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Sample records for kuwait oman qatar

  1. Kuwait.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    The Republic of Kuwait occupies an area of 6,880 square miles at the head of the Persian Gulf, bounded on the north and west by Iraq and on the south by Saudi Arabia. 1.7 million people live in Kuwait, of whom 680,000 are Kuwaitis; the rest are expatriate Arabs, Iranians, and Indians. The annual growth rate of Kuwaitis is 3.8%. The Kuwaitis are 70% Sunni and 30% Shi'a Muslims. Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Kuwait is a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy. Education is free and compulsory, and literacy is 71%. Infant mortality among Kuwaitis is 26.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Medical care is free. Kuwait was first settled by Arab tribes from Qatar. In 1899 the ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, whose descendents still rule Kuwait, signed a treaty with Britain; and Kuwait remained a British protectorate until it became independent in 1961. A constitution was promulgated in 1962, and a National Assembly was elected by adult male suffrage in 1963. However, the Assembly has since been suspended due to internal friction. Kuwait and Iraq have been disputing Kuwait's northern border since 1913, and the southern border includes a Divided Zone, where sovereignty is disputed by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Despite the fall in oil prices in 1982 and the loss of trade due to the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait is one of the world's wealthiest countries with a per capita gross domestic product of $10,175. Oil accounts for 85% of Kuwait's exports, which total $7.42 billion; income from foreign investments (about $60 billion) makes up most of the balance. All petroleum-related activities are managed by the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which includes the nationalized Kuwait Oil Company, petrochemical industries, the 22-vessel tanker fleet, and refineries and service stations in Europe, where Kuwaiti oil is marketed under the brand name Q8. Kuwait has more than 66 billion barrels of recoverable oil but limits production to 999,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel. PMID:12177972

  2. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  3. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  4. Patterns of state building in the Arabian Gulf: Kuwait and Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Crystal, J.

    1986-01-01

    In the past few decades Kuwait and Qatar have experienced a radial but apparently smoothly transition from protectorate poverty to petroleum prosperity. Rapid economic and social changes have been accompanied by remarkable political continuity at the apex of their systems. This thesis examines this apparent continuity in ruling regimes. Oil revenues, it argues, preserved continuity only at the very apex of the political system. This continuity was accompanied by the breakdown of the historical ruling coalition binding the amirs and the trading families and its replacement by a new, but ultimately precarious, set of coalitions: first, between the amir and the national population, through social services and direct transfers; second, between the amir and the ruling family, whose political role expanded. These changes were the result of oil: by freeing rulers from the need to extract resources from the population, oil freed them from their historical economic hence political dependence on the merchants, the group which had historically pressed its claims most effectively on the state. Instead a tacit deal developed between the amirs and the trading families: a trade of wealth for formal power. Finally, the thesis argues that these new arrangements are only transitional adaptations. Distributive policies designed to ensure domestic peace have inadvertantly created relatively large and complex state administrations, or distributive states.

  5. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar

  6. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  7. Species, sex, size and male maturity composition of previously unreported elasmobranch landings in Kuwait, Qatar and Abu Dhabi Emirate.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M; McCarthy, I D; Carvalho, G R; Peirce, R

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents data from the first major survey of the diversity, biology and fisheries of elasmobranchs in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. Substantial landings of elasmobranchs, usually as gillnet by-catch, were recorded in Kuwait, Qatar and the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (part of the United Arab Emirates), although larger elasmobranchs from targeted line fisheries were landed in Abu Dhabi. The elasmobranch fauna recorded was distinctive and included species that are undescribed, rare and have a highly restricted known distribution. Numerical abundance was dominated by sharks (c. 80%), of which carcharhinids were by far the most important. The milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus and whitecheek shark Carcharhinus dussumieri together comprised just under half of all recorded individuals. Around 90% of recorded sharks were small (50-90 cm total length, L(T) ) individuals, most of which were mature individuals of species with a small maximum size (<100 cm L(T) ), although immature individuals of larger species (e.g. Carcharhinus sorrah and other Carcharhinus spp.) were also important. The most frequently recorded batoid taxa were cownose rays Rhinoptera spp., an undescribed whipray, and the granulated guitarfish Rhinobatos granulatus. The first size, sex and maturity data for a wide range of Gulf elasmobranch species are presented (including L(T) at 50% maturity for males of four shark species) and include some notable differences from other locations in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. A number of concerns regarding the sustainability of the fishery were highlighted by this study, notably that most of the batoid species recorded are classed by the IUCN Red List as vulnerable, endangered, data deficient or not evaluated. Despite their considerable elasmobranch landings, none of the three countries sampled have developed a 'Shark Plan' as encouraged to do so under the FAO International Plan of Action: Sharks. Furthermore, Kuwait and Qatar currently report zero or no elasmobranch landings to the FAO. PMID:22497401

  8. Oman.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Oman is on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations between Oman and the US. The population is estimated at 1.3 million; the annual growth rate is 3%. The infant mortality rate is estimated to be 50/1000 with a life expectancy of 48 years. Oman is located in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Its land borders with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates remain undefined, and the border with the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen is in dispute. About 1/3 of the population live in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital; more than 1/2 live in small towns, primarily in the interior. Ethnic groups include Arab, Baluchi, Zanzibari, and Indian. At least 200,000 expatriates live in Oman, most of whom (180,000) are guest workers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, as well as from Egypt, Jordan, and the Philippines. Except for a brief period of Persian rule, the Omanis have remained independent since 1650. The sultanate has no constitution, legislature, or legal political parties. The judicial system is based mainly on the Koranic laws and the oral teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. In November 1981, the sultan formed the Consultative Council for the State in an effort to increase public participation in the government. When Oman declined as an entrepot for arms and slaves in the mid-19th century, much of its former prosperity was lost, and the economy relied almost exclusively on agriculture, camel and goat herding, fishing, and traditional handicrafts. Oil was first discovered in the interior in 1964. With the fall in oil prices in the early 1980s, revenue declined slightly before resuming an upward trend based on additions to production from the new fields. By late 1985, production rose to just over 500,000 barrels/day. The government is undertaking many development projects to modernize the economy and further improve the standard of living. Increases in agriculture and fishing are believed possible with the application of modern technology. PMID:12178123

  9. Labor, nationalism, and imperialism in eastern Arabia: Britain, the Shaikhs, and the Gulf oil workers in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar, 1932-1956

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, H.M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the lack of a noticeable indigenous labor movement in the contemporary Gulf Arab countries of Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar; it focuses on the emergence, after the discovery of oil, of an industrial Gulf labor force, and on the evolution of the British policy towards oil and Gulf oil workers. The period examined begins with the discovery of oil in Bahrain in 1932 (the first such discovery on the Arab side of the Gulf), and ends with the Suez Crisis of 1956. The latter is a watershed event in Gulf history. It is argued that the Suez Crisis was in large part responsible for the long-term defeat of the indigenous labor movement in the Gulf. Attention is given to the parts played by the British Government of India, the Foreign Office, the local Shaikhs, the Gulf nationalists, and by the workers themselves. Policies towards workers passed through two different periods. In the first, 1932-1945, the Government of India had no direct interest in the Gulf labor situation; in the second, 1946-1956, the Foreign Office took increased interest in the welfare of local oil workers, primarily because of the importance of oil to reconstruction of the British economy after the war. However, the Suez Crisis in 1956 convinced the British to withdraw their support for the workers.

  10. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and banning certain fisheries. However, fisheries management was hampered by lack of appropriate management regulations, enforcement and data on most stocks. Pollution and degradation of nursery areas were also affecting the productivity of fisheries resources. To achieve sustainable demersal fisheries, maintaining a healthy marine environment, reducing fishing effort, and strictly enforcing closed seasons and closed areas are needed. These measures are being implemented with varying degrees of success by all the countries.

  11. Tackling cancer burden in the Middle East: Qatar as an example.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert; Kerr, Karen; Haoudi, Abdelali; Darzi, Ara

    2012-11-01

    Cancer prevalence is increasing in the Middle East, partly because of increased life expectancy and adoption of western lifestyle habits. Suboptimum delivery of health care also contributes to late diagnosis and poor survival of people with cancer. Public awareness of cancer risk is frequently low and misconceptions high, thereby preventing patients from seeking treatment early and constituting a substantial barrier to improvement of cancer outcomes. Screening programmes might have low uptake in Arab populations because of social and health beliefs about cancer. This review outlines the opportunities available to Middle Eastern countries and their emerging economies to learn from global experiences in cancer care, service provision, and research partnerships. The Middle East has begun to develop several health-care transformation programmes. Qatar, in particular, has published a National Health Strategy, in which cancer is one of the main commitments; this Strategy provides the focus of this review. The development of effective health-care strategies and evidence-based medicine directly linked to innovative cancer research is needed to improve cancer care. Although the full extent of the proposed solutions are not necessarily implementable in all Middle Eastern countries, wealthy states can lead derivation of population-specific approaches that could have effects throughout the region. Key challenges are outlined-namely, human capacity and training, subspecialisation of services, building on international cancer research initiatives, and the need for earlier diagnosis and awareness in the population. Countries in the Gulf Region (ie, countries bordering the Persian Gulf, including Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, and Oman) need to address these challenges to be at the forefront of integrated cancer care and research and ensure that the latest innovations and best possible care are delivered to their populations. PMID:23084766

  12. Education in Qatar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saif, Philip S.; Kamal, Abdulaziz

    Education in the State of Qatar was traditionally limited to the "orthography of the Arabic language." In 1952 Qatar had one elementary school for boys with 240 pupils and 6 teachers. By 1955, an elementary school for girls (n=50) was established. In 1980-81, schooling increased to 71 schools for boys with 20,588 students and 70 schools for girls…

  13. Qatar: Energy and development

    SciTech Connect

    El Mallakh, R.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the traumas that have been experienced in the Arabian Gulf over the past five years, Qatar has been remarkably successful in smoothing the transition of its economy from recession and oil glut to recovery and stabilization. This book examines the characteristics of Qatar's economic and social development that have assisted this process. These characteristics include; moderation in the development policy and the avoidance of excessive haste; a cohesive sense of political identity; and a relatively well educated labor force derived from an educational program that was in place prior to the oil boom. Qatar has also maintained a moderate policy within OPEC. During the price hikes of 1979-80, caused by cutbacks in Iranian exports, Qatar maintained its policy of restraint; this was an important factor in permitting Qatar to confront the substantial drop in oil-generated revenues faced by all the oil exporters in 1982-84.

  14. Turbodrilling performance offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, L.A.; Abdulrahman, E.A.

    1983-03-01

    Until the first quarter of 1979 Qatar General Petroleum Corporation Offshore routinely rotary drilled its vertical development wells using tricone bits. Turbodrilling the 17 1/2'' and 8 1/2'' hole sections was introduced in the second quarter of 1979 followed by the 12 1/4'' hole section in the first qarter of 1980. This resulted in avoiding/minimising downhole problems and the elimination of 7'' and 4 1/2'' liners. As a result of introducing these practices a 50 percent time saving and a 30 percent cost saving has been achieved, equivalent to $550,000/well.

  15. The Qatar Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubai, K. A.; Parley, N. R.; Bramich, D. M.; Horne, K.; Collier Cameron, A.; West, R. G.; Sorensen, P. M.; Pollacco, D.; Smith, J. C.; Fors, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Qatar Exoplanet Survey (QES) is discovering hot Jupiters and aims to discover hot Saturns and hot Neptunes that transit in front of relatively bright host stars. QES currently operates a robotic wide-angle camera system to identify promising transiting exoplanet candidates among which are the confirmed exoplanets Qatar 1b and 2b. This paper describes the first generation QES instrument, observing strategy, data reduction techniques, and follow-up procedures. The QES cameras in New Mexico complement the SuperWASP cameras in the Canary Islands and South Africa, and we have developed tools to enable the QES images and light curves to be archived and analysed using the same methods developed for the SuperWASP datasets. With its larger aperture, finer pixel scale, and comparable field of view, and with plans to deploy similar systems at two further sites, the QES, in collaboration with SuperWASP, should help to speed the discovery of smaller radius planets transiting bright stars in northern skies.

  16. QATAR offshore oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Qatar Petroleum Producing Authority is presently operating three offshore fields - Idd al-Shargi, Maydan Mahzam and Bul Hanine. The Idd al-Shargi field consists of 14 naturally flowing wells and three suspended wells. Individual flow rates of the producing wells range from 250 to 3000 barrels per day (b/d). The Maydan Mahzam field produces from 11 naturally flowing wells. Reservoir energy in the field is maintained by water injection. Each of the wells produce oil at rates ranging from 2500 to 20,000 b/d. The Bul Hanine field comprises 10 producing wells supported by 9 dumpflooders. Production rates of the individual wells reach 29,000 b/d, making them among the world's highest. In 1978 the completion of a major acceleration project for the Bul Hanine Arab IV reservoir added more than 40,000 b/d to the production potential of the field. Total Qatari oil exports in 1978 were 91,708,000 barrels, equivalent to an average export rate of 25,000 b/d. Total production in Qatar in 1979 was 100,641,394 barrels (offshore) and 84,130,917 (onshore), an increase of 11% and a decrease of 3%, respectively, over 1978. Halal Island provides offshore storage for oil and gas berthing and loading operations. A natural gas liquids offshore complex, including a fractionation plant, is nearing completion at Umm Said. (SAC)

  17. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-12-31

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of {approximately}11,600 km{sup 2} and a population of {approximately}600,000.

  18. 31 CFR 575.310 - Kuwait; Kuwaiti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kuwait; Kuwaiti. 575.310 Section 575....310 Kuwait; Kuwaiti. The term Kuwait means the country of Kuwait and any territory under the jurisdiction or authority thereof. The term Kuwaiti means pertaining to Kuwait as defined in this section....

  19. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  20. Building insulation technology: Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Ezz Al Din, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Recommendations are reached through the use of a value analysis approach to adapt building insulation technology to Kuwait environment. The economical and technical aspects of using insulation influencing architectural and engineering decisions are presented. Research has confirmed that savings of 25% to 40% of electrical energy required in cooling and heating the building can be achieved by the proper use of insulating materials. Though the ideas of this study are tailored for Kuwait, yet it may be appropriate and applicable to many countries with hot climate.

  1. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. The mineral industries of the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf countries. International review

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, B.; Antonides, L.E.; Morgan, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The document contains commodity reviews (metals, mineral fuels, industrial minerals where applicable) for the following countries: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, People's Democratic Republic of Yeman, and Yeman Arab Republic.

