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Sample records for kuwait oman qatar

  1. Kuwait Oil Fires, Persian Gulf, Qatar Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view up the Persian Gulf from the Qatar Peninsula into southern Iraq (25.5N, 51.0E) shows an excursion of the smoke plumes from the Kuwait oil fires set during the short Persian Gulf War. Smoke from the fires north of Kuwait City, extends across the Persian Gulf while a larger smoke plume from the southern fires heads into southern Saudi Arabia before beginning to spread out and become more diffuse.

  2. Kuwait.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    The Republic of Kuwait occupies an area of 6,880 square miles at the head of the Persian Gulf, bounded on the north and west by Iraq and on the south by Saudi Arabia. 1.7 million people live in Kuwait, of whom 680,000 are Kuwaitis; the rest are expatriate Arabs, Iranians, and Indians. The annual growth rate of Kuwaitis is 3.8%. The Kuwaitis are 70% Sunni and 30% Shi'a Muslims. Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Kuwait is a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy. Education is free and compulsory, and literacy is 71%. Infant mortality among Kuwaitis is 26.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Medical care is free. Kuwait was first settled by Arab tribes from Qatar. In 1899 the ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, whose descendents still rule Kuwait, signed a treaty with Britain; and Kuwait remained a British protectorate until it became independent in 1961. A constitution was promulgated in 1962, and a National Assembly was elected by adult male suffrage in 1963. However, the Assembly has since been suspended due to internal friction. Kuwait and Iraq have been disputing Kuwait's northern border since 1913, and the southern border includes a Divided Zone, where sovereignty is disputed by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Despite the fall in oil prices in 1982 and the loss of trade due to the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait is one of the world's wealthiest countries with a per capita gross domestic product of $10,175. Oil accounts for 85% of Kuwait's exports, which total $7.42 billion; income from foreign investments (about $60 billion) makes up most of the balance. All petroleum-related activities are managed by the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which includes the nationalized Kuwait Oil Company, petrochemical industries, the 22-vessel tanker fleet, and refineries and service stations in Europe, where Kuwaiti oil is marketed under the brand name Q8. Kuwait has more than 66 billion barrels of recoverable oil but limits production to 999,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel. PMID:12177972

  3. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  4. Patterns of state building in the Arabian Gulf: Kuwait and Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Crystal, J.

    1986-01-01

    In the past few decades Kuwait and Qatar have experienced a radial but apparently smoothly transition from protectorate poverty to petroleum prosperity. Rapid economic and social changes have been accompanied by remarkable political continuity at the apex of their systems. This thesis examines this apparent continuity in ruling regimes. Oil revenues, it argues, preserved continuity only at the very apex of the political system. This continuity was accompanied by the breakdown of the historical ruling coalition binding the amirs and the trading families and its replacement by a new, but ultimately precarious, set of coalitions: first, between the amir and the national population, through social services and direct transfers; second, between the amir and the ruling family, whose political role expanded. These changes were the result of oil: by freeing rulers from the need to extract resources from the population, oil freed them from their historical economic hence political dependence on the merchants, the group which had historically pressed its claims most effectively on the state. Instead a tacit deal developed between the amirs and the trading families: a trade of wealth for formal power. Finally, the thesis argues that these new arrangements are only transitional adaptations. Distributive policies designed to ensure domestic peace have inadvertantly created relatively large and complex state administrations, or distributive states.

  5. Qatar.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    Qatar is an oil-exporting Arab country that juts out from the north coast of Saudi Arabia into the Persian Gulf. Fewer than half of the 320,000 population are Arabs, however, most are Pakistani, Indian, Iranian and Egyptian foreign workers. Education is compulsory to age 16, and 60% are literate. Oil and refined petroleum products account for the $2 billion trade surplus, amounting to a $27,000 annual per capita income. The government is centralized and run by consensus under the Amir, head of the Al Thani, or ruling family. Political parties are banned. Qatar is evolving from a traditional to a modern welfare state. PMID:12177955

  6. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  7. Oman.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Oman is on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations between Oman and the US. The population is estimated at 1.3 million; the annual growth rate is 3%. The infant mortality rate is estimated to be 50/1000 with a life expectancy of 48 years. Oman is located in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Its land borders with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates remain undefined, and the border with the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen is in dispute. About 1/3 of the population live in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital; more than 1/2 live in small towns, primarily in the interior. Ethnic groups include Arab, Baluchi, Zanzibari, and Indian. At least 200,000 expatriates live in Oman, most of whom (180,000) are guest workers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, as well as from Egypt, Jordan, and the Philippines. Except for a brief period of Persian rule, the Omanis have remained independent since 1650. The sultanate has no constitution, legislature, or legal political parties. The judicial system is based mainly on the Koranic laws and the oral teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. In November 1981, the sultan formed the Consultative Council for the State in an effort to increase public participation in the government. When Oman declined as an entrepot for arms and slaves in the mid-19th century, much of its former prosperity was lost, and the economy relied almost exclusively on agriculture, camel and goat herding, fishing, and traditional handicrafts. Oil was first discovered in the interior in 1964. With the fall in oil prices in the early 1980s, revenue declined slightly before resuming an upward trend based on additions to production from the new fields. By late 1985, production rose to just over 500,000 barrels/day. The government is undertaking many development projects to modernize the economy and further improve the standard of living. Increases in agriculture and fishing are believed possible with the application of modern technology. PMID:12178123

  8. Labor, nationalism, and imperialism in eastern Arabia: Britain, the Shaikhs, and the Gulf oil workers in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar, 1932-1956

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, H.M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the lack of a noticeable indigenous labor movement in the contemporary Gulf Arab countries of Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar; it focuses on the emergence, after the discovery of oil, of an industrial Gulf labor force, and on the evolution of the British policy towards oil and Gulf oil workers. The period examined begins with the discovery of oil in Bahrain in 1932 (the first such discovery on the Arab side of the Gulf), and ends with the Suez Crisis of 1956. The latter is a watershed event in Gulf history. It is argued that the Suez Crisis was in large part responsible for the long-term defeat of the indigenous labor movement in the Gulf. Attention is given to the parts played by the British Government of India, the Foreign Office, the local Shaikhs, the Gulf nationalists, and by the workers themselves. Policies towards workers passed through two different periods. In the first, 1932-1945, the Government of India had no direct interest in the Gulf labor situation; in the second, 1946-1956, the Foreign Office took increased interest in the welfare of local oil workers, primarily because of the importance of oil to reconstruction of the British economy after the war. However, the Suez Crisis in 1956 convinced the British to withdraw their support for the workers.

  9. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the burning oil fields to the north of Kuwait City, seen on the south shore of Kuwayt Bay, almost totally obscures the view of the tiny, but oil rich, nation of Kuwait (30.0N, 48.0E). During the brief war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing wind borne smoke and ash for hundreds of miles.

  10. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the burning oil fields to the north and south of Kuwait City, seen on the south shore of Kuwayt Bay almost totally obscures the view of the tiny, but oil rich, nation of Kuwait (29.0N, 48.0E). During the brief war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing wind borne smoke and ash for hundreds of miles.

  11. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and banning certain fisheries. However, fisheries management was hampered by lack of appropriate management regulations, enforcement and data on most stocks. Pollution and degradation of nursery areas were also affecting the productivity of fisheries resources. To achieve sustainable demersal fisheries, maintaining a healthy marine environment, reducing fishing effort, and strictly enforcing closed seasons and closed areas are needed. These measures are being implemented with varying degrees of success by all the countries.

  12. Tackling cancer burden in the Middle East: Qatar as an example.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert; Kerr, Karen; Haoudi, Abdelali; Darzi, Ara

    2012-11-01

    Cancer prevalence is increasing in the Middle East, partly because of increased life expectancy and adoption of western lifestyle habits. Suboptimum delivery of health care also contributes to late diagnosis and poor survival of people with cancer. Public awareness of cancer risk is frequently low and misconceptions high, thereby preventing patients from seeking treatment early and constituting a substantial barrier to improvement of cancer outcomes. Screening programmes might have low uptake in Arab populations because of social and health beliefs about cancer. This review outlines the opportunities available to Middle Eastern countries and their emerging economies to learn from global experiences in cancer care, service provision, and research partnerships. The Middle East has begun to develop several health-care transformation programmes. Qatar, in particular, has published a National Health Strategy, in which cancer is one of the main commitments; this Strategy provides the focus of this review. The development of effective health-care strategies and evidence-based medicine directly linked to innovative cancer research is needed to improve cancer care. Although the full extent of the proposed solutions are not necessarily implementable in all Middle Eastern countries, wealthy states can lead derivation of population-specific approaches that could have effects throughout the region. Key challenges are outlined-namely, human capacity and training, subspecialisation of services, building on international cancer research initiatives, and the need for earlier diagnosis and awareness in the population. Countries in the Gulf Region (ie, countries bordering the Persian Gulf, including Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, and Oman) need to address these challenges to be at the forefront of integrated cancer care and research and ensure that the latest innovations and best possible care are delivered to their populations. PMID:23084766

  13. Education in Qatar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saif, Philip S.; Kamal, Abdulaziz

    Education in the State of Qatar was traditionally limited to the "orthography of the Arabic language." In 1952 Qatar had one elementary school for boys with 240 pupils and 6 teachers. By 1955, an elementary school for girls (n=50) was established. In 1980-81, schooling increased to 71 schools for boys with 20,588 students and 70 schools for girls

  14. Qatar: Energy and development

    SciTech Connect

    El Mallakh, R.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the traumas that have been experienced in the Arabian Gulf over the past five years, Qatar has been remarkably successful in smoothing the transition of its economy from recession and oil glut to recovery and stabilization. This book examines the characteristics of Qatar's economic and social development that have assisted this process. These characteristics include; moderation in the development policy and the avoidance of excessive haste; a cohesive sense of political identity; and a relatively well educated labor force derived from an educational program that was in place prior to the oil boom. Qatar has also maintained a moderate policy within OPEC. During the price hikes of 1979-80, caused by cutbacks in Iranian exports, Qatar maintained its policy of restraint; this was an important factor in permitting Qatar to confront the substantial drop in oil-generated revenues faced by all the oil exporters in 1982-84.

  15. Turbodrilling performance offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, L.A.; Abdulrahman, E.A.

    1983-03-01

    Until the first quarter of 1979 Qatar General Petroleum Corporation Offshore routinely rotary drilled its vertical development wells using tricone bits. Turbodrilling the 17 1/2'' and 8 1/2'' hole sections was introduced in the second quarter of 1979 followed by the 12 1/4'' hole section in the first qarter of 1980. This resulted in avoiding/minimising downhole problems and the elimination of 7'' and 4 1/2'' liners. As a result of introducing these practices a 50 percent time saving and a 30 percent cost saving has been achieved, equivalent to $550,000/well.

  16. QATAR offshore oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Qatar Petroleum Producing Authority is presently operating three offshore fields - Idd al-Shargi, Maydan Mahzam and Bul Hanine. The Idd al-Shargi field consists of 14 naturally flowing wells and three suspended wells. Individual flow rates of the producing wells range from 250 to 3000 barrels per day (b/d). The Maydan Mahzam field produces from 11 naturally flowing wells. Reservoir energy in the field is maintained by water injection. Each of the wells produce oil at rates ranging from 2500 to 20,000 b/d. The Bul Hanine field comprises 10 producing wells supported by 9 dumpflooders. Production rates of the individual wells reach 29,000 b/d, making them among the world's highest. In 1978 the completion of a major acceleration project for the Bul Hanine Arab IV reservoir added more than 40,000 b/d to the production potential of the field. Total Qatari oil exports in 1978 were 91,708,000 barrels, equivalent to an average export rate of 25,000 b/d. Total production in Qatar in 1979 was 100,641,394 barrels (offshore) and 84,130,917 (onshore), an increase of 11% and a decrease of 3%, respectively, over 1978. Halal Island provides offshore storage for oil and gas berthing and loading operations. A natural gas liquids offshore complex, including a fractionation plant, is nearing completion at Umm Said. (SAC)

  17. The Qatar Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubai, K. A.; Parley, N. R.; Bramich, D. M.; Horne, K.; Collier Cameron, A.; West, R. G.; Sorensen, P. M.; Pollacco, D.; Smith, J. C.; Fors, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Qatar Exoplanet Survey (QES) is discovering hot Jupiters and aims to discover hot Saturns and hot Neptunes that transit in front of relatively bright host stars. QES currently operates a robotic wide-angle camera system to identify promising transiting exoplanet candidates among which are the confirmed exoplanets Qatar 1b and 2b. This paper describes the first generation QES instrument, observing strategy, data reduction techniques, and follow-up procedures. The QES cameras in New Mexico complement the SuperWASP cameras in the Canary Islands and South Africa, and we have developed tools to enable the QES images and light curves to be archived and analysed using the same methods developed for the SuperWASP datasets. With its larger aperture, finer pixel scale, and comparable field of view, and with plans to deploy similar systems at two further sites, the QES, in collaboration with SuperWASP, should help to speed the discovery of smaller radius planets transiting bright stars in northern skies.

  18. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable savings. Working and living conditions are difficult: the hours are long, the weather is hot, housing conditions are primitive and provide no relief from the heat, the food supply is the minimum required, and almost no diversions are available. There are no unions even among Omani workers, and troublemakers are quickly repatriated. The Indian embassy occasionally intercedes for workers, brief work stoppages may occur if pay is delayed, and some conflicts are settled individually. Resistence among Indian workers may take less visible forms, especially absenteeism and requests for leave. PMID:12280376

  19. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-12-31

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of {approximately}11,600 km{sup 2} and a population of {approximately}600,000.

  20. [Acupuncture in Oman].

    PubMed

    Wu, Bang-Qi

    2014-04-01

    The status quo and application of acupuncture therapy in Oman is introduced in this article. The gene -ral medical condition of Oman is comparatively backward. Function of local traditional medicine is limited. Indications of acupuncture in Oman are various pain syndromes and motor impairment after stroke. However, it is lack of systematic training and management of acupuncture practitioners. And the number of acupuncture clinic is comparatively inadequate. Therefore, qualified acupuncture training, publicity and cooperation with international organizations are highly recommended in the future. PMID:24946647

  1. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  2. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. The mineral industries of the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf countries. International review

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, B.; Antonides, L.E.; Morgan, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The document contains commodity reviews (metals, mineral fuels, industrial minerals where applicable) for the following countries: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, People's Democratic Republic of Yeman, and Yeman Arab Republic.

  3. Methanex considers methanol, MTBE in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-13

    CW has learned that Methanex Corp. is considering entering one of two methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects in Qatar. Executive v.p. Michael Wilson says that part of the company`s New Zealand plant could be moved to a site in Qatar, which would lower capital costs for the possible project by $75 million-$100 million. Both Qatar General Petroleum Corp. and Qatar Fuel Additives are developing methanol and MTBE projects at Umm Said, Qatar. Methanex says its goal is to ensure low-cost feedstocks.

  4. Diabetic dyslipidaemia in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Akanji, Abayomi O

    2002-01-01

    About 15% of the adult Kuwaiti population has type 2 diabetes and over 50% are hyperlipidaemic by current diagnostic criteria. Not surprisingly, coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Kuwait. Reports from coronary care units in Kuwait suggest that 40-80% of the CHD patients were diabetic and 50-80% hyperlipidaemic. The pattern worldwide is similar. International guidelines have therefore consistently recognised diabetes as a major risk factor for CHD. In our Lipid Clinic population in Kuwait, about 30% are diabetic. The commonest lipid abnormalities seen in Kuwaiti diabetic patients, as elsewhere, are hypertriglyceridaemia with low HDL levels and variable LDL levels. About 75% of the subjects had either mixed hyperlipidaemia or predominant hypertriglyceridaemia. There are possibly some compositional changes in LDL in the diabetic subjects in that there were important differences in the statistical relationships between LDL and HDL and their respective apolipoproteins - apo B and apo A-1 in diabetic as compared to non-diabetic subjects. Other important observations made in diabetic subjects in Kuwait are: (i) similar serum Lp (a) levels and pattern of apo(a) polymorphism with non-diabetic subjects, with no demonstrable relationship between serum levels of Lp(a) and insulin/insulin sensitivity, although with CHD, Lp(a) levels were increased; (ii) diabetic hyperlipidaemic subjects had elevated PAI-1 levels with significant correlations between blood PAI-1 and insulin levels suggesting underlying insulin resistance (syndrome X). Various landmark trials of cholesterol-lowering therapies in the prevention of CHD have consistently demonstrated near-normalization of the increased CHD risk in diabetes. Our experience in Kuwait suggests that diabetic patients and others with mixed hyperlipidaemia benefit from tight glycaemic control, appropriate advice on diet and exercise with regular reinforcement by continuing contact with professional dietitians and regular availability of drugs where prescribed. Often, it is the regular compliance with medication that is important, rather than the specific medication used particularly where HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statin drugs) are not always available. A useful guideline for management of dyslipidaemia in diabetes is suggested. PMID:12444310

  5. Revitalizing Qatar's National University. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Although Qatar University (QU) had been well regarded in the past, its performance had deteriorated by 2003, and the country's leadership was concerned that the university was not meeting Qatar's needs. From 2003 to 2007, the university led a reform process facilitated by RAND and outside experts, which clarified QU's mission and reformed QU's…

  6. Kuwait oil spill studied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-02-01

    More than a year after the Persian Gulf War, scientists are still trying to assess the environmental impact of the estimated 6-8 million barrels of oil that were dumped into the gulf and to understand the environmental processes that take place in such a disturbance. Many atmospheric studies were done in the months immediately following the war, but oceanographic studies have been slower in getting started.The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is currently spearheading a major oceanographic study being undertaken in the Persian Gulf by the research vessel Mt. Mitchell. The ship left its home port of Norfolk, Va., in mid-January and arrived in Muscat, Oman, on February 16 to begin a 100-day oceanographic and environmental survey. The six-leg cruise will feature physical oceanography, near-shore, and marine life studies.

  7. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential investigators who can help raise matching funds, e.g. for core description as part of petrological or structural studies or for drill site operations, are encouraged to contact the authors of this abstract.

  8. Qatar NGL-2 pipeline problems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Jundi, I.M.

    1985-03-01

    Qatar NGL/2 plant, commissioned in December, 1979, was designed to process the associated gas from the offshore crude oil fields of Qatar. The dehydrated sour lean gas and wet sour liquids are transported via two separate lines to Umm Said NGL Complex about 120 kms. from the central offshore station. The liquids line 300 mm diameter (12 inch) has suffered general and severe pitting corrosion. The lean gas line 600 mm diameter (24 inch) has suffered corrosion and extensively hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), also known as HIPC. Both lines never performed to their design parameters and many problems in the downstream facilities have been experienced. All efforts to clean the liquids lines from the solids (debris) have failed. This inturn interfered with the planned corrosion control programe, thus allowing corrosion to continue. Investigation work has been done by various specialists in an attempt to find the origin of the solids and to recommend necessary remedial actions. Should lines fall from pitting corrosion, the effect of liquids leak at a pressure of about 11000 kpa will be very dangerous especially if it occurs onshore. In order to protect the NGL-2 operations against possible risks, both interms of safety as well as losses in revenue, critically sections of the pipelines have been replaced, whilst the whole gas liquids pipelines would be replaced shortly. Supplementary documents to the API standards were prepared by QPC for the replaced pipelines.

  9. Qatar NGL-2 pipeline problems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Jundi, I.M.

    1986-11-01

    The Qatar NGL-2 plant, commissioned in December 1979, was designed to process the associated gas from the offshore crude oil fields of Qatar. The dehydrated, sour, lean gas and wet, sour liquids are transported by two separate lines to the Umm Said NGL complex about 120 km (75 miles) from the central offshore station. The 300-mm (12-in.) -diameter liquids line has suffered general pitting corrosion, and the 600-mm (24-in.) -diameter lean gas line has suffered corrosion and extensive hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC or HIPC). Neither line performed to its design parameters, and many problems in the downstream facilities have been experienced. All efforts to clean the solids (debris) from the liquids lines have failed. This in turn interfered with the planned corrosion control program, thus allowing corrosion to continue. Various specialists have investigated the lines in an attempt to find the origin of the solids and to recommend necessary remedial actions. Should the lines fail from pitting corrosion, the effect of a leak at a pressure of about 11 000 kPa (1,595 psi) will be very dangerous, especially if it occurs onshore. To protect the NGL-2 operations against possible risks - both in terms of safety and of losses in revenue - critical sections of the pipelines have been replaced, and all gas liquids pipelines will be replaced soon. Supplementary documents to the API standards were prepared for the replaced pipelines.

  10. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  11. Qatar: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on oil and gas operations that have taken a marked upturn in Qatar highlighted by production expansion projects. The long-delayed beginning of production from offshore supergiant North gas field was scheduled to begin at press time at a rate of 600 to 750 MMcfd and 50,000 bcpd. Delays in production startup were caused by gas leaks around casing strings in 14 of the 16 producing wells and by the Gulf war. The $1.3 billion Phase I of development included two 8-well platforms and three support structures, plus gas and condensate lines to an onshore NGL facility. Initially, gas will be utilized domestically. Eventually, 300 MMcfd will be re-injected into the old Dukhan oil field.

  12. Kuwait steps into performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Shah, M A; Amatayakul, M; Westberg, J; Choudhury, M H

    1999-01-01

    Faculty of Kuwait University have been active promotors of quality assurance in their host country, yet despite many attempts the concept has failed. Managing the change process seems to be the primary issue and may hold the key to success. PMID:10351218

  13. Middle East oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The following subjects are covered in this publication: (1) position of preeminence of the Middle East; (2) history of area's oil operations for Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, neutral zone, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Egypt; (3) gas operations of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq and United Arab Emirates; (4) changing relationships with producing countries; (5) a new oil pricing environment; (6) refining and other industrial activities; and (7) change and progress. 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Developing and Implementing the Qatar Student Assessment System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Broer, Markus; Mariano, Louis T.; Froemel, J. Enrique; Goldman, Charles A.; DaVanzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This research brief summarizes the development of a standards-based student assessment system in Qatar, lessons for policymakers in Qatar and elsewhere, and challenges in aligning the assessment with future changes in the curriculum standards. Analysis of Qatar's standards-based student assessment system, the first in the region, offers several…

  15. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine biota and coastal sediments from the Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    de Mora, Stephen; Fowler, Scott W; Tolosa, Imma; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal

    2005-08-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds was investigated in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman based on marine biota (fish and various bivalves) and coastal sediment collected in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 2000-2001. Several potential organic contaminants from agricultural (e.g., DDT and its breakdown products, lindane, endrin, dieldrin, endosulfan) and industrial (PCBs) sources were measured. Sediment burdens for all compounds, even for an apparent hot spot near a refinery in Bahrain, were amongst the lowest reported for surface sediments from other seas. Concentrations of DDTs were low in the muscle and liver of all fish (orange spotted grouper and the spangled emperor) analysed. Similarly, the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons were low in the various bivalve species, notably rock oysters and pearl oysters. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the marine environment. Moreover, they can be used as the most recent end point for elucidating temporal trends. Whereas the levels, albeit relatively low, SigmaDDTs in the rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman have remained uniform, there has been an irregular but generally decreasing trend in concentrations of summation SigmaPCBs during the last two decades. PMID:16115501

  16. Liberal Arts Education in Qatar: Intercultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostron, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to sketch a historical, cultural and social background of recent educational developments in Qatar, briefly review the traditions of western liberal arts education with its goals and teaching and learning methodologies, explain its benefits and their relevance to Muslim Qatari students of universities in Education City in…

  17. Teaching across Cultures: Canada and Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prowse, Jacqueline; Goddard, J. Tim

    2010-01-01

    Findings from a comparative case study conducted in Canada and Qatar are presented in this article. The study examined the cultural context of a transnational post-secondary program offered by the Faculty of Business at a Canadian college, with campuses located in both St. John's and Doha. The instructors' perceptions of their students' cultures…

  18. Oman: Economic, social and strategic developments

    SciTech Connect

    Pridham, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Oman is an important country for the West, both as an oil exporter and as a key ally strategically placed at the entrance to the Arab Gulf. This book provides an overview of recent economic, social and political developments in Oman. It begins by outlining the historical and geographical background, emphasising in particular the problems of geography and tribalism and the impact of the war against Marxist insurgents in Dhofar. It considers economic developments, both in the oil and non-oil sectors, and Oman's contribution to economic co-operation and integration in the region. It examines strategic developments, particularly Oman's relations with the United States, addressing the key question of how close an alliance between Oman and the US is likely and showing how this is influenced by internal politics in Oman. It also explores educational and cultural issues.

  19. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ≥15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  20. Qatar's North field targets 1990 completion

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Marri, J.A.; Al-Bader, N.S.

    1989-05-29

    Installation of new gas-processing facilities at Umm Said and modification of an existing NGL unit form the processing core for development of Qatar's North field. The field, discovered in 1971, is probably the largest single nonassociated gas reservoir known. Phase 1 of the three-phase development processes 800 MMscfd of gas, producing 1.65 million tons/year LPG and condensates for the export market. This Phase 1 development is intended to supply Qatar's domestic gas requirements through the year 2000. The present North field development project (NFDP) is the first phase of a long-range, three-phase development plan, with equal increments of 800 MMscfd. The first phase was started in July 1987 and is due for completion at the end of 1990.

  1. Analysis of Kuwait Temperature Records: Test of Heat Island Existence in Kuwait City Arid Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrallah, Hasan Ali

    Very few arid land cities have been studied to determine local climate effects developing from rapid urban growth in the twentieth century. Kuwait City in the State of Kuwait is examined to determine the significance of urban growth on heating in the region. The study examines recent changes in temperature for the State of Kuwait for the period 1958-1980. During this time period, Kuwait has experienced explosive urban growth from 0.2 million to 1.7 million population. Simple parametric inferential statistics are employed to monthly temperature records from seven locations in and adjacent to Kuwait City. These tests are conducted to determine the connection between urbanization and the development of urban heating effects. The statistical tests employ a national "benchmark" desert site; a rural, agricultural benchmark site in the State of Kuwait; and stations in Bahrain, Eilat, Riyadh, Abadan, and Baghdad. The analysis illustrates that there is only a modest level of urban heating detectable in temperature records from the region of Kuwait. This finding runs counter to prevailing literature on urban climatology, which generally states that urban heating depends strongly on urban extent and population growth. Upon inspection of geographic location and surficial characteristics of Kuwait City, two hypotheses are suggested for the low order urban heating detected: (1) cooling effects of advected Arabian Gulf air across the city, and, (2) the lack of substantive spatial differences of surface albedo, thermal inertia, surface moisture, and aerosol heating. However, Kuwait's morphological (i.e., building geometry) characteristics, according to urban canyon-heat island theory, should have promoted a 7 ^circC heat island in Kuwait City. A test of this theory revealed no such heat island of that magnitude. One major reason relates to station network inadequacy to portray the extent of Kuwait City's heat island development through time. More research, including modeling and field station sampling, is required to examine the nature of this arid land city's effect on local climate.

  2. New Cultures of Critical Reflection in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiff, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We speak about the need for critical reflection on practice, but what do we do when we do it; and how do we explain how and why we should do it? This paper explores these issues, and itself acts as the site for an exploration and explanation of what it means to be critically reflective. Drawing on recent research in Qatar, I give an account of how…

  3. Epidemiological review of scorpion stings in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Alkahlout, Baha H.; Abid, Muhammad M.; Kasim, Mohammad M.; Haneef, Shumaila M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review the epidemiology of scorpion sting in Qatar, to explore both the clinical significance, and the role of the emergency department (ED) in the management of such cases. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of all scorpion sting cases presented to the ED of Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar between October 2010 and May 2013. Results: A total of 111 cases of scorpion stings were reviewed, 81 (72.9%) were males and 30 (27.1%) were females, with a mean age of 38 years. Localized pain was the most frequent presenting complaint (89 [80.2%]), whereas localized redness (44 [39.6%]) and swelling (38 [34.2%]) were the most common clinical signs. Abroug’s classification was used, and all cases were found to be class I. All patients received symptomatic treatment and were sent home. Conclusion: Scorpion sting problem in Qatar has a low clinical significance. Data from such studies should be utilized to create more specific (local) management guidelines, which should be more efficient with more rational utilization of ED resources. PMID:26108591

  4. First complete genomic characterization and phylogeny of a new recombinant of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) from Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, Ebtisam H M; Al-Hashash, Hanadi K; Ben-Hejji, Ahmed H; Al-Shayjji, Nabella; Al-Aqeel, Hamed A

    2015-07-01

    While whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses are economically important constraints to tomato production in Kuwait, little is known about genomic features of these viruses from Kuwait. A begomovirus isolated from severely diseased tomatoes, collected over a two-year period in the main tomato-growing areas of Kuwait, was characterized at the molecular level. The complete genomic sequence of the begomovirus was determined, and phlylogeographic studies were conducted to better understand genetic diversity of the virus in the region. Based on genome properties and phylogenetic analysis, the begomovirus was found to be a strain of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The virus genome was monopartite, as neither DNA B nor satellite DNA molecules were detected. Two isolates characterized in this study shared 97% and 95% nucleotide sequence identity with a previously characterized Kuwaiti isolate, TYLCV-KISR. Among TYLCV isolates with known genome sequences, the Kuwaiti isolates shared highest sequence identity (95%) with TYLCV-Almeria (Spain). Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis showed that the three Kuwaiti isolates formed a distinct clade that was separate from those of known TYLCV sequences. One Kuwaiti isolate (KW 1-3) could be a novel variant of TYLCV. Two recombination events were detected in the genome sequence of KW 1-3, which appeared to be a recombinant derived from TYLCV parents from Oman and Kuwait. PMID:25951968

  5. Patient Safety Culture Assessment in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Kindi, Moosa; Tawilah, Jihane; Dorvlo, Atsu S.S.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the patient safety culture in Oman as gleaned via 12 indices of patient safety culture derived from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and to compare the average positive response rates in patient safety culture between Oman and the USA, Taiwan, and Lebanon. Methods This was a cross-sectional research study employed to gauge the performance of HSPSC safety indices among health workers representing five secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the northern region of Oman. The participants (n=398) represented different professional designations of hospital staff. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSPSC survey in Oman was 58%. The indices from HSPSC that were endorsed the highest included ‘organizational learning and continuous improvement’ while conversely, ‘non-punitive response to errors’ was ranked the least. There were no significant differences in average positive response rates between Oman and the United States (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666), Taiwan (58% vs. 64%; p=0.386), and Lebanon (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666). Conclusion This study provides the first empirical study on patient safety culture in Oman which is similar to those rates reported elsewhere. It highlights the specific strengths and weaknesses which may stem from the specific milieu prevailing in Oman. PMID:25170407

  6. The Burden of Asthma in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Nasser; Habibulla, Zulfikar; Bhatnagar, Malvika; Al-Lawati, Nabil; Al-Mahrouqi, Yaqoub

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common lung disease worldwide, although its prevalence varies from country to country. Oman is ranked in the intermediate range based on results from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. A 2009 study revealed that the majority of asthmatic patients in Oman reported both daytime and nocturnal symptoms, while 30% of adults and 52% of children reported absences from work or school due to their symptoms. Despite these findings, there is little data available on the economic burden of asthma in Oman. The only accessible information is from a 2013 study which concluded that Omans highest asthma-related costs were attributable to inpatient (55%) and emergency room (25%) visits, while asthma medications contributed to less than 1% of the financial toll. These results indicate a low level of asthma control in Oman, placing a large economic burden on healthcare providers. Therefore, educating asthmatic patients and their families should be prioritised in order to improve the management and related costs of this disease within Oman. PMID:26052450

  7. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  8. EMS in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan Zayed Khalifah

    2009-07-01

    The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Oman is a relatively new project in the country. It has been developed based on the Anglo-American system of EMS. Currently, it is run by trained Omani Advanced Emergency Medical Technicians (AEMT) under the auspices of the Royal Oman Police (ROP) Ambulance Division. The system covers most of the country and responds to medical and trauma emergencies. It is state-funded and free of charge for all people in Oman. There are plans to incorporate aero-medical services into the system, to support the land ambulance service, and there are also plans to expand its coverage to the whole country by 2012. The EMS in Oman has hard challenges ahead but there are also promising plans in place to improve the system. PMID:19467757

  9. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Olayan, A.H.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  11. Oil Fires and Oil Slick, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this color infrared view of the Kuwait oil fires and offshore oil slick, (29.0N, 48.0E), smoke from the burning oil fields both to the north and south of Kuwait City almost totally obliterates the image. Unburned pools of oil on the ground and oil offshore in the Persian Gulf are reflecting sunlight, much the same way as water does, and appear as white or light toned features. The water borne oil slicks drifted south toward the Arab Emirate States.

  12. Qatargas exporting LNG from Qatar`s new Ras Laffan Port

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    When the 135,000 cu m LNG carrier Al Zubarah departed Ras Laffan Port in December, Qatar entered a new era of commerce that will both boost the emirate`s economic development and influence energy trade around the world. The event capped more than a decade of planning, design, and construction of Ras Laffan Port--the world`s newest and largest LNG exporting facility. During the 1980s, the focus in Qatar was on exploration and development of North field, which holds the world`s largest reserves of nonassociated natural gas. In the 1990s, efforts concentrated on establishing a direct production and export link between North field, the new multi-billion-dollar Qatar Liquefied Gas Co. (Qatargas) gas liquefaction plant at Ras Laffan, and LNG export facilities at the 8.5 sq km Ras Laffan Port. Markets of the Far East will be first to be served by LNG from Ras Laffan Port. Two 25-year LNG supply contracts have been signed with buyers in Japan and South Korea, and negotiations are under way with potential customers from China, Taiwan, and Thailand. The paper describes the port, its operations, and export projects.

  13. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these

  14. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  15. The unstable Gulf, Threats from within

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Martin offers an analysis of disputes along the borders of countries in the Persian Gulf region and a description of the religious, ethnic, and ideological tensions among the peoples. The pros and cons of various options for protecting American interests are outlined. The discussion covers Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, North and South Yemen, Oman, Soudi Arabia, U.A.E., Bahrain, and Qatar.

  16. Books about the Middle East for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia

    This bibliography comprises a list of 236 reviewed children's books about the Middle East. All books were published since 1970 in the United States. For the purpose of this document the countries of the Middle East number 16: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab

  17. Population, Labour and Education Dilemmas Facing GCC States at the Turn of the Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapiszewski, Andrzej

    This study describes and analyzes certain population, labor, and education issues in oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf. The countries profiled are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (also known as the GCC [Gulf Cooperation Council] countries). Since the discovery of oil, these countries transformed themselves…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    One hundred fifty-four English language annotations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1976, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials Vol. 2, No. 1, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    A total of 176 English language notations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1977, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,…

  20. Books about the Middle East for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia

    This bibliography comprises a list of 236 reviewed children's books about the Middle East. All books were published since 1970 in the United States. For the purpose of this document the countries of the Middle East number 16: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab…

  1. Higher Education and Development in the Lower Gulf States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    The complex issues concerning expansion of higher education in the smaller states bordering the Persian Gulf (Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, and Oman) are examined, including who provides higher education and why, cultural vs. national identity, the role of mass education, and the difference between growth and development. (MSE)

  2. Coordinated Economic Development and the Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, D. K.

    This is a discussion of some of the problems that the Advisory Organization for Gulf Industries (AOGI) will face when it undertakes (1) to organize both an information center (node) that will serve the information needs of the Gulf States of Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman; and (2) to compile an…

  3. Science Self-Beliefs and Science Achievement of Adolescents in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the predictive effects of science self-beliefs on science achievement for 24,680 13-year-old students from Gulf Cooperation Council member countries--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. The…

  4. Diversity in the Mideast; Kuwait and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-12-02

    This paper reports on two types of action which mark oil industry activity at opposite ends of the Arabian Peninsula. In Kuwait, the astounding achievements of firefighting teams have captured world headlines. Some 1,200 miles to the south, Yemen is establishing itself as a center for exploration and production.

  5. Linguistic Features of Pidgin Arabic in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…

  6. Automation in a Special Library in Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Farooq A.

    1983-01-01

    Traces introduction of automation in National Scientific and Technical Information Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, highlighting online applications in English and Arabic. Systems developed (bibliographic control, union lists, circulation control, indexes) and use of STAIRS storage and retrieval system for integrated databases are…

  7. The Qatar Simulation Consortium (QSC): National Simulation Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Pyburn, Renee R; Davies, Joanne L

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and work of a nationwide Qatar Simulation Consortium. In 2013, members included the schools of medicine, nursing, and allied health in Qatar, as well as the public health care system and a private, publicly funded hospital. The mission of the consortium is to foster simulation collaboration among health care and educational institutions and advance simulation education, research, and practice to align with current global standards. PMID:26753310

  8. Uncommon opportunistic yeast bloodstream infections from Qatar.

    PubMed

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; AbdulWahab, Atqah; Kolecka, Anna; Deshmukh, Anand; Meis, Jacques F; Boekhout, Teun

    2014-07-01

    Eleven uncommon yeast species that are associated with high mortality rates irrespective of antifungal therapy were isolated from 17/187 (201 episodes) pediatric and elderly patients with fungemia from Qatar. The samples were taken over a 6-year period (January 2004-December 2010). Isolated species included Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Lindnera fabianii, Candida dubliniensis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Candida intermedia, Pichia kudriavzevii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Clavispora lusitaniae, Candida pararugosa, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry provided correct identifications compared with molecular analysis testing of the same isolates. Low minimal inhibitory concentrations were found when isavuconazole and voriconazole were used for all uncommon yeast species evaluated in this study. Resistance to antifungal drugs was low and remained restricted to a few species. PMID:24934803

  9. A preliminary report on the distribution of lizards in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Cogălniceanu, Dan; Castilla, Aurora M; Valdeón, Aitor; Gosá, Alberto; Al-Jaidah, Noora; Alkuwary, Ali; Saifelnasr, Essam O. H.; Mas-Peinado, Paloma; Richer, Renee; Al-Hemaidi, Ahmad Amer Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have updated the list of the lizard species present in Qatar and produced the first distribution maps based on two field surveys in 2012 and 2013. We used the QND95/Qatar National Grid with a grid of 10 × 10 km squares for mapping. Our results show the occurrence of 21 lizard species in Qatar, from the 15 species indicated in the last biodiversity report conducted in 2004. The most abundant family found in Qatar is Gekkonidae with nine species (Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum, Hemidactylus robustus, H. flaviviridis, H. persicus, Stenodactylus arabicus, S. slevini, S. doriae, Pseudoceramodactylus khobarensis), followed by Lacertidae with four species (Acanthodactylus schmidti, A. opheodurus, Mesalina brevirostris, M. adramitana), Agamidae with three species (Trapelus flavimaculatus, Uromastyx aegyptia, Phrynocephalus arabicus), Scincidae with two species (Scincus mitranus, Trachylepis septemtaeniata), and Varanidae (Varanus griseus), Sphaerodactylidae (Pristurus rupestris) and Trogonophiidae (Diplometopon zarudnyi) with one species each. The species richness fluctuated largely across Qatar between one and eleven species per grid square. We believe that the lizard fauna records in Qatar are still incomplete and that additional studies are required. However, our study here fills a gap concerning lizard biodiversity knowledge in the Gulf Region. PMID:24493961

  10. Strategic Brain Drain: Implications for Higher Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Chapman, David W.; Ameen, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Oman will soon be producing three times more college graduates than there are jobs available in the country each year, forcing graduates to seek employment outside of Oman. Their success in securing and holding employment will be based more on training and performance than might be the case if they were working in Oman. If graduates find that the…

  11. Strategic Brain Drain: Implications for Higher Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Chapman, David W.; Ameen, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Oman will soon be producing three times more college graduates than there are jobs available in the country each year, forcing graduates to seek employment outside of Oman. Their success in securing and holding employment will be based more on training and performance than might be the case if they were working in Oman. If graduates find that the

  12. Petroleum developments in Middle East countries in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries in 1979 totaled 7,779,619,000 bbl at an average rate of 21,314,024 b/d, up 0.4% from 1978. Principal increases were in Iraq, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, and Saudi Arabia. Significant new discoveries were made in Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Abu Dhabi. New areas were explored in Oman, Syria, offshore South Yemen, Dubai, and Qatar.

  13. Cyanobacterial Soil Crust Distribution in the State of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, R. A.; Anchassi, D.; El Assad, I.; El Matbouly, M.; Fares, F.; Metcalf, J.; Makki, I.

    2009-12-01

    Despite the importance of biological soils crusts (BSCs) to ecosystem function, the distribution of BSCs in Qatar have not been documented. We sought to document terrestrial BSC coverage for the State of Qatar using a transect system to sample 91 (10 km X 10 km) blocks accounting for 80% of the landmass of the country. Smooth crusts were found to contain Microcoleus species, while hypolithic communities had unicellular cyanobacteria and filamentous Oscillatoriaceae. Biological soil crust coverage ranged from 0% to 87%, with a gradient in coverage from north to south. This gradient correlated with corresponding patterns of rainfall, soil type and topographical features. Overall country coverage is 26% comparable to value found in the Kalahari desert in southern Africa and other desert regions. The predominance of high BSC coverage areas in the northern half of Qatar may be attributed to soil composition and water availability. Qatar is characterized by shallow, natural depressions. These depressions predominate in the northern half of Qatar and may facilitate BSC development by affecting soil composition and water pooling. The southern area of the country shows little BSC coverage, which may be attributed to the predominance of sand (i.e. mobile surface substrate) which inhibits the formation of BSCs. The southwestern area of Qatar is characterized by an alluvial fan system with quartz pebbles being common. While BSC mat formation was not common in these areas, hypolithic cyanobacteria located on quartz was present. The current rate of development and development related disturbance in Qatar may threaten biological soil crusts, with larger ecosystem impacts. Disturbance of the soil surface has been shown to destroy current BSCs and inhibit the development of new BSCs. Destruction of BSC organisms is important to consider since they provide both carbon and nitrogen which support the larger plant community and reduce wind and water erosion. In addition, disturbance of the soil during construction activities may result in aerosolization of cyanobacteria and associated toxins.

  14. Origin of sulfate in barite and calcite cements in the Jebel Madar salt dome (Oman)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandeginste, V.; John, C. M.; Gilhooly, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    Jebel Madar is a 500-m high mountain rising in the desert at the Oman Foothills. The Jebel consists of Triassic to Cretaceous carbonate host rocks forming the carapace of a salt dome. Halokinesis caused major fracturing and faulting at Jebel Madar, and the resulting structures acted as the main pathways for fluids that generated diagenetic cements composed of both barite and calcite. The spatial distribution of calcite and barite occurrences shows that calcite is formed in large abundance along the three main faults, whereas barite is more concentrated along faults further away from the three main ones. The stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of calcite and fluid inclusion data from both calcite and barite show a distinct evolution of the fluid with a highly saline component towards more mixing with meteoric water. This is in agreement with clumped isotopes data on calcite cements indicating an evolution towards lower temperatures, consistent with doming of the Jebel and greater input of lower-temperature descending meteoric fluids. Here, we present sulphur and oxygen isotopic data on barite that suggest a link between the barite formation and the Precambrian salt underlying Jebel Madar. The average δ34S measured in barite is 33‰ CDT (1σ = 5‰; n = 33), which falls at the lower end of the δ34S range reported for the Ara Group anhydrite. The average δ18O in the same barite samples is 23‰ VSMOW (1σ = 2‰; n = 33). Data from the barite will be compared with sulphur isotopes from the carbonate-associate sulfate in the calcite cements. The overall goal of our research is to gain a better insight in the formation process of barite and calcite in Jebel Madar and its link with salt tectonics. We would like to acknowledge the financial support of QCCSRC (funded jointly by Qatar Petroleum, Shell and the Qatar Science & Technology Park) and the GSA Laubach fund for this study.

  15. Cyclone Gonu storm surge in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Blount, Christopher D.; Albusaidi, Fawzi B.; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Hamoud Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Super Cyclone Gonu is the strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Arabian Sea. Gonu caused coastal damage due to storm surge and storm wave impact as well as wadi flooding. High water marks, overland flow depths, and inundation distances were measured in the coastal flood zones along the Gulf of Oman from 1 to 4 August 2007. The high water marks peaked at Ras al-Hadd at the eastern tip of Oman exceeding 5 m. The storm surge of Gonu is modeled using the Advanced Circulation Model (ADCIRC). The multi-hazard aspect is analyzed by comparing observations from Cyclone Gonu with the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.

  16. Qatar's School Transportation System: Supporting Safety, Efficiency, and Service Quality. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Keith; Younossi, Obaid; Al-Dafa, Maryah; Culbertson, Shelly; Mattock, Michael G.; Light, Thomas; Rohr, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In consideration of the many challenges associated with Qatar's continued growth and demographic changes, the government of Qatar is interested in updating its school transportation system (STS). This volume assesses the perspectives of parents and school administrators on Qatar's STS, identifies a vision and goals for the STS, reviews…

  17. Qatar's School Transportation System: Supporting Safety, Efficiency, and Service Quality. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Keith; Younossi, Obaid; Al-Dafa, Maryah; Culbertson, Shelly; Mattock, Michael G.; Light, Thomas; Rohr, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In consideration of the many challenges associated with Qatar's continued growth and demographic changes, the government of Qatar is interested in updating its school transportation system (STS). This volume assesses the perspectives of parents and school administrators on Qatar's STS, identifies a vision and goals for the STS, reviews

  18. Psychiatric morbidity among foreign housemaids in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    el-Hilu, S M; Mousa, R; Abdulmalek, H; Kamel, N; Zohdi, M; al-Aamriti, M

    1990-01-01

    First admission rates to the psychiatric hospital in Kuwait revealed that foreign housemaids as a whole had about five times the rate of Kuwaiti females. According to hospital diagnoses the housemaids had significantly more acute situational disturbances and mania, and less depressive illness and organic mental disorders. Regarding schizophrenia and paranoid state there was no significant difference between the two groups. It is recommended that good interpreters should be appointed as part of an appropriate staffing of the psychiatric hospital. PMID:2079400

  19. Comments on current environmental events in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordagui, Hosny

    1991-07-01

    This article describes and assesses the impact of oil spillage and oil well fires on Kuwait and its surroundings. The marine ecology of the Arabian Gulf is shown to be relatively resistant to damage from oil spillage. The risks of the contamination of thermal desalination plants by oil and oil products are assessed, and remedies are suggested. Air pollution from burning oil wells is described and its consequences are predicted.

  20. An assessment of Qatar's coral communities in a regional context.

    PubMed

    Burt, John A; Smith, Edward G; Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer

    2016-04-30

    Qatar's once extensive coral communities have undergone considerable change in recent decades. We quantitatively surveyed three coral assemblages in Qatar to assess current status, and compared these against 14 sites in Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to evaluate Qatar in a larger biogeographic context. Umm Al-Arshan had the highest species richness of 17 sites examined in the southern Arabian Gulf, as well as the highest coral cover and the only Acropora observed on sites in Qatar. Coral cover and richness were more modest at Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat, reflecting greater impacts from earlier stress events. Two distinct communities were identified across the southern Gulf, with Umm Al-Arshan clustering with high-cover, mixed merulinid/poritid assemblages that were less impacted by earlier bleaching and long-term stress, while Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat grouped with a lower-cover, stress-tolerant community characteristic of more extreme environments in the southern Gulf. We recommend implementation of a nation-wide baseline assessment of coral communities to guide development of an MPA network and long-term coral monitoring program for Qatar. PMID:26410180

  1. Oman-India pipeline route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mullee, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    Paper describes the geological setting in the Arabian Sea for a proposed 28-inch gas pipeline from Oman to India reaching 3,500-m water depths. Covers planning, execution, quality control and results of geophysical, geotechnical and oceanographic surveys. Outlines theory and application of pipeline stress analysis on board survey vessel for feasibility assessment, and specifies equipment used.

  2. First report of Q fever in Oman.

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, E. M.; Johnston, W. J.; Al Dhahry, S. H.; El-Khatim, H. S.; John, V.; Musa, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although serologic evidence suggests the presence of Q fever in humans and animals in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, acute Q fever has not been reported on the Arabian Peninsula. We report the first two cases of acute Q fever in Oman. PMID:10653575

  3. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to the... at industry meetings, symposia, conferences, and trade shows. Recruitment for the mission will...

