% from 1978. Principal increases were in Iraq, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, and Saudi Arabia. Significant new discoveries were made in Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Abu Dhabi. New areas were explored in Oman, Syria, offshore South Yemen, Dubai, and Qatar.

  19. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Hatch, G.C.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1982 totaled 4,499,464,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,162,915 BOPD), down 21.5% from 1981. Increases were in Iraq, Iran, and Oman. Significant decreases occurred in Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were reported in Oman, Syria, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

  20. Diurnal and nocturnal catchability of Kuwait's commercial shrimps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf

    2008-01-01

    In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight

  1. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  2. Mycotoxins in Poultry Feed in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. U. Beg; M. Al-Mutairi; K. R. Beg; H. M. Al-Mazeedi; L. N. Ali; T. Saeed

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted at a poultry feed production unit in Kuwait for mycotoxin contamination in the samples of yellow maize,\\u000a soybean meal, wheat bran used as raw material and the poultry feed prepared for broiler starter, broiler finisher, and layer\\u000a mash. Individual aflatoxins were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity column purification.\\u000a Repeated analysis revealed average aflatoxin concentration

  3. Antecedents of ostentatious consumption in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hernan E. Riquelme; Rosa E. Rios; Nadia Al-Sharhan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of status-oriented Muslim consumers in Kuwait. More specifically, to study how personality traits such as materialism, susceptibility to social influence and self-monitoring explain status consumption. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of 433 consumers provided information on their status consumption orientation and the personality traits under study. Respondents expressed their

  4. New Cultures of Critical Reflection in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiff, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We speak about the need for critical reflection on practice, but what do we do when we do it; and how do we explain how and why we should do it? This paper explores these issues, and itself acts as the site for an exploration and explanation of what it means to be critically reflective. Drawing on recent research in Qatar, I give an account of how…

  5. School Oral Health Program in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Jitendra; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Nazar, Huda

    2014-01-01

    The School Oral Health Program (SOHP), Kuwait, is a joint venture between the Ministry of Health, Kuwait, and Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Mass., USA. This program provides oral health education, prevention and treatment to almost 280,000 public school children in Kuwait. Services are delivered through a system of center- and school-based clinics and preventive mobile teams. One of the recent developments is the effective use of portable dental units for the delivery of preventive care to children in schools without the need for children to go to dental clinics. Preventive procedures performed under this program are the biannual application of fluoride varnish and the placement of pit and fissure sealants on newly erupted permanent molars and premolars. During recent years, the SOHP has improved its coverage of children, with prevention up to 80%. This has resulted in a considerable reduction in treatment needs, which is evident from the reduced number of composite restorations performed under this program during the last 6 years. This indicates that the disease level is on a decline, which can be confirmed from the results of the ongoing National Oral Health Survey on Kuwaiti school children. PMID:24335161

  6. Epidemiological review of scorpion stings in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Alkahlout, Baha H.; Abid, Muhammad M.; Kasim, Mohammad M.; Haneef, Shumaila M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review the epidemiology of scorpion sting in Qatar, to explore both the clinical significance, and the role of the emergency department (ED) in the management of such cases. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of all scorpion sting cases presented to the ED of Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar between October 2010 and May 2013. Results: A total of 111 cases of scorpion stings were reviewed, 81 (72.9%) were males and 30 (27.1%) were females, with a mean age of 38 years. Localized pain was the most frequent presenting complaint (89 [80.2%]), whereas localized redness (44 [39.6%]) and swelling (38 [34.2%]) were the most common clinical signs. Abroug’s classification was used, and all cases were found to be class I. All patients received symptomatic treatment and were sent home. Conclusion: Scorpion sting problem in Qatar has a low clinical significance. Data from such studies should be utilized to create more specific (local) management guidelines, which should be more efficient with more rational utilization of ED resources. PMID:26108591

  7. Texas A&M University at Qatar Petroleum Engineering Program

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    available for Petrophysics/Formation Evaluation, Production Engineering, Reservoir Engineering The Petroleum and formation evaluation, production engineering, or reservoir fluids for the petroleum engineering program; (21 Texas A&M University at Qatar Petroleum Engineering Program Education City, Doha, Qatar Positions

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN QATAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulla S. Al-Khulaifi

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth has attracted a great deal of attention among economists and policy makers alike. The economy of Qatar did not receive much attention in the empirical literature. This study attempts at filling this gap in economic literature, and examines the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth in Qatar for the period

  9. Water issues in Kuwait: a future sustainable vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    Kuwait, an arid country, has an acute lack of natural groundwater resources, an increasing demand for water supply, but no clear plan for water management. On this basis, a future water crisis will be inevitable. This paper offers proposals that could lead to the sustainable management of water resources in Kuwait. The objective should be less the increase of supply

  10. Practice and Opinion towards Disposal of Unused Medication in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eman A. Abahussain; Douglas E. Ball; Wandikayi C. Matowe

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the attitude and practice of Kuwaiti patients in Kuwait with regard to safe disposal of unwanted medicines. Subjects and Methods: Three-hundred patients or their family members waiting for prescriptions at public general hospitals in Kuwait completed a questionnaire soliciting their practice with regard to medication use and disposal, and their opinion

  11. Autosomal recessive disorders among Arabs: an overview from Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A S Teebi

    1994-01-01

    Kuwait has a cosmopolitan population of 1.7 million, mostly Arabs. This population is a mosaic of large and small minorities representing most Arab communities. In general, Kuwait's population is characterized by a rapid rate of growth, large family size, high rates of consanguineous marriages within the Arab communities with low frequency of intermarriage between them, and the presence of genetic

  12. Modern E&P data management in Kuwait Oil Company

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Haveluck Harrison; Fadel Safar

    2004-01-01

    An enormous amount of petrotechnical data has been acquired during the 50 years of oil exploration and production (E&P) in Kuwait. More and more data continues and will continue to flow in on a daily basis, as Kuwait remains a major oil producer with reserve expected to last well into the next century. The data classes range from seismic, geological,

  13. An Attempt to Individualize the Reading Skill at Kuwait University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharma, Nayef N.

    1981-01-01

    Describes English as a second language situation in Kuwait and use of the Science Research Associates (SRA) Reading Laboratory in an experiment carried out at Kuwait University attempting to individualize English reading skills of post secondary school level students. Results show the Reading Laboratory should be used for supplemental, not basic…

  14. Planning to rescue Kuwait's oil wells: an environmental issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Mohamed Al-Damkhi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to review the reasons for which Saddam's regime intended to destroy and eliminate Kuwait's entire oil infrastructure before and after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The underestimation of oil wells that would be torched by Iraqi forces is also discussed in this paper. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To approach the scope of this paper, the intentions and

  15. Temporal epidemiology of microfilaraemia among migrant workers entering Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeed Akhtar; Hameed GHH Mohammad; Edwin Michael

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is paucity of published data on the microfilarial infection among migrants from endemic countries entering Kuwait. The primary objectives of this study were to use routine health surveillance data to i) to estimate the prevalence of microfilarial infection in migrant workers to Kuwait and ii) to determine the occurrence of any time trends in the proportions of microfilaria

  16. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A.; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Shaikh, Hala A.; Morsi, Magdi; Mohsin, Nabil; Khandekar, Rajiv B.; Al-Lawati, Hawra J.; Bayoumi, Riad A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of diabetes mellitus over the past two decades in Oman, particularly in terms of its prevalence and incidence. In addition, the study sought to estimate the future incidence of diabetes in Oman. Methods: Three national and three regional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2010 were analysed to obtain the age-adjusted prevalence and undiagnosed proportion of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Omani subjects aged ?20 years. Diabetes mellitus registers and published studies were used to determine incidence rates of both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM in Oman. Linear regression was used to determine trends and projections for diabetes in 2050. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM in Oman varied from 10.4% to 21.1%, while the highest prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was found in males (35.1%). In comparison to men, higher incidence rates of T2DM were found in women (2.7 cases compared to 2.3 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively). No significant trends were observed for the prevalence or incidence of T2DM in both genders. Undiagnosed T2DM was more common in men (range: 33–68%) than women (range: 27–53%). The results of this study show that by 2050, there will be an estimated 350,000 people with T2DM living in Oman (a 174% increase compared to estimates for 2015). Conclusion: Health authorities need to prioritise diabetes prevention and control in order to prevent or delay long-term complications and avert a potential epidemic of diabetes in Oman.

  17. Lead in drinking water from water coolers and in fingernails from subjects in Kuwait City, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul-Hadi Bu-Olayan; Sami N. Al-Yakoob; Shaker Alhazeem

    1996-01-01

    In response to concerns raised by the Kuwait Ministry of Public Health (KMPH) about the high lead levels in some commercial water coolers, samples of drinking water and fingernails were collected from 129 healthy donors (77 males and 52 females) during the period December 1994–February 1995. The mean nail lead levels for females and males were 5.50 ± 7.76 and

  18. Potential Zoonotic Trematodes Recovered in Stray Cats from Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    El-Azazy, Osama Mohamed ElShfei; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud Mohamed Ibrahim; Khalil, Amal Iskander; Al-Batel, Maha Khaled; Majeed, Qais Abdulrazak Habeeb; Henedi, Adawia Abdul-Ruhman; Tahrani, Laila Mohamed Azad

    2015-01-01

    Stray cats are a common feature roaming the streets and alleys of Kuwait; they could be a source of parasites, including trematodes, that affect humans. A survey was conducted to identify feline trematodes and throw the light on their public health significance in Kuwait. Out of 240 stray cats trapped from different localities of Kuwait from June 2011 to May 2012, 59 (24.6%) were found to be infected with 14 species of trematodes. The most common were trematodes of the genus Heterophyes, particularly H. heterophyes and H. dispar that were found in respectively 15.8% and 10.8% of the cats examined. Other trematodes recorded, with lower prevalences, were Heterophyes nocens (2.9%), Haplorchis taichui (3.8%), Stictodora sawakinensis (2.1%), Stellantchasmus falcatus (1.6%), Echinochasmus japonicus (1.6%), and Mesostephanus dottrensi (1.3%). Centrocestus cuspidatus, Galactosomum fregatae, Ascocotyle sp., Mesostephanus appendiculatus, Haplorchis yokogawai, and Pygidiopsis genata showed the lowest prevalence (0.4%) and intensity. The majority of the trematodes are recorded for the first time in Kuwait and even in the Gulf region. The study reveals that stray cats are good indicators of fish-borne trematodes in the environment. As all trematodes recovered are zoonotic, their significance to public health should be considred. PMID:26174821

  19. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  20. Mapping oceanic ridge segments in Oman ophiolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nicolas; F. Boudier

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of detailed mapping of high-temperature flow structures in the mantle and crust of two massifs of the Oman ophiolite. In these massifs, the dominant structures, including large-scale folds, shear zones, and fractures, were generated at elevated temperatures and are ascribed to the ridge or ridge environment activity; this means that the structural maps presented can

  1. Disclosure of Medical Errors in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Norrish, Mark I. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to provide insight into the preferences for and perceptions of medical error disclosure (MED) by members of the public in Oman. Methods: Between January and June 2012, an online survey was used to collect responses from 205 members of the public across five governorates of Oman. Results: A disclosure gap was revealed between the respondents’ preferences for MED and perceived current MED practices in Oman. This disclosure gap extended to both the type of error and the person most likely to disclose the error. Errors resulting in patient harm were found to have a strong influence on individuals’ perceived quality of care. In addition, full disclosure was found to be highly valued by respondents and able to mitigate for a perceived lack of care in cases where medical errors led to damages. Conclusion: The perceived disclosure gap between respondents’ MED preferences and perceptions of current MED practices in Oman needs to be addressed in order to increase public confidence in the national health care system.

  2. The Pattern of Female Nuptiality in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul; Dorvlo, Atsu S.; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine Omani patterns of female nuptiality, including the timing of marriage and determinants of age at a woman’s first marriage. Methods: The study utilised data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods, including logistic regression analysis, were used for data analysis. Results: One of the most important aspects of the marriage pattern in Oman is the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, as more than half (52%) of the total marriages in Oman are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. About 11% of the marriages are polygynous. Early and universal marriage is still highly prevalent in Oman. Three-quarters (75%) of married women respondents aged 20–44 years were married by age 20, with their median age at their first wedding being 16 years. However, women’s average age upon marriage is gradually increasing. The change is especially apparent in more recent marriages or among younger cohorts of women, and for certain socio-cultural groups. Multivariate analysis identified female education, age cohort, residential status, region of residence, types of marriage, and employment as strong predictors of Omani women’s age at marriage. Conclusion: The growing number of young adults, accompanied by their tendency to delay marriage, may have serious demographic, social, economic, and political ramifications for Oman, highlighting the need to understand the new situation of youth, their unique characteristics, and their interests and demands. Culturally appropriate policies need to be implemented to address the issues and challenges of unmarried young adults. PMID:23573380

  3. Disposal of unwanted medicines from households in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eman A. Abahussain; Douglas E. Ball

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To test the effectiveness of a simple educational intervention to encourage households to return unwanted medicines via a\\u000a municipal collection program and to investigate the most common sources and types of unwanted medicines in the home.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Households in Kuwait City, Kuwait.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A convenience sample of 200 households in Kuwait received an educational letter and special plastic bags in which to

  4. Brucellosis in Qatar: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rahil, Ali Ibrahim; Othman, Muftah; Ibrahim, Walid; Mohamed, Mohamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Background: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications and treatment of brucellosis in the State of Qatar. Methods: The medical records of patients in Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar were reviewed from January 2000 to December 2006. History, various socio-demographic features, clinical and biochemical parameters, therapeutic features, and complications were retrospectively collected from the patient database. Results: Around three quarters of the study population were males. History of raw milk consumption and animal contact were seen in 41.7% and 12.5% respectively. The main presenting features of our cohort were fever, chills and sweating (93.1%, 62.5% and 58.3% respectively). Positive antibody titre (>1:160) was detected in 95.8% and positive blood culture was reported in 63.9% of the cohort. Splenomegaly was observed in 19.4%, hepatomegaly in 15.3% and lymphadenopathy in 9.7% of the cases. Approximately half of our patients were treated with a combination of doxycycline and streptomycine and nearly one quarter received doxycycline and rifampicine combination therapy. Conclusions: Brucellosis is an important public health problem worldwide. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It may affect any organ system and can present with a variety of clinical features. Diagnosis of brucellosis requires serological tests with or without blood culture. Treatment with at least two antibiotics for six weeks or more appears to be effective. PMID:25320689

  5. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  6. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2015-05-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman's Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman's LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman. PMID:26052449

  7. Isolation of MERS coronavirus from a dromedary camel, Qatar, 2014.

    PubMed

    Raj, V Stalin; Farag, Elmoubasher A B A; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Lamers, Mart M; Pas, Suzan D; Voermans, Jolanda; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Al-Romaihi, Hamad E; AlHajri, Mohd M; El-Sayed, Ahmed M; Mohran, Khaled A; Ghobashy, Hazem; Alhajri, Farhoud; Al-Thani, Mohamed; Al-Marri, Salih A; El-Maghraby, Mamdouh M; Koopmans, Marion P G; Haagmans, Bart L

    2014-08-01

    We obtained the full genome of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a camel in Qatar. This virus is highly similar to the human England/Qatar 1 virus isolated in 2012. The MERS-CoV from the camel efficiently replicated in human cells, providing further evidence for the zoonotic potential of MERS-CoV from camels. PMID:25075761

  8. Isolation of MERS Coronavirus from a Dromedary Camel, Qatar, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Raj, V. Stalin; Farag, Elmoubasher A.B.A.; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Lamers, Mart M.; Pas, Suzan D.; Voermans, Jolanda; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Al-Romaihi, Hamad E.; El-Sayed, Ahmed M.; Mohran, Khaled A.; Ghobashy, Hazem; Alhajri, Farhoud; Al-Thani, Mohamed; Al-Marri, Salih A.; El-Maghraby, Mamdouh M.; Koopmans, Marion P.G.

    2014-01-01

    We obtained the full genome of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a camel in Qatar. This virus is highly similar to the human England/Qatar 1 virus isolated in 2012. The MERS-CoV from the camel efficiently replicated in human cells, providing further evidence for the zoonotic potential of MERS-CoV from camels. PMID:25075761

  9. Analysis of sustainable water supply options for Kuwait

    E-print Network

    Murtaugh, Katharine A. (Katharine Ann)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis considers several options for improving the sustainability of Kuwait's water supply system. The country currently relies heavily on desalination and brackish groundwater extraction. The options considered for ...

  10. A preliminary report on the distribution of lizards in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Castilla, Aurora M; Valdeón, Aitor; Gosá, Alberto; Al-Jaidah, Noora; Alkuwary, Ali; Saifelnasr, Essam O. H.; Mas-Peinado, Paloma; Richer, Renee; Al-Hemaidi, Ahmad Amer Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have updated the list of the lizard species present in Qatar and produced the first distribution maps based on two field surveys in 2012 and 2013. We used the QND95/Qatar National Grid with a grid of 10 × 10 km squares for mapping. Our results show the occurrence of 21 lizard species in Qatar, from the 15 species indicated in the last biodiversity report conducted in 2004. The most abundant family found in Qatar is Gekkonidae with nine species (Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum, Hemidactylus robustus, H. flaviviridis, H. persicus, Stenodactylus arabicus, S. slevini, S. doriae, Pseudoceramodactylus khobarensis), followed by Lacertidae with four species (Acanthodactylus schmidti, A. opheodurus, Mesalina brevirostris, M. adramitana), Agamidae with three species (Trapelus flavimaculatus, Uromastyx aegyptia, Phrynocephalus arabicus), Scincidae with two species (Scincus mitranus, Trachylepis septemtaeniata), and Varanidae (Varanus griseus), Sphaerodactylidae (Pristurus rupestris) and Trogonophiidae (Diplometopon zarudnyi) with one species each. The species richness fluctuated largely across Qatar between one and eleven species per grid square. We believe that the lizard fauna records in Qatar are still incomplete and that additional studies are required. However, our study here fills a gap concerning lizard biodiversity knowledge in the Gulf Region. PMID:24493961

  11. Desert Wadis and Smoke from Kuwait Oil Fires, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires obscures the view of the desert wadis, Saudi Arabia (29.5N, 42.5E). During the brief Gulf war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing smoke and ash for hundreds of miles in many directions depending on the altitude, time of year and the prevailing winds.

  12. The Kuwait oil fires as seen by Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    1992-09-01

    A mosaic of two Landsat thematic mapper images acquired May 30, 1991, reveals a dark smoke plume 30-60 km wide extending hundreds of kilometers south of Kuwait City along the Persian Gulf. Smoke coming from the Raudhatain and Sabriyah oil fields blew across the Gulf of Kuwait and over Kuwait City, joined with smoke from the Greater Burgan and Minagish fields, and continued southward over smaller villages and regions of desert agriculture consisting of hundreds of axially irrigated fields in both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. One agricultural region in Kuwait was completely obscured by the smoke. The light colored limestone gravel and sand surface was darkened by oil lakes near the wells, and by oil drizzling out of the plume downwind of the wells. Most fires produced either a light or dark plume, and the separate plumes mixed to form a combined plume much darker than the land surface, but slightly more reflective than the Gulf waters. A few of the hottest fires had no visible plume, and are presumably associated with methane combustion. The last of the Kuwait fires was reportedly extinguished in November of 1991. Continued monitoring is needed to assess the impact of emissions from both burning and nonburning oil wells on the region's climate, as well as on the agriculture, fishing, and other activities essential to life in the region.

  13. Increasing Well Productivity in Gas Condensate Wells in Qatar's North Field 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Nathan

    2010-07-14

    INCREASING WELL PRODUCTIVITY IN GAS CONDENSATE WELLS IN QATAR?S NORTH FIELD A Thesis by NATHAN MILLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering INCREASING WELL PRODUCTIVITY IN GAS CONDENSATE WELLS IN QATAR?S NORTH FIELD A Thesis by NATHAN MILLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  14. Qatar's School Transportation System: Supporting Safety, Efficiency, and Service Quality. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Keith; Younossi, Obaid; Al-Dafa, Maryah; Culbertson, Shelly; Mattock, Michael G.; Light, Thomas; Rohr, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In consideration of the many challenges associated with Qatar's continued growth and demographic changes, the government of Qatar is interested in updating its school transportation system (STS). This volume assesses the perspectives of parents and school administrators on Qatar's STS, identifies a vision and goals for the STS, reviews…

  15. The Oman Ophiolite from Detachment to Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    An overview model is presented accounting for older and up-dated published data. Detachment of the Oman ophiolite exhumed a 20 km thick fragment of oceanic lithosphere 500 x 100 km2 in extension. This detachment occurred at margin of a fast spreading NeoTethyan Ocean, at P/T conditions ~900°C-200 MPa, 95-95.5 Ma ago. The Hawasinah nappes underlying the ophiolite at present, represent the stacking of the sedimentary cover deposited on the Arabian continental margin, thinned and rifted since Permian time, and extending more than 300 km north from the present shore. The sedimentary record points to the collapse of the continental basement at Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, 140 Ma ago. Subduction of the rifted continental margin is inferred, as recorded in the Saih Hatat high-pressure rocks whose metamorphic age 80-140 Ma is discussed, as well as the vergence of related subduction. Late Cretaceous time 85-70 Ma marks the emplacement of the Oman ophiolite in the Muti Basin, to its present position inland the Permo-Triassic continental margin. These episodes are not similarly recorded in the northern part of the Oman Mountains, that do not expose any HP metamorphic belt, but granulitic crustal rocks and large development of syn-obduction non-MORB magmatism in the ophiolite crustal section. Collision is achieved at the northern tip, the Musandam area, linked to the opening of the Gulf of Aden 25 Ma ago, and northward drift of the Arabian Plate.

  16. Cyanobacterial Soil Crust Distribution in the State of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, R. A.; Anchassi, D.; El Assad, I.; El Matbouly, M.; Fares, F.; Metcalf, J.; Makki, I.

    2009-12-01

    Despite the importance of biological soils crusts (BSCs) to ecosystem function, the distribution of BSCs in Qatar have not been documented. We sought to document terrestrial BSC coverage for the State of Qatar using a transect system to sample 91 (10 km X 10 km) blocks accounting for 80% of the landmass of the country. Smooth crusts were found to contain Microcoleus species, while hypolithic communities had unicellular cyanobacteria and filamentous Oscillatoriaceae. Biological soil crust coverage ranged from 0% to 87%, with a gradient in coverage from north to south. This gradient correlated with corresponding patterns of rainfall, soil type and topographical features. Overall country coverage is 26% comparable to value found in the Kalahari desert in southern Africa and other desert regions. The predominance of high BSC coverage areas in the northern half of Qatar may be attributed to soil composition and water availability. Qatar is characterized by shallow, natural depressions. These depressions predominate in the northern half of Qatar and may facilitate BSC development by affecting soil composition and water pooling. The southern area of the country shows little BSC coverage, which may be attributed to the predominance of sand (i.e. mobile surface substrate) which inhibits the formation of BSCs. The southwestern area of Qatar is characterized by an alluvial fan system with quartz pebbles being common. While BSC mat formation was not common in these areas, hypolithic cyanobacteria located on quartz was present. The current rate of development and development related disturbance in Qatar may threaten biological soil crusts, with larger ecosystem impacts. Disturbance of the soil surface has been shown to destroy current BSCs and inhibit the development of new BSCs. Destruction of BSC organisms is important to consider since they provide both carbon and nitrogen which support the larger plant community and reduce wind and water erosion. In addition, disturbance of the soil during construction activities may result in aerosolization of cyanobacteria and associated toxins.

  17. Geochemical variability of the Oman ophiolite lavas: Relationship with spatial distribution and paleomagnetic

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Geochemical variability of the Oman ophiolite lavas: Relationship with spatial distribution in the extrusive section of the Oman ophiolite was determined by inductively coupled plasma-source mass lavas types in Oman. Most of the Oman ophiolite extrusive sequence is composed of lavas of composition

  18. INFECTIOUS AND TROPICAL DISEASES IN OMAN: A REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EUAN M. SCRIMGEOUR; FIRDOSI R. MEHTA; ALI JAFFER; MOHAMMED SULEIMAN

    1999-01-01

    Oman is generally hot and dry, but the Salalah region in southern Dhofar province is relatively cool and rainy during the summer monsoon, and has a distinctive pattern of infection. Important, notifiable infections in Oman include tuberculosis, brucellosis (endemic in Dhofar), acute gastroenteritis, and viral hepatitis: 4.9% of the adults are seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen and approximately 1.2%

  19. The Emergence of Libraries in the Sultanate of Oman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Bakri Musa A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes developments in library services that took place in Oman from 1970-90 and discusses the current status of library development. Topics discussed include the rapid social and economic development in Oman, the lack of human and physical resources, the lack of a national library, and deficiencies in school libraries. (five references) (LRW)

  20. Masirah Graben, Oman: A hidden Cretaceous rift basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Beauchamp; A. C. Ries; M. P. Coward

    1995-01-01

    Reflection seismic data, well data, geochemical data, and surface geology suggest that a Cretaceous rift basin exists beneath the thrusted allochthonous sedimentary sequence of the Masirah graben, Oman. The Masirah graben is located east of the Huqf uplift, parallel to the southern coast of Oman. The eastern side of the northeast-trending Huqf anticlinorium is bounded by an extensional fault system

  1. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  2. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  3. Comparative study of potable and mineral waters available in the State of Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalefa M. Al Fraij; Mohammed K. Abd El Aleem; Hamad Al Ajmy

    1999-01-01

    Potable water in Kuwait is produced by desalination of seawater in multistage flash desalination (MSF) plants. In this study the quality of potable water in Kuwait from different sources and stations along the distribution system to the end consumers was examined. Additionally, the quality of more than 20 types of bottled mineral waters available in Kuwait was also examined. Both

  4. Characterizing surface temperature and clarity of Kuwait's seawaters using remotely sensed measurements and GIS analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad M. M. Alsahli

    2009-01-01

    Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The spatial and temporal distributions of these important water characteristics should be well understood to obtain a better knowledge about this productive coastal environment. The aim of this project was therefore to study the spatial and temporal distributions of: Kuwait SST

  5. Aquifer characteristics and water quality of Miocene–Pleistocene sediments, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Al-Ruwaih; H. A. Qabazard

    2005-01-01

    Al-Atraf is one of the water well fields of Kuwait supplying Kuwait City with the brackish groundwater obtained from the Kuwait Group aquifer of Miocene–Pleistocene age. The study determined the hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteristics of the groundwater in order to identify the major chemical processes that influence the groundwater quality of the study area. The results of the aquifer test

  6. Mapping the Oman Ophiolite using TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ophiolite terrains, considered to be the onland occurrences of oceanic crust, host a number of types of mineral deposits: volcanogenic massive sulfides, podiform chromite, and asbestos. Thematic Mapper data for the Semail Ophiolite in Oman were used to separate and map ultramafic lithologies hosting these deposits, including identification of the components of the extrusive volcanic sequence, mapping of serpentinization due to various tectonic processes, and direct identification of gossans. Thematic Mapper data were found to be extremely effective for mapping in this terrain due to the excellent spatial resolution and the presence of spectral bands which allow separation of the pertinent mineralogically caused spectral features associated with the rock types of interest.

  7. Energy Conservation Program in Kuwait: A Local Perspective 

    E-print Network

    Hajiah, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    . 2. KUWAIT’S ENERGY SCENARIO 2.1 A Local Background A salient climatic feature of Kuwait and the other countries in the Gulf region is the hot and long summer period of seven months that extends from April to October with temperatures.... 5200 5700 6200 6700 7200 7700 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415161718192021222324 P o w e r D e m a n d ( M W ) 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 P o w e r / P e a k P o w e r Peak Demand (MW) Power/ Peak Power Hours of the Day (h) Hours...

  8. Oil slicks off the coast of Qatar, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A detailed view the port facility of Musay'id on the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf (25.0N, 52.5E). Part of a large oil spill seen as a dark toned mass in the water, covering much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf, has moved offshore in this scene. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment commonly occur in oil tanker operations.

  9. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam Determinations On...imports from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded...Governments of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and...

  10. Measuring Secondhand Smoke in Muscat, Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A.; Al-Thuhli, Yusuf; Qureshi, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to measure exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and assess venue compliance with the municipal Law against smoking indoors in public places in Muscat, Oman. Methods: Following the selection of 30 public indoor venues within the Muscat governorate, the concentration of suspended SHS particulate matter (PM2.5) in the venues’ indoor air was measured throughout July and August 2010. Results: Almost all of the venues were found to be compliant with the smoke-free municipal, with the exception of a café that served waterpipes for smoking indoors. The concentration of PM2.5 in this venue showed an average level of 256 µg/m3 which was 64 times the level of that found in the non-smoking venues. Conclusion: Aside from one café, the majority of the assessed indoor public venues abided by the smoke-free municipal law. However, the enforcement of policies banning smoking in indoor public recreational venues should be re-examined in order to protect member of the public in Oman from exposure to SHS.

  11. A Perspective on Student Learning Outcome Assessment at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Shaikha Jabor; Abdelmoneim, Ali; Daoud, Khaled; Cherif, Adel; Moukarzel, Dalal

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a unique perspective on the student learning outcome assessment process as adopted and implemented at Qatar University from 2006 to 2012. The progress of the student learning outcome assessment and continuous improvement efforts at the university and the initiatives taken to establish a culture of assessment and evidence-based…

  12. Impact of noncommunicable diseases in the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kaabi, Salma Khalaf; Atherton, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study, commissioned by the Supreme Council of Health in the State of Qatar, focuses on the main noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) globally and regionally, in order to gauge their potential impact on Qatar. The research shows that the Gulf Cooperation Council is projected to be affected dramatically by NCDs in the coming years. The top five NCDs that will affect Qatar in terms of economic burden and disability-adjusted life years are cardiovascular diseases, mental health and behavioral disorders, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Whilst these diseases have diverse effects on patients, their causes can be traced to “… common lifestyle-related, or behavioral, risk factors such as tobacco use, a diet heavy in fat, and physical inactivity”. The total direct and indirect costs to the Gulf Cooperation Council calculated for the above five NCDs were $36.2 billion in 2013, which equates to 150% of the officially recorded annual health care expenditure. If this trajectory is maintained, spending per head of population in Qatar will reach $2,778 by 2022. These figures demonstrate not only the potential financial impact of the main NCDs, but also give an idea of how the current health system is working to address them. PMID:26170702

  13. Teacher Retention Problem in Girls Primary Schools in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al. Sabbagh, Samah; Al. Megbali, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Qatar has recently faced a tremendous reform in education that requires changes in many domains and causes a lot of challenges. A very serious challenge is teachers' retention where many teachers tend to leave their schools looking for new jobs. In independent schools as well as governmental schools, teachers switch jobs and therefore schools…

  14. Redesigning Qatar's Post-Secondary Scholarship System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    At the request of Qatar's Supreme Education Council (SEC), RAND researchers devised a new set of scholarship programs for college-bound Qatari students and proposed the formation of an institute to manage the programs and oversee other post-secondary functions. The suggested system balanced support for local institutions of higher learning with…

  15. PATIENTS’ SATISFACTION WITH PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS SERVICES IN KUWAIT CITY, KUWAIT

    PubMed Central

    Al-Doghaither, Abdullah H.; Abdelrhman, Badreldin M.; Saeed, Abdalla A.W.; Al-Kamil, Abdullah A.; Majzoub, Mohieldin M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Assessment of patient satisfaction offers a way of optimizing health status and prevents waste of medical resources. The direct measurement of patient satisfaction is a new phenomenon in Kuwait. Objective: Assess patient satisfaction with respect to primary health care services and study any patterns of association of sociodemographic variables on the patient satisfaction level. Methods: The sample consisted of 301 patients selected systematically from five primary health care centers to represent various geographic areas in Kuwait City. Just over 56% of the sample were females, 59% were married, the great majority (70.4%) were government employees, more than 60% had a monthly income of less than 900 KD, more than 54% were intermediate and high secondary school graduates, and 37% were university graduates or had advanced degrees. The data was collected by personal interview using structured questionnaire. Results: The overall mean satisfaction was 3.1 points out of five (62%). The mean satisfaction scores were 3.64, 3.29, 3.08, 3.05, 2.21 for laboratory, pharmacy, radiology, dental and physician services, respectively. The highest mean score for physician services was obtained for communication skills (2.23); for pharmacy services, the availability of medicine (4.01); for laboratory services, the availability of lab materials (3.73); for radiology services, the waiting time for x-ray (3.60); and for dental services, the adequacy of dentists (3.27). The results indicated that gender, income, marital status and occupation were the most consistent demographic predictors of satisfaction, with females, those with lower income, lower education levels and the unemployed having higher mean satisfaction scores. Conclusion: There is a need for corrective intervention in some service areas and for an educational program to inform patients of the objectives and limitations of primary health services. PMID:23008652

  16. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K. [United Nations Economic and Social Commission for West Asia, Amman (Jordan)

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  17. Correlates of Job Satisfaction among Health Care Professionals in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Shah; N. Al-Enezi; R. I. Chowdhury; N. M. Shah

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Job satisfaction of health care providers (physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and medical laboratory technologists) was analyzed in relation to specific background and work environment characteristics in a multicultural setting. Methods: A stratified random sample was used to collect the data from six general hospitals in Kuwait. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 500 health care providers, of

  18. Conceptual Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal design for Kuwait 

    E-print Network

    Aljeeran, Fares

    2006-08-16

    8 Persian Gulf.... The population is around 2 million, with the major natural resources being petroleum, natural gas, fish, and shrimp. Kuwait is located in the upper northwest of the Persian Gulf, and it is small, rich, and has a relatively open economy. It is estimated...

  19. Evaluation of Section Heads' Performance at Kuwait Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hamdan, Jasem M.; Al-Yacoub, Ali M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The study attempts to examine the viewpoints of those involved in evaluating the performance of section heads in Kuwait secondary schools; mainly section heads themselves, supervisors and principals. It sets out to determine the strength and weaknesses in the performance evaluation form designed for section heads.…

  20. Oxidation states of uranium in depleted uranium particles from Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Salbu; K. Janssens; O. C. Lind; K. Proost; L. Gijsels; P. R. Danesi

    2004-01-01

    The oxidation states of uranium in depleted uranium (DU) particles were determined by synchrotron radiation based ?-XANES, applied to individual particles isolated from selected samples collected at different sites in Kuwait. Based on scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis prior to ?-XANES, DU particles ranging from submicrons to several hundred micrometers were observed. The median particle size depended on sources

  1. Marriage Partner Selection in Kuwait: An Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOHAMMED HAJEEH; SALEH LAIRI

    2009-01-01

    The decision to marry is one of the most critical decisions in young ladie' lives where wrong choices may have adverse effects. This study investigates this issue in developing countries using the small state of Kuwait as a manageable case study. This research utilizes the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) due to the multiplicity of objectives. Women from different ethnic, religious,

  2. Information Technology in Public Libraries in Kuwait: A First Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLENE L. AL-QALLAF; HOWAYA M. AL-AZMI

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the availability and use of information technology in public libraries in Kuwait. Specific areas addressed are (1) hardware\\/software, (2) patterns of connectivity such as LANs, Internet, etc., (3) training and development activities in support of information technology, and (4) future projections regarding the use of information technology. The study provides policy-makers and information professionals with previously unavailable

  3. Chemistry Of Groundwater In The Dammam Aquifer, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Al-Ruwaih

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater of the Dammam carbonate aquifer in Kuwait is strongly undersaturated with respect to halite and is weakly undersaturated with respect to anhydrite and gypsum. In addition, the groundwater is oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. Generally, the saturation indices of most minerals increase in the direction of flow. The salinity of the Dammam aquifer ranges from 2,500 to

  4. Deformities in silver pomfret Pampus argenteus caught from Kuwait waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almatar, Sulaiman; Chen, Weizhong

    2010-11-01

    During sampling for spawning stock of the silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus in Kuwait waters, a few seriously deformed individuals were captured. These individuals had been attacked and wounded, but had healed and survived. The fish body deformities are believed to be caused by predation attempts on silver pomfret by predators such as sharks, groupers, and croakers.

  5. Analysis and overview of industrial solid waste management in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasem M. Alhumoud; Fatima A. Al-Kandari

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine the amount of different kinds of solid wastes produced, segregated, collected, stored, transported and disposed off by the different industries\\/business in Kuwait. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Available industry information along with the use of monitoring data from a waste management system were used to analyze the generation, type and composition of industrial

  6. Preliminary assessment of indoor industrial noise pollution in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Muhammad Khuraibet; Faten Al-Attar

    2000-01-01

    Sound is considered as a pollutant when it exceeds undesirable limits for the recipient. One of the significant environmental problems associated with industries is noise pollution generated by machinery. The main objectives of this study were to measure noise levels generated by machinery that the workers were exposed to at five industrial facilities in the State of Kuwait. Also, to

  7. Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

    This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  8. Solar electricity prospects in Oman using GIS-based solar radiation maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel Gastli; Yassine Charabi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses solar power prospects in Oman. First, the geographic and topographic information about Oman are presented. The methodology of producing solar radiation maps using GIS tools is then discussed. The results obtained show very high potential of solar radiation over all the lands of Oman during the whole year. A slope analysis has allowed calculating the yearly electricity

  9. Root zone of the sheeted dike complex in the Oman ophiolite Adolphe Nicolas and Francoise Boudier

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Root zone of the sheeted dike complex in the Oman ophiolite Adolphe Nicolas and Franc¸oise Boudier´osciences Marines, IPG, CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Ce´dex 05, France [1] In the Oman ophiolite crustal. The Oman ophiolite is derived from a fast spreading ridge which had a melt lens located between the main

  10. Interactions between magma and hydrothermal system in Oman ophiolite and in IODP Hole 1256D: Fossilization

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Interactions between magma and hydrothermal system in Oman ophiolite and in IODP Hole 1256D processes. We present maps of two areas of the Oman ophiolite where this transition zone is observed reheating stages, and assimilation processes observed in the Oman ophiolite are consistent

  11. Subsidence in magma chamber and the development of magmatic foliation in Oman ophiolite gabbros

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Subsidence in magma chamber and the development of magmatic foliation in Oman ophiolite gabbros Keywords: Oman ophiolite fast spreading ridges magma chamber gabbro subsidence In the Oman ophiolite of this ophiolite. They are complemented by 133 sites, located throughout the entire ophiolite, where the transition

  12. 76 FR 78615 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of...Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), The United Arab Emirates (``the UAE''), and the...India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic...

  13. 77 FR 15718 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ...India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of...Sultanate of Oman (Oman), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist Republic...India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic...

  14. Sizzling Qatar boom sparked by foreign money, technology, and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1998-04-27

    International oil companies have collected advanced upstream and downstream technology and focused it on the small Persian Gulf emirate of Qatar, a roughly 110 mile long by 50 mile wide, thumb-like peninsula that juts out from Saudi Arabia. The emirate, in a burst of enlightened self interest, has opened its doors to international companies and is now riding a wave of foreign investment and new technology to major increases in oil, natural gas, and petrochemical production. The largest natural gas reserve in the world is under Qatari waters and is the driver for the activity that includes two LNG plants. Qatar has proven that you don`t need crude oil in the Persian Gulf to be important. Activities are discussed.

  15. Assessment of sand encroachment in Kuwait using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Helal, Anwar B.; Al-Awadhi, Jasem M.

    2006-04-01

    Assessment of sand encroachment in Kuwait using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been formulated as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making problem. The Delphi method and Analytical Hierarchy Process were adopted as evaluating techniques, in which experts’ judgments were analyzed for objectively estimating and weighting control factors. Seven triggering factors, depicted in the form of maps, were identified and ordered according to their priority. These factors are (1) wind energy; (2) surface sediment; (3) vegetation density; (4) land use; (5) drainage density; (6) topographic change and (7) vegetation type. The factor maps were digitized, converted to raster data and overlaid to determine their possible spatial relationships. Applying a susceptibility model, a map of sand encroachment susceptibility in Kuwait was developed. The map showed that the areas of very high and high sand encroachment susceptibility are located within the main corridor of sand pathway that coincides with the northwesterly dominant wind direction.

  16. Patient satisfaction with primary health-care services in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Muhammad; Alazemi, Talal; Alazemi, Fahad; Bakir, Yusif

    2015-06-01

    The study aims to evaluate patient satisfaction with respect to primary health-care services in Kuwait.A total of 245 patients completed the General Practice Assessment Questionnaire postconsultation version 2.0. Two statistically significant differences of patients' satisfaction with sex and level of education were found. Overall satisfaction was higher among men than women (P?=?0.002), and it was also higher among those with university degree of education than the other levels of education (P?=?0.049). We also found statistically significant differences of patients' responses over sex for three themes, namely: satisfaction with receptionists, satisfaction with access and satisfaction with communication; and over the age for one theme: satisfaction with access. There was no statistically significant differences of patients' responses over nationality for all themes. Satisfaction is a multifactorial and no one factor alone could provide satisfaction with primary health services in Kuwait. PMID:24621410

  17. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed.

  19. Sea surface temperature trends in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thamer B. Al-Rashidi; Hamdy I. El-Gamily; Carl L. Amos; Karim A. Rakha

    2009-01-01

    The waters of Kuwait Bay, northern Arabian Gulf, are well mixed by macrotidal, semi-diurnal tides. Sea surface temperature\\u000a (SST) is thus a good proxy of water mass temperature in the bay. The factors governing SST have been conveniently sub-divided\\u000a into global, regional and local drivers. This paper provides a study on long-term drivers of temperature change in the northern\\u000a Arabian

  20. Aspergillus and other moulds in the air of Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. U. Khan; M. A. Y. Khan; Rachel Chandy; P. N. Sharma

    1999-01-01

    A one-year survey was carried out to study the aerial prevalence of Aspergillus species and other moulds in the outdoor and indoor environments of Kuwait. Petri plates containing rose-Bengal medium were\\u000a exposed for 20 minutes twice a month using a six-stage Andersen air sampler at the pre-determined sites. The exposed plates\\u000a were incubated at 28 °C ± 1 °C up

  1. Characterisation of DU Particles from Kosovo and Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Christian Lind; Brit Salbu; Koen Janssens; Kristof Proost; Pier Roberto Danesi

    Large amounts of DU material has been released to the environmentin Kosovo and Kuwait due to the use of depleted uranium (DU)\\u000a ammunitionduring the 1991 Gulf war and the 1999 Balkan conflict. Following the impact ofmetallic DU penetrators on solid targets,\\u000a DU particles are dispersed and ignited,and uranium in the particles is oxidized. Following inhalation or ingestion ofDU particles,\\u000a the

  2. Implementation of the K-12 Education Reform in Qatar's Schools. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan Gery W.; Karam, Rita; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Orr, Nate; Goldman, Charles A.; Al-Thani, Hessa; Al-Obaidli, Kholode

    2009-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar is greatly invested in its K-12 education reform, "Education for a New Era," because it views education as the key to the nation's economic and social progress. This study, one of a number of RAND studies that trace and document the reform process in Qatar, was designed to assess progress made in the first years of the K-12…

  3. Education for a New Era: Design and Implementation of K-12 Education Reform in Qatar. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar has a social and political vision that calls for improving the outcomes of the Qatari K-12 education system. With this vision in mind, the leadership asked RAND to examine Qatar's K-12 education system, to recommend options for building a world-class system, and, subsequently, to develop the chosen option and support its…

  4. Spatial and temporal characterizations of water quality in Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, N; Abahussain, A; El-Battay, A

    2014-06-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay have been investigated using data from six stations between 2009 and 2011. The results showed that most of water quality parameters such as phosphorus (PO4), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fluctuated over time and space. Based on Water Quality Index (WQI) data, six stations were significantly clustered into two main classes using cluster analysis, one group located in western side of the Bay, and other in eastern side. Three principal components are responsible for water quality variations in the Bay. The first component included DO and pH. The second included PO4, TSS and NO3, and the last component contained seawater temperature and turbidity. The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay are mainly controlled by seasonal variations and discharges from point sources of pollution along Kuwait Bay's coast as well as from Shatt Al-Arab River. PMID:24768174

  5. Managing disposal of water produced with petroleum in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Hubail, J; El-Dash, K

    2006-04-01

    Disposal of water produced with petroleum has been of great interest in Kuwait for the last 20 years. The current problem arose when the Burgan oil field, which is the second largest field in the world, experienced successive increases in the water content of the produced oil. This study introduces a decision-making analysis of the considered alternatives for the disposal of the produced water. Four alternative solutions exist for the industry as practical solutions for the disposal of water produced in Kuwait. The first method utilizes a large number of pits to discharge water. The second alternative depends on discharging water into sealed pits. The third approach to dispose water is by injecting the water underground. The last method is similar to the previous one, but takes into consideration the recovery of reservoir pressure to maintain the rate of oil production. A questionnaire was distributed to 48 experts at the top management level of the petroleum companies and the governmental authority. The data collected considered cost, efficiency, and environmental parameters. Based on the data, a statistical analysis was conducted using the factor analysis method to reduce the number of investigated variables. The analysis concluded that the optimal solution is to use the effluent injection method to discharge water produced with oil in Burgan and similar fields in Kuwait. PMID:16171934

  6. Integrating Environmental Impact Assessment within Kuwait Master Plans as a Tool for Human and Ecological Risk Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Mohamed Al-Damkhi; Ali Mohamed Khuraibet; Faten Abdul-Hameed Al-Attar; Sabah Ahmed Abdul-Wahab

    2008-01-01

    Although it was claimed that the Kuwait Master Plans have helped guide the development in Kuwait from a small mud brick town of 150,000 inhabitants to today's modern metropolis of about 3 million inhabitants, this article argues that the implementation of the first plan in 1952 planted the seeds of human and ecological risk problems in Kuwait, which were intensified

  7. Bluetongue in the Sultanate of Oman, a preliminary epidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. P.; al Busaidy, S. M.; Mellor, P. S.