  2. Methanex considers methanol, MTBE in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-13

    CW has learned that Methanex Corp. is considering entering one of two methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects in Qatar. Executive v.p. Michael Wilson says that part of the company`s New Zealand plant could be moved to a site in Qatar, which would lower capital costs for the possible project by $75 million-$100 million. Both Qatar General Petroleum Corp. and Qatar Fuel Additives are developing methanol and MTBE projects at Umm Said, Qatar. Methanex says its goal is to ensure low-cost feedstocks.

  3. Lunar meteorites from Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    2012-08-01

    Sixty named lunar meteorite stones representing about 24 falls have been found in Oman. In an area of 10.7 × 103 km2 in southern Oman, lunar meteorite areal densities average 1 g km-2. All lunar meteorites from Oman are breccias, although two are dominated by large igneous clasts (a mare basalt and a crystalline impact-melt breccia). Among the meteorites, the range of compositions is large: 9-32% Al2O3, 2.5-21.1% FeO, 0.3-38 ?g g-1 Sm, and <1 to 22.5 ng g-1 Ir. The proportion of nonmare lunar meteorites is higher among those from Oman than those from Antarctica or Africa. Omani lunar meteorites extend the compositional range of lunar rocks as known from the Apollo collection and from lunar meteorites from other continents. Some of the feldspathic meteorites are highly magnesian (high MgO/[MgO + FeO]) compared with most similarly feldspathic Apollo rocks. Two have greater concentrations of incompatible trace elements than all but a few Apollo samples. A few have moderately high abundances of siderophile elements from impacts of iron meteorites on the Moon. All lunar meteorites from Oman are contaminated, to various degrees, with terrestrial Na, K, P, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Sb, Ba, U, carbonates, or sulfates. The contamination is not so great, however, that it seriously compromises the scientific usefulness of the meteorites as samples from randomly distributed locations on the Moon.

  4. Hepatoblastomas in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Rabah, Fatma; El-Banna, Nagwa; Bhuyan, Dipali; Al-Ghaithi, Ibrahim; Al-Hinai, Mohamed; Al-Sabahi, Amal; Al-Mashaikhi, Nawal; Beshlawi, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Primary malignant liver tumours account for more than 1% of all paediatric malignancies, with the most common form being hepatoblastomas (HB). Such malignancies among Arab populations have rarely been addressed in the literature. Using data from Oman’s sole national referral centre for childhood solid malignancies, this study aimed to present the nationwide Omani experience with HB over the past 21 years. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of all children with HB who were managed in the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between January 1991 and April 2012. Clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics were examined as well as treatments and outcomes. Results: During the study period, 15 patients with HB were treated. Of these, 10 have survived to date. Nine of the survivors were no longer receiving treatment and one patient still had the disease but was in a stable condition. Of the remaining five patients, three did not survive and two were lost to follow-up. The survival rate among patients who completed therapy was 91%. Conclusion: HB has an excellent prognosis in Oman. The main obstacle to improving outcomes among Omani patients is non-compliance with therapy. PMID:25685391

  5. Kuwait: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that the major event in Kuwait today is the ongoing effort to control blowouts stemming from Iraqi demolition of oil wells and producing facilities last February. A total of 732 wells---about two- thirds of all wells in Kuwait---were blown up. All but 80 caught on fire.

  6. Localized hyper saline waters in Arabian Gulf from desalination activity--an example from South Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Khabbaz, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Desalination is the only means of reliable water supply in most of the Arabian Gulf States including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. Huge desalination capacities are installed on the western margin of the Arabian Gulf contributing to increased salinity off the coast. This paper presents long term salinity observation made near outfall of Az Zour Power and Desalination Plant in South Kuwait. The salinity values peak at around 50 ppt at observation station located in open gulf around 5 km from the outfall of the power and desalination plant. The observation highlights the stress on the local marine environment continued incremental salinity can impair the marine biodiversity in the area. The study suggests that a stringent post construction and operational offshore water quality assessment can help in early detection of potentially complex environmental issues. PMID:21213041

  7. Revitalizing Qatar's National University. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Although Qatar University (QU) had been well regarded in the past, its performance had deteriorated by 2003, and the country's leadership was concerned that the university was not meeting Qatar's needs. From 2003 to 2007, the university led a reform process facilitated by RAND and outside experts, which clarified QU's mission and reformed QU's…

  8. Petroleum geology of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The extremely large oil reserves in Kuwait result from the presence of all conditions necessary for hydrocarbon generation, migration, entrapment, and preservation, which can be ascribed to an exceptionally large trap volume in a simple geological setting and a late expulsion and migration from a huge area of thermally mature source rocks. The Lower and middle Cretaceous sequence of Kuwait is among the world's richest hydrocarbon habitats. The depositional history is dominated by sedimentation on a very stable broad platform characterized by quiescence as reflected by a continuous deposition in a slowly subsiding sea bottom. The reservoirs are composed of thick sandstone of the Wara, Burgan, and Zubar formations. In addition to these, Mauddud Limestone forms a good reservoir in the northern fields and, in the south, the oolitic limestone of the Lower Cretaceous in Greater Burgan, Umm Gudair, and Minagish fields contains substantial hydrocarbon deposits. The sandstone reservoirs are the world's largest over 1,500 ft (450 m) in thickness of perfect reservoir quality and composed of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sands that were deposited in a littoral or on the edge of a deltaic and coastal environment. The source rocks are mostly likely the same reservoir rocks, particularly with downdip more shaly development of widespread thermally mature organic rich facies juxataposed with a carbonate-sandstone shelf.

  9. Petroleum geology of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.

    1988-02-01

    Kuwait is located in the Arabian platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the Zagros Mountains of complex folding and faulting history, on the east. The sedimentary cover in Kuwait consists of a complete succession 25,000 ft (7,600 m) thick on top of the basement and ranges in age from Paleozoic to Holocene. The relative geologic stability and homogeneity over virtually all its depositional history resulted in an extraordinary areal continuity of reservoirs, seals, and source rocks, giving rise to the accumulation of the largest concentration of the hydrocarbon reserves in the world in giant and super-giant oil and gas fields. The structures are very large, gentle with modest closure. The seals are very efficient. Because of the wide extent of the lithologic units and only gentle tectonic deformation, large-scale horizontal migration is very efficient and the large structures have great storage capacity.

  10. Kuwait; The blowouts are history

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the capping of oil well blowouts in Kuwait. It reports on how access to the wells was gained, the well kill methods used, and future work that must be done in order to restore productivity.

  11. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential investigators who can help raise matching funds, e.g. for core description as part of petrological or structural studies or for drill site operations, are encouraged to contact the authors of this abstract.

  12. Imported malaria in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Hira, P R; Behbehani, K; Al-Kandari, S

    1985-01-01

    The number of imported malaria cases in Kuwait rose from 87 in 1980 to 504 in 1983, an increase of 579%. The continued resurgence of malaria in endemic zones, improved diagnostic techniques and a heightened awareness of imported malaria have contributed to the increase in the number of microscopically proved cases. Thick blood films fixed in acetone and stained in Giemsa proved a rapid method of diagnosis; species identification on the basis of a thin film on the same slide was performed with ease. Malaria was acquired in 38 countries. Most patients were young male adults. Most of the cases were due to Plasmodium vivax originating from India, although an increasing number of P. falciparum cases are also now being diagnosed from there. P. falciparum infections were evenly distributed throughout the year and most cases presented within 14 days of their arrival in the country. The highest number of P. vivax cases were diagnosed between May and October, when heat stress might have been a factor in precipitating a clinical attack of an infection previously acquired in the endemic zone. Attention is drawn to the importance of delayed attacks of P. vivax and, in semi-immunes, of P. falciparum. The time interval involved in establishing a history of "recent" travel in clinically suspected cases of malaria needs to be more clearly defined in each geographical area. Cases of induced malaria due to transfusion, accidental and congenital infections were identified. The fatality rate due to P. falciparum infections was low. In terms of the risk of renewed transmission, Kuwait may be considered a vulnerable area. PMID:3898482

  13. Qatar NGL-2 pipeline problems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Jundi, I.M.

    1985-03-01

    Qatar NGL/2 plant, commissioned in December, 1979, was designed to process the associated gas from the offshore crude oil fields of Qatar. The dehydrated sour lean gas and wet sour liquids are transported via two separate lines to Umm Said NGL Complex about 120 kms. from the central offshore station. The liquids line 300 mm diameter (12 inch) has suffered general and severe pitting corrosion. The lean gas line 600 mm diameter (24 inch) has suffered corrosion and extensively hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), also known as HIPC. Both lines never performed to their design parameters and many problems in the downstream facilities have been experienced. All efforts to clean the liquids lines from the solids (debris) have failed. This inturn interfered with the planned corrosion control programe, thus allowing corrosion to continue. Investigation work has been done by various specialists in an attempt to find the origin of the solids and to recommend necessary remedial actions. Should lines fall from pitting corrosion, the effect of liquids leak at a pressure of about 11000 kpa will be very dangerous especially if it occurs onshore. In order to protect the NGL-2 operations against possible risks, both interms of safety as well as losses in revenue, critically sections of the pipelines have been replaced, whilst the whole gas liquids pipelines would be replaced shortly. Supplementary documents to the API standards were prepared by QPC for the replaced pipelines.

  14. Qatar NGL-2 pipeline problems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Jundi, I.M.

    1986-11-01

    The Qatar NGL-2 plant, commissioned in December 1979, was designed to process the associated gas from the offshore crude oil fields of Qatar. The dehydrated, sour, lean gas and wet, sour liquids are transported by two separate lines to the Umm Said NGL complex about 120 km (75 miles) from the central offshore station. The 300-mm (12-in.) -diameter liquids line has suffered general pitting corrosion, and the 600-mm (24-in.) -diameter lean gas line has suffered corrosion and extensive hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC or HIPC). Neither line performed to its design parameters, and many problems in the downstream facilities have been experienced. All efforts to clean the solids (debris) from the liquids lines have failed. This in turn interfered with the planned corrosion control program, thus allowing corrosion to continue. Various specialists have investigated the lines in an attempt to find the origin of the solids and to recommend necessary remedial actions. Should the lines fail from pitting corrosion, the effect of a leak at a pressure of about 11 000 kPa (1,595 psi) will be very dangerous, especially if it occurs onshore. To protect the NGL-2 operations against possible risks - both in terms of safety and of losses in revenue - critical sections of the pipelines have been replaced, and all gas liquids pipelines will be replaced soon. Supplementary documents to the API standards were prepared for the replaced pipelines.

  15. Kuwait oil spill studied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-02-01

    More than a year after the Persian Gulf War, scientists are still trying to assess the environmental impact of the estimated 6-8 million barrels of oil that were dumped into the gulf and to understand the environmental processes that take place in such a disturbance. Many atmospheric studies were done in the months immediately following the war, but oceanographic studies have been slower in getting started.The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is currently spearheading a major oceanographic study being undertaken in the Persian Gulf by the research vessel Mt. Mitchell. The ship left its home port of Norfolk, Va., in mid-January and arrived in Muscat, Oman, on February 16 to begin a 100-day oceanographic and environmental survey. The six-leg cruise will feature physical oceanography, near-shore, and marine life studies.

  16. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  17. Qatar: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on oil and gas operations that have taken a marked upturn in Qatar highlighted by production expansion projects. The long-delayed beginning of production from offshore supergiant North gas field was scheduled to begin at press time at a rate of 600 to 750 MMcfd and 50,000 bcpd. Delays in production startup were caused by gas leaks around casing strings in 14 of the 16 producing wells and by the Gulf war. The $1.3 billion Phase I of development included two 8-well platforms and three support structures, plus gas and condensate lines to an onshore NGL facility. Initially, gas will be utilized domestically. Eventually, 300 MMcfd will be re-injected into the old Dukhan oil field.

  18. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1982-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1981 totaled 5,741,096,000 bbl, or an average rate of 15,729,030 BOPD, down 14.9% from 1980. Increases were in Oman, Dubai, and Turkey. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were made in Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Abu Dhabi.

  19. Middle East oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The following subjects are covered in this publication: (1) position of preeminence of the Middle East; (2) history of area's oil operations for Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, neutral zone, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Egypt; (3) gas operations of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq and United Arab Emirates; (4) changing relationships with producing countries; (5) a new oil pricing environment; (6) refining and other industrial activities; and (7) change and progress. 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Developing and Implementing the Qatar Student Assessment System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Broer, Markus; Mariano, Louis T.; Froemel, J. Enrique; Goldman, Charles A.; DaVanzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This research brief summarizes the development of a standards-based student assessment system in Qatar, lessons for policymakers in Qatar and elsewhere, and challenges in aligning the assessment with future changes in the curriculum standards. Analysis of Qatar's standards-based student assessment system, the first in the region, offers several…

  1. Pharmacy practice in Qatar: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Nadir; Fahey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The State of Qatar is a small oil and gas-rich Gulf country that is experiencing rapid development in health care services, including pharmaceutical services. To date, there is no autonomous professional pharmacy association or society that regulates or promotes the practice of pharmacy in Qatar, and the challenges that face the profession of pharmacy in Qatar mirror the challenges facing the profession in all other Middle Eastern countries. However, a set of initiatives and projects that include pioneering educational initiatives, close alignment of practice with the educational providers, stronger leadership from a National Health Strategy, and the development of pharmacy leadership groups at the practice level all contribute in the fast development of the practice of pharmacy in this country. In this commentary, we provide a snapshot of the pharmaceutical scene in Qatar, and in doing so, we shall discuss the challenges that face the practice, and the main landmarks and initiatives that are destined to move pharmacy forward in Qatar. PMID:23093888

  2. Oman: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that for the sixth consecutive year, Oman should retain its title as the biggest driller in the Middle East in 1991. An accelerated program in 1990 pushed production to an all-time record 700,000 bpd late in the year. Although not a member of Opec, Oman has cooperated with the group in restraining output as needed to support oil prices. Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), a partnership of the government (60%), Royal Dutch Shell (34%), Total (4%) and Partex (2%), remains by far the biggest producer. This year, PDO will begin work on its $500-million effort to boost production from its Lekhwair field from a current 24,000 bpd to 110,000 bpd by 1994. Last year, PDO also drilled 15 horizontal wells, most of which were successful in increasing per well production compared to conventional vertical holes. The horizontal program has been continued this year with two rings.

  3. Flowmetering of drainage wells in Kuwait City, Kuwait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Senay, Y.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Szekely, F.