  4. The Incidence of Dyslexia among Young Offenders in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Malki, Mohammad Al

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait. A total of 91 children/young adults from 8 juvenile delinquent welfare centres across Kuwait were interviewed and tested. A measure of non-verbal reasoning ability was used to exclude those with low general ability. The remaining 53 participants were tested on their…

  5. The Pattern of Female Nuptiality in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul; Dorvlo, Atsu S.; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine Omani patterns of female nuptiality, including the timing of marriage and determinants of age at a woman’s first marriage. Methods: The study utilised data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods, including logistic regression analysis, were used for data analysis. Results: One of the most important aspects of the marriage pattern in Oman is the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, as more than half (52%) of the total marriages in Oman are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. About 11% of the marriages are polygynous. Early and universal marriage is still highly prevalent in Oman. Three-quarters (75%) of married women respondents aged 20–44 years were married by age 20, with their median age at their first wedding being 16 years. However, women’s average age upon marriage is gradually increasing. The change is especially apparent in more recent marriages or among younger cohorts of women, and for certain socio-cultural groups. Multivariate analysis identified female education, age cohort, residential status, region of residence, types of marriage, and employment as strong predictors of Omani women’s age at marriage. Conclusion: The growing number of young adults, accompanied by their tendency to delay marriage, may have serious demographic, social, economic, and political ramifications for Oman, highlighting the need to understand the new situation of youth, their unique characteristics, and their interests and demands. Culturally appropriate policies need to be implemented to address the issues and challenges of unmarried young adults. PMID:23573380

  6. Oil slicks off the coast of Qatar, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A detailed view the port facility of Musay'id on the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf (25.0N, 52.5E). Part of a large oil spill seen as a dark toned mass in the water, covering much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf, has moved offshore in this scene. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment commonly occur in oil tanker operations.

  7. Potential Zoonotic Trematodes Recovered in Stray Cats from Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    El-Azazy, Osama Mohamed ElShfei; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud Mohamed Ibrahim; Khalil, Amal Iskander; Al-Batel, Maha Khaled; Majeed, Qais Abdulrazak Habeeb; Henedi, Adawia Abdul-Ruhman; Tahrani, Laila Mohamed Azad

    2015-01-01

    Stray cats are a common feature roaming the streets and alleys of Kuwait; they could be a source of parasites, including trematodes, that affect humans. A survey was conducted to identify feline trematodes and throw the light on their public health significance in Kuwait. Out of 240 stray cats trapped from different localities of Kuwait from June 2011 to May 2012, 59 (24.6%) were found to be infected with 14 species of trematodes. The most common were trematodes of the genus Heterophyes, particularly H. heterophyes and H. dispar that were found in respectively 15.8% and 10.8% of the cats examined. Other trematodes recorded, with lower prevalences, were Heterophyes nocens (2.9%), Haplorchis taichui (3.8%), Stictodora sawakinensis (2.1%), Stellantchasmus falcatus (1.6%), Echinochasmus japonicus (1.6%), and Mesostephanus dottrensi (1.3%). Centrocestus cuspidatus, Galactosomum fregatae, Ascocotyle sp., Mesostephanus appendiculatus, Haplorchis yokogawai, and Pygidiopsis genata showed the lowest prevalence (0.4%) and intensity. The majority of the trematodes are recorded for the first time in Kuwait and even in the Gulf region. The study reveals that stray cats are good indicators of fish-borne trematodes in the environment. As all trematodes recovered are zoonotic, their significance to public health should be considred. PMID:26174821

  8. Potential Zoonotic Trematodes Recovered in Stray Cats from Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait.

    PubMed

    El-Azazy, Osama Mohamed ElShfei; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud Mohamed Ibrahim; Khalil, Amal Iskander; Al-Batel, Maha Khaled; Majeed, Qais Abdulrazak Habeeb; Henedi, Adawia Abdul-Ruhman; Tahrani, Laila Mohamed Azad

    2015-06-01

    Stray cats are a common feature roaming the streets and alleys of Kuwait; they could be a source of parasites, including trematodes, that affect humans. A survey was conducted to identify feline trematodes and throw the light on their public health significance in Kuwait. Out of 240 stray cats trapped from different localities of Kuwait from June 2011 to May 2012, 59 (24.6%) were found to be infected with 14 species of trematodes. The most common were trematodes of the genus Heterophyes, particularly H. heterophyes and H. dispar that were found in respectively 15.8% and 10.8% of the cats examined. Other trematodes recorded, with lower prevalences, were Heterophyes nocens (2.9%), Haplorchis taichui (3.8%), Stictodora sawakinensis (2.1%), Stellantchasmus falcatus (1.6%), Echinochasmus japonicus (1.6%), and Mesostephanus dottrensi (1.3%). Centrocestus cuspidatus, Galactosomum fregatae, Ascocotyle sp., Mesostephanus appendiculatus, Haplorchis yokogawai, and Pygidiopsis genata showed the lowest prevalence (0.4%) and intensity. The majority of the trematodes are recorded for the first time in Kuwait and even in the Gulf region. The study reveals that stray cats are good indicators of fish-borne trematodes in the environment. As all trematodes recovered are zoonotic, their significance to public health should be considred. PMID:26174821

  9. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  10. Burden of fungal infections in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Chandra, Prem; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Few estimates of fungal disease frequency have been attempted in the Middle East. We have estimated the burden of fungal infections in Qatar. The aim of the study was to compute and determine the burden of serious fungal infections, in an attempt to estimate fungal disease frequency, which has not previously been attempted in this country. Disease statistics were collected from the Microbiology laboratory database and from 2011 WHO statistics. The data are expressed per 100,000 populations. The reported cases of candidaemia rose to 288 with an estimated rate of 15.4/100,000. A real increase in the burden of candidaemia was found over that previously reported (12.9/100,000) for the years 2004-2009. Candida peritonitis was estimated in 8.02 cases/100,000 population. Recurrent (≥4 year(-1) ) vaginal infections affect at least 32,782 women with a rate of 3506/100,000 inhabitants. Severe asthma with fungal sensitisation affected 1486 people, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 1126 people and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis 176 people. Rhinosinusitis, mucormycosis and Fusarium infection occurred at rates of 2.31, 1.23, 1.86 cases/100,000 respectively. The estimated rate of invasive aspergillosis was very low (0.6/100,000). Low rates of Cryptococcus meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are attributable to low HIV infection rates. In conclusion, fungal infections are increasingly reported, especially candidaemia. Surveillance and guidelines are needed to optimise care and management of common fungal infections. In addition, a fungal registry system needs development for surveillance. PMID:26449507

  11. Seismicity and Improved Velocity Structure in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Gok, R M; Rodgers, A J; Al-Enezi, A

    2006-01-26

    The Kuwait National Seismic Network (KNSN) began operation in 1997 and consists of nine three-component stations (eight short-period and one broadband) and is operated by the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Although the region is largely believed to be aseismic, considerable local seismicity is recorded by KNSN. Seismic events in Kuwait are clustered in two main groups, one in the south and another in the north. The KNSN station distribution is able to capture the southern cluster within the footprint of the network but the northern cluster is poorly covered. Events tend to occur at depths ranging from the free surface to about 20 km. Events in the northern cluster tend to be deeper than those in south, however this might be an artifact of the station coverage. We analyzed KNSN recordings of nearly 200 local events to improve understanding of seismic events and crustal structure in Kuwait, performing several analyses with increasing complexity. First, we obtained an optimized one-dimensional (1D) velocity model for the entire region using the reported KNSN arrival times and routine locations. The resulting model is consistent with a recently obtained model from the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities. Crustal structure is capped by the thick ({approx} 7 km) sedimentary rocks of the Arabian Platform underlain by normal velocities for stable continental crust. Our new model has a crustal thickness of 44 km, constrained by an independent study of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities by Pasyanos et al (2006). Locations and depths of events after relocation with the new model are broadly consistent with those reported by KISR, although a few events move more than a few kilometers. We then used a double-difference tomography technique (tomoDD) to jointly locate the events and estimate three-dimensional (3D) velocity structure. TomoDD is based on hypoDD relocation algorithm and it makes use of both absolute and relative arrival times. We obtained {approx}1500 absolute P and S arrival times and {approx}3200 P and S wave arrival time differences. Event locations do not change greatly when 3D velocity structure is included. Three-dimensional velocity structure, where resolvable, does not differ greatly from our optimized 1D model, indicating that the improved 1D model is adequate for routine event location. Finally, we calculated moment magnitudes, MW, for nearly 155 events using the coda magnitude technique of Mayeda et al., (2003). The fact that most of the relocated events occur below the known sedimentary structures extending to 7 km suggests that they are tectonic in origin. Shallow events within the sedimentary crust in the (southern) Minagish region may be related to oil field activities, although the current study cannot unambiguously determine the source of current seismicity in Kuwait. The improved velocity model reduces the scatter of travel time residuals relative to the locations reported in the KNSN bulletin and may be used for ground motion prediction and hazard estimate studies in Kuwait.

  12. Redesigning Qatar's Post-Secondary Scholarship System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    At the request of Qatar's Supreme Education Council (SEC), RAND researchers devised a new set of scholarship programs for college-bound Qatari students and proposed the formation of an institute to manage the programs and oversee other post-secondary functions. The suggested system balanced support for local institutions of higher learning with

  13. Teacher Retention Problem in Girls Primary Schools in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al. Sabbagh, Samah; Al. Megbali, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Qatar has recently faced a tremendous reform in education that requires changes in many domains and causes a lot of challenges. A very serious challenge is teachers' retention where many teachers tend to leave their schools looking for new jobs. In independent schools as well as governmental schools, teachers switch jobs and therefore schools…

  14. Impact of noncommunicable diseases in the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kaabi, Salma Khalaf; Atherton, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study, commissioned by the Supreme Council of Health in the State of Qatar, focuses on the main noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) globally and regionally, in order to gauge their potential impact on Qatar. The research shows that the Gulf Cooperation Council is projected to be affected dramatically by NCDs in the coming years. The top five NCDs that will affect Qatar in terms of economic burden and disability-adjusted life years are cardiovascular diseases, mental health and behavioral disorders, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Whilst these diseases have diverse effects on patients, their causes can be traced to “… common lifestyle-related, or behavioral, risk factors such as tobacco use, a diet heavy in fat, and physical inactivity”. The total direct and indirect costs to the Gulf Cooperation Council calculated for the above five NCDs were $36.2 billion in 2013, which equates to 150% of the officially recorded annual health care expenditure. If this trajectory is maintained, spending per head of population in Qatar will reach $2,778 by 2022. These figures demonstrate not only the potential financial impact of the main NCDs, but also give an idea of how the current health system is working to address them. PMID:26170702

  15. A Perspective on Student Learning Outcome Assessment at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Shaikha Jabor; Abdelmoneim, Ali; Daoud, Khaled; Cherif, Adel; Moukarzel, Dalal

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a unique perspective on the student learning outcome assessment process as adopted and implemented at Qatar University from 2006 to 2012. The progress of the student learning outcome assessment and continuous improvement efforts at the university and the initiatives taken to establish a culture of assessment and evidence-based…

  16. Redesigning Qatar's Post-Secondary Scholarship System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    At the request of Qatar's Supreme Education Council (SEC), RAND researchers devised a new set of scholarship programs for college-bound Qatari students and proposed the formation of an institute to manage the programs and oversee other post-secondary functions. The suggested system balanced support for local institutions of higher learning with…

  17. Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Qatar: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Alaa; Arora, Paul; Sadoun, Eman; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Thani, Mohamed H. Al

    2012-01-01

    Qatar has a high burden of chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Low serum vitamin D levels have been implicated in the development and progression of a range of these chronic conditions. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the general population of Qatar has still not been investigated. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of published studies documenting the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the Qatari population. A search strategy was developed for online databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Embase Classic) between 1980 to the last week of August 2012, and bibliographies of the included studies were further searched for additional reports. Search terms used were QATAR and VITAMIN D. Studies reporting the serum levels of vitamin D in several Qatari sub-populations were identified. Weighted-average vitamin D serum levels and prevalence of low vitamin D status (<75 nmol/L) were calculated. Subgroup analysis was carried out by age. The quality of each study was evaluated according to four criteria: national representativeness, representation of males and females, the sample size, and the sampling protocol. A total of 16 relevant publications were identified, and 8 of these (reporting from 7 unique studies) met our inclusion and exclusion criteria with a total number of 1,699 Qatari subjects. The pooled sample size weighted-average vitamin D concentration (SD) was 45.314.3 nmol/L (95% CI: 44.6-46.0; range 29.2-66.9 nmol/L). The weighted-average prevalence of low vitamin D status was 90.4% (95% CI: 90.1-91.0; range 83%-91%). Age was inversely correlated with vitamin D levels and directly with its insufficiency/deficiency prevalence. There have only been a few studies on the prevalence of low vitamin D in Qatar a very high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in Qatar that increases with age has been suggested. The present report underlines the need to develop a nationally representative study to further evaluate vitamin D status in Qatar. Given the growing evidence of the role of vitamin D in chronic disease, this study could help develop public health strategies for disease prevention in Qatar. PMID:25170469

  18. An option pricing theory explanation of the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Muhtaseb, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to explain the invasion of Kuwait by making an analogy between a call option and the Iraq-Kuwait situation before the invasion on August 2, 1990. A number of factors contributed to the issuance of a deep-in-the money European call option to Iraq against Kuwait. The underlying asset is the crude oil reserves under Kuwait. Price of crude oil is determined in world spot markets. The exercise price is equal to the cost of permanently annexing and retaining Kuwait. The volatility is measured by the annualized variance of the weekly rate of return of the spot price of crude oil. Time-to-expiration is equal to the time period between decision date and actual invasion date. Finally, since crude oil prices are quoted in U.S. dollars, the U.S. Treasury bill rate is assumed to be the risk-free rate. In a base-case scenario, Kuwait`s oil reserves amount to 94,500 million barrels valued at $18 a barrell in early February 1990 resulting in a market value of $1,701 billion. Because the cost of the war to Iraq is not known, we assume it is comparable to that of the U.S.-led coalition of $51.0 billion. Time-to-expiration is six months. The treasury bill rate in early 1990 was around 7.5 percent. Annualized standard deviation of weekly rates of return is 0.216. The value of Kuwait`s invasion option is $1,642.25 billion. Depending on the scenario, the value of this special option ranged between $1,450 billion and $3.624 billion. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Hydrographic Variability off the Coast of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbassi, L.; Dimarco, S. F.; Jochens, A. E.; Al Gheilani, H.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Data from hydrographic transects made in 2001 and 2002 and between 2007 and 2009 were obtained from the Oman Ministry of Fisheries Wealth. Property-depth plots of temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen were produced for all transects and in all months for which data were available. These were analyzed for temporal and spatial variability. For all transects, there exist large variability on various timescales, with strong spatial variability. Two common features that are seen in the hydrographic data sets are the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and a layer of continuous low oxygen concentrations in the lower part of the water column. Plots of salinity produced for transects located in the northern part of the Gulf of Oman show a one-unit increase in salinity of the water at the bottom of deepest station during the months of August and September as compared to the other months. Similarly, cross-shelf contour plots of temperature shows an increase in water temperature near the bottom station during the months of August and September. These indicate the presence of the PGW outflow in the northern part of the Gulf of Oman. For dissolved oxygen distributions, hydrographic transects that did not extend far offshore show monthly differences in the presence of water with low oxygen concentrations. For transects that do extend far offshore and also show a layer of low oxygen water throughout the year, there is generally a monthly difference on whether this water is found close to the surface or deeper in the water column. The variability seen in the data could only be explained by comparing these data to data collected from the real time cable ocean observing system installed by Lighthouse R &D Enterprise in the Oman Sea and the Arabian Sea in 2005. The analysis of these data reveal that the variability observed is related to processes such as ocean conditions, monsoonal cycle, and extreme weather events.

  20. Qatar-1: indications for possible transit timing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Essen, C.; Schröter, S.; Agol, E.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2013-07-01

    Aims: Variations in the timing of transiting exoplanets provide a powerful tool for detecting additional planets in the system. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss the plausibility of transit timing variations (TTVs) on the Qatar-1 system by means of primary transit light curves analysis. Furthermore, we provide an interpretation of the timing variation. Methods: We observed Qatar-1 between March 2011 and October 2012 using the 1.2 m OLT telescope in Germany and the 0.6 m PTST telescope in Spain. We present 26 primary transits of the hot Jupiter Qatar-1b. In total, our light curves cover a baseline of 18 months. Results: We report on indications for possible long-term TTVs. Assuming that these TTVs are true, we present two different scenarios that could explain them. Our reported ~190 days TTV signal can be reproduced by either a weak perturber in resonance with Qatar-1b, or by a massive body in the brown dwarf regime. More observations and radial velocity monitoring are required to better constrain the perturber's characteristics. We also refine the ephemeris of Qatar-1b, which we find to be T0 = 2456157.42204 ± 0.0001 BJDTDB and P = 1.4200246 ± 0.0000007 days, and improve the system orbital parameters. Tables of the transit observations are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A92

  1. Consanguinity and spousal concordance in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    al-Kandari, Y; Crews, D E; Poirier, F E

    2002-12-01

    Consanguineous marriage is favored in Kuwait. This research focuses on the relationship of physical and cultural traits to marriage types in Kuwait and examines concordance as a function of consanguinity and marriage duration. In a nonrandom opportunistic sample of 242 couples anthropometric and blood pressure data have been collected as well as data on acculturation, religiosity, Farsi proficiency, level of education, occupation, and attitudes regarding fertility. Significant concordances occur in cultural characteristics among couples in all three types of marriages with respect to the degree of religiosity, acculturation, language similarity, education, and occupation. Non-consanguineous spouses have the highest concordance in educational level, occupation, and degree of acculturation, but the lowest for religiosity and Farsi proficiency. Nonkin marriages seem to be based on personal preferences. In the wider potential nonkin marriage pool spouses show more concordance in stature and education indicating the positive assortative mating for those traits. Non-consanguineous spouses show a significant association for triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses hip and waist circumferences, and body fat distribution. Unrelated spouses exhibit more concordance for physical traits than do related spouses. There is a significant correlation between spouses in first and double cousin marriages as well as in spouses in second and less than second cousin unions for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while non-consanguineous spouses show a significant association in diastolic blood pressure only. PMID:12674831

  2. Leadership for Sustainability Perceptions in Higher Education Institutions in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Sadiq; Albarwani, Thuwayba

    2015-01-01

    This study explores leadership in higher education institutions in Oman where education for sustainability issues are a high priority. The Vice-chancellor of the premier university Sultan Qaboos University, Qaboos Sultanate of Oman, and his four senior management team members answer the following question: What are the concrete steps which have…

  3. Additions to the rust fungi (Pucciniales) from northern Oman

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first compilation of the rust fungi occurring in the Sultanate of Oman is presented based on historical records and numerous recent collections, primarily from agricultural hosts. The study compiles data for 16 species of Pucciniales in northern Oman, along with voucher and sequence data and pre...

  4. Leadership for Sustainability Perceptions in Higher Education Institutions in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Sadiq; Albarwani, Thuwayba

    2015-01-01

    This study explores leadership in higher education institutions in Oman where education for sustainability issues are a high priority. The Vice-chancellor of the premier university Sultan Qaboos University, Qaboos Sultanate of Oman, and his four senior management team members answer the following question: What are the concrete steps which have

  5. Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 μm should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

  6. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  7. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  8. Desert Wadis and Smoke from Kuwait Oil Fires, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires obscures the view of the desert wadis, Saudi Arabia (29.5N, 42.5E). During the brief Gulf war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing smoke and ash for hundreds of miles in many directions depending on the altitude, time of year and the prevailing winds.

  9. The Kuwait oil fires as seen by Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A mosaic of two Landsat thematic mapper images acquired May 30, 1991, reveals a dark smoke plume 30-60 km wide extending hundreds of kilometers south of Kuwait City along the Persian Gulf. Smoke coming from the Raudhatain and Sabriyah oil fields blew across the Gulf of Kuwait and over Kuwait City, joined with smoke from the Greater Burgan and Minagish fields, and continued southward over smaller villages and regions of desert agriculture consisting of hundreds of axially irrigated fields in both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. One agricultural region in Kuwait was completely obscured by the smoke. The light colored limestone gravel and sand surface was darkened by oil lakes near the wells, and by oil drizzling out of the plume downwind of the wells. Most fires produced either a light or dark plume, and the separate plumes mixed to form a combined plume much darker than the land surface, but slightly more reflective than the Gulf waters. A few of the hottest fires had no visible plume, and are presumably associated with methane combustion. The last of the Kuwait fires was reportedly extinguished in November of 1991. Continued monitoring is needed to assess the impact of emissions from both burning and nonburning oil wells on the region's climate, as well as on the agriculture, fishing, and other activities essential to life in the region.

  10. Sizzling Qatar boom sparked by foreign money, technology, and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1998-04-27

    International oil companies have collected advanced upstream and downstream technology and focused it on the small Persian Gulf emirate of Qatar, a roughly 110 mile long by 50 mile wide, thumb-like peninsula that juts out from Saudi Arabia. The emirate, in a burst of enlightened self interest, has opened its doors to international companies and is now riding a wave of foreign investment and new technology to major increases in oil, natural gas, and petrochemical production. The largest natural gas reserve in the world is under Qatari waters and is the driver for the activity that includes two LNG plants. Qatar has proven that you don`t need crude oil in the Persian Gulf to be important. Activities are discussed.

  11. Qatar chooses Snam to market LNG in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    This paper reports that Qatar has chosen Italy's Snam SpA as its European partner to sell liquefied natural gas to Europe from a $4.8 billion joint venture project involving supergiant North offshore gas field. State owned Qatar General petroleum Corp. (QGPC) and Snam signed an agreement in Doha to create a joint company owned 65% by QGPC and the remainder by Snam. Italy's state electricity monopoly, ENEL, which is seeking Qatari gas a fuel for its power plants, may later acquire part of Snam's interest in the project. The joint venture will transport and market North LNG to Europe. Exports to Europe by Snam via Italy, to begin in 1997, are expected to be 283 bcf/year at first and may climb to 459 bcf/year, depending upon demand.

  12. The Oman Ophiolite from Detachment to Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    An overview model is presented accounting for older and up-dated published data. Detachment of the Oman ophiolite exhumed a 20 km thick fragment of oceanic lithosphere 500 x 100 km2 in extension. This detachment occurred at margin of a fast spreading NeoTethyan Ocean, at P/T conditions ~900°C-200 MPa, 95-95.5 Ma ago. The Hawasinah nappes underlying the ophiolite at present, represent the stacking of the sedimentary cover deposited on the Arabian continental margin, thinned and rifted since Permian time, and extending more than 300 km north from the present shore. The sedimentary record points to the collapse of the continental basement at Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, 140 Ma ago. Subduction of the rifted continental margin is inferred, as recorded in the Saih Hatat high-pressure rocks whose metamorphic age 80-140 Ma is discussed, as well as the vergence of related subduction. Late Cretaceous time 85-70 Ma marks the emplacement of the Oman ophiolite in the Muti Basin, to its present position inland the Permo-Triassic continental margin. These episodes are not similarly recorded in the northern part of the Oman Mountains, that do not expose any HP metamorphic belt, but granulitic crustal rocks and large development of syn-obduction non-MORB magmatism in the ophiolite crustal section. Collision is achieved at the northern tip, the Musandam area, linked to the opening of the Gulf of Aden 25 Ma ago, and northward drift of the Arabian Plate.

  13. Mapping the Oman Ophiolite using TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ophiolite terrains, considered to be the onland occurrences of oceanic crust, host a number of types of mineral deposits: volcanogenic massive sulfides, podiform chromite, and asbestos. Thematic Mapper data for the Semail Ophiolite in Oman were used to separate and map ultramafic lithologies hosting these deposits, including identification of the components of the extrusive volcanic sequence, mapping of serpentinization due to various tectonic processes, and direct identification of gossans. Thematic Mapper data were found to be extremely effective for mapping in this terrain due to the excellent spatial resolution and the presence of spectral bands which allow separation of the pertinent mineralogically caused spectral features associated with the rock types of interest.

  14. Fracture control for the Oman India Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, T.V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the evaluation of the resistance to fracture initiation and propagation for the high-strength, heavy-wall pipe required for the Oman India Pipeline (OIP). It discusses the unique aspects of this pipeline and their influence on fracture control, reviews conventional fracture control design methods, their limitations with regard to the pipe in question, the extent to which they can be utilized for this project, and other approaches being explored. Test pipe of the size and grade required for the OIP show fracture toughness well in excess of the minimum requirements.

  15. Structure and Activities of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Owunwanne, Azuwuike; Alenezi, Saud

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine in Kuwait began in 1965 as a clinic for treating thyroid diseases. The practice developed gradually and until 1981 when the Faculty of Medicine established the Division of Nuclear Medicine in the Department of Radiology, which later became a separate department responsible for establishing and managing the practice in all hospitals of Kuwait. In 1987, a nuclear medicine residency program was begun and it is administered by Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations originally as a 4-year but currently as a 5-year program. Currently there are 11 departments in the ministry of health hospitals staffed by 49 qualified attending physicians, mostly the diplomats of the Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations nuclear medicine residency program, 4 academic physicians, 2 radiopharmacists, 2 physicists, and 130 technologists. These departments are equipped with 33 dual-head gamma cameras, 10 SPET/CT, 5 PET/CT, 2 cyclotrons, 1 breast-specific gamma imaging, 1 positron-emitting mammography, 10 thyroid uptake units, 8 technegas machines, 7 PET infusion systems, and 8 treadmills. Activities of nuclear medicine in Kuwait include education and training, clinical service, and research. Education includes nuclear medicine technology program in the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, the 5-year residency program, medical school teaching distributed among different modules of the integrated curriculum with 14 didactic lecture, and other teaching sessions in nuclear medicine MSc program, which run concurrently with the first part of the residency program. The team of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait has been active in research and has published more than 300 paper, 11 review articles, 12 book chapters, and 17 books in addition to 36 grants and 2 patents. A PhD program approved by Kuwait University Council would begin in 2016. PMID:27237444

  16. Measuring Secondhand Smoke in Muscat, Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A.; Al-Thuhli, Yusuf; Qureshi, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to measure exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and assess venue compliance with the municipal Law against smoking indoors in public places in Muscat, Oman. Methods: Following the selection of 30 public indoor venues within the Muscat governorate, the concentration of suspended SHS particulate matter (PM2.5) in the venues’ indoor air was measured throughout July and August 2010. Results: Almost all of the venues were found to be compliant with the smoke-free municipal, with the exception of a café that served waterpipes for smoking indoors. The concentration of PM2.5 in this venue showed an average level of 256 µg/m3 which was 64 times the level of that found in the non-smoking venues. Conclusion: Aside from one café, the majority of the assessed indoor public venues abided by the smoke-free municipal law. However, the enforcement of policies banning smoking in indoor public recreational venues should be re-examined in order to protect member of the public in Oman from exposure to SHS. PMID:26052464

  17. Teacher Perceptions of Professional Development in the Context of National Educational Reform: The Case of Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; Romanowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In light of nationally mandated educational changes in Qatar, this study investigates in-service teachers' perceptions of professional development (PD). The aims are to identify challenges facing teachers' PD. The respondents were 40 in-service teachers from two schools in Doha, Qatar, who had received PD connected with national educational…

  18. Small Steps Lead to Quality Assurance and Enhancement in Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Khalifa, Batoul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of Qatar University's history since it was started in 1973. Its primary focus is on the various small, but important, steps taken by the University to address the needs of quality assurance and enhancement. The Qatar University Reform Plan is described in detail. Its aims are to continually improve the quality…

  19. The Private-Public Literacy Divide amid Educational Reform in Qatar: What Does PISA Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-01-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools.…

  20. 76 FR 32953 - Transportation Infrastructure/Multimodal Products and Services Trade Mission to Doha, Qatar, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Qatar Contact Mr. Dao Le, U.S. Commercial Service, Doha, Qatar, Tel: 011- 974- 488-4101/Fax: 011-974-488-4163, E-mail: Dao.Le@trade.gov . U.S. Commercial Service U.A.E. Contact Ms. Laurie Farris,...

  1. 76 FR 38614 - Transportation Infrastructure/Multimodal Products and Services Trade Mission to Doha, Qatar, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... . U.S. Commercial Service Qatar Contact: Mr. Dao Le, U.S. Commercial Service, Doha, Qatar, Tel: 011-974-488-4101/Fax: 011-974-488-4163, E-mail: Dao.Le@trade.gov . U.S. Commercial Service U.A.E....

  2. Education for a New Era: Design and Implementation of K-12 Education Reform in Qatar. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar has a social and political vision that calls for improving the outcomes of the Qatari K-12 education system. With this vision in mind, the leadership asked RAND to examine Qatar's K-12 education system, to recommend options for building a world-class system, and, subsequently, to develop the chosen option and support its…

  3. The Migrant Effect: An Evaluation of Native Academic Performance in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that despite massive outlays on educational reform Qatar consistently ranks as one of the least academically proficient countries in key areas of literacy. Of the seventy-four countries that participated in PISA 2009 Qatar ranked between sixty-seven and sixty-nine in mathematics, reading and science literacy. Although…

  4. Autosomal recessive disorders among Arabs: an overview from Kuwait.

    PubMed Central

    Teebi, A S

    1994-01-01

    Kuwait has a cosmopolitan population of 1.7 million, mostly Arabs. This population is a mosaic of large and small minorities representing most Arab communities. In general, Kuwait's population is characterized by a rapid rate of growth, large family size, high rates of consanguineous marriages within the Arab communities with low frequency of intermarriage between them, and the presence of genetic isolates and semi-isolates in some extended families and Bedouin tribes. Genetic services have been available in Kuwait for over a decade. During this time it has become clear that Arabs have a high frequency of genetic disorders, and in particular autosomal recessive traits. Their pattern is unique and some disorders are relatively common. Examples are Bardet-Biedl and Meckel syndromes, phenylketonuria, and familial Mediterranean fever. A relatively large number of new syndromes and variants have been delineated in Kuwait's population, many being the result of homozygosity for autosomal recessive genes that occurred because of inbreeding. Some of these syndromes have subsequently been found in other parts of the world, negating the concept of the private syndrome. This paper provides an overview of autosomal recessive disorders among the Arabs in Kuwait from a personal perspective and published studies, and highlights the need for genetic services in Arab countries with the goal of prevention and treatment of genetic disorders. PMID:8014972

  5. A National Strategy for Promoting Physical Activity in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Ruth; Owen, Neville; Eakin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic disease in Oman is a public health challenge. Available evidence in Oman on physical inactivity, the fourth leading risk factor for chronic disease, calls for urgent action to reduce physical inactivity as part of a key strategy to address chronic disease in Oman. The public health implications of this evidence for Oman are considered in light of recommendations outlined in the Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. The charter provides a systematic approach of physical activity and outlines an action plan that could be adapted to the Omani context. Urgent intersectoral action focusing on a shared goal and a more deliberate public health response addressing physical inactivity is required. Further research is needed on the determinants of physical inactivity and culturally appropriate interventions in order to guide future public health actions. PMID:24790738

  6. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  7. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman. PMID:26052449

  8. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in. PMID:22029659

  9. Kuwait oil fires - Compositions of source smoke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Stevens, Robert K.; Winstead, Edward L.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Abdulraheem, Mahmood Y.; Al-Sahafi, Mohammed; Mazurek, Monica A.; Rasmussen, Rei A.; Cahoon, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    While the Kuwait oil-fire smoke plumes manifested a pronounced impact on solar radiation in the Gulf region (such as visibility and surface temperatures), smoke plume concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants suggest that the overall chemical impact on the atmosphere of the smoke from these fires was probably much less than anticipated. Combustion in the Kuwaiti oil fires was surprisingly efficient, releasing on average more than 93 percent of the combusted hydrocarbon fuels as CO2. Correspondingly, combustion-produced quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbonaceous particles were low, each about 2 percent by weight. The fraction of CH4 produced by the fires was also relatively low (about 0.2 percent), but source emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons were high (about 2 percent). Processes other than combustion (e.g., volatilization) probably contributed significantly to the measured in-plume hydrocarbon concentrations. Sulfur emissions (particulate and gaseous) measured at the source fires were lower (about 0.5 percent) than predicted based on average sulfur contents in the crude. N2O emissions from the Kuwaiti oil fires were very low and often could not be distinguished from background concentrations.

  10. McDonaldization, Islamic teachings, and funerary practices in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on George Ritzer's sociological concept of McDonaldization, this article explores the transformation of burial practices in Kuwait. It is argued that traditional, religious, and private ways of dealing with death have been modernized using the fast-food model of McDonald's. This article examines Islamic teachings on burial and how that model has been applied to the traditional Muslim funerary services, including cemetery management, grave excavation, funeral prayers, burial, and condolences, to make them more efficient vis-a-vis more profitable. Based on personal observations and random interviews, the study finds that the state bureaucracy in Kuwait has made burial rituals more efficient, standardized, calculable, and controlled. Furthermore, several associated irrationalities are also considered. Findings suggest that some individuals may not be happy with these changes but there is no popular resistance to McDonaldization of the burial practices, probably due to the authoritarian and welfare nature of the State of Kuwait. PMID:21748923

  11. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries.

    PubMed

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F

    2015-11-30

    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed. PMID:26233306

  12. Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

    This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  13. HbS-oman heterozygote: a new dominant sickle syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagel, R L; Daar, S; Romero, J R; Suzuka, S M; Gravell, D; Bouhassira, E; Schwartz, R S; Fabry, M E; Krishnamoorthy, R

    1998-12-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) S-Oman has two mutations in the beta-chains. In addition to the classic betaS mutation (beta6 Glu --> Val), it contains a second mutation in the same chain (beta121 Glu --> Lys) identical to that of HbOARAB. We have studied a pedigree of heterozygous carriers of HbS-Oman that segregates into two types of patients: those expressing about 20% HbS-Oman and concomitant -/ thalassemia and those with about 14% of HbS-Oman and concomitant -/- thalassemia. The higher expressors of S-Oman have a sickle cell anemia (SS) clinical syndrome of moderate intensity, while the lower expressors have no clinical syndrome, and are comparable to the solitary case first described in Oman. In addition, the higher expressors exhibit a unique form of irreversibly sickled cell reminiscent of a "yarn and knitting needle" shape, in addition to folded and target cells. The CSAT of S-Oman is identical to that of S-Antilles, another supersickling hemoglobin, whose carriers express the abnormal hemoglobin at 40% to 50%, with a very similar clinical picture to HbS-Oman. Because the level of expression is so different and the clinical picture so similar, and based on the hemolysates CSAT's, we conclude that HbS-Oman produces pathology beyond its sickling tendencies. A clue for this additional pathogenesis is found in the fact that homozygous HbOARAB, which has the same second substitution as S-Oman, has a moderately severe hemolytic anemia; when HbOARAB is combined with HbS, it makes the phenotype of this double heterozygote as severe as SS. Properties of HbS-Oman red blood cells (RBCs) include reticulocytes that are much denser than normal (similar to those of SC and CC disease), a decrease in the Km for Ca2+ needed to activate the Gardos' channel (making this transporter more sensitive to Ca2+), increased association of HbS-Oman with the RBC membrane, the presence of dense cells by isopycnic gradient, the presence of folded cells, and abundant nidus of polymerization under the membrane. Other properties include a clear increase in volume and N-ethylmaleimide-stimulated K:Cl cotransport in RBCs expressing more than 20% HbS-Oman. We conclude that the pathology of heterozygous S-Oman is the product of the sickling properties of the beta6 Val mutation which are enhanced by the second mutation at beta121. In addition, the syndrome is further enhanced by a hemolytic anemia induced by the mutation at beta121. We speculate that this pathology results from the abnormal association of the highly positively charged HbS-Oman (3 charges different from normal hemoglobin) with the RBC membrane. PMID:9834244

  14. Concentration of selected radionuclides in seawater from Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Aba, Abdulaziz; Behbehani, Montaha

    2012-06-01

    No baseline existed for the radionuclides in Kuwait territorial water. With changing trend in the region to embrace nuclear energy, the baseline study is imperative to create a reference and to record the influence-functioning of upcoming power plants. The first one in Bushehr, Iran is ready to start and several more are likely to come-up in UAE, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The present baseline concentration of the four considered radionuclide's show low concentration of tritium, polonium, strontium and cesium; their concentration is comparable to most oceanic waters. PMID:22444480

  15. Middle East: Output expansions boost drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Iraqi exports may return to the market in limited fashion, but none of the region`s producers seems particularly concerned. They believe that global oil demand is rising fast enough to justify their additions to productive capacity. The paper discusses exploration, drilling and development, and production in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Oman, Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, and Sharjah. The paper also briefly mentions activities in Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, and Ras al Khaimah.

  16. Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p < .000) in women and body image in men (p < .0298). As for aging characteristics, decreasing hearing ability (p < .000), performance as before (p < .004), more irritability (p < .0227), ability to travel alone (p < .0429), needs check up (p < .001), and needs a geriatric home (p < .001) were statistically associated with age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people. PMID:23767841

  17. Spectral characteristics of atmospheric surface layer turbulence in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, Reza; Singha, Arindam; Micro Scale Thermofluids Laboratory Team

    2012-11-01

    Turbulent characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer are of utmost importance in modeling the large-scale meteorological processes, diffusion of atmospheric contaminants, heat transfer and evaporation from the earth surface. Meteorological data are available for some areas of the globe but are sparse in tropical regions. There had been some recent studies in tropical weather in southwestern Asia but no study is carried out in Persian Gulf region. The present study reports the micrometeorological data collected from an atmospheric measurement station in the coastal region of Doha, Qatar, to characterize the nature of atmosphere surface layer (ASL) and ocean wave in this region. In the present work turbulence velocity spectra in this region is presented and compared with the available data from other locations. Also, empirical relationship for the normalized dissipation function in this region is suggested. Finally, variation of different length scales with the stability parameter z/ L is investigated and compare with the existing values in available literatures. This is the first ever study of ASL in this area, and is expected to be a foundation of further atmospheric research endeavors in Qatar.

  18. Seismic lateral prediction in chalky limestone reservoirs offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Rubbens, I.B.H.M.; Murat, R.C.; Vankeulen, J.

    1983-03-01

    Following the discovery of non-structurally trapped oil accumulations in Cretaceous chalky reservoirs on the northern flank of the North Dome offshore QATAR, a seismic lateral prediction study was carried out for QATAR GENERAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION (Offshore Operations). The objectives of this study were to assist in the appraisal of these oil accumulations by predicting their possible lateral extent and to investigate if the technique applied could be used as a basis for further exploration of similar oil prospects in the area. Wireline logs of eight wells and some 1000 km of high quality seismic data were processed into acoustic impedance (A.I.) logs and seismic A.I. sections. Having obtained a satisfactory match of the A.I. well logs and the A.I. of the seismic traces at the well locations, relationships were established by the use of well log data which allowed the interpretation of the seismic A.I. in terms of reservoir quality. Measurements of the relevant A.I. characteristics were then carried out by computer along all seismic lines and porosity distribution maps prepared for some of the reservoirs. These maps, combined with detailed seismic depth contour maps at reservoir tops, lead to definition of good reservoir development areas downdip from poor reservoir quality zones i.e. of the stratigraphic trap areas, and drilling locations could thus be proposed. The system remains to be adequately calibrated when core material becomes available in the area of study.

  19. Recent warming trend in the coastal region of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Way Lee; Saleem, Ayman; Sadr, Reza

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze long-term temperature-related phenomena in the eastern portion of the Middle East, focusing on the coastal region of Qatar. Extreme temperature indices were examined, which were defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, for Doha, Qatar; these indices were then compared with those from neighboring countries. The trends were calculated for a 30-year period (1983-2012), using hourly data obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The results showed spatially consistent warming trends throughout the region. For Doha, 11 of the 12 indices studied showed significant warming trends. In particular, the warming trends were represented by an increase in the number of warm days and nights and a decrease in the number of cool nights and days. The high-temperature extremes during the night have risen at more than twice the rate of their corresponding daytime extremes. The intensity and frequency of hot days have increased, and the minimum temperature indices exhibited a higher rate of warming. The climatic changes in Doha are consistent with the region-wide heat-up in recent decades across the Middle East. However, the rapid economic expansion, increase of population since the 1990s, and urban effects in the region are thought to have intensified the rapidly warming climate pattern observed in Doha since the turn of the century.

  20. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  1. A New EFL Proficiency Test for Kuwait University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Victor W.; And Others

    Kuwait University initially developed a new English placement test for students to help upgrade English language instruction throughout the country's educational system, through diagnosis of relative English proficiency levels of all secondary school graduates, determination of suitable admissions criteria for all higher education institutions,…

  2. Deformities in silver pomfret Pampus argenteus caught from Kuwait waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almatar, Sulaiman; Chen, Weizhong

    2010-11-01

    During sampling for spawning stock of the silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus in Kuwait waters, a few seriously deformed individuals were captured. These individuals had been attacked and wounded, but had healed and survived. The fish body deformities are believed to be caused by predation attempts on silver pomfret by predators such as sharks, groupers, and croakers.

  3. Teachers Stress in Public High Schools in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayeh, Raja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that may influence stress levels of secondary teachers in Kuwait. This study was important for two reasons; first, no previous investigation on this topic among Kuwaiti secondary educators had taken place, and second, the findings of this study could serve to develop and implement secondary…

  4. The Efficiency of Public Schools: The Case of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Nadeem A.; Johnes, Jill; Al-Enezi, Mohammed; Al-Musallam, Marwa

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical, and allocative efficiencies of public schools in Kuwait over four levels of schooling (kindergartens, primary, intermediate and secondary) and two periods (1999/2000 and 2004/2005) using data envelopment analysis. Mean pure technical efficiency varies between 0.695 and 0.852 across all levels of education;

  5. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt April 14-16, 2013, published at 78 FR 7752, February 4, 2013. The effect of this... participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced that the...

  6. The Efficiency of Public Schools: The Case of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Nadeem A.; Johnes, Jill; Al-Enezi, Mohammed; Al-Musallam, Marwa

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical, and allocative efficiencies of public schools in Kuwait over four levels of schooling (kindergartens, primary, intermediate and secondary) and two periods (1999/2000 and 2004/2005) using data envelopment analysis. Mean pure technical efficiency varies between 0.695 and 0.852 across all levels of education;…

  7. Attitudes of Kuwait University Students towards Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia

    2015-01-01

    This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…

  8. Investigating Students' Beliefs about Arabic Language Programs at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shaye, Shaye S.

    2009-01-01

    The current study attempted to identify students' of Arabic programs beliefs about their chosen programs. To achieve this purpose, a survey was developed to collect the data from randomly selected students in liberal-arts and education-based programs at Kuwait University. The results showed that students were statistically differentiated as a…

  9. A Bilingual Braille Book-Printing System in Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mater, O. A.; Al-Otaibi, A. S.; Darwish, H. Q.; AL-Ghurair, N. A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a bilingual (Arabic-English) computerized braille-printing system for students with blindness that has been implemented at Kuwait Special Schools. The various facets of the system, including the hardware used, are discussed, and the features of the system are highlighted. Recommendations and future applications are also presented.…

  10. The Lost Kuwait Initiative: The Failure Has Come from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2011-01-01

    A conference titled "Preparing Special Education Teachers in Mild/Moderate Disabilities: Programs, Models, and Exemplary Field Experiences" was organized by College of Education at Kuwait University between April 11-13, 2010. This conference was intended to lead to a better teacher preparation program in the region in the area of mild and moderate…

  11. Refining Procedures: A Needs Analysis Project at Kuwait University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basturkmen, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the procedures followed in the needs analysis (NA) project carried out in 1996 at the College of Petroleum and Engineering at Kuwait University. Focuses on the steps taken in the project and the rationale behind them. Offers an illustration of an NA project and to show the procedural steps involved. (Author/VWL)

  12. 78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, to... FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced that... its fight against drug smuggling and counterfeit products, Egypt requires container scanning...

  13. Building Capacity for Oman's Online Teacher Training: Making an International Partnership Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Gregory C.; Al-Rahbi, Fathiya

    2008-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman recently investigated the viability of online teacher training through a joint project funded by the U.S. Middle East Partnership Initiative and the Oman Ministry of Education. One aspect of the project was to build sufficient capacity within the Ministry to enable Oman to produce online training in the future. This article

  14. Building Capacity for Oman's Online Teacher Training: Making an International Partnership Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Gregory C.; Al-Rahbi, Fathiya

    2008-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman recently investigated the viability of online teacher training through a joint project funded by the U.S. Middle East Partnership Initiative and the Oman Ministry of Education. One aspect of the project was to build sufficient capacity within the Ministry to enable Oman to produce online training in the future. This article…

  15. Introduction of East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus to Oman harks back to "Zanzibar, the capital of Oman".