    1991-01-01

    A group specific agar-gel immunodiffusion test was used to demonstrate that there is a frequent and widespread distribution of bluetongue virus throughout the Sultanate of Oman. The Culicoides midges C. imicola and C. schultzei, both capable of transmitting bluetongue group viruses, were recorded throughout the year. Although these studies did not establish that bluetongue is enzootic in Oman, type-specific neutralizing antibody results supported previous evidence for the existence of a Saudi Arabian bluetongue ecosystem. Variations in antibody evidence of virus activity within a restricted locality suggested a hot-spot theory concerning the perpetuation of the virus. PMID:1652452

  8. Energy and water in Kuwait Part I. A sustainability view point

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Darwish; F. M. Al-Awadhi; A. M. Darwish

    2008-01-01

    The sustainability of the energy and desalted water in Kuwait is questionable. Kuwait has experienced a very rapid growth in the last five decades by the evolution of oil production and its price increase. The main source of potable water is secured by desalted seawater (about 90–93% desalted water blended with brackish water). The increase of the daily-consumed fresh water

  9. Sources, distribution and composition of the suspended sediments, Kuwait Bay, Northern Arabian Gulf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Al-Ghadban; A. El-Sammak

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative assessment of suspended sediment levels and transport pathways in Kuwait's northern territorial waters are described, with special reference to Kuwait Bay. Near-surface water samples were collected from 12 stations, covering the whole of the embayment. Suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) were derived. Heavy metal concentrations, mineralogical composition and grain size constituents were derived for the suspended sediments retained

  10. Biopsied Jaw Lesions in Kuwait: A Six-Year Retrospective Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad A. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of jaw lesions in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: Biopsy records and microscopic sections of all jaw biopsies seen in the Department of Histopathology at Amiri Hospital, Kuwait, during the period January 2004 to December 2009 were reviewed. The biopsies were divided into three major groups: developmental\\/inflammatory\\/reactive lesions (group

  11. Meeting the Challenge: Quality Systems in Private Higher Education in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Atiqi, Imad M.; Alharbi, Lafi M.

    2009-01-01

    In Kuwait, as in other rapidly-developing higher education systems, one major area of concern is ensuring the quality of education offered by private providers. This paper briefly reviews the history of the development of higher education in Kuwait since its inception in 1936. It considers various quality systems currently in place in other…

  12. FIRST REPORT OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA ON WHEAT IN OMAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important crop in the Sultanate of Oman, cultivated both as a forage crop for livestock and for grain production. In April 2005, leaf samples of an unknown local variety showing rust symptoms were collected from Rustaq, 100 km south west of Muscat. Circular to ova...

  13. FIRST REPORT OF PUCCINIA SORGHI ON MAIZE IN OMAN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important annual forage crop cultivated in the Sultanate of Oman during the summer months. It is used both for green fodder and grains and often intercropped in fruit orchards especially under date palms. In April 2005, leaf samples showing rust symptoms were collected fro...

  14. The volcanic stratigraphy and petrogenesis of the Oman ophiolite complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Alabaster; J. A. Pearce; J. Malpas

    1982-01-01

    The volcanic stratigraphy and trace element geochemistry of the Oman ophiolite complex indicate a multistage magmatic origin comprising: (1) magmatism due to sea-floor spreading in a marginal basin; (2) magmatism associated with discrete submarine volcanic centres or seamounts; (3) magmatism associated with crustal uplift and rifting; and (4) magmatism associated with continent-arc collision.

  15. Efficiency of government-supported horticulture: the case of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zaibet; P. S. Dharmapala

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes technical efficiency in Oman using the stochastic production frontier and the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methods. Different methods are used because the determinants of technical efficiency may be influenced by the method used and also by the assumptions (such as returns to scale) maintained. Results from the stochastic parametric frontier (SPF) and DEA–Charnes, Cooper, Rhodes (CCR) models

  16. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96 %). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70 % of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ? 25 in 56 % (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8 %. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45 % (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22 % (55/255); Uric Acid 16 % (40/255); and Cystine 4 % (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  17. Monitoring Microseismicity in a Carbonate Oil Field, North Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. El-Hussain; A. Al-Lazki; S. Al-Hashmi; K. Al-Toubi; Y. Al-Shijbi; M. Al-Saifi; F. Al-Kindy; O. Ibi

    2006-01-01

    Microseismicity was monitored continuously for 2003 and 2004 years using shallow downhole seismic network in a carbonate oil field in Northern Oman. A total of 406 microearthquake events were analyzed to assess events location relative to producing horizons. The depth of the microearthquakes ranges from 0 to 2.95 km below the ground surface. The events location is confined to the

  18. Fracture-related diagenesis in the carbonate carapace of a salt dome, Jebel Madar, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahr, J.; John, C. M.; Cosgrove, J. W.; Vandeginste, V.; Sena, C. N.; Jourdan, A.

    2010-12-01

    This study is being carried out in the Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre (QCCSRC) at Imperial College and focuses on the interplay between fractures, diagenetic fluid flow and precipitation of diagenetic minerals in an exposed carbonate carapace of a salt dome in Oman. Understanding fault-related mineralization and the differences between diagenesis in the fractures and fracture walls compared to diagenesis in the rock matrix will help prediction of the reservoir quality of such fractured carapaces in the subsurface. The research questions addressed here are a) what controls the timing, distribution and geometry of fractures in the carapace of a salt dome? b) what controls the timing of the precipitation of minerals in the fracture network? To answer these questions, a dual approach combining structural geology with carbonate diagenesis is being applied. The origin of the fluids and their role in fracturing and diagenesis is being investigated by means of geochemistry and petrography and the processes of fracturing, fluid flow and the migration of fluids along pathways will be determined by reconstructing the structural history by a combination of field mapping and seismic interpretation. This dual approach is powerful and can be used to determine the history of fluid flow. Ultimately, the aim is to develop conceptual models linking fracturation and fluid flow during halokinesis with diagenesis. Jebel Madar is situated in the southern foothills of the Oman Mountains and is a folded and fractured salt dome carapace comprising Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. The structural history of the Jebel is currently being reconstructed using fracture analysis of structural data gathered during fieldwork. This will be augmented with the interpretation of seismic profiles. Initial results indicate that the dominant fracture orientations are ~ N-S and NE-SW. Using the cross-cutting relationships of the fractures an attempt is being made to establish their chronology. To understand the diagenetic history of the fracture infill, several techniques are being used including petrography, major and trace elemental analysis, fluid inclusion, and stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. An important observation made in the fractures of the Jebel Madar is that several generations of calcite cements exist, with crystals ranging in size from several cm in the centre of the fracture to compact, mm- sized crystals close to the host rock. In addition, in some fractures barite and calcite have been co-precipitated, an observation which, with the aid of fluid inclusion studies, could yield the composition and possible origin of the parent diagenetic fluids. The presence of minerals in fractures indicates that these latter acted as fluid pathways. Initial stable isotope results suggest that the precipitating fluids were hot, with average values of ? 18O of -9.74 ‰ PDB and ? 13C of 1.19 ‰ PDB. Initial results indicate that the regional stress stimulated the local development of salt diapirs which produced local stress fields that totally dominated the timing and pattern of fracturing and fluid migration.

  19. Characterizing surface temperature and clarity of Kuwait's seawaters using remotely sensed measurements and GIS analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

    Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The spatial and temporal distributions of these important water characteristics should be well understood to obtain a better knowledge about this productive coastal environment. The aim of this project was therefore to study the spatial and temporal distributions of: Kuwait SST using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images collected from January 2003 to July 2007; and Kuwait Secchi Disk Depth (SDD), a water clarity measure, using Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and MODIS data collected from November 1998 to October 2004 and January 2003 to June 2007, respectively. Kuwait SST was modeled based on the linear relationship between level 2 MODIS SST data and in situ SST data. MODIS SST images showed a significant relationship with in situ SST data ( r2= 0.98, n = 118, RMSE = 0.7°C). Kuwait SST images derived from MODIS data exhibited three spatial patterns of Kuwait SST across the year that were mainly attributed to the northwestern counterclockwise water circulation of the Arabian Gulf, and wind direction and intensity. The temporal variation of Kuwait SST was greatly influenced by the seasonal variation of solar intensity and air temperatures. Kuwait SDD was measured through two steps: first, computing the diffuse light attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, Kd(490), and 488 nm, Kd(488), derived from SeaWiFS and MODIS, respectively, using a semi-analytical algorithm; second, establishing two SDD models based on the empirical relationship of Kd(490) and Kd(488) with in situ SDD data. Kd(490) and Kd(488) showed a significant relationship with in situ SDD data ( r2= 0.67 and r2= 0.68, respectively). Kuwait SDD images showed distinct spatial and temporal patterns of Kuwait water clarity that were mainly attributed to three factors: the Shatt Al-Arab discharge, water circulation, and coastal currents. The SeaWiFS and MODIS data compared to in situ measurements provided a comprehensive view of the studied seawater characteristics that improved their overall estimation within Kuwait's waters. Also, the near-real-time availability of SeaWiFS and MODIS data and their highly temporal resolution make them a very advantageous tool for studying coastal environments. Thus, I recommend involving this method in monitoring Kuwait coastal environments.

  20. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation among mothers in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the optimal way to feed infants for the first six months of life. While overall breastfeeding rates are high, exclusive breastfeeding is relatively uncommon among Middle Eastern women. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of breastfeeding amongst women in the six governorates of Kuwait and the factors associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Methods A sample of 373 women (aged 17-47 years), recruited shortly after delivery from four hospitals in Kuwait, completed a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Results In total, 92.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding and at discharge from hospital the majority of mothers were partially breastfeeding (55%), with only 30% of mothers fully breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding was the norm (81.8%) and less than 1 in 5 infants (18.2%) received colostrum as their first feed. Only 10.5% of infants had been exclusively breastfed since birth, the remainder of the breastfed infants having received either prelacteal or supplementary infant formula feeds at some time during their hospital stay. Of the mothers who attempted to breastfeed, the majority of women (55.4%) delayed their first attempt to breastfeed until 24 hours or more after delivery. Breastfeeding at discharge from hospital was positively associated with paternal support for breastfeeding and negatively associated with delivery by caesarean section and with the infant having spent time in the Special Care Nursery. Conclusions The reasons for the high use of prelacteal and supplementary formula feeding warrant investigation. Hospital policies and staff training are needed to promote the early initiation of breastfeeding and to discourage the unnecessary use of infant formula in hospital, in order to support the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding by mothers in Kuwait. PMID:20667112

  1. An exploratory study on medications in Qatar homes

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, N; Hajj, MS El; Wilbur, K; Kaissi, RML; Yousif, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Drug therapy is the most often used intervention for treatment and prevention of disease. However, if used inappropriately, drugs can cause more harm than good. Improper drug storage and disposal can have a direct impact on public safety, the environment, and the health care services. The purpose of this study was to characterize medications stored in Qatar homes and to explore their methods of storage and disposal, and to identify the public’s source of information related to medicines. Methods For the purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study, a list of telephone numbers was generated from Qatar’s telephone directory using a systematic sampling method. Individuals consenting to participate were interviewed using a multipart pretested survey instrument. Results Data were collected from a total of 49 homes. Most respondents did not have a designated compartment or box specifically for storing medications. The majority of drugs (48%) were kept in bedrooms and a number of respondents were keeping their drugs in the fridge and in the kitchen. The most often stored classes of medicines were analgesics, antihistamines, nutritional supplements, and medications used for the respiratory system. Most respondents disposed of unwanted medicines by throwing them in the trash. In about 15% of cases, the dosage of drug taken was different from the instructions on the label. Sharing of prescription medicines was not uncommon. The majority of respondents sought information related to drugs from doctors. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about how medications are stored and disposed of in the community. The fact that no household routinely returned unwanted medications to a pharmacy for proper disposal places the environment at risk. There is a need for more societal awareness about the safe handling and storage of drugs in the home, and about the professional role of the pharmacist. PMID:22279414

  2. Geomorphic changes in Ras Al-Subiyah area, Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hurban, A.; El-Gamily, H.; El-Sammak, A.

    2008-06-01

    The Ras Al-Subiyah area is considered one of the most promising areas in Kuwait for future development. This development will include a new town called Subiyah and its associated infrastructure. This area is also being considered as the location for connection between Boubyan Island, which is now undergoing major development and the Kuwait mainland. The present study investigates the geomorphology of the Ras Al-Sabiyah area in the northern sector of Kuwait. The study area is generally flat, and it is located west of the Jal Az-Zor escarpment. It is bordered on the east by the Khor Al-Sabiyah tidal channel and on the south by Kuwait Bay. The area receives sediments from several sources; currently the most important are aeolian sediments and the deposition of mud delivered through the Khor Al-Sabiyah from the Iraqi marshes. The study area has been subjected to severe environmental changes due to the Gulf wars and the drainage of Iraqi marshes and the associated artificial changes in fluvial system. Twenty-two surface sediments were collected from the Ras Al-Subiyah area. Samples were collected to include the main geomorphologic characteristic features of the study area. Field observations and remote sensing images from 1990 and 2001 were used to produce an updated geomorphologic map for the Ras Al-Subiyah and a map showing geomorphic changes between 1990 and 2001. Grain size of the surface sediment ranges from gravel to medium sand. In general, grain size statistical analysis indicates that most of the areas are composed of two or more classes of sands transported and deposited from different sources including aeolian, sabkhas, river and the bays. The variability in the grain size statistical parameters may be attributed to the complexity of surface morphology as well as the diversity in the type of depositional environment in the Ras Al-Subiyah area. The total area subjected to change during the 12-year period (1990 2001) is about 32 km2 as calculated using GIS techniques.

  3. Oil-bearing sediments of Gondwana glaciation in Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Levell, B.K.; Braakman, J.H.; Rutten, K.W.

    1988-07-01

    More than 3.5 billion bbl of oil in place have so far been discovered in reservoirs of the Al Khlata Formation of the Permian-Carboniferous lower Haushi Group in south Oman. Glacially striated pavements and boulders in exposures at Al Khlata in east-central Oman confirmed previous interpretations that the formation is, at least partly, of glacial origin. Core and wireline-log data from some 500 wells that penetrate the formation show that glacial facies are widespread in the subsurface. Shales with varvelike laminations and dropstones are present in two main layers, which extend over the larger part of south Oman and are perhaps the most diagnostic facies. Diamictites are also widespread, and some, which can be correlated as sheets over thousands of square kilometers, are interpreted as true tillites. Other diamictites are interbedded with shales with varvelike laminations or unbedded siltstones and are interpreted as subaqueous glacial deposits. Ten sedimentary facies have been described in cores and outcrops. An important result of this study is a formal scheme to interpret these facies from wireline logs using quantitative analysis of density and neutron logs and qualitative information from other logs. Lateral facies relationships are complicated by syndepositional salt withdrawal and dissolution, paleorelief on the basal unconformity, and intraformational unconformities beneath regionally extensive tillites. At least three glacial phases can be recognized: an early phase, represented only by erosional remnants of diamictites, and two later phases, the last of which extended over the whole of Oman south of the Oman Mountains. Deglaciation is represented by a regional shale bed sharply overlying the diamictite sheet of this last glaciation. 19 figures, 1 table.

  4. Determinants of Default from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Treatment in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Gaafer, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of default from pulmonary tuberculosis treatment in Kuwait. Design. Retrospective study. Patients and methods. We studied all patients who were registered for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012, and admitted into TB wards in El Rashid Center or treated in the outpatient clinic in TB Control Unit. Results. There were 110 (11.5%) patients who defaulted from treatment. Fifty-six percent of those who defaulted did so in the first 2 months of treatment and 86.4% of them were still bacteriologically positive at the time of default. Key risk factors associated with noncompliance were male sex, low educational level, non-Kuwaiti nations, history of default, and history of concomitant diabetes mellitus, liver disease, or lung cancer. Multiple drug resistance was also associated with default from treatment. Conclusion. Default from treatment may be partially responsible for the persistent relatively high rates of tuberculosis in Kuwait. Health professionals and policy makers should ensure that all barriers to treatment are removed and that incentives are used to encourage treatment compliance. PMID:24955415

  5. Spectral characteristics of atmospheric surface layer turbulence in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, Reza; Singha, Arindam; Micro Scale Thermofluids Laboratory Team

    2012-11-01

    Turbulent characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer are of utmost importance in modeling the large-scale meteorological processes, diffusion of atmospheric contaminants, heat transfer and evaporation from the earth surface. Meteorological data are available for some areas of the globe but are sparse in tropical regions. There had been some recent studies in tropical weather in southwestern Asia but no study is carried out in Persian Gulf region. The present study reports the micrometeorological data collected from an atmospheric measurement station in the coastal region of Doha, Qatar, to characterize the nature of atmosphere surface layer (ASL) and ocean wave in this region. In the present work turbulence velocity spectra in this region is presented and compared with the available data from other locations. Also, empirical relationship for the normalized dissipation function in this region is suggested. Finally, variation of different length scales with the stability parameter z/ L is investigated and compare with the existing values in available literatures. This is the first ever study of ASL in this area, and is expected to be a foundation of further atmospheric research endeavors in Qatar.

  6. 76 FR 38614 - Transportation Infrastructure/Multimodal Products and Services Trade Mission to Doha, Qatar, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Export-Import...consultancy services. Qatar's transportation infrastructure also benefits...current domestic growth environment. Its road transportation structure has been...

  7. qatar.cmu.edu Biological Sciences | Business Administration | Computational Biology | Computer Science | Information Systems

    E-print Network

    Sycara, Katia

    qatar.cmu.edu Biological Sciences | Business Administration | Computational Biology | Computer of its programs or activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, handicap or disability five academic programs, Biological Sciences, Business Administration, Computational Biology, Computer

  8. Permian age from radiolarites of the Hawasina nappes, Oman Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Wever, P.D. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (France)); Grissac C.B. (Bureau de Recherche Geologique et Miniere, Orleans, (France)); Bechennec, F. (Bureau de recherche Geologique et Miniere, Nantes (France))

    1988-10-01

    The Hawasina napper of the Oman Mountains yielded Permian radiolarians from cherts stratigraphically overlying a thick volcanic basement (Al Jil Formation) at the base of the Hamrat Duru Group. This fauna represents the first Permian radiolarians and radiolarites in the central and western Tethyan realm. A Permain age for pelagic sequences within the Hawasina Complex of Oman has major significance for regional paleogeographic reconstruction. A clear differentiation between platform (reefal sediments) and basin (radiolarites) from the base of the Late Permian (255 Ma) is implied. It suggests a flexure of the platform during Permian time; the present data implies that a zone of rifting was already developed adjacent to the northeast Gondwana platform margin during the Late Permian. The Hamrat Duru Basin corresponds to an opening intracontinental rift area (sphenochasm) between Arabia and northeast Gondwana, a reentrant of the paleo-Tethys.

  9. Field Survey of the 2004 Indonesian Tsunami in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Raad; E. A. Okal; H. M. Fritz; C. E. Synolakis; Y. Al-Shijbi; M. Al-Saifi

    2005-01-01

    We present a report from the work of the International Tsunami Survey Team in Oman in the aftermath of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami. During an 7-day campaign, the team surveyed approximately 750 km of coastlines along the southern shore of the country, building a database of 41 standardized measurements of flow-depth, run-up and inundation, obtained primarily from eyewitness reports. Maximum

  10. Radioactivity concentrations in sediments and their correlation to the coastal structure in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Saad; D. Al-Azmi

    2002-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed on sediment samples from the coast of Kuwait to study the concentration of natural as well as man-made radioactive sources. The coast of Kuwait, which extends for some 170km is mainly soft sedimentary colitic limestones or sandstones, overlaid in many areas with beach or wind-blown sand. In the north, suspended material from the Shatt Al-Arab

  11. Glucose6Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Kuwait, Syria, Egypt, Iran, Jordan and Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esien A. Usanga; Reem Ameen

    2000-01-01

    A total of 3,501 male subjects from six Arab countries living in Kuwait were investigated for quantitative and phenotypic distribution of red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The ethnic origins of those investigated were Kuwait, Egypt, Iran, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. The distribution of G6PD deficiency among the different ethnic groups varied widely, ranging from 1.00% for Egyptians to 11.55% for

  12. Magnesium Sulphate Therapy in Women with Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Omu; J. Al-Harmi; H. L. Vedi; L. Mlechkova; A. F. Sayed; N. S. Al-Ragum

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of the use of MgSO4 therapy in women with severe pre-eclampsia in Kuwait from January 2002 to December 2004. Subjects and Methods: The study involved 450 women managed at the Maternity Hospital in Kuwait with a blood pressure of 160\\/110 mm Hg and proteinuria of >0.3–5 g\\/24 h. A loading dose of 4 g MgSO4

  13. Spectrum of Paediatric Lysosomal Storage Disorders in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maawali, Almundher A; Joshi, Surendra N; Koul, Roshan L; Al-Maawali, Ali A; Al-Sedari, Hilal S; Al-Amri, Bader M; Al-Futaisi, Amna M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to look at the spectrum of paediatric lysosomal disorders in Oman. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic diseases. Few studies on the birth prevalence and prevalence of LSDs have been reported from the Arabian Peninsula. Methods: We studied 86 children with LSDs diagnosed over a period of nine years, from June 1998 to May 2007. Detailed clinical data, including age of onset, sex, age and mode of first presentation, and presence of consanguinity were collected. Results: Our data showed the combined birth prevalence for all LSDs in Oman to be around 1 in 4,700 live births. Sphingolipidoses was the most common group of disorder encountered (47.7%), followed by neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) (23.2%) and mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) (23.2%). The proportion of consanguineous marriages in our series was found to be 87.5%. Conclusion: Our data represent the birth prevalence and clinical spectrum of such disorders in Oman, one of the highly consanguineous societies in the Middle East. PMID:22912921

  14. Work Related Injuries in an Oil field in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaee, Faisal Rabia; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of occupational injuries in the Harweel oil field, Oman. Methods The study is based on data gathered from a computerized database maintained by Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO). All non-fatal work-related occupational injuries registered between April 2007 and December 2009 were gathered and analyzed. Results A total of 170 work-related injuries were reported during the study period. Foreign body to the eye was the most common type of injury (27.6%) encountered among all injuries, followed by man falls/slips (11.8%). Injury to the upper extremities accounted for the largest percentage (38.8%) among other body parts. While, a significant portion of the injuries (52%) affected workers aged less than 30 years. The average injury rate per 1000 exposed workers per year was 19.8. Conclusion The study outlines the types of injuries most commonly encountered in the oil field in Oman. Additional data is required in order to devise proper epidemiological analysis. Establishing a comprehensive surveillance system for injuries is essential to ascertain factors influencing such injuries. PMID:22125724

  15. Running Header and front cover: "Post-obduction evolution of Oman" Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Post-obduction extension

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lepvrier, Philippe Razin and Laurent Jolivet ABSTRACT After the obduction of the Samail ophiolitic nappe) obduction of the Samail Ophiolite in northern Oman (Figure 2a); (2) #12;obduction of the Masirah Ophiolite-nappe sedimentary succession. TECTONIC SETTING OF THE OMAN MOUNTAINS In north Oman, the Samail Ophiolite associated

  16. Modeling the seismic signature of structural data from the Oman Ophiolite: Can a mantle diapir be detected beneath

    E-print Network

    Toomey, Doug

    Modeling the seismic signature of structural data from the Oman Ophiolite: Can a mantle diapir diapirs mapped in the Oman ophiolite and compare these results with those of active source seismic data from the Oman Ophiolite: Can a mantle diapir be detected beneath the East Pacific Rise?, Geochem

  17. 77 FR 73674 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam Determinations On...steel pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, provided for in...steel pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam were...

  18. Study on parasites from farm animals in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Qais A H; Alazemi, Maha S; Henedi, Adawia A M; Tahrani, Laila M A

    2015-04-01

    No doubt, farm animals are essential as a source of milk, protein, and leather and wool ... etc. But, they are always exposed to ecto- and endo-parasites, which cause diseases conditions that may end in death. This study evaluated farm animal parasitosis. Thus, different animal farms were visited to collect fecal samples and data to determine the infection rates with parasites and the relationship between animal management and parasitism in Kuwait. Out of 86, 17, 20, 96 & 52 cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels examined, 5.5, 17.5, 10, 9.3 and 2.5% respectively were infected with different parasites. These parasites were Ascarids in cattle and horses, Strongylids in cattle, horses and camels, and Eimeriids in cattle and small ruminants. Eimeria spp. were the most prevalent parasite particularly in small ruminants. The relationship between Eimeria infection and management in small ruminant farms was discussed. PMID:26012220

  19. Determinants of job satisfaction among selected care providers in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Shah, M A; Chowdhury, R I; al-Enezi, N; Shah, N M

    2001-01-01

    The study reports job satisfaction among a sample of 370 physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and medical laboratory technologists in the Ministry of Health hospitals in Kuwait. Job satisfaction was measured using Dunnette's scale. The respondents in all four categories were satisfied with all aspects of their jobs except salary. The medical laboratory technologists were, however, dissatisfied with professional advancement as well. The physicians were found to be most satisfied, closely followed by nurses and pharmacists, while medical laboratory technologists were least satisfied. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the net effects of background and work environment characteristics on overall job satisfaction. Introduction to job, in-service training, and monthly income had significant positive effects on overall job satisfaction. These findings may have serious implications for health care delivery systems that recruit expatriate care providers. PMID:11398232

  20. Pharmaceutical and chemical pediatric poisoning in Kuwait: a retrospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Abahussain, Eman A.; Ball, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    Past studies of pediatric poisoning in Kuwait have suggested differences at hospital level which could impact on the implementation of public health interventions. The objective was to compare pediatric poisoning admissions at general hospitals in Kuwait. Methods Retrospective survey of all pediatric poisoning cases at the six general hospitals from January 2004 to December 2005. Case data were documented using ICD-10 criteria and the poisoning severity score. Aggregated data was also obtained from five private hospitals. Results 978 children were admitted in public hospitals over 2004 and 2005 (no fatalities) being 1.8% and 1.6% of all pediatric admissions (private hospitals admitted 293 cases). The majority of the poisoning cases came from Jahra hospital (>35%), the median age was 2.3 yrs, 93% of cases were under 6 yrs old and 71% were Kuwaiti. Two thirds of cases involved pharmaceuticals although this varied between hospitals with a tendency for more severe cases with chemical poisoning (p=0.011). Kerosene was an important problem at Jahra hospital (34.7% of chemical exposures). Non-opioid analgesics constituted 22.3% of medication exposures with hormones and drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system also common with some difference in pattern between institutions. Conclusion Case demographics do not vary significantly between the hospitals but there are differences in the nature of toxic agents to which children are exposed suggesting that preventive and educational programs could be targeted to specific areas for maximal effect particularly with regard to household chemical and kerosene exposures. PMID:25152792

  1. Root zone of the sheeted dike complex in the Oman ophiolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolphe Nicolas; Françoise Boudier; Jurgen Koepke; Benoît Ildefonse; Catherine Mevel

    2008-01-01

    In the Oman ophiolite crustal section, a contact zone between the gabbro unit and the volcanics and diabase sheeted dikes, called the root zone of the sheeted dike complex, has been recently mapped at a fine scale in a selected area. The Oman ophiolite is derived from a fast spreading ridge which had a melt lens located between the main

  2. A Detailed Study of Mantle Flow away from Diapirs in the Oman Ophiolite

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    lr t A Detailed Study of Mantle Flow away from Diapirs in the Oman Ophiolite B.ILDEFONSE, S are documented in several ophiolites. We relate such inversions to the forced flow away from the top of mantle diapirs. In the Oman ophiolite, however, the shear direc- tion inversion is not systematically developed

  3. EPR microplates, a model for the Oman Ophiolite F. Boudier, A. Nicolas, B. lldefonseand D. Jousselin

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    EPR microplates, a model for the Oman Ophiolite F. Boudier, A. Nicolas, B. lldefonseand D ci&x 05, France ABSTRACT Structural mapping in the Southern half of the Oman ophiolite has revealed as part of a future ophiolite. Local thrusting of the future ophiolite was also initiatedvery early

  4. Deep and High-temperature Hydrothermal Circulation in the Oman Ophiolite-------

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Deep and High-temperature Hydrothermal Circulation in the Oman Ophiolite------- Petrological search for evidence of high-temperature hydrous alteration within the gabbros of the Samail ophiolite the internal wall of the magma chamber. KEY WORDS: hydrothermal systems; Oman ophiolite; Sr and O isotopes

  5. The Sultanate of Oman shark fishery: Species composition, seasonality and diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron C. Henderson; Jennifer L. McIlwain; Hamed S. Al-Oufi; Sulaiman Al-Sheili

    2007-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman has a long established traditional shark fishery, which has experienced increased demand in recent years due to the shark fin trade. Despite the long history of the fishery in Oman and neighbouring countries, few studies have been undertaken to determine the biological characteristics of the fishery or its ability to withstand this increased exploitation. The present

  6. Seasonal Characteristics of Planetary Boundary Layer in Qatar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Luis; Ayoub, Mohammed A.; Astudillo, Daniel P.; Bachour, Dunia A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) development as well as its seasonal characteristics is essential for predicting meteorological and air quality phenomena. Using data from the vertical backscatter profile of the atmosphere above Qatar from a ceilometer, coupled with a novel Layer Identification Algorithm (LIA) developed by QEERI, a continuous time series of the PBL has been attained. This data has been carefully validated against in-situ measurements via coinciding radiosonde launches. These launches were performed weekly at 13:00 local time during 2014; with occasional launches at 07:00. The detected PBL depth from the sondes show good correlation with LIA. This algorithm uses image recognition methods to identify boundary layers not only by their vertical characteristics; but also by their temporal and spatial signatures. This algorithm was written in Python and is designed to process the ceilometer's output data in real time or as a post-process. The behavior of the PBL depth diurnal variation in Qatar was observed to vary in correlation with the change in seasons. During the winter months the mean PBL depth was higher compared to the summer months; in addition, the diurnal amplitude was higher during winter. Apart from seasonal variations in the PBL depth behavior, short term fluctuations in the daily signature of the PBL structure were observed; with some days exhibiting a well-developed PBL followed by a day with no significant PBL variation. This behavior of the summer PBL (lower daily mean depth and lower diurnal amplitude relative to winter) was explained after looking at diurnal humidity and temperature variations. During these months, the intense temperature and humidity enhances the energy flux towards latent heat, actually diminishing the effect of the high insolation towards the development of the PBL. Lower mean PBL depths during the months of higher photochemical activity affect surface concentrations of secondary pollutants and particle matter.

  7. No variations in transit times for Qatar-1 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Ohlert, J.; Puchalski, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Seeliger, M.; Kitze, M.; Raetz, St.; Errmann, R.; Gilbert, H.; Pannicke, A.; Schmidt, J.-G.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The transiting hot-Jupiter planet Qatar-1 b exhibits variations in transit times that could be perturbative. A hot Jupiter with a planetary companion on a nearby orbit would constitute an unprecedented planetary configuration, which is important for theories of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We performed a photometric follow-up campaign to confirm or refute transit timing variations. Methods: We extend the baseline of transit observations by acquiring 18 new transit light curves acquired with 0.6-2.0 m telescopes. These photometric time series, together with data available in the literature, were analyzed in a homogenous way to derive reliable transit parameters and their uncertainties. Results: We show that the dataset of transit times is consistent with a linear ephemeris leaving no hint of any periodic variations with a range of 1 min. We find no compelling evidence of a close-in planetary companion to Qatar-1 b. This finding is in line with a paradigm that hot Jupiters are not components of compact multiplanetary systems. Based on dynamical simulations, we place tighter constraints on the mass of any fictitious nearby planet in the system. Furthermore, new transit light curves allowed us to redetermine system parameters with better precision than reported in previous studies. Our values generally agree with previous determinations. Partly based on (1) data collected with telescopes at the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory and (2) observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.Tables of light curve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A109

  8. Tsunami Hazard Assessment along the Coast of Oman from Near- and Far-field Tectonic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, Issa; Baptista, Maria; Omira, Rachid; Al-Rawas, Ghazi; Deif, Ahmed; Al-Habsi, Zaid; Al-Jabri, Khalifa

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas of Oman are exposed to tsunami threat associated with earthquakes generated in two major subduction zones, namely Makran and Sumatra. Both zones were responsible of triggering tsunamis that reached/impacted Oman coast. The Mw8.1 earthquake event of 1945, occurred in Makran zone, has caused a tsunami that was reported to affect the coast of Oman. The Mw9.2 Indian Ocean event of 2004 triggered a tsunami that was recorded in various tide-gauges stations of Oman with wave amplitude reaching ~1.7m in the port of Salalah. This work aims to assess tsunami hazard along the Oman coast considering both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Deterministic approach uses particular source scenarios (most credible and/or worst case) from Makran and Sumatra subduction zones and computes the tsunami coastal impact through numerical modeling of expected waveforms, maximum wave heights distribution, and site-specific inundations. While, probabilistic approach includes the contribution of small and large sources and employs the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment together with the numerical modeling to evaluate the likelihood that a certain level of tsunami threat is exceeded at a certain location of Oman coast within a certain period of time. We present deterministic results in terms of regional scale distribution of maximum wave heights, tsunami waveforms computation, and inundation maps for a selected coastal area. For probabilistic assessment, we derive 250- and 500-years probability hazard exceedance maps and hazard curves for the Oman coast. The hazard maps consist of computing the likelihood that tsunami waves exceed a specific amplitude for the entire coast of Oman, and the hazard curves describe the variation of cumulative probabilities as function of wave amplitudes at some critical coastal points. Finally, we discuss the usefulness of obtained results for tsunami mitigation in Oman. Keywords: Tsunami, Oman, Deterministic approach, Probabilistic approach.

  9. Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

  10. Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

  11. Education for a New Era: Design and Implementation of K-12 Education Reform in Qatar. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar has a social and political vision that calls for improving the outcomes of the Qatari K-12 education system. With this vision in mind, the leadership asked RAND to examine Qatar's K-12 education system, to recommend options for building a world-class system, and, subsequently, to develop the chosen option and support its…

  12. Getting Its Ducks in a Row? Qatar Foundation's Agreement with HEC Paris and the Launch of the Qatar Foundation Management, Education and Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week, private, non-profit organisation the Qatar Foundation (QF) announced a partnership agreement with French business institution HEC Paris to offer executive education programmes. According to the terms of the agreement, a full-time faculty will provide executive and short certificate programmes and corporate-specific training, including…

  13. THE u.s. ARMYAND nn: Rf:cONSTRUC'llON OF KUWAIT JANET A. M cDoNNELl.

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    . The reconstruction of Kuwait clearly demonstrated that post-hostilities activ- ities can be as important as conflict.S. Army and the Reconstruction of Kuwait by janet A. McDonnell DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY WASHINGTON, D Storm : the U.S. Army and the reconstruction of Kuwait I by janet A. McDonnell. p. em. Includes

  14. Epidemiological transition of some diseases in Oman: a situational analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, S S; Al-Lawati, A; Al-Shafaee, M A; Duttagupta, K K

    2009-01-01

    During the past 35 years Oman has undergone a rapid socioeconomic and epidemiological transition leading to a steep reduction in child and adult mortality and morbidity due to the decline of various communicable diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases. Good governance and planning, together with leadership and commitment by the government, has been a critical factor in this reduction. However, with increasing prosperity, lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases have emerged as new health challenges to the country, with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity in the lead among other chronic conditions. Appropriate prevention strategies for reducing the burden of noncommunicable diseases are discussed. PMID:19670522

  15. Epidemiological transition of some diseases in Oman: a situational analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, S S; Al-Shafaee, M A; Al-Lawati, J A; Dutta, P K; Duttagupta, K K

    2009-01-01

    During the past 35 years Oman has undergone a rapid socioeconomic and epidemiological transition leading to a steep reduction in child and adult mortality and morbidity due to the decline of various communicable diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases. Good governance and planning, together with leadership and commitment by the government, has been a critical factor in this reduction. However, with increasing prosperity, lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases have emerged as new health challenges to the country, with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity in the lead among other chronic conditions. Appropriate prevention strategies for reducing the burden of noncommunicable diseases are discussed. PMID:19469445

  16. A Case of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zadjali, Matllooba; Al-Hashim, Hakeem; Al-Ghailani, Mohammad; Balkhair, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of June 2011, the first case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was observed in Oman since the last fifteen years. The first blood sample using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were sent looking for CCHF, tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunya and West Nile. All resulted as negative. The repeated serology for CCHF came strongly positive after five days from the initial negative test, and accordingly patient started on ribavirin and he responded to it. His condition improved dramatically. PMID:23772290

  17. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.