    2000-01-01

    A heat-pulse flowmeter was used in six drainage wells in Kuwait City for flow profiling under both ambient and pumping conditions. The data collected were used in: (a) estimating the cross-flow among the screened intervals under ambient conditions; (b) estimating the relative transmissivity adjacent to the individual screen zones; and (c) determination of the hydraulic heads at the far boundaries of the large-scale aquifer zones. These inferences were cross-checked against known hydrogeology of the aquifer-aquitard system in the study area, and the calibration results of numerical flow modeling. The major conclusions derived from the flow measurements were: (a) the presence of natural downward cross-flow under ambient condition supported the hypothesis that the upper part of the Kuwait Group aquifer in the study area was divided into a series of permeable units (aquifers), separated by confining or semi-confining beds (aquitards); (b) the head differences between the different screened zones, derived through modeling of the flowmeter data of the wells, provided additional confirmation for the division of the upper part of the Kuwait Group aquifer into compartments in the study area; (c) flowmeter data indicated that the second and third aquifers were contributing most of the water to the well bores, compared with the uppermost (first) and the lowermost (fourth) aquifers; and (d) inflow to the wells during pumping was associated with discrete sub-intervals in the screened zones, controlled by local aquifer heterogeneity, and possibly clogging of screens and gravel pack.

  4. Current status of the Qatar Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parley, Neil; Collier Cameron, A.; Horne, K.; Alsubai, K. A.; QES Consortium

    2011-09-01

    The Qatar Exoplanet Survey (QES) is conducting a wide-field transit search program using a 6-camera CCD imaging system designed design to go at least 0.5 magnitudes fainter than most current wide-angle surveys such as SuperWASP and HATNet. QES uses two overlapping wide field 135mm and 200mm lenses along with four 400mm lenses mosaiced to cover the same 11x11 degree field of view. The higher angular resolution and large aperture doubles the sampling volume for low-mass stars, compared to WASP and HAT. Saturn and Neptune sized planets are more easily detected if they orbit smaller stars, therefore by extending the transit search to stars with smaller radii QES is well position to plug the gap, between SuperEarths and Hot Jupiters, left between Kepler and the current wide-angle surveys. QES detections are nonetheless still bright enough for radial-velocity follow up with 2-m and 4-m class telescopes. We present the current status of the Qatar Exoplanet Survey, along with information of the first transiting exoplanets, Qatar-1b and Qatar-2b, to be found using the instrument, which were both detected orbiting K-dwarfs stars.

  5. Teaching across Cultures: Canada and Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prowse, Jacqueline; Goddard, J. Tim

    2010-01-01

    Findings from a comparative case study conducted in Canada and Qatar are presented in this article. The study examined the cultural context of a transnational post-secondary program offered by the Faculty of Business at a Canadian college, with campuses located in both St. John's and Doha. The instructors' perceptions of their students' cultures…

  6. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ?15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  7. Oman: Economic, social and strategic developments

    SciTech Connect

    Pridham, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Oman is an important country for the West, both as an oil exporter and as a key ally strategically placed at the entrance to the Arab Gulf. This book provides an overview of recent economic, social and political developments in Oman. It begins by outlining the historical and geographical background, emphasising in particular the problems of geography and tribalism and the impact of the war against Marxist insurgents in Dhofar. It considers economic developments, both in the oil and non-oil sectors, and Oman's contribution to economic co-operation and integration in the region. It examines strategic developments, particularly Oman's relations with the United States, addressing the key question of how close an alliance between Oman and the US is likely and showing how this is influenced by internal politics in Oman. It also explores educational and cultural issues.

  8. Qatar's North field targets 1990 completion

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Marri, J.A.; Al-Bader, N.S.

    1989-05-29

    Installation of new gas-processing facilities at Umm Said and modification of an existing NGL unit form the processing core for development of Qatar's North field. The field, discovered in 1971, is probably the largest single nonassociated gas reservoir known. Phase 1 of the three-phase development processes 800 MMscfd of gas, producing 1.65 million tons/year LPG and condensates for the export market. This Phase 1 development is intended to supply Qatar's domestic gas requirements through the year 2000. The present North field development project (NFDP) is the first phase of a long-range, three-phase development plan, with equal increments of 800 MMscfd. The first phase was started in July 1987 and is due for completion at the end of 1990.

  9. Molecular basis of thalassemia in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidli, Aisha; Hamodat, Mowafak; Fawzi, Zainab; Abu-Laban, Mohamed; Gerard, Nathalie; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of information on the molecular basis of beta-thalassemia (thal) in Qatar, a country in the southern part of the Arabian Gulf. To decipher the molecular spectrum of beta- thalassemic alleles present in Qatar, we studied 31 clinically recognized patients, including three with sickle cell disease and beta-thal, and an additional six cases referred for unexplained microcytic anemia. We found 12 different beta-thalassemic alleles and two yet to be defined alleles, mutations likely occurring elsewhere than in the beta-globin gene per se. This is quite striking, given the small size of the study population, and highlights not only the ethnic diversity, but also the necessity of further investigating the thalassemic spectrum. PMID:17486492

  10. New Cultures of Critical Reflection in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiff, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We speak about the need for critical reflection on practice, but what do we do when we do it; and how do we explain how and why we should do it? This paper explores these issues, and itself acts as the site for an exploration and explanation of what it means to be critically reflective. Drawing on recent research in Qatar, I give an account of how…

  11. Epidemiological review of scorpion stings in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Alkahlout, Baha H.; Abid, Muhammad M.; Kasim, Mohammad M.; Haneef, Shumaila M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review the epidemiology of scorpion sting in Qatar, to explore both the clinical significance, and the role of the emergency department (ED) in the management of such cases. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of all scorpion sting cases presented to the ED of Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar between October 2010 and May 2013. Results: A total of 111 cases of scorpion stings were reviewed, 81 (72.9%) were males and 30 (27.1%) were females, with a mean age of 38 years. Localized pain was the most frequent presenting complaint (89 [80.2%]), whereas localized redness (44 [39.6%]) and swelling (38 [34.2%]) were the most common clinical signs. Abroug’s classification was used, and all cases were found to be class I. All patients received symptomatic treatment and were sent home. Conclusion: Scorpion sting problem in Qatar has a low clinical significance. Data from such studies should be utilized to create more specific (local) management guidelines, which should be more efficient with more rational utilization of ED resources. PMID:26108591

  12. Analysis of Kuwait Temperature Records: Test of Heat Island Existence in Kuwait City Arid Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrallah, Hasan Ali

    Very few arid land cities have been studied to determine local climate effects developing from rapid urban growth in the twentieth century. Kuwait City in the State of Kuwait is examined to determine the significance of urban growth on heating in the region. The study examines recent changes in temperature for the State of Kuwait for the period 1958-1980. During this time period, Kuwait has experienced explosive urban growth from 0.2 million to 1.7 million population. Simple parametric inferential statistics are employed to monthly temperature records from seven locations in and adjacent to Kuwait City. These tests are conducted to determine the connection between urbanization and the development of urban heating effects. The statistical tests employ a national "benchmark" desert site; a rural, agricultural benchmark site in the State of Kuwait; and stations in Bahrain, Eilat, Riyadh, Abadan, and Baghdad. The analysis illustrates that there is only a modest level of urban heating detectable in temperature records from the region of Kuwait. This finding runs counter to prevailing literature on urban climatology, which generally states that urban heating depends strongly on urban extent and population growth. Upon inspection of geographic location and surficial characteristics of Kuwait City, two hypotheses are suggested for the low order urban heating detected: (1) cooling effects of advected Arabian Gulf air across the city, and, (2) the lack of substantive spatial differences of surface albedo, thermal inertia, surface moisture, and aerosol heating. However, Kuwait's morphological (i.e., building geometry) characteristics, according to urban canyon-heat island theory, should have promoted a 7 ^circC heat island in Kuwait City. A test of this theory revealed no such heat island of that magnitude. One major reason relates to station network inadequacy to portray the extent of Kuwait City's heat island development through time. More research, including modeling and field station sampling, is required to examine the nature of this arid land city's effect on local climate.

  13. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  14. How postcapping put Kuwait`s wells back onstream

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1994-01-01

    In late february 1991, the retreating Iraqi army blew up, or otherwise caused to blowout, some 700 wells in Kuwait. Between March and November, all of the fires were extinguished and the wells were capped. Work began in July 1991 to recomplete the damaged wells with replaced or reworked tubulars and well heads so that production could be resumed. Except for some of the earlier-capped wells into which cement was pumped, thus requiring more extensive downhole work, many of the damaged wells, particularly in Burgan field, were put back into production mode by the procedure described here, which became known as postcapping. This paper describes the equipment and techniques used in postcapping damaged wellheads.

  15. First complete genomic characterization and phylogeny of a new recombinant of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) from Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, Ebtisam H M; Al-Hashash, Hanadi K; Ben-Hejji, Ahmed H; Al-Shayjji, Nabella; Al-Aqeel, Hamed A

    2015-07-01

    While whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses are economically important constraints to tomato production in Kuwait, little is known about genomic features of these viruses from Kuwait. A begomovirus isolated from severely diseased tomatoes, collected over a two-year period in the main tomato-growing areas of Kuwait, was characterized at the molecular level. The complete genomic sequence of the begomovirus was determined, and phlylogeographic studies were conducted to better understand genetic diversity of the virus in the region. Based on genome properties and phylogenetic analysis, the begomovirus was found to be a strain of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The virus genome was monopartite, as neither DNA B nor satellite DNA molecules were detected. Two isolates characterized in this study shared 97% and 95% nucleotide sequence identity with a previously characterized Kuwaiti isolate, TYLCV-KISR. Among TYLCV isolates with known genome sequences, the Kuwaiti isolates shared highest sequence identity (95%) with TYLCV-Almeria (Spain). Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis showed that the three Kuwaiti isolates formed a distinct clade that was separate from those of known TYLCV sequences. One Kuwaiti isolate (KW 1-3) could be a novel variant of TYLCV. Two recombination events were detected in the genome sequence of KW 1-3, which appeared to be a recombinant derived from TYLCV parents from Oman and Kuwait. PMID:25951968

  16. The Burden of Asthma in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Nasser; Habibulla, Zulfikar; Bhatnagar, Malvika; Al-Lawati, Nabil; Al-Mahrouqi, Yaqoub

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common lung disease worldwide, although its prevalence varies from country to country. Oman is ranked in the intermediate range based on results from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. A 2009 study revealed that the majority of asthmatic patients in Oman reported both daytime and nocturnal symptoms, while 30% of adults and 52% of children reported absences from work or school due to their symptoms. Despite these findings, there is little data available on the economic burden of asthma in Oman. The only accessible information is from a 2013 study which concluded that Oman’s highest asthma-related costs were attributable to inpatient (55%) and emergency room (25%) visits, while asthma medications contributed to less than 1% of the financial toll. These results indicate a low level of asthma control in Oman, placing a large economic burden on healthcare providers. Therefore, educating asthmatic patients and their families should be prioritised in order to improve the management and related costs of this disease within Oman. PMID:26052450

  17. Patient Safety Culture Assessment in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Kindi, Moosa; Tawilah, Jihane; Dorvlo, Atsu S.S.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the patient safety culture in Oman as gleaned via 12 indices of patient safety culture derived from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and to compare the average positive response rates in patient safety culture between Oman and the USA, Taiwan, and Lebanon. Methods This was a cross-sectional research study employed to gauge the performance of HSPSC safety indices among health workers representing five secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the northern region of Oman. The participants (n=398) represented different professional designations of hospital staff. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSPSC survey in Oman was 58%. The indices from HSPSC that were endorsed the highest included ‘organizational learning and continuous improvement’ while conversely, ‘non-punitive response to errors’ was ranked the least. There were no significant differences in average positive response rates between Oman and the United States (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666), Taiwan (58% vs. 64%; p=0.386), and Lebanon (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666). Conclusion This study provides the first empirical study on patient safety culture in Oman which is similar to those rates reported elsewhere. It highlights the specific strengths and weaknesses which may stem from the specific milieu prevailing in Oman. PMID:25170407

  18. Estimating PM 10 air concentrations from dust storms in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, Roland R.; Gillette, Dale A.; Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S.; Heller, Jack

    A model for the emission of PM 10 dust has been constructed using the concept of a threshold friction velocity which is dependent on surface roughness. Surface roughness in turn was correlated with geomorphology or soil properties for Kuwait, Iraq, part of Syria, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. The PM 10 emission algorithm was incorporated into a Lagrangian transport and dispersion model. PM 10 air concentrations were computed from August 1990 through August 1991. The model predicted about the right number of dust events over Kuwait (events occur 18% of the time). The model results agreed quantitatively with measurements at four locations in Saudi Arabia and one in Kuwait for one major dust event (>1000 ?g/m 3). However, for smaller scale dust events (200-1000 ?g/m 3), especially at the coastal sampling locations, the model substantially over-predicted the air concentrations. Part of the over-prediction was attributed to the entrainment of dust-free air by the sea breeze, a flow feature not represented by the large-scale gridded meteorological data fields used in the model computation. Another part of the over-prediction was the model's strong sensitivity to threshold friction velocity and the surface soil texture coefficient (the soil emission factor), and the difficulty in accurately representing these parameters in the model. A comparison of the model predicted PM 10 spatial pattern with the TOMS satellite aerosol index (AI) yielded a spatial pattern covering a major portion of Saudi Arabia that was quite similar to the observed AI pattern.

  19. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  20. Analysis of seismic events in and near Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B; Mayeda, K M; Rodgers, A J; Ruppert, S D

    1999-05-11

    Seismic data for events in and around Kuwait were collected and analyzed. The authors estimated event moment, focal mechanism and depth by waveform modeling. Results showed that reliable seismic source parameters for events in and near Kuwait can be estimated from a single broadband three-component seismic station. This analysis will advance understanding of earthquake hazard in Kuwait.

  1. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  2. Calibration of seismic wave propagation in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Awadhi, J; Endo, E; Fryall, F; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S; Sweeney, J

    1999-07-23

    The Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research (KISR), the USGS and LLNL are collaborating to calibrate seismic wave propagation in Kuwait and surrounding regions of the northwest Arabian Gulf using data from the Kuwait National Seismic Network (KNSN). Our goals are to develop local and regional propagation models for locating and characterizing seismic events in Kuwait and portions of the Zagros mountains close to Kuwait. The KNSN consists of 7 short-period stations and one broadband (STS-2) station. Constraints on the local velocity structure may be derived from joint inversions for hypocenters of local events and the local velocity model, receiver functions from three-component observations of teleseisms, and surface wave phase velocity estimated from differential dispersion measurements made across the network aperture. Data are being collected to calibrate travel-time curves for the principal regional phases for events in the Zagros mountains. The available event observations span the distance range from approximately 2.5 degrees to almost 9 degrees. Additional constraints on structure across the deep sediments of the Arabian Gulf will be obtained from long-period waveform modeling.