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Matrushi, Abdulrahman M; Fauquet, Claude M; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-02-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is the most devastating disease of the subsistence crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) across Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The disease is caused by viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae)-seven species have been identified so far. The Sultanate of Oman is unusual among countries in Arabia in growing cassava on a small scale for local consumption. During a recent survey in A'Seeb wilayat of Muscat governorate, Oman, cassava plants were identified with symptoms typical of CMD. A begomovirus, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), was isolated from symptomatic plants. This virus was previously only known to occur in Zanzibar and Kenya. During the 19th Century, Zanzibar was governed by Oman and was so important that the Sultan of Oman moved his capital there from Muscat. After a period of colonial rule, the governing Arab elite was overthrown, following independence in the 1960s, and many expatriate Omanis returned to their homeland. Having gained a liking for the local Zanzibar cuisine, it appears that returning Omanis did not wish to do without dishes made from one particular favorite, cassava. Consequently, they carried planting material back to Oman for cultivation in their kitchen gardens. The evidence suggests that this material harbored EACMZV. Recently, Oman has been shown to be a nexus for geminiviruses and their associated satellites from diverse geographic origins. With their propensity to recombine, a major mechanism for evolution of geminiviruses, and the fact that Oman (and several other Arabian countries) is a major hub for trade and travel by air and sea, the possibility of onward spread is worrying. PMID:23085885

  16. Source apportionment of fine particles in Kuwait City.

    PubMed

    Alolayan, Mohammad A; Brown, Kathleen W; Evans, John S; Bouhamra, Walid S; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated major sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Kuwait based on a sampling program conducted between February 2004 and October 2005. Three source identification techniques were used in this study: (1) a positive matrix factorization model; (2) backward trajectory profiles; and (3) concentration rose plots. Five major sources of PM2.5 were estimated. These were sand dust (sand storms), oil combustion (power plants), petrochemical industry (fertilizer, nylon or catalyst regeneration facilities), traffic (vehicle emissions and road dust) and transported emissions (emissions from outside Kuwait, such as those from automobiles, road dust or smelters). The estimated contributions to PM2.5 of these sources were: 54% from sand dust, 18% from oil combustion, 12% from petrochemical industry, 11% from traffic and 5% from anthropogenic sources transported from outside the country. Oil combustion, petrochemical industry and traffic were found to emanate from local sources, whereas sand dust and some emissions from traffic, and possibly smelters, appeared to originate from sources outside of Kuwait (transported). The PM2.5 levels in Kuwait during our previous sampling study averaged 53μg/m(3). More than half of the measured PM2.5 appears to have been due to crustal material, much originating outside of the country. However, the relatively high levels of PM2.5 contributed by anthropogenic local sources, such as oil combustion, petrochemical industry emissions, and traffic indicated that there may be great opportunities for Kuwait to improve public health. The application of cost-effective emission controls and development of forward looking environmental health policies have the potential to significantly reduce emissions, population exposures to PM2.5 and the burden of mortality and morbidity from air pollution. PMID:23270730

  17. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Oman: 
A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, AbdulAziz; Al-Sheibani, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to analyze all cases of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) in Oman to determine the most common clinical presentation, whether it is associated with certain tribes in Oman, and its distribution in different regions of the country. We also looked at the histopathological diagnosis, treatment modality, recurrence, and metastasis. Methods This retrospective chart analysis was performed using the data of all patients with NPC who presented to the Al Nahdha Hospital (the main tertiary hospital of head and neck surgery in Oman) from January 2003 until August 2011. Results Twenty-six cases of NPC were included in the final study population. Muscat (the capital city of Oman) had the highest number of cases followed by the Ash Sharqiyah, Al-Batinah, and Dhofar regions. The largest number of cases were found in the Al-Balushi tribe. Cases had a bimodal distribution within two age groups (20–30 years and 50–60 years). Follow-up ranged between six months and seven years. Conclusion Neck mass and nasal symptoms were the most common presentations of NPC in Oman. Further studies, with a larger sample size are required in order to support our results. PMID:26171122

  18. Implementation of the K-12 Education Reform in Qatar's Schools. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan Gery W.; Karam, Rita; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Orr, Nate; Goldman, Charles A.; Al-Thani, Hessa; Al-Obaidli, Kholode

    2009-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar is greatly invested in its K-12 education reform, "Education for a New Era," because it views education as the key to the nation's economic and social progress. This study, one of a number of RAND studies that trace and document the reform process in Qatar, was designed to assess progress made in the first years of the K-12…

  19. Qatar pharmacists' understanding, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al-Saeed, Hassna Sohil; Khaja, Maryam

    2016-04-01

    Background Pharmaceutical care (PC) is the philosophy of practice that includes identifying and resolving medication therapy problems to improve patient outcomes. Objectives The study objectives were to examine the extent of pharmaceutical care practice and the barriers to pharmaceutical care provision as perceived by Qatar pharmacists and to assess their level of understanding of pharmaceutical care and their attitudes about pharmaceutical care provision. Setting Qatar pharmacies. Methods A cross sectional survey of all pharmacists in Qatar was made. Consenting pharmacists were given the option to complete the survey either online using an online software or as paper by fax or by hand. Main outcome measures 1. Extent of pharmaceutical care practice in Qatar. 2. Barriers to pharmaceutical care provision in Qatar. 3. Qatar pharmacists' level of understanding of pharmaceutical care. 4. Qatar pharmacists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical care provision. Results Over 8 weeks, 274 surveys were collected (34 % response rate). More than 80 % of respondents had correct understanding of the aim of PC and of the pharmacist role in PC. However, only 47 % recognized the patient role in PC and only 35 % were aware of the differences between clinical pharmacy and PC. Yet, more than 80 % believed that they could be advocates when it comes to patients' medications and health matters. Concerning their practice, respondents reported spending little time on PC activities. Offering feedback to the physician about the patient progress was always or most of the time performed by 21 % of respondents. The top perceived barriers for PC provision included inconvenient access to patient medical information (78 %) and lack of staff and time (77 and 74 % respectively). Conclusions Although PC is not incorporated into pharmacy practice, Qatar pharmacists showed positive attitudes toward PC provision. Further work should focus on improving their PC understanding and on overcoming all barriers. PMID:26758716

  20. Type 2 diabetes in the sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Shookri, A; Khor, G L; Chan, Y M; Loke, S C; Al-Maskari, M

    2011-04-01

    During the past four decades, Oman has undergone a rapid socioe-conomic and epidemiological transition leading to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of various communicable diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases. Health care planning together with the commitment of policy makers has been a critical factor in this reduction. However, with rapid social and economic growth, lifestyle-related non communicable diseases have emerged as new health challenges to the country. Diabetes and obesity are leading risks posed by the chronic diseases. The burden of diabetes has increased sharply in Oman over the last decade, rising from 8.3% in 1991 to 11.6% in 2000 among adults aged 20 years and older. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicted an increase of 190% in the number of subjects living with diabetes in Oman over the next 20 years, rising from 75,000 in 2000 to 217,000 in 2025. There is a lack of awareness of the major risk factors for diabetes mellitus in the Omani population generally. As education is often the most significant predictor of knowledge regarding risk factors, complications and the prevention of diabetes, health promotion in Oman is deemed critical, along with other prevention and control measures. Suitable prevention strategies for reducing the prevalence of diabetes in Oman are discussed. Recommendations are made for reforms in the current health care system; otherwise, diabetes will constitute a major drain on Oman's human and financial resources, threatening the advances in health and longevity achieved over the past decades. PMID:22135872

  1. Metal distribution in marine sediment along the Doha Bay, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Naimi, Hajer A; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Yafe, Mehsin; Al-Meer, Saeed

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations of 25 heavy metals (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn and Hg) in surface sediments along the Doha Bay from 10 transects each with five stations were studied. Significant differences were observed in metal concentrations between the sampling locations and durations. Higher concentrations were observed in areas where there are a lot of anthropological activities. The distribution of selected metals was presented in contour maps showing the variation between the two periods. In order to further study particle size effect on metal uptake, two different grinding times were administered on four randomly selected samples and the results showed no significant difference on the analysis in the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) instrument. The overall results of metal analyses were within the international standards criteria, and the results were comparable to the previous studies conducted around Qatar. PMID:25701472

  2. The Social Organization of Nurses' Pain Management Work in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Khadra; Rankin, Janet; Al-Tawafsheh, Atef

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the social organization of nurses' pain management work in Qatar. The research data drew our attention to unacceptable delays in intervening with patients in pain. We describe and analyze delays in opioid administration. Institutional ethnography was the method of inquiry used to guide the study. The main findings of the study reveal that there is a socially organized system of delays built into nurses' work to manage pain. Nurses are subject to time-consuming processes of securing, handling, and administering opioids. This study's innovative approach introduces a promising "alternate" analysis to prior work investigating hospital nurses' pain management practices. Both the method of inquiry and the findings have international relevance for researchers interested in undertreated pain. PMID:26460281

  3. Seasonal Characteristics of Planetary Boundary Layer in Qatar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Luis; Ayoub, Mohammed A.; Astudillo, Daniel P.; Bachour, Dunia A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) development as well as its seasonal characteristics is essential for predicting meteorological and air quality phenomena. Using data from the vertical backscatter profile of the atmosphere above Qatar from a ceilometer, coupled with a novel Layer Identification Algorithm (LIA) developed by QEERI, a continuous time series of the PBL has been attained. This data has been carefully validated against in-situ measurements via coinciding radiosonde launches. These launches were performed weekly at 13:00 local time during 2014; with occasional launches at 07:00. The detected PBL depth from the sondes show good correlation with LIA. This algorithm uses image recognition methods to identify boundary layers not only by their vertical characteristics; but also by their temporal and spatial signatures. This algorithm was written in Python and is designed to process the ceilometer's output data in real time or as a post-process. The behavior of the PBL depth diurnal variation in Qatar was observed to vary in correlation with the change in seasons. During the winter months the mean PBL depth was higher compared to the summer months; in addition, the diurnal amplitude was higher during winter. Apart from seasonal variations in the PBL depth behavior, short term fluctuations in the daily signature of the PBL structure were observed; with some days exhibiting a well-developed PBL followed by a day with no significant PBL variation. This behavior of the summer PBL (lower daily mean depth and lower diurnal amplitude relative to winter) was explained after looking at diurnal humidity and temperature variations. During these months, the intense temperature and humidity enhances the energy flux towards latent heat, actually diminishing the effect of the high insolation towards the development of the PBL. Lower mean PBL depths during the months of higher photochemical activity affect surface concentrations of secondary pollutants and particle matter.

  4. No variations in transit times for Qatar-1 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Ohlert, J.; Puchalski, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Seeliger, M.; Kitze, M.; Raetz, St.; Errmann, R.; Gilbert, H.; Pannicke, A.; Schmidt, J.-G.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The transiting hot-Jupiter planet Qatar-1 b exhibits variations in transit times that could be perturbative. A hot Jupiter with a planetary companion on a nearby orbit would constitute an unprecedented planetary configuration, which is important for theories of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We performed a photometric follow-up campaign to confirm or refute transit timing variations. Methods: We extend the baseline of transit observations by acquiring 18 new transit light curves acquired with 0.6-2.0 m telescopes. These photometric time series, together with data available in the literature, were analyzed in a homogenous way to derive reliable transit parameters and their uncertainties. Results: We show that the dataset of transit times is consistent with a linear ephemeris leaving no hint of any periodic variations with a range of 1 min. We find no compelling evidence of a close-in planetary companion to Qatar-1 b. This finding is in line with a paradigm that hot Jupiters are not components of compact multiplanetary systems. Based on dynamical simulations, we place tighter constraints on the mass of any fictitious nearby planet in the system. Furthermore, new transit light curves allowed us to redetermine system parameters with better precision than reported in previous studies. Our values generally agree with previous determinations. Partly based on (1) data collected with telescopes at the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory and (2) observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.Tables of light curve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A109

  5. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  6. Structural reliability assessment of the Oman India Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sharif, A.M.; Preston, R.

    1996-12-31

    Reliability techniques are increasingly finding application in design. The special design conditions for the deep water sections of the Oman India Pipeline dictate their use since the experience basis for application of standard deterministic techniques is inadequate. The paper discusses the reliability analysis as applied to the Oman India Pipeline, including selection of a collapse model, characterization of the variability in the parameters that affect pipe resistance to collapse, and implementation of first and second order reliability analyses to assess the probability of pipe failure. The reliability analysis results are used as the basis for establishing the pipe wall thickness requirements for the pipeline.

  7. Assessment of nutrition knowledge and related aspects among first-year Kuwait University students.

    PubMed

    El-Sabban, Farouk; Badr, Hanan E

    2011-01-01

    Assessing nutrition knowledge of populations assists in drawing strategies for education programs. Nutrition-related problems are common in Kuwait, thus data on nutrition knowledge are needed. This study involved administration of a questionnaire to 1,037 first-year Kuwait University students. The overall nutrition knowledge score was rated as fair, with deficiency in specific areas of knowledge. Students' dietary habits, attitudes, and interest in nutrition information were assessed as fair. Our findings will aid in building a nutrition knowledge database in Kuwait. A simplified course on aspects of healthy nutrition and lifestyle to all Kuwait University students is highly recommended. PMID:21888596

  8. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed.

  9. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  10. Recreational Value of an Oasis in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekri, Slim; Mbaga, Msafiri; Fouzai, Ayoub; Al-Shaqsi, Saif

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for water to develop non-agricultural activities is causing water to be diverted to high-value uses at the expense of irrigation. However, agriculture provides a flow of amenities in the desert environment which are not either accounted or paid. Oases are spread all over the globe and are threatened for various reasons among which is the high pressure of demand for fresh water. This paper estimates the recreation use value of an oasis. The paper is based on the Misfat Al-Abryeen oasis in Oman, a man-made area of streams and woodland. The travel cost method is used through an on-site questionnaire distributed to 230 visitors. Around 75% of visitors to the oasis also visited other historical or ecological sites during the same day-trip. The econometric model is estimated using negative binomial regression with endogenous stratification. The average consumer surplus, or benefit, from visiting Misfat Al-Abryeen is estimated at US 104.74 per individual per trip. The total social benefit from this oasis is estimated at 366,590 per year. These results underscore the importance of the role played by irrigated agriculture in the provision of amenity services for the tourism sector in a desert environment. The sustainability of the irrigation activity depends on the recognition of the recreation role of oases and the transfer of part of these benefits to the farmers who maintain the irrigation system. The implementation of an entrance fee to the oasis might increase farmers' profit by 6-21%.

  11. Recreational value of an oasis in Oman.

    PubMed

    Zekri, Slim; Mbaga, Msafiri; Fouzai, Ayoub; Al-Shaqsi, Saif

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for water to develop non-agricultural activities is causing water to be diverted to high-value uses at the expense of irrigation. However, agriculture provides a flow of amenities in the desert environment which are not either accounted or paid. Oases are spread all over the globe and are threatened for various reasons among which is the high pressure of demand for fresh water. This paper estimates the recreation use value of an oasis. The paper is based on the Misfat Al-Abryeen oasis in Oman, a man-made area of streams and woodland. The travel cost method is used through an on-site questionnaire distributed to 230 visitors. Around 75% of visitors to the oasis also visited other historical or ecological sites during the same day-trip. The econometric model is estimated using negative binomial regression with endogenous stratification. The average consumer surplus, or benefit, from visiting Misfat Al-Abryeen is estimated at US$ 104.74 per individual per trip. The total social benefit from this oasis is estimated at $366,590 per year. These results underscore the importance of the role played by irrigated agriculture in the provision of amenity services for the tourism sector in a desert environment. The sustainability of the irrigation activity depends on the recognition of the recreation role of oases and the transfer of part of these benefits to the farmers who maintain the irrigation system. The implementation of an entrance fee to the oasis might increase farmers' profit by 6-21%. PMID:21519874

  12. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective To investigate pharmacy students attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. Results The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Conclusion Pharmacy students attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also recognizing the barriers to its widespread adoption. The education and training provided at Kuwait University Faculty of Pharmacy is designed to develop students to be the change agents who can advance pharmacist-provided direct patient care. PMID:25243027

  13. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat

    2012-01-01

    Background Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). Conclusion A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait. PMID:23272649

  14. Spatial and temporal characterizations of water quality in Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, N; Abahussain, A; El-Battay, A

    2014-06-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay have been investigated using data from six stations between 2009 and 2011. The results showed that most of water quality parameters such as phosphorus (PO4), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fluctuated over time and space. Based on Water Quality Index (WQI) data, six stations were significantly clustered into two main classes using cluster analysis, one group located in western side of the Bay, and other in eastern side. Three principal components are responsible for water quality variations in the Bay. The first component included DO and pH. The second included PO4, TSS and NO3, and the last component contained seawater temperature and turbidity. The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay are mainly controlled by seasonal variations and discharges from point sources of pollution along Kuwait Bay's coast as well as from Shatt Al-Arab River. PMID:24768174

  15. Burnout and Work Stress among Disability Centers Staff in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan

    2015-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to maximize the potential of children with disabilities in Oman. The establishment of Al-Wafaa centers of disabilities served as a channel to help families secure a variety of services provided to children with different disabling conditions. The purpose of this study was to explore the burnout of staff working in…

  16. A Need for a Framework for Curriculum Evaluation in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jardani, Khalid Salim; Siraj, Saedah; Abedalaziz, Nabeel

    2012-01-01

    The field of curriculum evaluation is a key part of the educational process. This means that this area needs to be developed continuously and requires ongoing research. This paper highlights curriculum evaluation in Oman, different evaluation procedures and methods and instruments used. The need for a framework for curriculum evaluation is a vital…

  17. A Need for a Framework for Curriculum Evaluation in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jardani, Khalid Salim; Siraj, Saedah; Abedalaziz, Nabeel

    2012-01-01

    The field of curriculum evaluation is a key part of the educational process. This means that this area needs to be developed continuously and requires ongoing research. This paper highlights curriculum evaluation in Oman, different evaluation procedures and methods and instruments used. The need for a framework for curriculum evaluation is a vital

  18. Toward Differentiated Assessment in a Public College in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated assessment (DA) seeks to address the individual differences between students and provides them with the appropriate assessment strategy. This paper looks into the possibility of implementing differentiated assessment in a public college in Oman. Additionally, it attempts to explore teachers' views about the possibility of…

  19. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  20. The Case of Oman: Preparatory Level. Evaluation of Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razik, Taher A.

    This report assesses the preparatory school curriculum in the Sultanate of Oman. This 3-year post-primary program is comparatively new in the infrastructure. General education is stressed and some practical studies are included. The evaluation examined the degree of congruence between the designers' intentions (as expressed in learning objectives

  1. The Case of Oman: Primary Level. Evaluation of Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razik, Taher A.

    This report assesses the 1987 primary school (grades 1 through 6) curriculum in the Sultanate of Oman. The evaluation examined the degree of congruence between the designers' intentions (as expressed in learning objectives and recommendations for implementation) and the conceptions of administrators in the country's nine school districts and

  2. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...This document amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') regulations on an interim basis to implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of...

  3. FIRST REPORT OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA ON WHEAT IN OMAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important crop in the Sultanate of Oman, cultivated both as a forage crop for livestock and for grain production. In April 2005, leaf samples of an unknown local variety showing rust symptoms were collected from Rustaq, 100 km south west of Muscat. Circular to ova...

  4. Barriers to Adopting Technology for Teaching and Learning in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Senaidi, Said; Lin, Lin; Poirot, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the perceived barriers to adopting information and communication technologies (ICT) in Omani higher education. One hundred faculty members from four different departments at the College of Applied Sciences in Oman participated in the study. The participants took a survey, which was developed based on the Western literature.…

  5. Educational Assessment Profile of Teachers in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said; Alnabhani, Hilal; Alkalbani, Muna

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on a previous pilot study conducted by Alkharusi, Aldhafri, Alnabhani, and Alkalbani (2012) to explore educational assessment attitudes, competence, knowledge, and practices of in-service teachers in the Sultanate of Oman. The present study extends the previous pilot study by surveying a larger sample of in-serivce teachers…

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; H. Tageldin, Mohammed.; Weir, William; Al-Fahdi, Amira; Johnson, Eugene H.; Bobade, Patrick; Alqamashoui, Badar; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Thompson, Joanne; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Babiker, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Background Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle. Methods Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites) representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman. Results We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia). A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST’ = 0.075, θ = 0.07) were detected when the data for T. annulata parasites in Oman was compared with that previously generated for Turkey and Tunisia. Conclusion Genetic analyses of T. annulata samples representing four geographical regions in Oman revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the parasite population. There was little evidence of genetic differentiation between parasites from different regions, and a high level of genetic diversity was maintained within each sub-population. These findings are consistent with a high parasite transmission rate and frequent movement of animals between different regions in Oman. PMID:26469349

  7. Fracture-related diagenesis in the carbonate carapace of a salt dome, Jebel Madar, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahr, J.; John, C. M.; Cosgrove, J. W.; Vandeginste, V.; Sena, C. N.; Jourdan, A.

    2010-12-01

    This study is being carried out in the Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre (QCCSRC) at Imperial College and focuses on the interplay between fractures, diagenetic fluid flow and precipitation of diagenetic minerals in an exposed carbonate carapace of a salt dome in Oman. Understanding fault-related mineralization and the differences between diagenesis in the fractures and fracture walls compared to diagenesis in the rock matrix will help prediction of the reservoir quality of such fractured carapaces in the subsurface. The research questions addressed here are a) what controls the timing, distribution and geometry of fractures in the carapace of a salt dome? b) what controls the timing of the precipitation of minerals in the fracture network? To answer these questions, a dual approach combining structural geology with carbonate diagenesis is being applied. The origin of the fluids and their role in fracturing and diagenesis is being investigated by means of geochemistry and petrography and the processes of fracturing, fluid flow and the migration of fluids along pathways will be determined by reconstructing the structural history by a combination of field mapping and seismic interpretation. This dual approach is powerful and can be used to determine the history of fluid flow. Ultimately, the aim is to develop conceptual models linking fracturation and fluid flow during halokinesis with diagenesis. Jebel Madar is situated in the southern foothills of the Oman Mountains and is a folded and fractured salt dome carapace comprising Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. The structural history of the Jebel is currently being reconstructed using fracture analysis of structural data gathered during fieldwork. This will be augmented with the interpretation of seismic profiles. Initial results indicate that the dominant fracture orientations are ~ N-S and NE-SW. Using the cross-cutting relationships of the fractures an attempt is being made to establish their chronology. To understand the diagenetic history of the fracture infill, several techniques are being used including petrography, major and trace elemental analysis, fluid inclusion, and stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. An important observation made in the fractures of the Jebel Madar is that several generations of calcite cements exist, with crystals ranging in size from several cm in the centre of the fracture to compact, mm- sized crystals close to the host rock. In addition, in some fractures barite and calcite have been co-precipitated, an observation which, with the aid of fluid inclusion studies, could yield the composition and possible origin of the parent diagenetic fluids. The presence of minerals in fractures indicates that these latter acted as fluid pathways. Initial stable isotope results suggest that the precipitating fluids were hot, with average values of δ 18O of -9.74 ‰ PDB and δ 13C of 1.19 ‰ PDB. Initial results indicate that the regional stress stimulated the local development of salt diapirs which produced local stress fields that totally dominated the timing and pattern of fracturing and fluid migration.

  8. Getting Its Ducks in a Row? Qatar Foundation's Agreement with HEC Paris and the Launch of the Qatar Foundation Management, Education and Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week, private, non-profit organisation the Qatar Foundation (QF) announced a partnership agreement with French business institution HEC Paris to offer executive education programmes. According to the terms of the agreement, a full-time faculty will provide executive and short certificate programmes and corporate-specific training, including…

  9. Getting Its Ducks in a Row? Qatar Foundation's Agreement with HEC Paris and the Launch of the Qatar Foundation Management, Education and Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week, private, non-profit organisation the Qatar Foundation (QF) announced a partnership agreement with French business institution HEC Paris to offer executive education programmes. According to the terms of the agreement, a full-time faculty will provide executive and short certificate programmes and corporate-specific training, including

  10. A Center for Mideast Oceanographic Data in Muscat, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, S.; Belabbassi, L.; Du Vall, K.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Lighthouse designed and installed a real-time cabled ocean observing system off the northern coast of the Sultanate of Oman in 2005 and a second system, farther to the south, existed as autonomous moorings from 2005-2009 and was upgraded to a real-time cabled system in early 2010. Since 2005 Lighthouse has operated and maintained those systems to produce a wealth of data on a poorly understood region of the global oceans. The systems record data hourly on current velocities over a range of depths, and temperature, pressure, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity at the depth of the sensor; the northern system also collects seismic and bottom pressure (tsunami detection) information continuously. Processing codes for all data have been developed and honed over the years in cooperation with oceanographers from Texas A&M University. As a joint and complementary effort, ocean circulation and tsunami impact models have been developed for the regional waters near Oman. In Oman, our work is coordinated through the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth. From the beginning, Lighthouse has intended to transition data processing and analysis over to the Sultanate. To facilitate this transition, we propose to establish a Center for Mideast Oceanographic Data located in Muscat, Oman that may also serve as a regional oceanographic data depository and research center. Main activities to be carried out include: marine data processing and management, training of Omani professionals in data processing and analysis, facilitating regional and international collaboration by hosting workshops or short courses, and employing the models for research purposes. The center would work with the newly-established Hazard Monitoring Center to develop modeled now- and forecast products for marine operations and safety. The goal is to house, in a single location, datasets and models that will help Oman manage and maintain its marine environment and resources for generations to come.

  11. Meeting the Challenge: Quality Systems in Private Higher Education in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Atiqi, Imad M.; Alharbi, Lafi M.

    2009-01-01

    In Kuwait, as in other rapidly-developing higher education systems, one major area of concern is ensuring the quality of education offered by private providers. This paper briefly reviews the history of the development of higher education in Kuwait since its inception in 1936. It considers various quality systems currently in place in other…

  12. Curriculum Implementation and Reform: Teachers' Views about Kuwait's New Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshammari, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The MoE (Ministry of Education) in the state of Kuwait is starting to reform the science curriculum in all school academic stages: primary (1-5) grades, intermediate (6-9) grades, and secondary (10-12) grades. The purpose of this study was to explore the opinions of science teachers about Kuwait's new sixth and seventh grade science curriculum,

  13. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi... Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait City, Kuwait, from September 28-October 1, 2013. The mission will focus on the cyber security, critical...

  14. Primary School Teachers' Perceptions regarding ICT Usage and Equipment in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharbi, Ghazwa

    2012-01-01

    Education institutions around the world have seen rapid advances in ICT (Information Communication Technology) within the classroom since the mid 90's. Kuwait has realized the need for a high quality education system, and has seen huge increases in government funding for schools over the last 10 years. However, Kuwait's spending on technology and…

  15. Observations of Students in English as a Second Language at Kuwait University: 1974-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinhoff, Michael; Meinhoff, Joan

    This is a collection of papers which discusses characteristics of ESL (English as a Second Language) students in Kuwait. The first chapter, "Oral Communication," notes the extreme facility with which these students communicate in English. Chapter Two, "Names," explains how people in Kuwait are named and addressed. Chapter Three, "The Effects of…

  16. Managing Time: A Study among Arab Open University Tutors in Kuwait Branch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, Abdin M.; Ismail, Omer H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate how tutors at the Arab Open University (AOU) in Kuwait Branch manage their time given workloads they are assigned. Group interviews were conducted with a sample that was selected from AOU tutors in Kuwait branch. The findings showed that tutors do not ask for more time or cut down workloads; instead,

  17. Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

  18. Education for a New Era: Design and Implementation of K-12 Education Reform in Qatar. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar has a social and political vision that calls for improving the outcomes of the Qatari K-12 education system. With this vision in mind, the leadership asked RAND to examine Qatar's K-12 education system, to recommend options for building a world-class system, and, subsequently, to develop the chosen option and support its…

  19. Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

  20. All That Glitters Is Not Gold: Challenges of Teacher and School Leader Licensure Licensing System in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellili-Cherif, Maha; Romanowski, Michael H.; Nasser, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the Government of Qatar began a comprehensive education reform (Education for a New Era) based on RAND's recommendations and options for building an educational system that would meet the country's changing needs. Nine years later, Qatar's educational landscape has significantly changed. Among these changes is the introduction of…

  1. 75 FR 66360 - Transportation and Energy Products and Services Trade Mission; Doha, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Contact: Dao Lee, U.S. Commercial Service, Doha, Qatar, Tel: 011- 974-488-4101/Fax: 011-974-488-4163, E- mail: Dao.Lee@trade.gov . U.S. Commercial Service Qatar Contact: Ms. Laurie Farris, U.S....

  2. Consanguineous unions and child health in the State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Hussain, Rafat

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and sociodemographic predictors of consanguineous unions in the State of Qatar and to assess the association between consanguinity, fertility and child health. A representative sample of 1800 Qatari women aged > or =15 years was approached for the study. Of these, 1515 (84.2%) women agreed to participate. The consanguineous marriage rate was 54.0% with estimated population confidence limits of 52.3-55.7%. First cousin unions were the most common form of cousin marriage. The level of parental consanguinity (both in the respondent's parents and her parents-in-law) was quite high. In a multivariable analysis, both education of the respondent and her husband as well as parental consanguinity were found to be strong predictors of consanguineous unions in the index generation. Although fertility was high in both groups, the mean number of pregnancies was somewhat higher in respondents with first cousin unions. Concomitantly they also had a slighter higher rate of livebirths than women in non-consanguineous unions. The occurrence of asthma, mental retardation, epilepsy and diabetes was significantly more common in offspring of all consanguineous than non-consanguineous couples. PMID:16911015

  3. The hydrogeology of complex lens conditions in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, J. W.; Pike, J. G.; Eccleston, B. L.; Chidley, T. R. E.

    1987-01-01

    The emirate of Qatar lies on a peninsula extending northward from the mainland of Saudi Arabia into the Arabian Gulf. The peninsula is underlain by sedimentary rocks ranging from late Cretaceous to Holocene age but only two Lower Tertiary units are identified as aquifers. The groundwater distribution in these units is seen to be controlled by facies distributions related to tectonically controlled sedimentation and subsequent dissolution. Dissolution has created permeability, in the Umm er Rhaduma limestones and in the overlying Rus anhydrites. In the latter case the dissolution has lead to extensive surface collapse which has provided a mechanism for recharge from runoff. Despite very low rainfall and high evaporation rates, recharge related to storm runoff has resulted in the establishment of a complex fresh groundwater lens in both aquifer units. The lens is constrained by saline groundwaters which in the lower unit are controlled by heads in eastern Saudi Arabia but in the upper unit by the Arabian Gulf sea level. Groundwater abstraction is shown to be distorting the fresh groundwater lens configuration, and estimates of the resultant flow responses affecting the lens are given.

  4. Tailoring Morning Reports to an Internal Medicine Residency in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Dousa, Khalid Mohamed Ali; Muneer, Mohammed; Rahil, Ali; Al-Mohammed, Ahmed; AlMohanadi, Dabia; Elhiday, Abdelhaleem; Hamad, Abdelrahman; Albizreh, Bassim; Suliman, Noor; Muhsin, Saif

    2014-01-01

    Background Morning report, a case-based conference that allows learners and teachers to interact and discuss patient care, is a standard educational feature of internal residency programs, as well as some other specialties. Objective Our intervention was aimed at enhancing the format for morning report in our internal medicine residency program in Doha, Qatar. Intervention In July 2011, we performed a needs assessment of the 115 residents in our internal medicine residency program, using a questionnaire. Resident input was analyzed and prioritized using the percentage of residents who agreed with a given recommendation for improving morning report. We translated the input into interventions that enhanced the format and content, and improved environmental factors surrounding morning report. We resurveyed residents using the questionnaire that was used for the needs assessment. Results Key changes to the format for morning report included improving organization, adding variety to the content, enhancing case selection and the quality of presentations, and introducing patient safety and quality improvement topics into discussions. This led to a morning report format that is resident-driven, and resident-led, and that produces resident-focused learning and quality improvement activities. Conclusions Our revised morning report format is a dynamic tool, and we will continue to tailor and modify it on an ongoing basis in response to participant feedback. We recommend a process of assessing and reassessing morning report for other programs that want to enhance resident interest and participation in clinical and safety-focused discussions. PMID:26140142

  5. Trauma research in Qatar: a literature review and discussion of progress after establishment of a trauma research centre.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, A; Asim, M; Zarour, A; Abdelrahman, H; Peralta, R; Parchani, A; Al-Thani, H

    2016-11-01

    A structured research programme is one of the main pillars of a trauma care system. Despite the high rate of injury-related mortalities, especially road traffic accidents, in Qatar, little consideration has been given to research in trauma. This review aimed to analyse research publications on the subject of trauma published from Qatar and to discuss the progress of clinical research in Qatar and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries with special emphasis on trauma research. A literature search using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines located 757 English-language articles within the fields of internal medicine, surgery and trauma originating from Qatar between the years 1993 and 2013. A steep increase in the number of trauma publications since 2010 could be linked to the setting up of a trauma research centre in Qatar in 2011. We believe that establishing a research unit has made a major impact on research productivity, which ultimately benefits health care. PMID:26857718

  6. Anaglyph, Landsat overlay, Southernmost Coastal Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D view of a coastal area in southernmost Oman shows how topographic information can be used to enhance satellite images, deriving a better understanding of the processes that sculpt the landscape. The coastline in the upper half of the image appears to follow the same trend as a canyon in the lower half of the image. Both features are probably coincident with a single fault that cuts the limestone bedrock. Note how in this climate limestone erodes sharply along the stream courses resulting in deep and narrow canyons. Generally the landscape is barren, but the darker areas have sparse vegetation that is supported by summer monsoon moisture. The Arabian Sea is on the right.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then using the topographic data to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter (100 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 20.5 by 18.3 kilometers (12.7 by 11.3 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top-left Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  7. Characterizing surface temperature and clarity of Kuwait's seawaters using remotely sensed measurements and GIS analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

    Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The spatial and temporal distributions of these important water characteristics should be well understood to obtain a better knowledge about this productive coastal environment. The aim of this project was therefore to study the spatial and temporal distributions of: Kuwait SST using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images collected from January 2003 to July 2007; and Kuwait Secchi Disk Depth (SDD), a water clarity measure, using Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and MODIS data collected from November 1998 to October 2004 and January 2003 to June 2007, respectively. Kuwait SST was modeled based on the linear relationship between level 2 MODIS SST data and in situ SST data. MODIS SST images showed a significant relationship with in situ SST data ( r2= 0.98, n = 118, RMSE = 0.7°C). Kuwait SST images derived from MODIS data exhibited three spatial patterns of Kuwait SST across the year that were mainly attributed to the northwestern counterclockwise water circulation of the Arabian Gulf, and wind direction and intensity. The temporal variation of Kuwait SST was greatly influenced by the seasonal variation of solar intensity and air temperatures. Kuwait SDD was measured through two steps: first, computing the diffuse light attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, Kd(490), and 488 nm, Kd(488), derived from SeaWiFS and MODIS, respectively, using a semi-analytical algorithm; second, establishing two SDD models based on the empirical relationship of Kd(490) and Kd(488) with in situ SDD data. Kd(490) and Kd(488) showed a significant relationship with in situ SDD data ( r2= 0.67 and r2= 0.68, respectively). Kuwait SDD images showed distinct spatial and temporal patterns of Kuwait water clarity that were mainly attributed to three factors: the Shatt Al-Arab discharge, water circulation, and coastal currents. The SeaWiFS and MODIS data compared to in situ measurements provided a comprehensive view of the studied seawater characteristics that improved their overall estimation within Kuwait's waters. Also, the near-real-time availability of SeaWiFS and MODIS data and their highly temporal resolution make them a very advantageous tool for studying coastal environments. Thus, I recommend involving this method in monitoring Kuwait coastal environments.

  8. Do socioeconomic factors influence breast cancer screening practices among Arab women in Qatar?

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al-Meer, Nabila; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Chaudhry, Sofia; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Breast cancer incidence rates are rising in Qatar. Although the Qatari government provides subsidised healthcare and screening programmes that reduce cost barriers for residents, breast cancer screening (BCS) practices among women remain low. This study explores the influence of socioeconomic status on BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Setting A multicentre, cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted with 1063 Arab women (87.5% response rate) in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Women who were 35 years or older and had lived in Qatar for at least 10 years were recruited from seven primary healthcare centres and women's health clinics in urban and semiurban regions of Qatar. Associations between socioeconomic factors and BCS practice were estimated using χ2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Findings indicate that less than one-third of the participants practised BCS appropriately, whereas less than half of the participants were familiar with recent BCS guidelines. Married women and women with higher education and income levels were significantly more likely to be aware of and to practise BCS than women who had lower education and income levels. Conclusions Findings indicate low levels of awareness and low participation rates in BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Socioeconomic factors influence these women's participation in BCS activities. The strongest predictors for BCS practice are higher education and higher income levels. Recommendations Additional research is needed to explore the impact of economic factors on healthcare seeking behaviours in the Middle Eastern countries that have a high national gross domestic product where healthcare services are free or heavily subsidised by the government; promotion of BCS and intervention strategies in these countries should focus on raising awareness about breast cancer, the cost and benefit of early screening for this disease, particularly among low-income women. PMID:25613951

  9. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation among mothers in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the optimal way to feed infants for the first six months of life. While overall breastfeeding rates are high, exclusive breastfeeding is relatively uncommon among Middle Eastern women. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of breastfeeding amongst women in the six governorates of Kuwait and the factors associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Methods A sample of 373 women (aged 17-47 years), recruited shortly after delivery from four hospitals in Kuwait, completed a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Results In total, 92.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding and at discharge from hospital the majority of mothers were partially breastfeeding (55%), with only 30% of mothers fully breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding was the norm (81.8%) and less than 1 in 5 infants (18.2%) received colostrum as their first feed. Only 10.5% of infants had been exclusively breastfed since birth, the remainder of the breastfed infants having received either prelacteal or supplementary infant formula feeds at some time during their hospital stay. Of the mothers who attempted to breastfeed, the majority of women (55.4%) delayed their first attempt to breastfeed until 24 hours or more after delivery. Breastfeeding at discharge from hospital was positively associated with paternal support for breastfeeding and negatively associated with delivery by caesarean section and with the infant having spent time in the Special Care Nursery. Conclusions The reasons for the high use of prelacteal and supplementary formula feeding warrant investigation. Hospital policies and staff training are needed to promote the early initiation of breastfeeding and to discourage the unnecessary use of infant formula in hospital, in order to support the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding by mothers in Kuwait. PMID:20667112

  10. Permian age from radiolarites of the Hawasina nappes, Oman Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Wever, P.D. ); Grissac C.B. ); Bechennec, F. )

    1988-10-01

    The Hawasina napper of the Oman Mountains yielded Permian radiolarians from cherts stratigraphically overlying a thick volcanic basement (Al Jil Formation) at the base of the Hamrat Duru Group. This fauna represents the first Permian radiolarians and radiolarites in the central and western Tethyan realm. A Permain age for pelagic sequences within the Hawasina Complex of Oman has major significance for regional paleogeographic reconstruction. A clear differentiation between platform (reefal sediments) and basin (radiolarites) from the base of the Late Permian (255 Ma) is implied. It suggests a flexure of the platform during Permian time; the present data implies that a zone of rifting was already developed adjacent to the northeast Gondwana platform margin during the Late Permian. The Hamrat Duru Basin corresponds to an opening intracontinental rift area (sphenochasm) between Arabia and northeast Gondwana, a reentrant of the paleo-Tethys.

  11. Geomorphic changes in Ras Al-Subiyah area, Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hurban, A.; El-Gamily, H.; El-Sammak, A.

    2008-06-01

    The Ras Al-Subiyah area is considered one of the most promising areas in Kuwait for future development. This development will include a new town called Subiyah and its associated infrastructure. This area is also being considered as the location for connection between Boubyan Island, which is now undergoing major development and the Kuwait mainland. The present study investigates the geomorphology of the Ras Al-Sabiyah area in the northern sector of Kuwait. The study area is generally flat, and it is located west of the Jal Az-Zor escarpment. It is bordered on the east by the Khor Al-Sabiyah tidal channel and on the south by Kuwait Bay. The area receives sediments from several sources; currently the most important are aeolian sediments and the deposition of mud delivered through the Khor Al-Sabiyah from the Iraqi marshes. The study area has been subjected to severe environmental changes due to the Gulf wars and the drainage of Iraqi marshes and the associated artificial changes in fluvial system. Twenty-two surface sediments were collected from the Ras Al-Subiyah area. Samples were collected to include the main geomorphologic characteristic features of the study area. Field observations and remote sensing images from 1990 and 2001 were used to produce an updated geomorphologic map for the Ras Al-Subiyah and a map showing geomorphic changes between 1990 and 2001. Grain size of the surface sediment ranges from gravel to medium sand. In general, grain size statistical analysis indicates that most of the areas are composed of two or more classes of sands transported and deposited from different sources including aeolian, sabkhas, river and the bays. The variability in the grain size statistical parameters may be attributed to the complexity of surface morphology as well as the diversity in the type of depositional environment in the Ras Al-Subiyah area. The total area subjected to change during the 12-year period (1990 2001) is about 32 km2 as calculated using GIS techniques.

  12. Heavy metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast

    SciTech Connect

    Buo-Olayan, A.H.; Subrahmanyam, M.N.V.

    1996-12-31

    Marine algae are considered as important primary producers in the coastal region. Several marine algal species are being considered as raw material for various economically important products and this has resulted in their increasing demand. Marine algal species also have been suggested to be the indicators of pollution. Keeping in view the importance of marine algal species for direct or indirect human and cattle consumption, it is necessary to monitor the bioaccumulation of certain elements in these species. This study was aimed at establishing the concentration levels of trace metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Toxic metals in imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, A.; Baroon, Z.; Al-Khalafawi, M.

    1995-12-31

    The concentration of lead, cadmium, and mercury in 134 samples of imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace and the cold vapor technique. Results obtained showed that the concentration of these metal ions in most cases did not exceed the maximum permissible concentration of metals in fresh fruits and vegetables as restricted by some countries. Only a few samples of fruits and vegetables contained levels of mercury, cadmium, and lead which exceeded these maximum permissible levels.

  14. Spatial assessment of monitoring network in coastal waters: a case study of Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf; AbaHussain, Asma; El-Battay, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Spatial analyses of water-quality-monitoring networks in coastal waters are important because pollution sources vary temporally and spatially. This study was conducted to evaluate the spatial distribution of the water-quality-monitoring network of Kuwait Bay using both geostatistical and multivariate techniques. Three years of monthly data collected from six existing monitoring stations covering Kuwait Bay between 2009 and 2011 were employed in conjunction with data collected from 20 field sampling sites. Field sampling locations were selected based on a stratified random sampling scheme oriented by an existing classification map of Kuwait Bay. Two water quality datasets obtained from different networks were compared by cluster analysis applied to the Water Quality Index (WQI) and other water quality parameters, after which the Kriging method was used to generate distribution maps of water quality for spatial assessment. Cluster analysis showed that the current monitoring network does not represent water quality patterns in Kuwait Bay. Specifically, the distribution maps revealed that the existing monitoring network is inadequate for heavily polluted areas such as Sulaibikhat Bay and the northern portion of Kuwait Bay. Accordingly, the monitoring system in Kuwait Bay must be revised or redesigned. The geostatistical approach and cluster analysis employed in this study will be useful for evaluating future proposed modifications to the monitoring stations network in Kuwait Bay. PMID:26362877

  15. Horizontal well application in QGPC - Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Jubralla, A.F.; Al-Omran, J.; Al-Omran, S.

    1995-08-01

    As with many other areas in the world, the application of horizontal well technology in Qatar has changed the {open_quotes}old time{close_quotes} reservoir development philosophy and approach. QGPC`s first experience with this technology was for increased injectivity in an upper Jurassic reservoir which is comprised by alternating high and low permeable layers. The first well drilled in 1990 offshore was an extreme success and the application was justified for fieldwide implementation. Huge costs were saved as a result. This was followed by 2 horizontal wells for increased productivity in a typically tight (< 5 mD) chalky limestone of Cretaceous age. A fourth offshore well drilled in a thin (30 ft) and tight (10-100 mD) Jurassic dolomite overlaying a stack of relatively thick (25-70 ft) and {open_quotes}Watered Out{close_quotes} grain and grain-packstones, (500-4500 mD) indicated another viable and successful application. A similar approach in the Onshore Dukhan field has been adopted for another Upper Jurassic reservoir. The reservoir is 80 ft thick and is being developed by vertical wells. However, permeability contrast between the upper and lower cycles had caused preferential production and hence injection across the lower cycles, leaving the upper cycles effectively undrained. Horizontal wells have resulted in productivity and injectivity improvements by a factor 3 to 5 that of vertical wells. Therefore a field wide development scheme is being implemented. 3D seismic and the imaging tools, such as the FMS, reconciled with horizontal cores have assisted in understanding the lateral variation and the macro and micro architectural and structural details of these reservoirs. Such tools are essential for the optimum design of horizontal wells.

  16. Assessment of Using 99Mo and 99mTc Isotopes in Kuwait Medical Sector.

    PubMed

    Ali, Naser

    2016-04-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the state of Kuwait currently depends on importing the radioisotope molybdenum (Mo) in its isotopic form (Mo) to fulfill its demands. The present study was conducted on all nuclear medicine departments in the state of Kuwait. Daily, weekly, and monthly data were analyzed to statistically determine the current and future demands for the isotope Tc. This analysis was performed by collecting and analyzing data on MOH consumption of Tc for different diagnostic applications. The overall results indicate a partial decrease of 1.012% in the overall total demand for Tc up to the year 2018 for the state of Kuwait. PMID:26910031

  17. Human Impacts on Coral Reefs in the Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jufaili, S.; Al-Jabri, M.; Al-Baluchi, A.; Baldwin, R. M.; Wilson, S. C.; West, F.; Matthews, A. D.

    1999-08-01

    A rapid assessment survey of the coral reefs of the Sultanate of Oman was conducted by the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Environment during the first half of 1996. The survey revealed new information on the distribution pattern of corals in Oman and identified impacts, threats and potential threats to coral communities for the purpose of preparation of a National Coral Reef Management Plan (Phase One of the implementation of a National Coastal Zone Management Plan). Impacts on coral reefs in Oman were found to be attributable to both natural and human causes, resulting in significant and widespread degradation. Damage resulting from fisheries activities was the most commonly recorded human impact, with the most severe effects. Other human impacts resulted from coastal construction, recreational activities, oil pollution and eutrophication. Predation of corals by Acanthaster planci, damage caused by storms, coral diseases and temperature-related stress were the most commonly recorded natural impacts to coral reefs. Further minor natural impacts were attributable to siltation, rock falls and predation by a corallivorous gastropod (Drupella sp.). Significant differences between different areas of the country were found in terms of human impacts on coral reefs and these were related to coastal demography and human activity. Eighty per cent of sites studied were recorded to have been affected by human impacts to some degree. Impacts attributable to fisheries activities were found at 69% of the sites. Lost or abandoned gill nets were found to affect coral reefs at 49% of sites throughout Oman and accounted for 70% of all severe human impacts. Lost gill nets were also found to have a negative affect on fisheries resources and other marine wildlife. Observations of the behaviour of gill nets on coral reefs suggested a predictable pattern of damage over time and a significant increase in damage intensity during storms. Fishing nets were found to act selectively, causing greater damage to certain coral communities than to others. Results of the study are discussed in relation to management of coral reef areas in Oman.

  18. Prevalence and Determinants of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al Zenki, Sameer; Alomirah, Husam; Al Hooti, Suad; Al Hamad, Nawal; Jackson, Robert T.; Rao, Aravinda; Al Jahmah, Nasser; Al Obaid, Ina’am; Al Ghanim, Jameela; Al Somaie, Mona; Zaghloul, Sahar; Al Othman, Amani

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID) of a nationally representative sample of the Kuwait population. We also determined if anemia differed by socioeconomic status or by RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. The subjects who were made up of 1830 males and females between the ages of 2 months to 86 years, were divided into the following age groups (0–5, 5–11, 12–14, 15–19, 20–49, ≥50 years). Results showed that the prevalence of anemia was 3% in adult males and 17% in females. The prevalence of ID varied according to age between 4% (≥50 years) and 21% (5–11 years) and 9% (12–14 years) and 23% (15–19 years), respectively, in males and females. The prevalence of anemia and ID was higher in females compared to males. Adults with normal ferritin level, but with low RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels had higher prevalence of anemia than those with normal RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. This first nationally representative nutrition and health survey in Kuwait indicated that anemia and ID are prevalent and ID contributes significantly to anemia prevalence. PMID:26264015

  19. Prevalence and Determinants of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al Zenki, Sameer; Alomirah, Husam; Al Hooti, Suad; Al Hamad, Nawal; Jackson, Robert T; Rao, Aravinda; Al Jahmah, Nasser; Al Obaid, Ina'am; Al Ghanim, Jameela; Al Somaie, Mona; Zaghloul, Sahar; Al Othman, Amani

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID) of a nationally representative sample of the Kuwait population. We also determined if anemia differed by socioeconomic status or by RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. The subjects who were made up of 1830 males and females between the ages of 2 months to 86 years, were divided into the following age groups (0-5, 5-11, 12-14, 15-19, 20-49, ≥50 years). Results showed that the prevalence of anemia was 3% in adult males and 17% in females. The prevalence of ID varied according to age between 4% (≥50 years) and 21% (5-11 years) and 9% (12-14 years) and 23% (15-19 years), respectively, in males and females. The prevalence of anemia and ID was higher in females compared to males. Adults with normal ferritin level, but with low RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels had higher prevalence of anemia than those with normal RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. This first nationally representative nutrition and health survey in Kuwait indicated that anemia and ID are prevalent and ID contributes significantly to anemia prevalence. PMID:26264015

  20. Age patterns of smoking initiation among Kuwait university male students.

    PubMed

    Sugathan, T N; Moody, P M; Bustan, M A; Elgerges, N S

    1998-12-01

    The present study is a detailed evaluation of age at smoking initiation among university male students in Kuwait based on a random sample of 664 students selected from all students during 1993. The Acturial Life Table analysis revealed that almost one tenth of the students initiated cigarette smoking between ages 16 and 17 with the rate of initiation increasing rapidly thereafter and reaching 30% by age 20 and almost 50% by the time they celebrate their 24th birthday. The most important environmental risk factor positively associated for smoking initiation was observed to be the history of smoking among siblings with a relative risk of 1.4. Compared to students of medicine and engineering, the students of other faculties revealed a higher risk in smoking initiation with an RR = 1.77 for sciences and commerce and 1.61 for other faculties (arts, law, education and Islamic studies). The analysis revealed a rising generation trend in cigarette smoking. There is a need for reduction of this trend among young adults in Kuwait and throughout other countries in the region. PMID:9877353

  1. Training Needs Assessment of Fishermen on Oman's Batinah Coast: Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belwal, Rakesh; Belwal, Shweta; Al Jabri, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Oman's 3165-km-long coastline, which includes bays, islands and lagoons, has been rich in fish and crustaceans. In spite of this, the fishing sector and fishermen in Oman have not developed well. The fishermen have just managed to subsist and their motivation to stay in the traditional or artisanal fishery has declined. Assuming that the…

  2. English Communication Skills: How Are They Taught at Schools and Universities in Oman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate, from a student perspective, how English communication skills are taught in Oman's schools and higher education institutions. Previous research has documented the lack of communicative ability in English among school and higher education graduates in Oman (Al-Issa, 2007; Moody, 2009). However, the reasons…

  3. Training Needs Assessment of Fishermen on Oman's Batinah Coast: Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belwal, Rakesh; Belwal, Shweta; Al Jabri, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Oman's 3165-km-long coastline, which includes bays, islands and lagoons, has been rich in fish and crustaceans. In spite of this, the fishing sector and fishermen in Oman have not developed well. The fishermen have just managed to subsist and their motivation to stay in the traditional or artisanal fishery has declined. Assuming that the

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Organizational Learning and Career Resilience among Faculty Members at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Two main purposes guide this study. The first is to assess the level of individual, group, and organizational learning at Qatar University (QU), and the level of career resilience among its faculty members. The second is to explore the relationships between these levels of learning at QU and the career resilience of its faculty members.…

  5. Mothers' Perceptions of the Treatment of Their Children with Disabilities in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alyn K.