    PubMed

    de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

    2010-12-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523

  18. Modeling Pan Evaporation for Kuwait by Multiple Linear Regression

    PubMed Central

    Almedeij, Jaber

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation is an important parameter for many projects related to hydrology and water resources systems. This paper constitutes the first study conducted in Kuwait to obtain empirical relations for the estimation of daily and monthly pan evaporation as functions of available meteorological data of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The data used here for the modeling are daily measurements of substantial continuity coverage, within a period of 17 years between January 1993 and December 2009, which can be considered representative of the desert climate of the urban zone of the country. Multiple linear regression technique is used with a procedure of variable selection for fitting the best model forms. The correlations of evaporation with temperature and relative humidity are also transformed in order to linearize the existing curvilinear patterns of the data by using power and exponential functions, respectively. The evaporation models suggested with the best variable combinations were shown to produce results that are in a reasonable agreement with observation values. PMID:23226984

  19. Surgical site infection complicating breast cancer surgery in kuwait.

    PubMed

    Omar, Abeer A; Al-Mousa, Haifaa H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common postoperative complication associated with breast cancer surgery. The present investigation aimed to determine the SSI rate after breast cancer surgeries and the causative microorganisms. Patients and Methods. All patients who underwent breast surgery in Kuwait Cancer Control Center as a treatment for breast cancer from January 2009-December 2010 were prospectively followed for the development of SSI. Indirect detection was used to identify SSIs through medical record to review and discussion with the treating surgeons. Results. The number of operations was 438. Females represented 434 (99.1%) cases while males constituted only 4 (0.9%) cases. SSIs were diagnosed after 10 operations, all for female cases. Most of the SSIs (8 cases; 80%) were detected after patients were discharged, during outpatient followup. Out of those 5/8; (62.5%) were readmitted for management of SSI. Nine patients (90%) received systemic antibiotic therapy for management of their wound infection. The SSI rate was 2.3%. The main causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) which was responsible for 40% of infections. Gram negative bacteria were isolated from 40% of the cases. Conclusion. SSI is an important complication following breast cancer surgery. Microbiological diagnosis is an essential tool for proper management of such patients. PMID:24967132

  20. Health related quality of life of obese adolescents in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity impairs health related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescents, but most evidence in this area has mostly come from western societies. We wanted to test the hypothesis that obesity impairs HRQL in Kuwaiti adolescents, and to test for differences in HRQL assessed by self-report and parent-proxy report. Methods In 500 Kuwaiti 10–14 year olds HRQL was assessed using the Peds QLTM with both adolescent self-reports (n?=?500) and parent-proxy reports (n?=?374). Results Obesity was not significantly associated with HRQL in regression analysis. In a paired comparison of 98 pairs of obese adolescents vs. 98 healthy weight peers, impairment of HRQL reached significance only for physical score (95% CI?=??1.5, -9.4), not for psychosocial score or total score. In a paired comparison of parent-proxy vs. self-reports for the obese adolescents, total score (95% CI?=??4.9, -10.9), physical score (95% CI?=??3.2, -11.0), and psychosocial score (95% CI?=??4.2, -10.8) were all significantly lower in the parent reports. Conclusions Obesity is not associated with marked impairment of HRQL in adolescents in Kuwait, in contrast to studies in western societies. This may reflect cultural differences in attitudes towards obesity. PMID:23845118

  1. Using the accreditation journey to achieve global impact: UHN's experience at the Kuwait Cancer Control Center.

    PubMed

    Ladha-Waljee, Nafeesa; McAteer, Stephen; Nickerson, Veronica; Khalfan, Adil

    2014-01-01

    On January 1, 2011, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (PM) - University Health Network (UHN) began a five-year partnership agreement with the Kuwait Ministry of Health's Kuwait Cancer Control Center (KCCC) to enhance cancer care services. Over the course of the partnership, opportunities for improvement were identified by UHN experts in order to accelerate KCCC's development toward subspecialty cancer care. Many of these opportunities involved building a robust infrastructure to support foundational hospital operation processes and procedures. Harnessing UHN's own successes in accreditation, the partnership took advantage of the national accreditation mandate in Kuwait to initiate a quality program and drive clinical improvement at KCCC. This resulted in improved staff engagement, better awareness and alignment of administration with clinical management and a stronger patient safety culture. This article discusses the successes and lessons learned at KCCC that may provide insight to healthcare providers implementing Accreditation Canada International's accreditation framework in other countries and cultures. PMID:25191806

  2. Histomorphological Spectrum of Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid in Oman.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asim; Haddabi, Ibrahim Al; Saparamadu, Anna; Al-Shehhi, Asmaa H; Silva, Chandu Di

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid cancer is the commonest endocrine malignancy and is the second most common cancer affecting young females in Oman. The diagnosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) is based primarily on histologic architecture and nuclear morphology in routine Haematoxilin and Eosin (H & E) stained slides. Whenever in doubt, immunohistochemistry may be helpful. This retrospective study included 115 cases of PTC diagnosed at a tertiary care center in Oman over 10 years period, from 2001 to 2010. Slides and blocks of these cases were retrieved from the pathology laboratory. Ninety five (95) were females and 20 were males. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) was most commonly seen in the 20 - 50 years of age. The commonest morphologic variant seen in this population was classical papillary variant in 44/115 (38%) followed by papillary micro-carcinoma (n=30/115, 26%) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (n=18/115, 15.6%). Out of the 30 micro-carcinoma cases, 18 were diagnosed incidentally in thyroids operated for multi-nodular goiter. Immunohistochemical marker CK-19 was positive in 29/31, HBME-1 and HMW-CK in 15/15 cases; CEAwas in one case where it was reported negative. Immunohistochemical stains were useful in cases with atypical /doubtful morphology. PMID:26101007

  3. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among University Students in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Zakiya; Bhargava, Kamlesh; Al-Ismaily, Aida; Al-Lawati, Hadia; Al-Kindi, Rahma; Al-Shafaee, Mohammad; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with gender, academic year, and college among university students in Oman. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Omani students attending the students’ clinic of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU). A systematic sampling of students, males and females, from different colleges, who visited the clinic during the study period, was carried out. The self-administered Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to screen for propensity to depression. Results A total of 481 students participated in the study (243 males and 238 females). Overall, 133 (27.7%) of the participants (66 males and 67 females) had depression of various grades based on the PHQ-9 diagnostic criteria using a cut point of more than 11. Depression score at the cut point of 11 was not statistically associated with gender, college and the academic year. Conclusion Tendency for depression might be a common health problem among college students in Oman attending primary health care facilities. Further research on socio-demographic characteristics and the effect of depression on the academic performance is needed. PMID:22043426

  4. Infectious and tropical diseases in Oman: a review.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, E M; Mehta, F R; Suleiman, A J

    1999-12-01

    Oman is generally hot and dry, but the Salalah region in southern Dhofar province is relatively cool and rainy during the summer monsoon, and has a distinctive pattern of infection. Important, notifiable infections in Oman include tuberculosis, brucellosis (endemic in Dhofar), acute gastroenteritis, and viral hepatitis: 4.9% of the adults are seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen and approximately 1.2% for hepatitis C virus. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus is uncommon, and leprosy, rabies, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever are rare. Between 1990 and 1998, the incidence of malaria, (>70% due to Plasmodium falciparum) decreased from 32,700 to 882 cases. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (caused by Leishmania tropica and L. infantum, respectively) and Bancroftian filariasis occur sporadically. Intestinal parasitism ranges from 17% to 42% in different populations. A solitary focus of schistosomiasis mansoni in Dhofar has been eradicated. There are major programs for the elimination of tuberculosis, leprosy, and malaria, and to control brucellosis, leishmaniasis, sexually transmitted diseases, trachoma, acute respiratory infection in children, and diarrheal diseases. The Expanded Program on Immunization was introduced in 1981: diphtheria, neonatal tetanus, and probably poliomyelitis have been eliminated. PMID:10674671

  5. Relatives’ Advice and Health Care-Seeking Behaviour in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Eloul, Liyam

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: It has been well established that pathways to care are considerably modified by local, social and psychological characteristics as well as the doctor-patient relationship. Scant attention has been paid to the role of family advice in care-seeking. In Omani society, traditional family values and a collective mindset are the norm rather than the exception. This paper examines how family advice affects the trajectory of care seeking. Methodology: During 2006–2007, data was collected through face-to-face interviews among a randomised sample of patients seeking medical consultation in various primary health care centres in the northern region of Oman. This study enrolled a total of 493 patients. The association between the advice of family members as a reason to seek health care and other predictors was analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that the advice of family members in care-seeking is strongly associated with gender, education, history of chronic illness, previous exposure to traditional medicine, and health education, as well as the history of immunisation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the advice of family members remains a strong catalyst for care-seeking in Oman. The psychosocial factors affecting care-seeking leading to underutilisation of services or otherwise are discussed. PMID:21509309

  6. Health Facilities for Primary Eye Care in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Mohammed, Ali J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Endeavor to improve (i) the quality of Primary Eye Care with the aid of an Eye Health Care Programme and (ii) the resourcing Primary Eye Care in Ministry of Health Institutions in 2001. Method: In this descriptive study, staff were randomly selected from 84 health institutions and representing 136 primary health institutions to carry out quality assurance procedures. Ophthalmologists trained in this evaluation were field staff who evaluated the resource status, such as health staff, space for eye care delivery, instruments, materials for health education, referring cases (for continuous medical education of the primary health staff), drugs for eye care, etc., in each health institution. In addition to availability, the standards of eye care delivery were also estimated. Results: The health institutes of Oman have adequate resources for Primary Eye Care. Additional requirement of ophthalmic loupes and medicaments would further improve Primary Eye Care in Oman. Conclusion: It is recommended that such a review of the health care programme and its resources and quality be periodically conducted as a part of a system of quality assurance in primary health care. PMID:21748123

  7. New heat flow measurements in Oman in the Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandone, F.; Lucazeau, F.; Jaupart, C.; Leroy, S.; Bache, F.; Amerjeed, M.; Lally, J.

    2009-04-01

    Precambrian shields are viewed as low heat flow provinces but detailed studies in Canada, South Africa and India shields demonstrate that large heat flow differences exist between them and within a single province, related to differences of crustal structures. Very few heat flow measurements are available on the Arabian shield and its thermal structure is poorly constrained. Heat flow reported for the Arabian Shield and its immediate platform (36-88 mWm-2) is broad. Thermal regime has a control on rheology and on deformation and the Arabian shield is of particular interest because it was affected by geodynamic processes such as the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden riftings starting around 30 Ma ago and the formation of the Dead Sea Transform fault starting at about 20 Ma. In December 2006, a marine heat-flow survey in the Gulf of Aden provided 169 new heat-flow measurements along multi-channel seismic profiles. One of the main results is that the high heat-flow (~120 mWm-2), characteristic of oceanic domains, extends into the deep continental margin and switches abruptly in the proximal margin to a low value (~40 mWm-2) typical of stable Precambrian domain. These low values have been confirmed by estimates derived from oil exploration data in few locations south of Oman. These data indicate a strong contrast of thermal regimes within the continental margin. Recent tomography studies on Arabia in Oman show that the lithosphere is significantly affected within Arabia in the vicinity of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. This pattern is apparently different from the observed heat-flow pattern, which needs to be confirmed and extended into the Arabian platform. The survey we conducted in October 2008 was to evaluate the thermal regime in the onshore domains of Oman. We measured the temperature gradient in 9 water wells in Dhofar south of Oman and in 8 mining wells in northern Oman in the ophiolite belt. The goal is to investigate the thermal structure of the Arabian plate and to study its variations within different geological contexts. Measurements in water wells depend strongly on how the reservoirs interact with the thermal regime and water circulations perturbed some wells. Others show a stable temperature gradient (14-28 mKm-1) leading to a surface heat flow in the range of 35-56 mWm-2 if we assume a conductivity of 2 Wm-1K-1 based on oil exploration wells. A more detailed analysis of the lithology is still needed. Measurements in mining wells in northern Dhofar give low gradients (7- 22 mKm-1). The thermal conductivity of basalts, in the range 1.5-2.5 Wm-1K-1, leads to a heat flow lower than 50 mWm-2. Thermal conductivities of rock samples will be measured but the overall trend seems to indicate a low heat flow for the Arabian shield.

  8. Underlying Factors Behind the Low Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Oman: Sociocultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Waly, Mostafa; Gupta, Ishita; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological surveys from various countries indicate an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), leading researchers to debate whether there are now 'more affected' or 'more detected'. The epidemiology of ASD in developing countries, such as Oman, has generally indicated a lower prevalence compared to developed countries in the West. In Oman, the prevalence is low; however, this article highlights some of the factors that could contribute to the appearance of a low ASD rate: cross-cultural variations in the presentation of distress; a lack of reliable biological markers for diagnosing ASD, and a lack of health services for children with ASD, thus limiting the number of participants in epidemiological surveys. While the defining features of ASD have yet to be established, pilot studies in Oman indicate a substantial number of children with these disorders. Therefore, it is important that these discrepancies be addressed and the need for appropriate services for this patient population in Oman be highlighted. PMID:26052454

  9. Underlying Factors Behind the Low Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Waly, Mostafa; Gupta, Ishita; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys from various countries indicate an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), leading researchers to debate whether there are now ‘more affected’ or ‘more detected’. The epidemiology of ASD in developing countries, such as Oman, has generally indicated a lower prevalence compared to developed countries in the West. In Oman, the prevalence is low; however, this article highlights some of the factors that could contribute to the appearance of a low ASD rate: cross-cultural variations in the presentation of distress; a lack of reliable biological markers for diagnosing ASD, and a lack of health services for children with ASD, thus limiting the number of participants in epidemiological surveys. While the defining features of ASD have yet to be established, pilot studies in Oman indicate a substantial number of children with these disorders. Therefore, it is important that these discrepancies be addressed and the need for appropriate services for this patient population in Oman be highlighted.

  10. Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Young; R. G. M. de Bruijn; A. Salim Al-Ismaily

    1998-01-01

    One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast\\u000a of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and\\u000a the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary

  11. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  12. Oxidation states of uranium in depleted uranium particles from Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Janssens, K; Lind, O C; Proost, K; Gijsels, L; Danesi, P R

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation states of uranium in depleted uranium (DU) particles were determined by synchrotron radiation based mu-XANES, applied to individual particles isolated from selected samples collected at different sites in Kuwait. Based on scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis prior to mu-XANES, DU particles ranging from submicrons to several hundred micrometers were observed. The median particle size depended on sources and sampling sites; small-sized particles (median 13 microm) were identified in swipes taken from the inside of DU penetrators holes in tanks and in sandy soil collected below DU penetrators, while larger particles (median 44 microm) were associated with fire in a DU ammunition storage facility. Furthermore, the (236)U/(235)U ratios obtained from accelerator mass spectrometry demonstrated that uranium in the DU particles originated from reprocessed fuel (about 10(-2) in DU from the ammunition facility, about 10(-3) for DU in swipes). Compared to well-defined standards, all investigated DU particles were oxidized. Uranium particles collected from swipes were characterized as UO(2), U(3)O(8) or a mixture of these oxidized forms, similar to that observed in DU affected areas in Kosovo. Uranium particles formed during fire in the DU ammunition facility were, however, present as oxidation state +5 and +6, with XANES spectra similar to solid uranyl standards. Environmental or health impact assessments for areas affected by DU munitions should therefore take into account the presence of respiratory UO(2), U(3)O(8) and even UO(3) particles, their corresponding weathering rates and the subsequent mobilisation of U from oxidized DU particles. PMID:15511555

  13. The Oman Ophiolite as a Record of Subduction Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenberg, C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite is the largest and best-known ophiolite in the world. It formed in the Cretaceous (~95 Ma) in the Neotethyan ocean, but its geodynamic setting of formation has been heavily debated for over three decades. Many workers have assumed that it formed in an open ocean setting, consequently utilising the ophiolite as a direct analogue for fast-spreading oceanic crust, whereas others argue that the complex formed in a subduction setting. Here, we make the case that the Oman ophiolite records the evolution of the upper plate of a newly initiated subduction zone. Using a database of >1200 lava and dyke analyses ('OmanDB'), we show that the earliest lava sequence (the Geotimes unit) is systematically different to modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, and that these differences can be explained by the presence of elevated water contents. This rules out a mid-ocean ridge origin, pointing instead to a subduction-related setting. The lavas evolved from the Geotimes 'moist MORB' to island-arc tholeiite and boninite (the Lasail and Alley units); hence, we conclude that the entire ophiolite formed in a subduction zone. The data suggest a progressive addition of water and concomitant depletion of the mantle source. High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates that this fundamental change in magmatic source occurred within ~2 million years. The spreading structure of the ophiolite is characterized by a series of NW-SE trending propagating rifts that crosscut earlier N-S trending ridge segments. Together with palaeomagnetic evidence, which calls for 30° clockwise rotation between Geotimes and Lasail/Alley, and 120° between Lasail/Alley and the later Salahi lavas, it suggests that construction of the lithosphere was accompanied by significant plate rotation. Combined, the available evidence suggests that the rapid change in magmatic signature to increasingly arc-like compositions was coeval with large-scale rotational disaggregation of young ocean lithosphere and consequent reorganisation of the spreading system. This is consistent with the formation of the ophiolite above a newly initiated subduction zone, where a rapidly sinking slab changes the mantle melting regime and induces rotational stress due to differential rollback.

  14. Quaternary coastal evolution of Oman (Arabian Peninsula) - a quantitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, G.; Rupprechter, M.; Roepert, A.; Quraishi, K. Al; Balushi, N. Al; Grützner, C.; Reicherter, K.

    2012-04-01

    The paper reviews the Quaternary coastal evolution of Oman. Emphasise is put on quantifying the different forcing factors. The plate tectonic setting, the Quaternary climate evolution, the sea-level history and the impact of natural hazards are identified as key factors of coastal evolution. The Arabian Plate is characterized by a northward movement forming a continent-continent collision zone in the west and the Makran Subduction Zone in the east. As a result differential land movement is observable in Oman. The Quaternary climate evolution is well understood. Besides other proxies notably spelothems and aeolian deposits allow to draw a consistent picture. It is understood that changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone result in intensity-changes of the summer monsoon. These changes are related to global atmospheric circulation patterns. Data on the sea-level history are sparse; despite general assumptions of a sea-level lowstand, correlating with the last glacial maximum, resulting in terrestrial conditions within the Arabian Gulf. Furthermore, a mid-Holocene sea level highstand in the range of +2m is documented in several locations. The coastlines of Oman are affected by tsunami and hurricanes. However, almost no instrumental or historical data on the impact of such natural hazards are available due to the isolation of the country in the past. Several Quaternary deposits have been investigated in a reconnaissance survey. There is sound geological evidence for a tsunami to have affected the coastline in 1945, with the possibility of older tsunami events being also recorded in the geological record. There is strong evidence of differential land movement along the coastline; locally indicated by marine terraces in elevations of up to 400m (Rupprechter at al. 2012). By quantifying the differential land movement for numerous sites, the sea-level history will be revealed. Ultimately the data will be utilized to form the base of a modeling approach. Furthermore, a sedimentary archive of past precipitation events is documented which will allow reconstructing frequency and intensity of precipitation events and may indicate the impact of past hurricanes. It is concluded that the geological archives are suitable to quantify the forcing factors of Quaternary coastal evolution on different time scales and that the recurrence intervals of natural hazards will be revealed. Proxy data will be gained in subsequent investigations. This allows a scientific based holistic approach for an integrated coastal zone management that helps to formulate adaptation strategies with regard to global warming and expected environmental changes.

  15. This book is dedicated to the people of Qatar His Highness

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    · Alignment of the book with the Qatar NationalVision 2030 · Biodiversity and the feel-good factor in human medicine in rural areas · Lizard usage in gastronomy · A common human world-wide behaviour · Eating zarudnyi) is a real lizard · Thermorregulation · Lizard eyes and vision · The third eye or pineal eye

  16. Nutritional Value and Microbiological Safety of Fresh Fruit Juices sold through Retail Outlets in Qatar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    The nutritional value of ten fresh fruit juices purchased from retail outlets in Doha, Qatar was calculated on the basis that approximately 100 g of fruit is used to make one glass of juice (250 ml). Avocado juice was the best source of energy and potassium followed by banana juice, while guava juice was an outstanding source of vitamin C

  17. National Student Research Fairs as Evidence for Progress in Qatar's Education for a New Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Margery K.; Alnaimi, Tarfa Nasser; Alhajri, Shaikha Hamad

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the State of Qatar has positioned itself as a leader of educational reform. In 2004, Education for a New Era (ENE) established internationally benchmarked curriculum in Qatari "Independent Schools". Educational reform was to provide an educated workforce and economic prosperity based on a competitive, knowledge-based…

  18. Developing Cultural Competency in Life and Simulation: A Year in Qatar as an Exemplar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colette Foisy-Doll

    Globalization is creating rich opportunities for nurse educators to interact in teaching and learning environments with people from all over the world. When the author accepted a job in the Middle East for the University of Calgary, Qatar, as clinical assessment and simulation manager, she fully expected an amazing experience. What ensued was profound lesson in valuing the importance of

  19. A New System for K-12 Education in Qatar. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of the Arabian Gulf nation of Qatar, like that of many other countries, views education as the key to future economic, political, and social progress. Many have concluded that a country's ability to compete in the global economy and enable its citizens to take full advantage of technological advances relies on upgrading the quality…

  20. "Hope in the Life": The Children of Qatar Speak about Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Lazarus, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Qatar supports the rights of children with special needs to obtain suitable opportunities to learn and be included with other children. However, the concept of inclusion in education is relatively new in this country. In 2001, the Special Needs Committee of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs set up a task force to begin planning for including…

  1. Qatar's K-12 Education Reform Has Achieved Success in Its Early Years. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Judy

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate progress made in the first years of Qatar's implementation of K-12 education reform, RAND analyzed data from school-level observations, national surveys, and national student assessments. The study found that students in the new, Independent schools were performing better than those in Ministry schools, and there was greater student…

  2. Lessons Learned from Developing and Implementing the Qatar Student Assessment System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Broer, Markus; Mariano, Louis T.; Froemel, J. Enrique; Goldman, Charles A.; DaVanzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of Qatar's standards-based student assessment system, the first in the region, offers several lessons for other nations instituting similar reforms. These include the need to coordinate on standards and assessment development, allow sufficient time for a fully aligned assessment, and communicate about the purposes and uses of testing.…

  3. Identifying Priorities for Post-Secondary Education in Qatar. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasz, Cathleen; Eide, Eric R.; Martorell, Francisco; Salem, Hanine; Constant, Louay; Goldman, Charles A.; Moini, Joy S.; Nadareishvili, Vazha

    2007-01-01

    Although Qatar has improved its post-secondary educational opportunities, the country's efforts have not undergone a broad strategic review. This study analyzed the extent to which the current offerings can meet the country's future needs and identified priorities for developing further educational options. Researchers found that Qataris' current…

  4. Adequacy, Accountability, Autonomy and Equity in a Middle Eastern School Reform: The Case of Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and…

  5. An International Collaboration: Establishing an Education Collection in a Library in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Texas A&M University has a history of international collaboration, cooperation and global outreach. Texas A&M University at Qatar provides engineering students in the Middle East with an education, and ultimately, a degree comparable to that found on our home campus in College Station. The Texas A&M University Libraries have provided curricular…

  6. Post-Secondary Education in Qatar: Employer Demand, Student Choice, and Options for Policy. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasz, Cathleen; Eide, Eric R.; Martorell, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Qatar has made significant efforts to improve post-secondary educational opportunities to ensure that its citizens are able to contribute to the country's social and economic goals. These initiatives, however, have not been subjected to a broad strategic review. The authors describe RAND's analysis of skill and occupational demands and related…

  7. Mothers' Perceptions of the Treatment of Their Children with Disabilities in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alyn K.

    2011-01-01

    This article constitutes one part of a study of the perceptions of mothers of children with disabilities in Qatar with the purpose of obtaining mothers' unique perceptions of treatment of their children within their community. Participants included 40 mothers of one or more children with disabilities from ages 4 to 19 who attended the same…

  8. Roles and Responsibilities of Teaching Assistants in Primary Independent Schools of Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Almula, Badriya; Al Motawaha, Fatma; Fakhro, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the roles and responsibilities of teaching assistants in the primary independent schools in the State of Qatar and to determine whether these roles and responsibilities differed for subgroups in our sample. Results from the study were used to inform and improve certificate programs for teaching assistants.…

  9. Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Autism in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheir, Nadir; Ghoneim, Ola; Sandridge, Amy L.; Al-Ismail, Muna; Hayder, Sara; Al-Rawi, Fadhila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Caring for a child diagnosed with autism could affect the quality of life of the caregiver in various different ways. No previous research has assessed the quality of lives of caregivers of children with autism in Qatar. Methods: Caregivers of a child with autism between 3 and 17 years old were recruited from child rehabilitation…

  10. Promoting Quality and Variety through the Public Financing of Privately Operated Schools in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constant, Louay; Goldman, Charles A.; Zellman, Gail L.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Galama, Titus; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Guarino, C. A.; Karam, Rita; Ryan, Gery W.; Salem, Hanine

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, Qatar began establishing publicly funded, privately operated "independent schools" in parallel with the existing, centralized Ministry of Education system. The reform that drove the establishment of the independent schools included accountability provisions such as (a) measuring school and student performance and (b) distributing school…

  11. Implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project in Oman.

    PubMed

    Jaffer, Y A; Al Abri, J; Abdawani, J; Knight, H E; Cheikh Ismail, L

    2013-09-01

    The Middle Eastern site in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project was Muscat, the capital city of Oman, with approximately 10,500 births per year. The sample for the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) was drawn from two hospitals covering 96% of the region's births. The Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) sample was recruited from four primary health facilities serving Khoula Hospital, using the eligibility criteria in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) protocol. Special activities to encourage participation in this population included local advocacy campaigns to encourage early antenatal booking and ultrasound dating in the population. The major challenges at the site were the recruitment of sufficient numbers of women at an early gestational age, and the timely measurement of all newborns within 12 hours of birth. Many individuals and institutions collaborated effectively over a period of several years on these studies, which required careful planning and close monitoring for their successful implementation. PMID:23679957

  12. Learning Style Preferences of Preclinical Medical Students in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Panambur, Sabitha; Nambiar, Vinod; Heming, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our study sought to assess the learning preferences of students studying in the preclinical years of the medical degree program at Oman Medical College, Sohar.?Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we administered a learning style questionnaire (VARK model) to 140 students to assess their preferred mode of learning, specifically the sensory modality by which they prefer to take in information.?Results: Over one third (35%) of the respondents expressed their preference for a single mode of learning, either visual (8%), auditory (9%), read/write (9%), or kinesthetic (9%). The remaining students preferred learning using a combination of either two (14%), three (19%), or four (32%) sensory modalities.?Conclusion: The results of our study provide us with useful information to develop appropriate learning approaches to reach all types of learners at the college. PMID:25584167

  13. Analysis of information technology (IT) applications in academic libraries in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veeramani Marimuthu; Vinayagamoorthy Paraman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Library professionals today need to acquire knowledge and skills in information and communication technology as the services of more and more libraries are now centering on information technology (IT), especially in educational institutions. Application of IT in academic environment in Kuwait has increased gradually in the recent decades. This paper is designed to measure the use of IT

  14. Acquiring Information Technology Skills by Freshmen Students at Kuwait University: The Language Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir N. Hamade

    2007-01-01

    The provision of academic courses for freshmen students aiming at improving their information technology skills is crucial due to the large number of students admitted every year. Kuwait University introduced a service course in information technology skills to freshman students in the College of Science to be taught in English, and a similar course to freshmen students in the College

  15. The Construction of a Modular Thematic Task Bound English Language Achievement Test Battery for Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghdady, M. I.

    This paper reports the development of a test battery to replace the structural testing used in Kuwait to assess skills acquired in the communicatively-based Crescent English Course. A list of activities and tasks required of students at level six was drawn from the course syllabus, and four modules containing clusters of integrated language tasks…

  16. NNSA Signs Memorandum with Kuwait to Increase Cooperation on Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    On June 23, 2010, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation on nuclear safeguards and other nonproliferation topics with the Kuwait National Nuclear Energy Committee (KNNEC). NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino and KNNEC's Secretary General, Dr. Ahmad Bishara, signed the memorandum at a ceremony at U.S. Department of Energy headquarters in Washington.

  17. Using a multiple-attribute approach for measuring customer satisfaction with retail banking services in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulkarim S. Al-Eisa; Abdulla M. Alhemoud

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to attempt to identify the most salient attributes that influence customer satisfaction with retail banks in Kuwait and to determine the level of the overall satisfaction of the customers of these banks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multiple-attribute approach proposed by Shin and Elliott in 2001 was employed. This approach was applied in the

  18. A Survey of Contemporary Philosophies and Techniques of Restoring Endodontically Treated Teeth in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Morgano; John F. Bowley; Lukman Thalib; Ebrahim Abdulkarim

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Numerous methods of restoring endodontically treated teeth have been advocated, and the prognosis of the treatment varies depending on the materials and techniques used. The objective of this study was to improve the understanding of contemporary philosophies and techniques of restoring endodontically treated teeth in Kuwait to serve as a baseline for continuous quality improvement of dental care in

  19. A Survey of Leadership Standards for Professional Preparation of Public School Principals in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alansari, Amal EEHE

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Over the last decade, the Ministry of Education in Kuwait undertook the responsibility of reforming the Kuwaiti education system. While it noted the importance of school principals in this reform process, it has not yet focused on the development of school leaders through formal preparation. There were no standards set to guide school…

  20. A new snapping shrimp (Crustacea Decapoda, Alpheidae, Alpheus) from the estuarine mudflats of Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Anker; Grave De S

    2009-01-01

    A new snapping shrimp, Alpheus lutosus spec. nov., is described from the intertidal mudflats of Bubiyan Island, northern Kuwait, south of the vast Shatt-Al-Arab delta. The new species appears to be closely related to Alpheus hoplocheles Coutière, 1897 from similar estuarine habitats in China and Japan, differing mainly in the absence of a sharp distolateral tooth on the palm of

  1. Mangrove, Avicennia marina, Establishment and Growth under the Arid Climate of Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. BHAT; M. K. SULEIMAN; S. A. SHAHID

    2004-01-01

    The State of Kuwait is making concerted efforts to enhance greenery along its coastline. This study was conducted during 1999–2002 for identifying key soil factors associated with successful establishment and rapid growth in Avicennia marina. Based on the review of available data, repeated visits to potential sites, on-site assessment and laboratory characterization of soils, five sites (Shuwaikh, Sulaibikhat I, Sulaibikhat

  2. Seasonal and spatial differences in the fish assemblage of the non-estuarine Sulaibikhat Bay, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Wright

    1988-01-01

    In the period September 1986 to August 1987 fish were captured once a month, using an otter trawl, from the intertidal and subtidal regions of Sulaibikhat Bay, Kuwait. Correlation analysis revealed that numbers were not directly related to temperature at the time of sampling. The recruitment of large numbers of young of the year Liza carinata (Valenciennes) during March was

  3. A geomorphological approach to sustainable planning and management of the coastal zone of Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhia Al Bakri

    1996-01-01

    The coastal zone in Kuwait has been under a considerable pressure from conflicting land uses since the early 1960s, as well as from the destruction and oil pollution caused by the Gulf War. To avoid further damage and to protect the coastal heritage it is essential to adopt an environmentally sustainable management process. This paper shows how the study of

  4. Mastering Leadership Concepts through Utilizing Critical Thinking Strategies within Educational Administration Courses at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh; Al-Enezi, Mutlaq M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims at exploring the students' perceptions of mastering leadership concepts and critical thinking strategies implemented by faculty members in the college of education at Kuwait University, and the impact of the later on former. The data was collected using a questionnaire on a sample consisting of 411 students representing…

  5. Expected scenarios of environmental threats in Iraq compared with Kuwait's case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Mohamed Al-Damkhi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the literature about the environment as one of the victims of war throughout the history of mankind. Kuwait's environment, as a victim of the scorched-earth tactic carried out by the retreating Iraqi forces in 1991, is also reviewed. The probable scenarios of an environmental threat in Iraq as a result

  6. Barriers in participant recruitment of diverse ethnicities in the state of Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rejection rates of subject recruitments for research studies have been reported in immigrants in many countries. However, the barriers in recruiting members of the expatriate population in Kuwait have not yet been investigated. This study was therefore designed to identify barriers in recruiting expatriates for research studies in the state of Kuwait. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on expatriate subject’s aged 18 years and older living in Kuwait. Difference between groups of continuous independent variables was analyzed using the t-test. Different categories such as ethnicity and gender were compared using the chi-square test. Results 3460 (85.1%) participants were recruited and 617 (14.2%) refused to participate in the study while 2530 (38%) calls were unreachable from the total of 6607 calls placed. Younger subjects (mean age 41.1 years) were more hesitant to be part of the study compared to older participants. The rejections among South Asians was (41.8%), Arabs (32.6%), Southeast Asians (18.9%) while the others (6.6%) category was least to refuse among all the nationalities. Gender was not significantly associated with refusal. Conclusion There is an acute lack of appropriate recording of the problems faced while recruiting the participants. The findings suggest important messages for the decision makers in the area of expatriate recruitments, to understand the challenge and design new strategies to overcome the problem of recruitment in the state of Kuwait for research studies. PMID:24257144

  7. Vocational Education and Training in Kuwait: Vocational Education versus Values and Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilboe, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Since the opening up of private universities and colleges in the Kuwait education system in the late 1990s, there has been an explosion of tertiary institutions (both domestic and international) established in the country, with many of them offering vocational education and training. The move towards vocational and educational training forms part…

  8. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  9. Pattern of antibiotic prescription in the management of oral diseases among dentists in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. O Salako; V. O Rotimi; S. M Adib; S Al-Mutawa

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. The use and abuse of antibiotics have been of concern to the medical and the dental profession for sometime now, due mainly to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objective of this project was to determine the rationale and the pattern of antibiotic prescription for dental management in Kuwait.Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to 200 dental practitioners working in

  10. Prevalence of Candida dubliniensis among Oral Candida Isolates in Patients Attending the Kuwait University Dental Clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arjuna N. B. Ellepola; Zia U. Khan; Bobby Joseph; Rachel Chandy; Leeba Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the oral candidal carriage of patients seeking dental treatment at the Kuwait University Dental Clinic and to ascertain the Candida species composition among them. Methods: 370 oral rinse samples were collected from patients. The germ tube test, CHROMagar Candida medium and VITEK 2 yeast identification system were used for species identification.

  11. Preliminary assessment of the effects of fertilizers on soil properties in farming areas, southern Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeeba Al-Hurban

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The present study aims to determine the residue levels in the soil and water prior to, and after fertilization, as previous soil investigations in Kuwait indicated that different types of fertilizers are used leaving residues in the soil, in order to assist the prospective farmers in choosing environmental sound chemicals for each crop. The importance of the following

  12. Recycling building demolition waste in hot-mix asphalt concrete: a case study in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad H. Aljassar; Khalifa Bader Al-Fadala; Mohammed A. Ali

    2005-01-01

    Building demolition waste constitutes a major component of municipal solid waste in Kuwait. Over 90% of this waste is currently land-filled, causing extreme pressure on the available land-fill sites. At the same time, the sources of natural aggregates are almost depleted, and there is an increasing demand because of the increased construction and maintenance activities. This article presents the results

  13. Fully carbonated peridotite (listvenite) from the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, E. S.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Extensive outcrops of listvenite--fully carbonated peridotite, with all Mg in carbonate minerals and all Si in quartz--occur along the basal thrust of the Samail Ophiolite in Oman. The presence of these listvenites demonstrates that peridotite carbonation reactions can proceed to completion on a large scale under natural conditions. Thus, understanding the conditions of listvenite formation can provide insights into the feasibility of achieving complete carbonation of peridotite through engineered approaches for carbon capture and storage. The Oman listvenites likely formed during emplacement of the ophiolite, as CO2-bearing fluids derived from underlying metasediments reacted with peridotite in the hanging wall. Listvenite outcrops occur within 500 meters of the basal thrust, where peridotite overlies carbonate-bearing metasediments. 87Sr/86Sr values in listvenite are higher than seawater values and consistent with values in these underlying metasediments. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data are also consistent with values in some of the metasediments. An internal Rb-Sr isochron from one listvenite sample yields an age of 97 × 29 Ma, consistent with the timing of emplacement of the ophiolite. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry in listvenites yields temperatures around 100°C, and thermodynamically stable coexistence of antigorite, talc, and quartz in serpentinite along the margins of the listvenite would require reaction temperatures around 80°C, as calculated in THERMOCALC. While constraints on the pressure of listvenite formation are lacking, these moderate temperatures suggest that listvenites probably formed at relatively shallow depths, making release of carbonate-saturated pore-water due to compaction of subducted sediment or low-pressure phase transitions of hydrous minerals more probable sources of the CO2-bearing fluid than deeper metamorphic reactions without significant transport of fluids along the slab interface. Through EQ3/6 geochemical reaction path models of these processes over a range of pressures, temperatures, and water-rock ratios we explore the conditions under which listvenite could have formed.

  14. [The dynamics of manpower in Kuwait: a dilemma for a petroleum-exporting country].

    PubMed

    Hosni, D; Sirageldin, I

    1985-01-01

    The case of Kuwait illustrates that development as an economic phenomenon cannot be fully understood without reference to demographic determinants. Kuwait, like other Gulf oil-exporting states, is strongly dependent on foreign labor both qualitatively and quantitatively, but is attempting to nationalize the labor force and orient the national economy toward autonomous growth. 47% of Kuwait's population is under 15 years old, and the economic activity rate of only 19.4% is the lowest of any Arab country. Female participation increased from 2.5% in 1965 to 13.3% at present. 20 years ago, 70% of the labor force was Kuwaiti, but in 1980, 78% of workers were foreign although foreigners represented only 60% of the total population. Beginning in 1978, immigration was viewed much less favorably in Kuwait and the process of Kuwaitization, or replacing foreign workers with Kuwaiti nationals, was begun. An analysis of the labor force in terms of stocks and flows as well as of the structure of employment and productivity in the context of Kuwait's economic growth indicates that constraints in labor force growth will vary in intensity depending on the policies adopted; foreign workers could be admitted but not their family members, foreign workers could be replaced by nationals whenever possible, a higher labor force participation rate among nationals could be promoted, population growth could be encouraged, a more highly qualified native labor force could be trained, or a more capital intensive technology could be imported to reduce dependence on foreign workers. With a total fertility rate around 7.0, it is difficult to envision a significantly increased fertility level in Kuwait, and the fertility level in fact will probably decline under pressure of modernization. The crude death rate of 4.6/1000 in 1982 is also very low. Nationalization of the labor force implies a significant loss of productivity, since the government is maintaining a policy of providing jobs for all nationals regardless of their qualifications. Although development of Kuwaiti manpower is a longterm policy, the Kuwaitization of the labor force is erroneously viewed as a shortterm objective. Kuwaitis are underrepresented in technical jobs requiring university training in science and mathematics, and in skilled and semiskilled manual jobs. An educational reform permitting Kuwait to respond to future labor force needs will be required. Nonparticipation of women effectively reduces the economically active group by 1/2, and retirement at age 45 also aggravates labor shortages. Simulation exercises indicate that Kuwait must rely on foreign labor for many years to come. It appears that substitution of local for foreign workers will be at the price of lowered productivity and slower economic development. Naturalization of some foreign workers might help solve the problem, but for reasons of political stability almost no foreigners except unskilled Beduin Arabs receive Kuwaiti citizenship. PMID:12280379

  15. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait’s greater Al-Burgan oil field on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the tissues of the desert lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona A. Al-Hashem; Paul F. Brain; Samira A. Omar

    2007-01-01

    Using indicator species to monitor the effects of oil pollution was thought to be useful to assess whether local desert reptiles\\u000a and their insect prey could fulfill such a role in an area damaged in the second Gulf War (1990). Polluted sites with apparently\\u000a different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot, and clear sites) located at Kuwait’s Greater Al-Burgan

  16. Seasonality in pulmonary tuberculosis among migrant workers entering Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saeed; Mohammad, Hameed GHH

    2008-01-01

    Background There is paucity of data on seasonal variation in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries contrary to recognized seasonality in the TB notification in western societies. This study examined the seasonal pattern in TB diagnosis among migrant workers from developing countries entering Kuwait. Methods Monthly aggregates of TB diagnosis results for consecutive migrants tested between January I, 1997 and December 31, 2006 were analyzed. We assessed the amplitude (?) of the sinusoidal oscillation and the time at which maximum (?°) TB cases were detected using Edwards' test. The adequacy of the hypothesized sinusoidal curve was assessed by ?2 goodness-of-fit test. Results During the 10 year study period, the proportion (per 100,000) of pulmonary TB cases among the migrants was 198 (4608/2328582), (95% confidence interval: 192 – 204). The adjusted mean monthly number of pulmonary TB cases was 384. Based on the observed seasonal pattern in the data, the maximum number of TB cases was expected during the last week of April (?° = 112°; P < 0.001). The amplitude (± se) (? = 0.204 ± 0.04) of simple harmonic curve showed 20.4% difference from the mean to maximum TB cases. The peak to low ratio of adjusted number of TB cases was 1.51 (95% CI: 1.39 – 1.65). The ?2 goodness-of-test revealed that there was no significant (P > 0.1) departure of observed frequencies from the fitted simple harmonic curve. Seasonal component explained 55% of the total variation in the proportions of TB cases (100,000) among the migrants. Conclusion This regularity of peak seasonality in TB case detection may prove useful to institute measures that warrant a better attendance of migrants. Public health authorities may consider re-allocation of resources in the period of peak seasonality to minimize the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to close contacts in this and comparable settings in the region having similar influx of immigrants from high TB burden countries. Epidemiological surveillance for the TB risk in the migrants in subsequent years and required chemotherapy of detected cases may contribute in global efforts to control this public health menace. PMID:18179720

  17. An examination of the perceived need and recommended body of knowledge for architectural internship programs in Kuwait 

    E-print Network

    Abdullah, Mohammad

    2007-09-17

    /skills. Professional practice in Kuwait is perceived as a recent phenomenon that reflects the development of architecture and architects in the country. The apparent problem of the evolution of a professional base for the education and practice of architecture...

  18. The prevalence and pattern of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract detected by intravenous urography in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gupta; A. Memon; H. Al-Khawari; E. O. Kehinde; A. Al-Eisa; S. Humad; S. Hebbar; S. D. Ashebu

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a prospective population-basedstudy in Kuwait to determine the prevalence andpattern of previously undiagnosed congenitalanomalies of urinary tract in patientsundergoing intravenous urography (IVU) and toexamine the demographic factors associated withthese anomalies. The study included 2398consecutive patients undergoing IVU, forvarious indications, in all the six publichospitals in Kuwait, during the period 1 June1999–30 September 2000. Patients were alsointerviewed to obtain

  19. Critical Assessment of the Environmental Consequences of the Invasion of Kuwait, the Gulf War, and the Aftermath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samira A. S. Omar; N. R. Bhat; Adel Asem

    The invasion, occupation and liberation warfare severely impacted all aspects of desert environment, the soil, native vegetation\\u000a and other natural resources of Kuwait. The State of Kuwait adopted immediate measures after liberation to restore the oil\\u000a sector and clear the ammunition from the desert. Several studies were conducted by local and international organizations to\\u000a understand the nature of the damage

  20. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M. [Gulf PetroLink, Manama (Bahrain); Chimblo, R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  1. Seasonal Variability in Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis

    2015-04-01

    We report on the vertical distribution and seasonal variability in tropospheric ozone over the Middle East through one year of weekly ozonesondes launched from Doha, Qatar during 2014. A total of 49 2Z-V7 DMT/EN-SCI Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesondes employing a 1% buffered potassium iodide solution (KI), coupled with iMet-1-RS GPS radiosondes were launched around 1300 local time. The authors used the SkySonde telemetry software (developed by CIRES and NOAA/ESRL) and developed robust in-house data quality assurance and validation methodologies. The average height of the thermal tropopause is between 15-17.5 km (125-85 hPa). Monthly average relative humidity around the tropopause shows an enhancement during the months of June through the beginning of October. Monthly average temperature profiles show the development of the subtropical subsidence inversion around 5-6 km (450-520 hPa) between the months of April through October. The subsidence inversion is strongest during the months of June and July and is accompanied by a sharp drop in relative humidity over a 100-300 m in the vertical. The monthly average ozone background concentration between the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height and the subsidence inversion increases from 50 ppb in the winter to almost 80 ppb in the summer months. An enhancement of up to 50% in the average ozone in the mid-to-upper troposphere (above the subsidence inversion) is strongest during the summer months (June through September) and results in average concentrations between 80-100 ppb. In the upper troposphere (above 13 km/200 hPa) ozone concentrations are highest during the spring and summer months. This is coupled with a drop in the average height of the tropopause. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows the enhancement in mid-to-upper tropospheric ozone in the summer is due to persistent high pressure over the Middle East between the months of June through September. Evidence of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE) in the winter and spring months and Monsoonal outflow observed in late summer are also reflected in the ozone profiles and HYSPLIT back-trajectories.

  2. Root Zone of Sheeted Dike Complex in Oman Ophiolite-Comparison with Results from IODP Site 1256

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nicolas; F. Boudier; J. Koepke; B. Ildefonse; C. Mevel

    2008-01-01

    In the Oman ophiolite crustal section, a contact zone between the gabbro unit and the volcanics and diabase sheeted dikes, called the root zone of the sheeted dike complex, has been recently mapped at a fine-scale in a selected area. The Oman ophiolite is derived from a fast spreading ridge which had a melt lens located between the main gabbro

  3. Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers from organic-rich facies of the Shuram Formation, Sultanate of Oman

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Woodward

    isotopic excursion in Earth history is observed globally in carbonate rocks of middle Ediacaran age. Known of the South Oman Salt Basin, Sultanate of Oman. This section captures Nafun Group strata through the Ediacaran). Subsequent to the Cryogenian global glaciations yet prior to the evolution of bilateria near the Ediacaran

  4. Comment on ``dating the geologic history of Oman's Semail ophiolite: insights from UPb geochronology'' by C. J. Warren,

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    COMMENT Comment on ``dating the geologic history of Oman's Semail ophiolite: insights from U of the Semail ophiolite of Oman. The new U­Pb data concern the eclogites preserved at the margin of the Arabian shield, and the metamorphic sole of the ophiolite, as well as plagiogranites intruding the ophiolite

  5. The effect of dynamic recrystallization on olivine fabric and seismic anisotropy: Insight from a ductile shear zone, Oman ophiolite

    E-print Network

    Kanagawa, Kyuichi

    a ductile shear zone, Oman ophiolite Katsuyoshi Michibayashi a,, Toshiki Ina a , Kyuichi Kanagawa b a shear zone in a sinistral sense of shear within the northern Fizh mantle section of the Oman ophiolite ophiolite; porphyroclastic texture; olivine crystal-preferred orientation; dynamic recrystallization

  6. Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Qaradawi, Ilham; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Al-Yafei, Mohsin Al-Ansi; Al-Ansari, Ebrahim; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Holm, Elis; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Mauring, Alexander; Pinto, Primal V; Abdulmalik, Dana; Amir, Amina; Miller, Mark; Yigiterhan, Oguz; Persson, Bertil

    2015-01-15

    A study on (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (238)U was carried out along the EEZ of Qatar. Results serve as the first ever baseline data. The level of (137)Cs (mean value 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3)) in water filters was found to be in the same order of magnitude as reported by others in worldwide marine radioactivity studies. Results are also in agreement with values reported from other Gulf regions. The computed values of sediment-water distribution coefficients Kd, are lower than the values given by IAEA. Measurements were carried out for bottom sediments, biota samples like fish, oyster, sponge, seashell, mangrove, crab, shrimp, starfish, dugong and algae. The 'concentration factors' reported for biota samples are below the levels published by IAEA and cause no significant impact on human health for seafood consumers in Qatar. PMID:25480154

  7. Glycemic index of selected carbohydrate-based foods consumed in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdelmonem; Elobeid, Tahra; Kerkadi, Abdelhamid; Medhat, Maha; Suheil, Ghadeer

    2010-08-01

    This study determined the glycemic index (GI) of selected carbohydrate-rich foods consumed in Qatar. Recruited volunteers (n = 19) consumed two reference foods, glucose and white bread, and 10 test foods. The foods tested for their GI were Fatayer (cheese, Zaatar, spinach), Tanour white bread, white basmati rice, Shearia, Muhalabea, Sago Awama and Qurs Aquili. Results of the study indicated that all of the foods tested had high GIs (> 70). Shearia had the highest GI (84.0 +/- 1.85) using the glucose scale, and Fatayer Spinach had the lowest GI (77.6 +/- 2.00). There was no significant correlation between the GI of all test foods, using glucose or white bread as standard foods, and the age or the body mass index of the volunteers (P > 0.05). The study provides data on the GIs of carbohydrate-based foods consumed in Qatar and other Arabian Gulf countries that have not been reported before. PMID:20141487

  8. Development, implementation and evaluation of a medication safety programme for schoolchildren in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Wilby, K J; Hazi, H M; Ashour, M A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the needs of schoolchildren relating to medication safety and to develop and implement a health promotion programme in Qatar. Semi-structured interviews were completed with teachers, nurses and school administrators at 2 primary schools in Doha. Two main themes were identified from these interviews, namely medication basics and medication safety. Subsequently, a 25-minute health promotion programme was developed and delivered to 11 groups of schoolchildren aged 6-10 years. The student groups contained both expatriate and local Qatari students. The programme was evaluated based on perceptions of site representatives, investigators and peer reviewers using a standardized evaluation form. All the evaluators agreed that the programme was beneficial and should be recommended to other schools in Qatar. This study can serve as a prototype for future programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and elsewhere. PMID:25907194

  9. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East. During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar. WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar. PMID:21272322

  10. Mothers' Perceptions of Community Integration Opportunities for Children with Disabilities in Qatar

    E-print Network

    Abbs, Alyn K

    2009-12-14

    the Qatar census, provided 2004 statistics on disability in the Qatari population in the categories of congenital, pathological, accidental and other disabilities, as 941 infant, pre-school and school-aged children (birth-19 years). In infancy 14... congenital birth defects were reported in 2004. The number of Qatari nationals according to the 2004 census was 200,000 (“Country Reports,” February 28, 2005; Planning Council, 2005). The number of Qataris (all ages) with disabilities (congenital-1307...