  3. Kuwait summons more fire fighting teams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-05

    Kuwait is calling in more muscle to help kill its wild wells. This paper reports on the latest action in Kuwait, the leasing of well control contracts to Abel Engineering/Well Control Inc., Houston, and China Petroleum Engineering Construction Co. (CPEC). Abel is the sixth North American well control company called to the scene, while CPEC is the first summoned from the East. In addition, the service responsible for combating well fires and blowouts in the U.S.S.R.'s Azerbaijan oil fields signed an agreement with Kuwait's government, apparently involving a contract valued at more than $100 million, to extinguish fires at 150 Kuwaiti wells, reported Eastern Bloc Energy, a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, U.K. More help likely is on the way.

  4. Kuwait pressing toward preinvasion oil production capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Tippee, B.

    1993-03-15

    Oil field reconstruction is shifting focus in Kuwait as the country races toward prewar production capacity of 2 million b/d. Oil flow last month reached 1.7 million b/d, thanks largely to a massive workover program that has accomplished about as much as it can. By midyear, most of the 19 rigs in Kuwait will be drilling rather than working over wells vandalized by retreating Iraqi troops in February 1991. Seventeen gathering centers are at work, with capacities totaling 2.4 million b/d, according to state-owned Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC). This article describes current work, the production infrastructure, facilities strategy, oil recovery, well repairs, a horizontal pilot project, the drilling program, the constant reminders of war, and heightened tensions.

  5. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Olayan, A.H.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Qatargas exporting LNG from Qatar`s new Ras Laffan Port

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    When the 135,000 cu m LNG carrier Al Zubarah departed Ras Laffan Port in December, Qatar entered a new era of commerce that will both boost the emirate`s economic development and influence energy trade around the world. The event capped more than a decade of planning, design, and construction of Ras Laffan Port--the world`s newest and largest LNG exporting facility. During the 1980s, the focus in Qatar was on exploration and development of North field, which holds the world`s largest reserves of nonassociated natural gas. In the 1990s, efforts concentrated on establishing a direct production and export link between North field, the new multi-billion-dollar Qatar Liquefied Gas Co. (Qatargas) gas liquefaction plant at Ras Laffan, and LNG export facilities at the 8.5 sq km Ras Laffan Port. Markets of the Far East will be first to be served by LNG from Ras Laffan Port. Two 25-year LNG supply contracts have been signed with buyers in Japan and South Korea, and negotiations are under way with potential customers from China, Taiwan, and Thailand. The paper describes the port, its operations, and export projects.

  7. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  8. Science Self-Beliefs and Science Achievement of Adolescents in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the predictive effects of science self-beliefs on science achievement for 24,680 13-year-old students from Gulf Cooperation Council member countries--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. The…

  9. Higher Education and Development in the Lower Gulf States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    The complex issues concerning expansion of higher education in the smaller states bordering the Persian Gulf (Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, and Oman) are examined, including who provides higher education and why, cultural vs. national identity, the role of mass education, and the difference between growth and development. (MSE)

  10. Coordinated Economic Development and the Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, D. K.

    This is a discussion of some of the problems that the Advisory Organization for Gulf Industries (AOGI) will face when it undertakes (1) to organize both an information center (node) that will serve the information needs of the Gulf States of Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman; and (2) to compile an…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials Vol. 2, No. 1, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    A total of 176 English language notations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1977, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,…

  12. Books about the Middle East for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia

    This bibliography comprises a list of 236 reviewed children's books about the Middle East. All books were published since 1970 in the United States. For the purpose of this document the countries of the Middle East number 16: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab…

  13. Population, Labour and Education Dilemmas Facing GCC States at the Turn of the Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapiszewski, Andrzej

    This study describes and analyzes certain population, labor, and education issues in oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf. The countries profiled are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (also known as the GCC [Gulf Cooperation Council] countries). Since the discovery of oil, these countries transformed themselves…

  14. Books about the Middle East for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia

    This bibliography comprises a list of 236 reviewed children's books about the Middle East. All books were published since 1970 in the United States. For the purpose of this document the countries of the Middle East number 16: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials Vol. 2, No. 1, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    A total of 176 English language notations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1977, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    One hundred fifty-four English language annotations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1976, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi…

  17. Science Self-Beliefs and Science Achievement of Adolescents in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the predictive effects of science self-beliefs on science achievement for 24,680 13-year-old students from Gulf Cooperation Council member countries--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. The…

  18. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  19. The unstable Gulf, Threats from within

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Martin offers an analysis of disputes along the borders of countries in the Persian Gulf region and a description of the religious, ethnic, and ideological tensions among the peoples. The pros and cons of various options for protecting American interests are outlined. The discussion covers Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, North and South Yemen, Oman, Soudi Arabia, U.A.E., Bahrain, and Qatar.

  20. Oil, development, and the environment in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Shuaib, H.A.

    1988-07-01

    As Kuwait transforms itself into a modern industrial economy, the nation faces a number of environmental challenges. With rapid modernization and dramatic increases in population come threats to Kuwait's desert and coastal ecosystems. In the past 15 years both government agencies and private organizations have been formed to develop environmental strategies, promote conservation, combat pollution, and improve the public's environmental awareness. The organizations described here are working to encourage regional cooperation on environmental issues and to ensure that development policies at all levels - local, regional, and international - are not only economically prudent but also environmentally sound.

  1. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman. PMID:26052449

  2. The Qatar Simulation Consortium (QSC): National Simulation Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Pyburn, Renee R; Davies, Joanne L

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and work of a nationwide Qatar Simulation Consortium. In 2013, members included the schools of medicine, nursing, and allied health in Qatar, as well as the public health care system and a private, publicly funded hospital. The mission of the consortium is to foster simulation collaboration among health care and educational institutions and advance simulation education, research, and practice to align with current global standards. PMID:26753310

  3. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Pickford, P.J.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1983 totaled 4,275,054,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,712,476 BOPD), down 3.7% from the revised total of 4,440,841,000 bbl produced in 1982. Iran, Kuwait, the Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, and Oman had significant increases. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi had significant decreases. 8 figures, 9 tables.

  4. A preliminary report on the distribution of lizards in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Castilla, Aurora M; Valdeón, Aitor; Gosá, Alberto; Al-Jaidah, Noora; Alkuwary, Ali; Saifelnasr, Essam O. H.; Mas-Peinado, Paloma; Richer, Renee; Al-Hemaidi, Ahmad Amer Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have updated the list of the lizard species present in Qatar and produced the first distribution maps based on two field surveys in 2012 and 2013. We used the QND95/Qatar National Grid with a grid of 10 × 10 km squares for mapping. Our results show the occurrence of 21 lizard species in Qatar, from the 15 species indicated in the last biodiversity report conducted in 2004. The most abundant family found in Qatar is Gekkonidae with nine species (Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum, Hemidactylus robustus, H. flaviviridis, H. persicus, Stenodactylus arabicus, S. slevini, S. doriae, Pseudoceramodactylus khobarensis), followed by Lacertidae with four species (Acanthodactylus schmidti, A. opheodurus, Mesalina brevirostris, M. adramitana), Agamidae with three species (Trapelus flavimaculatus, Uromastyx aegyptia, Phrynocephalus arabicus), Scincidae with two species (Scincus mitranus, Trachylepis septemtaeniata), and Varanidae (Varanus griseus), Sphaerodactylidae (Pristurus rupestris) and Trogonophiidae (Diplometopon zarudnyi) with one species each. The species richness fluctuated largely across Qatar between one and eleven species per grid square. We believe that the lizard fauna records in Qatar are still incomplete and that additional studies are required. However, our study here fills a gap concerning lizard biodiversity knowledge in the Gulf Region. PMID:24493961

  5. A preliminary report on the distribution of lizards in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Castilla, Aurora M; Valdeón, Aitor; Gosá, Alberto; Al-Jaidah, Noora; Alkuwary, Ali; Saifelnasr, Essam O H; Mas-Peinado, Paloma; Richer, Renee; Al-Hemaidi, Ahmad Amer Mohd

    2014-01-01

    We have updated the list of the lizard species present in Qatar and produced the first distribution maps based on two field surveys in 2012 and 2013. We used the QND95/Qatar National Grid with a grid of 10 × 10 km squares for mapping. Our results show the occurrence of 21 lizard species in Qatar, from the 15 species indicated in the last biodiversity report conducted in 2004. The most abundant family found in Qatar is Gekkonidae with nine species (Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum, Hemidactylus robustus, H. flaviviridis, H. persicus, Stenodactylus arabicus, S. slevini, S. doriae, Pseudoceramodactylus khobarensis), followed by Lacertidae with four species (Acanthodactylus schmidti, A. opheodurus, Mesalina brevirostris, M. adramitana), Agamidae with three species (Trapelus flavimaculatus, Uromastyx aegyptia, Phrynocephalus arabicus), Scincidae with two species (Scincus mitranus, Trachylepis septemtaeniata), and Varanidae (Varanus griseus), Sphaerodactylidae (Pristurus rupestris) and Trogonophiidae (Diplometopon zarudnyi) with one species each. The species richness fluctuated largely across Qatar between one and eleven species per grid square. We believe that the lizard fauna records in Qatar are still incomplete and that additional studies are required. However, our study here fills a gap concerning lizard biodiversity knowledge in the Gulf Region. PMID:24493961

  6. Uncommon opportunistic yeast bloodstream infections from Qatar.

    PubMed

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; AbdulWahab, Atqah; Kolecka, Anna; Deshmukh, Anand; Meis, Jacques F; Boekhout, Teun

    2014-07-01

    Eleven uncommon yeast species that are associated with high mortality rates irrespective of antifungal therapy were isolated from 17/187 (201 episodes) pediatric and elderly patients with fungemia from Qatar. The samples were taken over a 6-year period (January 2004-December 2010). Isolated species included Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Lindnera fabianii, Candida dubliniensis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Candida intermedia, Pichia kudriavzevii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Clavispora lusitaniae, Candida pararugosa, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry provided correct identifications compared with molecular analysis testing of the same isolates. Low minimal inhibitory concentrations were found when isavuconazole and voriconazole were used for all uncommon yeast species evaluated in this study. Resistance to antifungal drugs was low and remained restricted to a few species. PMID:24934803

  7. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD68 United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Final rule...

  8. Strategic Brain Drain: Implications for Higher Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Chapman, David W.; Ameen, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Oman will soon be producing three times more college graduates than there are jobs available in the country each year, forcing graduates to seek employment outside of Oman. Their success in securing and holding employment will be based more on training and performance than might be the case if they were working in Oman. If graduates find that the…

  9. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Hatch, G.C.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1982 totaled 4,499,464,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,162,915 BOPD), down 21.5% from 1981. Increases were in Iraq, Iran, and Oman. Significant decreases occurred in Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were reported in Oman, Syria, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

  10. Petroleum developments in Middle East countries in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries in 1979 totaled 7,779,619,000 bbl at an average rate of 21,314,024 b/d, up 0.4% from 1978. Principal increases were in Iraq, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, and Saudi Arabia. Significant new discoveries were made in Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Abu Dhabi. New areas were explored in Oman, Syria, offshore South Yemen, Dubai, and Qatar.

  11. Trace metals in marine sediments of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Anderlini, V.C.; Mohammad, O.S.; Zarba, M.A.; Fowler, S.W.; Miramand, P.

    1982-01-01

    The report presents the results of analyses for ten trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in marine surface sediments from Kuwait and discusses the effect of grain size and total organic content on the observed concentrations of these metals. (JMT)

  12. Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlKandari, Nabila

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

  13. Would Rethinking Learning Disabilities Benefit Kuwait?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazna, Maysaa; Reid, D. Kim

    2009-01-01

    Learning disabilities education in Kuwait grew from Kuwaiti's wholesale importation of the Western, medical model of disability--a model basically incompatible with Kuwaiti culture. Conflicting factors include its problematic normal/abnormal binary, its assumption that the "deficit" is located in the student and the segregation of students by…

  14. New Perspectives on Teacher Education in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharaf, Adel

    2006-01-01

    This brief paper is part of a larger research project which examined the historical background of teaching in the Kuwaiti educational system before and after the Gulf War in 1990 in order to propose a new perspective on teacher education in Kuwait, particularly with regard to religious education. The author is interested in whether others have a…

  15. Diversity in the Mideast; Kuwait and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-12-02

    This paper reports on two types of action which mark oil industry activity at opposite ends of the Arabian Peninsula. In Kuwait, the astounding achievements of firefighting teams have captured world headlines. Some 1,200 miles to the south, Yemen is establishing itself as a center for exploration and production.

  16. Cyanobacterial Soil Crust Distribution in the State of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, R. A.; Anchassi, D.; El Assad, I.; El Matbouly, M.; Fares, F.; Metcalf, J.; Makki, I.

    2009-12-01

    Despite the importance of biological soils crusts (BSCs) to ecosystem function, the distribution of BSCs in Qatar have not been documented. We sought to document terrestrial BSC coverage for the State of Qatar using a transect system to sample 91 (10 km X 10 km) blocks accounting for 80% of the landmass of the country. Smooth crusts were found to contain Microcoleus species, while hypolithic communities had unicellular cyanobacteria and filamentous Oscillatoriaceae. Biological soil crust coverage ranged from 0% to 87%, with a gradient in coverage from north to south. This gradient correlated with corresponding patterns of rainfall, soil type and topographical features. Overall country coverage is 26% comparable to value found in the Kalahari desert in southern Africa and other desert regions. The predominance of high BSC coverage areas in the northern half of Qatar may be attributed to soil composition and water availability. Qatar is characterized by shallow, natural depressions. These depressions predominate in the northern half of Qatar and may facilitate BSC development by affecting soil composition and water pooling. The southern area of the country shows little BSC coverage, which may be attributed to the predominance of sand (i.e. mobile surface substrate) which inhibits the formation of BSCs. The southwestern area of Qatar is characterized by an alluvial fan system with quartz pebbles being common. While BSC mat formation was not common in these areas, hypolithic cyanobacteria located on quartz was present. The current rate of development and development related disturbance in Qatar may threaten biological soil crusts, with larger ecosystem impacts. Disturbance of the soil surface has been shown to destroy current BSCs and inhibit the development of new BSCs. Destruction of BSC organisms is important to consider since they provide both carbon and nitrogen which support the larger plant community and reduce wind and water erosion. In addition, disturbance of the soil during construction activities may result in aerosolization of cyanobacteria and associated toxins.