    2011-01-01

    This article constitutes one part of a study of the perceptions of mothers of children with disabilities in Qatar with the purpose of obtaining mothers' unique perceptions of treatment of their children within their community. Participants included 40 mothers of one or more children with disabilities from ages 4 to 19 who attended the same…

  6. Roles and Responsibilities of Teaching Assistants in Primary Independent Schools of Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Almula, Badriya; Al Motawaha, Fatma; Fakhro, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the roles and responsibilities of teaching assistants in the primary independent schools in the State of Qatar and to determine whether these roles and responsibilities differed for subgroups in our sample. Results from the study were used to inform and improve certificate programs for teaching assistants.…

  7. Adequacy, Accountability, Autonomy and Equity in a Middle Eastern School Reform: The Case of Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and…

  8. Lessons Learned from Developing and Implementing the Qatar Student Assessment System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Broer, Markus; Mariano, Louis T.; Froemel, J. Enrique; Goldman, Charles A.; DaVanzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of Qatar's standards-based student assessment system, the first in the region, offers several lessons for other nations instituting similar reforms. These include the need to coordinate on standards and assessment development, allow sufficient time for a fully aligned assessment, and communicate about the purposes and uses of testing.…

  9. Identifying Priorities for Post-Secondary Education in Qatar. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasz, Cathleen; Eide, Eric R.; Martorell, Francisco; Salem, Hanine; Constant, Louay; Goldman, Charles A.; Moini, Joy S.; Nadareishvili, Vazha

    2007-01-01

    Although Qatar has improved its post-secondary educational opportunities, the country's efforts have not undergone a broad strategic review. This study analyzed the extent to which the current offerings can meet the country's future needs and identified priorities for developing further educational options. Researchers found that Qataris' current…

  10. Post-Secondary Education in Qatar: Employer Demand, Student Choice, and Options for Policy. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasz, Cathleen; Eide, Eric R.; Martorell, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Qatar has made significant efforts to improve post-secondary educational opportunities to ensure that its citizens are able to contribute to the country's social and economic goals. These initiatives, however, have not been subjected to a broad strategic review. The authors describe RAND's analysis of skill and occupational demands and related…

  11. National Student Research Fairs as Evidence for Progress in Qatar's Education for a New Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Margery K.; Alnaimi, Tarfa Nasser; Alhajri, Shaikha Hamad

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the State of Qatar has positioned itself as a leader of educational reform. In 2004, Education for a New Era (ENE) established internationally benchmarked curriculum in Qatari "Independent Schools". Educational reform was to provide an educated workforce and economic prosperity based on a competitive, knowledge-based…

  12. Promoting Quality and Variety through the Public Financing of Privately Operated Schools in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constant, Louay; Goldman, Charles A.; Zellman, Gail L.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Galama, Titus; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Guarino, C. A.; Karam, Rita; Ryan, Gery W.; Salem, Hanine

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, Qatar began establishing publicly funded, privately operated "independent schools" in parallel with the existing, centralized Ministry of Education system. The reform that drove the establishment of the independent schools included accountability provisions such as (a) measuring school and student performance and (b) distributing school…

  13. Qatar's K-12 Education Reform Has Achieved Success in Its Early Years. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Judy

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate progress made in the first years of Qatar's implementation of K-12 education reform, RAND analyzed data from school-level observations, national surveys, and national student assessments. The study found that students in the new, Independent schools were performing better than those in Ministry schools, and there was greater student…

  14. Alignment of Teacher-Developed Curricula and National Standards in Qatar's National Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Al Mula, Badria; Al Mutawaha, Fatma; Al Bin Ali, Hessa; Kerr, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which teacher developed curriculum was aligned with the national standards in Qatar. Three sources of data included teacher response to a questionnaire, teacher interviews and expert rating of the alignment of teacher-developed materials with curriculum standards. A survey and interview questions measured…

  15. An International Collaboration: Establishing an Education Collection in a Library in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Texas A&M University has a history of international collaboration, cooperation and global outreach. Texas A&M University at Qatar provides engineering students in the Middle East with an education, and ultimately, a degree comparable to that found on our home campus in College Station. The Texas A&M University Libraries have provided curricular…

  16. Development of Education in Qatar (1975/76 and 1976/77).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Youth Welfare (Qatar).

    The national educational system of Qatar was established in 1956, when the discovery of oil provided a financial base for educational expansion. The government provides free education from primary school through the university and has stressed a system of incentives for students rather than declaring education compulsory on any level. Four types…

  17. Little Steps at Improving Preschool Teachers Practices through Counseling Skills in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Aisha; Nasser, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    The study focused on the effects of basic counseling skills program, such as listening, understanding, respecting, and empathizing, to elementary school teachers in Qatar. Through a three-hour intervention program, the authors used a self-reported questionnaire, interview questions and classroom observations to examine changes in how preschool…

  18. A New System for K-12 Education in Qatar. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of the Arabian Gulf nation of Qatar, like that of many other countries, views education as the key to future economic, political, and social progress. Many have concluded that a country's ability to compete in the global economy and enable its citizens to take full advantage of technological advances relies on upgrading the quality…

  19. Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Autism in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheir, Nadir; Ghoneim, Ola; Sandridge, Amy L.; Al-Ismail, Muna; Hayder, Sara; Al-Rawi, Fadhila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Caring for a child diagnosed with autism could affect the quality of life of the caregiver in various different ways. No previous research has assessed the quality of lives of caregivers of children with autism in Qatar. Methods: Caregivers of a child with autism between 3 and 17 years old were recruited from child rehabilitation…

  20. Developing a School Finance System for K-12 Reform in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Galama, Titus; Constant, Louay; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Tanner, Jeffery C.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Reform-minded leaders of Qatar, who have embarked on a sweeping reform of their nation's education system, asked RAND to evaluate the education finance system that has been adopted and to offer suggestions for improvements. The authors analyze the system's evolution and resource allocation patterns between 2004 and 2006 and develop analytic tools…

  1. Evaluating psychosocial support needs of female cancer patients in the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Alagraa, Razzan; Abujaber, Ahmad; Chandra, Prem; Doughty, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Patient perceived perceptions of psychosocial support are increasingly important to understanding appropriate holistic patient-centred care. Information is scarce regarding the attitudes of female cancer patients in Arab and Muslim populations. This study was undertaken in the State of Qatar among female cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate what extent women undergoing cancer treatment in the State of Qatar view the importance of psychosocial support? Another aim of this study was to determine which demographic indicators, if any, may predict for certain preferences in support. The authors hypothesized that a majority of female cancer patients will perceive psychosocial support as an important aspect. This study used English and Arabic questionnaires to glean data from female cancer patients attending clinics at the National Centre for Cancer Care and Research in Doha, Qatar. For the purpose of this study, psychosocial support was defined under four categories: 1) family support, 2) religious/spiritual support, 3) support groups 4) physician referred support. Results showed that 88% of female respondents rated psychosocial support categories as important. There was no significance between patient demographics and specific preferences for the support categories in the study. This study may provide some areas for future research that may shape guidelines for improving holistic patient care and in assisting the Supreme Health Council in meeting its targets for the Qatar National Cancer strategy, which states that cancer treatment should be patient-centred focusing on both medical and psychosocial needs of patients. PMID:26535172

  2. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world.

    PubMed

    Marincola, Francesco M; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2012-01-01

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar's population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

  3. "Hope in the Life": The Children of Qatar Speak about Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Lazarus, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Qatar supports the rights of children with special needs to obtain suitable opportunities to learn and be included with other children. However, the concept of inclusion in education is relatively new in this country. In 2001, the Special Needs Committee of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs set up a task force to begin planning for including…

  4. An assessment of patients’ knowledge of osteoporosis in Qatar: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudeh, Samer; Abdelrahman, Magdi Hassan; Chandra, Prem; Hammoudeh, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease that affects the bones. It leads to increased risk of fractures as a result of decreased bone mineral density. The goal of this study was to assess the general perception of osteoporosis as well as knowledge of lifestyle, risk factors, and preventive measures among patients in Qatar. The study was conducted between September 2013 and September 2014. The study subjects (n = 93) were patients diagnosed with osteoporosis who attended the Outpatient Rheumatology Clinic at Hamad General Hospital in Doha, Qatar. The results showed that those with a university or graduate degree had a significantly higher level of knowledge about osteoporosis (p = 0.009) than those with less education. Among those in our study, knowledge related to osteoporosis was principally obtained through media sources such as television and radio (39%). In conclusion, osteoporosis patients in Qatar need a better understanding of the disease. Identifying thought patterns related to the perception of osteoporosis and treatment might assist in building a foundation for management modalities and effective preventive strategies for the disease in Qatar. PMID:26835409

  5. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 18: The Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey).

    PubMed

    Zeraatkar, Kimia; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Havlin, Tracy; Neves, Karen; Şendir, Mesra

    2016-06-01

    This is the 18th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey). The next feature column will investigate trends in the Balkan States JM. PMID:27168258

  6. Lifelong Education in University Life in the Arab Countries: The Qatar University Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    Suggestions for strengthening lifelong education at Qatar's University and other Arab universities are offered that might apply to other countries. Particular attention is devoted to: various views of the relative functions, content, and duration of initial and higher education; new procedures of admission and the evaluation of experience; new…

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transit times of Qatar-1b (Maciejewski+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Fernandez, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Ohlert, J.; Puchalski, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Seeliger, M.; Kitze, M.; Raetz, St.; Errmann, R.; Gilbert, H.; Pannicke, A.; Schmidt, J.-G.; Neuhaeuser, R.

    2015-03-01

    Light curves for eighteen Qatar-1 b's transits observed in 2011-2014 are given. Data were collected with 0.6-2.0-m telescopes located in six observatories in Europe. Details on observations, data reduction, and analysis are given in the source paper. (1 data file).

  8. Seasonal Variability in Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis

    2015-04-01

    We report on the vertical distribution and seasonal variability in tropospheric ozone over the Middle East through one year of weekly ozonesondes launched from Doha, Qatar during 2014. A total of 49 2Z-V7 DMT/EN-SCI Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesondes employing a 1% buffered potassium iodide solution (KI), coupled with iMet-1-RS GPS radiosondes were launched around 1300 local time. The authors used the SkySonde telemetry software (developed by CIRES and NOAA/ESRL) and developed robust in-house data quality assurance and validation methodologies. The average height of the thermal tropopause is between 15-17.5 km (125-85 hPa). Monthly average relative humidity around the tropopause shows an enhancement during the months of June through the beginning of October. Monthly average temperature profiles show the development of the subtropical subsidence inversion around 5-6 km (450-520 hPa) between the months of April through October. The subsidence inversion is strongest during the months of June and July and is accompanied by a sharp drop in relative humidity over a 100-300 m in the vertical. The monthly average ozone background concentration between the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height and the subsidence inversion increases from 50 ppb in the winter to almost 80 ppb in the summer months. An enhancement of up to 50% in the average ozone in the mid-to-upper troposphere (above the subsidence inversion) is strongest during the summer months (June through September) and results in average concentrations between 80-100 ppb. In the upper troposphere (above 13 km/200 hPa) ozone concentrations are highest during the spring and summer months. This is coupled with a drop in the average height of the tropopause. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows the enhancement in mid-to-upper tropospheric ozone in the summer is due to persistent high pressure over the Middle East between the months of June through September. Evidence of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE) in the winter and spring months and Monsoonal outflow observed in late summer are also reflected in the ozone profiles and HYSPLIT back-trajectories.

  9. Disordered Eating Attitudes Among University Students in Kuwait: The Role of Gender and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Al-Kandari, Fawzia I.; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Al-Faraj, Alaa M.; Bouriki, Fajer A.; Shehab, Fatima S.; Al-Dabous, Lulwa A.; Al-Qalaf, Wassin B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to highlight the proportion of disordered eating attitudes among university students in Kuwait by gender and obesity. Methods: A sample of 530 Kuwaiti university students was selected from four universities in Kuwait (203 men and 327 women). The eating attitudes test-26 was used to determine disordered eating attitudes. Results: The prevalence of disordered eating attitudes was 31.8% and 33.6% among men and women respectively. Obese students of both genders had doubled the risk of disordered eating attitudes compared to nonobese students (odds ratio 1.99 and 1.98, respectively). Conclusions: About one third of university students in Kuwait had disordered eating attitudes. There is an urgent need to prevent and treat disordered eating attitudes in university students in Kuwait. PMID:27141286

  10. Changes in the water quality conditions of Kuwait's marine waters: Long term impacts of nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M J; Massoud, M S; Hamid, S A; Al-Zaidan, A; Al-Sarawi, H; Al-Enezi, M; Al-Ghofran, L; Smith, A J; Barry, J; Stentiford, G D; Morris, S; da Silva, E T; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    This work analyses a 30year water quality data set collated from chemical analyses of Kuwait's marine waters. Spatial patterns across six sites in Kuwait Bay and seven sites located in the Arabian Gulf are explored and discussed in terms of the changing influences associated with point and diffuse sources. Statistical modelling demonstrated significant increases for dissolved nutrients over the time period. Kuwait marine waters have been subject to inputs from urban development, untreated sewage discharges and decreasing river flow from the Shatt al-Arab River. Chlorophyll biomass showed a small but significant reduction; the high sewage content of the coastal waters from sewage discharges likely favouring the presence of smaller phytoplankton taxa. This detailed assessment of temporal data of the impacts of sewage inputs into Kuwait's coastal waters establishes an important baseline permitting future assessments to be made as sewage is upgraded, and the river continues to be extracted upstream. PMID:26490407

  11. Tsunami Hazard Assessment along the Coast of Oman from Near- and Far-field Tectonic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, Issa; Baptista, Maria; Omira, Rachid; Al-Rawas, Ghazi; Deif, Ahmed; Al-Habsi, Zaid; Al-Jabri, Khalifa

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas of Oman are exposed to tsunami threat associated with earthquakes generated in two major subduction zones, namely Makran and Sumatra. Both zones were responsible of triggering tsunamis that reached/impacted Oman coast. The Mw8.1 earthquake event of 1945, occurred in Makran zone, has caused a tsunami that was reported to affect the coast of Oman. The Mw9.2 Indian Ocean event of 2004 triggered a tsunami that was recorded in various tide-gauges stations of Oman with wave amplitude reaching ~1.7m in the port of Salalah. This work aims to assess tsunami hazard along the Oman coast considering both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Deterministic approach uses particular source scenarios (most credible and/or worst case) from Makran and Sumatra subduction zones and computes the tsunami coastal impact through numerical modeling of expected waveforms, maximum wave heights distribution, and site-specific inundations. While, probabilistic approach includes the contribution of small and large sources and employs the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment together with the numerical modeling to evaluate the likelihood that a certain level of tsunami threat is exceeded at a certain location of Oman coast within a certain period of time. We present deterministic results in terms of regional scale distribution of maximum wave heights, tsunami waveforms computation, and inundation maps for a selected coastal area. For probabilistic assessment, we derive 250- and 500-years probability hazard exceedance maps and hazard curves for the Oman coast. The hazard maps consist of computing the likelihood that tsunami waves exceed a specific amplitude for the entire coast of Oman, and the hazard curves describe the variation of cumulative probabilities as function of wave amplitudes at some critical coastal points. Finally, we discuss the usefulness of obtained results for tsunami mitigation in Oman. Keywords: Tsunami, Oman, Deterministic approach, Probabilistic approach.

  12. Obesity among Kuwait University students: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    al-Isa, A N

    1999-12-01

    University students' dietary habits have been criticised for their nutritional inadequacy and faddism. Kuwait University students may face the risk of obesity because of affluence and modernization and the dynamic changes in their level of physical activity and caloric intake. This promoted a study of a random sample of 842 Kuwait University students for dietary and socioeconomic factors associated with obesity. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI), which is the weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared (kg/m2). Obesity was classified into grade 1 and 2 (BMI > 25 and > 30 kg/m2). The associated factors studied and obtained through questionnaires included gender, age, marital status, parental obesity, education and occupation, dieting, last dental and health check-up, year of study, number of siblings (total, brothers and sisters), eating in between meals, high school and college GPA and major, exercising, number of regular meals eaten, obese relatives, those living at home, and servants, highest desired degree, birth order, having a chronic disease, countries prefer visiting, family income, governorate, and socioeconomic status (SES). Grade 1 and 2 obesity were found to be 32.0 and 8.9%, respectively. Factors that were found to be significantly associated with obesity included gender, age, marital status, obesity among parents, dieting, last physical check-up, year of study, number of brothers, sisters and regular meals eaten and high school GPA. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the same factors significantly contributed to the development of obesity except the last four. The level of obesity among Kuwait University students is high. Obesity is a risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases. There is a need to address the challenge of instituting measures that would reduce the future ill-effects of obesity on young adults. It is widely believed that during the young adult years many important health habits are formed and set. It is at this stage (or earlier) that wellness and self-care programming for college students is essential and worthy of being explored and its efficacy assessed. PMID:10673842

  13. Probing Shallow Aquifers in Northern Kuwait Using Airborne Sounding Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggy, E.; Fadlelmawla, A.; Farr, T. G.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the global warming observations, scientific interest and data analyses have concentrated on the earth Polar Regions and forested areas, as they provide direct measurable impacts of large scale environmental changes. Unfortunately, the arid environments, which represent ~20% of the earth surface, have remained poorly studied. Yet water rarity and freshness, drastic changes in rainfall, flash floods, high rates of aquifer discharge and an accelerated large-scale desertification process are all alarming signs that suggest a substantial large-scale climatic variation in those areas that can be correlated to the global change that is affecting the volatile dynamic in arid zones. Unfortunately the correlations, forcings and feedbacks between the relevant processes (precipitation, surface fresh water, aquifer discharge, sea water rise and desertification) in these zones remain poorly observed, modeled, let alone understood. Currently, local studies are often oriented toward understanding small-scale or regional water resources and neither benefit from nor feedback to the global monitoring of water vapor, precipitation and soil moisture in arid and semi-arid areas. Furthermore techniques to explore deep subsurface water on a large scale in desertic environments remain poorly developed making current understanding of earth paleo-environment, water assessment and exploration efforts poorly productive and out-phased with current and future needs to quantitatively understand the evolution of earth water balance. To address those deficiencies we performed a comprehensive test mapping of shallow subsurface hydro-geological structures in the western Arabic peninsula in Kuwait, using airborne low frequency sounding radars with the main objectives to characterize shallow fossil aquifers in term of depth, sizes and water freshness. In May 2011, an experimental airborne radar sounder operating at 50 MHz was deployed in Kuwait and demonstrated an ability to penetrate down to the water table ~35 m deep in Um-Al-Aish and Al-Rawdateen aquifers located on the northern part of Kuwait. In addition the radar achieved penetration into several dry sediments down to 65 m deep mapping the succession of residual gravel deposits. The obtained radargrams of several kilometers-long traced the variability in the water table depth and identified the discharge location of the Al-Rawdateen aquifer. These radar cross-sections were verified through comparisons with water wells, Transient Electromagnetic Method and Resistivity profiles. We will discuss the implication of these results for performing future airborne and orbital detailed mapping of the occurrence and spatial distribution of shallow aquifers in the most arid desert regions on Earth to understand ground water hydrology, enhance ground water flow models and provide new insights into available water resources and recent paleo-climate changes.

  14. Cost effectiveness of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Oman

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) is the leading cause of diarrhea in young children in Oman, incurring substantial healthcare and economic burden. We propose to formally assess the potential cost effectiveness of implementing universal vaccination with a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) on reducing the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) in Oman Methods A Markov model was used to compare two birth cohorts, including children who were administered the RV5 vaccination versus those who were not, in a hypothetical group of 65,500 children followed for their first 5 years of life in Oman. The efficacy of the vaccine in reducing RGE-related hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) and office visits, and days of parental work loss for children receiving the vaccine was based on the results of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST). The outcome of interest was cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from health care system and societal perspectives. Results A universal RV5 vaccination program is projected to reduce, hospitalizations, ED visits, outpatient visits and parental work days lost due to rotavirus infections by 89%, 80%, 67% and 74%, respectively. In the absence of RV5 vaccination, RGE-related societal costs are projected to be 2,023,038 Omani Rial (OMR) (5,259,899 United States dollars [USD]), including 1,338,977 OMR (3,481,340 USD) in direct medical costs. However, with the introduction of RV5, direct medical costs are projected to be 216,646 OMR (563,280 USD). Costs per QALY saved would be 1,140 OMR (2,964 USD) from the health care payer perspective. An RV5 vaccination program would be considered cost saving, from the societal perspective. Conclusions Universal RV5 vaccination in Oman is likely to significantly reduce the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis and may be cost-effective from the payer perspective and cost saving from the societal perspective. PMID:24941946

  15. Middle cretaceous carbonate reservoirs, Fahud Field and northwestern Oman: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.

    1985-05-01

    A discussion is presented of the Cretaceous formations involved in Fahud field. Along the Trucial Coast, as in northwestern Oman, it is not difficult to date the time of formation of the foredeep. This article provides a stratigraphic correlation chart for the Cretaceous along the Arabian side of the Arabian Gulf. The terminology presented on this correlation chart reflects oil-industry usage in the area, including correlations published by Owen and Nasr, Loutfi and Jaber, Arabian American Oil Company, Beydoun and Dunnington, and Hassan et al.

  16. Study on parasites from farm animals in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Qais A H; Alazemi, Maha S; Henedi, Adawia A M; Tahrani, Laila M A

    2015-04-01

    No doubt, farm animals are essential as a source of milk, protein, and leather and wool ... etc. But, they are always exposed to ecto- and endo-parasites, which cause diseases conditions that may end in death. This study evaluated farm animal parasitosis. Thus, different animal farms were visited to collect fecal samples and data to determine the infection rates with parasites and the relationship between animal management and parasitism in Kuwait. Out of 86, 17, 20, 96 & 52 cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels examined, 5.5, 17.5, 10, 9.3 and 2.5% respectively were infected with different parasites. These parasites were Ascarids in cattle and horses, Strongylids in cattle, horses and camels, and Eimeriids in cattle and small ruminants. Eimeria spp. were the most prevalent parasite particularly in small ruminants. The relationship between Eimeria infection and management in small ruminant farms was discussed. PMID:26012220

  17. Qatar-2: A K Dwarf Orbited by a Transiting Hot Jupiter and a Longer-Period Massive Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Marta; Alsubai, K. A.; Latham, D. W.; Quinn, S. N.; Collier Cameron, A.; Carter, J. A.; Buchave, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-2b, a hot Jupiter transiting a K dwarf in a circular orbit with a short period, Pb = 1.34 days. Differential photometry and model fitting of transit data from both KeplerCam and LCOGT yielded light curve parameters Rp/Rs, a/Rs, u1, u2, and i that were optimized using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Radial velocity measurements from the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph of Qatar-2 over a span of 153 days provided a mass estimate for Qatar-2b, with velocity residuals from the orbital solution that pointed to the presence of a third body in the system. The light curve parameter a/Rs and spectroscopic values for effective temperature and metallicity were used in conjunction with stellar models to estimate the mass and radius of Qatar-2, leading to a mass and radius for Qatar-2b of MP = 2.54 MJ and RP = 1.14 RJ, respectively. Next we used the Systemic Console to explore possible orbital solutions for the outer companion, Qatar-2c. Plausible solutions have periods slightly less than a year and a mass of several MJ. However, further observations are needed to determine a reliable orbit for Qatar-2c. Qatar-2 is only the fourth example in the short but growing list of systems with a transiting hot Jupiter and an outer companion. This system architecture is in sharp contrast to that found by Kepler for multi-transiting systems, which are dominated by objects smaller than Neptune, usually with tightly spaced orbits that must be nearly coplanar.

  18. Celiac disease in children: is it a problem in Kuwait?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qabandi, Wafa’a; Buhamrah, Eman; Al-Abdulrazzaq, Dalia; Hamadi, Khaled; Al Refaee, Fawaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine triggered by gluten ingestion. The objective of this study is to describe our experience with CD children in Kuwait. Methods The records of children with CD seen in the pediatric gastroenterology unit between February 1998 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were referred because of symptoms or positive CD antibody screening of a high-risk group (type 1 diabetes and Down syndrome). Results Forty-seven patients were diagnosed: 53% were symptomatic and 47% were identified by screening. The median age at diagnosis was 66 (range 7–189) months. All cases were biopsy-proven except one. The symptomatic patients were significantly younger than those identified following screening (P<0.004). In the whole group, 66% were females and 77% were Kuwaitis; 9% had a positive family history of CD. The estimated cumulative incidence was 6.9/105. The median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 8.5 (range 2–54) months. Failure to thrive was the most common presenting complaint (72%) followed by diarrhea (64%) and abdominal distension (56%). Atypical manifestations were seen in 60% of patients. Underweight and short stature were confirmed in 19% and 17% of patients, respectively. Overweight and obesity were detected in 14% and 6%, respectively. CD serology was based on a combination of antiendomysial and antigliadin antibodies. The median follow up was 24 (range 12–144) months. All patients were commenced on a gluten free diet, but good compliance was only achieved in 78%. Conclusion The low frequency of childhood CD in Kuwait could probably be attributed to either an underestimation of the atypical presentations or failure of proper screening. Also, adherence to a gluten free diet is a major problem in our population. PMID:25565879

  19. Dentists' and Parents' Attitude Toward Nitrous Oxide Use in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Alkandari, Sarah A; Almousa, Fatemah; Abdulwahab, Mohammad; Boynes, Sean G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude of dentists in Kuwait toward the use of nitrous oxide sedation as a behavior management technique (BMT) for pediatric patients and assess their training in nitrous oxide sedation. In addition, we assessed parents' knowledge of and attitude toward the use of nitrous oxide as a BMT for their children. The objective was to determine if nitrous oxide sedation is being provided and utilized as a means to enhance dental care for pediatric patients. A cross-sectional survey was randomly distributed to both groups of interest: parents accompanying their children to the dentist and licensed dentists in Kuwait. Participants had to meet certain inclusion criteria to be included in the survey and had to complete the entire questionnaire to be part of the analysis. A total of 381 parents completed the questionnaires. The majority of parents responded that they were unaware of nitrous oxide sedation and were not aware of it as a BMT (79%). Two thirds of the parent would accept nitrous oxide sedation if recommended by a dentist treating their children. Two hundred and one dentists completed the survey and met the inclusion criteria. The majority (74.5%) of dentists were willing to use nitrous oxide as a BMT. However, only 6% were utilizing nitrous oxide sedation and providing it to their child patient if indicated. The main reasons for this huge gap are lack of facilities/equipment and lack of training as indicated by the dentists. This study showed that parents are accepting nitrous oxide sedation as a BMT for their children. It also showed the willingness of the dentists to provide such BMT to their patients. The lack of training and lack of equipment are the main barriers to providing such service to the patients. More training courses and more facilities should be provided to eliminate such barriers. PMID:26866406

  20. The health care system of Kuwait: the social paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Meleis, A I

    1979-11-01

    Because of its oil resources, Kuwait today has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. In the last 6 years, its population has increased by 25%, including immigrants and temporary workers. More than 1/2 of the population is non-Kuwaiti, leading to rigid segregation and extreme nationalism. 60% of the population is under 20 years of age. With the achievement of independence and the great increase in wealth from oil, the Kuwaiti government embarked on a plan to distribute the wealth among its citizens in various ways. A substantial amount has been spent on health, education, and public works, with the health ministries accounting for about 20% of the budget. The health care system has been organized around provision of primary health care, and the primary health care clinic is the main point of entry into the health care system, designed to reach all sectors of the population. Combined clinics offer primary care and specialty clinics. The number of hospitals has increased more than 2-fold over the last 10 years. The emphasis is on curative care. Western medicine is much valued, and campaigns for immunization and vaccination were highly successful. The concept of the "evil eye" is widespread, causing difficulties in interviewing patients, but also creating a demand for curative medicine when the effects of the "eye" reach the body. Injections are especially desirable, preferred over oral medications. The large percentage of health professionals from foreign countries has created communications problems, even within the health profession itself. The interplay between certain social qualities in the country and the health care system has created a series of paradoxes which must be recognized if they are to be dealt with, a necessary step to improve the quality of health care in Kuwait. PMID:538489

  1. Geology and hydrogeology of the Dammam Formation in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Awadi, E.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Senafy, M. N.

    The Dammam Formation of Middle Eocene age is one of the major aquifers containing useable brackish water in Kuwait. Apart from the paleokarst zone at the top, the Dammam Formation in Kuwait consists of 150-200m of dolomitized limestone that is subdivided into three members, on the basis of lithology and biofacies. The upper member consists of friable chalky dolomicrite and dolomite. The middle member is mainly laminated biomicrite and biodolomicrite. The lower member is nummulitic limestone with interlayered shale toward the base. Geophysical markers conform to these subdivisions. Core analyses indicate that the upper member is the most porous and permeable of the three units, as confirmed by the distribution of lost-circulation zones. The quality of water in the aquifer deteriorates toward the north and east. A potentiometric-head difference exists between the Dammam Formation and the unconformably overlying Kuwait Group; this difference is maintained by the presence of an intervening aquitard. Résumé La formation de Damman, d'âge Éocène moyen, est l'un des principaux aquifères du Koweit, contenant de l'eau saumâtre utilisable. A part dans sa partie supérieure où existe un paléokarst, la formation de Damman au Koweit est constituée par 150 à 200m de calcaires dolomitisés, divisés en trois unités sur la base de leur lithologie et de biofaciès. L'unité supérieure est formée d'une dolomicrite crayeuse et friable et d'une dolomie. L'unité médiane est pour l'essentiel une biomicrite laminée et une biodolomicrite. L'unité inférieure est un calcaire nummulitique avec des intercalations argileuses vers la base. Les marqueurs géophysiques sont conformes à ces subdivisions. Les analyses de carottes montrent que l'unité supérieure est la plus poreuse et la plus perméable des trois. La répartition des zones d'écoulement souterrain confirment ces données. La qualité de l'eau dans l'aquifère se dégrade en direction du nord et de l'est. Une différence de niveau piézométrique est observée entre la formation de Damman et le groupe de Koweit qui la recouvre en discordance; cette différence est due à la présence d'un niveau imperméable qui la maintient captive. Resumen La Formación Damman, del Eoceno Medio, es uno de los mayores acuíferos de agua salobre aprovechable en Kuwait. Además de una zona de paleokarst en la parte superior, la Formación Damman en Kuwait consiste en 150-200m de caliza dolomitizada, que se subdivide en tres zonas en función de la litología y la biofacies. La parte superior está formada por dolomicrita yesífera friable y dolomita. La parte central es básicamente biomicrita laminada y biodolomicrita. La inferior es caliza nummulítica, con intercalaciones de pizarra en la base. Los marcadores geofísicos reflejan claramente estas subdivisiones. Los análisis de testigos revelan que la parte superior es la más porosa y permeable de las tres unidades. Esto queda confirmado con la distribución de zonas de circulación perdidas. La calidad del agua en el acuífero se deteriora hacia el norte y el este. Sobre la Formación Damman, y de manera no conforme, suprayace otra formación, que se conoce como Grupo Kuwaití. Existe una diferencia de niveles piezométricos entre ambas formaciones, la cual se mantiene por la presencia de una capa semiconfinante.

  2. An analysis of wind and solar energy resources for the State of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhusainan, Haya Nasser

    Kuwait is an important producer of oil and gas. Its rapid socio-economic growth has been characterized by increasing population, high rates of urbanization, and substantial industrialization, which is transforming it into a large big energy consumer as well. In addition to urbanization, climatic conditions have played an important function in increasing demand for electricity in Kuwait. Electricity for thermal cooling has become essential in the hot desert climate, and its use has developed rapidly along with the economic development, urbanization, and population growth. This study examines the long-term wind and solar resources over the Kuwait to determine the feasibility of these resources as potential sustainable and renewable energy sources. The ultimate goal of this research is to help identify the potential role of renewable energy in Kuwait. This study will examine the drivers and requirements for the deployment of these energy sources and their possible integration into the electricity generation sector to illustrate how renewable energy can be a suitable resource for power production in Kuwait and to illustrate how they can also be used to provide electricity for the country. For this study, data from sixteen established stations monitored by the meteorological department were analyzed. A solar resource map was developed that identifies the most suitable locations for solar farm development. A range of different relevant variables, including, for example, electric networks, population zones, fuel networks, elevation, water wells, streets, and weather stations, were combined in a geospatial analysis to predict suitable locations for solar farm development and placement. An analysis of recommendations, future energy targets and strategies for renewable energy policy in Kuwait are then conducted. This study was put together to identify issues and opportunities related to renewable energy in the region, since renewable energy technologies are still limited in Kuwait because, compared to the cost of conventional electricity in Kuwait, the cost of renewable energy-based electricity is very high. However, the abundant availability of the solar and wind energy as clean renewable energy in Kuwait offers the country significant opportunities to become a leader in the renewable energy sector. In a competition with subsidized oil and gas energy, the success of renewable energy technologies in Kuwait will be subject to the ability of the state to introduce supporting policies, including financial incentives and a regulatory framework to encourage deployment and reduce cost.

  3. Biomedical Publications Profile and Trends in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Al Busadi, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There is a dearth of studies examining the relationship between research output and other socio-demographic indicators in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The three interrelated aims of this study were, first, to ascertain the number of biomedical publications in the GCC from 1970 to 2010; second, to establish the rate of publication according population size during the same period and, third, to gauge the relationship between the number of publications and specific socio-economic parameters. Methods: The Medline database was searched in October 2010 by affiliation, year and publication type from 1970 to 2010. Data obtained were normalised to the number of publications per million of the population, gross domestic product, and the number of physicians in each country. Results: The number of articles from the GCC region published over this 40 year period was 25,561. Saudi Arabia had the highest number followed by Kuwait, UAE, and then Oman. Kuwait had the highest profile of publication when normalised to population size, followed by Qatar. Oman is the lowest in this ranking. Overall, the six countries showed a rising trend in publication numbers with Oman having a significant increase from 1990 to 2005. There was a significant relationship between the number of physicians and the number of publications. Conclusion: The research productivity from GGC has experienced complex and fluctuating growth in the past 40 years. Future prospects for increasing research productivity are discussed with particular reference to the situation in Oman. PMID:22375257

  4. Dynamic simulation solves process control problem in Oman

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-16

    A dynamic simulation study solved the process control problems for a Saih Rawl, Oman, gas compressor station operated by Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO). PDO encountered persistent compressor failure that caused frequent facility shutdowns, oil production deferment, and gas flaring. It commissioned MSE (Consultants) Ltd., U.K., to find a solution for the problem. Saih Rawl, about 40 km from Qarn Alam, produces oil and associated gas from a large number of low and high-pressure wells. Oil and gas are separated in three separators. The oil is pumped to Qarn Alam for treatment and export. Associated gas is compressed in two parallel trains. Train K-1115 is a 350,000 standard cu m/day, four-stage reciprocating compressor driven by a fixed-speed electric motor. Train K-1120 is a 1 million standard cu m/day, four-stage reciprocating compressor driven by a fixed-speed electric motor. Train K-1120 is a 1 million standard cu m/day, four-stage centrifugal compressor driven by a variable-speed motor. The paper describes tripping and surging problems with the gas compressor and the control simplifications that solved the problem.

  5. Masirah Graben, Oman: A hidden Cretaceous rift basin

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, W.H.; Ries, A.C.; Coward, M.P.

    1995-06-01

    Reflection seismic data, well data, geochemical data, and surface geology suggest that a Cretaceous rift basin exists beneath the thrusted allochthonous sedimentary sequence of the Masirah graben, Oman. The Masirah graben is located east of the Huqf uplift, parallel to the southern coast of Oman. The eastern side of the northeast-trending Huqf anticlinorium is bounded by an extensional fault system that is downthrown to the southeast, forming the western edge of the Masirah graben. This graben is limited to the east by a large wedge of sea floor sediments and oceanic crust, that is stacked as imbricate thrusts. These sediments/ophiolites were obducted onto the southern margin of the Arabian plate during the collision of the Indian/Afghan plates at the end of the Cretaceous. Most of the Masirah graben is covered by an allochthonous sedimentary sequence, which is complexly folded and deformed above a detachment. This complexly deformed sequence contrasts sharply with what is believed to be a rift sequence below the ophiolites. The sedimentary sequence in the Masirah graben was stable until further rifting of the Arabian Sea/Gulf of Aden in the late Tertiary, resulting in reactivation of earlier rift-associated faults. Wells drilled in the Masirah graben in the south penetrated reservoir quality rocks in the Lower Cretaceous Natih and Shuaiba carbonates. Analyses of oil extracted from Infracambrian sedimentary rocks penetrated by these wells suggest an origin from a Mesozoic source rock.

  6. Seismic hazard evaluation of the Oman India pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.W.; Thenhaus, P.C.; Mullee, J.E.; Preston, R.

    1996-12-31

    The proposed Oman India pipeline will traverse approximately 1,135 km of the northern Arabian Sea floor and adjacent continental shelves at depths of over 3 km on its route from Ra`s al Jifan, Oman, to Rapar Gadhwali, India. The western part of the route crosses active faults that form the transform boundary between the Arabian and Indian tectonic plates. The eastern terminus of the route lies in the vicinity of the great (M {approximately} 8) 1829 Kutch, India earthquake. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis was used to estimate the values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) with return periods of 200, 500 and 1,000 years at selected locations along the pipeline route and the submarine Indus Canyon -- a possible source of large turbidity flows. The results defined the ground-shaking hazard along the pipeline route and Indus Canyon for evaluation of risks to the pipeline from potential earthquake-induced geologic hazards such as liquefaction, slope instability, and turbidity flows. 44 refs.

  7. Preventing non-communicable disease in Oman, a legislative review.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahlani, Sabah; Mabry, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) is a major global concern and is projected to increase by 15% over the next 10 years. NCD is the leading cause of mortality in Oman and other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Some of the most successful interventions to address NCD include legislations like banning smoking in public places. A desk review of available policies and legislations related to the behavioural risk factors of NCD from the GCC and from Oman was conducted with a focus on policies and legislations related to food, physical activity and tobacco. The review identified numerous documents; most were policies and resolutions related to tobacco control. Although only a few documents were laws, a majority were issued by non-health sectors. This policy review is the first effort in the GCC to consolidate information on the regulatory framework for the three key risk behaviours in the region, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Further work is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework, at both the national and regional levels, to strengthen tobacco control as well as to improve dietary patterns and physical activity levels. Given that a bulk of laws, regulations and policies are beyond the scope of the health sector, significant advocacy efforts are required to generate a multisectoral response. PMID:25217359

  8. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among University Students in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Zakiya; Bhargava, Kamlesh; Al-Ismaily, Aida; Al-Lawati, Hadia; Al-Kindi, Rahma; Al-Shafaee, Mohammad; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with gender, academic year, and college among university students in Oman. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Omani students attending the students clinic of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU). A systematic sampling of students, males and females, from different colleges, who visited the clinic during the study period, was carried out. The self-administered Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to screen for propensity to depression. Results A total of 481 students participated in the study (243 males and 238 females). Overall, 133 (27.7%) of the participants (66 males and 67 females) had depression of various grades based on the PHQ-9 diagnostic criteria using a cut point of more than 11. Depression score at the cut point of 11 was not statistically associated with gender, college and the academic year. Conclusion Tendency for depression might be a common health problem among college students in Oman attending primary health care facilities. Further research on socio-demographic characteristics and the effect of depression on the academic performance is needed. PMID:22043426

  9. Emerging Burden of Frail Young and Elderly Persons in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Alawi, Mohammed; Al-Lawati, Rehab; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Recent improvements in health and an increased standard of living in Oman have led to a reduction in environment-related and infectious diseases. Now the country is experiencing an epidemiological transition characterised by a baby boom, youth bulge and increasing longevity. Common wisdom would therefore suggest that Omanis will suffer less ill health. However, a survey of literature suggests that chronic non-communicable diseases are unexpectedly becoming common. This is possibly fuelled by some socio-cultural patterns specific to Oman, as well as the shortcomings of the ‘miracle’ of health and rapid modernisation. Unfortunately, such new diseases do not spare younger people; a proportion of them will need the type of care usually reserved for the elderly. In addition, due to their pervasive and refractory nature, these chronic non-communicable diseases seem impervious to the prevailing ‘cure-oriented’ health care system. This situation therefore calls for a paradigm shift: a health care system that goes beyond a traditional cure-orientation to provide care services for the chronically sick of all ages. PMID:22548135

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard assessment for Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hussain, I. W.; Deif, A.; El-Hady, S.; Toksoz, M. N.; Al-Jabri, K.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Toubi, K. I.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic hazard assessment for Oman is conducted utilizing probabilistic approach. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed within a logic tree framework. An earthquake catalogue for Oman was compiled and declustered to include only independent earthquakes. The declustered catalogue was used to define seismotectonic source model with 26 source zones that characterize earthquakes in the tectonic environments in and around Oman. The recurrence parameters for all the seismogenic zones are determined using the doubly bounded exponential distribution except the seismogenic zones of Makran subduction zone which were modeled using the characteristic distribution. The maximum earthquakes on known faults were determined geologically and the remaining zones were determined statistically from the compiled catalogue. Horizontal ground accelerations in terms of geometric mean were calculated using ground-motion prediction relationships that were developed from seismic data obtained from the shallow active environment, stable craton environment, and from subduction earthquakes. In this analysis, we have used alternative seismotectonic source models, maximum magnitude, and attenuation models and weighted them to account for the epistemic uncertainty. The application of this methodology leads to the definition of 5% damped seismic hazard maps at rock sites for 72, 475, and 2475 year return periods for spectral accelerations at periods of 0.0 (corresponding to peak ground acceleration), 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 sec. Mean and 84th percentile acceleration contour maps were represented. The results also were displayed as uniform hazard spectra for rock sites in the cities of Khasab, Diba, Sohar, Muscat, Nizwa, Sur, and Salalah in Oman and the cities of Abu Dhabi and Dubai in UAE. The PGA across Oman ranges from 20 cm/sec2 in the Mid-West and 115 cm/sec2 at the northern part for 475 years return period and between 40 cm/sec2 and 180 cm/sec2 for 2475 years return period. The highest hazard is found in the most northern city (Khasab) close to both Zagros and Makran Zones with maximum spectral accelerations at 0.2 sec period reaching 243 cm/s2 for a return period of 475 years and 397 cm/s2 for 2475 years. Earthquakes at a distance of 90 km from Khasab City contribute most to the hazard of this city at both 475 and 2475 year return period hazard levels for all considered spectral periods. For the cities of Diba, Muscat, Nizwa, Sur, and Salalah, the hazard is dominated by large distant earthquakes at all response periods for 475 year return period, while for the 2475 year return period, the hazard is dominated by nearby small to moderate earthquakes for short spectral periods and by distant larger events for longer ones. The results support the UBC97 classification of Sohar, Muscat, Nizwa, Sur, and Salalah cities to be in Zone 0 (no seismic design required), whereas in Khasab and Diba Zone 1 would be appropriate.

  11. Adequacy, accountability, autonomy and equity in a Middle Eastern school reform: The case of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-04-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and its sustainability in light of concerns that movements in these directions might be politically unfeasible. To some degree, these concerns are substantiated by the developments we trace. However, it is important to note that the reform has changed the landscape of primary and secondary education in Qatar and that many reform principles, though diluted, have been retained. This paper highlights lessons learned - both hopeful and cautionary - in the first few years of reform and presents a methodology for evaluating progress along key dimensions that can be applied to school systems in many nations.

  12. Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Qaradawi, Ilham; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Al-Yafei, Mohsin Al-Ansi; Al-Ansari, Ebrahim; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Holm, Elis; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Mauring, Alexander; Pinto, Primal V; Abdulmalik, Dana; Amir, Amina; Miller, Mark; Yigiterhan, Oguz; Persson, Bertil

    2015-01-15

    A study on (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (238)U was carried out along the EEZ of Qatar. Results serve as the first ever baseline data. The level of (137)Cs (mean value 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3)) in water filters was found to be in the same order of magnitude as reported by others in worldwide marine radioactivity studies. Results are also in agreement with values reported from other Gulf regions. The computed values of sediment-water distribution coefficients Kd, are lower than the values given by IAEA. Measurements were carried out for bottom sediments, biota samples like fish, oyster, sponge, seashell, mangrove, crab, shrimp, starfish, dugong and algae. The 'concentration factors' reported for biota samples are below the levels published by IAEA and cause no significant impact on human health for seafood consumers in Qatar. PMID:25480154

  13. Remote sensing of Qatar nearshore habitats with perspectives for coastal management.

    PubMed

    Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Hobeichi, Sanaa; Palandro, David; Purkis, Sam

    2016-04-30

    A framework is proposed for utilizing remote sensing and ground-truthing field data to map benthic habitats in the State of Qatar, with potential application across the Arabian Gulf. Ideally the methodology can be applied to optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of mapping the nearshore environment to identify sensitive habitats, monitor for change, and assist in management decisions. The framework is applied to a case study for northeastern Qatar with a key focus on identifying high sensitivity coral habitat. The study helps confirm the presence of known coral and provides detail on a region in the area of interest where corals have not been previously mapped. Challenges for the remote sensing methodology associated with natural heterogeneity of the physical and biological environment are addressed. Recommendations on the application of this approach to coastal environmental risk assessment and management planning are discussed as well as future opportunities for improvement of the framework. PMID:26632526

  14. Utilisation of gas resources in qatar: A decade of planned development and integration

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdin, J.P.

    1985-03-01

    Qatar's demand for energy has increased tremendously during the last decade due to expanded economic activity since the early 1970's and subsequent diversification through development of downstream industries. Most of the energy requirement is met by natural gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a gas oriented producing country and the operating philosophy for maintaining maximum efficiency and preserving the Nation's natural resources.

  15. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538). Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3%) and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms) after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important implications for the health authorities in Qatar. PMID:22053720

  16. 2015 Oman Heart Association guidelines for the management of hypertension : practical recommendations from the Oman Heart Association (OHA).

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Mohammed H; Sulaiman, Kadhim J; Al-Riyami, Abdullah A; Mohsin, Nabil; Al-Mukhaini, Mohamed; Al-Lamki, Mohamed; Al-Busaidi, Noor; Al-Salmi, Issa; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Al-Rawahi, Najib; Al-Riyami, Mohamed B; Abdul-Rahman, Said; Al-Hinai, Said; Jaffer, Batool; Al-Wahaebi, Ahmed; Al-Khalili, Hanan; Al-Zadjali, Matllooba

    2015-03-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a major independent risk factor for the development of stroke, coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). HTN is a growing public health problem in Oman, almost certainly the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of CVD in patients with HTN can be greatly reduced with lifestyle modifications and effective antihypertensive therapy. Randomized trials have shown that blood pressure (BP) lowering produces rapid reductions in CV risk. Several studies have shown that the majority of the hypertensive patients remain uncontrolled. It is well established that the observed poor control of the disease is not only related to poor adherence to medications, but also to limited awareness and adherence to evidence-based management of hypertension among physicians. Several guidelines for the management of patients with hypertension have been published. However, the aim of this document is to provide the busy physicians in Oman with more concise and direct approach towards implementing these guidelines into clinical practice. PMID:25404558

  17. The private-public literacy divide amid educational reform in Qatar: What does PISA tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-04-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools. The idea was to give public schools more autonomy in terms of hiring decisions, adoption of curriculum and textbooks, and budget spending, enabling them to emulate some of the private schools' strategies for turning out successful students. This study examines evidence from the 2006-2012 administrations of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Qatar in order to evaluate whether or not recent educational reform efforts in this country have succeeded in bridging the literacy divide between private and public schools. The results, presented in a number of detailed tables and discussed in the last part of the article, indicate that there is a significant difference in key literacy skills between the two types of schools. Private schools were found to outperform their public counterparts in areas such as mathematics, reading and science, both before and after controlling for important student-level differences, and this gap has evidently persisted from 2006 to 2012.