  11. Investigating the Adoption of eGovernment Services in Qatar Using the UTAUT Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shafi Al-Shafi; Vishanth Weerakkody; Marijn Janssen

    2009-01-01

    Electronic government (e-government) initiatives are in their early stages in many developing countries and faced with various issues pertaining to their implementation of e-government services. Like many other developing countries, the e-government initiative in the state of Qatar has faced a number of challenges since its inception in 2000. This study utilises the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of

  12. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538). Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3%) and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms) after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important implications for the health authorities in Qatar. PMID:22053720

  13. Breast cancer health promotion in Qatar: a survey of community pharmacists’ interests and needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maguy Saffouh El Hajj; Yousra Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Qatar. Despite the sustained efforts to increase breast cancer public\\u000a awareness via campaigns and public screening programmes, breast cancer screening rate remains low. The involvement of community\\u000a pharmacists in the communication and distribution of breast cancer screening information should have a significant positive\\u000a impact. The objectives of this study

  14. Modeling Rainfall Variability over Urban Areas: A Case Study for Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Almedeij, Jaber

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the spatial and temporal variability of monthly total rainfall data obtained from weather stations located in the urban areas of Kuwait. The rainfall data are analyzed by considering statistics on a seasonal basis and by means of periodogram technique to reveal the periods responsible for the variable pattern. The results demonstrate similarity implying that a point estimate of rainfall data can be considered spatially representative over the urban areas of Kuwait. A sinusoidal model triggering the influence of the detected periods is developed accordingly for the time duration from January 1965 to December 2009. The model is capable of describing the rainfall data with some discrepancies between the actual and calculated values resulting from hidden periods that have not been taken into account. This finding suggests that the ability to construct a more reliable model would require a wider range of historical data to detect the other periods affecting the rainfall pattern. PMID:22645498

  15. Price and income elasticities of energy demand: Some estimates for Kuwait using two econometric models

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.; Eltony, M.N.

    1995-12-31

    This paper estimates the demand for energy in Kuwait for the period 1965-1989 using two econometric models: a cointegration and error correction model (ECM) and a simultaneous-equation model (SEM). The results obtained from both models are similar. It is found that the energy demand is inelastic with respect to price in the short and long run, and while it is elastic in the long run, the energy demand is inelastic with respect to income in the short run. Both models` validation shows that the ECM performed better in replicating the past than the simultaneous model, suggesting the need to use the ECM to identify future prospects for energy demand in Kuwait.

  16. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  17. Identifying Errors in Handwritten Outpatient Prescriptions in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahaibi, Nadiya MS; Al Said, Lamya S; Kini, TG; Chitme, HR

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate and analyze the handwritten outpatient prescriptions and associated error of omissions from four different hospitals in Oman. The study designed was an observational, retrospective and analysis of prescriptions was carried out by table and chart method. A total of 900 prescriptions were collected between April 2009 to July 2010. The type of error of omissions considered in this analysis includes all three important parts of prescriptions, i.e. superscription, inscription, and subscription. The most common type of superscription error of omission was found to be age (72.44%) and gender (32.66%). More than 46% of prescriptions were incomplete on direction for use, more than 22% of prescriptions were not having the information on dose, and more than 23% of prescriptions omitted the dosage forms of prescribed drugs. The date of dispensing of medications was omitted in all the prescriptions and more than 44% of prescriptions were missing the signature of dispenser. It was also found that more than 4% of prescriptions omitted the prescriber's signature and more than 18% of prescriptions omitted the date of prescription. We conclude from this study that the handwritten prescriptions were associated with significant frequency of minor and major prescription error of omissions. PMID:23492857

  18. Geology and hydrocarbon potential in the state of Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S. (United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)); Nairn, A.E.M. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The state of Qatar is situated in the southern Arabian Gulf and covers an area of 12,000 km{sup 2}. It is formed by a large, broad anticline, which is part of the regional south-southwest-north-northeast-trending Qatar-South Fars arch. The arch separates the two Infracambrian salt basins. The Dukhan field was the first discovery, made in 1939, in the Upper Jurassic limestones. Since then, a series of discoveries have been made so that Qatar has become one of the leading OPEC oil states. Hydrocarbon accumulations are widely dispersed throughout the stratigraphic column from upper Paleozoic to Cretaceous producing strata. The most prolific reservoirs are the Permian and Mesozoic shelf carbonate sequences. Minor clastic reservoirs occur in the Albian and Paleozoic sequences. Seals, mainly anhydrite and shale. occur both intraformationally and regionally. Several stratigraphic intervals contain source rocks or potential source rocks. The Silurian shales arc the most likely source of the hydrocarbon stored in the upper Paleozoic clastics and carbonates. The upper Oxfordian-middle Kimmeridgian rocks formed in the extensive starved basin during the Mesozoic period of sea level rise. Total organic carbon ranges between 1 and 6%, with the sulfur content approximately 9%. The source material consists of sapropelic liptodetrinite and algae. The geological background of the sedimentary facies through geologic time, stratigraphy, and structural evolution which control source, and the subsequent timing and migration of large-scale hydrocarbon generation are presented in detail.

  19. The private-public literacy divide amid educational reform in Qatar: What does PISA tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-03-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools. The idea was to give public schools more autonomy in terms of hiring decisions, adoption of curriculum and textbooks, and budget spending, enabling them to emulate some of the private schools' strategies for turning out successful students. This study examines evidence from the 2006-2012 administrations of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Qatar in order to evaluate whether or not recent educational reform efforts in this country have succeeded in bridging the literacy divide between private and public schools. The results, presented in a number of detailed tables and discussed in the last part of the article, indicate that there is a significant difference in key literacy skills between the two types of schools. Private schools were found to outperform their public counterparts in areas such as mathematics, reading and science, both before and after controlling for important student-level differences, and this gap has evidently persisted from 2006 to 2012.

  20. Benign thyroid disease and dietary factors in thyroid cancer: a case–control study in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Memon; A Varghese; A Suresh

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a population-based study of 313 case–control pairs in Kuwait to examine the aetiology of thyroid cancer, the second most common neoplasm among women in this and several other countries in the Gulf region. Among the demographic variables, individuals with 12+ years of education had a significantly reduced risk of thyroid cancer (OR=0.6; 95% CI: 0.3–0.9). The average age

  1. A reconnaissance study of a clastic coastal sabkha in Northern Kuwait, Arabian Gulf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Saleh; F. Al-Ruwaih; A. Al-Reda; A. Gunatilaka

    1999-01-01

    A clastic, tidal flat-sabkha complex characterizes the mesotidal coastline of Northern Kuwait. The Holocene tidal sediments of this area represent the western-most limit of the Shatt Al-Arab delta sediments. The area under study in Bahrah is subdivided according to its geomorphological features and depositional setting into eight sub-environments. The sediments are characterized by two distinct size populations; a coarse fraction

  2. Student Drop-Out Trends at Sultan Qaboos University and Kuwait University: 2000-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghanboosi, Salim Saleem; Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the drop-out trends at Sultan Qaboos. University and Kuwait University. Archival data of the period 2000-2011 were used to achieve this goal. Main findings showed that (a) male drop-out rates are higher than female drop-out rates; (b) drop- out rates at scientific colleges are higher; (c) drop-out rates of…

  3. Morbidity, ?s Haplotype and ?-Globin Gene Patterns among Sickle Cell Anemia Patients in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Adekile; M. Z. Haider

    1996-01-01

    Admission records of children with sickle cell anemia (SS), in the two main teaching hospitals in Kuwait, were reviewed for a 1-year period. The haplotypes of 92 ?s chromosomes (from 39 SS, 11 AS, 2 S?-thalassemia [S? -thal] and 1 SD individuals) were determined using an allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization technique, while the ?-globin gene status of 27 SS and

  4. Computerized system to optimize daily oil and gas production in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, G.M.; Shehata, M.T.

    1982-03-01

    A description is given of an integrated computer system, the Selective Production Scheduling (SPS) system, that is used by the management of Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for scheduling oil and gas production in daily operations. The system is able to draw together management objectives by determining operational variables to produce an optimal schedule of production. The mathematical techniques of linear programming are used in selecting the optimal schedule. 2 refs.

  5. The Use of the UTAUT Model in the Adoption of E-Government Services in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suha Alawadhi; Anne Morris

    2008-01-01

    E-government initiatives are in their infancy in many developing countries. The success of these initiatives is dependent on government support as well as citizens' adoption of e-government services. This study adopted the unified of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model to explore factors that determine the adoption of e-government services in a developing country, namely Kuwait. 880 students were

  6. The practice of consanguineous marriage in Oman: prevalence, trends and determinants.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2012-09-01

    The practice of consanguineous marriage has been the culturally preferred form of marriage in most Arab and the Middle Eastern countries, including Oman, but due to a paucity of population-based data in the past there is a dearth of information about its form and dynamics in Oman. Recent national-level surveys allow this gap to be filled. This paper examines the prevalence, trends and determinants of consanguineous marriages in Oman using data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. The results indicate a very high prevalence of consanguineous marriage in Oman, as more than half (52%) of marriages are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. The study observed various patterns of consanguinity, some of them common with other Arab nations, and some unique in nature. Women's age at marriage, employment, place of childhood residence and geographical region appear to be significant determinants of consanguineous marriages. Consanguineous marriage shows a strong association with marital stability, early age at marriage and early-age childbearing. There has been no appreciable change in the prevalence of consanguineous unions in Oman over the last four decades despite massive socioeconomic development and modernization. However, recent marriage cohorts show slight declining trends. The results suggest that consanguinity is likely to remain stable in the future or decline at a slow rate. Specific health education and genetic counselling should be followed in line with WHO recommendations to minimize the negative health consequences of consanguinity for child health. PMID:22317781

  7. Radioactivity concentrations in sediments and their correlation to the coastal structure in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Saad, H R; Al-Azmi, D

    2002-06-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed on sediment samples from the coast of Kuwait to study the concentration of natural as well as man-made radioactive sources. The coast of Kuwait, which extends for some 170 km is mainly soft sedimentary colitic limestones or sandstones, overlaid in many areas with beach or wind-blown sand. In the north, suspended material from the Shatt Al-Arab delta has settled to form extensive soft areas of intertidal mud within Kuwait Bay. Forty samples were taken at different points along the coast in undisturbed areas at intervals of about 5 km. Collection was carried out during low-tide, where it was possible to collect sediments from the wet region that was covered by seawater during the high tide. At each of the sample sites, a sampling area of about 1 m2 was considered. Samples collected from the north were of a muddy nature, whereas the southern samples were sandy. All samples were left to dry in open air before drying in the oven at 105 degrees C for 2-3 days to remove all water content. The radioactivity in southern areas reaches about one half of the values commonly assigned as the world average. In the northern areas, higher radioactivity concentrations are found but are still below the international levels. PMID:12102362

  8. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ball, J.C. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.; Stevens, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

    1995-03-01

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

  9. Health workforce development planning in the Sultanate of Oman: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Basu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Oman's recent experience in health workforce development may be viewed against the backdrop of the situation just three or four decades ago, when it had just a few physicians and nurses (mostly expatriate). All workforce categories in Oman have grown substantially over the last two decades. Increased self-reliance was achieved despite substantial growth in workforce stocks. Stocks of physicians and nurses grew significantly during 1985–2007. This development was the outcome of well-considered national policies and plans. This case outlines how Oman is continuing to turn around its excessive dependence on expatriate workforce through strategic workforce development planning. Case description The Sultanate's early development initiatives focused on building a strong health care infrastructure by importing workforce. However, the policy-makers stressed national workforce development for a sustainable future. Beginning with the formulation of a strategic health workforce development plan in 1991, the stage was set for adopting workforce planning as an essential strategy for sustainable health development and workforce self-reliance. Oman continued to develop its educational infrastructure, and began to produce as much workforce as possible, in order to meet health care demands and achieve workforce self-reliance. Other policy initiatives with a beneficial impact on Oman's workforce development scenario were: regionalization of nursing institutes, active collaboration with universities and overseas specialty boards, qualitative improvement of the education system, development of a strong continuing professional development system, efforts to improve workforce management, planned change management and needs-based micro/macro-level studies. Strong political will and bold policy initiatives, dedicated workforce planning and educational endeavours have all contributed to help Oman to develop its health workforce stocks and gain self-reliance. Discussion and evaluation Oman has successfully innovated workforce planning within a favorable policy environment. Its intensive and extensive workforce planning efforts, with the close involvement of policy-makers, educators and workforce managers, have ensured adequacy of suitable workforce in health institutions and its increased self-reliance in the health workforce. Conclusion Oman's experience in workforce planning and development presents an illustration of a country benefiting from successful application of workforce planning concepts and tools. Instead of being complacent about its achievements so far, every country needs to improve or sustain its planning efforts in this way, in order to circumvent the current workforce deficiencies and to further increase self-reliance and improve workforce efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:19519912

  10. Socioeconomic associations of improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Bener, Abdulbari; El Ansari, Walid

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the temporal association between socioeconomic development indices and improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar over a period of 35 years (1974–2008). We explored the association between reduction in poverty, improvement in maternal education, and perinatal health care on the one hand, and increased maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival on the other hand. Yearly mortality data was ascertained from the perinatal and neonatal mortality registers of the Women’s Hospital and the national database in the Department of Preventive Medicine at Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha. A total of 323,014 births were recorded during the study period. During these 35 years, there was a remarkable decline (P < 0.001) in Qatar’s neonatal mortality rate from 26.27/1000 in 1974 to 4.4/1000 in 2008 and in the perinatal mortality rate from 44.4/1000 in 1974 to 10.58/1000 in 2008. Qatar’s maternal mortality rate remained zero during 1993, 1995, and then in 1998–2000. The maternal mortality rate was 11.6/100,000 in 2008. For the rest of the years it has been approximately 10/100,000. Across the study period, the reduction in poverty, increase in maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with a significant improvement in maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival. The total annual births increased five-fold during the study period, with no negative impact on survival rates. Neonatal mortality rates in Qatar have reached a plateau since 2005. We also conducted a substudy to assess the association between improvements in survival rates in relation to health care investment. For this purpose, we divided the study period into two eras, ie, era A (1974–1993) during which major health care investment was in community-based, low-cost interventions, and era B (1994–2008) during which the major health care investment was in high-technology institutional interventions. Although from 1974–1993 (era A) the per capita health expenditure increased by only 19% as compared with a 137% increase in 1994–2008 (era B). The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was three times steeper during era A than in era B. The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was also significant (P < 0.001) when analyzed separately for era A and era B. We concluded that across the 35-year period covered by our study, the reduction in poverty, increased maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar. From the subanalysis of era A and era B, we concluded that low-cost, community-based interventions, on the background of socioeconomic development, have a stronger impact on maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival as compared with high-cost institutional interventions. PMID:21151678

  11. Morphometric Characterization and Classification of Alluvial Fans in Eastern Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschner, Annette; Mattern, Frank; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Morphologic characteristics of alluvial fans are a product of fluvial erosion, transportation and deposition. Consequently, fans have been described and defined on the basis of their shape, their composition, conditions and processes under which they from, their so-called "controlling factors", and their geomorphic and tectonic settings. The aim of our study is to reconstruct the morphologic evolution and to relate it to past and present climate conditions. In order to achieve this, we first characterize alluvial fans based on their climatic settings and conditions and classify them accordingly using satellite image data and digital elevation models. For mapping of different alluvial fan bodies multispectral images of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with a scale of 15-30 m/px were utilized. For the detection of morphometric parameters as input data for subsequent hydrological studies digital terrain model data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the ASTER GDEM with a scale of 90 m/px and 30m, respectively, were used. Using these datasets morphological characteristics, such as sizes of drainage basins, transport areas and areas of deposition derived from spatial semi-automatic analysis, have been computed. The area of Muscat at the Oman Mountains has been selected as a study area because of its size, accessibility and climate conditions and it is considered well-suited for studying the development of alluvial fans and their controlling factors. The Oman Mountains are well-known for the world's largest intact and best exposed obducted ophiolite complex, the Semail Ophiolite. They are today subjected to a mild desert climate (Bwh), in?uenced by the Indian Ocean but they have experienced extensive pluvial periods in the geologic past. Formation of alluvial fans was, therefore, likely triggered by the interplay of increased sediment production caused by high rainfalls with enhanced erosion of hillslopes and transport rates during pluvial periods. Typical morphometric parameters controlled by hydrological conditions are sizes of catchment areas, the morphometry of associated rivers and slope angles as well as sizes of alluvial fans. In order to distinguish the catchment areas, semi-automatized spatial analyses based on DEM data were carried out within a commercial GIS environment. Our analyses generally verify that there is a positive correlation between, e.g., fan areas and sizes of catchment areas as well as between fan areas and lengths of valley lines of associated rivers. Furthermore, our analyses show a negative correlation between average fan slopes and sizes of catchment areas. The observations are in good agreement with previous analyses from other areas we conducted. The applied methodology has shown to be adequate to be compared to and combined with future field investigations. Flow events are dominant in fan evolution, but the way in which alluvial fan systems responded to fluvial environmental conditions differs between systems under different climate conditions. We compared our results with data from other places located in different climate zones around the world. This allows us to constrain boundary conditions and their potential influence on shapes in a more efficient way.

  12. Constraints on the Hydrologic Settings and Recharge of the Freshwater Lenses in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; Sultan, M.; Al-Dousari, A.

    2010-12-01

    The majority of the World’s arid and semi-arid countries receive rare, yet extreme, precipitation events. Recharge is minimal due to high evaporation and low infiltration rates. We show that Kuwait experiences geologic and hydrologic settings that are quite different, conditions that promote groundwater recharge. Kuwait is generally flat (slope: 2m/km) and is largely covered (80% of Kuwait’s land) by alluvial deposits with high infiltration capacities; these conditions inhibit runoff and promote infiltration and recharge of aquifers. On the average Kuwait receives 200 mm/yr over a few, but intensive events. Groundwater flows from the SW to the NE and the salinity increases along the flow gradient reaching salinities of 150,000 TDS in the NE. The presence of saline and hypersaline groundwater on local and/or regional scales in arid and hyperarid environments is usually considered as unwelcome news to hydrogeologists. That is not the case everywhere in Kuwait. In the southern regions, infiltrating fresh water mixes with the saline groundwater (TDS: 5,000 to 10,000) in the unconfined aquifers rendering it unsuitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, whereas in the northern regions, infiltrating water form lenses of fresh water on top of the highly saline (TDS >35,000) unconfined aquifers. Using the Raudhatain Watershed (3,696 km^2) in northern Kuwait as our test site, and knowing the locations of fresh water lenses in the watershed, we identified settings which facilitate the formation of these lenses and used these criteria to identify additional potential occurrences. Identified criteria include the presence of gentle slopes, permeable surface material, infrequent yet intensive (>20mm/hr) precipitation events, drainage depressions to collect the limited runoff, and presence of regional unconfined saline aquifers. Approximately 20 locations (size: 3 km2 to 150 km^2) were identified. Over the investigated period (1998- 2006), 25 precipitation events were reported, five of which exceeded 20 mm/hr; no flows were reported at the watershed outlet and no long-term ponding was detected on Landsat TM images acquired shortly after (1 to 14 days) each of the precipitation events suggesting that infiltration is quite high. This suggestion is supported by: (1) examination of NDVI images (from Landsat TM) and soil moisture images (from AMSR-E) which show that the observed increases in soil moisture content and vegetation index following a large precipitation events are not restricted to the valley network, and (2) the highly porous nature of the mapped soils (e.g., gravel, sand) and the high infiltration rates (up to 9m/day) reported for these soils. Using the SWAT continuous rainfall runoff model and taking advantage of global remote sensing datasets and GIS technologies, we estimate: (1) the average annual precipitation, runoff, and recharge at: 837 x 106m3, 6.9 x 10^6m^3, and 636 x 10^6m^3, respectively, and (2) recharge in the identified depressions at 41.6 x 10^6m^3. Results demonstrate the enhanced opportunities for groundwater recharge in the examined watershed and highlight the potential for similar applications in arid areas elsewhere.

  13. Land and vegetation degradation in war-affected areas in the Sabah Al-Ahmad Nature Reserve of Kuwait: A case study of Umm. Ar. Rimam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Omar; N. R. Bhat; S. A. Shahid; A. Assem

    2005-01-01

    Following the liberation of Kuwait from Iraqi aggression, the remaining munitions were disposed by detonating them in large pits in the Umm. Ar. Rimam depression of the Sabah Al-Ahmad Nature Reserve of Kuwait. These pits were then back-filled. After 10 years, the status of the soil and vegetation in the munition disposal pits and adjacent areas were assessed to assist

  14. Contribution of GIS and digital archaeology to the interpretation of stratigraphic relations on the Bronze Age site al-Khidr, Failaka island, State of Kuwait1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on the Bronze Age site al-Khidr, Failaka island, State of Kuwait1 Imagery analyses of trenches 22S and 22T, State of kuwait, was excavated from 2004 till 2008 by the kuwaiti ­ Slovak archaeological Mission (fig was occasionally used during the period between c. 50 to 400 aD (stratigraphic layer ii) and during the islamic

  15. Evidence of rapid overfishing of sea cucumbers in the Sultanate of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalfan M. Al-Rashdi; Michel R. Claereboudt

    2010-01-01

    A small, artisanal sea cucumber export fishery developed in the Sultanate of Oman in 2004. The area cov- ered by the fishery is limited to a single shallow embayment of 320 km 2 in Mahout Bay, and involves approx- imately 400 fishers, around 50% of whom are women. The fishing season (October to May) in 2005 was the first season

  16. Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enteric Pathogens in Dhahira Region, Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KP Prakash

    2008-01-01

    Background: We reviewed the monthly laboratory surveillance reports and hospital laboratory database in Dhahira region, Oman. Methods: All patients for whom a stool sample examination request was made from 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2006 (5 years) were included in the study. Antimicrobial resistance pattern was studied for 2 years period. The cultures were done using standard laboratory procedures

  17. Similar Paths, Different Destinations: Gender Differences in Teacher Career Paths in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Al Maawali, Fathiya; Jones, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Jones ABSTRACT: Across Oman, girls outnumber and outperform boys at the secondary school level. While welcoming girls' success, the government is concerned that low male achievement may have negative consequences on national competitiveness and economic growth. One reason posited for this discrepancy in achievement is differences in the…

  18. Assessment of wind energy potential locations in Oman using data from existing weather stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sultan AL-Yahyai; Yassine Charabi; Adel Gastli; Saleh Al-Alawi

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes five years hourly wind data from twenty-nine weather stations to identify the potential location for wind energy applications in Oman. Different criteria including theoretical wind power output, vertical profile, turbulence and peak demand fitness were considered to identify the potential locations. Air density and roughness length, which play an important role in the calculation of the wind

  19. English Language Teaching Reform in Sultanate of Oman: The Case of Theory and Practice Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S.; Al-Bulushi, Ali H.

    2012-01-01

    Sultanate of Oman is one out of many developing countries around the world which have valued English as a very important international language and a tool for achieving multiple purposes. When His Majesty the Sultan came to power in 1970, the government accepted English as the only official foreign language and allocated huge budgets and resources…

  20. Aflaj Water Resources Management: Tradable Water Rights to Improve Irrigation Productivity in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayder A. Abdel Rahmnn; Abdallah Omezzine

    1996-01-01

    Traditional surface irrigation systems of aflaj provide more than 60 per cent of the fresh water supply in the Sultanate of Oman and irrigate around 55 per cent of the cropped area. Over the years, these systems have set traditions for intertemporal water resources allocation and a process of users rights established on ownership and\\/or rent basis. A management structure

  1. The Tethyan plume: geochemical diversity of Middle Permian basalts from the Oman rifted margin

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    The Tethyan plume: geochemical diversity of Middle Permian basalts from the Oman rifted margin H in the Saih Hatat tectonic window. They consist predominantly of pillowed basaltic flows among which three trace element contents, and a large range of eNdi values. Group 1 basalts are associated with distal

  2. Analysis of Agricultural Water Allocation and Returns in the Sultanate of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdallah Omezzine; Mohamed Chebaane; Lokman Zaibet

    1998-01-01

    Water is the most important determinant of agricultural production in Oman. Remarkable public and private investments have been drawn into water resources development and into the modernization of the farming techniques in order to strengthen the contribution of agriculture to the national economy. In spite of these technological improvements and significant investments, water allocation remains a major policy issue. This

  3. Malaria outbreak in a malaria-free region in Oman 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AT Baomar; AG Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Beginning in April 1998, the surveillance system in Dhofar region, Oman, detected malaria cases among individuals who had no risk factors for the acquisition of malaria. An investigation was conducted to describe the outbreak and to identify its possible causes.A malaria case was defined as an unexplained fever (>38°C) in a resident of the Dhofar region from April to September

  4. Oman Ophiolite Structural Constraints Complement Models of Crustal Accretion at the EAST Pacific RISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A. A.; Jousselin, D.; Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    This review documents significant similarities between East Pacific Rise (EPR), especially EPR at 9°-10°N and the Oman ophiolites. Both share comparable fast spreading rates, size and their dominant source of information that is mainly geophysical in EPR and structural in Oman. In these respects, they are remarkably complementary. Mantle upwelling zones at the EPR and mantle diapirs in Oman have a similar size and spacing. They punctually introduce basaltic melt and heat in the accreting crust, thus controlling elementary segments structure and activity. A tent-shaped magma chamber fits onto the diapir head, the top of which is a Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ) that stores, modifies, and injects the modified melt into the upper Axial Melt Lens (AML) beneath the lid. This MTZ-AML connection is central in crustal accretion, as documented in Oman. Heat from the diapir is captured above the Moho by the magma chamber and escapes through its walls, into a thin thermal boundary layer that bounds the chamber. Beyond, seawater at lower temperatures feeds smokers on the seafloor.

  5. Magma chambers in the Oman ophiolite: fed from the top and the bottom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Boudier; Adolphe Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    Recent models of magma chambers at fast-spreading ridges are based on the idea that the entire gabbro section of the oceanic crust crystallizes from a thin melt lens located just below the sheeted dike complex. The shape of the lens has been deduced from seismic reflection data at fast-spreading ridges. On the basis of structural studies in the Oman ophiolite,

  6. Geology and seismic structure of the northern section of the Oman ophiolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolas I. Christensen; John D. Smewing

    1981-01-01

    In the north Oman mountains, a continuous ophiolite succession is exposed, from tectonized harzuburgities and dunities at the base, through layered gabbros and peridotities, high-level gabbros and plagiogranite, to a dike swarm and pillowed volcanic overlain by pelagic shales. The upper part of this sequence possesses a static metamorphic overprint, which passes downward from greenschist facies in the lowermost volcanics

  7. Structure of the Sheeted Dike Complex of the Samail Ophiolite Near Ibra, Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Pallister

    1981-01-01

    The sheeted dike complex is a regionally mappable geologic unit with a consistent position in the Samail ophiolite stratigraphy. Discontinuous exposures of the complex in the Ibra area of the southeast Oman Mountains provide structural data that allow reconstruction of a paleo-spreading ridge axis of 347 ø for the region and suggests a maximum spreading width of 275 km for

  8. Melt segregation and flow in mantle diapirs below spreading centers: evidence from the oman ophiolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rabinowicz; G. Ceuleneer; A. Nicolas

    1987-01-01

    A mantle diapir of 8-km radius has been recognized by systematic structural mapping of the Oman ophiolite in the Maqsad district. This diapir chilled while still active under the ridge crest. Streamlines rotated in the diverging part of the diapir a few hundred meters under the Moho. This implies a decrease by several orders of magnitude in the effective viscosity

  9. TECTONICS, VOL. 15,NO. 6, PAGES 1230-1247,DECEMBER 1996 Rapid emplacementof the Oman ophiolite

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    TECTONICS, VOL. 15,NO. 6, PAGES 1230-1247,DECEMBER 1996 Rapid emplacementof the Oman ophiolite GeologicalandEnvironmentalSciences,StanfordUniversity,Stanford,California Abstract. In understandingof ophiolite-cuttingdikes requirethatthebasalmetamorphicthrustfault beneaththe ophiolite alsocooledbelow -825 K in 1-2 m.y. Motion alongthesolethrustaccountedfor 200

  10. Emergence of infections with Schistosoma mansoni in the Dhofar Governorate, Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed A. Idris; Mahmoud Shaban; Joachim Richter; Hélène Moné; Gabriel Mouahid; Andreas Ruppel

    2003-01-01

    Infections with Schistosoma mansoni were identified in an area of Dhofar (Oman), where this parasite had been virtually absent during recent years and was reported only very sporadically before 1992. In the present survey, performed late in 2001, between 1 and 13% of children (n=519) were found to excrete eggs (one Kato-Katz-smear) in four schools, from four different villages, but

  11. Desalination by solar-powered reverse osmosis in a remote area of the Sultanate of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaher Al Suleimani; V. Rajendran Nair

    2000-01-01

    The Ministry of Water Resources successfully conducted an experimental study on the use of solar power to desalinate brackish ground water at their Heelat ar Rakah camp, a remote location some 900 km south of Muscat, the capital of Oman. The system comprises components for pre-treatment of pumped well water to separate hydrogen sulphide, acid dosing to correct the pH,

  12. Size distributions and sex ratios of sharks caught by Oman's artisanal fishery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Henderson; J. L. McIlwain; H. S. Al-Oufi; S. Al-Sheile; N. Al-Abri

    2009-01-01

    Oman's fishery resources are exploited by artisanal and industrial fisheries, but the former accounts for almost 90% of landings. Within the artisanal fishery, sharks have traditionally been harvested for their flesh, but the development of a valuable export market for shark fin has led to increased utilisation of this resource, and anecdotal information suggests that shark abundance has decreased in

  13. Evaluation Approach of Information Technology Adoption for Business Transformation in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pam Mayhew

    This research evaluates the IT adoption in public sector institu- tions in the Sultanate of Oman, and identifies its impact on trans- forming the business operation of these institutions. The research is intended to achieve a set of objectives which include examining the IT adoption approach used in various public sector institutions and exploring the IT adoption impact on the

  14. Brine disposal from reverse osmosis desalination plants in Oman and the United Arab Emirates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mushtaque Ahmed; Walid H. Shayya; David Hoey; Juma Al-Handaly

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants are used for supplying potable water to small communities in inland areas of Oman as well as small to large communities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Most of these desalination plants use brackish groundwater as feedwater. The production of brine (also known as concentrate or wastewater) is an integral part of the operation of

  15. Progress in Developing a National Quality Management System for Higher Education in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Carroll; Salim Razvi; Tess Goodliffe

    2009-01-01

    The post?secondary education sector in Oman consists of a complex suite of public and private institutions, in a number of distinct segments, offering local and foreign programmes developed through their respective quality assurance systems. The Omani higher education quality management system is undergoing significant advances to address this situation. Some of these advances are briefly outlined in this paper. Infrastructural

  16. Progress in Developing a National Quality Management System for Higher Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Martin; Razvi, Salim; Goodliffe, Tess; Al-Habsi, Fakhriya

    2009-01-01

    The post-secondary education sector in Oman consists of a complex suite of public and private institutions, in a number of distinct segments, offering local and foreign programmes developed through their respective quality assurance systems. The Omani higher education quality management system is undergoing significant advances to address this…

  17. Considerations for introduction of a rotavirus vaccine in Oman: rotavirus disease and economic burden.

    PubMed

    Al Awaidy, S A; Bawikar, S; Al Busaidy, S; Baqiani, S; Al Abedani, I; Varghese, R; Abdoan, H S; Al Abdoon, H; Bhatnagar, S; Al Hasini, K S; Mohan, P; Shah, S; Elamir, E; Klena, J; Ahmed, S F; Teleb, N; Parashar, U; Patel, M M

    2009-11-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of fatal childhood diarrhea worldwide. We provide the first estimates of the health care and economic burden of severe rotavirus disease in Oman. We conducted active, hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus disease at 11 regional public hospitals in Oman, using the guidelines suggested by the generic World Health Organization protocol. From July 2006 through June 2008, all children aged <5 years who were hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis were enrolled in the surveillance program, and their stool samples were tested for rotavirus using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ID EIA Rotavirus Test; Dako Diagnostics). Rotavirus was detected in samples from 1712 (49%) of 3470 children. These children were hospitalized for a median of 3 days for severe diarrhea. A marked seasonal peak was evident with a majority of the cases occurring from December through May. Of the rotavirus cases, 69% occurred in children aged 6-17 months. We identified a diverse strain pattern in Oman, with G2 (37%), G1 (38%), and G9 (11%) accounting for most of typeable strains. By our burden estimates, the Omani government spends an estimated US$791,817 and US$1.8 million annually to treat rotavirus-associated diarrhea in the outpatient and hospital settings, respectively. A rotavirus vaccination program might substantially reduce the burden of severe diarrhea among children in Oman. PMID:19817605

  18. High salinity events in the northern Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhankun; DiMarco, Steven F.; Jochens, Ann E.; Ingle, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Moored observations in the northern Arabian Sea (NAS) show substantial velocity, temperature and dissolved oxygen fluctuations, accompanied by episodic high salinity intrusions with maximum values?37.3 on time scales of 2-10 days after the passage of Cyclone Gonu in 2007. These events are characterized by a rapid increase in temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen followed by an abrupt decline. The mechanisms behind these high salinity events are investigated using a comprehensive dataset of temperature and salinity profiles from ARGO floats and sea surface height anomaly maps. The spatial and temporal distribution of the Persian/Arabian Gulf outflow to the Sea of Oman is also studied using ARGO profiles. Persian Gulf water (PGW) is mainly measured close to the Strait of Hormuz or along the Oman coast on the continental slope in the Sea of Oman. Both mooring and ARGO data show that high salinity PGW can be advected off the slope and into the interior. More high salinity water is measured in the interior of the Sea of Oman within three months after the Gonu passage in summer 2007, which is caused by the combination effect of the oceanic responses to Cyclone Gonu and a clockwise eddy circulation located at northern Ras al Hadd. At other times, the high salinity water appears more in isolated patches and rare in the interior. This study provides a first look at the high salinity events appearing after Gonu and the properties and dynamics of the PGW in the northern Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman.

  19. Weighted concentration of sup 137 Cs equivalent in foodstuffs in Kuwait from June 1986 to December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bakir, Y.Y.; Sayed, A.M.; Salem, M.S.; Hussain, K.A. (Ministry of Public Health (Kuwait))

    1990-06-01

    The weighted monthly concentration of {sup 137}Cs equivalent (WMC) for various types of foodstuffs imported from June 1986 to December 1988 are discussed. The data presented are based on total concentration of {sup 137}Cs equivalent. The concentration was found below the disqualifying level applied in Kuwait. The radioactive contamination was higher in milk and baby milk relative to other types of foodstuffs. The calculation of Kuwait's disqualifying levels are based on the annual dose equivalent of 1 mSv (100 mrem). The measured WMC for most types of foodstuffs represents a small fraction to the annual dose limit recommended for the general public.

  20. Physician perceptions of pharmacist roles in a primary care setting in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacists are uniquely trained to provide guidance to patients in the selection of appropriate non-prescription therapy. Physicians in Qatar may not always recognize how pharmacists function in assuring safe medication use. Both these health professional groups come from heterogeneous training and experiences before migrating to the country and these backgrounds could influence collaborative patient care. Qatar Petroleum (QP), the largest private employer in the country, has developed a pharmacist-guided medication consulting service at their primary care clinics, but physician comfort with pharmacists recommending drug therapy is currently unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize physician perceptions of pharmacists and their roles in a primary care patient setting in Qatar. Methods This cross-sectional survey was developed following a comprehensive literature review and administered in English and Arabic. Consenting QP physicians were asked questions to assess experiences, comfort and expectations of pharmacist roles and abilities to provide medication-related advice and recommend and monitor therapies. Results The median age of the 62 (77.5%) physicians who responded was between 40 and 50?years old and almost two-third were men (64.5%). Fourteen different nationalities were represented. Physicians were more comfortable with pharmacist activities closely linked to drug products than responsibilities associated with monitoring and optimization of patient outcomes. Medication education (96.6%) and drug knowledge (90%) were practically unanimously recognized as abilities expected of pharmacists, but consultative roles, such as assisting in drug regimen design were less acknowledged. They proposed pharmacist spend more time with physicians attending joint meetings or education events to help advance acceptance of pharmacists in patient-centered care at this site. Conclusions Physicians had low comfort and expectations of patient-oriented pharmacist roles but were not threatened to learn more about these capabilities or explore enhanced collaboration in patient care. PMID:22650614

  1. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  2. The LIMSI RT-04 BN Arabic System Abdel. Messaoudi,

    E-print Network

    and distributed by the LDC), and Radio Elsharq (Syria), Radio Kuwait, Radio Orient (Paris), Radio Qatar, Radio Syria, BBC, Medi1, Al- jazeera (Qatar), TV Syria, TV7, and ESC [10]. For the 70 hours of TDT4 and FBIS

  3. Geologic Section Through the Samail Ophiolite and Associated Rocks Along a Muscat-Ibra Transect, Southeastern Oman Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Hopson; R. G. Coleman; R. T. Gregory; J. S. Pallister; E. H. Bailey

    1981-01-01

    ' Regional mapping at a 1:60,000 scale of a 30-kin strip from the Gulf of Oman (Muscat) across the Oman Mountains, 130 km to the south, provides the geologic setting for the (-95 m.y.) Ibra section of the Samail ophiolite. Where best preserved, the Ibra ophiolite section is an ---8 kin-thick section of oceanic consisting of --0.5 km of pillow

  4. Condensate Water Collection for an Institutional Building in Doha, Qatar: An Opportunity for Water Sustainability 

    E-print Network

    Bryant, J. A.; Ahmed, T.

    2008-01-01

    and electrical projects in the country. Qatar and other countries in this Persian Gulf region are among the world?s largest consumers of water. The current consumption metric stands at about ESL-HH-08-12-40 Proceedings of the Sixteenth Symposium on Improving... region with such poor natural water availability is clearly not sustainable. Any disruption in water production due to mechanical reasons or because of a contamination of the source water from the Persian Gulf would result in a very real water...

  5. Nature of gamma rays background radiation in new and old buildings of Qatar University

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Houty, L.; Abou-Leila, H.; El-Kameesy, S. (Qatar Univ., Doha (Qatar))

    1987-01-01

    Measurements and analysis of gamma-background radiation spectrum in four different places of Qatar University campus were performed at the energy range 10 keV-3 MeV using hyper pure Ge-detector. The dependence of the detector absolute photopeak efficiency on gamma-ray energies was determined and correction of the data for that was also done. The absorbed dose for each gamma line was calculated and an estimation of the total absorbed dose for the detected gamma lines in the four different places was obtained. Comparison with other results was also performed.

  6. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69%) were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (< 2%) gradually falling even further in the elderly. In contrast the prevalence of non-pathogenic amoebae (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii) peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the increase in prevalence over the period 2005-2008, in helminth infections prevalence increasing 2-3 fold by 2008, and in protozoan infections by 1.5-2.0 fold. Conclusions We suggest that helminth infections are probably acquired abroad when immigrants visit their home villages, whilst protozoan infections are reinforced by transmission in Qatar, possibly in the poorer areas of the state where immigrant workers live. We discuss the significance of these findings and emphasize that they have clear implications for the health authorities. PMID:20946623

  7. Practice, awareness and opinion of pharmacists toward disposal of unwanted medications in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Abahussain, Eman; Waheedi, Mohammad; Koshy, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background The disposal of unwanted medications has been a concern in many countries, as pharmaceutical waste enters the ecosystem, ultimately having an effect on human health and environment. Earlier studies in Kuwait found that the method of disposal by the public was by disposing in the garbage or by flushing down the drain. In accordance with patient preference and environment safety, it would be appropriate to use local government pharmacies as collection points for proper disposal. Objective To determine the practice of pharmacists, working in government healthcare sectors, with regard to disposal of returned unwanted medications by the public. This study also aims to assess pharmacists’ awareness toward the impact of improper disposal on the environment and to investigate whether pharmacists agree to have their pharmacies as collection points for future take-back programs. Method A random sample of 144 pharmacists from the six main governmental hospitals and 12 specialized polyclinics in Kuwait, completed a self-administered questionnaire about their practice of disposal, awareness and opinion on using pharmacies as collection points for proper disposal of UMs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 144 pharmacists completed the survey. Throwing UMs in the trash was the main method of disposal by majority of the respondents (73%). Only 23 pharmacists disposed UMs according to the guidelines of Ministry of Health, Kuwait (MOH). However, about 82% are aware that improper disposal causes damage to the environment and 97% agree that it is their responsibility to protect the environment. About 86–88% of the pharmacists agree to have government hospital pharmacies and polyclinics as collection points for future take-back programs. Conclusion Even though the current practice of disposal by majority of pharmacists is inappropriate, they are aware of the damage and acknowledge their responsibilities toward environment protection. Concerned authorities should monitor and implement proper disposal guidelines in all pharmacies. Majority of pharmacists support the idea of having the government pharmacies as collection points for safe disposal of UMs in Kuwait. PMID:23960793

  8. English Teaching Profiles from the British Council: Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English and the status of English language instruction is reported for Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, and Malaysia. The profile for each country contains a summary of English instruction within and outside of the educational system, teacher supply and qualifications,…

  9. Developing Intercultural Competence in Future Student Affairs Professionals through a Graduate Student Global Study Course to Doha, Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Paige; Getz, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a 2-week global study course to Doha, Qatar for graduate students in the higher education leadership and student affairs program at the University of San Diego. The course sought to develop intercultural competence with a specific focus on understanding Qatari and Middle Eastern perspectives and culture, understanding the…

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: No variations in transit times for Qatar-1b (Maciejewski+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Fernandez, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Ohlert, J.; Puchalski, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Seeliger, M.; Kitze, M.; Raetz, St.; Errmann, R.; Gilbert, H.; Pannicke, A.; Schmidt, J.-G.; Neuhaeuser, R.