  17. Qaharir Field, Oman: A textbook case

    SciTech Connect

    O`Dell, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Qaharir Field is located in the southern part of the Sultanate of Oman. Like several fields in South Oman, it produces a light oil with very little solution gas. Qaharir Field contains a large depletion reservoir and several natural water drive reservoirs. There is, therefore, a large variation in the primary recovery efficiencies. A recent petroleum engineering review of this field determined the reservoir drive mechanisms and provided a basis for further development plans. This review of Qaharir Field demonstrates the application of conventional reservoir engineering tools to gain an understanding of the reservoir in sufficient detail to select and plan the next development objectives.

  18. Qatar's School Transportation System: Supporting Safety, Efficiency, and Service Quality. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Keith; Younossi, Obaid; Al-Dafa, Maryah; Culbertson, Shelly; Mattock, Michael G.; Light, Thomas; Rohr, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In consideration of the many challenges associated with Qatar's continued growth and demographic changes, the government of Qatar is interested in updating its school transportation system (STS). This volume assesses the perspectives of parents and school administrators on Qatar's STS, identifies a vision and goals for the STS, reviews…

  19. 76 FR 38614 - Transportation Infrastructure/Multimodal Products and Services Trade Mission to Doha, Qatar, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... medium-sized businesses. Qatar is one of the richest countries per capita in the world, with GDP per capita valued at $90,000. In 2010, total GDP was valued at $128 billion. The IMF predicts that Qatar will... transportation infrastructure also benefits significantly with respect to Qatar's current domestic...

  20. 76 FR 32953 - Transportation Infrastructure/Multimodal Products and Services Trade Mission to Doha, Qatar, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... medium-sized businesses. Qatar is one of the richest countries per capita in the world, with GDP per capita valued at $90,000. In 2010, total GDP was valued at $128 billion. The IMF predicts that Qatar will... transportation infrastructure also benefits significantly with respect to Qatar's current domestic...

  1. Qatar's School Transportation System: Supporting Safety, Efficiency, and Service Quality. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Keith; Younossi, Obaid; Al-Dafa, Maryah; Culbertson, Shelly; Mattock, Michael G.; Light, Thomas; Rohr, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In consideration of the many challenges associated with Qatar's continued growth and demographic changes, the government of Qatar is interested in updating its school transportation system (STS). This volume assesses the perspectives of parents and school administrators on Qatar's STS, identifies a vision and goals for the STS, reviews…

  2. Successful operation of a large LPG plant. [Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Shtayieh, S.; Durr, C.A.; McMillan, J.C.; Collins, C.

    1982-03-01

    The LPG plant located at Mina-Al Ahmadi, Kuwait, is the heart of Kuwait Oil Co.'s massive Gas Project to use the associated gas from Kuwait's oil production. Operation of this three-train plant has been very successful. A description is given of the three process trains consisting of four basic units: extraction, fractionation, product treating, and refrigeration. Initial problems relating to extraction, fractionation, product treating and, refrigeration are discussed. 1 ref.

  3. New Kuwait company spearheads ambitious energy-industry plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-21

    The Kuwaiti Government organized the Kuwait Petroleum Corp. (KPC) in early 1980. KPC, capitalized at the equivalent of $3.7 billion, consists primarily of the Kuwait Oil Co., Kuwait National Petroleum Co., Kuwait Oil Tankers Co., and the Petrochemical Industries Co., which all retain their identity. KPC will be involved in exploration, production, drilling, refining, marketing, transportation, planning, and petrochemicals. Kuwait has built a $1 billion LPG plant at Mina Al-Ahmadi which came on stream in Feb. 1979; the facility has three identical trains with a total gas capacity of 1.68 billion std cu ft/day and a total gas liquids capacity of 197,530 bbl/day, consisting of 101,310 bbl/day of propane, 54,970 bbl/day of butane, and 41,250 bbl/day of natural gasoline. In 1979, Kuwait produced 2,297,508 bbl/day of oil, but on 4/1/80, Kuwait restricted oil production to 1.5 million bbl/day, which will reduce the associated gas and limit the LPG plant to functioning at about half capacity. Kuwait uses approx. 90% of the associated gas it produces. The country is planning to refine at least 50% of its crude output by 1985. New or expanded plants will provide oil refining, sulfur recovery, lubricant oil blending, gasoline manufacturing, and bitumen capacities. Kuwait is also expending its tanker fleet.

  4. Oman-India pipeline route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mullee, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    Paper describes the geological setting in the Arabian Sea for a proposed 28-inch gas pipeline from Oman to India reaching 3,500-m water depths. Covers planning, execution, quality control and results of geophysical, geotechnical and oceanographic surveys. Outlines theory and application of pipeline stress analysis on board survey vessel for feasibility assessment, and specifies equipment used.

  5. Ecological disaster in Kuwait; A burning question

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Six million barrels of oil are going up in smoke each day in Kuwait, dumping 3.7 million pounds of toxic gases, soot, and smoke - including cancer-causing compounds - into the air each hour. This paper reports that the prognosis for the situation is dim. Even as specialized firefighting companies from the United States and Canada began arriving in Kuwait in March, oil officials there predicted dousing the fires would take at least two years and pumping up oil production to pre-war levels would take between five and 10 years. An oil well fire is a disaster. The effect on the ozone, the ecology, the marine life is massive. We aren't even breathing air here, we're just breathing smog.

  6. Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kuwait soil.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Akbar, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    Environmentally ubiquitous bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa evolved mechanisms to adapt and prevail under diverse conditions. In the current investigation, strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrating high rates of crude oil utilization and tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals were found in both crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in Kuwait, and were dominant in the contaminated sites. The incidence of P. aeruginosa in tested soils implies the definitive pattern of crude oil contamination in the selection of the bacterial population in petroleum-contaminated sites in Kuwait. Surprisingly, the unculturable P. aeruginosa in different soil samples showed significant high similarity coefficients based on 16S-RFLP analyses, implying that the unculturable fraction of existing bacterial population in environmental samples is more stable and, hence, reliable for phylogenetic studies compared to the culturable bacteria. PMID:25014900

  7. Case histories of temperature surveys in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.S.

    1981-12-01

    Most crude produced in Kuwait is from naturally flowing wells. Casing, tubing, and cement in these wells remain unchanged after completion. This study discusses the major application of temperature surveys in indicating fluid movement both inside and behind the production string, hence locating any holes in the casing. Some significant cases of temperature anomalies are examined qualitatively, and suggestions are made for a more quantitative interpretation of temperature profiles. 9 refs.

  8. Comments on current environmental events in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordagui, Hosny

    1991-07-01

    This article describes and assesses the impact of oil spillage and oil well fires on Kuwait and its surroundings. The marine ecology of the Arabian Gulf is shown to be relatively resistant to damage from oil spillage. The risks of the contamination of thermal desalination plants by oil and oil products are assessed, and remedies are suggested. Air pollution from burning oil wells is described and its consequences are predicted.

  9. The Pattern of Female Nuptiality in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul; Dorvlo, Atsu S.; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine Omani patterns of female nuptiality, including the timing of marriage and determinants of age at a woman’s first marriage. Methods: The study utilised data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods, including logistic regression analysis, were used for data analysis. Results: One of the most important aspects of the marriage pattern in Oman is the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, as more than half (52%) of the total marriages in Oman are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. About 11% of the marriages are polygynous. Early and universal marriage is still highly prevalent in Oman. Three-quarters (75%) of married women respondents aged 20–44 years were married by age 20, with their median age at their first wedding being 16 years. However, women’s average age upon marriage is gradually increasing. The change is especially apparent in more recent marriages or among younger cohorts of women, and for certain socio-cultural groups. Multivariate analysis identified female education, age cohort, residential status, region of residence, types of marriage, and employment as strong predictors of Omani women’s age at marriage. Conclusion: The growing number of young adults, accompanied by their tendency to delay marriage, may have serious demographic, social, economic, and political ramifications for Oman, highlighting the need to understand the new situation of youth, their unique characteristics, and their interests and demands. Culturally appropriate policies need to be implemented to address the issues and challenges of unmarried young adults. PMID:23573380

  10. School Oral Health Program in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Jitendra; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Nazar, Huda

    2014-01-01

    The School Oral Health Program (SOHP), Kuwait, is a joint venture between the Ministry of Health, Kuwait, and Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, Mass., USA. This program provides oral health education, prevention and treatment to almost 280,000 public school children in Kuwait. Services are delivered through a system of center- and school-based clinics and preventive mobile teams. One of the recent developments is the effective use of portable dental units for the delivery of preventive care to children in schools without the need for children to go to dental clinics. Preventive procedures performed under this program are the biannual application of fluoride varnish and the placement of pit and fissure sealants on newly erupted permanent molars and premolars. During recent years, the SOHP has improved its coverage of children, with prevention up to 80%. This has resulted in a considerable reduction in treatment needs, which is evident from the reduced number of composite restorations performed under this program during the last 6 years. This indicates that the disease level is on a decline, which can be confirmed from the results of the ongoing National Oral Health Survey on Kuwaiti school children. PMID:24335161

  11. NCAR to archive Kuwait oil fire data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-02-01

    In early 1991, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) initiated a large-scale, international effort to assess the atmospheric effects of pollution introduced by the burning of more than 500 oil wells in Kuwait. This effort resulted in a myriad of measurements from aircraft, satellite, and surface stations. In coordinating these programs, WMO assumed responsibility for integrating and disseminating these measurements to international research organizations in a systematic and timely fashion. As a first step in addressing this responsibility, a workshop was convened at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) July 22-24. It was decided there that NCAR would serve as the central archival site for the Kuwait oil fire data.Since that time, the NCAR Research Aviation Facility has hired new staff and begun development of the Kuwait Data Archive (KuDA). Examples of data resident in KuDA include various measurements from the NCAR Electra sensors, satellite imagery from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, lidar data, and the National Meteorological Center model output. Other aircraft data sets and surface measurements are still undergoing processing and quality control before being submitted to the archive.

  12. Oil slicks off the coast of Qatar, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A detailed view the port facility of Musay'id on the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf (25.0N, 52.5E). Part of a large oil spill seen as a dark toned mass in the water, covering much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf, has moved offshore in this scene. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment commonly occur in oil tanker operations.

  13. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  14. The Incidence of Dyslexia among Young Offenders in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Malki, Mohammad Al

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait. A total of 91 children/young adults from 8 juvenile delinquent welfare centres across Kuwait were interviewed and tested. A measure of non-verbal reasoning ability was used to exclude those with low general ability. The remaining 53 participants were tested on their…

  15. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to the.... Commercial Service Cairo, Egypt U.S. Commercial Service Washington, DC Dennis Simmons, Deputy...

  16. Potential Zoonotic Trematodes Recovered in Stray Cats from Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    El-Azazy, Osama Mohamed ElShfei; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud Mohamed Ibrahim; Khalil, Amal Iskander; Al-Batel, Maha Khaled; Majeed, Qais Abdulrazak Habeeb; Henedi, Adawia Abdul-Ruhman; Tahrani, Laila Mohamed Azad

    2015-01-01

    Stray cats are a common feature roaming the streets and alleys of Kuwait; they could be a source of parasites, including trematodes, that affect humans. A survey was conducted to identify feline trematodes and throw the light on their public health significance in Kuwait. Out of 240 stray cats trapped from different localities of Kuwait from June 2011 to May 2012, 59 (24.6%) were found to be infected with 14 species of trematodes. The most common were trematodes of the genus Heterophyes, particularly H. heterophyes and H. dispar that were found in respectively 15.8% and 10.8% of the cats examined. Other trematodes recorded, with lower prevalences, were Heterophyes nocens (2.9%), Haplorchis taichui (3.8%), Stictodora sawakinensis (2.1%), Stellantchasmus falcatus (1.6%), Echinochasmus japonicus (1.6%), and Mesostephanus dottrensi (1.3%). Centrocestus cuspidatus, Galactosomum fregatae, Ascocotyle sp., Mesostephanus appendiculatus, Haplorchis yokogawai, and Pygidiopsis genata showed the lowest prevalence (0.4%) and intensity. The majority of the trematodes are recorded for the first time in Kuwait and even in the Gulf region. The study reveals that stray cats are good indicators of fish-borne trematodes in the environment. As all trematodes recovered are zoonotic, their significance to public health should be considred. PMID:26174821

  17. Potential Zoonotic Trematodes Recovered in Stray Cats from Kuwait Municipality, Kuwait.

    PubMed

    El-Azazy, Osama Mohamed ElShfei; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud Mohamed Ibrahim; Khalil, Amal Iskander; Al-Batel, Maha Khaled; Majeed, Qais Abdulrazak Habeeb; Henedi, Adawia Abdul-Ruhman; Tahrani, Laila Mohamed Azad

    2015-06-01

    Stray cats are a common feature roaming the streets and alleys of Kuwait; they could be a source of parasites, including trematodes, that affect humans. A survey was conducted to identify feline trematodes and throw the light on their public health significance in Kuwait. Out of 240 stray cats trapped from different localities of Kuwait from June 2011 to May 2012, 59 (24.6%) were found to be infected with 14 species of trematodes. The most common were trematodes of the genus Heterophyes, particularly H. heterophyes and H. dispar that were found in respectively 15.8% and 10.8% of the cats examined. Other trematodes recorded, with lower prevalences, were Heterophyes nocens (2.9%), Haplorchis taichui (3.8%), Stictodora sawakinensis (2.1%), Stellantchasmus falcatus (1.6%), Echinochasmus japonicus (1.6%), and Mesostephanus dottrensi (1.3%). Centrocestus cuspidatus, Galactosomum fregatae, Ascocotyle sp., Mesostephanus appendiculatus, Haplorchis yokogawai, and Pygidiopsis genata showed the lowest prevalence (0.4%) and intensity. The majority of the trematodes are recorded for the first time in Kuwait and even in the Gulf region. The study reveals that stray cats are good indicators of fish-borne trematodes in the environment. As all trematodes recovered are zoonotic, their significance to public health should be considred. PMID:26174821

  18. A Perspective on Student Learning Outcome Assessment at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Shaikha Jabor; Abdelmoneim, Ali; Daoud, Khaled; Cherif, Adel; Moukarzel, Dalal

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a unique perspective on the student learning outcome assessment process as adopted and implemented at Qatar University from 2006 to 2012. The progress of the student learning outcome assessment and continuous improvement efforts at the university and the initiatives taken to establish a culture of assessment and evidence-based…

  19. Redesigning Qatar's Post-Secondary Scholarship System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    At the request of Qatar's Supreme Education Council (SEC), RAND researchers devised a new set of scholarship programs for college-bound Qatari students and proposed the formation of an institute to manage the programs and oversee other post-secondary functions. The suggested system balanced support for local institutions of higher learning with…