  18. Geology and hydrocarbon potential in the state of Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S. ); Nairn, A.E.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The state of Qatar is situated in the southern Arabian Gulf and covers an area of 12,000 km{sup 2}. It is formed by a large, broad anticline, which is part of the regional south-southwest-north-northeast-trending Qatar-South Fars arch. The arch separates the two Infracambrian salt basins. The Dukhan field was the first discovery, made in 1939, in the Upper Jurassic limestones. Since then, a series of discoveries have been made so that Qatar has become one of the leading OPEC oil states. Hydrocarbon accumulations are widely dispersed throughout the stratigraphic column from upper Paleozoic to Cretaceous producing strata. The most prolific reservoirs are the Permian and Mesozoic shelf carbonate sequences. Minor clastic reservoirs occur in the Albian and Paleozoic sequences. Seals, mainly anhydrite and shale. occur both intraformationally and regionally. Several stratigraphic intervals contain source rocks or potential source rocks. The Silurian shales arc the most likely source of the hydrocarbon stored in the upper Paleozoic clastics and carbonates. The upper Oxfordian-middle Kimmeridgian rocks formed in the extensive starved basin during the Mesozoic period of sea level rise. Total organic carbon ranges between 1 and 6%, with the sulfur content approximately 9%. The source material consists of sapropelic liptodetrinite and algae. The geological background of the sedimentary facies through geologic time, stratigraphy, and structural evolution which control source, and the subsequent timing and migration of large-scale hydrocarbon generation are presented in detail.

  19. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii producing OXA-23 Carbapenemase in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Rolain, J-M; Loucif, L; Al-Maslamani, M; Elmagboul, E; Al-Ansari, N; Taj-Aldeen, S; Shaukat, A; Ahmedullah, H; Hamed, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the molecular support of carbapenem resistance from randomly selected clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii as a pilot study from the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Qatar. Results of our report will be used to study carbapenemases using molecular techniques in all isolated MDR A. baumannii. Forty-eight MDR A. baumannii were randomly selected from isolates preserved at HMC. Identification of all isolates was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antibiotic resistance was tested phenotypically by Phoenix and confirmed by Etest. The molecular support of carbapenemases (bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-58, bla NDM) was investigated by real-time PCR. The epidemiologic relatedness of the isolates was verified by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of CsuE and bla OXA-51 genes. All 48 isolates were identified as A. baumannii and were confirmed to be resistant to most antibiotics, especially meropenem, imipenems, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin and most of the β-lactams; they were sensitive to colistin. All the isolates were positive for bla OXA-23 and negative for the other tested carbapenemase genes. Clonality analysis demonstrated that different lineages were actually circulating in Qatar; and we suggest that an outbreak occurred in the medical intensive care unit of HMC between 2011 and 2012. Here we report the emergence of MDR A. baumannii producing the carbapenemase OXA-23 in Qatar. PMID:27054039

  20. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jaam, M.; Al-Marridi, W.; Fares, H.; Izham, M.; Kheir, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed for data analyses, with P ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: About 44% of the respondents believed that waterpipe smoking was safer than cigarette smoking, and more than 70% would not mind if their children became involved in waterpipe smoking. More than half of the current smokers wanted to quit smoking shisha at some point, and 17% identified health concerns as the main motivating factor for their intention to quit. Conclusion: A large proportion of shisha smokers viewed shisha as a safer alternative to cigarettes, yet they admitted to intending to quit. These findings underscore the need to design educational interventions and awareness campaigns as well as impose stringent laws on waterpipe smoking in public places in Qatar. PMID:27051611

  1. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

  2. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Chouchane, Lotfi; Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud M; Ameduri, Marco; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East.During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar.WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar. PMID:21272322

  3. Underlying Factors Behind the Low Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Oman: Sociocultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Waly, Mostafa; Gupta, Ishita; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological surveys from various countries indicate an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), leading researchers to debate whether there are now 'more affected' or 'more detected'. The epidemiology of ASD in developing countries, such as Oman, has generally indicated a lower prevalence compared to developed countries in the West. In Oman, the prevalence is low; however, this article highlights some of the factors that could contribute to the appearance of a low ASD rate: cross-cultural variations in the presentation of distress; a lack of reliable biological markers for diagnosing ASD, and a lack of health services for children with ASD, thus limiting the number of participants in epidemiological surveys. While the defining features of ASD have yet to be established, pilot studies in Oman indicate a substantial number of children with these disorders. Therefore, it is important that these discrepancies be addressed and the need for appropriate services for this patient population in Oman be highlighted. PMID:26052454

  4. 77 FR 11384 - Removal of Oman from the Restricted Destinations List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Oman. The Executive Branch recommended, in light of current foreign policy and nonproliferation-related... backfits as defined in 10 CFR Chapter I. VIII. Congressional Review Act Under the Congressional Review...

  5. Studies of the Kuwait oil fire plume during midsummer 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, P. H.; Al-Sunaid, A.; Busness, K. M.; Hales, J. M.; Mazurek, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports aircraft observations of the Kuwait oil fire plume conducted during the period July 31-August 17, 1991. During this study the plume was transported almost exclusively to the south of Kuwait over the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula. The plume base was generally found to be well above the surface, in some cases as high as 1-2 km; plume tops did not exceed 5 km. Aerosol mass (based on measured aerosol constituents) in the central section of the plume, ca. 150-200 km downwind of the source region, was found to be >500 ?g/m3, with number densities in the size range (approximate) 0.2 < d < 3 ?m (where d is diameter) as high as 30,000/cm3. The aerosol was composed of (in order of approximate contribution to mass) inorganic salts, elemental carbon, and organic carbon. Sodium chloride constituted a surprisingly large component of the soluble inorganic mass. The aerosol particles appeared to function as good cloud condensation nuclei, with a large fraction of accumulation mode particles (by number) activated at a supersaturation of 0.6%. Under conditions in which the plume was relatively compact, transmittance of solar radiation to the surface was only 10-20%. Plume albedo was observed to be as low as 2-3% close to the source region, consistent with the high elemental-carbon concentrations present in the plume. Trace gas concentrations were consistent with fuel composition and with current knowledge of atmospheric chemical processes. Sulfur dioxide concentrations close to the source region were found to be as high as 300-400 ppb. The emissions factor for S (expressed as a percentage) was estimated to be 1.8%, which is consistent with estimates of a fuel sulfur content of 2-2.5%. SO2 was found to be only slowly oxidized (<1%/h). Nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to be quite low (<50 ppb near the source, decreasing to 1-2 ppb well downwind), which is consistent with a crude oil nitrogen source. Despite relatively low concentrations, sufficient NOx was present to act as a catalyst to generate excess ozone in the plume as the plume was transported downwind and dispersed.

  6. Crustal Accretion at Fast Spreading Ridges, Insight from Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A. J.; Boudier, F. I.; Jousselin, D.

    2011-12-01

    Based on recent high definition field studies in the Oman ophiolite, the level of the perched melt lens (AMC for marine geophysicists) has been identified. Results on AMC internal activity and subsidence from its floor are now published. The dunitic Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) covers mantle diapirs that in Oman were active to the time of oceanic detachment. MTZ is possibly equated with the melt bodies near Moho documented at the EPR. New data on MTZ activity illustrate a remarkable coupling between MTZ and AMC with important consequences on accretion processes in the gabbro magma chamber located between these two levels. MTZs in Oman reach 400 m in diapiric areas, thinning abruptly to <100 m outside these areas. When melt fractures in the mantle reach the MTZ, they are blocked by an horizon of compacted, "dry" dunites. Thus, melt ponds underneath these dunites and generates melt-impregnated dunites and gabbro sills that contribute to the thickening of the MTZ. There, melt composition evolves, its liquidus shifting from olivine to anorthite. This melt accumulates below "dry", impermeable dunites as an under-compacted level, now recorded in the field as dunite-gabbro breccias. Expelled upwards, melt reaches the AMC as powerful intrusions, now recorded as anorthosite-rich layers within subsided gabbros. The spacing in the field of these layers point to an average centennial tempo of melt intrusions from the MTZ to the AMC. As MTZ is very thin at the very ridge axis, melt freely ascent from the very shallow underlying mantle and percolates as porous flow through the gabbro magma chamber. Continuously reaching the AMC, it contributes to its replenishment. In turn, the magma chamber is dominantly fed by the mush subsiding from the AMC floor. In addition, another type of melt instability can develop in the MTZ impregnated dunites. These dunites can disaggregate into a mush that intrudes the lower part of the magma chamber as wehrlite sills, where they are interlayered with the gabbros issued from the subsidence. When injected outside the magma chamber, the wehrlites form massive intrusions folding the solidifying gabbros. The volume of such wehrlite intrusions explains the rapid thinning of the MTZ at the outskirt of diapirs.

  7. The Oman Ophiolite as a Record of Subduction Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenberg, C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite is the largest and best-known ophiolite in the world. It formed in the Cretaceous (~95 Ma) in the Neotethyan ocean, but its geodynamic setting of formation has been heavily debated for over three decades. Many workers have assumed that it formed in an open ocean setting, consequently utilising the ophiolite as a direct analogue for fast-spreading oceanic crust, whereas others argue that the complex formed in a subduction setting. Here, we make the case that the Oman ophiolite records the evolution of the upper plate of a newly initiated subduction zone. Using a database of >1200 lava and dyke analyses ('OmanDB'), we show that the earliest lava sequence (the Geotimes unit) is systematically different to modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, and that these differences can be explained by the presence of elevated water contents. This rules out a mid-ocean ridge origin, pointing instead to a subduction-related setting. The lavas evolved from the Geotimes 'moist MORB' to island-arc tholeiite and boninite (the Lasail and Alley units); hence, we conclude that the entire ophiolite formed in a subduction zone. The data suggest a progressive addition of water and concomitant depletion of the mantle source. High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates that this fundamental change in magmatic source occurred within ~2 million years. The spreading structure of the ophiolite is characterized by a series of NW-SE trending propagating rifts that crosscut earlier N-S trending ridge segments. Together with palaeomagnetic evidence, which calls for 30° clockwise rotation between Geotimes and Lasail/Alley, and 120° between Lasail/Alley and the later Salahi lavas, it suggests that construction of the lithosphere was accompanied by significant plate rotation. Combined, the available evidence suggests that the rapid change in magmatic signature to increasingly arc-like compositions was coeval with large-scale rotational disaggregation of young ocean lithosphere and consequent reorganisation of the spreading system. This is consistent with the formation of the ophiolite above a newly initiated subduction zone, where a rapidly sinking slab changes the mantle melting regime and induces rotational stress due to differential rollback.

  8. Holocene ITCZ Migration Recorded in Stalagmites From Oman (Southern Arabia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, D.; Burns, S. J.; Mudelsee, M.; Neff, U.; Kramers, J.; Mangini, A.; Matter, A.

    2003-12-01

    The latitudinal migration of the ITCZ during boreal summer in response to the annual solar cycle and maximum surface heating determines the start, duration and end of the rainy season from across Northern Africa to India. The Dhofar area in Southern Oman sits at the northern limit of the summer migration of the ITCZ and the associated Indian Ocean monsoon rainfall belt. Annual precipitation in this region is highly seasonal, more than 80% of total annual precipitation falls during the summer monsoon months (July to September) when the ITCZ reaches its northernmost position. To date, the clouds are unable to rise higher than ˜1500 m because of a temperature inversion created by the convergence between the hot dry north-westerly winds and the low-level southwest monsoon winds. As a result, monsoon precipitation occurs as fine drizzle, seldom exceeding more than 5 mm d-1. Variations in the mean latitudinal summer position of the ITCZ over Southern Arabia directly affect the height of the temperature inversion. For instance, a northward shift of the ITCZ into the Arabian Peninsula would lead to stronger convective cloud development and higher monsoonal rainfall over Southern Oman. Due to the so-called amount effect, δ 18O values of precipitation become more negative (depleted). Such variations are accurately recorded in high-resolution δ 18O records obtained from three Uranium-series dated stalagmites, which continuously cover the period from 10.3 and 2.7 and 1.4 and 0.4 kyr BP. The oxygen isotope profiles show three distinct features: 1) A rapid northward migration of the ITCZ and increase in monsoon precipitation respectively between 10.3 and 9.8 kyr BP is indicated by a sharp decrease in δ 18O from -0.8‰ to ˜-2‰ . 2) An interval of generally high monsoon precipitation lasting from 9.8 to 5.5 kyr BP with δ 18O values averaging -2‰ . 3) A long-term gradual southward migration of the ITCZ and decrease in monsoon precipitation starting at around 8 kyr BP is indicated by a slow shift in δ 18O from -2.2‰ at 8 kyr BP to ˜-0.9‰ (slightly more negative than δ 18O values of modern stalagmites) at 2.7 kyr BP. Superimposed on the long-term trends are distinct decadal to multi-decadal variations in δ 18O, which likely reflect changes in the convection activity over Southern Oman

  9. First report of Albizia lebbeck dieback caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum in Oman.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Ba-Omar, Taher

    2002-01-01

    Over 200 Albizia lebbeck trees at Sultan Qaboos University campus wilted and died. The symptoms were dieback of large branches due to infection by Scytalidium dimidiatum. The fungus has also infected Ficus benghalensis, F. carica, F. retusa, Thespesia populnea, Delonix regia and Peltophorum petrocarpum. This is the first report of the fungus in Oman and on A. lebbeck, T. populnea, D. regia and P. petrocarpum. The strain of this fungus has not been found to cause human disease in Oman. PMID:12041870

  10. Implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project in Oman.

    PubMed

    Jaffer, Y A; Al Abri, J; Abdawani, J; Knight, H E; Cheikh Ismail, L

    2013-09-01

    The Middle Eastern site in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project was Muscat, the capital city of Oman, with approximately 10,500 births per year. The sample for the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) was drawn from two hospitals covering 96% of the region's births. The Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) sample was recruited from four primary health facilities serving Khoula Hospital, using the eligibility criteria in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) protocol. Special activities to encourage participation in this population included local advocacy campaigns to encourage early antenatal booking and ultrasound dating in the population. The major challenges at the site were the recruitment of sufficient numbers of women at an early gestational age, and the timely measurement of all newborns within 12 hours of birth. Many individuals and institutions collaborated effectively over a period of several years on these studies, which required careful planning and close monitoring for their successful implementation. PMID:23679957

  11. Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

    2007-05-01

    On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different environmental factors acting upon the shell assemblages. These results suggest that tsunamigenic shell deposits can be identified based on their taphonomic characteristics when compared to beach and storm deposits in the same setting. Our data indicates that the following diagnostic taphonomic characteristics may indicate a tsunamigenic deposit: 1) presence/absence of articulated bivalves, 2) increased percentage of fragmented valves, 3) increased percentage of angular fragments, and 4) the large number of offshore bivalves in the lagoon. This study highlights the potential benefits and opportunity for using bivalve taphonomy as a useful indicator of paleotsunami deposits, particularly in protected coastal embayments in arid regions where stratified deposits might not readily preserve. This technique holds potential, as shell deposits are easy to identify in the field by non-experts, is very low cost, and analysis uses simple, easily applicable and recognizable taphonomic characteristics. Furthermore, this proxy can be used for risk assessment purposes in coastal areas with a seismic history but lacking a paleotsunami record. Further testing of this hypothesis should be conducted along the Omani coastline, particularly in the lagoons along the Eastern promontory. Key Words: tsunami, taphonomy, Oman, bivalve

  12. Fully carbonated peridotite (listvenite) from the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, E. S.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Extensive outcrops of listvenite--fully carbonated peridotite, with all Mg in carbonate minerals and all Si in quartz--occur along the basal thrust of the Samail Ophiolite in Oman. The presence of these listvenites demonstrates that peridotite carbonation reactions can proceed to completion on a large scale under natural conditions. Thus, understanding the conditions of listvenite formation can provide insights into the feasibility of achieving complete carbonation of peridotite through engineered approaches for carbon capture and storage. The Oman listvenites likely formed during emplacement of the ophiolite, as CO2-bearing fluids derived from underlying metasediments reacted with peridotite in the hanging wall. Listvenite outcrops occur within 500 meters of the basal thrust, where peridotite overlies carbonate-bearing metasediments. 87Sr/86Sr values in listvenite are higher than seawater values and consistent with values in these underlying metasediments. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data are also consistent with values in some of the metasediments. An internal Rb-Sr isochron from one listvenite sample yields an age of 97 × 29 Ma, consistent with the timing of emplacement of the ophiolite. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry in listvenites yields temperatures around 100°C, and thermodynamically stable coexistence of antigorite, talc, and quartz in serpentinite along the margins of the listvenite would require reaction temperatures around 80°C, as calculated in THERMOCALC. While constraints on the pressure of listvenite formation are lacking, these moderate temperatures suggest that listvenites probably formed at relatively shallow depths, making release of carbonate-saturated pore-water due to compaction of subducted sediment or low-pressure phase transitions of hydrous minerals more probable sources of the CO2-bearing fluid than deeper metamorphic reactions without significant transport of fluids along the slab interface. Through EQ3/6 geochemical reaction path models of these processes over a range of pressures, temperatures, and water-rock ratios we explore the conditions under which listvenite could have formed.

  13. Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman.

    PubMed

    Booij, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan; Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jiří; Dvorská, Alice; Magulová, Katarína; Al-Zadjali, Said; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-04-15

    In Oman, DDT was sprayed indoors during an intensive malaria eradication program between 1976 and 1992. DDT can remain for years after spraying and is associated with potential health risk. This raises the concern for human exposure in areas where DDT was used for indoor spraying. Twelve houses in three regions with a different history of DDT indoor spraying were chosen for a sampling campaign in 2005 to determine p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) levels in indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil. Although DDT was only sprayed indoor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were also found in outdoor soil. The results indicate that release and exposure continue for years after cessation of spraying. The predicted cancer risk based on concentrations determined in 2005, indicate that there was still a significant cancer risk up to 13 to 16years after indoor DDT spraying. A novel approach, based on region-specific half-lives, was used to predict concentrations in 2015 and showed that more than 21years after spraying, cancer risk for exposure to indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil are acceptable in Oman for adults and young children. The model can be used for other locations and countries to predict prospective exposure of contaminants based on indoor experimental measurements and knowledge about the spraying time-schedule to extrapolate region-specific half-lives and predict effects on the human population years after spraying. PMID:26820926

  14. Shigellosis Outbreak in Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman

    PubMed Central

    Abaidani, Idris; Raju, Prasanna A.; Al-Shualli, Issa; Al-Sa’di, Khalid; Al-Shaqsi, Nasser; Al-Khatri, Amer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to Shigella flexneri occurred in August 2012 in the catchment area of the Wadi Sahtan Health Center in Rustaq, Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman. The aim of this study was to discover possible causes of this outbreak in the villages of Fassa, Rogh and Amk and to measure the risk of exposure among cases and controls. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in September 2012 in Fassa, Rogh and Amk. All households in the three villages were interviewed. Case and control households were compared to determine possible exposure avenues, including place of residence, source of drinking water, hand hygiene levels and practices related to drinking water, food preparation and environmental sanitation. Results: Residing in Fassa (P <0.0001; odds ratio [OR] = 4.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22–10.63) and average hand hygiene practices (P = 0.008; OR = 13.97, 95% CI = 1.58–123.36) were associated with an increased risk of contracting shigellosis. No significant differences were found with regards to the other exposure avenues. Conclusion: This was the first study conducted in Oman regarding an outbreak of shigellosis in a community setting. The only variables that significantly impacted the risk of acute gastroenteritis were residing in Fassa and average hand hygiene practices. The source of the outbreak could not be identified. However, septic tank sanitation and water and food consumption practices were not satisfactory in the studied villages. These need to be addressed to prevent similar outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in this region in the future. PMID:26357558

  15. Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Aten, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

  16. Drought Analysis for Kuwait Using Standardized Precipitation Index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of adequate measures to assess and monitor droughts is recognized as a major matter challenging researchers involved in water resources management. The objective of this study is to assess the hydrologic drought characteristics from the historical rainfall records of Kuwait with arid environment by employing the criterion of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). A wide range of monthly total precipitation data from January 1967 to December 2009 is used for the assessment. The computation of the SPI series is performed for intermediate- and long-time scales of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The drought severity and duration are also estimated. The bivariate probability distribution for these two drought characteristics is constructed by using Clayton copula. It has been shown that the drought SPI series for the time scales examined have no systematic trend component but a seasonal pattern related to rainfall data. The results are used to perform univariate and bivariate frequency analyses for the drought events. The study will help evaluating the risk of future droughts in the region, assessing their consequences on economy, environment, and society, and adopting measures for mitigating the effect of droughts. PMID:25386598

  17. Modeling Pan Evaporation for Kuwait by Multiple Linear Regression

    PubMed Central

    Almedeij, Jaber

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation is an important parameter for many projects related to hydrology and water resources systems. This paper constitutes the first study conducted in Kuwait to obtain empirical relations for the estimation of daily and monthly pan evaporation as functions of available meteorological data of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The data used here for the modeling are daily measurements of substantial continuity coverage, within a period of 17 years between January 1993 and December 2009, which can be considered representative of the desert climate of the urban zone of the country. Multiple linear regression technique is used with a procedure of variable selection for fitting the best model forms. The correlations of evaporation with temperature and relative humidity are also transformed in order to linearize the existing curvilinear patterns of the data by using power and exponential functions, respectively. The evaporation models suggested with the best variable combinations were shown to produce results that are in a reasonable agreement with observation values. PMID:23226984

  18. Using the accreditation journey to achieve global impact: UHN's experience at the Kuwait Cancer Control Center.

    PubMed

    Ladha-Waljee, Nafeesa; McAteer, Stephen; Nickerson, Veronica; Khalfan, Adil

    2014-01-01

    On January 1, 2011, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (PM) - University Health Network (UHN) began a five-year partnership agreement with the Kuwait Ministry of Health's Kuwait Cancer Control Center (KCCC) to enhance cancer care services. Over the course of the partnership, opportunities for improvement were identified by UHN experts in order to accelerate KCCC's development toward subspecialty cancer care. Many of these opportunities involved building a robust infrastructure to support foundational hospital operation processes and procedures. Harnessing UHN's own successes in accreditation, the partnership took advantage of the national accreditation mandate in Kuwait to initiate a quality program and drive clinical improvement at KCCC. This resulted in improved staff engagement, better awareness and alignment of administration with clinical management and a stronger patient safety culture. This article discusses the successes and lessons learned at KCCC that may provide insight to healthcare providers implementing Accreditation Canada International's accreditation framework in other countries and cultures. PMID:25191806

  19. Detection of Local/Regional Events in Kuwait Using Next-Generation Detection Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Gok, M. Rengin; Al-Jerri, Farra; Dodge, Douglas; Al-Enezi, Abdullah; Hauk, Terri; Mellors, R.

    2014-12-10

    Seismic networks around the world use conventional triggering algorithms to detect seismic signals in order to locate local/regional seismic events. Kuwait National Seismological Network (KNSN) of Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research (KISR) is operating seven broad-band and short-period three-component stations in Kuwait. The network is equipped with Nanometrics digitizers and uses Antelope and Guralp acquisition software for processing and archiving the data. In this study, we selected 10 days of archived hourly-segmented continuous data of five stations (Figure 1) and 250 days of continuous recording at MIB. For the temporary deployment our selection criteria was based on KNSN catalog intensity for the period of time we test the method. An autonomous event detection and clustering framework is employed to test a more complete catalog of this short period of time. The goal is to illustrate the effectiveness of the technique and pursue the framework for longer period of time.

  20. A conceptual approach to selection of a control measure for residual chlorine discharge in Kuwait bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordagui, Hosny K.

    1992-05-01

    It is estimated that some 17 metric tons of residual oxidants (chlorine) are discharged into the enclosed coastal seawater of Kuwait on a daily basis from power-desalination plants alone. Alarmed by the unlimited number of reported cases of damage to marine aquatic systems due to chlorine discharge around the world, several alternatives were proposed to control such a massive discharge of residual oxidant into seawaters. Most of the proposed alternatives lacked the basic criteria necessary for their evaluation, justification, and then selection. The objective of this article is to provide a conceptual approach that can be used to select a control measure for residual oxidant discharge in Kuwait coastal seawaters. This approach is based on state-of-the-art knowledge and the unique operational and environmental factors involved. A matrix system was designed whereby the cost of residual chlorine control alternative, its effectiveness, and environmental and public health impact, performance, and reliability in Kuwait can be compared and evaluated. The selection approach considered currently operating power plants in terms of their engineering design and material (cast iron or steel condensers), current operational conditions, operator's perception, acceptability, and projected problems associated with the environmental management of proposed modifications. The proposed approach revealed that in Kuwait, conventinal chlorination was marginally superseded only by chlorination/dechlorination using SO2 and operation alteration using process optimization. The overall cost-effective assessment matrix classified other alternatives as worse than chlorination by various degrees. Ozone and UV were found to be the worst and the least desirable alternatives for biofouling control of seawater in Kuwait. In light of the available information on the consequences of the Gulf War on the marine environment, and the potential formation of additional halogenated organic compounds through the reaction of residual chlorine with the released petroleum hydrocarbons, it is essential to control residual chlorine discharged into the nearshore environment of Kuwait.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of naturally occurring radioactivity concentration levels across the State of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Shams, H; Bajoga, A D; Alazemi, N; Bradley, D A; Regan, P H

    2016-03-01

    An evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a surface radiological map of the State of Kuwait. Soil samples were collected from twelve locations across Kuwait and analysed using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The (226)Ra and (235)U specific activity concentrations have been determined and used to estimate the (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratios which are found to be comparable to that expected for naturally occurring uranium material. PMID:26717795

  2. Diurnal fluctuations in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations during and after a severe dust storm episode in Kuwait City, Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Gevao, Bondi; Jaward, Foday M; MacLeod, Matthew; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-11-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were quantified in four-hour integrated air samples obtained serially over a five day period in May 2007 in Kuwait City during and after a severe dust storm. The ∑PBDE concentrations ranged from 51 to 1307 pg m(-3) for the first two days of sampling and 20 to 148 pg m(-3) for the rest of the sampling period. The first two days of sampling occurred during a severe dust storm episode when the total suspended particulates (TSP) in air exceeded 1000 μg/m(3) with concentrations peaking during the day and decreasing at night. During this dust episode, the peak nighttime PBDE concentration was 30 times higher than the minimum daytime concentration. Although ∑PBDE concentrations peaked at night during the first two sampling days, the fluctuations in the BDE 47:99 ratio tracked changes in ambient temperature remarkably well, following a clear diurnal pattern. The fraction of congeners in the gas phase varied inversely with solar flux and was lower on days with a high number of hours of sunshine, suggesting that photolytic degradation of gas-phase PBDEs was occurring. PMID:20942478

  3. The unstable Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an analysis of the international political environment for business in the Gulf region. To secure the flow of oil supplies to the West, the U.S. relies on stable relations with the key Gulf states: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. The region's dynamic balance of power, however, is inherently destabilizing, which threatens the investment climate and the billions of dollars of international commerce with the Gulf states expected in the next decade. Dr. Martin analyzes the effects of the religious, ethnic, and ideological differences in the Persian Gulf on superpower competition and U.S. energy policy.

  4. Education in the Gulf Monarchies: Retrospect and Prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahgat, Gawdat

    1999-03-01

    For the last several decades there has been tremendous expansion in the educational facilities in all the six Gulf monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The quality of education, however, does not correspond to the needs of Gulf societies. This study examines three of the apparent deficiencies in the educational system in the region: the mismatch between traditional and modern learning, the imbalance between indigenous and expatriate labor forces, and the gap between men and women. The paper concludes that a fundamental change in the quality of education needs to be made in order to overcome these imbalances.

  5. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii producing OXA-23 Carbapenemase in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Rolain, J.-M.; Loucif, L.; Al-Maslamani, M.; Elmagboul, E.; Al-Ansari, N.; Taj-Aldeen, S.; Shaukat, A.; Ahmedullah, H.; Hamed, M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the molecular support of carbapenem resistance from randomly selected clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii as a pilot study from the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Qatar. Results of our report will be used to study carbapenemases using molecular techniques in all isolated MDR A. baumannii. Forty-eight MDR A. baumannii were randomly selected from isolates preserved at HMC. Identification of all isolates was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antibiotic resistance was tested phenotypically by Phoenix and confirmed by Etest. The molecular support of carbapenemases (blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM) was investigated by real-time PCR. The epidemiologic relatedness of the isolates was verified by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of CsuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 48 isolates were identified as A. baumannii and were confirmed to be resistant to most antibiotics, especially meropenem, imipenems, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin and most of the β-lactams; they were sensitive to colistin. All the isolates were positive for blaOXA-23 and negative for the other tested carbapenemase genes. Clonality analysis demonstrated that different lineages were actually circulating in Qatar; and we suggest that an outbreak occurred in the medical intensive care unit of HMC between 2011 and 2012. Here we report the emergence of MDR A. baumannii producing the carbapenemase OXA-23 in Qatar. PMID:27054039

  6. Physician perceptions of pharmacist roles in a primary care setting in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacists are uniquely trained to provide guidance to patients in the selection of appropriate non-prescription therapy. Physicians in Qatar may not always recognize how pharmacists function in assuring safe medication use. Both these health professional groups come from heterogeneous training and experiences before migrating to the country and these backgrounds could influence collaborative patient care. Qatar Petroleum (QP), the largest private employer in the country, has developed a pharmacist-guided medication consulting service at their primary care clinics, but physician comfort with pharmacists recommending drug therapy is currently unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize physician perceptions of pharmacists and their roles in a primary care patient setting in Qatar. Methods This cross-sectional survey was developed following a comprehensive literature review and administered in English and Arabic. Consenting QP physicians were asked questions to assess experiences, comfort and expectations of pharmacist roles and abilities to provide medication-related advice and recommend and monitor therapies. Results The median age of the 62 (77.5%) physicians who responded was between 40 and 50 years old and almost two-third were men (64.5%). Fourteen different nationalities were represented. Physicians were more comfortable with pharmacist activities closely linked to drug products than responsibilities associated with monitoring and optimization of patient outcomes. Medication education (96.6%) and drug knowledge (90%) were practically unanimously recognized as abilities expected of pharmacists, but consultative roles, such as assisting in drug regimen design were less acknowledged. They proposed pharmacist spend more time with physicians attending joint meetings or education events to help advance acceptance of pharmacists in patient-centered care at this site. Conclusions Physicians had low comfort and expectations of patient-oriented pharmacist roles but were not threatened to learn more about these capabilities or explore enhanced collaboration in patient care. PMID:22650614

  7. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire in Arab Gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ozkan, Trker; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-07-01

    Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring self-reported driving style and investigating the relationship between driving behaviour and accident involvement. In spite of the fact that Arab Gulf countries have a higher road accident fatality rate compared to European countries and USA, the DBQ has not been used in Arab countries so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ, then to examine the relationships between the factors of the DBQ and accident involvement, and finally to compare DBQ scores between the two gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 1110 Qatari (263 females and 847 males) and 1286 UAE drivers (294 females and 992 males) filled a survey questionnaire including the DBQ and background information. The results showed that UAE drivers scored higher on almost all DBQ items than Qatari drivers. Surprisingly, only very small differences between men and women on the DBQ item scores were found in UAE. Factor analysis resulted in four factors, which were named as errors, pushing-speeding violations, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations. However, there were a number of differences in the factor structure of the DBQ in UAE and Qatar when compared to the theoretical four-factor structure of the DBQ. Reliabilities of some subscales were also questionably lower than in the original British data. Logistic regression analyses showed that errors, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations predicted accident involvement in Qatar but not in UAE after controlling the effect of the demographic variables (age, sex, and annual mileage). PMID:18606274

  8. Twenty years of sedimentary change and diagenesis, Qatar Peninsula, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1988-02-01

    Re-examination in February 1986 of areas studied by the author in 1966 and 1967 revealed rapid rates of sedimentation and diagenesis along the east coast of the Qatar Peninsula. At Ras Um Sa on the north-east side of Qatar, a series of chenier-like beaches and curved spits is building southward under the influence of longshore currents. Beach and spit growth increasingly protects the shoreline and allows tidal flats to form in their lee. As these spits accrete, they become armored on their lagoonal side by beachrock formation. In the last 20 years a spit approximately 1/2 km long has grown, and beachrock has already armored its recurved lagoonal side. At Umm Said on the southeast side of Qatar, seawardly accreting barchan dunes composed of quartz sand have built a 40-km long, 10-km wide sabkha as thick as 30 m. Aerial and ground photographs show that certain dunes near the seaward edge of the sabkha have migrated into the sea and have contributed to shoreline accretion. The observed rate of dune migration suggests that within approximately 100 years the remaining quartz sands will be depleted and blown into the sea because there is no replenishment of the dune field. Subsequently, the area will revert to one of carbonate deposition. Fine-grained dolomite is presently precipitating in interstitial brines in the landwardmost portions of this unusual sabkha. In the geologic record, such a deposit would be an anomalous, porous and permeable, cross-bedded, linear, 30-m thick, dolomite-cemented sandstone body encased in carbonate sediments. A modern model such as the one at Umm Said can provide useful clues for determining the origin of similar deposits in ancient rocks.

  9. Twenty years of sedimentary change and diagenesis, Qatar Peninsula, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Re-examination in February 1986 of areas studied by the author in 1966 and 1967 revealed rapid rates of sedimentation and diagenesis along the east coast of the Qatar Peninsula. At Ras UmSa on the northeast side of Qatar, a series of chenier-like beaches and curved spits is building southward under the influence of longshore currents. Beach and spit growth increasingly protects the shoreline and allows tidal flats to form in their lee. As these spits accrete, they become armored on their lagoonal side by beachrock formation. In the last 20 years a spit approximately 1/2 km long has grown, and beachrock has already armored its recurved lagoonal side. At Umm Said on the southeast side of Qatar, seawardly accreting barchan dunes composed of quartz sand have built a 40-km long, 10-km wide sabkha as thick as 30 m. Aerial and ground photographs show that certain dunes near the seaward edge of the sabkha have migrated into the sea and have contributed to shoreline accretion. The observed rate of dune migration suggests that within approximately 100 years the remaining quartz sands are depleted and blown into the sea because there is no replenishment of the dune field. Subsequently, the area reverts to one of carbonate deposition. Fine-grained dolomite is presently precipitating in interstitial brines in the landwardmost portions of this unusual sabkha. In the geologic record, such a deposit would be an anomalous, porous and permeable, cross-bedded, linear, 30-m thick, dolomite-cemented sandstones body encased in carbonate sediments. A modern model such as the one at Umm Said can provide useful clues for determining the origin of similar deposits in ancient rocks.

  10. Nature of gamma rays background radiation in new and old buildings of Qatar University

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Houty, L.; Abou-Leila, H.; El-Kameesy, S. )

    1987-01-01

    Measurements and analysis of gamma-background radiation spectrum in four different places of Qatar University campus were performed at the energy range 10 keV-3 MeV using hyper pure Ge-detector. The dependence of the detector absolute photopeak efficiency on gamma-ray energies was determined and correction of the data for that was also done. The absorbed dose for each gamma line was calculated and an estimation of the total absorbed dose for the detected gamma lines in the four different places was obtained. Comparison with other results was also performed.

  11. Evaluation of pesticide residues of organochlorine in vegetables and fruits in Qatar: statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamary, Noora M; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Meer, Saeed H; Ahmad, Talaat A

    2016-03-01

    The study aimed to examine the residues of organochlorines pesticides (OCPs) in vegetables and fruits in Qatar. A total of 127 samples was studied. Ninety percent of the imported samples recorded residues above the maximum residue levels (MRLs). The most frequently detected OCP in the samples was heptachlor (found in 75 samples). In the comparisons between the washed and unwashed samples, no significant differences were observed (P > 0.05). However, the effect of washing process with tap water depended on the type of vegetables and fruits. PMID:26922748

  12. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69%) were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (< 2%) gradually falling even further in the elderly. In contrast the prevalence of non-pathogenic amoebae (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii) peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the increase in prevalence over the period 2005-2008, in helminth infections prevalence increasing 2-3 fold by 2008, and in protozoan infections by 1.5-2.0 fold. Conclusions We suggest that helminth infections are probably acquired abroad when immigrants visit their home villages, whilst protozoan infections are reinforced by transmission in Qatar, possibly in the poorer areas of the state where immigrant workers live. We discuss the significance of these findings and emphasize that they have clear implications for the health authorities. PMID:20946623

  13. Evaluation of Student-Teachers' Performance in TEFL Practicum at Kuwait University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mutawa, Najat; Al-Dabbous, Jawahir

    A study investigated the process used in evaluating student teachers of English as a foreign language (TEFL) during the practicum period, in an effort to assess and improve the supervision process. Subjects were 34 student teachers from Kuwait University practice-teaching in intermediate and secondary schools. The students' evaluation was…

  14. A Study in Kuwait of Health Risks Associated with Using Cell Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between cell phone use and various symptoms. Analysis of 3,274 completed questionnaires from throughout Kuwait show a significant effect of exposure to cell phones for burning sensation on the ear, temporal pain, pain in the back of the head, auricular pain, noises in the ear, ear numbness, heartbeat…

  15. NNSA Signs Memorandum with Kuwait to Increase Cooperation on Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    On June 23, 2010, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation on nuclear safeguards and other nonproliferation topics with the Kuwait National Nuclear Energy Committee (KNNEC). NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino and KNNEC's Secretary General, Dr. Ahmad Bishara, signed the memorandum at a ceremony at U.S. Department of Energy headquarters in Washington.

  16. Perception of Teachers on Health Education and Nutrition for Kindergarten Students in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Amari, Hanaa

    2012-01-01

    This study is designed to assess the perception of Kindergarten teachers in Kuwait regarding the role of health education in Promoting healthy nutrition for children in KG Level. For this purpose, a questionnaire was administered to 250 Kindergarten female teachers. Percentage, mean and standard deviation scores were obtained. The results of the…

  17. A Study in Kuwait of Health Risks Associated with Using Cell Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between cell phone use and various symptoms. Analysis of 3,274 completed questionnaires from throughout Kuwait show a significant effect of exposure to cell phones for burning sensation on the ear, temporal pain, pain in the back of the head, auricular pain, noises in the ear, ear numbness, heartbeat

  18. Emergence of New Sequence Type OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Wafaa Y; Albert, M John; Khodakhast, Fatima; Poirel, Laurent; Rotimi, Vincent O

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the infections due to OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing bacteria in tertiary hospitals in Kuwait (September 2011 to April 2013) and to determine the sequence types (STs) of the corresponding isolates. Eleven OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were recovered from patients treated in nine different hospitals in Kuwait. Susceptibility testing to eighteen antibiotics was done using the E-test. PCR assays were performed for the detection of genes encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM) and carbapenemases (blaOXA-48, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaGIM, and blaKPC). STs were determined by Multilocus Sequence Typing. Seven Klebsiella pneumoniae, two Escherichia coli, one Enterobacter cloacae, and one Morganella morganii harbored the blaOXA-48 gene. The K. pneumoniae and E. coli belonged to seven and two different STs, respectively, which were not related to those reported from this region. The majority of the isolates carried either blaCTX-M or blaSHV genes and showed a multidrug-resistant phenotype, including resistance to tigecycline. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae harboring the blaOXA-48 gene are emerging in Kuwait with different STs compared to those identified in other countries of the region. Detection of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Kuwait is important to prevent its rapid spread. PMID:25551428

  19. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives, post-secondary…

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma patients in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Kapila, Kusum; Al-Mulla, Fahd R; Francis, Issam M; Al-Waheeb, Salah; Al-Ayadhy, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Context: Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most frequently diagnosed form of lung cancer in Kuwait. NSCLC samples from Kuwait have never been screened for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene aberration, which is known to affect treatment options. Aims: This study investigated the feasibility of using fine-needle aspiration (FNA) material for mutational screening, and whether common EGFR mutations are present in NSCLC samples from Kuwait. Settings and Design: Eighteen NSCLC samples from five Kuwaitis and 13 non-Kuwaitis were included in this study. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from FNA cell blocks and screened for EGFR gene mutations using peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-clamp assay, and EGFR gene amplification using fluorescent in situ hybridization (EGFR-FISH). EGFR protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Five EGFR mutations were detected in five non-Kuwaiti NSCLC patients (27.8%). EGFR gene amplification was evident in 10 samples (55.5%) by direct amplification or under the influence of chromosomal polysomy. Four samples had EGFR mutations and EGFR gene amplification, out of which only one sample had coexisting EGFR overexpression. Conclusions: Given the evidence of EGFR gene alterations occurring in NSCLC patients in Kuwait, there is a need to incorporate EGFR gene mutational screen for NSCLC patients to implement its consequent use in patient treatment. PMID:27011433

  1. Extent of Parental Involvement in Improving the Students' Levels in Special Education Programs in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    This research study investigates the degree to which parental involvement impacts students' levels in special education programs in Kuwait. More specifically, this research discusses several scientific methods for research included within the significance of the study and research questions for this study. Research methods and results using a…

  2. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  3. The Attitudes, Knowledge and Beliefs of Arab Parents in Kuwait about Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq

    2009-01-01

    An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. ("The ASHA Leader," 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in Kuwait. The…

  4. Predictors of Breastfeeding Duration among Women in Kuwait: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Manal; Scott, Jane A.; Edwards, Christine A.; Al-Sughayer, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% of all infants were receiving some breast milk and only 2% of infants had been fully breastfed to 26 weeks. Women born in other Arab countries were less likely to discontinue breastfeeding than women born in Kuwait. Other factors positively associated with breastfeeding duration were level of maternal education, higher parity, infant being demand fed in hospital and a preference for breastfeeding on the part of the infant’s father and maternal grandmother. The introduction of a pacifier before four weeks of age and the mother intending to return to work by six months were negatively associated with duration. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in Kuwait. PMID:24561360

  5. LIS Students' ICT Skills in Kuwait: Perspectives of Employers, Teaching Staff and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buarki, Hanadi; Hepworth, Mark; Murray, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In Kuwait and elsewhere, developments in electronic information resources have led to the demand for employees with ICT (information and communication technology) skills especially in information handling institutions. There is, therefore, a need to prepare the students for this workplace. As a result, the ICT skills of current LIS (library and…

  6. Vocational Education and Training in Kuwait: Vocational Education versus Values and Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilboe, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Since the opening up of private universities and colleges in the Kuwait education system in the late 1990s, there has been an explosion of tertiary institutions (both domestic and international) established in the country, with many of them offering vocational education and training. The move towards vocational and educational training forms part…

  7. The Language Needs Analysis Project at the College of Petroleum and Engineering, Kuwait University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basturkmen, Helen; Al-Huneidi, Amal

    A study of the English language needs and attitudes of students and faculty in Kuwait University's College of Petroleum and Engineering is reported. The objective was to create a basis for assessing the relevance of the institution's current English second language program. Data were gathered through: (1) interviews with faculty, teaching…

  8. Suicidal hanging in Kuwait: retrospective analysis of cases from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elwahab Hassan, Dalia; Ghaleb, Sherein S; Kotb, Heba; Agamy, Mervat; Kharoshah, Magdy

    2013-11-01

    Suicide is an important health hazard worldwide. We retrospectively analyzed the autopsy records of the Institute of Forensic Medicine between 2010 and 2012 to document the characteristics of fatalities resulting from hanging in Kuwait. Upon analysis of death scene investigation and autopsy reports together with the information gathered from the police, the cases of hanging fatalities of suicidal origin were selected. A retrospective study was carried out on 118 suicidal hanging cases autopsied at Forensic Medicine Center in Kuwait (from 2010 to 2012). Of these cases, 86 (73%) were males and 32 females (27%). There was an increasing trend of hanging among ages between 21 and 50 years (87.3%) and the third decade had the highest number of victims (about 43%) between all age groups. Local Kuwaiti nationals comprised a small proportion of cases (7 persons, 5.9%), while the others were foreigners working in Kuwait with an Indian precedence (54 persons, 54.8%), followed by other 12 different nationalities representing 39.3% of the cases. In conclusion, there was a decreasing trend of suicide by hanging in Kuwait from 44 cases in 2010 to 25 cases in 2012. PMID:24237833

  9. Combined immunodeficiency in the United States and Kuwait: Comparison of patients’ characteristics and molecular diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Sadek, Ali; Buckley, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare different variables among (S)CID patients diagnosed in the USA and Kuwait. Methods Review of patients registered in The US Immune Deficiency Network registry or Kuwait National PID Registry between 2004 and 2014. Results Totals of 98 and 69 (S)CID patients were registered during the study period in the USIDNET registry and the KNPIDR, respectively. The average annual incidence rate for the period 2004–2014 of (S)CID in children in Kuwait was 13.01/100,000 children, with an estimated occurrence of 1/7500 live births. There were differences between the two countries in the following variables: age at onset and diagnosis, family history of (S)CID, parental consanguinity, and outcome. More than 14% of (S)CID patients from USIDNET registry were diagnosed through newborn screening. Conclusions Patients’ characteristics and molecular causes of S(CID) are different between USA and Kuwait. NBS for SCID should be started in countries where the incidence of (S)CID is high. PMID:26248333

  10. A Survey of Leadership Standards for Professional Preparation of Public School Principals in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alansari, Amal EEHE

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Over the last decade, the Ministry of Education in Kuwait undertook the responsibility of reforming the Kuwaiti education system. While it noted the importance of school principals in this reform process, it has not yet focused on the development of school leaders through formal preparation. There were no standards set to guide school…

  11. Students Opinions and Attitudes towards Physical Education Classes in Kuwait Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Heyam Reda; Mohammad, Mona Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate student opinion and attitude toward physical education classes. Two thousand seven hundred (2700) students answered the survey: 1239 (45.3%) were male students and 1497 (54.7%) were female from Kuwait six districts: Al_Hawalli, Al_Asimah, Al_Jahra, Al_Mobarak, Al_Farwniah, Al_Ahmadi. Weight Status was determined…

  12. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private

  13. Teachers' Perceptions toward the Secondary Physical Education Program in the State of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kandari, Khaled A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the perceptions of physical education teachers and supervisors toward the secondary physical education program in eight domains in the State of Kuwait. Stratified and cluster sampling were used to select two schools of female teachers and two schools of male teachers from each district (6 districts);…

  14. Vocational Education and Training in Kuwait: Vocational Education versus Values and Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilboe, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Since the opening up of private universities and colleges in the Kuwait education system in the late 1990s, there has been an explosion of tertiary institutions (both domestic and international) established in the country, with many of them offering vocational education and training. The move towards vocational and educational training forms part

  15. Working Memory Tasks in Relation to Phonological Processes of Arab Dyslexics in the State of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-dyiar, Mosaad Abo; Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between the working memory tasks and the phonological processes of Arab dyslexics in the primary stage in the State of Kuwait. The researchers used the descriptive research design. The sample of the study consists of 500 pupils (250 males and 250 females), their ages range from (9.05 ± 0.49) years…

  16. English Teachers' Use of Learners' L1 (Arabic) in College Classrooms in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrabah, Sulaiman; Wu, Shu-hua; Alotaibi, Abdullah M.; Aldaihani, Hussein A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated English teachers' use of learners' L1 (Arabic) in college classrooms in Kuwait. The purpose of the study was three-fold: (1) to describe the functions for which L1 was employed by the teachers, (2) to explore the affective, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic factors that may have led teachers to use L1 in L2 teaching,…

  17. New Private Universities in Kuwait Pin Their Hopes on U.S. Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When Kuwait lifted a ban on private higher education less than a decade ago, it decided that the best way to ensure the development of academically sound universities was to require all new institutions to have foreign partners. That policy has helped the country rapidly build a credible private higher-education system where none existed before.…

  18. A Survey of Leadership Standards for Professional Preparation of Public School Principals in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alansari, Amal EEHE

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Over the last decade, the Ministry of Education in Kuwait undertook the responsibility of reforming the Kuwaiti education system. While it noted the importance of school principals in this reform process, it has not yet focused on the development of school leaders through formal preparation. There were no standards set to guide school

  19. Spatio-temporal pattern of sylvatic rabies in the Sultanate of Oman, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Ward, Michael P; Body, Mohammed; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed; Wadir, Ali Awlad; Al-Habsi, Saif; Saqib, Muhammad; Ahmed, Mohammed Sayed; Almaawali, Mahir Gharib

    2013-07-01

    Rabies was first reported in the Sultanate of Oman is 1990. We analysed passive surveillance data (444 samples) collected and reported between 2006 and 2010. During this period, between 45 and 75% of samples submitted from suspect animals were subsequently confirmed (fluorescent antibody test, histopathology and reverse transcription PCR) as rabies cases. Overall, 63% of submitted samples were confirmed as rabies cases. The spatial distribution of species-specific cases were similar (centred in north-central Oman with a northeast-southwest distribution), although fox cases had a wider distribution and an east-west orientation. Clustering of cases was detected using interpolation, local spatial autocorrelation and scan statistical analysis. Several local government areas (wilayats) in north-central Oman were identified where higher than expected numbers of laboratory-confirmed rabies cases were reported. For fox rabies, more clusters (local spatial autocorrelation analysis) and a larger clustered area (scan statistical analysis) were detected. In Oman, monthly reports of fox rabies cases were highly correlated (rSP>0.5) with reports of camel, cattle, sheep and goat rabies. The best-fitting ARIMA model included a seasonality component. Fox rabies cases reported 6 months previously best explained rabies reported cases in other animal species. Despite likely reporting bias, results suggest that rabies exists as a sylvatic cycle of transmission in Oman and an opportunity still exists to prevent establishment of dog-mediated rabies. PMID:23375085

  20. Late Precambrian-Cambrian sediments of Huqf group, Sultanate of Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Gorin, G.E.; Racz, L.G.; Walter, M.R.