    2015-03-01

    Light curves for eighteen Qatar-1 b's transits observed in 2011-2014 are given. Data were collected with 0.6-2.0-m telescopes located in six observatories in Europe. Details on observations, data reduction, and analysis are given in the source paper. (1 data file).

  11. Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaljan Areepattamannil

    2012-01-01

    The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and interactive science teaching and learning on science achievement and interest

  12. QATAR-2: A K DWARF ORBITED BY A TRANSITING HOT JUPITER AND A MORE MASSIVE COMPANION IN AN OUTER ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Marta L. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Alsubai, Khalid A. [Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Stefanik, Robert P.; Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Parley, Neil R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Horne, Keith D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Fulton, Benjamin J.; Street, Rachel A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A.; Jorgensen, Uffe Grae [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); West, Richard G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-2b, a hot Jupiter transiting a V = 13.3 mag K dwarf in a circular orbit with a short period, P{sub b} = 1.34 days. The mass and radius of Qatar-2b are M{sub P} = 2.49 M{sub J} and R{sub P} = 1.14 R{sub J}, respectively. Radial-velocity monitoring of Qatar-2 over a span of 153 days revealed the presence of a second companion in an outer orbit. The Systemic Console yielded plausible orbits for the outer companion, with periods on the order of a year and a companion mass of at least several M{sub J}. Thus, Qatar-2 joins the short but growing list of systems with a transiting hot Jupiter and an outer companion with a much longer period. This system architecture is in sharp contrast to that found by Kepler for multi-transiting systems, which are dominated by objects smaller than Neptune, usually with tightly spaced orbits that must be nearly coplanar.

  13. Lessons from the Field: Developing and Implementing the Qatar Student Assessment System, 2002-2006. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Broer, Markus; Mariano, Louis T.; Froemel, J. Enrique; Goldman, Charles A.; DaVanzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Qatar has recently positioned itself to be a leader in education. Central to the country's efforts is the implementation of reforms to its K-12 education system. Central to the reform initiatives was the development of internationally benchmarked curriculum standards in four subjects: Arabic, English as a foreign language, mathematics, and…

  14. Megadroughts at the Dawn of Islam Recorded in a Stalagmite from Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, D.; Mudelsee, M.; Bradley, R. S.; Burns, S. J.; Cheng, H.; Mangini, A.; Edwards, R.; Matter, A.

    2010-12-01

    Climate on the Arabian Peninsula is strongly affected by two major climate systems; the North Atlantic/Siberian pressure system in winter and the Indian monsoon in summer. Their influence is clearly discernable in the present-day precipitation pattern in Oman. Southern Oman (so-called Dhofar region) receives most of its total annual precipitation during the Indian summer monsoon (June - August), whereas northern Oman receives most precipitation during the northeast monsoon season (December - March) by southeast ward moving Mediterranean frontal system. To date, the late Holocene climatic history of Oman and the entire Arabian Peninsula is poorly understood due to the lack of well dated and highly resolved paleoclimate records. In order to fill this gap of knowledge an actively growing stalagmite (specimen H12) was collected from Hoti Cave located in northern Oman. Total annual rainfall in this area varies between 50 and 255 mm yr-1, with more than 65% of total annual rainfall occurring between December and March. The chronology of stalagmite H12 is based on 24 Th-U ages, which indicate that H12 grew continuously during the last 2650 years. The H12 oxygen isotope record (?18O) is based on 1345 measurements corresponding to a temporal resolution of around 2 years. The comparison of the H12 ?18O record with meteorological data reveals that ?18O values reflect the amount of precipitation. The H12 ?18O time series shows distinct centennial- to decadal-scale changes in the amount of precipitation. The most striking feature of the H12 isotope profile is a series of severe droughts between A.D. 500 and A.D. 1000, the most severe perennial drought is centered at around A.D. 530. During this time South Arabia experienced a series of profound societal changes, such as the collapse of the Himyarite Kingdom which was the dominant state in Arabia. Our stalagmite ?18O time series from Northern Oman seems to support the hypothesis that the collapse of the 1500-year-old South Arabian civilizations and transition from the pre-Islamic to the Islamic era in the 6th and early 7th century A.D. may have been triggered by reoccurring severe droughts.

  15. Megadroughts at the dawn of Islam recorded in a 2600-year long stalagmite from Northern Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, D.; Mudelsee, M.; Bradley, R. S.; Pickering, P.; Kramers, J.; Burns, S. J.; Mangini, A.; Matter, A.

    2009-04-01

    Climate on the Arabian Peninsula is strongly affected by two major climate systems; the North Atlantic/Siberian pressure system in winter and the Indian monsoon in summer. Their influence is clearly discernable in the present-day precipitation pattern in Oman. Southern Oman (so-called Dhofar region) receives most of its total annual precipitation during the Indian summer monsoon (June - August), whereas northern Oman receives most precipitation during the northeast monsoon season (December - March) by southeast ward moving Mediterranean frontal system. To date, the late Holocene climatic history of Oman and the entire Arabian Peninsula is poorly understood due to the lack of well dated and highly resolved paleoclimate records. In order to fill this gap of knowledge an actively growing stalagmite (specimen H12) was collected from Hoti Cave located in northern Oman. Total annual rainfall in this area varies between 50 and 255 mm yr-1, with more than 65% of total annual rainfall occurring between December and March. The chronology of stalagmite H12 is based on 22 Th-U ages, which indicate that H12 grew continuously during the last 2650 years. The H12 oxygen isotope record (^18O) is based on 1345 measurements corresponding to a temporal resolution of around 2 years. The comparison of the H12 ^18O record with meteorological data reveals that ^18O values reflect the amount of precipitation. The H12 ^18O time series shows distinct centennial- to decadal-scale changes in the amount of precipitation. The most striking feature of the H12 isotope profile is a series of severe droughts between A.D. 500 and A.D. 1000, the most severe perennial drought is centered at around A.D. 530. During this time South Arabia experienced a series of profound societal changes, such as the collapse of the Himyarite Kingdom which was the dominant state in Arabia. Our stalagmite ^18O time series from Northern Oman seems to support the hypothesis that the collapse of the 1500-year-old South Arabian civilizations and transition from the pre-Islamic to the Islamic era in the 6th and early 7th century A.D. may have been triggered by reoccurring severe droughts.

  16. Temporal and Spatial Assessment of Yearly Solar Maps Derived from Satellite Images over the UAE and Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Y.; Marpu, P. R.; Ghedira, H.; Chiesa, M.

    2012-12-01

    The unique climate of countries located within the Arabian Peninsula, characterized by high dust concentrations, high humidity and modest cloud coverage, requires regional models to retrieve the solar irradiance components from satellite images. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has shown promising results in estimating the direct normal, diffuse horizontal and global horizontal irradiances using thermal satellite channels over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This model is trained with six thermal channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard Meteosat Second Generation, along with the solar zenith angle, day number, solar time and eccentricity correction. The outputs of this model are the solar irradiance components at 15-min temporal and 3-km spatial resolutions, which are then utilized to derive the daily, monthly and yearly irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar. The purpose of this research is to examine the temporal and spatial variations for annual irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar, derived using the ANN approach. For the period ranging from 2008 to 2010, the year of 2009 shows the lowest annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation, and the highest diffuse horizontal irradiation. That is due to frequent dust events which occurred during 2009. The annual direct normal irradiation maps for 2008 to 2010 show the same trend, with the higher irradiation values in the southern area of UAE and the values decreasing as the coast approaches in the northern region. For any given year, Qatar generally shows lower direct normal irradiation values than the UAE. This might be explained by higher humidity in Qatar due to its coastal climate. As for the annual diffuse horizontal irradiation maps, the lower irradiation values are observed in the southern area of UAE and along some coastal regions, with the higher values being in the middle. Qatar shows higher values in the western region, due to the increased airborne dust coming from Saudi Arabia, as opposed to the eastern coast which is along the Arabian Gulf. The annual global horizontal irradiation maps show less spatial variations. For the UAE the values consistently increase from north to south, while for Qatar lower values are observed along the eastern coast and the higher values are in the inland and southern locations. The direct normal irradiation map over the UAE and Qatar for the year 2010, which had values greater than 2008 and 2009.

  17. A Course-based Cross-Cultural Interaction among Pharmacy Students in Qatar and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeff; Khalifa, Sherief I.; Jorgenson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a course-based, cross-cultural student interaction using real-time videoconferencing between universities in Canada and Qatar. Design. A professional skills simulation practice session on smoking cessation was run for students in Qatar (n=22) and Canada (n=22). Students role played cases in small group situations and then interacted with colleagues from the other country regarding culturally challenging situations and communication strategies. Assessment. Students were assessed on analytical content and communication skills through faculty member and peer evaluation. Cultural competency outcomes were assessed using a postsession survey. Overall, 92.3% of respondents agreed that learning was enhanced through the cross-cultural exchange, and 94.9% agreed that insight was gained into the health-related issues and needs of people from another culture. Conclusion. A course-based, cross-cultural interaction was an effective method to incorporate cultural competency principles into student learning. Future initiatives should increase direct student interaction and focus on culturally sensitive topics. PMID:25861107

  18. D Model of AL Zubarah Fortress in Qatar - Terrestrial Laser Scanning VS. Dense Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Mechelke, K.; Maziull, L.

    2015-02-01

    In September 2011 the fortress Al Zubarah, built in 1938 as a typical Arabic fortress and restored in 1987 as a museum, was recorded by the HafenCity University Hamburg using terrestrial laser scanning with the IMAGER 5006h and digital photogrammetry for the Qatar Museum Authority within the framework of the Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project. One goal of the object recording was to provide detailed 2D/3D documentation of the fortress. This was used to complete specific detailed restoration work in the recent years. From the registered laser scanning point clouds several cuttings and 2D plans were generated as well as a 3D surface model by triangle meshing. Additionally, point clouds and surface models were automatically generated from digital imagery from a Nikon D70 using the open-source software Bundler/PMVS2, free software VisualSFM, Autodesk Web Service 123D Catch beta, and low-cost software Agisoft PhotoScan. These outputs were compared with the results from terrestrial laser scanning. The point clouds and surface models derived from imagery could not achieve the same quality of geometrical accuracy as laser scanning (i.e. 1-2 cm).

  19. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. PMID:23557827

  20. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Literathy, P; Quinn, M; Al-Rashed, M

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long-term environmental weathering of the oil. PMID:12793688

  1. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights. PMID:22892687

  2. Wide Dissemination of GES-Type Carbapenemases in Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Bonnin, Rémy A.; Rotimi, Vincent O.; Al Hubail, Mona; Gasiorowski, Elise; Al Sweih, Noura; Poirel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that is an important source of nosocomial infections. Production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) of the GES type in A. baumannii has been increasingly reported, and some of these GES-type enzymes possess some carbapenemase activity. Our aim was to analyze the resistance determinants and the clonal relationships of carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from hospitals in Kuwait. A total of 63 isolates were analyzed, and all were found to be positive for blaGES-type genes. One isolate harbored the blaGES-14 gene encoding an ESBL with significant carbapenemase activity, whereas the other isolates harbored the blaGES-11 ESBL gene. Thirty-three isolates coharbored the blaOXA-23 and blaGES-11 genes. Analyses of the genetic locations indicated that the blaGES-11/-14 genes were plasmid located. It is noteworthy that the blaOXA-23 and blaGES-11 genes were colocated onto a single plasmid. Nine different pulsotypes were observed among the 63 isolates. This study showed the emergence of GES-type ESBLs in A. baumannii in Kuwait, further suggesting that the Middle East region might be a reservoir for carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii. PMID:23089751

  3. Geological model of the Jurassic section in the State of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Yousif, S.; Nouman, G.

    1995-11-01

    Until the end of the seventies, the knowledge of Jurassic Geology in the State of Kuwait was very limited, since only one deep well was drilled and bottomed in the Triassic sediments. Few scattered wells partially penetrated the Jurassic sequence. During the eighties, appreciable number of wells were drilled through the Jurassic, and added a remarkable volume of information. consequently it was necessary to analyze the new data, in order to try to construct a geological model for the Jurassic in the State of Kuwait. This paper includes a number of isopach maps explaining the Jurassic depositional basin which also helps in trying to explain the Jurassic basin in the Arabian Gulf basin. Structural evolution of the Jurassic sequence indicated an inversion of relief when compared with the Cretaceous sequence. In fact, the main Cretaceous arches were sites of sedimentation troughs during the Jurassic period. This fact marks a revolution in the concepts for the Jurassic oil exploration. One of the very effective methods of the definition of the Jurassic structures is the isopaching of the Gotnia Formation. Najmah, Sargelu and Marrat Formations include the main Jurassic reservoirs which were detected as a result of the exploration activities during the eighties. Selective stratigraphic and structural cross sections have been prepared to demonstrate and explain the nature of the Jurassic sediments.

  4. Consumption, health attitudes and perception toward fast food among Arab consumers in Kuwait: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume "double" burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their "fast food" classification. PMID:25363129

  5. Radiative effects of the smoke clouds from the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Pilewskie, P.; Valero, F.P.J. [NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    1992-09-20

    The radiative effects of the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were assessed by measuring downwelling and upwelling solar flux, as well as spectral solar extinction beneath, above, and within the smoke plume. Seven radiation flight missions were undertaken between May 16 and June 2, 1991, to characterize the plume between the source region in Kuwait and approximately 200 km south, near Manama, Bahrain. The authors present results from one flight representative of conditions of the composite plume. On May 18, 1991, in a homogeneous, well-mixed region of smoke approximately 100 km downstream of the fires, visible optical depths as high as 2 were measured, at which time transmission to the surface was 8%, while 78% of the solar radiation was absorbed by the smoke. The calculated instantaneous heating rate inside the plume reached 24 K/d. While these effects are probably typical of those regions in the Persian Gulf area directly covered by the smoke, there is no evidence to suggest significant climatic effects in other regions. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The Effectiveness of Direct Instruction in Teaching English in Elementary Public Education Schools in Kuwait: A Research Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Al-Sharoufi, Hussain; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effectiveness of direct instruction in improving non-native student achievement in English learning. The study involved two groups in two English classes. Groups were selected from two different elementary public schools in the State of Kuwait. Study parameters were derived from a review of the literature and scientific…

  7. How Do Elementary Textbooks Address Fractions? A Review of Mathematics Textbooks in the USA, Japan, and Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alajmi, Amal Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Textbooks play an important part in the design of instruction. This study analyzed the presentation of fractions in textbooks designed for the elementary grades in Kuwait, Japan, and the USA. The analysis focused on the physical characteristics of the books, the structure of the lessons, and the nature of the mathematical problems presented.…

  8. A test of the news model of stock price determination in an emerging market: the case of Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imad Moosa; Sulaiman Al-Abduljader

    2010-01-01

    A news model of stock price determination is specified and estimated using the Kuwait Stock Exchange (KSE) index as the price variable over the period January 1996 to December 2004. Of the five explanatory news variables, only the news terms of the money supply and government revenue turned out to be significant and correctly signed. Some weaker evidence is found

  9. Effects of Character Education on the Self-Esteem of Intellectually Able and Less Able Elementary Students in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannir, Abir; Al-Hroub, Anies

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigates effects of character education activities on the self-esteem of intellectually able and less able students in the lower elementary level in Kuwait. The participants were 39 students in grade three with an average age of eight years old. Students were first divided into two ability subgroups (intellectually able vs.…

  10. Developing environmental impact statement (EIS) guidelines for the management of environmental quality at major projects in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Mohamed Al-Damkhi; Sabah Ahmed Abdul-Wahab; Bader Naser Al-Khalaf; Abeer Sa'ad Al-Nafisi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to set guidelines for the development and review of environmental impact statements (EIS) for major development projects proposed in the third review of the Kuwait Master Plan (KMP3). Best practices for environmental quality management to alleviate the impact of these projects on the environment are discussed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper selects six

  11. REVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENTS IN KUWAIT: A STEP TOWARDS MITIGATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS ASSOCIATED WITH MAJOR PROJECTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALI MOHAMED AL-DAMKHI; SABAH AHMED ABDUL-WAHAB

    2008-01-01

    Major development projects, within the third review of the Kuwait Master Plan (KMP3), are proposed for the period (2005–2030). These projects include, among other things, the construction of new towns, industrial areas, power plants, highways, hospitals, waterfront projects and sanitary projects. All of these projects are well known to have adverse environmental impacts unless necessary precautions are taken in their

  12. Physical Properties as Indicators of Oil Penetration in Soils Contaminated with oil Lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al-Sarawi; M. S. Massoud; S. A. Wahba

    1998-01-01

    Measurements were made on 60 samples to determine the physical properties of the soil profiles contaminated with oil lakes in Al-Ahmadi and Burgan oil fields which include 80% of the Greater Burgan oil wells in southern Kuwait. The two soil profiles have similar saturation percentages, field capacities, wilting coefficients, low available water capacities due to statification and very low matric

  13. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Increasing Academic Learning Time for College Undergraduate Students' Achievement in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Mohammad, Anwar; Al-Shammari, Bandar

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of increasing ALT for college students' achievement in Kuwait. In Phase 1, 37 students participated (22, experimental; 15, control); in Phase 2, 19 students participated (8, sub-experimental; 11, sub-control). Several experimental research methods used in conducting this study, including development of a…

  14. Dropping out of Vocational Education in the State of Kuwait: A Case Study of Industrial Arts Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh; Almutairi, Yousef B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine, in retrospect, trainees' perceptions of the reasons some of their peers dropped out of the vocational education at the Industrial Institute-Shuwaikh (IIS), Kuwait. Using the descriptive-analytical method, a reliable questionnaire was developed to achieve this purpose. Results show that: (a) the…

  15. Instructor's Perceptions towards the Use of an Online Instructional Tool in an Academic English Setting in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erguvan, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    This study sets out to explore the faculty members' perceptions of a specific web-based instruction tool (Achieve3000) in a private higher education institute in Kuwait. The online tool provides highly differentiated instruction, which is initiated with a level set at the beginning of the term. The program is used in two consecutive courses…

  16. Special Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Autistic Students in the Autism School in the State of Kuwait: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the purpose was to examine Kuwaiti special education teachers' attitudes toward autistic students in the Autism School in Kuwait. This research study is divided into two parts: Introduction (the problem statement, the purpose statement, the research questions, definition of terms), and Procedures (using a case study in research, the…

  17. Socioeconomic associations of improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Bener, Abdulbari; El Ansari, Walid

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the temporal association between socioeconomic development indices and improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar over a period of 35 years (1974-2008). We explored the association between reduction in poverty, improvement in maternal education, and perinatal health care on the one hand, and increased maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival on the other hand. Yearly mortality data was ascertained from the perinatal and neonatal mortality registers of the Women's Hospital and the national database in the Department of Preventive Medicine at Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha. A total of 323,014 births were recorded during the study period. During these 35 years, there was a remarkable decline (P < 0.001) in Qatar's neonatal mortality rate from 26.27/1000 in 1974 to 4.4/1000 in 2008 and in the perinatal mortality rate from 44.4/1000 in 1974 to 10.58/1000 in 2008. Qatar's maternal mortality rate remained zero during 1993, 1995, and then in 1998-2000. The maternal mortality rate was 11.6/100,000 in 2008. For the rest of the years it has been approximately 10/100,000. Across the study period, the reduction in poverty, increase in maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with a significant improvement in maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival. The total annual births increased five-fold during the study period, with no negative impact on survival rates. Neonatal mortality rates in Qatar have reached a plateau since 2005. We also conducted a substudy to assess the association between improvements in survival rates in relation to health care investment. For this purpose, we divided the study period into two eras, ie, era A (1974-1993) during which major health care investment was in community-based, low-cost interventions, and era B (1994-2008) during which the major health care investment was in high-technology institutional interventions. Although from 1974-1993 (era A) the per capita health expenditure increased by only 19% as compared with a 137% increase in 1994-2008 (era B). The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was three times steeper during era A than in era B. The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was also significant (P < 0.001) when analyzed separately for era A and era B. We concluded that across the 35-year period covered by our study, the reduction in poverty, increased maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar. From the subanalysis of era A and era B, we concluded that low-cost, community-based interventions, on the background of socioeconomic development, have a stronger impact on maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival as compared with high-cost institutional interventions. PMID:21151678

  18. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; ?erný, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ?128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ?106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

  19. Detection of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Optically Complex Coastal Waters of the Kuwait Bay using Aqua-MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manche, C. J.; Sultan, M.; Uddin, S.; Al-Dousari, A.; Chouinard, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the optically complex coastal marine waters of the Kuwait Bay, the propagation of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) has become a severe issue over the last decade affecting aquaculture a primary component of the Kuwaiti economy. Although several remote sensing based methods of algal bloom detection exist today, few may accurately detect the concentration and identify the type of HABs in Case II waters. The purpose of this study is: (1) assessment of the method that best detects and identifies algal blooms in general and HABs in particular, in the Kuwait Bay, and (2) identification of the factors controlling the occurrence of HABs. Fluorescence Line Height (FLH), Empirical, Bio-Optical, and Operational Methods as well as Ocean Colour 3 Band Ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM), and General Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) algorithms were applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images acquired (07/2002 to 07/2012) over the Kuwait Bay and areas as far east as Shatt Al-Arab and as far south as N. 29.284 (Lat.), E. 50.047 (Long.) decimal degrees. In-situ data (bloom days: 50; sampling locations: 64) collected (09/1999 to 07/2011) from the Kuwait Bay was provided by the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and was used to test the reliability of the satellite-based inferences. Tasks accomplished and findings reached include: (1) comparison of in situ to estimated OC3M, GSM, and GIOP chlorophyll concentrations over the sampling locations for the time period 2002 to 2009 showed that OC3M outperformed the two other techniques in predicting the observed distribution and in replicating the measured concentration of the in-situ Chl-a data; (2) applying the OC3M algorithm to a total of 4039 scenes and using threshold values of 3, 4, and 5 mg/m3 Chl-a concentrations we inferred 371, 202, and 124 occurrences in the Kuwait Bay that met their respective threshold; (3) applying the operational method we successfully identified 13 of the reported blooms in Kuwait Bay on cloud free days; the majority of the unidentified events were on cloudy days. This was accomplished by generating difference images between the current satellite OC3M Chl-a concentration image and a background (mean of previous 60 days + 1 mg/m3) using a 14-day window between the analyzed image and those used in the generation of the mean. Predicted blooms in the Kuwait Bay in years 2002 through 2012 are 30, 84, 101, 96, 100, 97, 66, 60, 91, 81 and 29 blooms, respectively. These estimates exceed the observed occurrences and may be attributed to sampling bias (most blooms found >2 km from the shoreline) or due to uncertainties introduced by applying the OC3M algorithms to shallow water (mean depth Kuwait Bay: 22 m) cases; and (4) the temporal correlation of the distribution of the algal blooms in Kuwait Bay with those at the mouth of Shatt Al-Arab suggests a causal effect. Further efforts to more accurately identify HABS and to reduce uncertainties in Chl-a concentration are currently underway.

  20. Twenty-year changes in coral near Muscat, Oman estimated from manta board tow observations.

    PubMed

    Coles, Steve L; Looker, Elayne; Burt, John A

    2015-02-01

    The coastline of Muscat, Oman, contains some of the most extensive and diverse coral reefs in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula. In the past two decades this region has been impacted by expanding coastal development, the largest cyclone ever recorded in the Arabian Sea, and a large-scale harmful algal bloom which resulted in mass mortality of reefs elsewhere in the Gulf of Oman. In 2012 we estimated live and dead coral using manta tow observations on 370 transects at 13 locations along the coastline and nearshore islands of Muscat Oman. We compared these estimates against observations made on 389 transects at the same 13 locations two decades earlier (1993-94) in order to determine long-term changes in benthos along the Muscat coast. Results were mapped and differences in categorical mean values for transect locations were statistically compared between survey years. Live hard and soft coral decreased over the past two decades at most survey sites, and decreases were significant at three exposed coastline sites and one semi-enclosed embayment. One sheltered embayment site showed a significant increase in live hard coral over the study period. Declines in live hard coral were associated with increases in dead coral framework at 8 of the 13 sites, but these changes were non-significant. We attribute these changes primarily to long-term effects of Cyclone Gonu, which struck the Oman coast in June 2007. The study results suggest that the manta tow method can be an effective way to detect long-term changes in coral and other benthic parameters over large areas, despite limitations on its precision. PMID:25460063

  1. Status of the sea cucumber fishery in the Sultanate of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalfan M. Al-Rashdi; Saud S. Al-Busaidi; Isam H. Al-Rassadi

    2007-01-01

    Sea cucumber harvesting in Oman constitutes a minor fishery. Harvesting takes place in Mahout Bay and centers on the sandfish, Holothuria scabra. The sea cucumber fishery was revived in 2003 with the increased demand of beche-de-mer from international markets. Sandfish are collected by hand by walking in shal- low-water areas during low tide, between late November and May. Sandfish are

  2. Ecology and morphological traits of an ancient Musa acuminata cultivar from a mountain oasis of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Buerkert; E. De Langhe; S. Al Khanjari

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports have shown a surprising diversity of agricultural crops in Omani oases which was attributed to the country’s\\u000a traditional role at the crossroads of cultures and trade between the Middle East and Asia. Recent surveys have indicated a\\u000a relatively small diversity of banana (Musa spp.) germplasm which was thought to reflect the prevailing hyperarid conditions of Oman where this

  3. Mangroves of Oman during the late Holocene; climatic implications and impact on human settlements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Lézine; Jean-François Saliège; Robert Mathieu; Thibaut-Louis Tagliatela; Sophie Mery; Vincent Charpentier; Serge Cleuziou

    2002-01-01

    .   Pollen and micropalaeontological analyses carried out on mangrove swamp sediments of Suwayh, Oman (22°05.589'N, 50°40.033'E)\\u000a reveal environmental changes linked both to climate (monsoon) and geomorphological (sea-level) variations during the Late\\u000a Holocene. A Rhizophora mangrove developed at Suwayh around 6000 years B. P. under climate conditions marked by an increased tropical influence as\\u000a compared to the modern situation, with dominant

  4. Effects of land use changes on the hydrological sustainability of mountain oases in northern Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eike Luedeling; Andreas Buerkert

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, oasis farmers in hyperarid northern Oman have adapted to the interannual variation of irrigation water supply\\u000a by dedicating an often sizable proportion of the agricultural area to the production of annual crops and leaving this area\\u000a uncultivated in drought years. We hypothesized that increases in the share of perennial crops may put long-term hydrological\\u000a sustainability at risk. To test

  5. Cambro-Ordovician potassic (alkaline) magmatism in Central Oman: Petrological and geochemical constraints on petrogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Worthing; S. Nasir

    2008-01-01

    Cambro-Ordovician alkaline magmatism is exposed in four small laccolithic intrusions in the Huqf area of Central Oman. 40Ar\\/39Ar dating suggests the presence of two pulses of magmatism at approximately 513–526 Ma and 452–461 Ma. The emplacement of ultramafic foidites characterized the earlier stage of magmatism, while later stage resulted in the intrusion of a sequence of mildly potassic minettes and tephrites. The

  6. Rapid emplacement of young oceanic lithosphere: argon geochronology of the oman ophiolite.

    PubMed

    Hacker, B R

    1994-09-01

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of emplacement-related metamorphic rocks beneath the Samail ophiolite in Oman show that cooling to <525 degrees C occurred within approximately 1 million years of igneous crystallization of the ophiolite. This unexpectedly short time span and rapid cooling means that old, cold continental or oceanic lithosphere must have been adjacent to the ophiolite during spreading and then been thrust beneath the ophiolite almost immediately afterward. PMID:17801534

  7. Extinction of Cloudina and Namacalathus at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim E. Amthor; John P. Grotzinger; Stefan Schröder; Samuel A. Bowring; Jahandar Ramezani; Mark W. Martin; Albert Matter

    2003-01-01

    Biostratigraphic, carbon isotope, and U-Pb zircon geochronological data from the Ara Group of Oman indicate an abrupt last appearance of Cloudina and Namacalathus coincident with a large-magnitude, but short-lived negative excursion in the carbon isotope composition of seawater that is globally coincident with the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. U-Pb zircon age data from an intercalated ash bed directly define this negative excursion

  8. Coastal evolution of the Sultanate Oman (Arabian Peninsula) - tectonic versus sea-level forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Goesta; Gruetzner, Christoph; Reicherter, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Along the coastline of the Sultanate of Oman (SE Arabian Peninsula) we find geological evidences for tsunamis, neotectonic movements and differential crustal uplift. These evidences are used to describe the Quaternary evolution of the coastline and to construct future scenarios. Coastal areas are dynamic and fast changing natural environments. Several factors, acting on different time scales control their evolution. Furthermore, coastal areas are densely populated, especially in the Sultanate of Oman where more than half of the population is living at the coast. Due to economic improvements Oman experiences substantial changes in land utilization, particularly in Al Batinah and Muscat regions. With the given natural boundary conditions different interests of various user groups are in conflict. Ongoing global climate change will result in further intensification of the situation. Coastal evolution is a function of several forcing factors e.g.: differential land movement which in turn is an effect of local variations in the tectonic stress field; climate and sediment availability. The various forcing factors are quantified by analysing Quaternary coastal sediments and geomorphologic features (e.g. terraces, notches) as archives and indicators. Long-term changes are described by the reconstruction and comparison of the relative sea-level development along the coastline. Short-term coastal changes are often related to natural hazards. Hurricanes as well as tsunamis are known to have affected Oman's coastline in the past. By analysing geological archives information regarding recurrence intervals and potential damages are revealed which allows assessing the risk and estimating the vulnerability. This is done for different areas along the coast which have been identified as key-locations. Sediment cores and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are used to analyse Quaternary coastal sediments.

  9. Impact of Geographical Proximity on Health Care Seeking Behaviour in Northern Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Eloul, Liyam

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Despite its impact on health policy, the relationship between geographical proximity and health care seeking has received scant attention in the medical literature. This paper aims to evaluate the relationship between geographic proximity and health care usage behaviour among patients seeking medical consultation in the northern region of Oman. Methods: During 2006–2007, data was collected via face-to-face interviews among 428 randomized patients seeking medical consultation in various primary health care centres in the northern region of Oman. The association between geographical proximity as a reason to seek health care and other predictors was also analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that preference for geographical proximity as a reason for seeking health care is strongly associated with marital status, previous exposure to traditional medicine and health education, as well as history of immunisation. Conclusion: This finding supports the view from elsewhere that geographical proximity remains a strong catalyst for care seeking in Oman. The psychosocial factors affecting care seeking are discussed. PMID:21748077

  10. A seasonal dipolar eddy near Ras Al Hamra (Sea of Oman)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, Pierre; Lacour, Léo; Carton, Xavier; Roullet, Guillaume; Baraille, Rémy; Corréard, Stéphanie

    2013-06-01

    Trajectories and hydrological data from two Argo floats indicate that warm and salty water at 200-300-m depths was ejected from the coast of Oman, near Ras al Hamra, in spring 2008, 2011, and 2012. This warm and salty water, Persian Gulf Water (PGW), once ejected from the coast, recirculated cyclonically in the western Sea of Oman, but also flowed eastward along the Iranian and Pakistani coasts. There, it was expelled seaward by mesoscale eddies as shown by other float data. Seasonal maps of salinity were computed from all available Argo floats; they showed that, in spring, PGW is present in the middle and north of the Sea of Oman, contrary to fall, when the salinity maxima lie southeast of Ras al Hadd. The ejection of PGW from Ras al Hamra is related here to the influence of a mesoscale dipolar eddy which often appears near this cape in spring. The time-averaged and empirical orthogonal functions of altimetric maps over 11 years for this season confirm the frequent presence and the persistence of this feature. From surface currents and hydrology, deep currents were computed via thermal wind balance, and the associated shear and strain fields were obtained. This deformation field is intense near Ras al Hamra, with an offshore direction. This flow structure associated with the mesoscale dipole explains PGW ejection from the coast. This observation suggests that PGW distribution in the Northern Arabian Sea can be strongly influenced by seasonal mesoscale eddies.

  11. LE METAMORPHISME OCEANIQUE DANS LE COMPLEXE GABBROQUE DE L'OPHIOLITE D'OMAN. NICOLLET Christian, DEBRET Baptiste Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Universit Blaise Pascal -UMR 6524 -Clermont-Ferrand

    E-print Network

    Nicollet, Christian

    LE METAMORPHISME OCEANIQUE DANS LE COMPLEXE GABBROÏQUE DE L'OPHIOLITE D'OMAN. NICOLLET Christian l'ophiolite d'Oman, à la base du complexe filonien et dans les gabbros isotropes, les conditions et trajets PTt dans le complexe gabbroïque de l'ophiolite d'Oman ... le manteau est traversée de

  12. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Oman, Pacific Islands (Palau), Papua New Guinea, Paracel Islands, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,...

  13. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Oman, Pacific Islands (Palau), Papua New Guinea, Paracel Islands, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,...

  14. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Oman, Pacific Islands (Palau), Papua New Guinea, Paracel Islands, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,...

  15. Analysis of pediatric trauma data from a hospital based trauma registry in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Alyafei, Khalid A; Toaimah, Fatihi; El Menyar, Ayman; Al Thani, Hassan; Youssef, Bashir; Mollazehi, Muneera; Consunji, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trauma is the leading killer in the young age children, but data about the injury burden on pediatric population are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcome of the traumatic injuries among children in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a trauma registry database, which reviewed all cases of serious traumatic injury (ISS ? 9) to children aged 0–18 years who were admitted to the national pediatric Level I trauma center at the Hamad General Hospital (HGH), over a period of one year. Data included demographics, day of injuries, location, time, type and mechanism of injuries, co-morbidity, safety equipment use, pre-hospital intubation, mode of pre-hospital transport, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), emergency department (ED) intervention, hospital length of stay and mortality outcome. Results: The incidence of severe pediatric trauma was 163 per 280,000 children who visited the ED of HGH in 2011. Out of them, 83% were male, mean age was 9.6 ± 5.9 years and mortality rate was 1.8%. On presentation to the ED, the mean ISS was 13.9 ± 6.6 and GCS was 13.4 ± 3.8. Over half of the patients needed ICU admission. For the ages 0-4 years, injuries most frequently occurred at home; for 5-9 years (59%) and 15-18 years (68%), the street; and for 10-14 years (50%), sports and recreational sites. The most common mechanisms of injury for the age groups were falls for 0-4 years, motor vehicle collision (MVC) or pedestrian injury for 5-9 years, all-terrain vehicle (ATV)/bicycle injuries for 10-14 years, and MVC injuries for 15-18 years. Head (34%) and long bone (18%) injuries were the most common, with 18% suffering from polytrauma. None of the patients were using safety equipment when injured. Conclusion: Traumatic injuries to children have an age- and mechanism-specific pattern in Qatar. This has important implications for the formulation of focused injury prevention programs for the children of Qatar. PMID:25810960

  16. The Use of Radioactive Aerosols in the Ventilation Study of Persons Exposed to Air Pollution from the Oil Well Fires in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Owunwanne; K. Al-Za’abi; S. Mahussain; M. W. Dawoud; M. Tuli; K. Nawaz; A. Ghali; S. Baig; S. Jahan

    1997-01-01

    The permeability of alveolar-capillary membrane of persons exposed to smoke from oil well fires in Kuwait is studied using a nuclear medicine imaging technique. This involves inhalation of radioactive aerosols generated from technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentacetate (99mTc DTPA). A total of 100 subjects were divided into four groups. The groups were classified into oil field workers, subjects who were in Kuwait

  17. Solid state speciation and potential bioavailability of depleted uranium particles from Kosovo and Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Lind, O C; Salbu, B; Skipperud, L; Janssens, K; Jaroszewicz, J; De Nolf, W

    2009-04-01

    A combination of synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopic techniques (mu-XRF, mu-XANES, mu-XRD) applied on single depleted uranium (DU) particles and semi-bulk leaching experiments has been employed to link the potential bioavailability of DU particles to site-specific particle characteristics. The oxidation states and crystallographic forms of U in DU particles have been determined for individual particles isolated from selected samples collected at different sites in Kosovo and Kuwait that were contaminated by DU ammunition during the 1999 Balkan conflict and the 1991 Gulf war. Furthermore, small soil or sand samples heavily contaminated with DU particles were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal fluid (0.16 M HCl) extractions. Characteristics of DU particles in Kosovo soils collected in 2000 and in Kuwait soils collected in 2002 varied significantly depending on the release scenario and to some extent on weathering conditions. Oxidized U (+6) was determined in large, fragile and bright yellow DU particles released during fire at a DU ammunition storage facility and crystalline phases such as schoepite (UO(3).2.25H(2)O), dehydrated schoepite (UO(3).0.75H(2)O) and metaschoepite (UO(3).2.0H(2)O) were identified. As expected, these DU particles were rapidly dissolved in 0.16 M HCl (84 +/- 3% extracted after 2 h) indicating a high degree of potential mobility and bioavailability. In contrast, the 2 h extraction of samples contaminated with DU particles originating either from corrosion of unspent DU penetrators or from impacted DU ammunition appeared to be much slower (20-30%) as uranium was less oxidized (+4 to +6). Crystalline phases such as UO(2), UC and metallic U or U-Ti alloy were determined in impacted DU particles from Kosovo and Kuwait, while the UO(2,34) phase, only determined in particles from Kosovo, could reflect a more corrosive environment. Although the results are based on a limited number of DU particles, they indicate that the structure and extractability of DU particles released from similar sources (metallic U penetrators) will depend on the release scenarios (fire, impact) and to some extent environmental conditions. However, most of the DU particles (73-96%) in all investigated samples were dissolved in 0.16 M HCl after one week indicating that a majority of the DU material is bioaccessible. PMID:19216013

  18. Project EARTH-13-MPS1: Constraining the origin and obduction history of the Oman Ophiolite: Structure, petrology and modeling of the ophiolite lower crust, Moho

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-13-MPS1: Constraining the origin and obduction history of the Oman Ophiolite: Structure, petrology and modeling of the ophiolite lower crust, Moho transition zone, mantle and underlying: The Oman Ophiolite is a ~15 km thick unit of upper mantle peridotite (harzburgite, dunite, wehrlite

  19. Audit of state-funded antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C in Qatar.

    PubMed

    John, A K; Al, Kaabi S; John, A; Singh, R; Derbala, M

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem in the Middle East. A database of 400 patients with chronic HCV in Qatar was retrospectively analysed: 242 patients underwent antiviral treatment, of whom 212 (87.6%) were naïve to treatment. The response to treatment and the predictors of response were studied. The largest group of patients were of Egyptian origin. The rate of sustained virological response (SVR) varied significantly between patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 (79.6%) and genotype 1 (45.6%) and 4 (the predominant genotype) (51.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that the independent predictors of SVR were age < 45 years, infection with genotypes 2 or 3, low fibrosis score on liver biopsy and naïve treatment status. PMID:21218734

  20. Profile of major congenital malformations in neonates in Al-Jahra region of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Madi, S A; Al-Naggar, R L; Al-Awadi, S A; Bastaki, L A

    2005-07-01

    We investigated major congenital abnormalities in babies born in Al Jahra Hospital, Kuwait from January 2000 to December 2001. Of 7739 live and still births born over this period, 97 babies had major congenital malformations (12.5/1000 births): 49 (50.6%) babies had multiple system malformations, while 48 (49.4%) had single system anomalies. Of the 49 babies with multiple malformations, 21 (42.8%) had recognized syndromes, most of which were autosomal recessive and 17 had chromosomal aberrations. Isolated systems anomalies included central nervous system (12 cases), cardiovascular system (9 cases), skeletal system (7 cases) and gastrointestinal system (6 cases). Of the parents, 68% were consanguineous. Genetic factors were implicated in 79% of cases. Genetic services need to be provided as an effective means for the prevention of these disorders. PMID:16700386

  1. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma in Kuwait. An 11-yr retrospective analysis of 108 cases.

    PubMed

    Omar, Y T; Al-Nakib, B; Jacob, G S; Ali, S M; Temmim, L; Radhakrishnan, S; Fayaz, M S

    1985-05-01

    One hundred and eight cases of primary gastrointestinal lymphoma from the files of Kuwait Cancer Control Center over a period of 11 yr were analysed retrospectively. The occurrence was 47 in the proximal small intestine, 38 in the stomach, 18 in the distal ileum and five in the colon and rectum. The majority of the patients were in stage III. Using a modified Rappaport's classification, lymphocytic lymphoma was the commonest histologic type (60%) as compared to histiocytic lymphoma (19%). Four patients had early IPSID (immunoproliferative small intestinal disease). The 'Western' type of lymphoma occurred in the fourth decade while the 'Mediterranean' type occurred in the third decade of life. The latter occurred more commonly among people of low socioeconomic background. Chemotherapy was the single most effective mode of treatment. Addition of surgery, radiotherapy or both did not improve the 2-yr survival but did improve the 5-yr survival. PMID:4007022

  2. Exploring Patient Satisfaction Before and After Electronic Health Record (EHR) Implementation: The Kuwait Experience

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jafar, Eiman

    2013-01-01

    Patient satisfaction has gained the focal position in well-planned healthcare delivery systems. The objective of this study was to investigate patient satisfaction with the quality of services provided before and after the implementation of electronic health records (EHRs) at Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Kuwait. A self-developed questionnaire was used. A random sampling was used to select 700 subjects. The response rate was 74 percent. The majority of participants (67 percent) were 19 to 34 years of age. Of the participants, 63 percent were female and 92 percent were Kuwaiti nationals. Before EHR implementation, respondents’ disagreement regarding the doctor's carefulness in conducting the examination, uses of medical terminology, explanations for medication given, and time given for a patient was more than 30 percent. Disagreement regarding the rest of the questions related to the patient/physician relationship after EHR implementation was also higher (25 percent to 39 percent). PMID:23805063

  3. Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait: interpretations from thermal remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    ud Din, Saif; Al Dousari, Ahmad; Literathy, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to oil pollution alter the apparent temperature, which was used as a recognition element to map out oil polluted surfaces. The LST contrast was successfully used to map spatial distribution of hydrocarbon pollution in the Burgan Oil field area of Kuwait. The methodology can be positively used to detect waste dumping, oil spills in oceans and ports, besides environmental management of oil pollution at or near the land surface. PMID:17291680

  4. Morbidity associated with surgical treatment of ureteric calculi in a teaching hospital in Kuwait.

    PubMed Central

    Kehinde, E. O.; Al-Awadi, K. A.; Al-Hunayan, A.; Okasha, G. H.; Al-Tawheed, A.; Ali, Y.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ureteric lithiasis is a common urological problem in Kuwait. Because of the different interventional approaches, we carried out an audit on the morbidity associated with the surgical management of the disorder. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The surgical records were reviewed of all patients with the diagnosis of ureteric lithiasis that were managed surgically by ureteroscopy or ureterolithotomy in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital in Kuwait between January 1996 and December 1999. Patients' bio-data, location of calculi, indications for surgical intervention, types of therapeutic interventions, operating surgeon and complications were analysed. Patients managed primarily and successfully by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy were excluded from this analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1383 patients with ureteric calculus were managed in the period under review--775 (56%), 567 (41%), and 41 (3%) patients were managed by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy and ureterolithotomy, respectively. The 608 patients managed by ureteroscopy or ureterolithotomy had a total of 710 operations. The commonest surgical procedure performed was ureteroscopy with Dormia basket with or without double 'J' stenting and this accounted for 418 (58.9%) operations. The least common procedure was ureteric meatotomy with Dormia basket and with or without double 'J' stenting in 9 (1.3%) patients. The overall complication rate was 110 out of 710 (15.5%) operations. Of the complications, 101 (92%) were minor (e.g. haematuria, fever, and mucosal injury). Nine (8%) complications were major complications (e.g. ureteric perforation and ureteric avulsions). Ureterolithotomy and ureteroscopy with intracorporeal lithotripsy were associated with the highest complication rates. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis has shown that with technological advances, the treatment of ureteric lithiasis has improved and major complications have decreased. However, with so many therapeutic options to choose from, there is a need to audit the various therapeutic options and select those associated with the least morbidity rates in each urology unit. PMID:14594540

  5. Petroleum prices and profits in the 90 days following the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    For the third in the past 20 years the world has experienced an interruption in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and shut down of Kuwait oil production capacity followed by the United Nations boycott of Iraqi oil removed 8 percent of the world's oil supply. The result was a sharp increase in the process of crude oil and petroleum products. These events raised numerous questions about the performance of energy markets and energy firms. This report supplies a first answer for some of those questions. At the time this report was prepared the invasion has been in effect for 90 days. Not all the data is available to fully answer every question. Some issues can only be completely resolved after more time has passed in which the invasion and its effects have had an opportunity to be fully assimilated. This report was specifically requested by W. Henson Moore, Deputy Secretary of Energy as a way of supplying the American public with what could be said about the current situation. Rumors abound and mixconceptions have proliferated. This report strives to give a proper perspective on some of the more vexing issues which the invasion produced. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has addressed many questions in this report. By the way of summary these are the 10 most most frequently asked questions and EIA's quick answers. The page references tell the reader where to look in the report for further explanation. These are not the only issues addressed and EIA hopes that readers will be able to satisfy their curiosity about their own questions within the pages of this report.