  20. Teacher Retention Problem in Girls Primary Schools in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al. Sabbagh, Samah; Al. Megbali, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Qatar has recently faced a tremendous reform in education that requires changes in many domains and causes a lot of challenges. A very serious challenge is teachers' retention where many teachers tend to leave their schools looking for new jobs. In independent schools as well as governmental schools, teachers switch jobs and therefore schools…

  1. Impact of noncommunicable diseases in the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kaabi, Salma Khalaf; Atherton, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study, commissioned by the Supreme Council of Health in the State of Qatar, focuses on the main noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) globally and regionally, in order to gauge their potential impact on Qatar. The research shows that the Gulf Cooperation Council is projected to be affected dramatically by NCDs in the coming years. The top five NCDs that will affect Qatar in terms of economic burden and disability-adjusted life years are cardiovascular diseases, mental health and behavioral disorders, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Whilst these diseases have diverse effects on patients, their causes can be traced to “… common lifestyle-related, or behavioral, risk factors such as tobacco use, a diet heavy in fat, and physical inactivity”. The total direct and indirect costs to the Gulf Cooperation Council calculated for the above five NCDs were $36.2 billion in 2013, which equates to 150% of the officially recorded annual health care expenditure. If this trajectory is maintained, spending per head of population in Qatar will reach $2,778 by 2022. These figures demonstrate not only the potential financial impact of the main NCDs, but also give an idea of how the current health system is working to address them. PMID:26170702

  2. A Perspective on Student Learning Outcome Assessment at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Shaikha Jabor; Abdelmoneim, Ali; Daoud, Khaled; Cherif, Adel; Moukarzel, Dalal

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a unique perspective on the student learning outcome assessment process as adopted and implemented at Qatar University from 2006 to 2012. The progress of the student learning outcome assessment and continuous improvement efforts at the university and the initiatives taken to establish a culture of assessment and evidence-based…

  3. Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Qatar: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Alaa; Arora, Paul; Sadoun, Eman; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Thani, Mohamed H. Al

    2012-01-01

    Qatar has a high burden of chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Low serum vitamin D levels have been implicated in the development and progression of a range of these chronic conditions. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the general population of Qatar has still not been investigated. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of published studies documenting the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the Qatari population. A search strategy was developed for online databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Embase Classic) between 1980 to the last week of August 2012, and bibliographies of the included studies were further searched for additional reports. Search terms used were QATAR and VITAMIN D. Studies reporting the serum levels of vitamin D in several Qatari sub-populations were identified. Weighted-average vitamin D serum levels and prevalence of low vitamin D status (<75 nmol/L) were calculated. Subgroup analysis was carried out by age. The quality of each study was evaluated according to four criteria: national representativeness, representation of males and females, the sample size, and the sampling protocol. A total of 16 relevant publications were identified, and 8 of these (reporting from 7 unique studies) met our inclusion and exclusion criteria with a total number of 1,699 Qatari subjects. The pooled sample size weighted-average vitamin D concentration (±SD) was 45.3±14.3 nmol/L (95% CI: 44.6-46.0; range 29.2-66.9 nmol/L). The weighted-average prevalence of low vitamin D status was 90.4% (95% CI: 90.1-91.0; range 83%-91%). Age was inversely correlated with vitamin D levels and directly with its insufficiency/deficiency prevalence. There have only been a few studies on the prevalence of low vitamin D in Qatar a very high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in Qatar that increases with age has been suggested. The present report underlines the need to develop a nationally representative study to further evaluate vitamin D status in Qatar. Given the growing evidence of the role of vitamin D in chronic disease, this study could help develop public health strategies for disease prevention in Qatar. PMID:25170469

  4. Qatar-1: indications for possible transit timing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Essen, C.; Schröter, S.; Agol, E.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2013-07-01

    Aims: Variations in the timing of transiting exoplanets provide a powerful tool for detecting additional planets in the system. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss the plausibility of transit timing variations (TTVs) on the Qatar-1 system by means of primary transit light curves analysis. Furthermore, we provide an interpretation of the timing variation. Methods: We observed Qatar-1 between March 2011 and October 2012 using the 1.2 m OLT telescope in Germany and the 0.6 m PTST telescope in Spain. We present 26 primary transits of the hot Jupiter Qatar-1b. In total, our light curves cover a baseline of 18 months. Results: We report on indications for possible long-term TTVs. Assuming that these TTVs are true, we present two different scenarios that could explain them. Our reported ~190 days TTV signal can be reproduced by either a weak perturber in resonance with Qatar-1b, or by a massive body in the brown dwarf regime. More observations and radial velocity monitoring are required to better constrain the perturber's characteristics. We also refine the ephemeris of Qatar-1b, which we find to be T0 = 2456157.42204 ± 0.0001 BJDTDB and P = 1.4200246 ± 0.0000007 days, and improve the system orbital parameters. Tables of the transit observations are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A92

  5. Hydrographic Variability off the Coast of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbassi, L.; Dimarco, S. F.; Jochens, A. E.; Al Gheilani, H.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Data from hydrographic transects made in 2001 and 2002 and between 2007 and 2009 were obtained from the Oman Ministry of Fisheries Wealth. Property-depth plots of temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen were produced for all transects and in all months for which data were available. These were analyzed for temporal and spatial variability. For all transects, there exist large variability on various timescales, with strong spatial variability. Two common features that are seen in the hydrographic data sets are the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and a layer of continuous low oxygen concentrations in the lower part of the water column. Plots of salinity produced for transects located in the northern part of the Gulf of Oman show a one-unit increase in salinity of the water at the bottom of deepest station during the months of August and September as compared to the other months. Similarly, cross-shelf contour plots of temperature shows an increase in water temperature near the bottom station during the months of August and September. These indicate the presence of the PGW outflow in the northern part of the Gulf of Oman. For dissolved oxygen distributions, hydrographic transects that did not extend far offshore show monthly differences in the presence of water with low oxygen concentrations. For transects that do extend far offshore and also show a layer of low oxygen water throughout the year, there is generally a monthly difference on whether this water is found close to the surface or deeper in the water column. The variability seen in the data could only be explained by comparing these data to data collected from the real time cable ocean observing system installed by Lighthouse R &D Enterprise in the Oman Sea and the Arabian Sea in 2005. The analysis of these data reveal that the variability observed is related to processes such as ocean conditions, monsoonal cycle, and extreme weather events.

  6. Seismicity and Improved Velocity Structure in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Gok, R M; Rodgers, A J; Al-Enezi, A

    2006-01-26

    The Kuwait National Seismic Network (KNSN) began operation in 1997 and consists of nine three-component stations (eight short-period and one broadband) and is operated by the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Although the region is largely believed to be aseismic, considerable local seismicity is recorded by KNSN. Seismic events in Kuwait are clustered in two main groups, one in the south and another in the north. The KNSN station distribution is able to capture the southern cluster within the footprint of the network but the northern cluster is poorly covered. Events tend to occur at depths ranging from the free surface to about 20 km. Events in the northern cluster tend to be deeper than those in south, however this might be an artifact of the station coverage. We analyzed KNSN recordings of nearly 200 local events to improve understanding of seismic events and crustal structure in Kuwait, performing several analyses with increasing complexity. First, we obtained an optimized one-dimensional (1D) velocity model for the entire region using the reported KNSN arrival times and routine locations. The resulting model is consistent with a recently obtained model from the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities. Crustal structure is capped by the thick ({approx} 7 km) sedimentary rocks of the Arabian Platform underlain by normal velocities for stable continental crust. Our new model has a crustal thickness of 44 km, constrained by an independent study of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities by Pasyanos et al (2006). Locations and depths of events after relocation with the new model are broadly consistent with those reported by KISR, although a few events move more than a few kilometers. We then used a double-difference tomography technique (tomoDD) to jointly locate the events and estimate three-dimensional (3D) velocity structure. TomoDD is based on hypoDD relocation algorithm and it makes use of both absolute and relative arrival times. We obtained {approx}1500 absolute P and S arrival times and {approx}3200 P and S wave arrival time differences. Event locations do not change greatly when 3D velocity structure is included. Three-dimensional velocity structure, where resolvable, does not differ greatly from our optimized 1D model, indicating that the improved 1D model is adequate for routine event location. Finally, we calculated moment magnitudes, MW, for nearly 155 events using the coda magnitude technique of Mayeda et al., (2003). The fact that most of the relocated events occur below the known sedimentary structures extending to 7 km suggests that they are tectonic in origin. Shallow events within the sedimentary crust in the (southern) Minagish region may be related to oil field activities, although the current study cannot unambiguously determine the source of current seismicity in Kuwait. The improved velocity model reduces the scatter of travel time residuals relative to the locations reported in the KNSN bulletin and may be used for ground motion prediction and hazard estimate studies in Kuwait.

  7. The Oman Ophiolite from Detachment to Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    An overview model is presented accounting for older and up-dated published data. Detachment of the Oman ophiolite exhumed a 20 km thick fragment of oceanic lithosphere 500 x 100 km2 in extension. This detachment occurred at margin of a fast spreading NeoTethyan Ocean, at P/T conditions ~900°C-200 MPa, 95-95.5 Ma ago. The Hawasinah nappes underlying the ophiolite at present, represent the stacking of the sedimentary cover deposited on the Arabian continental margin, thinned and rifted since Permian time, and extending more than 300 km north from the present shore. The sedimentary record points to the collapse of the continental basement at Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, 140 Ma ago. Subduction of the rifted continental margin is inferred, as recorded in the Saih Hatat high-pressure rocks whose metamorphic age 80-140 Ma is discussed, as well as the vergence of related subduction. Late Cretaceous time 85-70 Ma marks the emplacement of the Oman ophiolite in the Muti Basin, to its present position inland the Permo-Triassic continental margin. These episodes are not similarly recorded in the northern part of the Oman Mountains, that do not expose any HP metamorphic belt, but granulitic crustal rocks and large development of syn-obduction non-MORB magmatism in the ophiolite crustal section. Collision is achieved at the northern tip, the Musandam area, linked to the opening of the Gulf of Aden 25 Ma ago, and northward drift of the Arabian Plate.

  8. An option pricing theory explanation of the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Muhtaseb, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to explain the invasion of Kuwait by making an analogy between a call option and the Iraq-Kuwait situation before the invasion on August 2, 1990. A number of factors contributed to the issuance of a deep-in-the money European call option to Iraq against Kuwait. The underlying asset is the crude oil reserves under Kuwait. Price of crude oil is determined in world spot markets. The exercise price is equal to the cost of permanently annexing and retaining Kuwait. The volatility is measured by the annualized variance of the weekly rate of return of the spot price of crude oil. Time-to-expiration is equal to the time period between decision date and actual invasion date. Finally, since crude oil prices are quoted in U.S. dollars, the U.S. Treasury bill rate is assumed to be the risk-free rate. In a base-case scenario, Kuwait`s oil reserves amount to 94,500 million barrels valued at $18 a barrell in early February 1990 resulting in a market value of $1,701 billion. Because the cost of the war to Iraq is not known, we assume it is comparable to that of the U.S.-led coalition of $51.0 billion. Time-to-expiration is six months. The treasury bill rate in early 1990 was around 7.5 percent. Annualized standard deviation of weekly rates of return is 0.216. The value of Kuwait`s invasion option is $1,642.25 billion. Depending on the scenario, the value of this special option ranged between $1,450 billion and $3.624 billion. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Leadership for Sustainability Perceptions in Higher Education Institutions in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Sadiq; Albarwani, Thuwayba

    2015-01-01

    This study explores leadership in higher education institutions in Oman where education for sustainability issues are a high priority. The Vice-chancellor of the premier university Sultan Qaboos University, Qaboos Sultanate of Oman, and his four senior management team members answer the following question: What are the concrete steps which have…

  10. Additions to the rust fungi (Pucciniales) from northern Oman

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first compilation of the rust fungi occurring in the Sultanate of Oman is presented based on historical records and numerous recent collections, primarily from agricultural hosts. The study compiles data for 16 species of Pucciniales in northern Oman, along with voucher and sequence data and pre...

  11. Leadership for Sustainability Perceptions in Higher Education Institutions in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Sadiq; Albarwani, Thuwayba

    2015-01-01

    This study explores leadership in higher education institutions in Oman where education for sustainability issues are a high priority. The Vice-chancellor of the premier university Sultan Qaboos University, Qaboos Sultanate of Oman, and his four senior management team members answer the following question: What are the concrete steps which have…

  12. Consanguinity and spousal concordance in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    al-Kandari, Y; Crews, D E; Poirier, F E

    2002-12-01

    Consanguineous marriage is favored in Kuwait. This research focuses on the relationship of physical and cultural traits to marriage types in Kuwait and examines concordance as a function of consanguinity and marriage duration. In a nonrandom opportunistic sample of 242 couples anthropometric and blood pressure data have been collected as well as data on acculturation, religiosity, Farsi proficiency, level of education, occupation, and attitudes regarding fertility. Significant concordances occur in cultural characteristics among couples in all three types of marriages with respect to the degree of religiosity, acculturation, language similarity, education, and occupation. Non-consanguineous spouses have the highest concordance in educational level, occupation, and degree of acculturation, but the lowest for religiosity and Farsi proficiency. Nonkin marriages seem to be based on personal preferences. In the wider potential nonkin marriage pool spouses show more concordance in stature and education indicating the positive assortative mating for those traits. Non-consanguineous spouses show a significant association for triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses hip and waist circumferences, and body fat distribution. Unrelated spouses exhibit more concordance for physical traits than do related spouses. There is a significant correlation between spouses in first and double cousin marriages as well as in spouses in second and less than second cousin unions for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while non-consanguineous spouses show a significant association in diastolic blood pressure only. PMID:12674831

  13. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  14. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  15. Sizzling Qatar boom sparked by foreign money, technology, and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1998-04-27

    International oil companies have collected advanced upstream and downstream technology and focused it on the small Persian Gulf emirate of Qatar, a roughly 110 mile long by 50 mile wide, thumb-like peninsula that juts out from Saudi Arabia. The emirate, in a burst of enlightened self interest, has opened its doors to international companies and is now riding a wave of foreign investment and new technology to major increases in oil, natural gas, and petrochemical production. The largest natural gas reserve in the world is under Qatari waters and is the driver for the activity that includes two LNG plants. Qatar has proven that you don`t need crude oil in the Persian Gulf to be important. Activities are discussed.