    1982-12-01

    The Huqf Group is the oldest known sedimentary sequence overlying crystalline basement in the Sultanate of Oman. It crops out on a broad regional high, the Huqf Axis, which forms a dominating structural element on the southeastern edge of the Arabian peninsula. Subsurface and outcrop evidence within and outside of Oman suggests that the sediments of the Huqf Group lie within the age span of late Precambrian to Early-Middle Cambrian. The Huqf Group is subdivided into five formations corresponding to an alternation of clastics (Abu Mahara and Shuram Formations) and carbonates (Khufai and Buah Formations) deposited in essentially shallow marine to supratidal (or fluviatile) conditions and terminated by an evaporitic sequence (Ara Formation). Evaporites are absent on the Huqf Axis, but they are thickly developed to the west over a large part of southern and central Oman, where they acted as the major structure former of most of Oman's fields, and even locally pierced up to the surface. Regional correlations suggest that the predominantly carbonate-evaporitic facies of the Huqf Group was widely distributed in late Precambrian-Early Cambrian time: the Huqf basin is tentatively considered part of a belt of evaporitic basins and intervening carbonate platforms, which stretched across the Pangea landmass from the Indian subcontinent (Salt Range of Pakistan) through South Yemen, Oman, and Saudi Arabia into the gulf states and Iran (Hormuz Series and carbonate platform north of the Zagros).

  1. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec....

  2. [The dynamics of manpower in Kuwait: a dilemma for a petroleum-exporting country].

    PubMed

    Hosni, D; Sirageldin, I

    1985-01-01

    The case of Kuwait illustrates that development as an economic phenomenon cannot be fully understood without reference to demographic determinants. Kuwait, like other Gulf oil-exporting states, is strongly dependent on foreign labor both qualitatively and quantitatively, but is attempting to nationalize the labor force and orient the national economy toward autonomous growth. 47% of Kuwait's population is under 15 years old, and the economic activity rate of only 19.4% is the lowest of any Arab country. Female participation increased from 2.5% in 1965 to 13.3% at present. 20 years ago, 70% of the labor force was Kuwaiti, but in 1980, 78% of workers were foreign although foreigners represented only 60% of the total population. Beginning in 1978, immigration was viewed much less favorably in Kuwait and the process of Kuwaitization, or replacing foreign workers with Kuwaiti nationals, was begun. An analysis of the labor force in terms of stocks and flows as well as of the structure of employment and productivity in the context of Kuwait's economic growth indicates that constraints in labor force growth will vary in intensity depending on the policies adopted; foreign workers could be admitted but not their family members, foreign workers could be replaced by nationals whenever possible, a higher labor force participation rate among nationals could be promoted, population growth could be encouraged, a more highly qualified native labor force could be trained, or a more capital intensive technology could be imported to reduce dependence on foreign workers. With a total fertility rate around 7.0, it is difficult to envision a significantly increased fertility level in Kuwait, and the fertility level in fact will probably decline under pressure of modernization. The crude death rate of 4.6/1000 in 1982 is also very low. Nationalization of the labor force implies a significant loss of productivity, since the government is maintaining a policy of providing jobs for all nationals regardless of their qualifications. Although development of Kuwaiti manpower is a longterm policy, the Kuwaitization of the labor force is erroneously viewed as a shortterm objective. Kuwaitis are underrepresented in technical jobs requiring university training in science and mathematics, and in skilled and semiskilled manual jobs. An educational reform permitting Kuwait to respond to future labor force needs will be required. Nonparticipation of women effectively reduces the economically active group by 1/2, and retirement at age 45 also aggravates labor shortages. Simulation exercises indicate that Kuwait must rely on foreign labor for many years to come. It appears that substitution of local for foreign workers will be at the price of lowered productivity and slower economic development. Naturalization of some foreign workers might help solve the problem, but for reasons of political stability almost no foreigners except unskilled Beduin Arabs receive Kuwaiti citizenship. PMID:12280379

  3. Oman's coral reefs: A unique ecosystem challenged by natural and man-related stresses and in need of conservation.

    PubMed

    Burt, J A; Coles, S; van Lavieren, H; Taylor, O; Looker, E; Samimi-Namin, K

    2016-04-30

    Oman contains diverse and abundant reef coral communities that extend along a coast that borders three environmentally distinct water bodies, with corals existing under unique and often stressful environmental conditions. In recent years Oman's reefs have undergone considerable change due to recurrent predatory starfish outbreaks, cyclone damage, harmful algal blooms, and other stressors. In this review we summarize current knowledge of the biology and status of corals in Oman, particularly in light of recent stressors and projected future threats, and examine current reef management practices. Oman's coral communities occur in marginal environmental conditions for reefs, and hence are quite vulnerable to anthropogenic effects. We recommend a focus on developing conservation-oriented coral research to guide proactive management and expansion of the number and size of designated protected areas in Oman, particularly those associated with critical coral habitat. PMID:26573133

  4. Chromite deposits in the northern Oman ophiolite: Mineralogical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augé, T.

    1987-01-01

    Chromite deposits in the northern Oman ophiolitic complex occur in three structural contexts, i.e., (1) at the base of the cumulate series, (2) in the top kilometer of the mantle sequence, and (3) in the deeper parts of the mantle. Types 1 and 2 are characterized by the diversity of interstitial silicates where in decreasing order of abundance olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, and amphibole occur, as opposed to type 3 which contains only olivine. They differ however in ore texture. Similar silicates also occur as euhedral inclusions in chromite crystals, but their proportions are reversed. The composition of the interstitial silicates is comparable to that found in early cumulates. Type-1 and type-2 chromite deposits crystallized from a magma similar to that from which the basal cumulates formed (Al2O3, 15.1 16.1 wt%; FeO/MgO, 0.55 0.60). The type-3 chromites were derived from a magma of much lower Al2O3 content (12.5 wt%). It is considered that they belong to an older episode in the magmatic evolution of the complex.

  5. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon–D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon–Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca–Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  6. Experience of intravitreal injections in a tertiary Hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hinai, Ahmed S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To find out statistical data regarding intravitreal injections in an outpatient department setup at a tertiary center in Oman. Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Data collection of patients who underwent intravitreal injections from November 2009 to May 2013 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Results: Throughout a period of 42 months, a total of 711 intravitreal injections were performed. That included 214 patients (275 eyes). Around one-third of the eyes received two injections or more. The injected agents were bevacizumab (59.8%), ranibizumab (32.3%), triamcinolone (7.5%), and very few patients with endophthalmitis received intravitreal antibiotics and antifungal agents. The three most common indications for the injection therapy were diabetic macular edema (50.9%), choroidal neovascularization (24.3%), and retinal vein occlusive diseases (11.5%). Serious adverse events were rare, and they occurred as ocular (0.9% per patient) and systemic (3.3% per patient). There were 42 eyes received intravitreal triamcinolone, and 24% of them developed intraocular hypertension that required only medical treatment. Conclusion: Different intravitreal agents are currently used to treat many ocular diseases. Currently, therapy with intravitreal agents is very popular, and it carries a promising outcome with more efficiency and safety. PMID:26903722

  7. On-site digital heritage inventory development at Bat, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Miki, T.; Kuronuma, T.; Oguchi, T.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the on-site development of a local-scale digital heritage inventory (DHI) of the Bronze Age site at Bat in the interior of Oman. The goal of this inventory project was to share geospatial and archaeological information of tombs and other built structures with researchers and government agents to conduct cultural heritage management, scientific research, outreach, and education. To this end, the Bat Digital Heritage Inventory (BatDHI) was compiled at the local office by incorporating previous survey records, which were concurrently crosschecked and updated by ground-truth surveys. The current version of the BatDHI was implemented using a combination of a network-access-ready database application, open source geographical information system, and web-based map engine. This system assisted both fieldwork and management works including decision making and planning. This inventory project exemplified a transdisciplinary research, in which researchers and societal stakeholders collaborated for co-design of research agendas, co-production of knowledge, and co-dissemination of outcomes.

  8. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  9. Project analysis procedures for an OPEC country: case study of Qatar's Northwest Dome Gas Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.B.; Khalifah, H.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of oil in most OPEC countries in the 1940s changed the economies of these countries from a state of capital shortage and stagnation to a state of capital surplus and economic growth. This growth, however, is lopsided. Oil production and export dominate the gross domestic products (GDPs) of those economies. Concern arising during the 1970s about overdependence on crude oil export as the main source of national income has resulted in the initiation of various industrial development programs in OPEC states aiming to diversify their economies. This study was conducted with two primary objectives: (1) to identify and understand the features of selected OPEC countries' development problems, strategies and plans, focusing on the role of oil and gas resources and opportunities for diversification, and (2) to suggest an appropriate development strategy, with project evaluation implications, for capital-abundant, labor-scarce OPEC countries in the Gulf region such as Qatar. This proposed approach is designed to evaluate the project from its contribution to the national income, people's welfare, the expansion of the economy's absorptive capacity, and relief of the economy's dependence on nonrenewable resources. The Northwest Dome Gas Project in Qatar was selected as an illustrative case study for this approach.

  10. A Course-based Cross-Cultural Interaction among Pharmacy Students in Qatar and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeff; Khalifa, Sherief I.; Jorgenson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a course-based, cross-cultural student interaction using real-time videoconferencing between universities in Canada and Qatar. Design. A professional skills simulation practice session on smoking cessation was run for students in Qatar (n=22) and Canada (n=22). Students role played cases in small group situations and then interacted with colleagues from the other country regarding culturally challenging situations and communication strategies. Assessment. Students were assessed on analytical content and communication skills through faculty member and peer evaluation. Cultural competency outcomes were assessed using a postsession survey. Overall, 92.3% of respondents agreed that learning was enhanced through the cross-cultural exchange, and 94.9% agreed that insight was gained into the health-related issues and needs of people from another culture. Conclusion. A course-based, cross-cultural interaction was an effective method to incorporate cultural competency principles into student learning. Future initiatives should increase direct student interaction and focus on culturally sensitive topics. PMID:25861107

  11. D Model of AL Zubarah Fortress in Qatar - Terrestrial Laser Scanning VS. Dense Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Mechelke, K.; Maziull, L.

    2015-02-01

    In September 2011 the fortress Al Zubarah, built in 1938 as a typical Arabic fortress and restored in 1987 as a museum, was recorded by the HafenCity University Hamburg using terrestrial laser scanning with the IMAGER 5006h and digital photogrammetry for the Qatar Museum Authority within the framework of the Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project. One goal of the object recording was to provide detailed 2D/3D documentation of the fortress. This was used to complete specific detailed restoration work in the recent years. From the registered laser scanning point clouds several cuttings and 2D plans were generated as well as a 3D surface model by triangle meshing. Additionally, point clouds and surface models were automatically generated from digital imagery from a Nikon D70 using the open-source software Bundler/PMVS2, free software VisualSFM, Autodesk Web Service 123D Catch beta, and low-cost software Agisoft PhotoScan. These outputs were compared with the results from terrestrial laser scanning. The point clouds and surface models derived from imagery could not achieve the same quality of geometrical accuracy as laser scanning (i.e. 1-2 cm).

  12. LNG scene; Qatar's export plans intensify; sale of Columbia's U. S. terminal in doubt

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that Activity continues to percolate in Qatar's massive liquefied natural gas export program. In the latest development, France's Ste. Nationale Elf Aquitaine and Japan's Sumitomo Corp. agreed to promote development of Qatar's LNG export project based on supergiant North Offshore gas field and step up discussions with potential buyers in coming months. Target markets lie in Japan and the Far East. Among other LNG operations, Columbia Gas System Inc. last week the it was told by Shell LNG Co. it is unlikely that presale conditions will be met prior to Shell LNG's scheduled purchase July 29 of 40.8% of the stock in Columbia LNG. Columbia LNG owns and LNG receiving terminal at Cove Point, Md., with a design sendout capacity of 1 bcfd of regasified LNG. That makes it the biggest in type U.S. Columbia the it had not received work on what action Shell LNG will take on the purchase agreement. However, failure to meet the undisclosed conditions will allow Shell LNG to end the agreement.

  13. Patient satisfaction in government health facilities in the state of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Abdal Kareem, A; Aday, L A; Walker, G M

    1996-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in assessing patients' satisfaction with medical care in the United States and other countries. Patient satisfaction studies have, however, received comparatively little attention in public or government-sponsored settings, and in developing countries in particular. The research reported upon here is based on a mail, self-administered survey of patients receiving care in two major government outpatient health care facilities-Hamad General Hospital and the Khalifa Town Health Center-in the State of Qatar, for the purpose of providing data to improve service delivery and the quality of primary care provided in that country. Analysis was performed on data from 444 patients on seven dimensions of patient satisfaction with medical care: general satisfaction, availability of services, convenience of services, facilities (physical environment), humaneness of doctors, quality of care, and continuity of care. The study pointed to a number of deficiencies in the availability and delivery of services in government health facilities in the State of Qatar. It also surfaced methodological issues that should be addressed in comparable studies of culturally diverse populations. PMID:8894961

  14. Oman India Pipeline: An operational repair strategy based on a rational assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    German, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a repair strategy for the operational phase of the Oman India Pipeline based upon the probability and consequences of a pipeline failure. Risk analyses and cost benefit analyses performed provide guidance on the level of deepwater repair development effort appropriate for the Oman India Pipeline project and identifies critical areas toward which more intense development effort should be directed. The risk analysis results indicate that the likelihood of a failure of the Oman India Pipeline during its 40-year life is low. Furthermore, the probability of operational failure of the pipeline in deepwater regions is extremely low, the major proportion of operational failure risk being associated with the shallow water regions.

  15. Lessons from the Field: Developing and Implementing the Qatar Student Assessment System, 2002-2006. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Broer, Markus; Mariano, Louis T.; Froemel, J. Enrique; Goldman, Charles A.; DaVanzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Qatar has recently positioned itself to be a leader in education. Central to the country's efforts is the implementation of reforms to its K-12 education system. Central to the reform initiatives was the development of internationally benchmarked curriculum standards in four subjects: Arabic, English as a foreign language, mathematics, and…

  16. Developing Intercultural Competence in Future Student Affairs Professionals through a Graduate Student Global Study Course to Doha, Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Paige; Getz, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a 2-week global study course to Doha, Qatar for graduate students in the higher education leadership and student affairs program at the University of San Diego. The course sought to develop intercultural competence with a specific focus on understanding Qatari and Middle Eastern perspectives and culture, understanding the…

  17. QATAR-2: A K DWARF ORBITED BY A TRANSITING HOT JUPITER AND A MORE MASSIVE COMPANION IN AN OUTER ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Marta L.; Alsubai, Khalid A.; Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Stefanik, Robert P.; Torres, Guillermo; Parley, Neil R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Horne, Keith D.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Street, Rachel A.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jorgensen, Uffe Grae; West, Richard G.; and others

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-2b, a hot Jupiter transiting a V = 13.3 mag K dwarf in a circular orbit with a short period, P{sub b} = 1.34 days. The mass and radius of Qatar-2b are M{sub P} = 2.49 M{sub J} and R{sub P} = 1.14 R{sub J}, respectively. Radial-velocity monitoring of Qatar-2 over a span of 153 days revealed the presence of a second companion in an outer orbit. The Systemic Console yielded plausible orbits for the outer companion, with periods on the order of a year and a companion mass of at least several M{sub J}. Thus, Qatar-2 joins the short but growing list of systems with a transiting hot Jupiter and an outer companion with a much longer period. This system architecture is in sharp contrast to that found by Kepler for multi-transiting systems, which are dominated by objects smaller than Neptune, usually with tightly spaced orbits that must be nearly coplanar.

  18. Prevalence of Online Reading among High School Students in Qatar: Evidence from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested presence of a significant relationship between prevalence of online reading and reading literacy. In this study we examined the prevalence of online reading among 15-year old students in Qatar using a nationally representative sample of 8,089 students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted at the item and…

  19. Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and

  20. Qatar-2: A K Dwarf Orbited by a Transiting Hot Jupiter and a More Massive Companion in an Outer Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Alsubai, Khalid A.; Latham, David W.; Parley, Neil R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Quinn, Samuel N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fűrész, Gábor; Gråe Jørgensen, Uffe; Horne, Keith D.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Street, Rachel A.; Torres, Guillermo; West, Richard G.; Dominik, Martin; Harpsøe, Kennet B. W.; Liebig, Christine; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; Ricci, Davide; Skottfelt, Jesper F.

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-2b, a hot Jupiter transiting a V = 13.3 mag K dwarf in a circular orbit with a short period, P b = 1.34 days. The mass and radius of Qatar-2b are M P = 2.49 M J and R P = 1.14 R J, respectively. Radial-velocity monitoring of Qatar-2 over a span of 153 days revealed the presence of a second companion in an outer orbit. The Systemic Console yielded plausible orbits for the outer companion, with periods on the order of a year and a companion mass of at least several M J. Thus, Qatar-2 joins the short but growing list of systems with a transiting hot Jupiter and an outer companion with a much longer period. This system architecture is in sharp contrast to that found by Kepler for multi-transiting systems, which are dominated by objects smaller than Neptune, usually with tightly spaced orbits that must be nearly coplanar.

  1. Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and…

  2. The practice of consanguineous marriage in Oman: prevalence, trends and determinants.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2012-09-01

    The practice of consanguineous marriage has been the culturally preferred form of marriage in most Arab and the Middle Eastern countries, including Oman, but due to a paucity of population-based data in the past there is a dearth of information about its form and dynamics in Oman. Recent national-level surveys allow this gap to be filled. This paper examines the prevalence, trends and determinants of consanguineous marriages in Oman using data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. The results indicate a very high prevalence of consanguineous marriage in Oman, as more than half (52%) of marriages are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. The study observed various patterns of consanguinity, some of them common with other Arab nations, and some unique in nature. Women's age at marriage, employment, place of childhood residence and geographical region appear to be significant determinants of consanguineous marriages. Consanguineous marriage shows a strong association with marital stability, early age at marriage and early-age childbearing. There has been no appreciable change in the prevalence of consanguineous unions in Oman over the last four decades despite massive socioeconomic development and modernization. However, recent marriage cohorts show slight declining trends. The results suggest that consanguinity is likely to remain stable in the future or decline at a slow rate. Specific health education and genetic counselling should be followed in line with WHO recommendations to minimize the negative health consequences of consanguinity for child health. PMID:22317781

  3. Low-temperature peridotite hydration in the shallow subsurface in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J.; Templeton, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Samail Ophiolite in Oman contains over 10 trillion tons of peridotite undergoing hydration and carbonation reactions at low temperature [1]. The active coupling between subsurface hydrology, geochemistry and microbiology will soon be accessible via targeted drilling by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program and the Sloan Foundation, among others. In advance, we collected hyperalkaline fluids with millimolar concentrations of H2 and CH4 from 300-meter deep groundwater monitoring wells to characterize low-temperature reaction pathways in the aquifer. We are also conducting low-temperature serpentinization experiments (40°C, 55°C, 100°C) with crushed dunite and harzburgite from Oman to identify rock-derived energy sources for microorganisms. We are measuring H2 production (up to 400nmol/g), aqueous chemical changes and production of acetate and formate (40-80μM). The aqueous geochemical data from Oman fluids and experiments is coupled with detailed mineralogical investigation of natural samples (XRD, QEMSCAN and synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of Fe speciation) to identify the operative reaction pathways. The Oman fluids are rich in dissolved H2, but there is an absence of magnetite formation associated with this; instead, we observe extensive serpentine. We are currently investigating the possibility that H2 production is associated with oxidized, Fe3+ in low temperature serpentine. We have enriched stable cultures of methanogenic organisms from deep fluids from site NSHQ04 (pH 10.5, ~1.44 μm/mL CH4). This exciting discovery points to the possibility of deep subsurface life in Oman subsisting under energetic and C limitation. Quantifying the extent of in-situ methanogenesis will be critical to future investigations of microorganisms inhabiting the Oman aquifer to fully understand subsurface carbon cycling and the potential of microbes to control peridotite weathering rates, CH4 production, and carbonate formation. 1. Kelemen & Matter PNAS 2008

  4. Temporal and Spatial Assessment of Yearly Solar Maps Derived from Satellite Images over the UAE and Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Y.; Marpu, P. R.; Ghedira, H.; Chiesa, M.

    2012-12-01

    The unique climate of countries located within the Arabian Peninsula, characterized by high dust concentrations, high humidity and modest cloud coverage, requires regional models to retrieve the solar irradiance components from satellite images. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has shown promising results in estimating the direct normal, diffuse horizontal and global horizontal irradiances using thermal satellite channels over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This model is trained with six thermal channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard Meteosat Second Generation, along with the solar zenith angle, day number, solar time and eccentricity correction. The outputs of this model are the solar irradiance components at 15-min temporal and 3-km spatial resolutions, which are then utilized to derive the daily, monthly and yearly irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar. The purpose of this research is to examine the temporal and spatial variations for annual irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar, derived using the ANN approach. For the period ranging from 2008 to 2010, the year of 2009 shows the lowest annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation, and the highest diffuse horizontal irradiation. That is due to frequent dust events which occurred during 2009. The annual direct normal irradiation maps for 2008 to 2010 show the same trend, with the higher irradiation values in the southern area of UAE and the values decreasing as the coast approaches in the northern region. For any given year, Qatar generally shows lower direct normal irradiation values than the UAE. This might be explained by higher humidity in Qatar due to its coastal climate. As for the annual diffuse horizontal irradiation maps, the lower irradiation values are observed in the southern area of UAE and along some coastal regions, with the higher values being in the middle. Qatar shows higher values in the western region, due to the increased airborne dust coming from Saudi Arabia, as opposed to the eastern coast which is along the Arabian Gulf. The annual global horizontal irradiation maps show less spatial variations. For the UAE the values consistently increase from north to south, while for Qatar lower values are observed along the eastern coast and the higher values are in the inland and southern locations. The direct normal irradiation map over the UAE and Qatar for the year 2010, which had values greater than 2008 and 2009.

  5. Mapping in the Oman ophiolite using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.

    1988-01-01

    The level of apparent lithological discrimination possible with Landsat TM images in the Oman are discussed. It is found that by using parts of the short-wavelength IR spectrum, the discrimination revealed by the TM data is sufficiently uniform throughout the Oman ophiolite to produce lithological maps at 1:100,000 scale. Decorrelation stretching of the data produces images in which allows for the recognition of variations in gabbro composition, the identification of small acidic, gabbroic, and ultramafic intrusions, the discrimation of the uppermost mantle from the deeper mantle, the precise location of the Moho, and the delineation of gossans and areas subject to choritic-epidotic alteration.

  6. Storm Surge Hazard in Oman Based on Cyclone Gonu and Historic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, C.; Fritz, H. M.; Albusaidi, F. B.; Al-Harthy, A. H.

    2008-12-01

    Super Cyclone Gonu was the strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Arabian Sea. Gonu developed sustained winds reaching 240 km/h with gusts up to 315 km/h and an estimated central pressure of 920 mbar by late 4 June 2007 while centered east-southeast of Masirah Island on the coast of Oman. Gonu weakened after encountering dry air and cooler waters prior to the June 5 landfall on the eastern-most tip of Oman, becoming the strongest tropical cyclone to hit the Arabian Peninsula. Gonu dropped heavy rainfall near the eastern coastline, reaching up to 610 mm which caused wadi flooding and heavy damage. The shore parallel cyclone track resulted in coastal damage due to storm surge and storm wave impact along a 300km stretch of Omani coastline. Maximum high water marks, overland flow depths, and inundation distances were measured along the Gulf of Oman during the 1-4 August 2007 reconnaissance. The high water marks peaked at Ras al Hadd at the eastern tip of Oman exceeding 5 meters, surpassing 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami runup at every corresponding point. The cyclone caused $4 billion in damage and at least 49 deaths in the Sultanate of Oman. Prior to Gonu, only two similar cyclones struck the coast of Oman in the last 1200 years (in 865 and 1890). The 1890 storm, which remains the worst natural disaster in Oman's history, drenched the coast from Soor to Suwayq causing inland wadi flooding. Matrah and Muscat were the hardest hit areas with many ships being washed ashore and wrecked. The storm is known to have killed about 727 people and caused huge agricultural and shipping losses. Similarly, the 865 storm affected areas between Gobrah and Sohar. A high-resolution finite element ADCIRC mesh of the Arabian Sea is created to model storm surge and is coupled with STWAVE. Modeling results from Gonu are compared to measurements and used to determine the contribution from storm surge and waves. The 1890 and 865 storms are modeled with standard cyclone parameters and results are compared to historical records to estimate the storm tracks. These results can be used to assess the coastal vulnerability in the Gulf of Oman.

  7. Health workforce development planning in the Sultanate of Oman: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Basu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Oman's recent experience in health workforce development may be viewed against the backdrop of the situation just three or four decades ago, when it had just a few physicians and nurses (mostly expatriate). All workforce categories in Oman have grown substantially over the last two decades. Increased self-reliance was achieved despite substantial growth in workforce stocks. Stocks of physicians and nurses grew significantly during 1985–2007. This development was the outcome of well-considered national policies and plans. This case outlines how Oman is continuing to turn around its excessive dependence on expatriate workforce through strategic workforce development planning. Case description The Sultanate's early development initiatives focused on building a strong health care infrastructure by importing workforce. However, the policy-makers stressed national workforce development for a sustainable future. Beginning with the formulation of a strategic health workforce development plan in 1991, the stage was set for adopting workforce planning as an essential strategy for sustainable health development and workforce self-reliance. Oman continued to develop its educational infrastructure, and began to produce as much workforce as possible, in order to meet health care demands and achieve workforce self-reliance. Other policy initiatives with a beneficial impact on Oman's workforce development scenario were: regionalization of nursing institutes, active collaboration with universities and overseas specialty boards, qualitative improvement of the education system, development of a strong continuing professional development system, efforts to improve workforce management, planned change management and needs-based micro/macro-level studies. Strong political will and bold policy initiatives, dedicated workforce planning and educational endeavours have all contributed to help Oman to develop its health workforce stocks and gain self-reliance. Discussion and evaluation Oman has successfully innovated workforce planning within a favorable policy environment. Its intensive and extensive workforce planning efforts, with the close involvement of policy-makers, educators and workforce managers, have ensured adequacy of suitable workforce in health institutions and its increased self-reliance in the health workforce. Conclusion Oman's experience in workforce planning and development presents an illustration of a country benefiting from successful application of workforce planning concepts and tools. Instead of being complacent about its achievements so far, every country needs to improve or sustain its planning efforts in this way, in order to circumvent the current workforce deficiencies and to further increase self-reliance and improve workforce efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:19519912

  8. High-precision multiband time series photometry of exoplanets Qatar-1b and TrES-5b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mislis, D.; Mancini, L.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Ciceri, S.; Southworth, J.; D'Ago, G.; Bruni, I.; Baştürk, Ö.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bachelet, E.; Bramich, D. M.; Henning, Th.; Hinse, T. C.; Iannella, A. L.; Parley, N.; Schroeder, T.

    2015-04-01

    We present an analysis of the Qatar-1 and TrES-5 transiting exoplanetary systems, which contain Jupiter-like planets on short-period orbits around K-dwarf stars. Our data comprise a total of 20 transit light curves obtained using five medium-class telescopes, operated using the defocusing technique. The average precision we reach in all our data is RMSQ = 1.1 mmag for Qatar-1 (V = 12.8) and RMST = 1.0 mmag for TrES-5 (V = 13.7). We use these data to refine the orbital ephemeris, photometric parameters, and measured physical properties of the two systems. One transit event for each object was observed simultaneously in three passbands (gri) using the BUSCA imager. The QES survey light curve of Qatar-1 has a clear sinusoidal variation on a period of P⋆ = 23.697 ± 0.123 d, implying significant star-spot activity. We searched for star-spot crossing events in our light curves, but did not find clear evidence in any of the new data sets. The planet in the Qatar-1 system did not transit the active latitudes on the surfaces of its host star. Under the assumption that P⋆ corresponds to the rotation period of Qatar-1A, the rotational velocity of this star is very close to the vsin i⋆ value found from observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The low projected orbital obliquity found in this system thus implies a low absolute orbital obliquity, which is also a necessary condition for the transit chord of the planet to avoid active latitudes on the stellar surface.

  9. Lessons Learned from Adopting Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porcaro, David S.; Al Musawi, Ali S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent investments in and rapid modernization of university campuses in places like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, higher education in the Middle East still faces many obstacles. One of the greatest has been a fundamental disconnect between education and employment, a possible factor contributing to many of the recent riots in the Arab World. In…

  10. Morphometric Characterization and Classification of Alluvial Fans in Eastern Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschner, Annette; Mattern, Frank; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Morphologic characteristics of alluvial fans are a product of fluvial erosion, transportation and deposition. Consequently, fans have been described and defined on the basis of their shape, their composition, conditions and processes under which they from, their so-called "controlling factors", and their geomorphic and tectonic settings. The aim of our study is to reconstruct the morphologic evolution and to relate it to past and present climate conditions. In order to achieve this, we first characterize alluvial fans based on their climatic settings and conditions and classify them accordingly using satellite image data and digital elevation models. For mapping of different alluvial fan bodies multispectral images of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with a scale of 15-30 m/px were utilized. For the detection of morphometric parameters as input data for subsequent hydrological studies digital terrain model data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the ASTER GDEM with a scale of 90 m/px and 30m, respectively, were used. Using these datasets morphological characteristics, such as sizes of drainage basins, transport areas and areas of deposition derived from spatial semi-automatic analysis, have been computed. The area of Muscat at the Oman Mountains has been selected as a study area because of its size, accessibility and climate conditions and it is considered well-suited for studying the development of alluvial fans and their controlling factors. The Oman Mountains are well-known for the world's largest intact and best exposed obducted ophiolite complex, the Semail Ophiolite. They are today subjected to a mild desert climate (Bwh), influenced by the Indian Ocean but they have experienced extensive pluvial periods in the geologic past. Formation of alluvial fans was, therefore, likely triggered by the interplay of increased sediment production caused by high rainfalls with enhanced erosion of hillslopes and transport rates during pluvial periods. Typical morphometric parameters controlled by hydrological conditions are sizes of catchment areas, the morphometry of associated rivers and slope angles as well as sizes of alluvial fans. In order to distinguish the catchment areas, semi-automatized spatial analyses based on DEM data were carried out within a commercial GIS environment. Our analyses generally verify that there is a positive correlation between, e.g., fan areas and sizes of catchment areas as well as between fan areas and lengths of valley lines of associated rivers. Furthermore, our analyses show a negative correlation between average fan slopes and sizes of catchment areas. The observations are in good agreement with previous analyses from other areas we conducted. The applied methodology has shown to be adequate to be compared to and combined with future field investigations. Flow events are dominant in fan evolution, but the way in which alluvial fan systems responded to fluvial environmental conditions differs between systems under different climate conditions. We compared our results with data from other places located in different climate zones around the world. This allows us to constrain boundary conditions and their potential influence on shapes in a more efficient way.

  11. The Jiddat al Harasis 073 strewn field, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnos, E.; Lorenzetti, S.; Eugster, O.; Jull, A. J. T.; Hofmann, B. A.; Al-Kathiri, A.; Eggimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    The recently discovered Jiddat al Harasis (JaH) 073 strewn field is the largest found so far in the Sultanate of Oman, covering an area of 19 6 km. The 3463 single stones collected range in weight from 52.2 kg down to <1 g (total weight 600.8 kg) and show a pronounced mass sorting. The strewn field shape can be approximated by a NW-SE-oriented ellipsoid, indicating an atmospheric entry from SE at a low angle relative to the surface. The meteorite belongs to the L6 ordinary chondrite group and shows S4 average shock grade. Smaller stones generally show a higher weathering grade resulting in a spread from W2 and W4. Enhanced weathering of the stones causing fragmentation after the fall is observed in sandy depressions. Five 14C measurements on stones of variable size and weathering grade yielded 14C from 3.8 to 49.9 dpm/kg. Three samples give a 14C/ 10Be age consistent with about 14.4 ka. For two samples the cosmogenic, trapped, and radiogenic noble gases were measured. The ratio of the 4He and 40Ar gas retention ages of 0.29 0.10 and that of the 3He and 21Ne cosmic ray exposure ages of 0.36 0.08 Ma indicate that JaH 073 experienced a complex exposure history and lost 4He and 40Ar due to a major collision. Fragmentation statistics indicate a single major atmospheric disruption and an originally relatively spherical shape of the object. Assuming the material collected represents the majority of fallen mass, and 90-99% of the original weight was lost by ablation, the pre-atmospheric minimum radius of the meteoroid with density 3.4 g cm-3 would have been at least 75 cm.

  12. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA), YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA) and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA). Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items). Work-related SNS usage was also measured. Results: A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%). Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%), followed by Facebook (91.4%) and Twitter (70.4%). Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%). However, addiction rates decreased when work-related activity was taken into account. Conclusion: Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that work-related activities should be taken into account during measurement. PMID:26357556

  13. Analysis of pediatric trauma data from a hospital based trauma registry in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Alyafei, Khalid A; Toaimah, Fatihi; El Menyar, Ayman; Al Thani, Hassan; Youssef, Bashir; Mollazehi, Muneera; Consunji, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trauma is the leading killer in the young age children, but data about the injury burden on pediatric population are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcome of the traumatic injuries among children in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a trauma registry database, which reviewed all cases of serious traumatic injury (ISS ≥ 9) to children aged 0–18 years who were admitted to the national pediatric Level I trauma center at the Hamad General Hospital (HGH), over a period of one year. Data included demographics, day of injuries, location, time, type and mechanism of injuries, co-morbidity, safety equipment use, pre-hospital intubation, mode of pre-hospital transport, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), emergency department (ED) intervention, hospital length of stay and mortality outcome. Results: The incidence of severe pediatric trauma was 163 per 280,000 children who visited the ED of HGH in 2011. Out of them, 83% were male, mean age was 9.6 ± 5.9 years and mortality rate was 1.8%. On presentation to the ED, the mean ISS was 13.9 ± 6.6 and GCS was 13.4 ± 3.8. Over half of the patients needed ICU admission. For the ages 0-4 years, injuries most frequently occurred at home; for 5-9 years (59%) and 15-18 years (68%), the street; and for 10-14 years (50%), sports and recreational sites. The most common mechanisms of injury for the age groups were falls for 0-4 years, motor vehicle collision (MVC) or pedestrian injury for 5-9 years, all-terrain vehicle (ATV)/bicycle injuries for 10-14 years, and MVC injuries for 15-18 years. Head (34%) and long bone (18%) injuries were the most common, with 18% suffering from polytrauma. None of the patients were using safety equipment when injured. Conclusion: Traumatic injuries to children have an age- and mechanism-specific pattern in Qatar. This has important implications for the formulation of focused injury prevention programs for the children of Qatar. PMID:25810960

  14. Concerns and considerations among caregivers of a child with autism in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism impacts the lives of the family looking after a child with the condition in different ways, and forces family members to modify their daily lives to suit their reality. To our knowledge, no previous research investigated concern and considerations of parents/caregivers of children with autism in Qatar or the Arabic speaking Middle Eastern region. Methods Caregivers of a child who was between the age of 3 to17 years old at the time of the study and who was diagnosed with ASD (Autistic Group or AG) were recruited from the two main developmental pediatric and children rehabilitation clinics in Qatar. The control group (non-autism group, or NAG) was represented by caregivers of a non-autistic child between the age of 3 to 17 years old at the time of the study and who were visiting a family clinic of a primary health care facility for routine medical check-up. Data collected from both groups included related to the child (e.g. the child’s date of birth, his/her relation to the caregiver, number of siblings, number of hours of sleep in a day, number of hours spent watching television or videos prior to age 3, time spent indoors prior to age 3, absenteeism from school, and use of a nanny to care for the child) and to the caregiver (education level, profession, level of consanguinity using the phylogram method). In addition to these questions, caregivers in the AG were asked specific questions around maternal concern and considerations in respect to the future of their children and the specialized services they receive. Results Children in the autism group spent more time indoors, watching television, or sleeping than children in the non-autism group. Only around 40% of caregivers in the autism group said they would encourage their child to get married and become a parent when s/he grows up. A number of caregivers of children with autism frequently utilize specialized rehabilitation services; others did express their needs for these services and made comments about having to wait a long time before they were provided with some of the services. Religious faith helped caregivers in accepting having a child with autism. General health-related quality of life did not differ significantly between the caregivers of the two groups, although mental health was consistently poorer in the autism group of caregivers. Conclusions The study draws attention to the concerns of the families of children with autism and their expectations about the future of their children. The findings can be used by policy makers in planning services to support these families in Qatar. PMID:22695064

  15. Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in the State of Qatar: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Hassan; Haddad, Pascale; Allam, Ayman; Hassan, Azza

    2014-01-01

    Background International studies show that most people prefer to die at home; however, hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD). This study aims to investigate the patterns in PoD and the associated factors, which are crucial for end-of-life cancer care enhancement. Method This retrospective, population-based study analyzed all registered cancer deaths in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n = 1,224). The main outcome measures were patient characteristics: age, gender, nationality, cancer diagnosis, year of death, and PoD. Time trends for age-standardized proportions of death in individual PoDs were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Odds ratio (OR) were determined for variables associated with the most preferred (acute palliative care unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least preferred (ICU and general medicine ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality. Results The hematology/oncology ward was the most common PoD (32.4%; 95% CI 26.7–35.3%) followed by ICU (31.4%; 95% CI 28.7–34.3%), APCU (26.9%; 95% CI 24.3–29.6%), and general medicine ward (9.2%; 95% CI 7.6–11.1%). APCU trended upward (+0.057/year; p<0.001), while the hematology/oncology ward trended downward (−0.055/year; p<0.001). No statistically significant changes occurred in the other PoDs; home deaths remained low (0.4%; 95% Cl 0.38–0.42). Qataris who died from liver cancer (OR 0.23) and aged 65 or older (OR 0.64) were less likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Non-Qataris who died from pancreatic cancer (OR 3.12) and female (OR 2.05) were more likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Both Qataris and non-Qataris who died from hematologic malignancy (OR 0.18 and 0.41, respectively) were more likely to die in the ICU or general medicine ward (p<0.05). Conclusion A high percentage of cancer deaths in Qatar occur in hospital. As home was the preferred PoD for most people, effective home care and hospice programs are needed to improve end-of-life cancer care. PMID:25536076

  16. Historic and contemporary contamination in the marine environment of Kuwait: An overview.

    PubMed

    Al-Sarawi, Hanan A; Jha, Awadhesh N; Al-Sarawi, Mohammad A; Lyons, Brett P

    2015-11-30

    The rapid expansion of industry, along with previous pollution events linked to conflicts in the region, have led to a variety of contaminants being inadvertently or deliberately discharged into Kuwait's marine environment. These include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals, from the petrochemical industry, and contaminated brine from the region's desalination industries. The present paper has reviewed over 60 studies that have reported the levels of contaminants, including PAHs, metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in seawater, sediment and representative marine organisms. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that while Kuwait's marine environment has been subjected to a wide array of pollution events, the actual levels of contamination remains relatively low. However, sediment contamination hotspots associated with point sources of industrial contamination, such as originating from the Shuaiba industrial area, do exist at a number of locations around the coast. PMID:26228067

  17. Directional and spectral reflectance of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    The angular reflectance pattern of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke was measured from an aircraft at 13 discrete wavelengths between 0.5 and 2.3 microns. Measurements at 0.75 and 1.64 micron showed that the reflectance of the smoke layer was about 12 percent in the nadir direction, with considerable limb brightening toward the horizon. Furthermore, these observations revealed a backscattering maximum in the antisolar direction and an enhanced scattering near the rainbow direction. These characteristics suggest that the smoke layer 90 km downwind of the Kuwait oil fires was composed of a significant number of oil drizzle droplets that scatter solar radiation as a layer composed of spherical particles.

  18. New population policy in Kuwait: the quest for a balance in the population composition.

    PubMed

    Al-ramadhan, M A

    1995-01-01

    "This study investigates the development of population policy in Kuwait following the Gulf crisis, reveals the changes induced by the post-Gulf-war population policy, and provides an attempt to assess the policy's success. The study concludes that despite the new population policy, expatriates continue to make up the majority of the population. The problem continues to be a challenge for policy makers. There appear to be new levels of sincerity, explicitness and seriousness of purpose in Kuwait's new population policy, but there have not been many real changes in direction from earlier policies. Short of closing the door to expatriates, effective policy options for increasing the Kuwaiti share in the country's total population are limited." PMID:12292128

  19. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus Originating from Oman

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Akhtar J.; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W.; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6–99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93–98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:22852046

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:22852046

  1. Oman Ophiolite Structural Constraints Complement Models of Crustal Accretion at the EAST Pacific RISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A. A.; Jousselin, D.; Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    This review documents significant similarities between East Pacific Rise (EPR), especially EPR at 9-10N and the Oman ophiolites. Both share comparable fast spreading rates, size and their dominant source of information that is mainly geophysical in EPR and structural in Oman. In these respects, they are remarkably complementary. Mantle upwelling zones at the EPR and mantle diapirs in Oman have a similar size and spacing. They punctually introduce basaltic melt and heat in the accreting crust, thus controlling elementary segments structure and activity. A tent-shaped magma chamber fits onto the diapir head, the top of which is a Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ) that stores, modifies, and injects the modified melt into the upper Axial Melt Lens (AML) beneath the lid. This MTZ-AML connection is central in crustal accretion, as documented in Oman. Heat from the diapir is captured above the Moho by the magma chamber and escapes through its walls, into a thin thermal boundary layer that bounds the chamber. Beyond, seawater at lower temperatures feeds smokers on the seafloor.

  2. Reasons for Consultation among Patients attending Primary Healthcare Centres in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Dorvlo, Atsu; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Pathways to care or care-seeking, which translate into healthcare utilisation, have been investigated in many parts of the world, but there is a dearth of studies in the Arabian Gulf. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of attendees at primary healthcare centres in northern Oman and their reasons for visiting. Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 676 participants attending 12 primary healthcare centres between June and July 2006. The catchment area was selected to represent the population structure in Oman. The 12-item questionnaire was read to every fifth eligible patient entering each healthcare centre for a routine appointment. Analyses were conducted using univariate statistics. Results: About a third (n = 200; 29.6%) of the participants had a history of chronic illness; 231 (34%) were on regular medications; 211 (31%) were taking part in health education programmes; 130 (19%) were open to complementary medicine. The majority of the participants mentioned physician’s advice (n = 570; 84%) as the strongest reason for seeking consultation. Conversely, physician’s advice was strongly related to particular demographic factors. Conclusion: This observational study identified some characteristics and reasons for visiting healthcare facilities in northern Oman. These are discussed within the context of prevailing sociocultural factors. The implications for the prevention and detection of ill health in Oman are also discussed. PMID:23862030

  3. Progress in Developing a National Quality Management System for Higher Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Martin; Razvi, Salim; Goodliffe, Tess; Al-Habsi, Fakhriya

    2009-01-01

    The post-secondary education sector in Oman consists of a complex suite of public and private institutions, in a number of distinct segments, offering local and foreign programmes developed through their respective quality assurance systems. The Omani higher education quality management system is undergoing significant advances to address this…

  4. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  5. Can Mission Predict School Performance? The Case of Basic Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Ismail, Omer Hashim

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the relationship between the mission statements and performance of Basic Education Schools in Oman. The process of mission statement framing was also investigated. A sample of 161 school mission statements was randomly collected from the Ministry of Education school mission portal database representing…

  6. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  7. Meeting the Challenges: The Development of Quality Assurance in Oman's Colleges of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Bandary, Mohammed Sulaiman

    2005-01-01

    The educational history of the Sultanate of Oman has undergone rapid development. In 1970, there were three primary schools. Today, there is universal education, with modern public and private institutions. In 1985, the first teacher education institutions offered a diploma programme. In 1994, six Colleges of Education, offering a degree, were…

  8. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum

  9. Similar Paths, Different Destinations: Gender Differences in Teacher Career Paths in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Al Maawali, Fathiya; Jones, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Jones ABSTRACT: Across Oman, girls outnumber and outperform boys at the secondary school level. While welcoming girls' success, the government is concerned that low male achievement may have negative consequences on national competitiveness and economic growth. One reason posited for this discrepancy in achievement is differences in the

  10. Underlying Factors Behind the Low Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Waly, Mostafa; Gupta, Ishita; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys from various countries indicate an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), leading researchers to debate whether there are now ‘more affected’ or ‘more detected’. The epidemiology of ASD in developing countries, such as Oman, has generally indicated a lower prevalence compared to developed countries in the West. In Oman, the prevalence is low; however, this article highlights some of the factors that could contribute to the appearance of a low ASD rate: cross-cultural variations in the presentation of distress; a lack of reliable biological markers for diagnosing ASD, and a lack of health services for children with ASD, thus limiting the number of participants in epidemiological surveys. While the defining features of ASD have yet to be established, pilot studies in Oman indicate a substantial number of children with these disorders. Therefore, it is important that these discrepancies be addressed and the need for appropriate services for this patient population in Oman be highlighted. PMID:26052454

  11. The Implications of Implementing a "Flexible" Syllabus for ESL Policy in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The education system in general and ELT in particular are rigidly controlled in the Sultanate of Oman, which gives teachers little room to supplement the mandated textbook. This article, hence, discusses ideologies about the "flexible" ELT syllabus and the role of the teacher's professionalism in the syllabus implementation process. One of the…

  12. Investigating Faculty Members' Beliefs about Distance Education: The Case of Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Naifa Eid; Al-Suqri, Mohammed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    This research paper aims to investigate the beliefs (perceptions) about distance education(DE) held by the faculty members of Sultan Qaboos Uuniversity (SQU) at the Sultanate of Oman as well as the differences between their beliefs (perceptions) with regards to gender, teaching experience, college academic rank, nationality, etc. This study used a

  13. 19 CFR 10.890 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Oman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.890 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, renovation, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which does not destroy...

  14. Can Mission Predict School Performance? The Case of Basic Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Ismail, Omer Hashim

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the relationship between the mission statements and performance of Basic Education Schools in Oman. The process of mission statement framing was also investigated. A sample of 161 school mission statements was randomly collected from the Ministry of Education school mission portal database representing

  15. Progress in Developing a National Quality Management System for Higher Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Martin; Razvi, Salim; Goodliffe, Tess; Al-Habsi, Fakhriya

    2009-01-01

    The post-secondary education sector in Oman consists of a complex suite of public and private institutions, in a number of distinct segments, offering local and foreign programmes developed through their respective quality assurance systems. The Omani higher education quality management system is undergoing significant advances to address this

  16. Similar Paths, Different Destinations: Gender Differences in Teacher Career Paths in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Al Maawali, Fathiya; Jones, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Jones ABSTRACT: Across Oman, girls outnumber and outperform boys at the secondary school level. While welcoming girls' success, the government is concerned that low male achievement may have negative consequences on national competitiveness and economic growth. One reason posited for this discrepancy in achievement is differences in the…

  17. Diversity and distribution of winter phytoplankton in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, Igor; Saburova, Maria; Al-Yamani, Faiza

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the phytoplankton (diversity, composition, and cell abundance) was described in relation to local environmental conditions across the Arabian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Sea of Oman based on data of ROPME cruise of winter 2006. The 376 phytoplankton taxa identified in these waters represented a diverse composition of species with a prevalence of dinoflagellates and diatoms. Three peaks in the phytoplankton abundance were recorded throughout the studied area associated with diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms in the central and northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf and in the Sea of Oman and the adjacent waters. The studied area was divided into three main regions by cluster analysis based on differences in the phytoplankton composition and concentration. The Sea of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz were occupied by highly abundant, strongly diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. The Arabian Gulf was divided into two main regions along a diagonal northwest-southeast axis, with rather diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage off the south and along the Iranian coast but with flagellate-dominated phytoplankton of the north and along the Arabian coast. The distance-based linear modeling revealed a significant relationship between the phytoplankton composition and water masses as indexed by salinity. Our results demonstrated that abundance and composition of winter phytoplankton were related to water circulation pattern in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman.