  6. The educational environment of the undergraduate medical curriculum at Kuwait University

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Jumanah; Al-Halabi, Becher; Marwan, Yousef; Sadeq, Hussain; Dawas, Ahmed; Al-Abdulrazzaq, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    Background Educational environment of an institution affects the quality of learning. We aim to assess the educational environment of the undergraduate curriculum of Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University (FOMKU). Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out during April 2014. The validated Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire was e-mailed to 607 students. Mean scores of the main domains of the questionnaire, and for each item, were calculated, and their association with the students’ background information was measured using Student’s t-test (P-value of ?0.05 was considered as the cut-off level of significance). Results Of 607 students, 117 (19.3%) completed the questionnaire. The total mean score for DREEM was 108.7/200 (54.3%). The mean score for students’ perception of teaching, perception of teachers, academic self-perception, perception of atmosphere, and social self-perception were 25.2/48 (52.5%), 24.6/44 (55.9%), 18.4/32 (57.5%), 26.2/48 (54.5%), and 14.3/28 (51.0%), respectively. The highest mean score for an item of DREEM questionnaire was for “my accommodation is pleasant” (3.48±0.75), while the lowest was for “there is a good support system for students who get stressed” (0.88±0.86). The total mean score was not significantly different between the two phases of the curriculum, or among males and females; however, few significant differences among the main domains and items were noted. Conclusion Based on the learners’ perspectives, the educational environment of FOMKU, was suboptimal. Medical educators in Kuwait should improve this environment in order to advance the quality of the delivered curriculum. PMID:25897273

  7. Field experiments to improve the efficacy of gargoor (fish trap) fishery in Kuwait's waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weizhong; Al-Baz, Ali; Bishop, James M.; Al-Husaini, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    Fish traps were investigated to understand the effects of season, bait type, trap size, and trap soak time on catch rates, catch composition, and trap loss rates from March 2004 to September 2005, to improve the performance and management of Kuwait's gargoor (cage style fish trap) fishery, which used to be the nation's most important one in terms of value and landings volume. Catch rates were the highest in April/May (5-8 kg/trap haul) and again in December (7 kg/trap haul). Bait type and trap size also affected catch rates and species composition. Of the seven baits tested, the best catch rates, >5 kg/trap haul, occurred with cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis), but wolf-herring ( Chirocentrus dorab) and mullet ( Liza klunzingeri) also produced good results (4-5 kg/trap haul). Within the five tested sizes, the two largest-sized traps captured more fish and larger size fish. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences of catch rate among traps with different baits as well as among traps of different sizes. Duncan test further revealed these differences between two specific baits and sizes. Cluster Analysis of species composition showed more differences among different baits than among different trap sizes. Longer soak times did not result in larger catch rates, but increased trap loss. About 10-day soak time resulted in trap loss 7%, while 40-day soak time could result in a loss of around 20%. Consequently, it is recommended that the gargoor be checked every 10 or fewer days. The average overall catch rate during the study period was lower than that of 1980s (4.5 vs. 5.8 kg/trap haul), indicating a possible decline of fish abundance in Kuwait's waters. It is recommended that the number of gargoor fishing boats and gargoors from each boat should be limited to allow stock rehabilitation.

  8. Establishing the Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (DTM&H) course in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, E M

    2004-04-01

    Until 1997, there was no formal teaching in tropical medicine in Arabian Peninsular countries, although many tropical diseases (for example, malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, filariasis), are endemic in the region. A six month, part time Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (DTM&H) course was established in the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, in 1997, for small groups of Omani doctors wishing to sit the annual DTM&H examination in London. To date, 21 doctors have been successful, and the Royal College of Physicians of London has accredited the Tropical Medicine School in Oman as an appropriate training centre for the examination. Since over 20 doctors apply each year for the six available places in the course, a full time DTM&H course for larger groups of doctors, from Oman and regional countries, is under consideration. PMID:15082844

  9. Clinico-pathological profile of acute promyelocytic leukaemia at Al-Amal Oncology-Haematology Centre, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, F A; Yassin, M A; El-Ayoubi, H R; Alhiji, I A; Albinali, A S; Almansour, S M; Qafoud, F M

    2010-09-01

    This cases series describes the profile of adult patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APt) at a referral hospital in Qatar. Of 34 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases diagnosed, 11(32%) were classified as APt. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was common at presentation (91%). Severe thrombocytopenia was seen in 73%, leukocytosis in 55% and severe anaemia in 45%. Only 2 patients were of the classic hypergranular type. In the remaining 9 patients, 3 morphological subtypes were recognized: microgranular variant (6 patients), hyperbasophilic (2 patients) and regular nuclear outline M3r (1 patient). Translocation t(15;17) was detected in 63% of cases. APL constitutes a high proportion of AML cases in Qatar, with considerable morphological heterogeneity and a oredominance of APL variants with unfavourable oresenting features. PMID:21218723

  10. Comparison of pharmacist knowledge, perceptions and training opportunities regarding maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Qatar and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Serena; Kitutu, Freddy E.; Rahhal, Ala’a; Abu Samaha, Rana; Wilby, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pharmacists have great potential to modify and optimize drug therapy in pregnancy and lactation, current literature demonstrates that they do not routinely provide this care and often feel ill equipped to do so. The objective of this study was to determine pharmacists’ knowledge and perceptions of maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Uganda and Qatar. Secondary objectives were to determine factors associated with pharmacists’ knowledge and to characterize training opportunities and resources available to practising pharmacists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using online software (SurveyMonkey) was sent to the e-mails of potential research participants. Practising pharmacists and resident pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada; the country of Qatar; and the country of Uganda were eligible for inclusion. The survey was designed to assess knowledge and perceptions, and to create a baseline inventory of current practice and information resources used in practice. Results: The mean knowledge assessment scores of pharmacists in Canada, Qatar and Uganda were 62.9%, 53.3%, and 57.7%, respectively (p < 0.05). Pharmacists in British Columbia scored higher on knowledge assessment than pharmacists in Qatar (p < 0.05), but other country comparisons were not significant. No predefined factors (gender, years of experience, practice area or parental status) were found to be significant in determining the knowledge score. More than two-thirds of pharmacists expressed interest in participating in continuing education opportunities in maternal-fetal medicine. Conclusion: Pharmacists have differing levels of knowledge in the area of maternal-fetal medicine. Continuing education and degree curricula should be reviewed and developed to fill the knowledge gaps of student pharmacists and practising pharmacists in maternal-fetal medicine. PMID:25364351

  11. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Long-Term-Residents and Settled Immigrants in Qatar in the Period 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Doiphode, Sanjay H.

    2013-01-01

    The expanding economy of Qatar in the last two decades has attracted immigrants, often from countries with poor socio-economic levels. Many arrive with patent intestinal parasitic infections, and recent analyses have indicated consistently rising trends in the prevalence of some infections. Here, we examined 18,563 hospital records of subjects in Qatar seeking medical assistance for a variety of ailments, combining data from 2009 to 2011 with the earlier dataset from 2005 to 2008 to enable trends to be identified across a 7-year period. We found that 8.6% were infected with one or more species of parasites, however in contrast to the earlier period (2005–2008), in the latter 3 years there were falling trends of prevalence providing some optimism that parasitic infections among the resident immigrants have begun to decline. We identified also geographic regions from which resident workers still maintain a relatively high prevalence of helminth infections despite their long-term residence in Qatar. PMID:23478576

  12. Clinical Pathways for Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome in Oman: An Oman Heart Association Protocol for Hospital Quality Improvement Initiative

    PubMed Central

    El-Deeb, Mohammed H.; Al-Riyami, Abdullah M.; Sulaiman, Kadhim J.; Al-Riyami, Abdullah A.; Al-Mukhaini, Mohamed; Al-Rawahi, Najib; Al-Riyami, Mohamed B.; Al-Riyami, Adil B.; Sallam, Mansour; Panduranga, Prashanth; Rahman, Said Abdul; Al-Hinai, Said; Al-Wahshi, Yahia; Al-Kharusi, Abdul Malik

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, Oman Heart Association (OHA) published its own guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the aim was not to be comprehensive but rather simplified and practical in order to reduce the gap between the long comprehensive guidelines and our actual practice. However, we still feel that the busy registrars and residents need simpler and direct clinical pathways or protocol to be used in the emergency departments, coronary care units and in the wards. Clinical pathways are now one of the main tools used to manage the quality in healthcare concerning the standardization of care processes. It has been shown that their implementation reduces the variability in clinical practice and improves outcomes in acute care. PMID:24498475

  13. Low-temperature hydration, oxidation and hydrogen production from Oman peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. M.; Mayhew, L.; Templeton, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Peridotite in the shallow subsurface undergoes hydration and oxidation (serpentinization) during reactions with percolating fluids, generating hydrogen gas and releasing magnesium, iron, and calcium into solution. In the presence of fluids enriched in dissolved carbon dioxide, extensive precipitation of carbonate minerals occurs. This reaction has large-scale implications for mitigating climate change by providing a stable, geological carbon repository. The Samail Ophiolite in Oman contains large quantities of ultramafic rocks that are currently undergoing serpentinization at low temperatures (30°C) and forming carbonate minerals. The production of hydrogen gas provides an electron donor for subsurface chemolithoautotrophic life which can contribute to carbon cycling in the subsurface as microorganisms utilize carbon dioxide as an inorganic carbon source. Serpentinization reactions require the oxidation of Fe (II) to Fe (III) to reduce water to H2, but the mechanisms of hydrogen generation in low-temperature systems is poorly characterized. To address this question, we conducted low temperature (100°C) water-rock reactions with Oman peridotite, measured H2 and characterized the speciation of Fe-bearing minerals before and after water-rock interaction using micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (?XANES) spectra obtained from Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The experimental water-rock reactions produce H2 at a pH of 9, which corresponds with observations of ultrabasic springs in the Samail ophiolite and the presence of H2 in these spring waters. Significant hydrogen production occurs for two and a half months of reaction, peaking at 400 nmol/gram of reacted peridotite and then steadily decreases with time. These maximum values of hydrogen production from Oman peridotite are greater than observed by our laboratory and others during aqueous alteration of San Carlos peridotite and isolated pyroxenes and olivines (e.g. Mayhew et al. 2013 [1]). The products of low-temperature serpentinization, as determined by least squares fits of model spectra to sample ?XANES spectra, include serpentine minerals, altered olivines and Fe(III) minerals. X-ray fluorescence (?XRF) maps of the distribution of Fe-bearing phases reveal extensive alteration of pyroxenes to a mixture of Fe(II) and Fe(III)-bearing phases during the 100°C water-rock interactions, while olivine grains are only incipiently altered along fracture networks, suggesting an important role for pyroxenes in low temperature H2-generating reactions. The serpentinization reactions in the Oman peridotite are producing significant levels of hydrogen at a low temperature within the habitability limit for life, suggesting Oman provides a subsurface niche for hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms. The microbiology of the Oman subsurface is important to consider when investigating carbonation reactions aimed for carbon capture and sequestration because microbial life can affect carbon availability, and the injection of CO2 into the aquifer may significantly alter the ecosystem. [1] Mayhew et al. 2013. Nature Geoscience

  14. Microbial-activated sediment traps associated with oncolite formation along a peritidal beach, northern Arabian (Persian) Gulf, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARAFAT ALSHUAIBI; MICHAEL J. DUANE; HUDA MAHMOUD

    2012-01-01

    Identification of microbial communities within shoreline sediments and sediment precipitates from the Tigris-Euphrates delta (northern Kuwait) were determined by microscopic\\/nanoscopic studies, and by molecular analysis. Oncolites are syn-diagenetic carbonate precipitates that are surviving in a shallow subtidal to intertidal siliciclastic environment with periodically excessive hydraulic energy, extreme salinity (up to 47 per mil), and high concentrations of organic matter. X-Ray

  15. Kuwait's Post Gulf-War Shrimp Fishery and Stock Status from 1991\\/92 Through 1995\\/96

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussain M. A. Mohammed; James M. Bishop; Yimin Ye

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons of catch and effort data from 5 seasons by dhow and industrial fleets showed annual landings to vary around the long-term average of 2100 tons. No direct long-term effects of the Gulf War were identified, but indirect effects have caused substantial changes in Kuwait's shrimp fishery. The effort expenditure in 1993\\/94 reached an all-time high of 17,615 industrial boat-days,

  16. Evidence-Based Practice in the Use of Antibiotics for Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Health Centers in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salem Ayyad; Abdullah Al-Owaisheer; Faisal Al-Banwan; Abdullah Al-Mejalli; Mumtaz Shukkur; Lukman Thalib

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of antibiotics in treating upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in primary health centers in Kuwait and investigate the extent to which antibiotic use follows international guidelines. SubjectsandMethods: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample size of 615 patients selected by using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Of

  17. Origin and depositional model of Wadi Al-Batin and its associated alluvial fan, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jawad S. Al-Sulaimi; A. F. Pitty

    1995-01-01

    Wadi Al-Batin alluvial fan, which extends northeastward from Hafar Al-Batin in Saudi Arabia to cover parts of Kuwait and southwestern Iraq, represents the largest of several other non-active fans in central and south Arabia. Evidence put forward suggests that, like other comparable deposits of varying age in the Arabian Peninsula, the Al-Batin fan was deposited following downdip breaching of a

  18. Oil Price Fluctuations and their Impact on the Macroeconomic Variables of Kuwait: A Case Study Using a VAR Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nagy Eltony; Mohammad Al-Awadi

    2001-01-01

    Abstract ,Oil price fluctuations are a major ,source of disturbance ,for the economies of oil producing countries. In this study, a vector Autoregression Model, Vector Error Correction Model and Structure VAR Model were all estimated using seven key macroeconomic,variables for state of Kuwait. A quarterly data were for the period 1984:1 – 1998:4 for those seven variables which were used

  19. Geologic input to enhanced oil recovery project planning in south Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, N.L.; Ellis, D.; Heward, A.P.; Maier, G.; Marks, G.P.

    1986-05-01

    South Oman clastic reservoirs contain a combined stock-tank oil in place of more than 1.9 billion m/sup 3/ of predominantly heavy oil distributed in almost 40 fields of varying size. Successful early application of such enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods as steam flood, polymer drive, and steam soak could realize undiscounted incremental recoveries of 244 million m/sup 3/ of oil. Target oil is contained in three reservoir intervals with distinct characteristics relevant to EOR. (1) The Cambrian-Ordovician Haima Group is a thick monotonous sequence of continental and coastal sands; major problems are steam-rock reactions, recovery factors, effective kv/kh (ratio of vertical to horizontal permeability), and aquifer strength. (2) The Permian-Carboniferous Al Khlata Formation is a glacial package showing severe heterogeneity, strong permeability anisotropy, and poor predictability. (3) The Permian Gharif Formation is a coastal to fluvial sequence with isolated and multilayer channel sands, smectitic clays, and anomalous primary production performance. Several EOR pilot projects are either ongoing or in preparation as part of a longer term EOR strategy. Geologic input is important at four essential stages of pilot planning: initial project ranking, optimization of pilot location, definition of pilot size, and predictive/history match simulations. Each stage is illustrated using a specific project example from south Oman to show the diverse geologic and logistic problems of the area. Although geologic aspects are highlighted, EOR project planning in south Oman is multidisciplinary, with integration being aided by a dedicated EOR coordination department.

  20. Old diseases and contemporary crisis. Inherited blood disorders in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Beaudevin, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This contribution draws on ethnographic research conducted in Oman on inherited blood disorders (IBD). By interpreting results from population genomics studies that trace mutation processes over centuries of human activities, lay-representations of IBD often consider them historical evidence. The perceived spread of IBD in Oman may thus provide unusual historical depth in a country where past conflicts have been erased from historiography and representations of time are politically prescribed. Through the notions of crisis and diversification, this contribution shows how IBD's chronicity challenges the healthcare system and became a national issue, politically labelled as urgent. The paper casts light on several aspects of contemporary Omani society: it first addresses the dynamics of disease taxonomies - although biomedically described in the early twentieth century, IBD were not individualized within local nosologies until the 1970s. Secondly, it shows how biomedical knowledge about IBD led to diversification within the healthcare system, through the introduction of clinical genetics, genomics, and community genetics. Thirdly, it attempts to broach modalities of the biopower exerted by the Omani regime over its citizens: IBD are targeted by various public health measures that jeopardize patients' autonomy by aiming to control their bodies through their matrimonial behaviour. In addition, two aspects of the intersections between Omani social hierarchy and IBD are noteworthy: the creation of a patients' association that constitutes a potential disturbance of the social order; and the way IBD mutations traced by genomics are considered direct historical documents that challenge representations of the recently crafted 'Omanity' in a context of regional concern regarding national identities' durability. PMID:23898837

  1. A survey of community members' perceptions of medical errors in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed S; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A; Al-Azri, Mohammed H; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim S; Khan, Mushtaq; Al-Waily, Ahmed M; Rizvi, Syed

    2008-01-01

    Background Errors have been the concern of providers and consumers of health care services. However, consumers' perception of medical errors in developing countries is rarely explored. The aim of this study is to assess community members' perceptions about medical errors and to analyse the factors affecting this perception in one Middle East country, Oman. Methods Face to face interviews were conducted with heads of 212 households in two villages in North Al-Batinah region of Oman selected because of close proximity to the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), Muscat, Oman. Participants' perceived knowledge about medical errors was assessed. Responses were coded and categorised. Analyses were performed using Pearson's ?2, Fisher's exact tests, and multivariate logistic regression model wherever appropriate. Results Seventy-eight percent (n = 165) of participants believed they knew what was meant by medical errors. Of these, 34% and 26.5% related medical errors to wrong medications or diagnoses, respectively. Understanding of medical errors was correlated inversely with age and positively with family income. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that a one-year increase in age was associated with a 4% reduction in perceived knowledge of medical errors (CI: 1% to 7%; p = 0.045). The study found that 49% of those who believed they knew the meaning of medical errors had experienced such errors. The most common consequence of the errors was severe pain (45%). Of the 165 informed participants, 49% felt that an uncaring health care professional was the main cause of medical errors. Younger participants were able to list more possible causes of medical errors than were older subjects (Incident Rate Ratio of 0.98; p < 0.001). Conclusion The majority of participants believed they knew the meaning of medical errors. Younger participants were more likely to be aware of such errors and could list one or more causes. PMID:18664245

  2. Early cretaceous platform-margin configuration and evolution in the central Oman mountains, Arabian peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, B.R. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)); Smewing, J.D. (Univ. Innovation Centre, Swansea (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-01

    The Hajar Supergroup (Middle Permian-Lower Cretaceous) of northeastern Oman records rifting and development of a passive margin along the edge of the Arabian platform facing Neo-Tethys. The Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part, comprising the Sahtan, Kahmah, and Wasia groups, was deposited during the maximum extent of the broad epicontinental sea landward of this margin. These limestone units reach a total of 1500 m in thickness and correlate with the hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Arabian Peninsula. The trace of the Jurassic and Cretaceous margin in northeastern Oman followed a zigzag series of rift segments, resulting in promontories and reentrants that changed in position through time in response to the configuration and differential motion of underlying rift blocks. Synsedimentary normal faulting occurred locally in the Middle Jurassic, whereas in the Late Jurassic, the margin was eroded from variable uplift of up to 300 m before subsiding to below storm wave base. This uplift may have been caused by compression from oceanic crust that obducted along the southeastern side of the platform. The Lower Cretaceous succession in the central Oman Mountains and adjacent subsurface began with regional drowning around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. The succession in the east (Saih Hatat) records a single regressive sequence, ending in the progradation of the shallow-water carbonate platform by the Cenomanian. However, the succession in the west (Jebel Akhdar and interior) is dominated by shallow-water carbonate facies, but punctuated by a second regional drowning in the late Aptian. A third, Late Cretaceous drowning terminated deposition of the Wasia Group in the Turonian and was caused by convergence of oceanic crust and foreland basic formation. The record of tectonic behavior of carbonate platforms has important implications for the development of hydrocarbon source rocks and porosity. 68 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Prevalence of Hepatitis C among Multi-transfused Thalassaemic Patients in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naamani, Khalid; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Sinani, Siham; Wasim, Fauzia; Daar, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Regular blood transfusions are essential for patients with thalassaemia major. However, infections with hepatotropic viruses remain a major concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection among patients with homozygous beta thalassaemia in a single centre in Oman. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 200 patients treated at the Thalassemia Unit of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman, between August 1991 and December 2011 was performed. Relevant demographic and clinical characteristics were collected, including age, gender, HCV status and the presence of endocrinopathies. Results: A total of 81 patients (41%) were found to be anti-HCV-antibody (anti-HCV)-positive. HCV ribonucleic acid tests were performed on 65 anti-HCV-positive patients and were positive among 33 (51%); the remaining 16 patients died before these tests were available. Anti-HCV-positive patients were significantly older than anti-HCV-negative patients (P <0.001) and were more likely to be diabetic than anti-HCV-negative patients (27% versus 8%; P <0.001). A total of 100 patients had been transfused before they were transferred to SQUH in 1991; of these, 70 (70%) were anti-HCV-positive. Only 11 (11.5%) of the 96 patients who were seronegative in 1991, or who were transfused later, became seropositive. Conclusion: It is likely that the high prevalence of HCV among multi-transfused thalassaemic patients in Oman is due to blood transfusions dating from before the implementation of HCV screening in 1991 as the risk of HCV-associated transfusions has significantly reduced since then. Additionally, results showed that anti-HCV-positive patients were more likely to be diabetic than anti-HCV-negative patients. PMID:25685385

  4. Contribution of power and desalination plants to the levels of volatile liquid hydrocarbons in the nearby coastal areas of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, T.; Khordagui, H.; Al-Hashash, H. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Environmental Sciences Dept.] [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Environmental Sciences Dept.

    1999-07-01

    The levels and distribution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons (VLHs) were determined in Kuwait`s coastal areas in the vicinity of outlets of power and desalination plants. About 230 samples were collected from the selected sampling locations over the 4 seasons. The VLHs in the samples were analyzed using Grob`s closed-loop stripping technique and GC with FID and confirmed by GC/MS. The results showed that significant levels of VLHs were present. The levels ranged from 307 to 6,500 ng/L and from 2,880 to 7,811 ng/L in Kuwait Bay and Sulaibekhat Bay, respectively. The annual average for VLHs near Al-Zor power plant ranged from 465 to 4,665 ng/L. Benzenoids formed the bulk (about 80%) of the VLHs present. Comparison with the levels in the outlets indicated that Doha West power plant contributed much higher levels of VLHs to the coastal areas than Al-Zor plant.

  5. Fossils of hydrothermal vent worms from Cretaceous sulfide ores of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haymon, R.M.; Koski, R.A.; Sinclair, C.

    1984-01-01

    Fossil worm tubes of Cretaceous age preserved in the Bayda massive sulfide deposit of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, are apparently the first documented examples of fossils embedded in massive sulfide deposits from the geologic record. The geologic setting of the Bayda deposit and the distinctive mineralogic and textural features of the fossiliferous samples suggest that the Bayda sulfide deposit and fossil fauna are remnants of a Cretaceous sea-floor hydrothermal vent similar to modern hot springs on the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

  6. Fossils of hydrothermal vent worms from cretaceous sulfide ores of the samail ophiolite, oman.

    PubMed

    Haymon, R M; Koski, R A; Sinclair, C

    1984-03-30

    Fossil worm tubes of Cretaceous age preserved in the Bayda massive sulfide deposit of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, are apparently the first documented examples of fossils embedded in massive sulfide deposits from the geologic record. The geologic setting of the Bayda deposit and the distinctive mineralogic and textural features of the fossiliferous samples suggest that the Bayda sulfide deposit and fossil fauna are remnants of a Cretaceous sea-floor hydrothermal vent similar to modern hot springs on the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge. PMID:17746052

  7. Public awareness, patterns of use and attitudes toward natural health products in Kuwait: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a global rise in the use of natural health products (NHPs). Proper regulation of NHPs is pivotal to ensure good quality control standards, enhance consumers' safety and facilitate their integration into modern healthcare systems. There is scarcity of published data on the prevalence of NHPs usage among the general Kuwaiti population. Hence, this study was designed to determine awareness, patterns of use, general attitude and information requirements about NHPs among the public in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 1300 Kuwaiti individuals, selected from six governorates in Kuwait using a multistage stratified clustered sampling. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis. Results The response rate was 90.2%. NHPs were thought to be herbal remedies by most of participants (63.5%), followed by vitamins/minerals (40.5%), traditional medicines (21.1%), probiotics (14.9%), amino acids and essential fatty acids (7.2%), and homeopathic medicines (5.6%). NHPs usage was reported by 71.4% (95% CI: 68.8-74.0%) of respondents, and mostly associated with females (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.44-2.51). Herbal remedies were the most commonly used (41.3%; 95% CI: 38.5-44.2%). The most common reasons for using NHPs were to promote and maintain health and to prevent illness and build immune system. Family members and/or friends and mass media were the main sources for providing information about NHPs. About 18% of consumers have experienced a side effect due to using a NHP. Attitudes toward NHPs were generally positive; with more than 75% of participants believing that the Ministry of Health in Kuwait should regulate the claims made by the manufacturers of NHPs and it is important to talk to a medical doctor or a pharmacist prior to using NHPs. Most of the respondents showed increased interest to acquire knowledge about different types of information related to NHPs. Conclusions The prevalence of use of NHPs among Kuwaiti population is high. The present findings have major public health policy implications for Kuwait. Therefore, there is an apparent need to establish effective health education programs and implement better and more regulated NHPs use policies in Kuwait. PMID:24646341

  8. Variation in Socio-Economic Burden for Caring of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Oman: Caregiver Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Fahdi, Samiya; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether caregiver's variations in socioeconomic status (SES) has direct bearing on challenges of nurturing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Oman. A cadre of caregivers (n = 150) from two types of SES (low-income and middle-high income) were compared based on four domains: (1)…

  9. The status and ecology of a Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos woodland in the northern mountains of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Fisher; Andrew S. Gardner

    1995-01-01

    Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan is found in mountain areas from Turkey through to India and as an isolated population on Jebel Akhadar in the northern mountains of Oman. Juniperus is one of the dominant plant species in these mountains and a major landscape feature of several proposed National Nature and Scenic Reserves and of Hayl Juwari, a

  10. The Moho transition zone in the Oman ophiolite-relation with wehrlites in the crust and dunites in the mantle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Jousselin; Adolphe Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    Field data in the Oman ophiolite show that the Moho transition zone (MTZ), which is on average 300 m thick above mantle diapirs, reduces to 50 m away from diapirs, with a sharp transition at the outskirts of the diapirs. We show here that this reduction is dominantly due to compaction of a dunitic mush present above diapirs in the MTZ, with

  11. ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 144(19961239-250 Magma chambers in the Oman ophiolite: fed from the top

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    ophiolite: fed from the top and the bottom Frarqoise Boudier *, Adolphe Nicolas, Beno"it Ildefonse studies in the Oman ophiolite, we suggest that the accretion of the lower crust may not proceed entirely; Semail ophiolite; magma chambers; spreading centers; gabbros 1. Introduction has significantly improved

  12. Application of time-domain electromagnetic method in mapping saltwater intrusion of a coastal alluvial aquifer, North Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Abdalla, Osman

    2015-04-01

    One-third of the population of Oman depends on the groundwater extracted from the alluvium deposits located along the coast of the Gulf of Oman. However, groundwater depletion and seawater intrusion constitute major challenges along the coastal water accumulations in Oman. The objective of this study is to locate the extent of seawater intrusion and to map the shallow alluvial aquifer in the region, where water accumulates from the rain or the flooding at AlKhod dam. In order to assess the effect of groundwater infiltration, which recharges the aquifer and fights the seawater invasion, a quantitative approach for the groundwater quality and distribution is required to provide reasonable knowledge on the spatial distribution of the aquifers, their thickness and the type of sediments. When groundwater wells and their subsurface geologic and electrical logs are not available or not deep enough, surface geophysical surveys can be considered due to their low cost and short acquisition time. The application of time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method in Al-Khod area, Oman has proven to be a successful tool in mapping the fresh/saline water interface and for locating the depth of fresh water aquifer. The depths and inland extents of the saline zone were mapped along three N-S TDEM profiles. The depths to the freshwater table and saline interface calculated from TDEM closely match the available well data.

  13. Quality of Type II Diabetes Care in Primary Health Care Centers in Kuwait: Employment of a Diabetes Quality Indicator Set (DQIS)

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Dalia; Saleh, Shadi; Natafgi, Nabil; Mourad, Yara; Behbehani, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is one of the major public health challenges, affecting more than 347 million adults worldwide. The impact of diabetes necessitates assessing the quality of care received by people with diabetes, especially in countries with a significant diabetes burden such as Kuwait. This paper aimed at piloting an approach for measuring Type II diabetes care performance through the use of a diabetes quality indicator set (DQIS) in primary health care. The DQIS for Kuwait was adapted from that developed by the National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance and the International Diabetes Federation. Five key care domains/measures were employed: (1) Blood glucose level measurement, (2) Cholesterol level measurement, (3) Blood pressure measurement, (4) Kidney function testing and (5) Smoking status check. The sample included the four major primary health care centers with the highest case load in Kuwait City, 4,241 patients in 2012 and 3,211 in 2010. Findings revealed the applicability and utility of employing performance indicators for diabetes care in Kuwait. Furthermore, findings revealed that many of the primary health care centers have achieved noteworthy improvement in diabetes care between 2010 and 2012, with the exception of smoking status check. The DQIS can help policymakers identify performance gaps and investigate key system roadblocks related to diabetes care in Kuwait. PMID:26176691

  14. Continuing Medical Education Strategy for Primary Health Care Physicians in Oman: Lessons to be learnt

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Huda; Batty, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Continuing medical education (CME) is important for professional development, to improve doctors’ clinical performance that ultimately influences the quality of the health outcomes. In the presence of an increasing number of family physicians serve in the primary health care system upon graduation in Oman make us to consider the meta-cognition of the leaner and engaged them in learning process. The purpose of this paper is to examine ways of improving the continuing education methods for the physicians. Objective To assess the preferred method of continuing education for primary health care physicians. Methods We conducted a program evaluation among a group of general physicians who were involved in some of the activities in continuing education at end of their program in the Muscat region health centres in Oman. The main outcome measure was to study the preferred method for CME. Results The majority of the participants believe that continuing medical education improves their practice. In addition, the finding suggests that small group learning and combination of methods are the preferred methods of continuing education for primary health care physicians. Conclusion Interactive small group learning is shown to be more effective to achieve the learning objectives and ultimately improve practice. Practice-based small group learning is the method we recommended. PMID:22400090

  15. Thermo-mechanical models of obduction applied to the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Duretz; Philippe, Agard; Philippe, Yamato; Céline, Ducassou; Taras, Gerya; Evguenii, Burov

    2015-04-01

    During obduction regional-scale fragments of oceanic lithosphere (ophiolites) are emplaced somewhat enigmatically on top of lighter continental lithosphere. We herein use two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models to investigate the feasibility and controlling parameters of obduction. The models are designed using available geological data from the Oman (Semail) ophiolite. Initial and boundary conditions are constrained by plate kinematic and geochronological data and modeling results are validated against petrological and structural observations. The reference model consists of three distinct stages: (1) initiation of oceanic subduction initiation away from Arabian margin, (2) emplacement of the Oman Ophiolite atop the Arabian margin, (2) dome-like exhumation of the subducted Arabian margin beneath the overlying ophiolite. A parametric study suggests that 350-400 km of shortening allows to best fit both the peak P-T conditions of the subducted margin (1.5-2.5 GPa / 450-600°C) and the dimensions of the ophiolite (~170 km width), in agreement with previous estimations. Our results further confirm that the locus of obduction initiation is close to the eastern edge of the Arabian margin (~100 km) and indicate that obduction is facilitated by a strong continental basement rheology.

  16. Strong coherence between solar variability and the monsoon in Oman between 9 and 6kyr ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, U.; Burns, S. J.; Mangini, A.; Mudelsee, M.; Fleitmann, D.; Matter, A.

    2001-05-01

    Variations in the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth are thought to influence climate, but the extent of this influence on timescales of millennia to decades is unclear. A number of climate records show correlations between solar cycles and climate, but the absolute changes in solar intensity over the range of decades to millennia are small and the influence of solar flux on climate is not well established. The formation of stalagmites in northern Oman has recorded past northward shifts of the intertropical convergence zone, whose northward migration stops near the southern shoreline of Arabia in the present climate. Here we present a high-resolution record of oxygen isotope variations, for the period from 9.6 to 6.1kyr before present, in a Th-U-dated stalagmite from Oman. The ?18O record from the stalagmite, which serves as a proxy for variations in the tropical circulation and monsoon rainfall, allows us to make a direct comparison of the ?18O record with the ?14C record from tree rings, which largely reflects changes in solar activity. The excellent correlation between the two records suggests that one of the primary controls on centennial- to decadal-scale changes in tropical rainfall and monsoon intensity during this time are variations in solar radiation.

  17. The potential of geotourism to meet the challenges of geoconservation in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roepert, A.; Zacke, A.; Hoffmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geoconservation as well as the concept of geological heritage has been understood as a new challenge for geological research in the last decades. Traditionally, the approach to geology has been more often linked to the exploitation of resources rather than to preservation of sites of geological value. In many countries the protection of geological sites is connected to the protection of biodiversity. The Sultanate of Oman is situated in the north-eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. During Late Cretaceous large parts of former Tethyan oceanic crust were obducted onto the Arabian plate to form one of the world's best exposed and best studied ophiolites (Searle and Cox, 1999). The Semail Ophiolite might be the best known example of Oman's geological heritage. However, the country offers far more geological features which are spectacular or unique. To name just a few, there are e.g. Neoproterocoic glacial sediments (Allen, 2007); surface piercing salt-domes (Al Siyabi and Newall, 2005); huge sand-deserts (Goudie et al., 1999); a mountain-range 3000 m high with spectacular canyons as Wadi Nakhr (Kusky et al., 2005); as well as outcropping Moho (Boudier and Nicolas, 1995). As the country is located in the arid to semiarid climatic zone, soil-development is very limited as is vegetation cover. Therefore the geology is easy accessible - a fact that attracts more and more geosciences students to study geology in the field, as well as tourists to enjoy the spectacular scenery. However, concerning the whole field of nature conservation, Oman just started facing the fact of increasing destruction of landscapes including endangering of biodiversity. The country's economic development mainly took place within the last 40 years. Large infrastructure projects are under construction to meet the needs of ongoing development of land and resources. As a consequence thereof geological heritage is in danger of being destroyed due to lack of awareness. The aim of this study is to compile data about locations and areas in Oman being of high scientific interest as well as being unique outcrops and landscapes. To achieve this goal we set up a database which contains information on locations in terms of geographic coordinates, their main point of interest, stratigraphy and references. At the moment the database contains 160 locations of geological interest, but is continuously growing. Furthermore, with the help of a GIS interface areas can be identified which are worth to be protected. This data can then be introduced to assimilate geological heritage into education. Furthermore, proposals for conservation areas can be carried over to policymakers. This strengthens the public awareness of the necessity to protect unique geological sites and landscapes. Another issue could be the intensification of geotourism and adventure tourism, which could be future main pillars of sustainable tourism concepts in Oman.

  18. Prevalence of Anti-JC Virus Antibody in Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Lamdhade, S; Ashkanani, A; Alroughani, R

    2014-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) therapeutics entered a new era after the development of anti-JC virus (anti-JCV) antibody assay that assesses the risk of development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients treated with natalizumab. Objective. To determine the prevalence of anti-JCV antibody among MS patients in Kuwait. Methods. Using the national MS registry, demographics and disease characteristics of MS patients who were screened for anti-JC virus antibody were collected. The prevalence of anti-JCV antibody seropositivity and its association with demographic and disease characteristics were evaluated. Results. Out of 110 screened MS patients for anti-JCV antibodies, 65.5% were females. Mean age and disease duration were 29.23?±?8.55 and 5.39?±?5.04 years, respectively. 47.3% of patients were already on natalizumab and 52.7% of patients were screened for stratification to either natalizumab or a different Disease Modifying Therapy (DMT). The overall prevalence of anti-JC virus antibody was 40%. Gender (P = 0.69), disease duration (P = 0.11), and number of natalizumab infusions (P = 0.64) were not associated with seropositivity. Patients aged ?30 years were more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.01). Conclusion. The prevalence of anti-JCV antibody is slightly lower than what is reported in published studies. Seropositivity was associated with an increasing age of MS patients. PMID:24587917

  19. Some characteristics of the psychiatric population attending a primary care centre in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, M A; Malasi, T H; Mirza, I A; el-Islam, M F

    1989-02-01

    This study examined the sociodemographic correlates of psychiatric illness in a primary care centre in Kuwait. A total of 164 psychiatric patients seen over a 3-year period formed the experimental group while 165 nonpsychiatric patients attending the same centre formed the control group. Results showed significant differences in basic demographic variables of the 2 groups. The psychiatric patients were significantly more likely to be single, unskilled, young, less educated and living alone or in an overcrowded household and to report more recent life events than controls. The absence of family and social support, lacking a meaningful job and chronicity of illness were significantly correlated with poor treatment response. Possible interpretations of the results were discussed in the cultural context of our patients. The fact that 57% of the psychiatric patients had been ill for more than 6 months prior to consultation highlights the importance of orientation of primary care practitioners to the psychiatric aetiology of somatic presentation of many of their patients. PMID:2923013

  20. A baseline study characterizing the municipal solid waste in the State of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarallah, Rawa; Aleisa, Esra

    2014-05-01

    This paper provides a new reference line for municipal solid waste characterization in Kuwait. The baseline data were collected in accordance with the Standard Test Method for the Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste (ASTM). The results indicated that the average daily municipal waste generation level is 1.01 kg/person. Detailed waste stream surveys were conducted for more than 600 samples of municipal solid waste (MSW). The waste categories included paper, corrugated fibers, PET bottles, film, organic matter, wood, metal, glass, and others. The results indicated that organic waste dominated the characterization (44.4%), followed by film (11.2%) and then corrugated fibers (8.6%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the influence of season and governorate on waste composition. A significant seasonal variation was observed in almost all waste categories. In addition, significant differences in proportions between the current level and 1995 baseline were observed in most waste categories at the 95% confidence level. PMID:24656421

  1. Right Diet: a television series to combat obesity among adolescents in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad R; Al-Fayez, Mohammad A; Al-Nashi, Bader; Al-Athari, Buthaina I; Bawadi, Hiba; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescent obesity is a growing public health problem in Kuwait. Reducing obesity can lower the risk of several chronic diseases. Fourteen obese adolescent boys volunteered to participate in a 6-month multidimensional television series on weight loss. Methods The adolescent boys were recruited through advertisements in schools. The program included counseling sessions, nutritional education, exercise, family support, peer group involvement, and incentives designed to motivate participants. Results The mean age of the boys was 15.6 ± 0.8 years. On average, subjects lost 10.6 ± 8.9 kg in weight and gained 3.3 ± 1.6 cm in height during the study period. The difference in mean body mass index at baseline and at 6 months following intervention was significant (P < 0.001) at 36.8 ± 4.6 and 32.0 ± 5.4, kg/m2 respectively. Participants ranked counseling as the most important component of the program, followed by family support and type of program. Conclusion This type of television series could be used as a model for future public health programs to prevent and control obesity among adolescents. PMID:22826638

  2. Enhanced bioremediation of oil-polluted, hypersaline, coastal areas in Kuwait via vitamin-fertilization.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, Dina M; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir

    2014-03-01

    There is no research published sofar on managements that could bioremediate hypersaline soils and water polluted with hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin amendment on hydrocarbon removal by microorganisms indigenous to such hypersaline environments. We used in this study ten hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species and five archaeal species that had been isolated by the conventional plating method on media containing oil as a sole carbon source, from a hypersaline (3-4 M NaCl) coastal area in Kuwait, and characterized by sequencing of their 16S rRNA coding genes. The oil and pure hydrocarbon consumption was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The oil and pure hydrocarbon consumption potential of all microorganisms in media with hypersalinity was enhanced by vitamin fertilization. This was true for individual microorganisms in pure cultures as well as for microbial consortia in hypersaline soil and water samples used as inocula. Most effective vitamins were thiamin, pyridoxine and vitamin B12. Vitamin fertilization using vitamin rich wastes or byproducts could be an effective practice for enhancing bioremediation of oil contaminated hypersaline environments. PMID:24243095

  3. Daily dispersion model calculations of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Sullivan, T.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W. III (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)); Greenly, G.D. (IT Corp., Irvine, CA (United States))

    1992-03-26

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provided daily forecasts of the position and spatial character of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume to the NSF-coordinated research aircraft missions in the Persian Gulf. ARAC also provided daily plume dispersion products to various nations in the Persian Gulf region under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization for a period of nearly 5 months. Forecasted three dimensional winds were provided to ARAC from the US Air Force Global Weather Central's Relocatable Wind Model (RWM). The RWM winds were spaced approximately 90 km in the horizontal and were located at the surface, 1000 ft., 2000 ft, 5000 ft and every 5000 ft up to 30,000 ft elevation. The forecast periods were 0, 6, 24, and 36 hours from both 0000 and 1200 UTC. A wind field model (MATHEW) corrected for terrain influences on the wind. The smoke plume was dispersed using a three dimensional particle-in-cell code (ADPIC) with buoyant plume rise capability. Multiple source locations were used to represent the burning oil fields. Improved estimates of the source term and emission factors for the smoke were incorporated into the ADPIC calculations as the field measurement data were made available.