  16. Qatar chooses Snam to market LNG in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    This paper reports that Qatar has chosen Italy's Snam SpA as its European partner to sell liquefied natural gas to Europe from a $4.8 billion joint venture project involving supergiant North offshore gas field. State owned Qatar General petroleum Corp. (QGPC) and Snam signed an agreement in Doha to create a joint company owned 65% by QGPC and the remainder by Snam. Italy's state electricity monopoly, ENEL, which is seeking Qatari gas a fuel for its power plants, may later acquire part of Snam's interest in the project. The joint venture will transport and market North LNG to Europe. Exports to Europe by Snam via Italy, to begin in 1997, are expected to be 283 bcf/year at first and may climb to 459 bcf/year, depending upon demand.

  17. Arranging marriage; negotiating risk: genetics and society in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Kilshaw, Susie; Al Raisi, Tasneem; Alshaban, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers how the globalized discourse of genetic risk in cousin marriage is shaped, informed and taken up in local moral worlds within the context of Qatar. This paper investigates the way Qataris are negotiating the discourse on genetics and risk. It is based on data from ongoing ethnographic research in Qatar and contributes to anthropological knowledge about this understudied country. Participants were ambivalent about genetic risks and often pointed to other theories of causation in relation to illness and disability. The discourse on genetic risk associated with marrying in the family was familiar, but for some participants the benefits of close marriage outweighed potential risks. Furthermore, the introduction of mandatory pre-marital screening gave participants confidence that risks were monitored and minimized. PMID:25609185

  18. Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 ?m should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

  19. Parameterization of turbulence characteristics of Atmospheric surface layer in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Arindam; Sadr, Reza

    2011-11-01

    Turbulent characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer are of utmost importance in modeling the large-scale meteorological processes, diffusion of atmospheric contaminants, heat transfer and evaporation from the earth surface. Available data are for some areas on the globe and are really sparse in tropical regions, except a few recent studies in Asia. There had been some recent studies in tropical weather in southwestern Asia but no study is carried out in Persian Gulf region. An atmospheric measurement station has been designed and installed in a site in the coastal region of Doha, Qatar, to characterize the nature of atmosphere surface layer (ASL) and ocean wave characteristics in this field. The aim of the present study is to report the micrometeorological data collected from this site. The normalized variation of the turbulent velocity components and temperature were studied using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST). This study also attempts to verify the validity of MOST in the context of the data collected for a marine ASL in Qatar, and compares the modeling parameters with other investigations around the world. This is the first ever study of ASL in this area, and is expected to be a foundation of further atmospheric research endeavors in Qatar.

  20. Fracture control for the Oman India Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, T.V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the evaluation of the resistance to fracture initiation and propagation for the high-strength, heavy-wall pipe required for the Oman India Pipeline (OIP). It discusses the unique aspects of this pipeline and their influence on fracture control, reviews conventional fracture control design methods, their limitations with regard to the pipe in question, the extent to which they can be utilized for this project, and other approaches being explored. Test pipe of the size and grade required for the OIP show fracture toughness well in excess of the minimum requirements.

  1. Mapping the Oman Ophiolite using TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ophiolite terrains, considered to be the onland occurrences of oceanic crust, host a number of types of mineral deposits: volcanogenic massive sulfides, podiform chromite, and asbestos. Thematic Mapper data for the Semail Ophiolite in Oman were used to separate and map ultramafic lithologies hosting these deposits, including identification of the components of the extrusive volcanic sequence, mapping of serpentinization due to various tectonic processes, and direct identification of gossans. Thematic Mapper data were found to be extremely effective for mapping in this terrain due to the excellent spatial resolution and the presence of spectral bands which allow separation of the pertinent mineralogically caused spectral features associated with the rock types of interest.

  2. Physical properties of soils contaminated by oil lakes, Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, A.S.; Wahba, S.A.; Al-Khatieb, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    In preparation for a marine assault by the coalition forces, the Iraqi Army heavily mined Kuwait`s coastal zone and the oil fields. Over a million mines were placed on the Kuwait soil. Burning of 732 oil wells in the State of Kuwait due to the Iraqi invasion caused damages which had direct and indirect effect on environment. A total of 20-22 million barrels of spilled crude oil were collected in natural desert depressions and drainage network which formed more than 300 oil lakes. The total area covered with oil reached 49 km{sup 2}. More than 375 trenches revealed the existence of hard, massive caliche (CaCO{sub 3}) subsoil which prevent leached oil from reaching deeper horizons, and limited the maximum depth of penetration to 1.75 m. Total volume of soil contaminated reached 22,652,500 m{sup 3} is still causing environmental problems and needs an urgent cleaning and rehabilitation. Kuwait Oil Company has recovered approximately 21 million barrels from the oil lakes since the liberation of Kuwait. In our examined representative soil profiles the oil penetration was not deeper than 45 cm. Infiltration rate, soil permeability, grain size distribution, aggregates formation and water holding capacity were assessed. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. The Kuwait oil fires as seen by Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A mosaic of two Landsat thematic mapper images acquired May 30, 1991, reveals a dark smoke plume 30-60 km wide extending hundreds of kilometers south of Kuwait City along the Persian Gulf. Smoke coming from the Raudhatain and Sabriyah oil fields blew across the Gulf of Kuwait and over Kuwait City, joined with smoke from the Greater Burgan and Minagish fields, and continued southward over smaller villages and regions of desert agriculture consisting of hundreds of axially irrigated fields in both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. One agricultural region in Kuwait was completely obscured by the smoke. The light colored limestone gravel and sand surface was darkened by oil lakes near the wells, and by oil drizzling out of the plume downwind of the wells. Most fires produced either a light or dark plume, and the separate plumes mixed to form a combined plume much darker than the land surface, but slightly more reflective than the Gulf waters. A few of the hottest fires had no visible plume, and are presumably associated with methane combustion. The last of the Kuwait fires was reportedly extinguished in November of 1991. Continued monitoring is needed to assess the impact of emissions from both burning and nonburning oil wells on the region's climate, as well as on the agriculture, fishing, and other activities essential to life in the region.

  4. Measuring Secondhand Smoke in Muscat, Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A.; Al-Thuhli, Yusuf; Qureshi, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to measure exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and assess venue compliance with the municipal Law against smoking indoors in public places in Muscat, Oman. Methods: Following the selection of 30 public indoor venues within the Muscat governorate, the concentration of suspended SHS particulate matter (PM2.5) in the venues’ indoor air was measured throughout July and August 2010. Results: Almost all of the venues were found to be compliant with the smoke-free municipal, with the exception of a café that served waterpipes for smoking indoors. The concentration of PM2.5 in this venue showed an average level of 256 µg/m3 which was 64 times the level of that found in the non-smoking venues. Conclusion: Aside from one café, the majority of the assessed indoor public venues abided by the smoke-free municipal law. However, the enforcement of policies banning smoking in indoor public recreational venues should be re-examined in order to protect member of the public in Oman from exposure to SHS. PMID:26052464

  5. Implementation of the K-12 Education Reform in Qatar's Schools. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan Gery W.; Karam, Rita; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Orr, Nate; Goldman, Charles A.; Al-Thani, Hessa; Al-Obaidli, Kholode

    2009-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar is greatly invested in its K-12 education reform, "Education for a New Era," because it views education as the key to the nation's economic and social progress. This study, one of a number of RAND studies that trace and document the reform process in Qatar, was designed to assess progress made in the first years of the K-12…

  6. Small Steps Lead to Quality Assurance and Enhancement in Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Khalifa, Batoul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of Qatar University's history since it was started in 1973. Its primary focus is on the various small, but important, steps taken by the University to address the needs of quality assurance and enhancement. The Qatar University Reform Plan is described in detail. Its aims are to continually improve the quality…

  7. Teacher Perceptions of Professional Development in the Context of National Educational Reform: The Case of Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; Romanowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In light of nationally mandated educational changes in Qatar, this study investigates in-service teachers' perceptions of professional development (PD). The aims are to identify challenges facing teachers' PD. The respondents were 40 in-service teachers from two schools in Doha, Qatar, who had received PD connected with national educational…

  8. Education for a New Era: Design and Implementation of K-12 Education Reform in Qatar. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar has a social and political vision that calls for improving the outcomes of the Qatari K-12 education system. With this vision in mind, the leadership asked RAND to examine Qatar's K-12 education system, to recommend options for building a world-class system, and, subsequently, to develop the chosen option and support its…

  9. Small Steps Lead to Quality Assurance and Enhancement in Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Khalifa, Batoul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of Qatar University's history since it was started in 1973. Its primary focus is on the various small, but important, steps taken by the University to address the needs of quality assurance and enhancement. The Qatar University Reform Plan is described in detail. Its aims are to continually improve the quality…

  10. The Private-Public Literacy Divide amid Educational Reform in Qatar: What Does PISA Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-01-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools.…

  11. The Private-Public Literacy Divide amid Educational Reform in Qatar: What Does PISA Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-01-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools.…

  12. Teacher Perceptions of Professional Development in the Context of National Educational Reform: The Case of Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; Romanowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In light of nationally mandated educational changes in Qatar, this study investigates in-service teachers' perceptions of professional development (PD). The aims are to identify challenges facing teachers' PD. The respondents were 40 in-service teachers from two schools in Doha, Qatar, who had received PD connected with national educational…

  13. The Migrant Effect: An Evaluation of Native Academic Performance in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that despite massive outlays on educational reform Qatar consistently ranks as one of the least academically proficient countries in key areas of literacy. Of the seventy-four countries that participated in PISA 2009 Qatar ranked between sixty-seven and sixty-nine in mathematics, reading and science literacy. Although…

  14. A National Strategy for Promoting Physical Activity in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Ruth; Owen, Neville; Eakin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic disease in Oman is a public health challenge. Available evidence in Oman on physical inactivity, the fourth leading risk factor for chronic disease, calls for urgent action to reduce physical inactivity as part of a key strategy to address chronic disease in Oman. The public health implications of this evidence for Oman are considered in light of recommendations outlined in the Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. The charter provides a systematic approach of physical activity and outlines an action plan that could be adapted to the Omani context. Urgent intersectoral action focusing on a shared goal and a more deliberate public health response addressing physical inactivity is required. Further research is needed on the determinants of physical inactivity and culturally appropriate interventions in order to guide future public health actions. PMID:24790738

  15. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  16. Autosomal recessive disorders among Arabs: an overview from Kuwait.

    PubMed Central

    Teebi, A S

    1994-01-01

    Kuwait has a cosmopolitan population of 1.7 million, mostly Arabs. This population is a mosaic of large and small minorities representing most Arab communities. In general, Kuwait's population is characterized by a rapid rate of growth, large family size, high rates of consanguineous marriages within the Arab communities with low frequency of intermarriage between them, and the presence of genetic isolates and semi-isolates in some extended families and Bedouin tribes. Genetic services have been available in Kuwait for over a decade. During this time it has become clear that Arabs have a high frequency of genetic disorders, and in particular autosomal recessive traits. Their pattern is unique and some disorders are relatively common. Examples are Bardet-Biedl and Meckel syndromes, phenylketonuria, and familial Mediterranean fever. A relatively large number of new syndromes and variants have been delineated in Kuwait's population, many being the result of homozygosity for autosomal recessive genes that occurred because of inbreeding. Some of these syndromes have subsequently been found in other parts of the world, negating the concept of the private syndrome. This paper provides an overview of autosomal recessive disorders among the Arabs in Kuwait from a personal perspective and published studies, and highlights the need for genetic services in Arab countries with the goal of prevention and treatment of genetic disorders. PMID:8014972

  17. An exploratory study on medications in Qatar homes

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, N; Hajj, MS El; Wilbur, K; Kaissi, RML; Yousif, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Drug therapy is the most often used intervention for treatment and prevention of disease. However, if used inappropriately, drugs can cause more harm than good. Improper drug storage and disposal can have a direct impact on public safety, the environment, and the health care services. The purpose of this study was to characterize medications stored in Qatar homes and to explore their methods of storage and disposal, and to identify the public’s source of information related to medicines. Methods For the purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study, a list of telephone numbers was generated from Qatar’s telephone directory using a systematic sampling method. Individuals consenting to participate were interviewed using a multipart pretested survey instrument. Results Data were collected from a total of 49 homes. Most respondents did not have a designated compartment or box specifically for storing medications. The majority of drugs (48%) were kept in bedrooms and a number of respondents were keeping their drugs in the fridge and in the kitchen. The most often stored classes of medicines were analgesics, antihistamines, nutritional supplements, and medications used for the respiratory system. Most respondents disposed of unwanted medicines by throwing them in the trash. In about 15% of cases, the dosage of drug taken was different from the instructions on the label. Sharing of prescription medicines was not uncommon. The majority of respondents sought information related to drugs from doctors. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about how medications are stored and disposed of in the community. The fact that no household routinely returned unwanted medications to a pharmacy for proper disposal places the environment at risk. There is a need for more societal awareness about the safe handling and storage of drugs in the home, and about the professional role of the pharmacist. PMID:22279414

  18. Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

    This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  19. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Roshan; Sankhla, Dilip; Al-Jahdhami, Suad; Mani, Renjith; Rahim, Rana A.; Al-Yaarubi, Saif; Al-Kindy, Hussein; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Futaisi, Amna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS) among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a male-to-female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5). On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type. PMID:26357557

  20. WHO Collaborating Centre for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Altawalah, Haya; Al-Nakib, Widad

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated the Virology Unit of the Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Kuwait University, Kuwait, a collaborating centre for AIDS for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO), recognizing it to be in compliance with WHO guidelines. In this centre, research integral to the efforts of WHO to combat AIDS is conducted. In addition to annual workshops and symposia, the centre is constantly updating and renewing its facilities and capabilities in keeping with current and latest advances in virology. As an example of the activities of the centre, the HIV-1 RNA viral load in plasma samples of HIV-1 patients is determined by real-time PCR using the AmpliPrep TaqMan HIV-1 test v2.0. HIV-1 drug resistance is determined by sequencing the reverse transcriptase and protease regions on the HIV-1 pol gene, using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Assay on the OpenGene® DNA Sequencing System. HIV-1 subtypes are determined by sequencing the reverse transcriptase and protease regions on the HIV-1 pol gene using the genotyping assays described above. A fundamental program of Kuwait's WHO AIDS collaboration centre is the national project on the surveillance of drug resistance in human deficiency virus in Kuwait, which illustrates how the centre and its activities in Kuwait can serve the EMRO region of WHO. PMID:24434786

  1. Ground level concentration of sulfur dioxide at Kuwait`s major population centers during the oil-field fires

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ajmi, D.N.; Marmoush, Y.R.