  18. First Report of rust caused by Tranzschelia discolor on Peach in Oman

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is the dominant fruit crop in parts of the northern mountainous regions of Oman. Local cultivars, propagated by seedling, are used to produce fruit for local markets and for shade to fodder crops planted underneath. In February of 2006, leaf samples showing rust symptoms ...

  19. Pre-School Education in Egypt, Oman and Japan: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    This paper examines preschool education in Egypt, Oman, and Japan in the light of the comparative education approach developed by George Bereday utilizing description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison. The literature of early childhood education is surveyed, beginning with the three most influential pioneers: Friedrich Wilhelm…

  20. Investigating Faculty Members' Beliefs about Distance Education: The Case of Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Naifa Eid; Al-Suqri, Mohammed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    This research paper aims to investigate the beliefs (perceptions) about distance education(DE) held by the faculty members of Sultan Qaboos Uuniversity (SQU) at the Sultanate of Oman as well as the differences between their beliefs (perceptions) with regards to gender, teaching experience, college academic rank, nationality, etc. This study used a…

  1. A Field Guide for Continued Study of the Arabic Language in Yemen and Oman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critchfield, David Lawrence

    A set of materials for independent study of Arabic is designed for Peace Corps volunteers working in Oman and Yemen who have had Arabic language training but need additional skills. It establishes guidelines for independent study and working with a tutor, helps check language performance, and provides grammatical information for reference. The…

  2. Prevention of type II diabetes mellitus in Qatar: Who is at risk?

    PubMed Central

    Christos, Paul J; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Ali Zirie, Mahmoud; Deleu, Dirk; Mushlin, Alvin I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading chronic diseases in Qatar as well as worldwide. However, the risk factors for DM in Qatar and their prevalence are not well understood. We conducted a case-control study with the specific aim of estimating, based on data from outpatients with DM in Qatar (cases) and outpatient/inpatient controls, the association between demographic/lifestyle factors and DM. Methods: A total of 459 patients with DM from Hamad General Hospital (HGH) outpatient adult diabetes clinics, and 342 control patients from various outpatient clinics and inpatient departments within Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) (years 2006–2008), were recruited. The association between risk factors and DM was evaluated using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. In addition to odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), we estimated the population attributable risk fractions for the DM demographic/lifestyle risk factors. Results: Qatari nationality was the strongest risk factor for DM (adjusted OR = 5.5; 95% CI = 3.5–8.6; p < 0.0001), followed by higher monthly income (defined as ≥ 3000 Qatari Riyals, adjusted OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 3.0–8.7; p < 0.0001), age >65 years (adjusted OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 0.9–11.4; p = 0.06), male gender (adjusted OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.8-4.8; p < 0.0001), obesity (BMI ≥ 30, adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5-3.2; p < 0.0001), no college education (adjusted OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2–2.6; p = 0.009), and no daily vigorous/moderate activity (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9–2.3; p = 0.12). Among Qatari nationals, obesity was found to be the main risk factor for DM (unadjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.6–5.6; p < 0.0001), followed by no college education (unadjusted OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.5–5.1; p = 0.001), while consanguinity did not appear to play a major role in predicting DM (unadjusted OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.8–2.8; p = 0.21). Our findings further suggested that eliminating obesity and improving access to education may reduce DM cases by up to one third for the population at large (31.7% and 26.8%, respectively) and up to half (46.9% and 49.3%, respectively) for Qatari nationals. Promoting physical activity may reduce the burden of DM by up to 9.4% for the population at large and up to 17.3% for Qatari nationals. Conclusions: Demographic/lifestyle factors appear to be the main risk factors for the high DM levels observed in Qatar, with a contribution that outweighs that of genetic risk factors. While further evaluation of DM risk factors among the Qatari population (as opposed to the resident population) is important and of interest, these findings highlight the need to focus short-term DM interventions on addressing demographic/lifestyle risk factors to achieve substantial and timely declines in DM levels. PMID:25745596

  3. Primary coronary angioplasty for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Qatar: First nationwide program.

    PubMed

    Gehani, Abdurrazzak; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Arafa, Salah; Tamimi, Omer; Alqahtani, Awad; Al-Nabti, Abdulrahman; Arabi, Abdulrahman; Aboughazala, Tarek; Bonow, Robert O; Yacoub, Magdi

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline the plans, protocols and strategies to set up the first nationwide primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) program for ST-elevation myocardial Infarction (STEMI) in Qatar, as well as the difficulties and the multi-disciplinary solutions that we adopted in preparation. We will also report some of the landmark literature that guided our plans. The guidelines underscore the need for adequate number of procedures to justify establishing a primary-PCI service and maintain competency. The number of both diagnostic and interventional procedures in our centre has increased substantially over the years. The number of diagnostic procedures has increased from 1470 in 2007, to 2200 in 2009 and is projected to exceed 3000 by the end of 2012. The total number of PCIs has also increased from 443 in 2007, to 646 in 2009 and 1176 in 2011 and is expected to exceed 1400 by the end of 2012. These figures qualify our centre to be classified as 'high volume', both for the institution and for the individual interventional operators. The initial number of expected primary PCI procedures will be in excess of 600 procedures per year. Guidelines also emphasize the door to balloon time (DBT), which should not exceed 90 minutes. This interval mainly represents in-hospital delay and reflects the efficiency of the hospital system in the rapid recognition and transfer of the STEMI patient to the catheterization laboratory for primary-PCI. Although DBT is clearly important and is in the forefront of planning for the wide primary PCI program, it is not the only important time interval. Myocardial necrosis begins before the patient arrives to the hospital and even before first medical contact, so time is of the essence. Therefore, our primary PCI program includes a nationwide awareness program for both the population and health care professionals to reduce the pre-hospital delay. We have also taken steps to improve the pre-hospital diagnosis of STEMI. In addition to equipping all ambulances to perform 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) we will establish advanced wireless transmission of the ECG to our Heart Centre and to the smart phone of the consultant on-call for the primary-PCI service. This will ensure that the patient is transferred directly to the cath lab without unnecessary delay in the emergency rooms. A single phone-call system will allow the first medic making the diagnosis to activate the primary PCI team. The emergency medical system is acquiring capability to track the exact position of each ambulance using GPS technology to give an accurate estimate of the time needed to arrive to the patient and/or to the hospital. We also plan for medical helicopter evacuation from remote or inaccessible areas. A comprehensive research database is being established to enable specific pioneering research projects and clinical trials, either as a single centre or in collaboration with other regional or international centers. The primary-PCI program is a collaborative effort between the Heart Hospital, Hamada Medical Corporation and the Qatar Cardiovascular Research Centre, a member of Qatar Foundation. Qatar will be first country to have a unified nationwide primary-PCI program. This clinical and research program could be a model that may be adopted in other countries to improve outcomes of patients with STEMI. PMID:24688990

  4. Hydrodynamic trapping in the Cretaceous Nahr Umr lower sand of the North Area, Offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.R.A.

    1988-03-01

    A hydrodynamic model is described to account for oil and gas occurrences in the Cretaceous of offshore Qatar, in the Arabian Gulf. Variable and inconsistent fluid levels and variable formation water potentials and salinities cannot be explained by combinations of stratigraphic and structural trapping. Indeed, there is no structural closure to the southwest of the oil and gas accumulations. The water-potential and salinity data and oil distribution are consistent with this model and indicate that a vigorous hydrodynamic system pervades the Cretaceous of the Arabian Gulf region. Extensive upward cross-formational discharge is taking place in the North Area. This cross-formation water flow could be partly responsible for localized leaching and reservoir enhancement in the chalky limestones.

  5. RR Lyrae Stars in the GCVS Observed by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramich, D. M.; Alsubai, K. A.; Arellano Ferro, A.; Parley, N. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Horne, K.; Pollacco, D.; West, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    We used the light curve archive of the Qatar Exoplanet Survey to investigate the RR Lyrae variable stars listed in the GCVS. Of 588 variables studied, we reclassified 14 as eclipsing binaries, one as an RS CVn type variable, one as an irregular variable, four as classical Cepheids, and one as a type II Cepheid, while also improving their periods. We also report new RR Lyrae sub-type classifications for 65 variables and improve on the GCVS period estimates for 135 RR Lyrae variables. There are seven double-mode RR Lyrae stars in the sample for which we measured their fundamental and first overtone periods. Finally, we detected the Blazhko effect in 38 of the RR Lyrae stars for the first time and we successfully measured the Blazhko period for 26 of them.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Light curves of Qatar-2 transit events (Mancini+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Ciceri, S.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Crossfield, I.; Nikolov, N.; Bruni, I.; Zambelli, R.; Henning, T.

    2014-11-01

    17 light curves of five transits of the extrasolar planetary system Qatar-2, observed between 2012 and 2013, are presented. Three of the transits were observed simultaneously in the SDSS griz passbands using the seven-beam GROND imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope. A fourth was observed simultaneously in Gunn grz using the CAHA 2.2-m telescope with BUSCA, and in Gunn r using the Cassini 1.52-m telescope. The last was observed in Cousins I with the CAHA 1.23-m telescope.Every light curve shows small anomalies due to the passage of the planetary shadow over a cool spot on the surface of the host star. (18 data files).

  7. Primary coronary angioplasty for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Qatar: First nationwide program

    PubMed Central

    Gehani, Abdurrazzak; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Arafa, Salah; Tamimi, Omer; Alqahtani, Awad; Al-Nabti, Abdulrahman; Arabi, Abdulrahman; Aboughazala, Tarek; Bonow, Robert O; Yacoub, Magdi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this article, we outline the plans, protocols and strategies to set up the first nationwide primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) program for ST-elevation myocardial Infarction (STEMI) in Qatar, as well as the difficulties and the multi-disciplinary solutions that we adopted in preparation. We will also report some of the landmark literature that guided our plans. The guidelines underscore the need for adequate number of procedures to justify establishing a primary-PCI service and maintain competency. The number of both diagnostic and interventional procedures in our centre has increased substantially over the years. The number of diagnostic procedures has increased from 1470 in 2007, to 2200 in 2009 and is projected to exceed 3000 by the end of 2012. The total number of PCIs has also increased from 443 in 2007, to 646 in 2009 and 1176 in 2011 and is expected to exceed 1400 by the end of 2012. These figures qualify our centre to be classified as ‘high volume’, both for the institution and for the individual interventional operators. The initial number of expected primary PCI procedures will be in excess of 600 procedures per year. Guidelines also emphasize the door to balloon time (DBT), which should not exceed 90 minutes. This interval mainly represents in-hospital delay and reflects the efficiency of the hospital system in the rapid recognition and transfer of the STEMI patient to the catheterization laboratory for primary-PCI. Although DBT is clearly important and is in the forefront of planning for the wide primary PCI program, it is not the only important time interval. Myocardial necrosis begins before the patient arrives to the hospital and even before first medical contact, so time is of the essence. Therefore, our primary PCI program includes a nationwide awareness program for both the population and health care professionals to reduce the pre-hospital delay. We have also taken steps to improve the pre-hospital diagnosis of STEMI. In addition to equipping all ambulances to perform 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) we will establish advanced wireless transmission of the ECG to our Heart Centre and to the smart phone of the consultant on-call for the primary-PCI service. This will ensure that the patient is transferred directly to the cath lab without unnecessary delay in the emergency rooms. A single phone-call system will allow the first medic making the diagnosis to activate the primary PCI team. The emergency medical system is acquiring capability to track the exact position of each ambulance using GPS technology to give an accurate estimate of the time needed to arrive to the patient and/or to the hospital. We also plan for medical helicopter evacuation from remote or inaccessible areas. A comprehensive research database is being established to enable specific pioneering research projects and clinical trials, either as a single centre or in collaboration with other regional or international centers. The primary-PCI program is a collaborative effort between the Heart Hospital, Hamada Medical Corporation and the Qatar Cardiovascular Research Centre, a member of Qatar Foundation. Qatar will be first country to have a unified nationwide primary-PCI program. This clinical and research program could be a model that may be adopted in other countries to improve outcomes of patients with STEMI. PMID:24688990

  8. Middle East: Iran isn't missed much

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A concerted effort to further develop productive capacity is evident in most Middle Eastern Countries, through exploration, field development, and secondary recovery. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Abu Dhabi all plan expanded petroleum industry programs in 1980. Oil production in Saudi Arabia through the first one-half of 1980 averaged 9.5 million bpd, and the Saudis are proceeding with the large-scale associated gas utilization and industrialization program. Iraq's near-term interest is in development of the Majnoon Discovery. Abu Dhabi is continuing efforts to complete development of a giant offshore field and finalize an onshore/offshore associated gas utilization facility. Only Iran and Kuwait are expected to be relatively inactive in petroleum programs during the remainder of 1980. Individual country reports are presented for Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, Kuwait, the Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, South Yemen, and Yemen Arab Republic.

  9. Age at menarche and its relationship to body mass index among adolescent girls in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing rates of childhood obesity and rapid change in socio-economic status, the mean age at menarche remains mostly unknown among contemporary girls in Kuwait and other countries in the Gulf region. This study aimed to estimate the mean age at menarche among schoolgirls in Kuwait and investigate the association between age at menarche and obesity. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,273 randomly selected female high school students from all governorates in Kuwait. Overweight was defined as higher than or equal to the 85th percentile and obesity as higher than or equal to the 95th percentile using growth charts provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000). Data on menarche, socio-demographic status, physical activity and diet were collected using confidential self-administered questionnaire. Results Out of 1,273 students, 23 (1.8%) were absent or refused to participate. The mean age at menarche was 12.41 years (95% CI: 12.35-12.48). The prevalence of early menarche, defined as less than 11 years of age, was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.0-10.2%). The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 18.3% (95% CI: 16.2-20.6%) and 25.8% (95% CI: 23.42-28.30%), respectively. Age at menarche was inversely and significantly associated with odds of overweight and obesity after adjusting for potential confounders, odds ratio 0.84 (0.77-0.93); (p = 0.001). Conclusion Age at menarche among contemporary girls in Kuwait is similar to that in industrialized countries. There is an inverse association between age at menarche and obesity or overweight. Trends in menarcheal age should be monitored and time of sexual maturation and its related factors should be taken into account in strategies that aim to combat obesity. PMID:23311596

  10. Student Drop-Out Trends at Sultan Qaboos University and Kuwait University: 2000-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghanboosi, Salim Saleem; Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the drop-out trends at Sultan Qaboos. University and Kuwait University. Archival data of the period 2000-2011 were used to achieve this goal. Main findings showed that (a) male drop-out rates are higher than female drop-out rates; (b) drop- out rates at scientific colleges are higher; (c) drop-out rates of

  11. Student Drop-Out Trends at Sultan Qaboos University and Kuwait University: 2000-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghanboosi, Salim Saleem; Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the drop-out trends at Sultan Qaboos. University and Kuwait University. Archival data of the period 2000-2011 were used to achieve this goal. Main findings showed that (a) male drop-out rates are higher than female drop-out rates; (b) drop- out rates at scientific colleges are higher; (c) drop-out rates of…

  12. Measuring Burden of Diseases in a Rapidly Developing Economy: State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Zirie, Mahmoud A.; Kim, Eun-Jung; Buz, Rama Al; Zaza, Mouayyad; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Basha, Basma; Hillhouse, Edward W; Riboli, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has provided a conceptual and methodological framework to quantify and compare the health of populations. Aim: The objective of the study was to assess the national burden of disease in the population of Qatar using the disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) as a measure of disability. Methods: We adapted the methodology described by the World Health Organization for conducting burden of disease to calculate years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD) and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The study was conducted during the period from November 2011 to October 2012. Results:: The study findings revealed that ischemic heart disease (11.8%) and road traffic accidents (10.3%) were the two leading causes of burden of diseases in Qatar in 2010. The burden of diseases among men (222.04) was found three times more than of women's (71.85). Of the total DALYs, 72.7% was due to non fatal health outcomes and 27.3% was due to premature death. For men, chronic diseases like ischemic heart disease (15.7%) and road traffic accidents (13.7%) accounted great burden and an important source of lost years of healthy life. For women, birth asphyxia and birth trauma (12.6%) and abortion (4.6%) were the two leading causes of disease burden. Conclusion:: The results of the study have shown that the national health priority areas should cover cardiovascular diseases, road traffic accidents and mental health. The burden of diseases among men was three times of women's. PMID:23445701

  13. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal

    2014-01-01

    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait. PMID:24025146

  14. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C.; Ball, J.C.; Stevens, R.

    1995-03-01

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

  15. Radioactivity concentrations in sediments and their correlation to the coastal structure in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Saad, H R; Al-Azmi, D

    2002-06-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed on sediment samples from the coast of Kuwait to study the concentration of natural as well as man-made radioactive sources. The coast of Kuwait, which extends for some 170 km is mainly soft sedimentary colitic limestones or sandstones, overlaid in many areas with beach or wind-blown sand. In the north, suspended material from the Shatt Al-Arab delta has settled to form extensive soft areas of intertidal mud within Kuwait Bay. Forty samples were taken at different points along the coast in undisturbed areas at intervals of about 5 km. Collection was carried out during low-tide, where it was possible to collect sediments from the wet region that was covered by seawater during the high tide. At each of the sample sites, a sampling area of about 1 m2 was considered. Samples collected from the north were of a muddy nature, whereas the southern samples were sandy. All samples were left to dry in open air before drying in the oven at 105 degrees C for 2-3 days to remove all water content. The radioactivity in southern areas reaches about one half of the values commonly assigned as the world average. In the northern areas, higher radioactivity concentrations are found but are still below the international levels. PMID:12102362

  16. Detection of bacterial endotoxin in drinking tap and bottled water in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Abdulraheem, Abdulkareem; Mustafa, Seham; Al-Saffar, Nabeel; Shahjahan, Muhammed

    2012-12-01

    This study was carried out to measure and compare the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in a variety of samples from drinking tap and bottled water available in Kuwait by using the Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test. A total of 29 samples were tested. Samples were collected from a variety of locations throughout the six governorates of Kuwait and 23 brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market. The concentration of bacterial endotoxin was measured by using the standard Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test, gel clot method. This study showed that measured endotoxin concentrations in tap drinking water varied from 2.4 to 33.8 EU/ml with the average endotoxin concentration of 14.2 EU/ml. While the results of endotoxin concentrations in the bottled water were <0.03 to 20.1 EU/ml with an average of 1.96 EU/ml. The average concentration of endotoxin in bottled water is 13.5 % of the average concentration of endotoxin in tap drinking water. This experimental investigation has proved that drinking bottled water has less endotoxin as compared to tap water in Kuwait. It is also demonstrated that the endotoxin concentration did not exceed the acceptable level in drinking tap water. PMID:22270589

  17. The distribution and inventory of total and methyl mercury in Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Butayban, Nahida Al-Majed; Preston, Martin R

    2004-12-01

    Sediment (surface and core) sampling was conducted during the period from August 96-December 98 from intertidal and offshore areas in Kuwait Bay. The highest (and most variable) concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg; 36500+/-34930 ng g(-1)) are encountered around the previous industrial outfall where sediments are disturbed by shipping activities. The concentrations of T-Hg are lower in the Shuwaikh Port area (650+/-210 ng g(-1)) and continue to decrease towards the northern coastline of Kuwait Bay (average concentrations in the wider Bay region are 50+/-30 ng g(-1)). These values are still above background concentrations of 15-20 ng g(-1). Calculation of the total inventory of mercury in all the surface sediments of the studied area indicates that approximately 22.5 ton is present which is similar to the estimated industrial discharges of approximately 20 ton suggesting that the contamination is largely confined to the Bay and that releases to the wider Gulf region are small. The distributions of MeHg are similar to those of T-Hg and represent ranges between 0.23% and 0.5% of the T-Hg indicating that surface sediments within Kuwait Bay contain approximately 80 kg of this chemical. PMID:15556178

  18. High salinity events in the northern Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhankun; DiMarco, Steven F.; Jochens, Ann E.; Ingle, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Moored observations in the northern Arabian Sea (NAS) show substantial velocity, temperature and dissolved oxygen fluctuations, accompanied by episodic high salinity intrusions with maximum values≥37.3 on time scales of 2-10 days after the passage of Cyclone Gonu in 2007. These events are characterized by a rapid increase in temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen followed by an abrupt decline. The mechanisms behind these high salinity events are investigated using a comprehensive dataset of temperature and salinity profiles from ARGO floats and sea surface height anomaly maps. The spatial and temporal distribution of the Persian/Arabian Gulf outflow to the Sea of Oman is also studied using ARGO profiles. Persian Gulf water (PGW) is mainly measured close to the Strait of Hormuz or along the Oman coast on the continental slope in the Sea of Oman. Both mooring and ARGO data show that high salinity PGW can be advected off the slope and into the interior. More high salinity water is measured in the interior of the Sea of Oman within three months after the Gonu passage in summer 2007, which is caused by the combination effect of the oceanic responses to Cyclone Gonu and a clockwise eddy circulation located at northern Ras al Hadd. At other times, the high salinity water appears more in isolated patches and rare in the interior. This study provides a first look at the high salinity events appearing after Gonu and the properties and dynamics of the PGW in the northern Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman.

  19. Morphology and Late Quaternary sedimentation in the Gulf of Oman Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchupi, Elazar; Swift, S. A.; Ross, D. A.

    The morphology of the Gulf of Oman Basin, a 3,400 m deep oceanic basin between Oman and southern Pakistan and southern Iran, ranges from a convergent margin (Makran margin) along the north side, a passive type (Oman margin) along the south side, translation types along the basin's west (Zendan Fault-Oman Line) and east (Murray Ridge) sides and a narrow continental rise and a wide abyssal plain in the centre of the basin. Sediment input into the basin during the Late Quaternary has been mainly from the north as a result of the uplift of the Coast Makran Mountains in the Late Miocene-Pliocene. Today most of this detritrus is deposited on the shelf and upper continental slope and perched basins behind the fold/fault ridges on the lower slope. The presence of fans and channels on the continental rise on the north side of the basin indicate, however, that continental derived debris was, and possibly is, being transported to the deep-sea by turbidity currents via gaps in the ridges on the lower slope. In addition to land derived terrigenous sediments, the basin deposits also contain biogenic (organic matter and calcium carbonate), eolian detritus and hydrates and authigenic carbonates from the tectonic dewatering of the Makran accretionary wedge. The eolian sediment is carried into the Gulf of Oman Basin from Arabia and the Mesopotamia Valley by the northwesterly Shamal winds. This type of detritus was particularly abundant during the glacial arid periods 21,000-20,000 and 11,000 (Younger Dryas) years ago when exposure of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf increased the area of dust entrainment and shifted the position of the source of the eolian sediments closer to the basin.

  20. The Efficiency of the "Learning Management System (LMS)" in AOU, Kuwait, as a Communication Tool in an E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfadly, Ahmad Assaf

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The integration of a Learning Management System (LMS) at the Arab Open University (AOU), Kuwait, opens new possibilities for online interaction between teachers and students. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of the LMS at AOU, Kuwait as a communication tool in the E-learning system and to find the best automated…

  1. Comparison of pharmacist knowledge, perceptions and training opportunities regarding maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Qatar and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Serena; Kitutu, Freddy E.; Rahhal, Ala’a; Abu Samaha, Rana; Wilby, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pharmacists have great potential to modify and optimize drug therapy in pregnancy and lactation, current literature demonstrates that they do not routinely provide this care and often feel ill equipped to do so. The objective of this study was to determine pharmacists’ knowledge and perceptions of maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Uganda and Qatar. Secondary objectives were to determine factors associated with pharmacists’ knowledge and to characterize training opportunities and resources available to practising pharmacists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using online software (SurveyMonkey) was sent to the e-mails of potential research participants. Practising pharmacists and resident pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada; the country of Qatar; and the country of Uganda were eligible for inclusion. The survey was designed to assess knowledge and perceptions, and to create a baseline inventory of current practice and information resources used in practice. Results: The mean knowledge assessment scores of pharmacists in Canada, Qatar and Uganda were 62.9%, 53.3%, and 57.7%, respectively (p < 0.05). Pharmacists in British Columbia scored higher on knowledge assessment than pharmacists in Qatar (p < 0.05), but other country comparisons were not significant. No predefined factors (gender, years of experience, practice area or parental status) were found to be significant in determining the knowledge score. More than two-thirds of pharmacists expressed interest in participating in continuing education opportunities in maternal-fetal medicine. Conclusion: Pharmacists have differing levels of knowledge in the area of maternal-fetal medicine. Continuing education and degree curricula should be reviewed and developed to fill the knowledge gaps of student pharmacists and practising pharmacists in maternal-fetal medicine. PMID:25364351

  2. The Qatar National Historic Environment Record: a Platform for the Development of a Fully-Integrated Cultural Heritage Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttler, R. T. H.; Tonner, T. W. W.; Al-Naimi, F. A.; Dingwall, L. M.; Al-Hemaidi, N.

    2013-07-01

    The development of the Qatar National Historic Environment Record (QNHER) by the Qatar Museums Authority and the University of Birmingham in 2008 was based on a customised, bilingual Access database and ArcGIS. While both platforms are stable and well supported, neither was designed for the documentation and retrieval of cultural heritage data. As a result it was decided to develop a custom application using Open Source code. The core module of this application is now completed and is orientated towards the storage and retrieval of geospatial heritage data for the curation of heritage assets. Based on MIDAS Heritage data standards and regionally relevant thesauri, it is a truly bilingual system. Significant attention has been paid to the user interface, which is userfriendly and intuitive. Based on a suite of web services and accessed through a web browser, the system makes full use of internet resources such as Google Maps and Bing Maps. The application avoids long term vendor ''tie-ins'' and as a fully integrated data management system, is now an important tool for both cultural resource managers and heritage researchers in Qatar.

  3. Study exploring depression and cardiovascular diseases amongst Arabic speaking patients living in the State of Qatar: Rationale and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim M; Alqahtani, Awad; Assad, Nidal; Qader, Najla Abdul; Byrne, Carolyn; Singh, Rajvir; Fung, Tak Shing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In Qatar, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Studies show that depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality among cardiovascular patients. Thus, early detection of, and intervention for, depression among cardiovascular patients can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To date there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among cardiovascular patients. The goals of our three-phase research program are to (1) understand the mental health issues, specifically depression, as experienced by cardiovascular patients living in the State of Qatar; (2) identify and implement strategies that would prevent depression and assist patients to deal with depression; and (3) evaluate, facilitate, and sustain strategies that are effective at reducing depression and foster its treatment among cardiovascular patients. This paper describe phase I of the research program. Using both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, we will investigate (1) the prevalence and severity of depression among patients who have confirmed diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (2) how contextual factors such as social, cultural, and economic factors contribute to the risk of depression and its management among cardiovascular patients, and (3) formulate effective intervention strategies that are expected to increase awareness, prevention of and treatment for depression among cardiovascular patients, thus reducing cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in Qatar. PMID:24688991

  4. Megadroughts at the dawn of Islam recorded in a 2600-year long stalagmite from Northern Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, D.; Mudelsee, M.; Bradley, R. S.; Pickering, P.; Kramers, J.; Burns, S. J.; Mangini, A.; Matter, A.

    2009-04-01

    Climate on the Arabian Peninsula is strongly affected by two major climate systems; the North Atlantic/Siberian pressure system in winter and the Indian monsoon in summer. Their influence is clearly discernable in the present-day precipitation pattern in Oman. Southern Oman (so-called Dhofar region) receives most of its total annual precipitation during the Indian summer monsoon (June - August), whereas northern Oman receives most precipitation during the northeast monsoon season (December - March) by southeast ward moving Mediterranean frontal system. To date, the late Holocene climatic history of Oman and the entire Arabian Peninsula is poorly understood due to the lack of well dated and highly resolved paleoclimate records. In order to fill this gap of knowledge an actively growing stalagmite (specimen H12) was collected from Hoti Cave located in northern Oman. Total annual rainfall in this area varies between 50 and 255 mm yr-1, with more than 65% of total annual rainfall occurring between December and March. The chronology of stalagmite H12 is based on 22 Th-U ages, which indicate that H12 grew continuously during the last 2650 years. The H12 oxygen isotope record (^18O) is based on 1345 measurements corresponding to a temporal resolution of around 2 years. The comparison of the H12 ^18O record with meteorological data reveals that ^18O values reflect the amount of precipitation. The H12 ^18O time series shows distinct centennial- to decadal-scale changes in the amount of precipitation. The most striking feature of the H12 isotope profile is a series of severe droughts between A.D. 500 and A.D. 1000, the most severe perennial drought is centered at around A.D. 530. During this time South Arabia experienced a series of profound societal changes, such as the collapse of the Himyarite Kingdom which was the dominant state in Arabia. Our stalagmite ^18O time series from Northern Oman seems to support the hypothesis that the collapse of the 1500-year-old South Arabian civilizations and transition from the pre-Islamic to the Islamic era in the 6th and early 7th century A.D. may have been triggered by reoccurring severe droughts.

  5. Megadroughts at the Dawn of Islam Recorded in a Stalagmite from Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, D.; Mudelsee, M.; Bradley, R. S.; Burns, S. J.; Cheng, H.; Mangini, A.; Edwards, R.; Matter, A.

    2010-12-01

    Climate on the Arabian Peninsula is strongly affected by two major climate systems; the North Atlantic/Siberian pressure system in winter and the Indian monsoon in summer. Their influence is clearly discernable in the present-day precipitation pattern in Oman. Southern Oman (so-called Dhofar region) receives most of its total annual precipitation during the Indian summer monsoon (June - August), whereas northern Oman receives most precipitation during the northeast monsoon season (December - March) by southeast ward moving Mediterranean frontal system. To date, the late Holocene climatic history of Oman and the entire Arabian Peninsula is poorly understood due to the lack of well dated and highly resolved paleoclimate records. In order to fill this gap of knowledge an actively growing stalagmite (specimen H12) was collected from Hoti Cave located in northern Oman. Total annual rainfall in this area varies between 50 and 255 mm yr-1, with more than 65% of total annual rainfall occurring between December and March. The chronology of stalagmite H12 is based on 24 Th-U ages, which indicate that H12 grew continuously during the last 2650 years. The H12 oxygen isotope record (δ18O) is based on 1345 measurements corresponding to a temporal resolution of around 2 years. The comparison of the H12 δ18O record with meteorological data reveals that δ18O values reflect the amount of precipitation. The H12 δ18O time series shows distinct centennial- to decadal-scale changes in the amount of precipitation. The most striking feature of the H12 isotope profile is a series of severe droughts between A.D. 500 and A.D. 1000, the most severe perennial drought is centered at around A.D. 530. During this time South Arabia experienced a series of profound societal changes, such as the collapse of the Himyarite Kingdom which was the dominant state in Arabia. Our stalagmite δ18O time series from Northern Oman seems to support the hypothesis that the collapse of the 1500-year-old South Arabian civilizations and transition from the pre-Islamic to the Islamic era in the 6th and early 7th century A.D. may have been triggered by reoccurring severe droughts.

  6. Perspective View, Landsat Overlay, Salalah, Oman, Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. The city is located on the broad, generally bright coastal plain and includes areas of green irrigated crops. This view was generated from a Landsat image draped over a preliminary elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The edges of the dataset are to the upper right, left, and lower left. The Arabian Sea (lower right) is represented by the blue false-colored area. Vertical exaggeration of topography is 3X.

    This scene illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. The Arabian Peninsula is very arid. However, the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains wrings moisture from the summer monsoons allowing for growth of natural vegetation (green along the mountain fronts and in the canyons), and soil development (dark brown areas), as well as cultural development of the coastal plain. The monsoons also provide moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot)spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 45 kilometers (28 miles) across x 178 kilometers (110 miles) distance Location: 17 deg. North lat., 54 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Image Data: Landsat bands 1, 2+4, 3 in blue, green, red Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 (SRTM), November 9, 1999 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  7. Metallothionein, oxidative stress and trace metals in gills and liver of demersal and pelagic fish species from Kuwaits' marine area.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Jandal, N; Al-Subiai, S; Karam, Q; Husain, S; Butt, S A; Ali, A; Al-Hasan, E; Al-Dufaileej, S; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    Two fish species yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) were collected from two locations in Kuwait's territorial waters in non-reproductive periods and used as bio-indicator organism for the assessment of metals in the marine environment. Species variation in fish was observed; seabream contained high metal content and metallothionein in liver and gill tissues compared to tonguesole, especially from Kuwait Bay area. Oxidative injury was registered in the gills of both species, but in tonguesole liver was also involved. Consequently, antioxidant enzyme catalase was elevated in tonguesole enabling bottom dwelling fish to combat oxidative assault. The study provided information about the current status of metals in marine sediment and levels of metals accumulated in representative species along with oxidative damage in exposed tissues and the range of biomarker protein metallothionein and enzymes of antioxidant defence mechanism enhancing our understanding about the biological response to the existing marine environment in Kuwait. PMID:26231068

  8. Socioeconomic associations of improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Bener, Abdulbari; El Ansari, Walid

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the temporal association between socioeconomic development indices and improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar over a period of 35 years (1974–2008). We explored the association between reduction in poverty, improvement in maternal education, and perinatal health care on the one hand, and increased maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival on the other hand. Yearly mortality data was ascertained from the perinatal and neonatal mortality registers of the Women’s Hospital and the national database in the Department of Preventive Medicine at Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha. A total of 323,014 births were recorded during the study period. During these 35 years, there was a remarkable decline (P < 0.001) in Qatar’s neonatal mortality rate from 26.27/1000 in 1974 to 4.4/1000 in 2008 and in the perinatal mortality rate from 44.4/1000 in 1974 to 10.58/1000 in 2008. Qatar’s maternal mortality rate remained zero during 1993, 1995, and then in 1998–2000. The maternal mortality rate was 11.6/100,000 in 2008. For the rest of the years it has been approximately 10/100,000. Across the study period, the reduction in poverty, increase in maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with a significant improvement in maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival. The total annual births increased five-fold during the study period, with no negative impact on survival rates. Neonatal mortality rates in Qatar have reached a plateau since 2005. We also conducted a substudy to assess the association between improvements in survival rates in relation to health care investment. For this purpose, we divided the study period into two eras, ie, era A (1974–1993) during which major health care investment was in community-based, low-cost interventions, and era B (1994–2008) during which the major health care investment was in high-technology institutional interventions. Although from 1974–1993 (era A) the per capita health expenditure increased by only 19% as compared with a 137% increase in 1994–2008 (era B). The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was three times steeper during era A than in era B. The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was also significant (P < 0.001) when analyzed separately for era A and era B. We concluded that across the 35-year period covered by our study, the reduction in poverty, increased maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar. From the subanalysis of era A and era B, we concluded that low-cost, community-based interventions, on the background of socioeconomic development, have a stronger impact on maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival as compared with high-cost institutional interventions. PMID:21151678

  9. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; Černý, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

  10. Phytochemistry and Biologic Activities of Caulerpa Peltata Native to Oman Sea

    PubMed Central

    Movahhedin, Nasrin; Barar, Jaleh; Fathi Azad, Fatemeh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    General toxicity, antiproliferative, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Caulerpa peltata J.V.Lamouroux (Caulerpaceae) collected from Oman Sea were investigated. Dried, ground alga was Soxhlet-extracted with hexane, dichloromethane and methanol successively. The methanol extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) fractionation on silica gel using a step gradient of different mixture of solvents. A known alkaloid, caulerpin, was subsequently isolated from the fraction eluted by ethyl acatete100%. The antioxidant activity of all extracts was assessed by using the (DPPH) assay. Antiproliferative activity of the all extracts and caulerpin against the cancerous cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. General toxicity of extracts was determined using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). Based on our results, a weak activity observed for all extracts in MTT assay, while they were toxic toward brine shrimp nauplii comparing to the podophylotoxin. This is the first report on phytochemistry and bioactivity of C. peltata which collected from Oman Sea. PMID:25237346

  11. Awareness about autism among school teachers in Oman: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum disorder in an urban region in Oman. A total of 164 teachers were randomly enrolled from five schools. Misconceptions about autism spectrum disorder were found to be common among mainstream teachers in the country. We posit that such lack of awareness was likely to be rooted with sociocultural patterning as well as conflicting views often "spun" by the scientific community and mass media. Enlightened views toward children with autism spectrum disorder should be presented to Omani teachers to overcome misconceptions and negative attitudes toward children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24151129

  12. Deceased donor renal transplantation and the disruptive effect of commercial transplants: the experience of Oman.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, N; Al-Busaidy, Q; Al-Marhuby, H; Al-Lawati, J; Daar, A S

    2014-01-01

    The Oman Renal Transplantation Program was established in 1988 as a joint venture between Sultan Qaboos University and the Ministry of Health. It began with both living related donor (LRD) and deceased donor (DD) transplants. Over the next nine years, while the LRD programme progressed relatively well, there were only thirteen DD transplants. Two of the DD kidneys were obtained from overseas via an active collaboration with the Euro-transplant organisation, and one DD kidney was obtained from Saudi Arabia within the Gulf Cooperative Council exchange programme. The rest of the DD kidneys were obtained in Oman. The Omani DD programme, although it was a pioneering effort in the Gulf region at the time, was not entirely sustainable. In this paper we focus on the challenges we encountered. Among the major challenges was the absence of resources to establish a dedicated DD programme and particularly the failure to develop a cadre of dedicated transplant coordinators. PMID:25160966

  13. The Burden of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Oman, January 2008-June 2013

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaidy, Salah; Hamid, Sarah; Al Obaidani, Idris; Al Baqlani, Said; Al Busaidi, Suleiman; Bawikar, Shyam; El-Shoubary, Waleed; Dueger, Erica L.; Said, Mayar M.; Elamin, Emdeldin; Shah, Parag; Talaat, Maha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute respiratory infections (ARI), including influenza, comprise a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza surveillance provides important information to inform policy on influenza control and vaccination. While the epidemiology of influenza has been well characterized in western countries, few data exist on influenza epidemiology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. We describe the epidemiology of influenza virus in Oman. Methods Using syndromic case definitions and protocols, patients from four regional hospitals in Oman were enrolled in a descriptive prospective study to characterize the burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza. Eligible patients provided demographic information as well as oropharyngeal (OP) and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Specimens were tested for influenza A and influenza B; influenza A viruses were subtyped using RT-PCR. Results From January 2008 through June 2013, a total of 5,147 cases were enrolled and tested for influenza. Influenza strains were detected in 8% of cases for whom samples were available. Annual incidence rates ranged from 0.5 to 15.4 cases of influenza-associated SARI per 100,000 population. The median age of influenza patients was 6 years with children 0–2 years accounting for 34% of all influenza-associated hospitalizations. By contrast, the median age of non-influenza SARI cases was 1 year with children 0–2 years comprising 59% of SARI. Compared to non-influenza SARI cases, a greater proportion of influenza cases had pre-existing chronic conditions and underwent ventilation during hospitalization. Conclusions Influenza virus is associated with a substantial proportion of SARI in Oman. Influenza in Oman approximately follows northern hemisphere seasonality, with major peaks in October to December and a lesser peak around April. The burden of influenza was greatest in children and the elderly. Future efforts should examine the burden of influenza in other potential risk groups such as pregnant women to inform interventions including targeted vaccination. PMID:26642055

  14. Rapid emplacement of young oceanic lithosphere: argon geochronology of the oman ophiolite.

    PubMed

    Hacker, B R

    1994-09-01

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of emplacement-related metamorphic rocks beneath the Samail ophiolite in Oman show that cooling to <525 degrees C occurred within approximately 1 million years of igneous crystallization of the ophiolite. This unexpectedly short time span and rapid cooling means that old, cold continental or oceanic lithosphere must have been adjacent to the ophiolite during spreading and then been thrust beneath the ophiolite almost immediately afterward. PMID:17801534

  15. Screening for Anti-Cancer Compounds in Marine Organisms in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Tamimi, Yahya; Al-Kindi, Mohamed A.; Burney, Ikram

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Marine organisms are a rich source of bioactive molecules with potential applications in medicine, biotechnology and industry; however, few bioactive compounds have been isolated from organisms inhabiting the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. This study aimed to isolate and screen the anti-cancer activity of compounds and extracts from 40 natural products of marine organisms collected from the Gulf of Oman. Methods: This study was carried out between January 2012 and December 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Fungi, bacteria, sponges, algae, soft corals, tunicates, bryozoans, mangrove tree samples and sea cucumbers were collected from seawater at Marina Bandar Al-Rowdha and Bandar Al-Khayran in Oman. Bacteria and fungi were isolated using a marine broth and organisms were extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate. Compounds were identified from spectroscopic data. The anti-cancer activity of the compounds and extracts was tested in a Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF)-7 cell line breast adenocarcinoma model. Results: Eight pure compounds and 32 extracts were investigated. Of these, 22.5% showed strong or medium anti-cancer activity, with malformin A, kuanoniamine D, hymenialdisine and gallic acid showing the greatest activity, as well as the soft coral Sarcophyton sp. extract. Treatment of MCF-7 cells at different concentrations of Sarcophyton sp. extracts indicated the induction of concentration-dependent cell death. Ultrastructural analysis highlighted the presence of nuclear fragmentation, membrane protrusion, blebbing and chromatic segregation at the nuclear membrane, which are typical characteristics of cell death by apoptosis induction. Conclusion: Some Omani marine organisms showed high anti-cancer potential. The efficacy, specificity and molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer compounds from Omani marine organisms on various cancer models should be investigated in future in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:27226907

  16. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different combinations of these reforms would affect groundwater and energy use, groundwater level and salinity, crop yield, and agricultural revenues in the future.

  17. Twenty-year changes in coral near Muscat, Oman estimated from manta board tow observations.

    PubMed

    Coles, Steve L; Looker, Elayne; Burt, John A

    2015-02-01

    The coastline of Muscat, Oman, contains some of the most extensive and diverse coral reefs in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula. In the past two decades this region has been impacted by expanding coastal development, the largest cyclone ever recorded in the Arabian Sea, and a large-scale harmful algal bloom which resulted in mass mortality of reefs elsewhere in the Gulf of Oman. In 2012 we estimated live and dead coral using manta tow observations on 370 transects at 13 locations along the coastline and nearshore islands of Muscat Oman. We compared these estimates against observations made on 389 transects at the same 13 locations two decades earlier (1993-94) in order to determine long-term changes in benthos along the Muscat coast. Results were mapped and differences in categorical mean values for transect locations were statistically compared between survey years. Live hard and soft coral decreased over the past two decades at most survey sites, and decreases were significant at three exposed coastline sites and one semi-enclosed embayment. One sheltered embayment site showed a significant increase in live hard coral over the study period. Declines in live hard coral were associated with increases in dead coral framework at 8 of the 13 sites, but these changes were non-significant. We attribute these changes primarily to long-term effects of Cyclone Gonu, which struck the Oman coast in June 2007. The study results suggest that the manta tow method can be an effective way to detect long-term changes in coral and other benthic parameters over large areas, despite limitations on its precision. PMID:25460063

  18. Politics and ideology in migration policy formulation: the case of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Russell, S S

    1989-01-01

    In 1716, 3 prominent families of the original Kuwaitis agreed that 1 family would control finance and commerce, another seafaring activities, and the 3rd the government. This continued allegiance has been instrumental in shaping migration policy in Kuwait. Migration to Kuwait began in the 1930s-1940s to meet labor needs of the oil industry and the social infrastructure. This began a steady increase, with several setbacks in the early 1970s, of the migrant population. Between (1959-1964), Kuwait had to determine how it would exist and operate as an independent state. The new state established migration policy based on a need for national identity and on weighing the interests of 4 political groups: the ruling family; the wealthy merchants; the Arab Nationalist Movement; and Kuwaiti Nationalists. 3 migration laws emerged which satisfied the 4 groups and in some form continued into the 1980s. These laws basically allowed the continuation of free immigration of labor with the government controlling entry, movement, rights, and employment of the migrants while stressing neutrality and reciprocity with other states, especially Arab states. 1 law greatly limited the number of citizenships to nonKuwaitis and guaranteed economic control and major share of profits to Kuwaitis. Between 1965-1984, many changes to migration policy occurred for political, demographic, and economic reasons. 1 such change was an amendment restricting naturalization to Muslims, thereby not allowing naturalization of the growing Asian migration population, to preserve their cultural authenticity. By 1984, following 1 rebalance of the distribution of Kuwaitis and nonKuwaitis, economic declines, and security threats, migration policy shifted back to population balance. Kuwaiti history shows, however, that experimenting with migration policy and population balance cannot establish internal political and social cohesion. This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 409). PMID:12342476

  19. Role of the Somalia-Oman upwelling and ENSO on Indian monsoon rainfall variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumo, Takeshi; de Boyer Montegut, Clement; Luo, Jing-Jia; Behera, Swadhin K.; Masson, Sebastien; Yamagata, Toshio

    2010-05-01

    The Indian summer monsoon rainfall has complex, regionally heterogeneous, interannual variations with huge socioeconomic impacts, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. The upwelling along the Somalia and Oman coasts starts in late spring, peaks during the summer monsoon, and strongly cools the sea surface temperature (SST) in the western Arabian Sea. They restrict the westward extent of the Indian Ocean warm pool, which is the main moisture source for the monsoon rainfall. Thus, variations of the Somalia-Oman upwelling can have significant impacts on the moisture transport toward India. Here the authors use both observations and an advanced coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to show that a decrease in upwelling strengthens monsoon rainfall along the west coast of India by increasing the SST along the Somalia-Oman coasts, and thus local evaporation and water vapor transport toward the Indian Western Ghats (mountains). Further observational analysis reveals that such decreases in upwelling are caused by anomalously weak southwesterly winds in late spring over the Arabian Sea that are due to warm SST/increased precipitation anomalies over the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge of the south-western Indian Ocean (and vice versa for years with strong upwelling and weak west Indian summer monsoon rainfall). The latter SST/precipitation anomalies are often related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions of the previous winter. This mechanism can hence explain why an El Niño event tends to strengthen following summer's Indian monsoon.

  20. Repository of mutations from Oman: The entry point to a national mutation database.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Anna; Hamza, Nishath; Al Harasi, Salma; Al Lawati, Fatma; Gibbons, Una; Al Alawi, Intesar; Kobus, Karoline; Hassan, Suha; Mahir, Ghariba; Al Salmi, Qasim; Mons, Barend; Robinson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a rapidly developing Muslim country with well-organized government-funded health care services, and expanding medical genetic facilities. The preservation of tribal structures within the Omani population coupled with geographical isolation has produced unique patterns of rare mutations. In order to provide diagnosticians and researchers with access to an up-to-date resource that will assist them in their daily practice we collated and analyzed all of the Mendelian disease-associated mutations identified in the Omani population. By the 1 (st) of August 2015, the dataset contained 300 mutations detected in over 150 different genes. More than half of the data collected reflect novel genetic variations that were first described in the Omani population, and most disorders with known mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. A number of novel Mendelian disease genes have been discovered in Omani nationals, and the corresponding mutations are included here. The current study provides a comprehensive resource of the mutations in the Omani population published in scientific literature or reported through service provision that will be useful for genetic care in Oman and will be a starting point for variation databases as next-generation sequencing technologies are introduced into genetic medicine in Oman. PMID:26594346

  1. A seasonal dipolar eddy near Ras Al Hamra (Sea of Oman)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, Pierre; Lacour, Léo; Carton, Xavier; Roullet, Guillaume; Baraille, Rémy; Corréard, Stéphanie

    2013-06-01

    Trajectories and hydrological data from two Argo floats indicate that warm and salty water at 200-300-m depths was ejected from the coast of Oman, near Ras al Hamra, in spring 2008, 2011, and 2012. This warm and salty water, Persian Gulf Water (PGW), once ejected from the coast, recirculated cyclonically in the western Sea of Oman, but also flowed eastward along the Iranian and Pakistani coasts. There, it was expelled seaward by mesoscale eddies as shown by other float data. Seasonal maps of salinity were computed from all available Argo floats; they showed that, in spring, PGW is present in the middle and north of the Sea of Oman, contrary to fall, when the salinity maxima lie southeast of Ras al Hadd. The ejection of PGW from Ras al Hamra is related here to the influence of a mesoscale dipolar eddy which often appears near this cape in spring. The time-averaged and empirical orthogonal functions of altimetric maps over 11 years for this season confirm the frequent presence and the persistence of this feature. From surface currents and hydrology, deep currents were computed via thermal wind balance, and the associated shear and strain fields were obtained. This deformation field is intense near Ras al Hamra, with an offshore direction. This flow structure associated with the mesoscale dipole explains PGW ejection from the coast. This observation suggests that PGW distribution in the Northern Arabian Sea can be strongly influenced by seasonal mesoscale eddies.