  4. Daily dispersion model calculations of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Sullivan, T.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W. III [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Greenly, G.D. [IT Corp., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1992-03-26

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provided daily forecasts of the position and spatial character of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume to the NSF-coordinated research aircraft missions in the Persian Gulf. ARAC also provided daily plume dispersion products to various nations in the Persian Gulf region under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization for a period of nearly 5 months. Forecasted three dimensional winds were provided to ARAC from the US Air Force Global Weather Central`s Relocatable Wind Model (RWM). The RWM winds were spaced approximately 90 km in the horizontal and were located at the surface, 1000 ft., 2000 ft, 5000 ft and every 5000 ft up to 30,000 ft elevation. The forecast periods were 0, 6, 24, and 36 hours from both 0000 and 1200 UTC. A wind field model (MATHEW) corrected for terrain influences on the wind. The smoke plume was dispersed using a three dimensional particle-in-cell code (ADPIC) with buoyant plume rise capability. Multiple source locations were used to represent the burning oil fields. Improved estimates of the source term and emission factors for the smoke were incorporated into the ADPIC calculations as the field measurement data were made available.

  5. Development of a Data Management System for the Kuwait Oil Fire Atmospheric Measurement Program.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, Julie A.; Carley, Stephen P.; Johnson, David B.; Michaelis, Amy D.

    1994-10-01

    Following the onset of the Kuwait oil fires in early 1991, numerous efforts to monitor and estimate the environmental effects of the fires were initiated. These efforts produced a diverse set of atmospheric data from airborne, surface-based, and satellite platforms. Organizers of the experiments, including the World Meteorological Organization, quickly recognized the value of collecting all data into a central archive. This paper describes the development of that archive.Basic requirements for the archive were that it contain all pertinent datasets, including detailed documentation about each, and provide easy access to all interested researchers. The requirements were met by developing a database management system that contains a catalog of the data inventory and a facility to order specific datasets. A graphical user interface provides access to the database. In addition to the basic capability of searching the data inventory, the system has a number of other features, including a visual catalog of satellite images, a bibliography of relevant publications, and an extensive metadata collection describing the datasets. The system is accessible from the Internet or telephone/modem from a variety of terminal types, making it available to virtually anyone with a computer. Researchers from around the world have successfully used the system.

  6. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia outbreak in captive wild ungulates at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Arif, Abdi; Schulz, Julia; Thiaucourt, François; Taha, Abid; Hammer, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress, and high mortality rates. The lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. An outbreak of CCPP in wild goat (Capra aegagrus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan mouflon (Ovis orientalis laristanica), and gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) occurred at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. The disease was suspected because of the clinical symptoms and the necropsy findings and was confirmed by the isolation and identification of the causative organism. This new finding indicates that CCPP should be considered a potential threat to wildlife and the conservation of endangered ruminant species, especially in the Middle East, where it is enzootic because of its presence in chronic carriers. Susceptible imported animals should be quarantined and vaccinated. The preferred samples for diagnosis are the pleural fluid, which contains high numbers of Mycoplasma, and sections of hepatized lung, preferably at the interface of normal and diseased tissues. Samples must be shipped to diagnostic laboratories rapidly, and appropriate cool conditions must be maintained during shipping. PMID:17469281

  7. Performance of hydraulic fracturing and matrix acidizing in horizontal wellbores -- Offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.G.R.; Pongratz, R.

    1995-11-01

    Considerable debate in the Middle East has centered upon what was previously felt to be two separate methods of enhancing revenues and daily production; hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling. In an effort to maximize return on investment, these two issues have been successfully combined in other areas of the world. In order to establish the suitability of this technology in this area, two horizontal wells with over 3,050m (10,000ft) of lateral section were drilled into the Cretaceous Kharaib formation, overlying the North Field, Offshore Qatar. A massive stimulation program was performed in order to evaluate the most feasible stimulation method from both a technical and economical perspective for further field development considerations.Three propped hydraulic fracturing treatments were performed using 183, 500kg (403, 700lb) of 20/40 mesh sand, and seventeen acid matrix treatments placing over 3,217,250l (850,000gals) of HCL into the lateral sections of both wells. This paper describes the performance, operation and logistical support required to complete this offshore operation with join a minimal time frame. The use of a mobile offshore jack-up platform, whereby a land based fracturing spread was placed onto the deck of a converted drilling rig is described.

  8. Is diabetes management in primary care improving clinical outcomes? A study in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Mochtar, I; Al-Monjed, M F

    2015-04-01

    There has been little research into the effectiveness of primary-care diabetes clinics in the Middle East. This study in Qatar compared patient outcomes at a primary-care facility with a dedicated diabetes clinic and one without. Using a cross-sectional method, data on demographics, diabetes status and 6 clinical outcomes of diabetes care were collected from the records of patients who visited the clinics during 2012. Diabetes management in both facilities improved clinical outcomes over the 1-year observation period. The mean total cholesterol of patients attending the special clinic (n = 102) decreased significantly from 4.66 to 4.27 mmol/dL and LDL cholesterol from 3.42 to 3.22 mmol/dL. The LDL cholesterol of patients receiving standard care (n = 108) reduced significantly from 3.41 to 3.22 mmol/dL and HDL cholesterol increased from 0.83 to 0.87 mmol/dL. Inter-provider comparisons indicated that the outcomes in the facility with a diabetes clinic were not superior to those in the facility with standard care. PMID:26077518

  9. Sport events and climate for visitors—the case of FIFA World Cup in Qatar 2022

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Fröhlich, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The effect of weather on sport events is not well studied. It requires special attention if the event is taking place at a time and place with extreme weather situations. For the world soccer championship in Qatar (Doha 2022), human biometeorological analysis has been performed in order to identify the time of the year that is most suitable in terms of thermal comfort for visitors attending the event. The analysis is based on thermal indices like Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that this kind of event may be not appropriate for visitors, if it is placed during months with extreme conditions. For Doha, this is the period from May to September, when conditions during a large majority of hours of the day cause strong heat stress for the visitors. A more appropriate time would be the months November to February, when thermally comfortable conditions are much more frequent. The methods applied here can quantify the thermal conditions and show limitations and possibilities for specific events and locations.

  10. 3D laser scanning and modelling of the Dhow heritage for the Qatar National Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherelt, A.; Cooper, J. P.; Zazzaro, C.

    2014-08-01

    Curating boats can be difficult. They are complex structures, often demanding to conserve whether in or out of the water; they are usually large, difficult to move on land, and demanding of gallery space. Communicating life on board to a visiting public in the terra firma context of a museum can be difficult. Boats in their native environment are inherently dynamic artifacts. In a museum they can be static and divorced from the maritime context that might inspire engagement. New technologies offer new approaches to these problems. 3D laser scanning and digital modeling offers museums a multifaceted means of recording, monitoring, studying and communicating watercraft in their care. In this paper we describe the application of 3D laser scanning and subsequent digital modeling. Laser scans were further developed using computer-generated imagery (CGI) modeling techniques to produce photorealistic 3D digital models for development into interactive, media-based museum displays. The scans were also used to generate 2D naval lines and orthographic drawings as a lasting curatorial record of the dhows held by the National Museum of Qatar.

  11. Epidemiology of bacteraemia in Hamad general hospital, Qatar: a one year hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Elshafie, Sittana S; Almaslamani, Muna; Abu-Khattab, Mohammed; El Hiday, A Haleem; Errayes, Mehdi; Almaslamani, Eman

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a one-year observational study from July 2007 to June 2008 to describe the epidemiology of bacteraemia at Hamad general hospital. During this period, a total of 452 episodes of bacteraemia occurred, which corresponds to a rate of 19/1000 hospital admissions. Most patients 58.8% (266/452) had community acquired bacteraemia, and primary bacteraemia accounted for 62.2% (281/452) of the cases. The most common source of bacteraemia was intravenous catheterization in 19.2% (87/452) but no source was identified in 42.9% (194/452) of the episodes. Gram-negative organisms were isolated in 63.1% (285/452) episodes with Escherichia coli being the most frequent 21.5% (97/452). Multidrug resistance was observed in 33.3% (7/21) of all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 50% (6/12) of Acinetobacter isolates and 28.6% (6/21) of Enterobacter isolates, whereas all ESBL producing Klebsiella spp. and E. coli were multiresistant. The percentages of oxacillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci isolates and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were 81.8% (27/33) and 13.2% (7/53) respectively. In hospital mortality was 22.5% (102/452), and inadequate treatment and septic shock were found to be independent predictors of mortality. Therefore, bloodstream infection surveillance is crucial to produce meaningful guidelines for prevention (e.g., catheter-related) and empirical treatment of bacteraemia in Qatar. PMID:21074495

  12. Rapid crustal accretion and magma assimilation in the Oman-U.A.E. ophiolite: High precision U-Pb zircon geochronology of the gabbroic crust

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Matthew

    New high-precision U/Pb zircon geochronology from the Oman-United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) ophiolite provides insight into the timing and duration of magmatism and the tectonic setting during formation of the lower crust. ...

  13. The basal part of the Oman ophiolitic mantle: a fossil Mantle Wedge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, Cécile; Guillot, Stéphane; Agard, Philippe; Godard, Marguerite; Chauvet, Alain; Dubacq, Benoit; Monié, Patrick; Yamato, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Although the Oman ophiolite is classically regarded as being the direct analog of oceanic lithosphere created at fast spreading ridges, the geodynamic context of its formation is still highly debated. The other alternative end-member model suggests that this ophiolite entirely formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. Fluids involved in the hydration of the oceanic lithosphere and in the presence of a secondary boninitic and andesitic volcanism may provide a way to discriminate between these two interpretations: are they descending near-axis hydrothermal fluxes (first model) or ascending from a subducting slab (second model)? We herein focus on the base of the ophiolitic mantle in order to characterize the origin of fluids and decipher hydration processes. Samples were taken along hecto- to kilometre-long sections across the basal banded unit directly overlying the amphibolitic/granulitic metamorphic sole. We carried out a petrological, structural and geochemical study on these rocks and their constitutive minerals. Our results show that, unlike the generally refractory character of Oman harzburgites, all the basal mantle rocks display secondary crystallization of clinopyroxene and amphibole through metasomatic processes. The microstructures and the chronology of these secondary mineralizations (clinopyroxene, pargasitic amphibole, antigorite and then lizardite/chrysotile) suggest that these basal rocks have been affected by cooling from mantle temperatures (<1200°C) to low-T serpentinisation (<300°C). Furthermore, major elements required to crystallize these minerals and the observed fluid-mobile elements (FMEs) enrichments in the clinopyroxenes and in the amphiboles (B, Pb, Sr), as well as in the serpentines (B, Sr, Rb, Ba, As), are consistent with amphibolite-derived fluids (Ishikawa et al., 2005) and cannot be easily explained by other sources. Based on these observations, we propose a geodynamic model in which intense and continuous metasomatism of the cooling base of the ophiolitic mantle is due to the release of fluids coming from the progressive dehydration of underlying amphibolitic rocks. This process is compatible with the progressive subduction of the Arabian margin during the Upper Cretaceous (e.g., HP-LT units history, and tectonic structures observed on top of it). The basal part of the Oman ophiolite would thus represent a fossil incipient mantle wedge.

  14. An evolved axial melt lens in the Northern Ibra Valley, Southern Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loocke, M. P.; Lissenberg, C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The axial melt lens (AML) is a common feature lying at the base of the upper crust at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. It is thought to play a major role in the evolution of MORB and, potentially, accretion of the plutonic lower crust. In order to better understand the petrological processes that operate in AMLs we have examined the nature and variability of the horizon equivalent to the AML preserved in the Oman ophiolite. We present the results of a detailed investigation of a section east of Fahrah in the Ibra Valley. Here, a suite of 'varitextured' gabbros separates the sheeted dykes above from foliated gabbros below. It comprises 3 distinct units: an ophitic gabbro with pegmatitic patches (patchy gabbro; 70 m thick), overlain by a spotty gabbro (50 m), capped by a quartz-diorite (120 m). The sheeted dykes are observed to root in the quartz-diorite. Contacts between the plutonic units are gradational and subhorizontal. All of the units are isotropic. A total of 110 samples were collected for detailed petrographic and chemical analysis. With the exception of a small number of the diorites, all of the samples have a 'cumulate' component. Primary igneous amphibole is ubiquitous, present even as a minor phase in the foliated gabbros beneath, and indicating extensive differentiation and/or the presence of water in the primary liquid. France et al. (2014, Lithos) report patches of granoblastic material from this horizon in the Fahrah area, and suggest they represent the restites of partially melted pieces of the sheeted dykes. We did not, however, find any such granoblastic material, nor can the quartz-diorites represent partial melt; instead, preliminary geochemical modeling suggests that all of the units can be related by simple progressive fractional crystallization of an Oman axial ('V1' or 'Geotimes') melt. Along with the field relationships, as well as the basaltic andesite to dacite composition of the overlying sheeted dykes, this suggests that the AML was the locus of formation of the highly evolved melts. This contrasts with the more primitive AML and sheeted dyke complex documented in Wadi Abyad. From this we conclude that there is significant lateral variability in AML compositions along the Oman ridge axis.

  15. Erectile Dysfunction in Qatar: Prevalence and Risk Factors in 1,052 Participants—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Naimi, Abdulla; Majzoub, Ahmad A; Talib, Raidh A; Canguven, Onder; Al Ansari, Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Qatar and to determine the risk factors associated with it. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional survey study of men attending the outpatient department at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar between February 2012 and February 2013. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire was used for data collection. In addition to the IIEF-5 score, each participant's medical history was taken, with special emphasis on risk factors for ED, including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease (CAD), and smoking habits, and on their body mass index. Results One thousand fifty-two participants were randomly selected to fill out the IIEF-5 questionnaire. The participants' mean age (±SD) was 41.87 ± 13.24 years. Analysis of replies to the IIEF-5 showed that ED was present in 573 out of 1,052 participants (54.5%). Fifty-six (5%) participants had severe ED, 61 (6%) had moderate ED, 173 (16%) had mild to moderate ED, and 283 (27%) had mild ED. Risk factors for ED that held statistical significance were age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1–4.1, P < 0.001), DM (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.7–3.9, P < 0.001), HTN (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.5, P = 0.012), dyslipidemia (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, P = 0.024), and CAD (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3–7.5, P = 0.009). Conclusion We found that the prevalence rate of ED in Qatar is quite similar to the regional reported rates. Overall, we demonstrated that nearly more than half of our participants suffered from ED. Besides age, DM, HTN, CAD, and dyslipidemia were found to be the most important risk factors for ED. Al Naimi A, Majzoub AA, Talib RA, Canguven O, and Al Ansari A. Erectile dysfunction in Qatar: Prevalence and risk factors in 1,052 participants—A pilot study. Sex Med 2014;2:91–95. PMID:25356303

  16. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W.; Ali, Malik H.; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-01-01

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28?km2 large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area ranges between 14 and 34°C. The discovery of the unique coral reef oasis in the turbid coastal waters of Iraq will stimulate the interest of governmental agencies, environmental organizations, as well as of the international scientific community working on the fundamental understanding of coral marine ecosystems and global climate today. PMID:24603901

  17. Persian Gulf: their oil, our need

    SciTech Connect

    Brossard, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    The degree of reliance of the US on Persian Gulf petroleum as well as problems facing Persian Gulf nations are addressed in this report. While US dependency on oil imports from Saudi Arabia is down, Japan and other western allies are very dependent on Saudi oil. The consequences of being deprived of Persian Gulf oil are described. The status and implications of the Iran-Iraq war are discussed in detail. The Arab countries in the region fear attacks on their oil fields by enemies and have developed a regional point defense strategy involving Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. OPEC's role in the area is described. The possibility of US intervention if needed to keep the Strait of Hormuz open and to protect the Gulf states from violence is also addressed. (DMC)

  18. Prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among office workers in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is not well understood in many Arabian Peninsula countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with self-reported CTS in Kuwait. Findings A cross-sectional, self-administered survey of CTS-related symptoms was used in this study. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for factors of interest. Participants in this study were adult office workers in Kuwait (n?=?470, 55.6% males), who worked in companies employing more than 50 people. Self-reported CTS was reported in 18.7% of the group (88/470). CTS was significantly associated with the following demographic factors: female gender, obesity and number of comorbid conditions. Self-identification of CTS was also associated with key symptoms and impairment in daily activities (e.g., wrist pain, numbness, weakness, night pain, difficulty carrying bags, difficulty grasping [Chi-Square Test for Association: P?Kuwait is 18.7%, and the risk factors for CTS in this population included female gender, obesity and number of related comorbidities. The frequency of symptoms in the sample who did not self report CTS suggest that CTS may be under-recognized, however further research is required to assess the prevalence of clinically diagnosed CTS. PMID:22695029

  19. Origin and depositional model of Wadi Al-Batin and its associated alluvial fan, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaimi, Jawad S.; Pitty, A. F.

    1995-07-01

    Wadi Al-Batin alluvial fan, which extends northeastward from Hafar Al-Batin in Saudi Arabia to cover parts of Kuwait and southwestern Iraq, represents the largest of several other non-active fans in central and south Arabia. Evidence put forward suggests that, like other comparable deposits of varying age in the Arabian Peninsula, the Al-Batin fan was deposited following downdip breaching of a scarp barrier by a large paleoriver further to the west which once flowed southward down the full length of the Arabian Peninsula. The downdip breaching model offers an explanation of how the Dibdibba gravels were introduced into Kuwait. It is postulated that the present southeasterly course of Tigris-Euphrates rivers to the head of the Arabian Gulf was the last of the easterly diversions of the lower courses of the southward-flowing paleoriver, as its southern end shifted progressively by a sequence of lateral breaches through the Central Arabian scarplands. It is the postulated existence of this huge former drainage system which is seen as the fundamental explanation for the occurrence of the Dibdibba Formation in Kuwait and comparable gravels elsewhere on the eastern flank of the Arabian Peninsula. After the initial phases of deposition of Al-Batin alluvial fan, its surface was dissected by floods from a reduced catchment area, no longer carrying the same sediment load and, therefore, capable of eroding the fan. Dissection of the fan surface continued until the present Wadi AI-Batin became sufficiently incised into the underlying Tertiary bedrock to serve as a permanent outlet. This led to the transport and secondary concentration of post-dissection gravels along the perimeter of the ancient fan.

  20. Assessment of the histopathological lesions and chemical analysis of feral cats to the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, R.B. Jr.; Dick, E.J.; Pletcher, J.M. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Twenty-six adult or subadult feral cats were collected from Kuwait approximately 8 months after the ignition of the Kuwait oil wells. These animals were obtained from two sources: 12 animals from Kuwait City, a relatively smoke-free area, and 14 from the city of Ahmadi, an area with heavy smoke. Animals were euthanized and a complete set of tissues consisting of all major organs was taken for histopathology. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, urine, and blood were also taken for toxicology. Histopathological lesions observed in the lung were mild accumulations of anthracotic pigment in the lungs of 17 cats. Hyperplasia of the bronchial and bronchiolar gland in 8 cats, and smooth muscle hyperplasia of bronchioles in 14 cats. Tracheal gland hyperplasia was observed in 7 cats, and minimal squamous metaplasia of the tracheal mucosa in 17 cats, Laryngeal lesions consisted of submucosal gland hyperplasia in 2 cats and squamous metaplasia of the mucosa in 5 cats. Hyperplasia of the nasal submucosal glands was observed in 6 animals. The pharyngeal mucosa as well as other organs and organ systems were normal in all cats. Atomic absorption analysis for 11 metals was performed; vanadium and nickel levels (two metals that were present in the smoke from the oil fires) are not indicative of substantial exposure to the oil fires. Based on the histopathological findings and toxicological analysis, it is felt that inhalation of air contaminated with smoke from the oil fires had little or no long-term effect on the animals examined. 36 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Assessment of the histopathological lesions and chemical analysis of feral cats to the smoke from Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, R.B.; Kalasinsky, V.F.; Razzaque, M.; Centeno, J.A.; Dick, E.J.

    1994-12-31

    Twenty-six adult or subadult feral cats were collected from Kuwait approximately 8 months after the ignition of the Kuwait oil wells. These animals were obtained from two sources: 12 animals from Kuwait City, a relatively Co smoke-free area, and 14 from the city of Alimadi, an area with heavy smoke. Animals were euthanized and a complete set of tissues consisting of all 0 major organs was taken for histopathology. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, urine, and blood were also taken for toxicology. Histopathological lesions observed in the lung were mild accumulations of anthracotic pigment in the lungs of 17 cats. Hyperplasia of the bronchial and bronchiolar gland in 8 cats, and smooth muscle hyperplasia of bronchioles in 14 cats. Iracheal gland hyperplasia was observed in 7 cats, and minimal squamous metaplasia of the tracheal mucosa in 17 cats, Laryngeal lesions consisted of submucosal gland hyperplasia in 2 cats and squamous metaplasia of the mucosa in 5 cats. Hyperplasia of the nasal submucosal glands was observed in 6 animals. The pharyngeal mucosa as well as other organs and organ systems (a) were normal in all cats. Atomic absorption analysis for 11 metals was performed; vanadium and nickel levels (two metals that were present in the smoke from the oil fires) are not indicative of substantial exposure to the oil fires. Based on the histopathological findings and toxicological analysis, it is felt that inhalation of air contaminated with smoke from the oil fires had little or no long-term effect on the animals examined.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Gulfstream I measurements of the Kuwait oil-fire plume, July--August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Busness, K M; Hales, J M; Hannigan, R V; Thorp, J M; Tomich, S D; Warren, M J [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Al-Sunaid, A A [Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Daum, P H; Mazurek, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of aircraft measurements to determine pollutant and radiative properties of the smoke plume from oil fires in Kuwait. This work was sponsored by the US Department emanating of Energy, in cooperation with several other agencies as part of an extensive effort coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization, to obtain a comprehensive data set to assess the characteristics of the plume and its environmental impact. This report describes field measurement activities and introduces the various data collected, but provides only limited analyses of these data. Results of further data analyses will be presented in subsequent open-literature publications.

  3. Recent evolution of a novel begomovirus causing tomato leaf curl disease in the Al-Batinah region of Oman.

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Singh, Achuit K; Al-Shehi, Adel A; Al-Matrushi, Abdulrahman M; Ammara, Ume; Briddon, Rob W

    2014-03-01

    For last two decades, begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) have been a major constraint for tomato production in Oman, particularly in the Al-Batinah region, the major agricultural area of Oman. Farms in the Al-Batinah region were surveyed during January-March and November-December in 2012 and January-February in 2013. Leaf samples of tomato plants showing typical leaf curl disease symptoms were collected and analyzed for begomoviruses. Out of fifteen begomovirus clones sequenced, seven were shown to be tomato yellow leaf curl virus strain Oman (TYLCV-OM); three, chili leaf curl virus strain Oman (ChLCV-OM); and one, tomato leaf curl Oman virus (ToLCOMV) - viruses that have previously been shown to occur in Oman. Four sequences were shown to have relatively low percent identity values to known begomoviruses, with the highest (86 %) to isolates of pepper leaf curl Lahore virus, indicating that these should be included in a new species, for which the name "Tomato leaf curl Al Batinah virus" (ToLCABV) is proposed. Although the betasatellite tomato leaf curl betasatellite (ToLCB; 7 full-length sequences isolated) was identified with some isolates of ChLCV-OM, TYLCV-OM and ToLCOMV, it was not identified in association with any of the ToLCABV isolates. Analysis of the sequences of the TYLCV-OM and ToLCOMV isolates characterized here did not show them to differ significantly from previously characterized isolates of these viruses. The three isolates of ChLCV-OM characterized were shown to have a recombination pattern distinct from earlier characterized isolates. ToLCABV was shown to have resulted from recombination between ChLCV-OM and ToLCOMV. A clone of ToLCABV was infectious by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato, inducing symptoms typical of those seen in tomato in the field. Additionally, ToLCABV was shown to be able to interact in planta with ToLCB, resulting in a change in symptom phenotype, although the betasatellite did not appear to affect viral DNA levels. PMID:24052149

  4. Profile of acute poisoning cases presenting to health centres and hospitals in Oman.

    PubMed

    Lall, S B; Al-Wahaibi, S S; Al-Riyami, M M; Al-Kharusi, K

    2003-01-01

    A simple pro forma was used for a retrospective study of poisoning cases at 45 health institutions in Oman during January-December 2000. No deaths were recorded among 2009 cases of acute poisoning. A quarter of all cases (55.8% of paediatric cases) were children aged 1-4 years. The largest category (59.5%) was animal bites and stings: 25.4% undiagnosed, 19.7% scorpion stings, 7.6% bee, spider or wasp stings and 6.8% snake bites. Next highest (38.5%) was ingestion of substances: 18.2% pharmaceuticals, 8.2% food and 4.7% household products. Most drug-related cases were due to paracetamol. Suicide attempts were recorded for 6.0%. Collection of poisoning data through a central registry system is needed for the implementation and future assessment of prevention programmes. PMID:16450524

  5. Mantle segmentation along the Oman ophiolite fossil mid-ocean ridge.

    PubMed

    Le Mée, Laurent; Girardeau, Jacques; Monnier, Christophe

    2004-11-11

    It has been difficult to relate the segmentation of mid-ocean ridges to processes occurring in the Earth's underlying mantle, as the mantle is rarely sampled directly and chemical variations observed in lavas at the surface are heavily influenced by details of their production as melt extracted from the mantle. Our understanding of such mantle processes has therefore relied on the analysis of pieces of fossil oceanic lithosphere now exposed at the Earth's surface, known as ophiolites. Here we present the phase chemistry and whole-rock major- and trace-element contents of 174 samples of the mantle collected along over 400 km of the Oman Sultanate ophiolite. We show that, when analysed along the fossil ridge, variations of elemental ratios sensitive to the melting process define a three-dimensional geometry of mantle upwellings, which can be related to the segmentation observed in modern mid-ocean ridge environments. PMID:15538358

  6. Forest on the edge: Seasonal cloud forest in Oman creates its own ecological niche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2006-06-01

    Cloud forests usually grow in the moist tropics where water is not a limiting factor to plant growth. Here, for the first time, we describe the hydrology of a water limited seasonal cloud forest in the Dhofar mountains of Oman. This ecosystem is under significant stress from camels feeding on tree canopies. The Dhofar forests are the remnants of a moist vegetation belt, which once spread across the Arabian Peninsula. According to our investigation the process of cloud immersion during the summer season creates within this desert a niche for moist woodland vegetation. Woodland vegetation survives in this ecosystem, sustained through enhanced capture of cloud water by their canopies (horizontal precipitation). Degraded land lacks this additional water source, which inhibits re-establishment of trees. Our modeling results suggest that cattle feeding may lead to irreversible destruction of one of the most diverse ecosystems in Arabia.

  7. Overall adequacy of antenatal care in Oman: secondary analysis of national reproductive health survey data, 2008.

    PubMed

    El Aty, M A Abd; Meky, F A; Morsy, M; El Sayed, M K

    2014-12-01

    Despite the good health status of women and children in Oman, there are still some gaps to be filled. This study explored the adequacy of antenatal care (ANC) utilization of Omani ever-married women and the sociodemographic and health service determinants of adequate and sufficient ANC. In a secondary analysis of a national dataset (N = 1852 women), the percentages of women who had 4+ ANC visits, attended ANC in the 1st trimester and received care by trained personnel were 96.8%, 74.9% and 99.1% respectively. Overall adequacy of ANC (use and sufficiency of recommended basic services) for the surveyed women was 53.8%. After adjustment of other covariates, being pregnant with the 1st baby was the only significant predictor of overall adequacy of ANC (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.6-3.2). Greater awareness of the need for adequate ANC is required for mothers with more than one baby. PMID:25664516

  8. Oil-bearing glacial deposits from Permo-Carboniferous Haushi Group, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Braakman, J.H.; Levell, B.K.; Rutten, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    A sequence of glacial and related deposits up to 700 m (2296 ft) thick in the lower part of the Haushi Group contains significant quantities of oil in several fields in south and central Oman and is the main exploration target along the eastern flank of the South Oman salt basin. The glacial deposits are overlain by fluvial and shallow marine deposits of the upper Haushi Group which include a fossiliferous limestone dated as Early Permain (probably Sakmarian). The glacial origin of units within the lower part of the Haushi Group is established from the outcrop area on the west flank of Huqf massif where striated pavements of Precambrian dolomite have been found. One pavement is directly overlain by a 4 m (13 ft) thick diamictite interpreted as a basal till. In nearby exposures striated boulders have been found. Both in the outcrops and in the subsurface diamictites with abundant far-traveled material (granite and volcanic boulders) occur. They are considered to be mostly debris-flow deposits of glacially transported material. Their common interbedding with varved shales with dropstones is diagnostic of a glaciolacustrine setting. The association of varved shales and diamictites is commonly of sealing quality. Reservoirs in the glacial sequence are formed by sandstones and clast to matrix-supported sandy conglomerates which are interpreted as deltaic and fluvial deposits. Depositional models and paleogeographic reconstructions have been made with the help of core studies and correlation of facies units using wireline logs. These correlations demonstrate the limited lateral predictability of reservoirs which is not unexpected in view of the geometrical complexity of many modern glacial deposits.

  9. Cretaceous flexural history of northern Oman Mountain foredeep, United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, T.L.; O'Connor, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    An important feature of the middle Cretaceous Arabian continental margin was the regional upwarping in the foreland of the northern Oman Mountains. The authors interpret this upwarp as an early expression of a cratonward-migrating peripheral swell associated with the emplacement of the Semail Ophiolite onto the margin. Subsurface stratigraphic data indicate that the swell was expressed during the Cenomanian and attained its maximum relief during the Turonian. By the Santonian, further downflexure of the margin took place around an axis west of the study area, burying the then-inactive Turonian swell beneath the deposits of the westward-expanding foreland basin. They suggest that establishment of the later, more cratonward flexural regime took place abruptly rather than as a continuously migrating wave. The middle Cretaceous swell axis paralleled the present-day axis of the Oman Mountains. The upwarp was slightly asymmetric to the east, and loosely constrained estimates of its width and height are 150 km and 244 m (93 mi and 800 ft), respectively. The dimensions suggest an anomalously low flexural rigidity (10/sup 22/ N m) for the middle Cretaceous continental lithosphere. They attribute this low apparent rigidity to the combined effects of remnant thermal and mechanical processes of an earlier rifting event and compression of the margin during the Cretaceous emplacement of the Semail Ophiolite. The small dimensions of the middle Cretaceous swell suggest that other continental margins with similar geologic histories may also have narrow extinct swells buried beneath foreland deposits. Such swells may have significant impact on the entrapment of hydrocarbons, as they propose for the Sajaa-Margham trend. 8 figures.

  10. Incidence and Determinants of Birth Defects and Enzyme Deficiencies among Live Births in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Jaffer, Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives In 2003, the Omani Ministry of Health Child Health Care Program initiated a national Birth Defects (BD) Register. This paper reviews the magnitude and risk factors of birth defects in children born and registered in 2005 using data from the BD Register. Methods Pediatricians and neonatologists examined children with BDs found either during screening at birth or when attending clinics in their first year of their life. Clinical examination, laboratory, sonographic and radiological investigations were carried out. A pre-tested form was used to note personal details, type of birth defect including International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) codes of BD and selected risk factors. The incidence rates per 100 live births were calculated. Results The annual incidence of BD in Oman was 2.53% (95% CI 2.38–2.68). Males had a significantly higher risk of BD than females (relative risk (RR) = 2.0). The regional variation of BD was also significant (?2 = 363). The incidence of anaemia due to enzyme disorders was 1.4%. BD of urogenital organs, hands and feet and Down’s syndrome were the main types of anatomical defects. Consanguinity among parents (RR = 0.85) and low birth weight (RR = 0.28) was negatively associated to birth defects. Mothers giving birth at gestational age of <37 weeks (RR = 1.89) had a higher risk of having children with BD. Maternal and paternal age were not associated to BD. Conclusion The national Register for BD is an important evaluation tool. Both genetic and acquired risk factors seem to affect BD rates and types in Oman. PMID:21509078

  11. Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

    2013-06-01

    The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent. PMID:23435864

  12. Hydroxyl radical concentrations and Kuwait oil fire emission rates for March 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, D. S.; Hord, C. J.; Kent, J. M.

    1995-12-01

    Toward the end of the Gulf War, Iraqi troops damaged several hundred oil wells in Kuwait setting many of them on fire. Measurements made in March 1991, a few weeks after most of the fires had started (Johnson et al., 1991), were used to estimated the total burn rate and the emission rates of individual pollutants. Measurements of the principal carbon species in the plume, obtained from flask samples collected at the same time as continuous measurements of SO2 have been used to derive an "effective" sulphur content of the smoke of 2.4%, almost a third lower than the previous estimate. This sulphur content of 2.4% combined with the capping history of the fires has been used to revise the earlier estimates and provide more detailed information on the speciation of the emissions. It is now estimated that 139×106 t of crude oil were burnt during an 8-month period, resulting in the release of 112×106 t of carbon in carbon dioxide, 3×106 t of carbon in soot, 1.6×106 t of carbon in carbon monoxide, 1.3×106 t of carbon in nonmethane hydrocarbons, 0.11×106 t of nitrogen in nitrogen oxides, and 3.11×106 t of sulphur in sulphur dioxide. In addition to measurements made close to the source of the plume, one flight successfully sampled a plume some 600 km from the fires which had experienced significant photochemical aging. These observations provided a unique data set with which to estimate the rate at which hydrocarbon pollutants in the plume degrade and to infer the hydroxyl radical concentrations which cause that degradation. Most of the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations determined from flask samples collected at a range of distances from the Kuwait source conform to a simple loss process proportional to hydrocarbon hydroxyl reactivity and imply a diurnally averaged hydroxyl radical concentration within the plume of 1×106 molecules cm-3. Finally, it is shown that, although theoretically, hydrocarbon concentrations can be combined to predict the difference ratio of hydrocarbon reactivity, that is, (k1 - k2)/(k3 - k4), in practice experimental error can give rise to apparent discrepancies between theory and observations. Earlier studies found similar discrepancies and have speculated that these arise from differences in "photochemical age" for different hydrocarbons, a parameter those studies could not determine. We have shown similar discrepancies but have been able to determine photochemical ages for several hydrocarbons and have shown that the hydrocarbon reductions are consistent with a single photochemical age (3% precision), precluding the earlier explanations. However, even though the photochemical lifetime may be determined very precisely, consideration of the computational stability of the procedures involved suggest that unavoidable experimental precision may lead to factors of 2 errors in the determination of the difference ratio, which is more than sufficient to explain the known discrepancies.

  13. Geology and petrology of the Hormuz dolomite, InfraCambrian: Implications for the formation of the salt-cored Halul and Shraouh islands, Offshore, State of Qatar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sobhi Nasir; Hamad Al-Saad; Abudlrazak Alsayigh; Oliver Weidlich

    2008-01-01

    Geological investigations of the Halul and the Shraouh islands, offshore Qatar, indicate that most of their calcareous rocks, which display abundant stromatolitic bedding, belong to the Infra-Cambrian Hormuz Series. Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical analyses show that these calcareous rocks consist dominantly of dolomite and have formed in a reducing depositional environment. Faint laminations and small streaks of organic matter furnish

  14. Language Technology for Closely Related Languages and Language Variants (LT4CloseLang), pages 3646, October 29, 2014, Doha, Qatar. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-print Network

    languages will be much more different as Urdu vocabulary is influenced heavily from Persian, Arabic and TurkLanguage Technology for Closely Related Languages and Language Variants (LT4CloseLang), pages 36­46, October 29, 2014, Doha, Qatar. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics Exploiting Language

  15. Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP), pages 3645, October 25-29, 2014, Doha, Qatar. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-print Network

    as bags of visual words (Sivic and Zisserman, 2003). Meanwhile, deep transfer learning techniques have distribu- tional semantics that exclusively relies on deep learning for both its linguistic and visual), pages 36­45, October 25-29, 2014, Doha, Qatar. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics Learning

  16. High-precision multi-band time-series photometry of exoplanets Qatar-1b and TrES-5b

    E-print Network

    Mislis, D; Tregloan-Reed, J; Ciceri, S; Southworth, J; D'Ago, G; Bruni, I; Ba?türk, Ö; Alsubai, K A; Bachelet, E; Bramich, D M; Henning, Th; Hinse, T C; Iannella, A L; Parley, N; Schroeder, T

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Qatar-1 and TrES-5 transiting exoplanetary systems, which contain Jupiter-like planets on short-period orbits around K-dwarf stars. Our data comprise a total of 20 transit light curves obtained using five medium-class telescopes, operated using the defocussing technique. The average precision we reach in all our data is $RMS_{Q} = 1.1$ mmag for Qatar-1 ($V = 12.8$) and $RMS_{T} = 1.0$ mmag for TrES-5 ($V = 13.7$). We use these data to refine the orbital ephemeris, photometric parameters, and measured physical properties of the two systems. One transit event for each object was observed simultaneously in three passbands ($gri$) using the BUSCA imager. The QES survey light curve of Qatar-1 has a clear sinusoidal variation on a period of $P_{\\star} = 23.697 \\pm 0.123$\\,d, implying significant starspot activity. We searched for starspot crossing events in our light curves, but did not find clear evidence in any of the new datasets. The planet in the Qatar-1 system did not transit the...

  17. Teaching the cloud - experiences in designing and teaching an undergraduate-level course in cloud computing at the Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Suhail Rehman; Majd F. Sakr

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a disruptive technology, one that embodies a major conceptual shift and is rapidly changing the way users, developers, and organizations work with computing infrastructure. Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar offered a one-semester undergraduate course to introduce students to cloud computing. In this paper we describe our approach and experiences in designing the course. We describe course elements

  18. Legionella detection and subgrouping in water air-conditioning cooling tower systems in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Matawah, Qadreyah; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Azmi, Ahmad; Al-Waalan, Tahani; Al-Salameen, Fadila; Hejji, Ahmad Ben

    2015-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to test for the presence of Legionnaires' disease-causing microorganisms in air-conditioned buildings in Kuwait using molecular technologies. For this purpose, 547 samples were collected from 38 cooling towers for the analysis of Legionella pneumophila. These samples included those from water (n?=?178), air (n?=?231), and swabs (n?=?138). Out of the 547 samples, 226 (41 %) samples were presumptive positive for L. pneumophila, with L. pneumophila viable counts in the positive water samples ranging from 1 to 88 CFU/ml. Of the Legionella culture-positive samples, 204 isolates were examined by latex agglutination. These isolates were predominately identified as L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 2-14. Using the Dresden panel of monoclonal antibodies, 74 representatives isolates were further serogrouped. Results showed that 51 % of the isolates belonged to serogroup 7 followed by 1 (18 %) and 3 (18 %). Serogroups 4 (4 %) and 10 (7 %) were isolated at a lower frequency, and two isolates could not be assigned to a serogroup. These results indicate the wide prevalence of L. pneumophila serogroup 7 as the predominant serogroup at the selected sampling sites. Furthermore, the 74 L. pneumophila (sg1?=?13; sg3?=?13; sg4?=?3; sg7?=?38; sg10?=?5; sgX?=?2) isolates were genotyped using the seven gene protocol sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme developed by the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI). The results show that Legionella isolates were discriminated into nine distinct sequence typing (ST) profiles, five of which were new to the SBT database of EWGLI. Additionally, all of the ST1 serogroup 1 isolates were of the OLDA/Oxford subgroup. These baseline data will form the basis for the development of a Legionella environmental surveillance program and used for future epidemiological investigations. PMID:25701245

  19. Extracurricular research activities among senior medical students in Kuwait: experiences, attitudes, and barriers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Halabi, Becher; Marwan, Yousef; Hasan, Mohammad; Alkhadhari, Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Background Research is the foundation of scientific advancement and improvement in quality of health care, which ensures the good health of the community. The aim of this study is to explore experiences, attitudes, and barriers of medical students in Kuwait University (KU) in regards to extracurricular research. Methods A questionnaire about extracurricular research activities (ie, any research activity that is not part of the required undergraduate curriculum, such as publishing a paper, research elective, etc) was distributed to 175 senior medical students (years 6 and 7). Descriptive and chi-square analyses were used to analyze the responses, considering a P-value of <0.05 as the cut-off level for significance. The main outcome was defined as taking part in any of the extracurricular research activities. Results Of the 150 participants (response rate = 85.7%), 26 (17.3%), 68 (45.3%), 52 (34.7%), and 17 (11.3%) had published their required medical school research, presented abstracts in conferences, conducted extracurricular research, and completed a research elective/course, respectively; 99 (66.0%) took part in any of these activities. Participants who read medical journals regularly (81; 54%) reported higher participation in extracurricular research activities than those who did not read journals (P=0.003). Improving the availability of mentors for students’ extracurricular research was ranked by the participants as the most important factor to improve their participation in extracurricular research (4.05/5.00). Conclusion Despite the lack of adequate support, extracurricular research activities among medical students of KU were comparable to students from other countries. Barriers for these activities should be addressed by KU medical educators in order to enhance research activities among the students. PMID:24812535

  20. Kuwait's total diet study: dietary intake of organochlorine, carbamate, benzimidazole and phenylurea pesticide residues.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, W N; al-Awadhi, F A; Saeed, T; al-Omair, A; Ahmad, N; Husain, A; Khalafawi, S; al-Omirah, H; Dashti, B; al-Amiri, H; al-Saqer, J

    1999-01-01

    The State of Kuwait in cooperation with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a Total Diet Study (TDS) to estimate intakes of pesticide residues by the population. The levels of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, carbamates, benzimidazoles, and phenylureas in the TDS core list are reported here. The TDS core list was established through a national food consumption survey. All food items (140 for the Kuwaiti adult) were prepared as eaten and analyzed for the pesticides mentioned above. The FDA's multiresidue methods in Volume I of the Pesticide Analytical Manual were used in gas, liquid, and gel permeation chromatographic analyses. Only vegetable and fruit samples contained pesticide residues (mg/kg), including the carbamates 1-naphthol (1.4) and 3H-carbofuran (0.94) in carrots; the OC pesticide vinclozolin (0.47), 3H-carbofuran (0.66), and fenuron (0.6) in kiwi fruit; the OC pesticide procymidone (0.32) and carbendazim (0.5) in grapes; 3H-carbofuran (5.0) in apricots; the OC pesticides captan (0.013) and thiabendazole (0.63) in pears; captan (0.035) in plums; and carbendazim (0.4) in mandarin oranges. The levels of 3H-carbofuran found in both apricots and kiwi fruit exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) of the United Nations. The daily intakes of pesticides by the different population groups are discussed in light of the FAO/WHO acceptable daily intakes. PMID:10589497

  1. A comparison of methods for assessing the thermal insulation value of children's schoolwear in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Rashidi, Khaled; Loveday, Dennis; Al-Mutawa, Nawaf; Havenith, George

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three methods were used to determine the thermal insulation values of different school clothing worn by 6 to 17 year old girls and boys in Kuwait classrooms for both summer and winter seasons. The different clothing ensembles' insulations were determined by 1: measurement using adult-sized versions of the clothing on thermal manikins, 2: estimations from adult clothing data obtained from the standards tables in ISO 9920 and ASHRAE 55, and 3: calculations using a regression equation from McCullough et al. (1985) that was adapted to accommodate children's sizes for ages 6-17 years. Values for the clothing area factor, f(cl), were also determined by measurement and by using a prediction equation from ISO 9920. Results in this study suggested that the clothing insulation values found from the measured and adapted data were similar to the adult's data in standards tables for the same summer and winter seasons. Further, the effect of the insulation values on the different scholars' age groups were investigated using the clothing temperature rating technique and compared to the scholars' comfort temperature found in recent field studies. Results showed that the temperature ratings of the clothing using the three methods described above are close and in agreement with the scholars' comfort temperature. Though estimated and measured f(cl) data differed, the impact on the temperature ratings was limited. An observed secular change in the children's heights and weights in the last few decades implies that, for adolescents, the children's body surface areas are similar to those of adults, making the use of adult clothing tables even more acceptable. In conclusion, this study gives some evidence to support the applicability of using adults' data in ASHRAE 55 and ISO 9920 standards to assess the thermal insulation values of different children's clothing ensembles, provided that careful selection of the garments, ensembles material and design takes place. PMID:21714955

  2. Causes and Consequences of Second Language Education: A Global Analysis From 1980 to the Present

    E-print Network

    Coyne, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Qatar,Jordan Kenya Kuwait Laos Lebanon Libya Malawi Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Mongolia MoroccoJordan * Kazakhstan Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho * Lithuania Macedonia Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives Malta Mauritania Mauritius * Mexico Mongolia Morocco

  3. The tuberculin skin test in confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in the state of Qatar: where we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Al Marri, Mohammed R.H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This is the first paper to evaluate the potency of the tuberculin skin test (TST) results in confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in the developing country. Method: Data was collected retrospectively from the tuberculosis (TB) treatment unit during the period from 1998 to 2004. All charts diagnosed as active tuberculosis based on positive sputum smear or culture with documented TST were reviewed. The standard TST was done by injecting o.1 ml of 5 international units subcutaneous RT 23 purified protein derivative (PPD) on volar surface of the right arm. Results: There were 306 patients with confirmed active pulmonary tuberculosis, of which 58% were smear positive and 42% were smear negative but culture positive. Expatriates accounted for 81% (247) and male for 74% (225) of the patients. The mean TST was 18.5 mm with standard deviation of 7.54 mm. TST was less than 5 mm in 8.2% (25), 5–10 mm in 1.6% (5), 10–15 mm in 11.1% (34) and more than 15 mm in 79.1% (242). False negative (reaction less than 10 mm) was significantly higher in Qatar nationals (17% vs 8% in expatriates) and those with associated diseases (16.3% vs 7% without associated diseases). Conclusion: Although 9.8% of confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis had false negative TST, it remains a potent aide for epidemiological and diagnostic purposes and periodic assessment of this is highly recommended. In our community with BCG vaccination a reaction more than 10 mm should be considered positive. PMID:25003035

  4. Library Collaboration with Medical Humanities in an American Medical College in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of ‘doctors’ stories’ related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a ‘best practices’ approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders. PMID:24223240

  5. Sedimentary facies, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the sulphate-bearing Miocene Dam Formation in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Botz, R.; Berner, Z.; Stüben, D.; Nasir, S.; Al-Saad, H.