  2. Hadrosauroid Dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of the Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Buffetaut, Eric; Hartman, Axel-Frans; Al-Kindi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentary post-cranial remains (femora, tibia, vertebrae) of ornithischian dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of the Sultanate of Oman are described and referred to hadrosauroids. The specimens come from the Al-Khod Conglomerate, of latest Campanian to Maastrichtian age, in the north-eastern part of the country. Although the fragmentary condition of the fossils precludes a precise identification, various characters, including the shape of the fourth trochanter of the femur and the morphology of its distal end, support an attribution to hadrosauroids. With the possible exception of a possible phalanx from Angola, this group of ornithopod dinosaurs, which apparently originated in Laurasia, was hitherto unreported from the Afro-Arabian plate. From a paleobiogeographical point of view, the presence of hadrosauroids in Oman in all likelihood is a result of trans-Tethys dispersal from Asia or Europe, probably by way of islands in the Tethys shown on all recent paleogeographical maps of that area. Whether hadrosauroids were widespread on the Afro-Arabian landmass in the latest Cretaceous, or where restricted to the « Oman island » shown on some paleogeographical maps, remains to be determined. PMID:26562674

  3. Repository of mutations from Oman: The entry point to a national mutation database

    PubMed Central

    Rajab, Anna; Hamza, Nishath; Al Harasi, Salma; Al Lawati, Fatma; Gibbons, Una; Al Alawi, Intesar; Kobus, Karoline; Hassan, Suha; Mahir, Ghariba; Al Salmi, Qasim; Mons, Barend; Robinson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a rapidly developing Muslim country with well-organized government-funded health care services, and expanding medical genetic facilities. The preservation of tribal structures within the Omani population coupled with geographical isolation has produced unique patterns of rare mutations. In order to provide diagnosticians and researchers with access to an up-to-date resource that will assist them in their daily practice we collated and analyzed all of the Mendelian disease-associated mutations identified in the Omani population. By the 1 st of August 2015, the dataset contained 300 mutations detected in over 150 different genes. More than half of the data collected reflect novel genetic variations that were first described in the Omani population, and most disorders with known mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. A number of novel Mendelian disease genes have been discovered in Omani nationals, and the corresponding mutations are included here. The current study provides a comprehensive resource of the mutations in the Omani population published in scientific literature or reported through service provision that will be useful for genetic care in Oman and will be a starting point for variation databases as next-generation sequencing technologies are introduced into genetic medicine in Oman. PMID:26594346

  4. Hadrosauroid Dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Buffetaut, Eric; Hartman, Axel-Frans; Al-Kindi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentary post-cranial remains (femora, tibia, vertebrae) of ornithischian dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of the Sultanate of Oman are described and referred to hadrosauroids. The specimens come from the Al-Khod Conglomerate, of latest Campanian to Maastrichtian age, in the north-eastern part of the country. Although the fragmentary condition of the fossils precludes a precise identification, various characters, including the shape of the fourth trochanter of the femur and the morphology of its distal end, support an attribution to hadrosauroids. With the possible exception of a possible phalanx from Angola, this group of ornithopod dinosaurs, which apparently originated in Laurasia, was hitherto unreported from the Afro-Arabian plate. From a paleobiogeographical point of view, the presence of hadrosauroids in Oman in all likelihood is a result of trans-Tethys dispersal from Asia or Europe, probably by way of islands in the Tethys shown on all recent paleogeographical maps of that area. Whether hadrosauroids were widespread on the Afro-Arabian landmass in the latest Cretaceous, or where restricted to the « Oman island » shown on some paleogeographical maps, remains to be determined. PMID:26562674

  5. Trends in the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease among Adults with Diabetes in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Lawati, Jawad; Morsi, Magdi; Al-Riyami, Asya; Mabry, Ruth; El-Sayed, Medhat; El-Aty, Mahmoud Abd; Al-Lawati, Hawra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate trends in the estimated 10-year risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults with diagnosed diabetes in Oman. In addition, the effect of hypothetical risk reductions in this population was examined. Methods: Data from 1,077 Omani adults aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes were collected and analysed from three national surveys conducted in 1991, 2000 and 2008 across all regions of Oman. The estimated 10-year CVD risk and hypothetical risk reductions were calculated using risk prediction algorithms from the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), Diabetes Epidemiology Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic Criteria in Europe (DECODE) and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk tools. Results: Between 1991 and 2008, the estimated 10-year risk of CVD increased significantly in the total sample and among both genders, regardless of the risk prediction algorithm that was used. Hypothetical risk reduction models for three scenarios (eliminating smoking, controlling systolic blood pressure and reducing total cholesterol) identified that reducing systolic blood pressure to ≤130 mmHg would lead to the largest reduction in the 10-year risk of CVD in subjects with diabetes. Conclusion: The estimated 10-year risk for CVD among adults with diabetes increased significantly between 1991 and 2008 in Oman. Focused public health initiatives, involving recognised interventions to address behavioural and biological risks, should be a national priority. Improvements in the quality of care for diabetic patients, both at the individual and the healthcare system level, are required. PMID:25685383

  6. Health sciences libraries in Kuwait: a study of their resources, facilities, and services

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ansari, Husain A.; Al-Enezi, Sana

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of health sciences libraries in Kuwait in terms of their staff, collections, facilities, use of information technology, information services, and cooperation. Seventeen libraries participated in the study. Results show that the majority of health sciences libraries were established during the 1980s. Their collections are relatively small. The majority of their staff is nonprofessional. The majority of libraries provide only basic information services. Cooperation among libraries is limited. Survey results also indicate that a significant number of health sciences libraries are not automated. Some recommendations for the improvement of existing resources, facilities, and services are made. PMID:11465688

  7. Maternal plasma proteins, magnesium, zinc and copper concentration at term associated with birth size in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Mameesh, M S; Hathout, H; Safar, M A; Mahfouz, A; Al-Hassan, J M

    1985-01-01

    The study was carried out on Arab women who were admitted for delivery to Al-Sabah Hospital in Kuwait. The concentration of maternal serum proteins and magnesium was not correlated to infant birth size. The zinc and copper concentration in maternal serum at term was positively correlated to infant birthweight, length and head circumference. The results suggested the possibility that the mothers in the present study had a marginal zinc and copper nutriture, which when combined the hemodilution due to pregnancy led to serum levels inadequate to supply the requirement of the fast growing fetus. PMID:4091147

  8. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Kuwait: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Afasy, Hanan H; Al-Obaidan, Mohammed A; Al-Ansari, Yousef A; Al-Yatama, Sarah A; Al-Rukaibi, Mohammed S; Makki, Nourah I; Suresh, Anita; Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressively disabling inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. MS has a multifactorial etiology and is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic risk profiles. The epidemiology of MS changes with the spatial and temporal distribution of these genetic and nongenetic risk factors. This population-based matched case-control study aimed to determine the risk factors for MS in Kuwait. From May 2 to 9, 2010, we enrolled 101 confirmed MS cases using the list frame maintained by the Multiple Sclerosis Association of Kuwait. For each case, two population controls individually matched for age (±2 years), gender and nationality were selected. Data on demographic, socioeconomic variables, potential genetic and environmental factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. For a case, the questions were directed to the period that preceded the recognition of the disease, while for each of the two matched controls, a date of 'pseudodiagnosis' of MS was established, i.e. the date on which the control subject was of the same age as his/her matched case was at MS diagnosis and accordingly questions were directed to the preceding period. The multivariable conditional logistic regression model showed that compared with controls, the cases were significantly more likely to have a family history of MS [matched odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 6.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.5-18.0; p < 0.001] or have suffered from a head trauma in the past before MS diagnosis (matched OR(adj) = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.5; p = 0.014). Furthermore, compared with controls, cases were significantly more likely to have stayed in Kuwait during the Iraqi invasion of 1990 (matched OR(adj) = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5; p = 0.022). This study showed that a family history of MS, a history of head injury, and presence in Kuwait at the time of the Iraqi invasion of 1990 were associated with a significantly increased MS risk. Future retrospective cohort studies by using existing biological and epidemiological databases may provide a clue to MS etiology. PMID:23075770

  9. Representation of expatriates among cancer patients in Kuwait and the need for culturally-competent care.

    PubMed

    Alshemmari, Salem H; Refaat, Samar M; Elbasmi, Amani A; Alsirafy, Samy A

    2012-01-01

    From 2000 to 2007, 11,793 cancer patients received treatment in Kuwait. Non-Kuwaitis accounted for 6,016 (51%) patients. They came from 68 countries, mainly from the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean (59%) and South-East Asian (20%) regions. The majority (69%) was from low- and low-middle income countries. Thirty-seven percent were from non-Arabic speaking countries. To provide culturally-competent care for expatriate patients, there is a need to explore the impact of their ethnic, sociocultural, economic, language diversity, and expatriation-related stressors on different aspects of cancer care. PMID:22571250

  10. Whole exome sequencing unravels disease-causing genes in consanguineous families in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Fahiminiya, S; Almuriekhi, M; Nawaz, Z; Staffa, A; Lepage, P; Ali, R; Hashim, L; Schwartzentruber, J; Abu Khadija, K; Zaineddin, S; Gamal, H; Majewski, J; Ben-Omran, T

    2014-08-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) has greatly facilitated the identification of causal mutations for diverse human genetic disorders. We applied WES as a molecular diagnostic tool to identify disease-causing genes in consanguineous families in Qatar. Seventeen consanguineous families with diverse disorders were recruited. Initial mutation screening of known genes related to the clinical diagnoses did not reveal the causative mutations. Using WES approach, we identified the definitive disease-causing mutations in four families: (i) a novel nonsense homozygous (c.1034C>G) in PHKG2 causing glycogen storage disease type 9C (GSD9C) in a male with initial diagnosis of GSD3; (ii) a novel homozygous 1-bp deletion (c.915del) in NSUN2 in a male proband with Noonan-like syndrome; (iii) a homozygous SNV (c.1598C>G) in exon 11 of IDUA causing Hurler syndrome in a female proband with unknown clinical diagnosis; (iv) a de novo known splicing mutation (c.1645+1G>A) in PHEX in a female proband with initial diagnosis of autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets. Applying WES as a diagnostic tool led to the unambiguous identification of disease-causing mutations in phenotypically complex disorders or correction of the initial clinical diagnosis in ˜25% of our cases. PMID:24102521

  11. Performance of hydraulic fracturing and matrix acidizing in horizontal wellbores -- Offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.G.R.; Pongratz, R.

    1995-11-01

    Considerable debate in the Middle East has centered upon what was previously felt to be two separate methods of enhancing revenues and daily production; hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling. In an effort to maximize return on investment, these two issues have been successfully combined in other areas of the world. In order to establish the suitability of this technology in this area, two horizontal wells with over 3,050m (10,000ft) of lateral section were drilled into the Cretaceous Kharaib formation, overlying the North Field, Offshore Qatar. A massive stimulation program was performed in order to evaluate the most feasible stimulation method from both a technical and economical perspective for further field development considerations.Three propped hydraulic fracturing treatments were performed using 183, 500kg (403, 700lb) of 20/40 mesh sand, and seventeen acid matrix treatments placing over 3,217,250l (850,000gals) of HCL into the lateral sections of both wells. This paper describes the performance, operation and logistical support required to complete this offshore operation with join a minimal time frame. The use of a mobile offshore jack-up platform, whereby a land based fracturing spread was placed onto the deck of a converted drilling rig is described.

  12. A reservoir optimization study--El Bunduq Field, Abu Dhabi, Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Blashbush, J.L.; Nagai, R.B.; Ogimoto, T.; Savage, W.K.; Takizawa, M.; Wakamiya, J.

    1983-03-01

    El Bunduq reservoir is located in the offshore area of Abu Dhabi and Qatar. The field was shut-in in July 1979 due to production with high gas-oil ratios. Pressure differences of 200-400 psi between the flanks and the central part of the reservoir were still present almost four years after the field was shut-in. A comprehensive reservoir engineering study determined that the reasons for this behavior were the deteriorating qualities of the reservoir rock downstructure and the presence of a tar mat around the field. After the field behavior was history matched, model studies of a representative sector of the field indicated that peripheral waterflooding would recover less than 15 percent of the OOIP in a period of 30 years. However, pattern injection recoveries were calculated to be at least twice as high. Several full field alternatives were investigated to optimize the development of the reservoir under a pattern waterflood. This paper summarizes the various studies that led to the acceptance of the idea of pattern development over peripheral injection, as a result of the unique characteristics of this field.

  13. Is diabetes management in primary care improving clinical outcomes? A study in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Mochtar, I; Al-Monjed, M F

    2015-04-01

    There has been little research into the effectiveness of primary-care diabetes clinics in the Middle East. This study in Qatar compared patient outcomes at a primary-care facility with a dedicated diabetes clinic and one without. Using a cross-sectional method, data on demographics, diabetes status and 6 clinical outcomes of diabetes care were collected from the records of patients who visited the clinics during 2012. Diabetes management in both facilities improved clinical outcomes over the 1-year observation period. The mean total cholesterol of patients attending the special clinic (n = 102) decreased significantly from 4.66 to 4.27 mmol/dL and LDL cholesterol from 3.42 to 3.22 mmol/dL. The LDL cholesterol of patients receiving standard care (n = 108) reduced significantly from 3.41 to 3.22 mmol/dL and HDL cholesterol increased from 0.83 to 0.87 mmol/dL. Inter-provider comparisons indicated that the outcomes in the facility with a diabetes clinic were not superior to those in the facility with standard care. PMID:26077518

  14. 3D laser scanning and modelling of the Dhow heritage for the Qatar National Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherelt, A.; Cooper, J. P.; Zazzaro, C.

    2014-08-01

    Curating boats can be difficult. They are complex structures, often demanding to conserve whether in or out of the water; they are usually large, difficult to move on land, and demanding of gallery space. Communicating life on board to a visiting public in the terra firma context of a museum can be difficult. Boats in their native environment are inherently dynamic artifacts. In a museum they can be static and divorced from the maritime context that might inspire engagement. New technologies offer new approaches to these problems. 3D laser scanning and digital modeling offers museums a multifaceted means of recording, monitoring, studying and communicating watercraft in their care. In this paper we describe the application of 3D laser scanning and subsequent digital modeling. Laser scans were further developed using computer-generated imagery (CGI) modeling techniques to produce photorealistic 3D digital models for development into interactive, media-based museum displays. The scans were also used to generate 2D naval lines and orthographic drawings as a lasting curatorial record of the dhows held by the National Museum of Qatar.

  15. Motor vehicle injuries in Qatar: time trends in a rapidly developing Middle Eastern nation.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Mohammed; Sheikh, Javaid I; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2012-04-01

    Despite their wealth and modern road systems, traffic injury rates in Middle Eastern countries are generally higher than those in Western countries. The authors examined traffic injuries in Qatar during 2000-2010, a period of rapid population growth, focusing on the impact of speed control cameras installed in 2007 on overall injury rates and mortality. During the period 2000-2006, prior to camera installation, the mean (SD) vehicular injury death rate per 100,000 was 19.9±4.1. From 2007 to 2010, the mean (SD) vehicular death rates were significantly lower: 14.7±1.5 (p=0.028). Non-fatal severe injury rates also declined, but mild injury rates increased, perhaps because of increased traffic congestion and improved notification. It is possible that speed cameras decreased speeding enough to affect the death rate, without affecting overall injury rates. These data suggest that in a rapidly growing Middle Eastern country, photo enforcement (speed) cameras can be an important component of traffic control, but other measures will be required for maximum impact. PMID:21994881

  16. Sport events and climate for visitors--the case of FIFA World Cup in Qatar 2022.

    PubMed

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Fröhlich, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The effect of weather on sport events is not well studied. It requires special attention if the event is taking place at a time and place with extreme weather situations. For the world soccer championship in Qatar (Doha 2022), human biometeorological analysis has been performed in order to identify the time of the year that is most suitable in terms of thermal comfort for visitors attending the event. The analysis is based on thermal indices like Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that this kind of event may be not appropriate for visitors, if it is placed during months with extreme conditions. For Doha, this is the period from May to September, when conditions during a large majority of hours of the day cause strong heat stress for the visitors. A more appropriate time would be the months November to February, when thermally comfortable conditions are much more frequent. The methods applied here can quantify the thermal conditions and show limitations and possibilities for specific events and locations. PMID:25119826

  17. Sport events and climate for visitors—the case of FIFA World Cup in Qatar 2022

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Fröhlich, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The effect of weather on sport events is not well studied. It requires special attention if the event is taking place at a time and place with extreme weather situations. For the world soccer championship in Qatar (Doha 2022), human biometeorological analysis has been performed in order to identify the time of the year that is most suitable in terms of thermal comfort for visitors attending the event. The analysis is based on thermal indices like Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that this kind of event may be not appropriate for visitors, if it is placed during months with extreme conditions. For Doha, this is the period from May to September, when conditions during a large majority of hours of the day cause strong heat stress for the visitors. A more appropriate time would be the months November to February, when thermally comfortable conditions are much more frequent. The methods applied here can quantify the thermal conditions and show limitations and possibilities for specific events and locations.

  18. The Effect of Using Brainstorming Strategy in Developing Creative Problem Solving Skills among Male Students in Kuwait: A Field Study on Saud Al-Kharji School in Kuwait City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlMutairi, Abdullahi Naser Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using brainstorm strategy in developing creative problem solving skills among male students in Saud Al-Kharji School in Kuwait. The sample of the study consisted of (98) male students. The sample was distributed into two classes, the first represents the experimental group totaling (47)…

  19. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of human pegivirus (GBV-C) among blood donors and patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Qatar.

    PubMed

    AbuOdeh, Raed O; Al-Absi, Enas; Ali, Nadima H; Khalili, Makiyeh; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Hadwan, Tameem A; Althani, Asmaa A; Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2015-12-01

    Human Pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GB virus-C/Hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV), collectively known as GBV-C, is widely spread and has been reported to be associated with non-A-E hepatitis. To our knowledge, no previous study was conducted about HPgV in Qatar. Thus, the objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to determine the rates of HPgV infection in Qatar among healthy blood donors and HBV-infected patients, and (ii) to determine the most predominant HPgV genotype in Qatar. A total of 714 blood plasma samples from healthy donors (612) and HBV-infected patients (102) were collected. RNA was extracted, reversed transcribed, and then subjected for HPgV detection by two round-nested PCR using primers amplifying a 208 bp of 5'-UTR of the HPgV. For genotyping, the 5'-UTR PCR products (from 25 randomly picked samples) were cloned and sequenced. The overall infection rate of HPgV in Qatar was 13.3%. There was no significant difference (P = 0.41) in the infection rates between healthy donor (13.7%) and in HBV-infected patients (10.7%). Moreover, we did not find any significant association between HPgV infection rates and nationality, sex, or age (P > 0.05). Sequence analysis of 40 5'-UTR PCR amplicons yielded the European genotype 2 as most predominant in Qatar, although other genotypes (5 and 7) were also present. Our results indicate that there is no strong correlation between HPgV infection rate, condition, nationality, age, and sex, and genotype 2 is most predominant in Qatar. PMID:26058920

  20. Dropping out of Vocational Education in the State of Kuwait: A Case Study of Industrial Arts Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh; Almutairi, Yousef B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine, in retrospect, trainees' perceptions of the reasons some of their peers dropped out of the vocational education at the Industrial Institute-Shuwaikh (IIS), Kuwait. Using the descriptive-analytical method, a reliable questionnaire was developed to achieve this purpose. Results show that: (a) the…

  1. Special Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Autistic Students in the Autism School in the State of Kuwait: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the purpose was to examine Kuwaiti special education teachers' attitudes toward autistic students in the Autism School in Kuwait. This research study is divided into two parts: Introduction (the problem statement, the purpose statement, the research questions, definition of terms), and Procedures (using a case study in research, the…

  2. Transformational Leadership and Transfer of Teacher Professional Development to the Classroom in the Kuwait Public High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Ilene Kay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers' perceptions of transformational leadership behavior of head of department (HOD) as instructional leader related to their motivation to transfer learning through professional development in public high schools in Kuwait. The study also addressed two other training transfer factors: ability to…

  3. Educational Development in the State of Kuwait during the Years 1974/75 and 1976/76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education (Kuwait).

    Four main levels comprise the educational ladder in Kuwait: kindergarten, primary, intermediate, and secondary. Ministry of Education plans to improve education on these levels and in the institutes which offer two years of specialized training beyond secondary school are outlined in the document. The principles of separate but equal education for…

  4. The Pedagogical Variation Model (PVM) for Work-Based Training in Virtual Classrooms: Evaluation at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Maria Susy; Aldhafeeri, Fayiz Mensher

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative research initiative was undertaken to evaluate the pedagogical variation model (PVM) for online learning and teaching at Kuwait University. Outcomes from sample populations of students--both postgraduates and undergraduates--from the Faculty of Education were analyzed for comparison. As predicted in the PVM, the findings indicate…

  5. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  6. How Do Elementary Textbooks Address Fractions? A Review of Mathematics Textbooks in the USA, Japan, and Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alajmi, Amal Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Textbooks play an important part in the design of instruction. This study analyzed the presentation of fractions in textbooks designed for the elementary grades in Kuwait, Japan, and the USA. The analysis focused on the physical characteristics of the books, the structure of the lessons, and the nature of the mathematical problems presented.…

  7. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Increasing Academic Learning Time for College Undergraduate Students' Achievement in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Mohammad, Anwar; Al-Shammari, Bandar

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of increasing ALT for college students' achievement in Kuwait. In Phase 1, 37 students participated (22, experimental; 15, control); in Phase 2, 19 students participated (8, sub-experimental; 11, sub-control). Several experimental research methods used in conducting this study, including development of a…

  8. Instructor's Perceptions towards the Use of an Online Instructional Tool in an Academic English Setting in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erguvan, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    This study sets out to explore the faculty members' perceptions of a specific web-based instruction tool (Achieve3000) in a private higher education institute in Kuwait. The online tool provides highly differentiated instruction, which is initiated with a level set at the beginning of the term. The program is used in two consecutive courses…

  9. Effects of Character Education on the Self-Esteem of Intellectually Able and Less Able Elementary Students in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannir, Abir; Al-Hroub, Anies

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigates effects of character education activities on the self-esteem of intellectually able and less able students in the lower elementary level in Kuwait. The participants were 39 students in grade three with an average age of eight years old. Students were first divided into two ability subgroups (intellectually able vs.…

  10. Educational Development in the State of Kuwait during the Years 1974/75 and 1976/76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education (Kuwait).

    Four main levels comprise the educational ladder in Kuwait: kindergarten, primary, intermediate, and secondary. Ministry of Education plans to improve education on these levels and in the institutes which offer two years of specialized training beyond secondary school are outlined in the document. The principles of separate but equal education for

  11. Transformational Leadership and Transfer of Teacher Professional Development to the Classroom in the Kuwait Public High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Ilene Kay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers' perceptions of transformational leadership behavior of head of department (HOD) as instructional leader related to their motivation to transfer learning through professional development in public high schools in Kuwait. The study also addressed two other training transfer factors: ability to

  12. The Role of the Colleges of Education in Developing Human Values among University Students in Bahrain and Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Musawi, Nu'man; Al-Hashem, Abdulla; Karam, Ebraheem

    2003-01-01

    Explored the role of the colleges of education in developing college students' humanistic values. Surveys of students in Bahrain and Kuwait indicated that colleges of education in the Arab Gulf States really contribute to the formation of human values among college students. However, schools of education are not devoting sufficient time and effort…

  13. Difficulties to Use (Twitter) in the Educational Process from the Perspective of Social Studies Teachers in the State of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaeed, Saleh Abdulrahem

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to know the difficulties of use Twitter in the educational process from the perspective of social studies teachers in the State of Kuwait, in order to achieve the objectives of the study researchers answered the following question: What are the difficulties faced when using (Twitter) in the educational process from the standpoint…

  14. Perception of High School Students in Kuwait Regarding Their Knowledge about Physical Education and the Role of Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Amari, Hanaa; Ziab, Abdulraheem

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the perceptions of high school students in Kuwait regarding their knowledge about physical education and the role of health education in promotion. The study was conducted using a questionnaire administered to 250 students (103 male and 147 female) from public high schools, during the school year of (2009),…

  15. Myiasis in Kuwait: nosocomial infections caused by lucilia sericata and Megaselia scalaris.

    PubMed

    Hira, Parsotam R; Assad, Reem M; Okasha, Ghufran; Al-Ali, Faiza M; Iqbal, Jamshaid; Mutawali, Kamal E H; Disney, R Henry L; Hall, Martin J R

    2004-04-01

    Myiasis, the invasion of live human tissue by larvae of Diptera, is reported in the nasopharynx and a leg wound in two patients who were hospitalized for more than 72 hours in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital in Kuwait City, Kuwait. On the fourth and fifth days after a 10-year-old Kuwaiti boy was admitted to the hospital intensive care unit in a bloodied and comatose state following a traffic accident, 'worms' that came out of his nostrils were fixed, cleared, and identified as second and third instar of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). After 14 days, 'worms' were seen in the original dressing of a 35-year-old Iranian man admitted to the Orthopedic Unit of the hospital with multiple lacerations and fractures. The larvae, in various stages of development, were identified as those of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae). Since the presence of larvae in both patients was recorded after a stay of at least 3-4 days in the hospital, by definition, these infestations are considered nosocomial. PMID:15100451

  16. Wide Dissemination of GES-Type Carbapenemases in Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Bonnin, Rémy A.; Rotimi, Vincent O.; Al Hubail, Mona; Gasiorowski, Elise; Al Sweih, Noura; Poirel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that is an important source of nosocomial infections. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) of the GES type in A. baumannii has been increasingly reported, and some of these GES-type enzymes possess some carbapenemase activity. Our aim was to analyze the resistance determinants and the clonal relationships of carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from hospitals in Kuwait. A total of 63 isolates were analyzed, and all were found to be positive for blaGES-type genes. One isolate harbored the blaGES-14 gene encoding an ESBL with significant carbapenemase activity, whereas the other isolates harbored the blaGES-11 ESBL gene. Thirty-three isolates coharbored the blaOXA-23 and blaGES-11 genes. Analyses of the genetic locations indicated that the blaGES-11/-14 genes were plasmid located. It is noteworthy that the blaOXA-23 and blaGES-11 genes were colocated onto a single plasmid. Nine different pulsotypes were observed among the 63 isolates. This study showed the emergence of GES-type ESBLs in A. baumannii in Kuwait, further suggesting that the Middle East region might be a reservoir for carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii. PMID:23089751

  17. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights. PMID:22892687

  18. Radiative effects of the smoke clouds from the Kuwait oil fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, Peter; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The radiative effects of the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were assessed by measuring downwelling and upwelling solar flux, as well as spectral solar extinction beneath, above, and within the smoke plume. Seven radiation flight missions were undertaken between May 16 and June 2, 1991, to characterize the plume between the source region in Kuwait and approximately 200 km south, near Manama, Bahrain. Results are presented from one flight representative of conditions of the composite plume. On May 18, 1991, in a homogeneous, well-mixed region of smoke approximately 100 km downstream of the fires, visible optical depths as high as 2 were measured, at which time transmission to the surface was 8 percent, while 78 percent of the solar radiation was absorbed by the smoke. The calculated instantaneous heating rate inside the plume reached 24 K/d. While these effects are probably typical of those regions in the Persian Gulf area directly covered by the smoke, there is no evidence to suggest significant climatic effects in other regions.

  19. Consumption, Health Attitudes and Perception Toward Fast Food Among Arab Consumers in Kuwait: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume “double” burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their “fast food” classification. PMID:25363129

  20. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. PMID:23557827

  1. Hydrogeological aspects of groundwater drainage of the urban areas in Kuwait City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rashed, Muhammad F.; Sherif, Mohsen M.

    2001-04-01

    Residential areas in Kuwait City have witnessed a dramatic rise in subsurface water tables over the last three decades. This water rise phenomenon is attributed mainly to over irrigation practices of private gardens along with leakage from domestic and sewage networks. This paper presents a comprehensive study for urban drainage in two selected areas representing the two hydrogeological settings encountered in Kuwait City. In the first area, a vertical drainage scheme was applied successfully over an area of 1 km2. The system has been under continuous operation and monitoring for more than 4 years without problems, providing a permanent solution for the water rise problem in this area. The hydrogeological system has approached steady state conditions and the water levels have dropped to about 3·5 m below the ground surface. In the second area a dual drainage scheme, composing of horizontal and vertical elements, is proposed. Horizontal elements are suggested in the areas where the deep groundwater contains hazardous gases that may pose environmental problems. The proposed drainage scheme in the second area has not yet been implemented. Field tests were conducted to assess the aquifer parameters in both areas and a numerical model has been developed to predict the long-term response of the hydrogeological system in the two areas under consideration.

  2. Geological model of the Jurassic section in the State of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Yousif, S.; Nouman, G.

    1995-11-01

    Until the end of the seventies, the knowledge of Jurassic Geology in the State of Kuwait was very limited, since only one deep well was drilled and bottomed in the Triassic sediments. Few scattered wells partially penetrated the Jurassic sequence. During the eighties, appreciable number of wells were drilled through the Jurassic, and added a remarkable volume of information. consequently it was necessary to analyze the new data, in order to try to construct a geological model for the Jurassic in the State of Kuwait. This paper includes a number of isopach maps explaining the Jurassic depositional basin which also helps in trying to explain the Jurassic basin in the Arabian Gulf basin. Structural evolution of the Jurassic sequence indicated an inversion of relief when compared with the Cretaceous sequence. In fact, the main Cretaceous arches were sites of sedimentation troughs during the Jurassic period. This fact marks a revolution in the concepts for the Jurassic oil exploration. One of the very effective methods of the definition of the Jurassic structures is the isopaching of the Gotnia Formation. Najmah, Sargelu and Marrat Formations include the main Jurassic reservoirs which were detected as a result of the exploration activities during the eighties. Selective stratigraphic and structural cross sections have been prepared to demonstrate and explain the nature of the Jurassic sediments.

  3. Are women in Kuwait aware of breast cancer and its diagnostic procedures?

    PubMed

    Saeed, Raed Saeed; Bakir, Yousif Yacoub; Ali, Layla Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and awareness of women in Kuwait with regard to risk factors, symptoms and diagnostic procedures of breast cancer. A total of 521 questionnaires were distributed among women in Kuwait. Results showed that 72% of respondents linked breast cancer factors to family history, while 69.7% scored abnormal breast enlargement as the most detectable symptom of the disease. Some 84% of participants had heard about self-examination, but knowledge about mammograms was limited to 48.6% and only 22.2% were familiar with diagnostic procedures. Some 22.9% of respondents identified the age over 40 years as the reasonable age to start mammogram screening. Risk factor awareness was independent on age groups (p>0.05), but both high education and family history increased the likelihood of postivie answers; the majority knew about a few factors such as aging, pregnancy after age 30, breast feeding for short time, menopause after age of 50, early puberty, and poor personal hygiene. In conclusion, 43.1% of participants had an overall good knowledge of breast cancer with regards to symptoms, risk factors and breast examination. Very highly significant associations (p<0.005) were evident for all groups except for respondents distributed by nationality (p=0.444). Early campaigns for screening the breast should be recommended to eliminate the confusion of wrong perceptions about malignant mammary disease. PMID:25124616

  4. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial samples of milk and dairy products in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, V P; Bu-Abbas, A; Alaa-Basuny; Al-Johar, W; Al-Mufti, S; Siddiqui, M K

    2001-11-01

    As part of the programme on monitoring of environmental contaminants in food stuff in Kuwait, 54 samples of fresh full cream and skimmed milk, powdered milk, yoghurt, and infant formula were analysed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by HPLC following sample clean up using immuno-affinity columns. Of samples, 28% were contaminated with AFM1 with 6% being above the maximum permissible limit of 0.2 microgl(-1). Three fresh cow milk samples collected from a private local producer showed the highest level of 0.21 microg l(-1) AFM1. There was no contamination with AFM1 in powdered milk and infant formulas. These results show the necessity of a survey involving a larger number of milk and its products and suggest that presently the contamination of milk and milk products with AFM1 does not appear to be a serious health problem in Kuwait. Nevertheless, a continuous surveillance programme may be warranted to monitor regularly the occurrence of aflatoxins in the animal feeds responsible for current limited contamination and to note rapidly and worsening in the situation that may depend on market changes or on unfavourable climatic developments. PMID:11665741

  5. Seasonal effect on biomarkers of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in fish from Kuwait's marine area.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Subiai, S N; Al-Jandal, N; Butt, S A; Beg, K R; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    The aquatic biota of the Arabian Gulf deals with exposure to chronic oil pollution, several constituents of which cause induction of Cytochrome P450 1A that serves as a biomarker of AhR ligand exposure. In this study, fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile and 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity were determined as a measure of exposure biomarkers in two fish species, yellow fin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) captured from Kuwait Bay and outside the Bay area. FACs in fish bile determined by using fixed-wavelength fluorescence (FF) showed high fluorescence ratios between FF290/335 and FF380/430 indicating predominant exposure to low molecular weight, naphthalene-rich petroleum products (375±91.0pgml(-1)). Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene-type high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from burnt fuel were also present in appreciable concentration in the bile. The ratio of petrogenic to pyrogenic hydrocarbon was twofold higher in winter compared to summer months in both species. Seasonal effect on EROD was significant in tonguesole in Auha site (P<0.05); whereas seabream resisted seasonal change. Tonguesole is considered to be a suitable bioindicator of oil pollution in Kuwait Bay area. PMID:26409815

  6. Physical properties, star-spot activity, orbital obliquity and transmission spectrum of the Qatar-2 planetary system from multicolour photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Ciceri, S.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Crossfield, I.; Nikolov, N.; Bruni, I.; Zambelli, R.; Henning, Th.

    2014-09-01

    We present 17 high-precision light curves of five transits of the planet Qatar-2 b, obtained from four defocused 2 m-class telescopes. Three of the transits were observed simultaneously in the Sloan g'r'i'z' passbands using the seven-beam Gamma Ray Burst Optical and Near-Infrared Detector imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope. A fourth was observed simultaneously in Gunn grz using the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán 2.2-m telescope with Bonn University Simultaneous Camera, and in r using the Cassini 1.52-m telescope. Every light curve shows small anomalies due to the passage of the planetary shadow over a cool spot on the surface of the host star. We fit the light curves with the PRISM+GEMC model to obtain the photometric parameters of the system and the position, size and contrast of each spot. We use these photometric parameters and published spectroscopic measurements to obtain the physical properties of the system to high precision, finding a larger radius and lower density for both star and planet than previously thought. By tracking the change in position of one star-spot between two transit observations, we measure the orbital obliquity of Qatar-2 b to be λ = 4.3° ± 4.5°, strongly indicating an alignment of the stellar spin with the orbit of the planet. We calculate the rotation period and velocity of the cool host star to be 11.5 ± 0.2 d and 3.28 ± 0.04 km s-1 at a colatitude of 74°. We assemble the planet's transmission spectrum over the 386-976 nm wavelength range and search for variations of the measured radius of Qatar-2 b as a function of wavelength. Our analysis highlights a possible H2/He Rayleigh scattering in the blue.

  7. Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n = 24), English (n = 20), Hindi (n = 20), and Urdu (n = 20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n = 43) and men (n = 41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This investigation illustrates how potential research participants perceive research participation. Fundamentally, Western ethical research principles were applicable, but required flexibility and culturally informed adaptations. PMID:24495499

  8. Constraints on the Hydrologic Settings and Recharge of the Freshwater Lenses in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; Sultan, M.; Al-Dousari, A.

    2010-12-01

    The majority of the World’s arid and semi-arid countries receive rare, yet extreme, precipitation events. Recharge is minimal due to high evaporation and low infiltration rates. We show that Kuwait experiences geologic and hydrologic settings that are quite different, conditions that promote groundwater recharge. Kuwait is generally flat (slope: 2m/km) and is largely covered (80% of Kuwait’s land) by alluvial deposits with high infiltration capacities; these conditions inhibit runoff and promote infiltration and recharge of aquifers. On the average Kuwait receives 200 mm/yr over a few, but intensive events. Groundwater flows from the SW to the NE and the salinity increases along the flow gradient reaching salinities of 150,000 TDS in the NE. The presence of saline and hypersaline groundwater on local and/or regional scales in arid and hyperarid environments is usually considered as unwelcome news to hydrogeologists. That is not the case everywhere in Kuwait. In the southern regions, infiltrating fresh water mixes with the saline groundwater (TDS: 5,000 to 10,000) in the unconfined aquifers rendering it unsuitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, whereas in the northern regions, infiltrating water form lenses of fresh water on top of the highly saline (TDS >35,000) unconfined aquifers. Using the Raudhatain Watershed (3,696 km^2) in northern Kuwait as our test site, and knowing the locations of fresh water lenses in the watershed, we identified settings which facilitate the formation of these lenses and used these criteria to identify additional potential occurrences. Identified criteria include the presence of gentle slopes, permeable surface material, infrequent yet intensive (>20mm/hr) precipitation events, drainage depressions to collect the limited runoff, and presence of regional unconfined saline aquifers. Approximately 20 locations (size: 3 km2 to 150 km^2) were identified. Over the investigated period (1998- 2006), 25 precipitation events were reported, five of which exceeded 20 mm/hr; no flows were reported at the watershed outlet and no long-term ponding was detected on Landsat TM images acquired shortly after (1 to 14 days) each of the precipitation events suggesting that infiltration is quite high. This suggestion is supported by: (1) examination of NDVI images (from Landsat TM) and soil moisture images (from AMSR-E) which show that the observed increases in soil moisture content and vegetation index following a large precipitation events are not restricted to the valley network, and (2) the highly porous nature of the mapped soils (e.g., gravel, sand) and the high infiltration rates (up to 9m/day) reported for these soils. Using the SWAT continuous rainfall runoff model and taking advantage of global remote sensing datasets and GIS technologies, we estimate: (1) the average annual precipitation, runoff, and recharge at: 837 x 106m3, 6.9 x 10^6m^3, and 636 x 10^6m^3, respectively, and (2) recharge in the identified depressions at 41.6 x 10^6m^3. Results demonstrate the enhanced opportunities for groundwater recharge in the examined watershed and highlight the potential for similar applications in arid areas elsewhere.

  9. Detection of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Optically Complex Coastal Waters of the Kuwait Bay using Aqua-MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manche, C. J.; Sultan, M.; Uddin, S.; Al-Dousari, A.; Chouinard, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the optically complex coastal marine waters of the Kuwait Bay, the propagation of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) has become a severe issue over the last decade affecting aquaculture a primary component of the Kuwaiti economy. Although several remote sensing based methods of algal bloom detection exist today, few may accurately detect the concentration and identify the type of HABs in Case II waters. The purpose of this study is: (1) assessment of the method that best detects and identifies algal blooms in general and HABs in particular, in the Kuwait Bay, and (2) identification of the factors controlling the occurrence of HABs. Fluorescence Line Height (FLH), Empirical, Bio-Optical, and Operational Methods as well as Ocean Colour 3 Band Ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM), and General Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) algorithms were applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images acquired (07/2002 to 07/2012) over the Kuwait Bay and areas as far east as Shatt Al-Arab and as far south as N. 29.284 (Lat.), E. 50.047 (Long.) decimal degrees. In-situ data (bloom days: 50; sampling locations: 64) collected (09/1999 to 07/2011) from the Kuwait Bay was provided by the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and was used to test the reliability of the satellite-based inferences. Tasks accomplished and findings reached include: (1) comparison of in situ to estimated OC3M, GSM, and GIOP chlorophyll concentrations over the sampling locations for the time period 2002 to 2009 showed that OC3M outperformed the two other techniques in predicting the observed distribution and in replicating the measured concentration of the in-situ Chl-a data; (2) applying the OC3M algorithm to a total of 4039 scenes and using threshold values of 3, 4, and 5 mg/m3 Chl-a concentrations we inferred 371, 202, and 124 occurrences in the Kuwait Bay that met their respective threshold; (3) applying the operational method we successfully identified 13 of the reported blooms in Kuwait Bay on cloud free days; the majority of the unidentified events were on cloudy days. This was accomplished by generating difference images between the current satellite OC3M Chl-a concentration image and a background (mean of previous 60 days + 1 mg/m3) using a 14-day window between the analyzed image and those used in the generation of the mean. Predicted blooms in the Kuwait Bay in years 2002 through 2012 are 30, 84, 101, 96, 100, 97, 66, 60, 91, 81 and 29 blooms, respectively. These estimates exceed the observed occurrences and may be attributed to sampling bias (most blooms found >2 km from the shoreline) or due to uncertainties introduced by applying the OC3M algorithms to shallow water (mean depth Kuwait Bay: 22 m) cases; and (4) the temporal correlation of the distribution of the algal blooms in Kuwait Bay with those at the mouth of Shatt Al-Arab suggests a causal effect. Further efforts to more accurately identify HABS and to reduce uncertainties in Chl-a concentration are currently underway.

  10. Erectile Dysfunction in Qatar: Prevalence and Risk Factors in 1,052 Participants—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Naimi, Abdulla; Majzoub, Ahmad A; Talib, Raidh A; Canguven, Onder; Al Ansari, Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Qatar and to determine the risk factors associated with it. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional survey study of men attending the outpatient department at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar between February 2012 and February 2013. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire was used for data collection. In addition to the IIEF-5 score, each participant's medical history was taken, with special emphasis on risk factors for ED, including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease (CAD), and smoking habits, and on their body mass index. Results One thousand fifty-two participants were randomly selected to fill out the IIEF-5 questionnaire. The participants' mean age (±SD) was 41.87 ± 13.24 years. Analysis of replies to the IIEF-5 showed that ED was present in 573 out of 1,052 participants (54.5%). Fifty-six (5%) participants had severe ED, 61 (6%) had moderate ED, 173 (16%) had mild to moderate ED, and 283 (27%) had mild ED. Risk factors for ED that held statistical significance were age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1–4.1, P < 0.001), DM (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.7–3.9, P < 0.001), HTN (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.5, P = 0.012), dyslipidemia (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, P = 0.024), and CAD (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3–7.5, P = 0.009). Conclusion We found that the prevalence rate of ED in Qatar is quite similar to the regional reported rates. Overall, we demonstrated that nearly more than half of our participants suffered from ED. Besides age, DM, HTN, CAD, and dyslipidemia were found to be the most important risk factors for ED. Al Naimi A, Majzoub AA, Talib RA, Canguven O, and Al Ansari A. Erectile dysfunction in Qatar: Prevalence and risk factors in 1,052 participants—A pilot study. Sex Med 2014;2:91–95. PMID:25356303

  11. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Mozambique* Niger* Oman* Pakistan* Palau* Qatar* Russia Rwanda* Sao Tome and Principe* Saudi Arabia* Seychelles* Sierra Leone* Somalia* Sudan Syria Tajikistan* Tanzania* Togo* Turkmenistan* Uganda*...

  12. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Mozambique* Niger* Oman* Pakistan* Palau* Qatar* Russia Rwanda* Sao Tome and Principe* Saudi Arabia* Seychelles* Sierra Leone* Somalia* Sudan Syria Tajikistan* Tanzania* Togo* Turkmenistan* Uganda*...

  13. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mozambique* Niger* Oman* Pakistan* Palau* Qatar* Russia Rwanda* Sao Tome and Principe* Saudi Arabia* Seychelles* Sierra Leone* Somalia* Sudan Syria Tajikistan* Tanzania* Togo* Turkmenistan* Uganda*...

  14. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Mozambique* Niger* Oman* Pakistan* Palau* Qatar* Russia Rwanda* Sao Tome and Principe* Saudi Arabia* Seychelles* Sierra Leone* Somalia* Sudan Syria Tajikistan* Tanzania* Togo* Turkmenistan* Uganda*...

  15. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Mozambique* Niger* Oman* Pakistan* Palau* Qatar* Russia Rwanda* Sao Tome and Principe* Saudi Arabia* Seychelles* Sierra Leone* Somalia* Sudan Syria Tajikistan* Tanzania* Togo* Turkmenistan* Uganda*...

  16. Library Collaboration with Medical Humanities in an American Medical College in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of ‘doctors’ stories’ related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a ‘best practices’ approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders. PMID:24223240

  17. Library collaboration with medical humanities in an american medical college in qatar.

    PubMed

    Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan

    2013-11-01

    The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of 'doctors' stories' related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a 'best practices' approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders. PMID:24223240

  18. Low-temperature hydration, oxidation and hydrogen production from Oman peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. M.; Mayhew, L.; Templeton, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Peridotite in the shallow subsurface undergoes hydration and oxidation (serpentinization) during reactions with percolating fluids, generating hydrogen gas and releasing magnesium, iron, and calcium into solution. In the presence of fluids enriched in dissolved carbon dioxide, extensive precipitation of carbonate minerals occurs. This reaction has large-scale implications for mitigating climate change by providing a stable, geological carbon repository. The Samail Ophiolite in Oman contains large quantities of ultramafic rocks that are currently undergoing serpentinization at low temperatures (30°C) and forming carbonate minerals. The production of hydrogen gas provides an electron donor for subsurface chemolithoautotrophic life which can contribute to carbon cycling in the subsurface as microorganisms utilize carbon dioxide as an inorganic carbon source. Serpentinization reactions require the oxidation of Fe (II) to Fe (III) to reduce water to H2, but the mechanisms of hydrogen generation in low-temperature systems is poorly characterized. To address this question, we conducted low temperature (100°C) water-rock reactions with Oman peridotite, measured H2 and characterized the speciation of Fe-bearing minerals before and after water-rock interaction using micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (μXANES) spectra obtained from Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The experimental water-rock reactions produce H2 at a pH of 9, which corresponds with observations of ultrabasic springs in the Samail ophiolite and the presence of H2 in these spring waters. Significant hydrogen production occurs for two and a half months of reaction, peaking at 400 nmol/gram of reacted peridotite and then steadily decreases with time. These maximum values of hydrogen production from Oman peridotite are greater than observed by our laboratory and others during aqueous alteration of San Carlos peridotite and isolated pyroxenes and olivines (e.g. Mayhew et al. 2013 [1]). The products of low-temperature serpentinization, as determined by least squares fits of model spectra to sample μXANES spectra, include serpentine minerals, altered olivines and Fe(III) minerals. X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) maps of the distribution of Fe-bearing phases reveal extensive alteration of pyroxenes to a mixture of Fe(II) and Fe(III)-bearing phases during the 100°C water-rock interactions, while olivine grains are only incipiently altered along fracture networks, suggesting an important role for pyroxenes in low temperature H2-generating reactions. The serpentinization reactions in the Oman peridotite are producing significant levels of hydrogen at a low temperature within the habitability limit for life, suggesting Oman provides a subsurface niche for hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms. The microbiology of the Oman subsurface is important to consider when investigating carbonation reactions aimed for carbon capture and sequestration because microbial life can affect carbon availability, and the injection of CO2 into the aquifer may significantly alter the ecosystem. [1] Mayhew et al. 2013. Nature Geoscience

  19. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    PubMed

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds which could carry infection further afield. PMID:26431926

  20. Oman-India pipeline sets survey challenges. Crossing involves most rugged terrain, water depths four times greater than previous attempts

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decisions concerning the route for the world`s deepest pipeline call for some of the most challenging commercial oceanographic and engineering surveys ever undertaken. Oman Oil Co.`s 1, 170-kilometer pipeline will carry 2 billion cubic feet of gas daily across the Arabian Sea from Oman to the northern coast of India at the Gulf of Kutch. Not only will the project be in water depths four times greater than any previous pipeline, but it will cross some of the world`s most rugged seabed terrain, traversing ridges and plunging into deep canyons. Project costs are likely to approach $5 billion.