    2005-01-01

    The Miocene deposits of the Dam Formation were deposited in a narrow seaway stretching along the western edge of the Qatar Arch. During the initial stages of basin evolution the rising Zagros Mts. delivered debris in this fore deep basin. The paleocurrent and paleogeographic zonation are reflected by the heavy mineral assemblage, by the spatial distribution of phyllosilicates and the various types of sulphate. From NW towards the SE, the contents of smectite and palygorskite increase, whereas the illite and kaolinite contents decrease. Mega crystals of gypsum are found in the NW and massive fine-grained gypsum in the SE of the basin. During the waning stages of basin subsidence, the Arabian Shield became more and more important as a source for the Miocene sediments. In this study, the Dam Formation was subdivided into 7 members/lithofacies associations (lower, middle, upper Salwa, and Al Nakhsh Members, Abu Samrah Member). The Salwa Members at the base of the Dam Formation consists of heterolithic siliciclastic-calcareous sediments which were laid down under meso- to microtidal conditions. The Al Nakhsh Members formed under macrotidal conditions with sub- to supratidal depositional environments passing into continental ones. Celestite, gypsum, and microbial mats (stromatolites) are very widespread in these sabkha sediments. Crystals of gypsum and the thickness of stromatolites tremendously increase towards younger sediments indicating thereby a close genetic link between growth of microbial domes and gypsum precipitation. Throughout the Abu Samrah Member marine calcareous sediments were deposited in a microtidal wave-dominated environment. Dissolution of Eocene evaporites at depth governed the lithofacies differentiation in the Miocene Dam Formation.

  6. Challenges and opportunities of US and Arab collaborations in health services research: a case study from Qatar.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Maya M; Elnashar, Maha; Abdelrahim, Huda; Khidir, Amal; Elliott, Heather A K; Killawi, Amal; Padela, Aasim I; Al Khal, Abdul Latif; Bener, Abdulbari; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-11-01

    Economic globalization and advances in technology have made it more feasible and even necessary to develop international research collaborations in global public health. Historically, collaborations in global research described in the literature have been mostly "North-South" collaborations in which the more developed "North" country works together with a developing "South" country to conduct research in the latter. This type of collaboration has for the most part, represented unequal partnership and rarely left behind a lasting impact. Recently, the opportunity for a new kind of international research partnership has emerged in which the host country has significant financial resources, but relatively limited expertise in research Methodology or techniques and research implementation.  This type of collaboration features a relative equalization of power between the international partners. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of building a successful research collaboration between a team in the United States and a team in Qatar, a rich Arabic nation in Gulf. We present a case study that provides an overview of our own project focused on the development of a culturally and linguistically adapted health care quality instrument for Qatar, discussing many of the benefits and challenges we encountered during each phase of instrument development. We present recommendations for researchers seeking sustainable and equitable partnerships with the Arab World. PMID:23121751

  7. Patient perceptions of pharmacist roles in guiding self-medication of over-the-counter therapy in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, Kerry; Salam, Samah El; Mohammadi, Ebrahim

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-care, including self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, facilitates the public’s increased willingness to assume greater responsibility for their own health. Direct consultation with pharmacists provides efficient professional guidance for safe and appropriate OTC use. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize patient perceptions of pharmacists and use of nonprescription therapy in an ambulatory care population in Qatar. Methods: Patients having prescriptions filled at one organization’s private medical clinics during two distinct two-week periods were invited to participate in a short verbal questionnaire. Awareness of pharmacist roles in guiding OTC drug selection was assessed, as were patient preferences for OTC indications. Attitudes towards pharmacist and nurse drug knowledge and comfort with direct dispensing were also evaluated. Results: Five hundred seventy patients participated representing 29 countries. Most respondents were men (92.1%) with mean age of 38.3 years. Almost 1 in 7 did not know medical complaints could be assessed by a pharmacist (15.3%) and 1 in 5 (21.9%) were unaware pharmacists could directly supply OTC therapy. The majority (85.3%) would be interested in this service. In general, respondents were more comfortable with medication and related advice supplied by pharmacists as opposed to nursing professionals. Conclusion: Patients were familiar with the roles of pharmacists as they pertain to self-medication with OTC therapy and described the desire to use such a service within this Qatar ambulatory health care setting. PMID:20517469

  8. Overview of preparedness and response for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Abaidani, I S; Al-Maani, A S; Al-Kindi, H S; Al-Jardani, A K; Abdel-Hady, D M; Zayed, B E; Al-Harthy, K S; Al-Shaqsi, K H; Al-Abri, S S

    2014-12-01

    Several countries in the Middle East and around 22 countries worldwide have reported cases of human infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The exceptionally high fatality rate resulting from MERS-CoV infection in conjunction with the paucity of knowledge about this emerging virus has led to major public and international concern. Within the framework of the national acute respiratory illness surveillance, the Ministry of Health in the Sultanate of Oman has announced two confirmed cases of MERS-CoV to date. The aim of this report is to describe the epidemiological aspects of these two cases and to highlight the importance of public health preparedness and response. The absence of secondary cases among contacts of the reported cases can be seen as evidence of the effectiveness of infection prevention and control precautions as an important pillar of the national preparedness and response plan applied in the health care institutions in Oman. PMID:25447719

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance profile among treatment-naïve people in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Chehadeh, Wassim; Albaksami, Osama; Altawalah, Haya; Ahmad, Suhail; Madi, Nada; John, Sonia E; Abraham, Priya S; Al-Nakib, Widad

    2015-09-01

    Mutations associated with resistance to antiretroviral therapy are a major cause of failure to treatment, and surveillance for the emergence of HIV resistance became a component of all antiretroviral treatment programs. As transmission of resistant viruses to newly infected persons is possible, we aimed to determine the prevalence of primary mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance among treatment-naïve patients, with respect to HIV subtype. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples of 43 treatment-naïve patients. Protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions were amplified and sequenced using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Assay. A phylogenetic analysis was performed for HIV subtype assignment. Complete sequence information could be obtained for 35 patients. A total of ten different HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant forms were found in Kuwait with predominance of subtypes B, C, and CRF01_AE. A62V and A98G were non-polymorphic resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) detected in the RT region of two and three patients, respectively. Non-polymorphic mutations associated with resistance to protease inhibitors were not detected. Our results support continuous surveillance of RAMs in newly infected individuals to assess the effectiveness of first-line antiretroviral regimen available in Kuwait. J. Med. Virol. 87:1521-1526, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25976289

  10. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes in Kuwait: prevalence rates and associated risk factors 1 Poster presentation at 16th International Diabetes Federation Congress Helsinki, Finland, July 1997. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Abdella; M Al Arouj; A Al Nakhi; A Al Assoussi; M Moussa

    1998-01-01

    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a major clinical and public health problem in Kuwait. The objective of the study was to determine prevalence rates of NIDDM among a representative sample of the Kuwaiti adult population aged 20 and older in two out of five governorates and identify the associated risk factors for the disease. A total of 3003 subjects (1105

  11. Redesign of Electrical Installations to Maximize the Use of Photo Voltaic (PV) Cells at the End Use of Consumers in Kuwait

    E-print Network

    Alatrash, J.; Mhaisen, N.; Ismail, Z.

    2010-01-01

    ?Redesign of electrical installations to maximize the use of Photo Voltaic (PV) cells at the end use of consumers in Kuwait? 1. Jiries B.E Alatrash B.Sc, M.Sc, PhD,MIEE,Cng Consultant of Electrical Engineering Jeries03@yahoo.com 2...

  12. Enterotoxin production by coagulase-negative staphylococci in restaurant workers from Kuwait City may be a potential cause of food poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Udo; M. A. Al-Bustan; L. E. Jacob; T. D. Chugh

    1999-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were isolated from the hands of food handlers in 50 restaurants in Kuwait City and studied for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, slime and resistance to antimicrobial agents. One or a combination of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B or C were produced by 6% of the isolates, with the majority producing

  13. Preparing a Future Graduate Workforce for Work: An Assessment of the Standard of Graduates from the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ali, Salah

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined factors which had a direct impact on the quality of graduates from the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training (PAAE&T) in Kuwait. The study also examined the extent to which the graduates met the requirements of local employers. It consisted of a review of the literature; a questionnaire…

  14. A fish kill of massive proportion in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf, 2001: the roles of bacterial disease, harmful algae, and eutrophication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M Glibert; Jan H Landsberg; Joyce J Evans; Mohammad A Al-Sarawi; Muna Faraj; Mohammad A Al-Jarallah; Allison Haywood; Shahnaz Ibrahem; Phil Klesius; Christine Powell; Craig Shoemaker

    2002-01-01

    In August and September 2001, Kuwait Bay, a semi-enclosed embayment of the Arabian Gulf, experienced a massive fish kill involving over >2500 metric tons of wild mullet (Liza klunzingeri), due to the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae. In the Bay, this event was preceded by a small fish kill (100–1000 dead fish per day) of gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus) in aquaculture

  15. Hikikomori, is it a culture-reactive or culture-bound syndrome? Nidotherapy and a clinical vignette from Oman.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Noriyuki; Martin, Rodger G; Kumano, Hiroaki; Kuboki, Tomifusa; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2005-01-01

    Hikikomori, a form of acute social withdrawal, is becoming a silent epidemic in Japan. As it has not been reported from other parts of the world, hikikomori fulfills the criteria for "a culture-bound syndrome." We report a case from Oman, in the southern part of Arabia, with all the essential features of hikikomori. We speculate that the social environment of Japanese and Omani society could reinforce behavior akin to hikikomori although this condition may also transcend geography and ethnicity. PMID:16240975

  16. The Frankincense tree ( Boswellia sacra , Burseraceae) from Oman: ITS and ISSR analyses of genetic diversity and implications for conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Coppi; Lorenzo Cecchi; Federico Selvi; Mauro Raffaelli

    2010-01-01

    DNA sequences from the ITS region of the nuclear genome and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat markers (ISSR) were used to estimate\\u000a genetic diversity among and within populations of the Frankincense tree Boswellia sacra from Dhofar, Oman. This is a culturally and ecologically relevant species that is showing symptoms of decline due to anthropic\\u000a factors and, possibly, global warming. ITS sequences were

  17. Calc-alkaline differentiation trend in the plutonic sequence of the Wadi Haymiliyah section, Haylayn massif, Semail ophiolite, Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lachize; J. P. Lorand; T. Juteau

    1996-01-01

    The Wadi Haymiliyah section, in the Haylayn block (Semail ophiolite, Oman) displays an unusual plutonic sequence closely similar to those of supra-subduction zone harzburgitic ophiolites (“Troodos sub-type”). It comprizes a bottom, 1000 m-thick, coarse-grained layered gabbro unit (MLGU) overlain by a 1000 m-thick, fine-grained, laminated noritic gabbro unit (MLNGU). Taken as a whole, the mineralogical and bulk-rock trends of the

  18. Mobility of rare earth elements in the system soils–plants–groundwaters: a case study of an arid area (Oman)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khadija Semhi; Osman A. E. Abdalla; Salah Al Khirbash; Tabisam Khan; Salim Asaidi; Sardar Farooq

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater samples from six wells and various species of plants from soils developed on ophiolites were collected from an\\u000a arid area (AlKhod area, Oman) and analyzed for trace elements including rare earth elements (REEs). The distribution patterns\\u000a of REEs in plants indicated an enrichment in middle REEs (MREEs?=?Sm to Dy) and heavy REEs (HREEs?=?Ho to Lu), when they are\\u000a normalized

  19. Antibiotic resistant bacteria as bio-indicator of polluted effluent in the green turtles, Chelonia mydas in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saif N. Al-Bahry; Ibrahim Y. Mahmoud; Maheera Al-Zadjali; Abdulkader Elshafie; Asila Al-Harthy; Wafaa Al-Alawi

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria were studied as bio-indicators of marine polluted effluents during egg-laying in green turtles. A non-invasive procedure for sampling oviductal fluid was used to test for exposure of turtles to pollution in Ras Al-Hadd, Oman, which is one of the most important nesting beaches in the world. Each sample was obtained by inserting a 15 cm sterile swab gently

  20. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Jamrah; Ahmed Al-Futaisi; Natarajan Rajmohan; Saif Al-Yaroubi

    2008-01-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability\\u000a index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers\\u000a were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand

  1. A PEARL Study Analysis of National Neonatal, Early Neonatal, Late Neonatal, and Corrected Neonatal Mortality Rates in the State of Qatar during 2011: A Comparison with World Health Statistics 2011 and Qatar's Historic Data over a Period of 36 Years (1975-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sajjad; Al Rifai, Hilal; El Ansari, Walid; Nimeri, Nuha; El Tinay, Sarrah; Salameh, Khalil; Abbas, Tariq; Jarir, Rawia A.; Said, Nawal; Taha, Samer

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively ascertain Qatar's national Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR), Early Neonatal Mortality Rate (ENMR), and Late Neonatal Mortality Rate (LNMR) during 2011, compare it with recent data from high-income countries, and analyze trends in Qatar's NMR's between 1975 and 2011 using historic data. Study Design: A National prospective cohort-study. Materials and Methods: National data on live births and neonatal mortality was collected from all public and private maternity facilities in Qatar (1st January-December 31st 2011) and compared with historical neonatal mortality data (1975-2010) ascertained from the database of maternity and neonatal units of Women's Hospital and annual reports of Hamad Medical Corporation. For inter country comparison, country data of 2009 was extracted from World Health Statistics 2011 (WHO) and the European Perinatal Health report (2008). Results: A total of 20583 live births were recorded during the study period. Qatar's national NMR during 2011 was 4.95, ENMR 2.7, LNMR 2.2, and cNMR 3.33. Between 1975 and 2011, Qatar's population increased by 10-fold, number of deliveries by 7.2 folds while relative risk of NMR decreased by 87% (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.10-0.18, P<0.001), ENMR by 91% (RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.12, P<0.001) and LNMR by 58% (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.74, P=0.002). The comparable ranges of neonatal mortality rates from selected high-income West European countries are: NMR: 2-5.7, ENMR 1.5-3.8, and LNMR 0.5-1.9. Conclusions: The neonatal survival in the State of Qatar has significantly improved between 1975 and 2011. The improvement has been more marked in ENMR than LNMR. Qatar's current neonatal mortality rates are comparable to most high-income West European countries. An in-depth research to assess the correlates and determinants of neonatal mortality in Qatar is indicated. PMID:24027726

  2. Radiative Properties, Dynamics, and Chemical Evolution of the Smoke from the 1991 Kuwait Oil Fires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, John Allan

    The oil fields in Kuwait were the scene of a massive conflagration during much of 1991 that was started by Iraqi forces during the Gulf War. At this time, approximately 4 to 5 million barrels of oil were burning each day. The climatic impacts of the fires were limited by the fact that the smoke was generally confined to the lower 6 km of the atmosphere, where its removal by precipitation processes limited its lifetime. The optical properties of the smoke were such that it was an efficient absorber of solar radiation, with a single-scattering albedo of {~ }0.6. This led to rapid warming of the plume during the daytime. Instantaneous heating rates were calculated to be up to {~}90 K day ^{-1}. Because of the vertical distribution of the heating in the plume, the upper part of the plume became unstable and a turbulent mixed-layer developed. Conversely, the lower part of the plume became stably stratified due to the heating. This led to a general decoupling of the lower boundary layer, preventing the heating experienced by the plume from reaching the ground. The general warming of the plume led to mesoscale vertical transport of the plume as a whole. This mode of vertical transport was limited because of the large horizontal extent of the region of buoyant smoke. The mesoscale vertical transport occurred at roughly the same rate as the upward mixing of smoke due to smaller-scale turbulent motions. This vertical transport, however, did not occur rapidly enough to loft the smoke into the upper troposphere before it was dispersed by wind shear and the mixing caused by solar heating of the smoke. The chemical evolution of the plume was generally somewhat slow, due to the lack of ultraviolet radiation to initiate photochemistry within the smoke plume and to the generally low concentrations of nitrogen oxides, which act as catalysts for photochemical chain reactions. Heterogeneous chemical reactions between gases and black carbon particles produced by the fires were also not important. There was evidence, however, of rapid removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides through heterogeneous chemical reactions (typically {~}7% h ^{-1} and 10% h^ {-1}, respectively) on the surfaces of alkaline soil dust particles.

  3. On the limits and limitations of the ophiolite - mid-ocean ridge analogy: Oman vs the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Christopher J.; Lissenberg, C. Johan

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the near half century since Ian Gass proposed that ophiolite complexes formed by a process directly analogous to seafloor spreading, the study of ophiolites has been central to the development of our conceptual understanding of the mechanisms of formation of oceanic lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges. This role has been affected little by the recognition - on the basis of their geochemistry - that most ophiolites must have formed by spreading above subduction zones rather than at 'proper' open-ocean mid-ocean ridges. Why? - because we will never be able to gain access to the internal structure of modern ocean lithosphere to the extent we can by walking over the largest and best-preserved ophiolites (e.g. Cyprus, Oman, Newfoundland etc.). Ophiolites will always provide vital insights into the mechanisms of formation of lithosphere formed at submarine volcanic spreading centres. To what extent, however, can we be confident that what we learn from ophiolite studies is directly applicable to modern open-ocean mid-ocean ridges? Exactly how far can we press the analogy? To a first order it is reasonable to assume that the physical processes of crustal formation at an open-ocean mid-ocean ridge and at a supra-subduction zone spreading centre should be closely comparable: the presence of an organised sheeted dyke complex, representing 100% extension accompanied by magmatism, is convincing evidence for seafloor spreading. But does this mean the processes of crustal formation are identical in these different geodynamic environments? In this presentation we compare the 'crown jewel' of ophiolites, Oman, with the East Pacific Rise to explore the veracity of the widely-held belief that Oman represents a direct analogue for lithosphere formed at a fast-spreading (open-ocean) mid-ocean ridge. Whereas the mantle source of the axial volcanic suite in Oman is very similar to that of mid-ocean ridge basalt, we have recently shown (MacLeod et al. 2013, Geology v.41, p.459-462) that the magmas were generated in the presence of water, from which we deduce that the ophiolite was very probably formed by a short-lived spreading episode immediately following subduction initiation. We here compare and contrast more than 25 years of our own observations and data from Oman with a unique suite of samples we recently collected from the Hess Deep rift valley (the first ever complete crustal section recovered from a modern fast-spreading ridge), examining the extent to which the presence of water and the unstable geodynamic environment during the generation of the Oman ophiolite have had a material effect on the internal structure and composition of the crust thus produced. We here demonstrate that, although the physical processes of crustal generation at the Oman and East Pacific Rise spreading ridges are similar overall, systematic differences in crustal structure exist. We discuss the significant implications these have for our models of crustal accretion based solely on ophiolite observations.

  4. Consanguinity in Qatar: knowledge, attitude and practice in a population born between 1946 and 1991.

    PubMed

    Sandridge, A L; Takeddin, J; Al-Kaabi, E; Frances, Y

    2010-01-01

    From March 2007 to March 2008 a cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar to estimate the prevalence of consanguinity among Qataris and to assess their knowledge of the risks and their attitudes towards the practice. A secondary objective was to test the acceptability of sixteen Likert-style questions within the Qatari population. Face-to-face interviews using a 70-item structured questionnaire were conducted by three native Arabic-speaking medical students with 362 Qatari employees. Where consanguinity existed between the employee's parents, a diagram of the consanguinal relationship (phylogram) was completed. The response rate was 93%. By phylogram, 22% of participants reported a cousin relationship between their parents (consanguinal relationship) and another 15% reported that their parents were from the same tribe (affinal relationship). With respect to their own marital decision, 68% of the respondents had been married at least once. By phylogram, 35% of these reported a consanguineous relationship (first marriage), 9% reported only an affinal relationship and 56% reported that they were not married to a blood relative. Results on the sixteen Likert-style attitude questions were stratified by consanguinity status of parents and of self. In the stratification by consanguinity status of parents the top five attitudes differed by group but there appeared to be more similarity between the consanguinal and only tribal groups. Attitudinal results were stratified by sex. Results showed that the males had a stronger belief in several of the attitudes than females with the exception of causation of genetic abnormalities and health problems. The phylogram was shown to collect more detailed and explicit data than hard-coding. With respect to knowledge, the results showed that knowledge was imperfect with high proportions of participants not knowing that consanguinity has been implicated in autosomal recessive diseases such as thalassaemia, inborn errors of metabolism, deafness, anomalies of the extremities and specific congenital heart defects. Additionally, a sizeable proportion of the participants did not know that a more distant cousin marriage (e.g. third cousin) theoretically could be a less genetically risky choice to potential offspring than a closer cousin marriage (half-first cousin). These results indicate that more effort needs to be made in developing public health strategies to improve the population's understanding of the cost-benefit analysis involved in contracting consanguineous marriages given the goal of healthy offspring. PMID:19895726

  5. Slab and Sediment Melting during Subduction Initiation: Mantle Plagiogranites from the Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Granitoid dykes up to several hundred metres wide and 2 km long are found in depleted harzburgites in the mantle section of the Oman ophiolite. They vary in composition from tonalite to potassic granite and are generally more potassic than the crustal plagiogranites found within the sheeted dyke complex higher up within the ophiolite stratigraphy. Some granites are strongly peraluminous and contain garnet and andalusite. They are geochemically variable, some with REE that are relatively unfractionated ((La/Yb)n= 3.5-6.0, flat middle to heavy REE, steep light REE) to those which are highly fractionated ((La/Yb)n= 28-220). On primitive-mantle normalised plots some have very high concentrations of fluid-mobile elements - Cs, Rb, Th, U and Pb. Few have significant Ta-Nb anomalies. On the Ca-Fe-Mg-Ti discrimination diagram of Patino Douce (J. Petrol., 1999) whole-rock compositions define a spectrum between felsic-pelite derived melts and amphibolite-derived melts. There is a chemical similarity between the least REE fractionated plagiogranites (generally tonalites and granodiorites) and melts of an amphibolitic parent. This is supported by the occurrence of mafic xenoliths in some dykes, the presence of hornblende and highly calcic cores (up to An85) in some plagioclase grains. Trace element modelling using Oman Geotimes lavas as the starting composition indicates that melting took place in the garnet stability field, although enrichment in the melt in Cs, Rb, Ba and Pb suggests that there was another component present in addition to the mafic parent. Other plagiogranites (trondhjemites and granites) have a strongly peraluminous chemistry and mineralogy and geochemical similarities with the Himalayan leucogranites implying that they were derived from a sedimentary protolith. These mantle plagiogranites are more prevalent in the northern outcrops of the ophiolite. The volume of granitoid melt and the depth of melting preclude their derivation from the sole of the ophiolite, rather they were derived during subduction by the partial melting of the slab and associated sediment and emplaced into the overlying mantle wedge. Current subduction-initiation models for supra-subduction ophiolites should integrate this process into their thinking.

  6. Analysis of Stakeholder's Behaviours for an Improved Management of an Agricultural Coastal Region in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Ayisha Al; Jens, Grundmann; der Weth Rüdiger, van; Niels, Schütze

    2015-04-01

    Al Batinah coastal area is the main agricultural region in Oman. Agriculture is concentrated in Al Batinah, because of more fertile soils and easier access to water in the form of groundwater compared to other administrative areas in the country. The region now is facing a problem as a result of over abstraction of fresh groundwater for irrigation from the main aquifer along the coast. This enforces the inflow of sea water into the coastal aquifer and causes salinization of the groundwater. As a consequence the groundwater becomes no longer suitable for irrigation which impacts the social and economical situation of farmers as well as the environment. Therefore, the existing situation generates conflicts between different stakeholders regarding water availability, sustainable aquifer management, and profitable agricultural production in Al Batinah region. Several management measures to maintain the groundwater aquifer in the region, were implemented by the government. However, these solutions showed only limited successes for the existing problem. The aim of this study now is to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions and their combinations by analysing opinions and responses of all relevant stakeholders in the region. This is done in order to identify potential conflicts among stakeholders to a participatory process within the frame of an integrated water resources management and to support decision makers in taking more informed decisions. Questionnaires were designed for collecting data from different groups of stakeholders e.g. water professionals, farmers from the study area and decision makers of different organizations and ministries. These data were analysed statistically for each group separately as well as regarding relations amongst groups by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software package. Results show, that the need to improve the situation is supported by all groups. However, significant differences exist between groups on how to achieve this improvement, since farmers prefer management interventions operating more on the water resources side while decision makers support measures for a better management on the water demand side. Furthermore, the opinions within single groups are sometimes contradicting for several management interventions. The use of more advanced statistical methods like discriminant analysis or Bayesian network allow for identifying factors and drivers to explain these differences. Both approaches, will help to understand stakeholder's behaviours and to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions. Keywords IWRM, Stakeholder participation, field survey, statistical analysis, Oman

  7. Mantle Wedge formation during Subduction Initiation: evidence from the refertilized base of the Oman ophiolitic mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, Cécile; Guillot, Stéphane; Agard, Philippe; Godard, Marguerite

    2015-04-01

    Although the Oman ophiolite is classically regarded as being the direct analog of oceanic lithosphere created at fast spreading ridges, the geodynamic context of its formation is still highly debated. The other alternative end-member model suggests that this ophiolite entirely formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. The latter one is supported by studies on volcanic sequences, whereas all studies dealing on the mantle section have recognized a first stage of oceanic accretion before subduction initiation. We herein focus on basal peridotites from all along the ophiolite strike in order to decipher and characterize potential fluid/melt transfers due to subduction processes. Samples were taken along hm- to km-long sections across the basal banded unit directly overlying the amphibolitic/granulitic metamorphic sole. We carried out a petrological, structural and geochemical (major, trace elements and boron isotopes) study on these rocks and their constitutive minerals. Results were then interpreted using thermal modelling of the ophiolitic mantle evolution during subduction initiation. Our results show that basal peridotites range from lherzolites to highly depleted harzburgites in composition. The clinopyroxenes (cpx) display melt impregnation textures and co-crystallized with HT/HP amphiboles (amph). The major and trace elements of the constitutive minerals indicate that the different basal lithologies only result from varying degrees of melt extraction. Combined with isotopic data, we demonstrate that the initial melt reacting with these peridotites derives from the mixing of asthenospheric melt and metamorphic sole-derived fluids, and was later extracted in variable proportions. From these observations and thermal modelling of the Fizh ophiolitic mantle evolution after subduction initiation, we interpret the occurrence of these basal lherzolites as representing a freezing front developed by thermal re-equilibration (cooling) of the subduction: the asthenospheric melt mixed with subduction-related fluids was extracted at different degrees until getting ultimately trapped, and crystallized cpx, amph and other associated minerals. The young and still very hot mantle section of today's northern Fizh massif thus contrasted, during subduction initiation, with the colder southernmost massifs of the ophiolite. These different thermal structures reflect different maturity of the oceanic lithosphere at the onset of subduction, which is hardly reconcilable with the ophiolite being formed in an entire supra-subduction zone system. We therefore favor a model in which a preexisting marginal basin acquired its arc-signature during subsequent subduction processes. If our interpretation is correct, the base of the Oman ophiolite could provide the best proxy for the composition of a frozen-in, incipiently forming mantle wedge.

  8. Abattoir based surveillance of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the Sultanate of Oman during 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Al Kitani, Fadya Abdullah; Al Riyami, Shumoos; Al Yahyai, Sabra; Al Awahi, Abdulmajeed Hamood; Al Aawali, Mahir; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad

    2015-07-30

    A passive surveillance was conducted in 8 selected abattoirs belonging to 8 governorates of Oman. Routine slaughtering of 282.020 animals was observed during 2010-2013 by duty veterinarians and suspected samples (n=1440) for cystic echinococcosis (CE) from camels (n=292), cattle (n=303), goats (n=682) and sheep (n=163) were collected. In total, 587 (40.8%) samples were found positive for CE and the highest percentage (64.2%) of positive samples belonged to Dhofar (Salalah) as compared to other governorates, p<0.01. The infection rate of CE was calculated as 5.3, 0.6, 0.07 and 0.03 in camel, cattle, sheep and goats respectively. Fertile cysts were found in 30.7% of positive samples and camels (52%) were found as major source of these followed by cattle (14.1%) and goats (9.7%). Percentage of positive to submitted samples was higher in females (67.9%) than males (29.8%). The fertility of cyst increased with age and the highest percentage of fertile cysts were collected from animals above 5 years of age (54.4%) followed by between 3 and 5 years (36.7%) and below 3 years of age (8.9%). For different breeds, 478 (62.7%) samples from local breeds of livestock were positive for CE as compared to 108 (15.9%) from imported animals (OR 8.92), p<0.01. The highest percent of positive samples was observed in cysts from lungs (54.4%) followed by those from liver (25.7%), liver and lungs (14.1%) and others (3.8%). Molecular investigations indicated that G1 and G6/7 were the two strains of CE circulating in camels and cattle while G1 was the only strain found in samples from small ruminants. Results indicated that CE is endemic in the livestock of Oman and further molecular epidemiological work in different host species is required for the conceptualization of a comprehensive control program. PMID:26116457

  9. Self-medication among undergraduate medical students in Kuwait with reference to the role of the pharmacist

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Maryam; Mustafa, Seham; Ali, Seham

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The practice of self-medication is growing world-wide. It is associated with problems that may lead to potentially life-threatening complications represent a priority to be investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate medical students and to evaluate the possible role of the pharmacist in self-medication in Kuwait. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed, using the questionnaire on a sample of 900 male and female students randomly selected from three health faculties in Kuwait. The prevalence of self-medication, as well as the contribution of pharmacist in self-medication was assessed. In addition, the role of the pharmacist as drug consultant for the students after getting the medication was evaluated. Findings: The overall prevalence of self-medication was 97.8%. The age was significantly inversely proportional to self-medication. There was a significant difference between male and female students in self-medication practice. Headache was the highest health conditions that most frequently motivated self-medication with 90.1% prevalence, followed by 84.7% for dysmenorrhea and 60.3% for constipation. Contribution of the pharmacist as a part of self-medication care was low totally, with the highest rate for cough conditions 40.1%. However, the role of the pharmacist as a drug consultant was more noticeable after obtaining the drug, not before. Around 80.1% of the students request information from the pharmacist about doses, duration of treatments and side-effects. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate students in Kuwait is high and there were significant differences for age and gender. The contribution of the pharmacist was low in self-medication, while it was high after getting the drugs for obtaining drug related information. The practice of self-medication is alarming. Improved awareness about the role of pharmacist as a drug consultant for careful and cautious use of medicines available for self-medication would be strongly recommended. PMID:24991632

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary health care physicians towards evidence-based medicine in Doha, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Kubaisi, N J; Al-Dahnaim, L A; Salama, R E

    2010-11-01

    Physicians worldwide are being encouraged to apply evidence-based medicine (EBM) to improve their clinical care. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was carried to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding EBM among 182 primary care physicians in Doha, Qatar. The current promotion of EBM was welcomed by most physicians (98.4%). While 92.2% had access to the Internet, this was mostly at home. The major perceived barriers to practising EBM in primary care were lack of free personal time (75.3%), limited resources and facilities (62.6%), no library in the locality (61.0%) and lack of training workshops and courses (61.0%). There was a statistically significant association between years since graduation and welcoming the EBM concept as well as with frequency of reading journals. PMID:21218744

  11. Definition of reservoir configuration in ancient glacial environment: case history from Rima field, south Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Penneycard, A.J.

    1986-05-01

    The Al Khlata Formation (Permian-Carboniferous) is an important reservoir unit of the Eastern Flank province of South Oman. The formation consists of an unusual series of glacial sand, silt, shale, and diamictite exhibiting such gross heterogeneity that conventional correlation techniques are ineffective. A threefold palynologic subdivision has been developed, which has allowed the recognition of a number of genetically distinct units. Major periods of erosion separate the units, erosive processes dominating the 20-40 million year period during which the Al Khlata accumulated. Deposition occurred in a sequence of deep valleys cut into the early Al Khlata and underlying Haima (Cambrian-Ordovician) reservoirs. The extent of these deposits is controlled by the morphology of these incisive valleys. A case history of the large Rima field illustrates the use of palynology in unraveling the temporal and spatial relationships of the individual Al Khlata and Haima units. The resultant reservoir-geologic model of this internally complex fields has enabled more confident assessment of variations in well performance with reservoir type, and has guided plans for future offtake levels and overall development planning.

  12. Hydrochemical processes regulating groundwater quality in the coastal plain of Al Musanaah, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    The Al Batinah coastal aquifer is the principal source of water in northwestern Oman. The rainfall in the Jabal Al Akhdar mountain region recharges the plain with freshwater that allowed agricultural and industrial activities to develop. The over-exploitation of this aquifer since the 1970s for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes, excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture and leakage from septic tanks led to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical processes regulating the groundwater quality in the southwestern section of Al Batinah. From available data collected during the spring of 2010 from 58 wells located in Al Musanaah wilayat, it was determined that the groundwater salinity increased in the direction from the south to the north following the regional flow direction. In addition to salinisation, the groundwater in the upstream and intermediate regions was contaminated with nitrate, while groundwater in the downstream region was affected by fluoride. Calculations of ionic ratios and seawater fraction indicated that seawater intrusion was not dominant in the study area. The primary factors controlling the groundwater chemistry in Al Musanaah appear to be halite dissolution, reverse ion exchange with clay material and anthropogenic pollutants.

  13. Hydrothermal discharge zones beneath massive sulfide deposits mapped in the Oman ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    Haymon, R.M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA)); Koski, R.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Abrams, (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1989-06-01

    The area in the Oman ophiolite containing the volcanic-hosted Bayda and Aarja massive sulfide deposits exposes a cross section of ocean crust and reveals to an unprecedented extent the fossil zones of hydrothermal upwelling that fed these sea-floor deposits. The fossil discharge zones are elongate areas of alteration and mineralization characterized by numerous small (meters to tens of meters in length), linear, discontinuous gossans. The gossans result from oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite replacing primary igneous phases and filling voids and fractures in the altered host rocks. The two deposits have separate discharge zones that appear to be sub-sea-floor extensions of their stockworks. The Bayda zone extends through the volcanic section into the upper sheeted dike complex and is interpreted as having formed on the ridge crest above an axial magma chamber; the Aarja zone terminates against a plagiogranite pluton that intrudes the lower volcanic section and is thought to have formed after Bayda in an off-axis environment. Structural, stratigraphic, and compositional characteristics of the Bayda and Aarja massive sulfide bodies are consistent with this interpretation. The geometry of the discharge zones suggests that in both cases upflow occurred in broad zones (at least 400-600 m wide) that were elongated along strike (i.e., parallel to the spreading axis).

  14. Structural evolution of a salt-cored, domed, reactivated fault complex, Jebel Madar, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claringbould, Johan S.; Hyden, Brittney B.; Sarg, J. Frederick; Trudgill, Bruce D.

    2013-06-01

    Fault and fracture patterns associated with domal structures are observed around the world both at outcrop and in the subsurface. However, the structural evolution of domes and the influence of previous fault and fracture sets are not yet fully understood. This study provides the first structural evolution analysis of Jebel Madar, a domal outcrop in the Adam Foothills of Northern Oman, and evaluates the role of multiple local tectonic events and the associated salt diapirism on fracture and fault distribution pattern development of a salt-cored domal outcrop. Analyses at Jebel Madar suggest that three local tectonic events with different stress regimes that are tentatively linked to three regional tectonic events resulted in a salt-cored, domed, reactivated fault complex: 1) initial dome-formation and NE-SW oriented mode 1 opening fractures and subsequent grabens; 2) E-W oriented dextral strike-slip faulting; and 3) reactivation and inversion of faults, and final dome formation. Salt emplacement is associated with the first and last tectonic events. This integrated study highlights the complicated evolution of fault and fracture distribution patterns at a salt-cored dome. Caution is therefore required in interpretation of similar structural patterns on top of and around salt-cored domes.

  15. Ozone monitoring using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and UV photometry instruments in Sohar, Oman.

    PubMed

    Nawahda, Amin

    2015-08-01

    Ground level ozone (O3) concentrations were measured across Sohar highway in Oman during a four-month period from September to December 2014 by using an open-path deferential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument. The monthly average concentrations of O3 varied from 19.6 to 29.4 ppb. The measurements of O3 are compared with the measurements of a non-open-path UV photometry analyzer (UVP). The percent difference (PD) concept and linear regression methods were used to compare the readings of the two instruments. The findings show high correlation coefficients between the measurements of the DOAS and UVP instruments. The DOAS measurements of O3 are found to be less than those measured by the UVP instrument; the correlation coefficients between absolute PD values and meteorological parameters and PM2.5 were very low indicating a minor effect; therefore, titrations of O3 by traffic emissions and difference in elevation could be the reason for the difference in the measurements of the two instruments. PMID:26138853

  16. Mapping in the Oman ophiolite using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.

    1988-09-01

    The large areal extent and complex nature of the terrain has meant that previous, largely field-based, mapping programmes in the Oman ophiolite have produced maps of internally inconsistent quality. Recognition of subtle changes and minor outcrops across the area of a 1° × 1° map sheet is possible in the field only by unrealistically exhaustive mapping. By using parts of the short-wavelength infrared spectrum, Landsat Thematic Mapper data have the capacity to capitalize on distinctions in the spectral reflectances of different rock types and their weathering products, and to allow consistent mapping across the whole ophiolite. Decorrelation stretching of these data produces images in which it is possible to recognize variations in gabbro composition, to identify small acidic, gabbroic and ultramafic intrusions, to discriminate the uppermost mantle from the deeper mantle, to locate the Moho precisely, and to delineate gossans and areas subject to chloritic-epidotic alteration. Off-axis plutonism is more widespread and dispersed than previously appreciated. The significance of certain faults is reassessed in the light of new insights provided by the imagery. Such data could be a valuable mapping tool in similarly exposed terrains in arid and semi-arid regions, even where already mapped at the 1:100,000 scale.

  17. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  18. Design of a pilot polymer flood in the Marmul Field, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Teeuw, D.; Martin, J.H.; Rond, D.

    1983-03-01

    The Marmul heavy-oil field is located in South Oman in the province of Dhofar. The main sandstone reservoir consists of glacial deposits of PermoCarboniferous age and contains about 2.5 billion barrels STOIIP of 21/sup 0/ API crude. The field is in the stage of primary development with a current production of 45000 BPD. Oil production by depletion is expected to be low, while a water drive will be adversely affected by the high oil viscosity and high permeability. Thus the Marmul field offers ample scope for EOR techniques. This paper deals with the design of the relevant polymer flood and pilot tests. A suitable mobility ratio is determined from calculated drive efficiencies and related polymer requirements, allowing for polymer retention and for viscosity grading of the polymer flood. Results of laboratory experiments indicate that polyacrylamide emulsion polymers provide attractive properties for application in Marmul. Retention in the highly permeable sands is low and so is the plugging tendency. However, viscoelastic effects cause very high pressure gradients at high flow rates, which may adversely affect polymer injectivity. This can be resolved by subjecting the solution to controlled shear treatment prior to injection.

  19. Statistical inference of seabed sound-speed structure in the Gulf of Oman Basin.

    PubMed

    Sagers, Jason D; Knobles, David P

    2014-06-01

    Addressed is the statistical inference of the sound-speed depth profile of a thick soft seabed from broadband sound propagation data recorded in the Gulf of Oman Basin in 1977. The acoustic data are in the form of time series signals recorded on a sparse vertical line array and generated by explosive sources deployed along a 280?km track. The acoustic data offer a unique opportunity to study a deep-water bottom-limited thickly sedimented environment because of the large number of time series measurements, very low seabed attenuation, and auxiliary measurements. A maximum entropy method is employed to obtain a conditional posterior probability distribution (PPD) for the sound-speed ratio and the near-surface sound-speed gradient. The multiple data samples allow for a determination of the average error constraint value required to uniquely specify the PPD for each data sample. Two complicating features of the statistical inference study are addressed: (1) the need to develop an error function that can both utilize the measured multipath arrival structure and mitigate the effects of data errors and (2) the effect of small bathymetric slopes on the structure of the bottom interacting arrivals. PMID:24907796

  20. Late quaternary history of hydrography, oxygen depletion and organic carbon accumulation on the Oman Margin

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, R.F.; Zahn, R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Shimmield, G.B. (Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom))

    1990-01-09

    Measurements of the sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents and minor element concentrations are used along with stable isotope records obtained form planktonic and benthic foraminifera to interpret hydrographic history at mid-depth (600 m) on the central Oman Margin (ODP Site 724) over the past half million years. Both C. wuellerstorfi data and Iodine/C[sub org] ratio information indicate that the oxygen minimum on the margin has been continuously present over the period examined. Glacial-interglacial [delta][sup 18]O amplitudes recorded by benthic foraminifera are reduced when compared to the estimated mean ocean changes of [delta][sup 18]O[sub seawater]. This implies that Red Sea outflow waters (which are enriched in [sup 18]O and [sup 13]C) were replaced during glacial periods by intermediate waters still enriched in [sup 13]C but relatively depleted in [sup 18]O. Glacial-interglacial amplitudes of the planktonic [delta][sup 18]O record exceed those of the mean ocean [delta][sup 18]O[sub seawater] variation and imply decreased surface water temperatures at this site during glacial times. If this interpretation is correct, then the data suggest that increased upwelling occurred during glacials. This conclusion conflicts with previous findings that upwelling maxima in the western Arabian Sea correspond to maxima in the strength of the SW monsoon, which occur primarily during interglacials.