    1996-08-01

    During the Iraqi occupation, Kuwait`s oil wells were ignited. the fires were damaging to the country`s oil resources and air quality. The impact of the oil-field fires on the air quality was studied to determine the level of exposure to pollutants in major population centers. The period of July-September 1991 was selected for examination. A mathematical model was used to compute the ground-level concentration isopleths. The results of these computations are supported by significant concentrations measured and reported by the Environmental Protection Council, Kuwait. The ground-level concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the major population centers, whether measure or estimated, were less than the ambient standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s air pollution index. The dispersive characteristics were classified according to wind conditions. The results of this assessment provide historical data on Kuwait`s oil fires and may be useful in assessing risks resulting from this catastrophe. 6 refs., 10 fig., 2 tab.

  2. Primary immunodeficiency disorders in Kuwait: first report from Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry (2004--2006).

    PubMed

    Al-Herz, Waleed

    2008-03-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders are heterogeneous group of illnesses that predispose patients to serious complications. Registries for these disorders have provided important epidemiological data and shown both racial and geographical variations. The clinical features of 76 patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders registered in Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry from 2004 to 2006 were recorded. Ninety-eight percent of the patients presented in childhood. The prevalence of these disorders in children was 11.98 in 100,000 children with an incidence of 10.06 in 100,000 children. The distribution of these patients according to each primary immunodeficiency category is: combined T and B cell immunodeficiencies (21%), predominantly antibody immunodeficiency (30%), other well defined immunodeficiencies (30%), diseases of immune dysregulation (7%), congenital defects of phagocyte number, function or both (8%), and complement deficiencies (4%). The consanguinity rate within the registered patients was 77%. The patients had a wide range of clinical features affecting different body systems. Primary immunodeficiency disorders are prevalent in Kuwait and have a significant impact into the health system. PMID:18008151

  3. Impact of Kuwait`s oil-fire smoke cloud on the sky of Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Alnaser, W.E.

    1995-06-01

    The effects of the Kuwaiti oil well fires of 1991 on the atmospheric parameters of Bahrain (approximately 600 km southeast of Kuwait) were observed. Solar radiation, optical thickness, ultraviolet radiation, horizontal visibility, temperature, and solar spectral distribution were measured for 1991 and compared to the long-term values of 1985-1990. The relative monthly solar radiation in Bahrain was reduced by 8% (February) when 50 oil wells were burning and reduced further to 20% when 470 oil wells were on fire (April-July). In November 1991, when there were 12 oil wells burning, the recorded solar radiation became nearly equal to the long-term average. The monthly average daily optical thickness, {tau}, for the direct or beam solar radiation was calculated. The values of {tau} were found to be larger in 1991 than the average for the years 1985-1990 by nearly 58% during June and returned to normal in October (after nearly all the oil well fires were extinguished). The clear and smoked sky solar spectra distribution were detected before and during the burning of the Kuwait oil wells. Large absorption of the solar radiation was noticed on the 2nd and 3rd of March, 1991. The daily average infrared radiation during 1990 was found to be 6700.4 Whm{sup -2} and shifted to 9182.1 Whm{sup -2} in 1991. Comparison was also made between 1990 and 1991 data of the global solar radiation and the temperature. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries.

    PubMed

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F

    2015-11-30

    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed. PMID:26233306

  5. Modelling of air pollution impacts from power stations in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ajmi, D.N.; Abdal, Y. )

    1987-01-01

    Kuwait is undergoing rapid development with fast growth of both urban and industrial areas. The environmental impact of such activities is already noticeable. Conditions are therefore favorable for the use of air pollution models to supply adequate tools for effective air quality management in Kuwait. The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISCLT) dispersion model was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in response to the need for comprehensive analytical techniques that can be used to evaluate the air quality impact of emissions from industrial sources. This model was used to predict the air quality impact of SO{sub 2} emissions from the Doha East and West Power Stations in Kuwait. The meteorological and emissions data and the seasonal and annual SO{sub 2} concentrations emitted from the power stations are described.

  6. Industrialization of housing construction adapting building technology to Kuwait environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ezz Al Din, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A major study of the industrialization of housing construction was conducted by Kuwait University, Department of Civil Engineering in conjunction with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, to compare and contrast limited and average income group housing. Data from this study permit a preliminary assessment of the impact of the building technology change and other aspects on construction costs. A case study and identification of the designers and users' point of view concerning the sorts of issues addressed in the paper is followed by an evaluation and a concept for public and private space. The findings of the study are then presented and considered, also their meaning and significance for Kuwait as well as for other developing countries, are assessed. Concluding remarks and recommendations complete the paper.

  7. Middle East: Output expansions boost drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Iraqi exports may return to the market in limited fashion, but none of the region`s producers seems particularly concerned. They believe that global oil demand is rising fast enough to justify their additions to productive capacity. The paper discusses exploration, drilling and development, and production in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Oman, Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, and Sharjah. The paper also briefly mentions activities in Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, and Ras al Khaimah.

  8. Kuwait oil fires - Compositions of source smoke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Stevens, Robert K.; Winstead, Edward L.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Abdulraheem, Mahmood Y.; Al-Sahafi, Mohammed; Mazurek, Monica A.; Rasmussen, Rei A.; Cahoon, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    While the Kuwait oil-fire smoke plumes manifested a pronounced impact on solar radiation in the Gulf region (such as visibility and surface temperatures), smoke plume concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants suggest that the overall chemical impact on the atmosphere of the smoke from these fires was probably much less than anticipated. Combustion in the Kuwaiti oil fires was surprisingly efficient, releasing on average more than 93 percent of the combusted hydrocarbon fuels as CO2. Correspondingly, combustion-produced quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbonaceous particles were low, each about 2 percent by weight. The fraction of CH4 produced by the fires was also relatively low (about 0.2 percent), but source emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons were high (about 2 percent). Processes other than combustion (e.g., volatilization) probably contributed significantly to the measured in-plume hydrocarbon concentrations. Sulfur emissions (particulate and gaseous) measured at the source fires were lower (about 0.5 percent) than predicted based on average sulfur contents in the crude. N2O emissions from the Kuwaiti oil fires were very low and often could not be distinguished from background concentrations.

  9. Spectral characteristics of atmospheric surface layer turbulence in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, Reza; Singha, Arindam; Micro Scale Thermofluids Laboratory Team

    2012-11-01

    Turbulent characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer are of utmost importance in modeling the large-scale meteorological processes, diffusion of atmospheric contaminants, heat transfer and evaporation from the earth surface. Meteorological data are available for some areas of the globe but are sparse in tropical regions. There had been some recent studies in tropical weather in southwestern Asia but no study is carried out in Persian Gulf region. The present study reports the micrometeorological data collected from an atmospheric measurement station in the coastal region of Doha, Qatar, to characterize the nature of atmosphere surface layer (ASL) and ocean wave in this region. In the present work turbulence velocity spectra in this region is presented and compared with the available data from other locations. Also, empirical relationship for the normalized dissipation function in this region is suggested. Finally, variation of different length scales with the stability parameter z/ L is investigated and compare with the existing values in available literatures. This is the first ever study of ASL in this area, and is expected to be a foundation of further atmospheric research endeavors in Qatar.

  10. Seismic lateral prediction in chalky limestone reservoirs offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Rubbens, I.B.H.M.; Murat, R.C.; Vankeulen, J.

    1983-03-01

    Following the discovery of non-structurally trapped oil accumulations in Cretaceous chalky reservoirs on the northern flank of the North Dome offshore QATAR, a seismic lateral prediction study was carried out for QATAR GENERAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION (Offshore Operations). The objectives of this study were to assist in the appraisal of these oil accumulations by predicting their possible lateral extent and to investigate if the technique applied could be used as a basis for further exploration of similar oil prospects in the area. Wireline logs of eight wells and some 1000 km of high quality seismic data were processed into acoustic impedance (A.I.) logs and seismic A.I. sections. Having obtained a satisfactory match of the A.I. well logs and the A.I. of the seismic traces at the well locations, relationships were established by the use of well log data which allowed the interpretation of the seismic A.I. in terms of reservoir quality. Measurements of the relevant A.I. characteristics were then carried out by computer along all seismic lines and porosity distribution maps prepared for some of the reservoirs. These maps, combined with detailed seismic depth contour maps at reservoir tops, lead to definition of good reservoir development areas downdip from poor reservoir quality zones i.e. of the stratigraphic trap areas, and drilling locations could thus be proposed. The system remains to be adequately calibrated when core material becomes available in the area of study.

  11. Recent warming trend in the coastal region of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Way Lee; Saleem, Ayman; Sadr, Reza

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze long-term temperature-related phenomena in the eastern portion of the Middle East, focusing on the coastal region of Qatar. Extreme temperature indices were examined, which were defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, for Doha, Qatar; these indices were then compared with those from neighboring countries. The trends were calculated for a 30-year period (1983-2012), using hourly data obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The results showed spatially consistent warming trends throughout the region. For Doha, 11 of the 12 indices studied showed significant warming trends. In particular, the warming trends were represented by an increase in the number of warm days and nights and a decrease in the number of cool nights and days. The high-temperature extremes during the night have risen at more than twice the rate of their corresponding daytime extremes. The intensity and frequency of hot days have increased, and the minimum temperature indices exhibited a higher rate of warming. The climatic changes in Doha are consistent with the region-wide heat-up in recent decades across the Middle East. However, the rapid economic expansion, increase of population since the 1990s, and urban effects in the region are thought to have intensified the rapidly warming climate pattern observed in Doha since the turn of the century.

  12. Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p < .000) in women and body image in men (p < .0298). As for aging characteristics, decreasing hearing ability (p < .000), performance as before (p < .004), more irritability (p < .0227), ability to travel alone (p < .0429), needs check up (p < .001), and needs a geriatric home (p < .001) were statistically associated with age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people. PMID:23767841

  13. Hydrogeologic role in sinkhole development in the desert of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqour, F.

    1994-04-01

    Sinkhole development is unlikely in desert areas with very low precipitation. However, a few cases of land subsidence and sinkhole development took place within the suburbs of Kuwait City. A few sinkholes developed in a sudden and rapid way, leading to great economic losses. In this paper the mechanism and causes of such a land subsidence are described. Decline in groundwater level and downward infiltration of excess irrigation are suggested to be the main factors in the development of the land subsidence in Kuwait. Urbanization and excessive garden irrigation are most probably the triggers of the sudden and rapid land subsidence.

  14. Building Capacity for Oman's Online Teacher Training: Making an International Partnership Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Gregory C.; Al-Rahbi, Fathiya

    2008-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman recently investigated the viability of online teacher training through a joint project funded by the U.S. Middle East Partnership Initiative and the Oman Ministry of Education. One aspect of the project was to build sufficient capacity within the Ministry to enable Oman to produce online training in the future. This article…

  15. Building Capacity for Oman's Online Teacher Training: Making an International Partnership Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Gregory C.; Al-Rahbi, Fathiya

    2008-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman recently investigated the viability of online teacher training through a joint project funded by the U.S. Middle East Partnership Initiative and the Oman Ministry of Education. One aspect of the project was to build sufficient capacity within the Ministry to enable Oman to produce online training in the future. This article…

  16. Introduction of East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus to Oman harks back to "Zanzibar, the capital of Oman".

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Matrushi, Abdulrahman M; Fauquet, Claude M; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-02-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is the most devastating disease of the subsistence crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) across Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The disease is caused by viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae)-seven species have been identified so far. The Sultanate of Oman is unusual among countries in Arabia in growing cassava on a small scale for local consumption. During a recent survey in A'Seeb wilayat of Muscat governorate, Oman, cassava plants were identified with symptoms typical of CMD. A begomovirus, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), was isolated from symptomatic plants. This virus was previously only known to occur in Zanzibar and Kenya. During the 19th Century, Zanzibar was governed by Oman and was so important that the Sultan of Oman moved his capital there from Muscat. After a period of colonial rule, the governing Arab elite was overthrown, following independence in the 1960s, and many expatriate Omanis returned to their homeland. Having gained a liking for the local Zanzibar cuisine, it appears that returning Omanis did not wish to do without dishes made from one particular favorite, cassava. Consequently, they carried planting material back to Oman for cultivation in their kitchen gardens. The evidence suggests that this material harbored EACMZV. Recently, Oman has been shown to be a nexus for geminiviruses and their associated satellites from diverse geographic origins. With their propensity to recombine, a major mechanism for evolution of geminiviruses, and the fact that Oman (and several other Arabian countries) is a major hub for trade and travel by air and sea, the possibility of onward spread is worrying. PMID:23085885

  17. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Oman: 
A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, AbdulAziz; Al-Sheibani, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to analyze all cases of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) in Oman to determine the most common clinical presentation, whether it is associated with certain tribes in Oman, and its distribution in different regions of the country. We also looked at the histopathological diagnosis, treatment modality, recurrence, and metastasis. Methods This retrospective chart analysis was performed using the data of all patients with NPC who presented to the Al Nahdha Hospital (the main tertiary hospital of head and neck surgery in Oman) from January 2003 until August 2011. Results Twenty-six cases of NPC were included in the final study population. Muscat (the capital city of Oman) had the highest number of cases followed by the Ash Sharqiyah, Al-Batinah, and Dhofar regions. The largest number of cases were found in the Al-Balushi tribe. Cases had a bimodal distribution within two age groups (20–30 years and 50–60 years). Follow-up ranged between six months and seven years. Conclusion Neck mass and nasal symptoms were the most common presentations of NPC in Oman. Further studies, with a larger sample size are required in order to support our results. PMID:26171122

  18. Qatar-1b: a hot Jupiter orbiting a metal-rich K dwarf star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubai, K. A.; Parley, N. R.; Bramich, D. M.; West, R. G.; Sorensen, P. M.; Collier Cameron, A.; Latham, D. W.; Horne, K.; Anderson, D. R.; Bakos, G. Á.; Brown, D. J. A.; Buchhave, L. A.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Everett, M. E.; F?rész, G.; Hartman, J. D.; Hellier, C.; Miller, G. M.; Pollacco, D.; Quinn, S. N.; Smith, J. C.; Stefanik, R. P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    2011-10-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-1b, a hot Jupiter-orbiting metal-rich K dwarf star, the first planet discovered by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey. We describe the strategy used to select candidate transiting planets from photometry generated by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey camera array. We examine the rate of astrophysical and other false positives found during the spectroscopic reconnaissance of the initial batch of candidates. A simultaneous fit to the follow-up radial velocities and photometry of Qatar-1b yields a planetary mass of 1.09 ± 0.08 MJ and a radius of 1.16 ± 0.05 RJ. The orbital period and separation are 1.420 033 ± 0.000 016 d and 0.023 43 ± 0.000 26 au for an orbit assumed to be circular. The stellar density, effective temperature and rotation rate indicate an age greater than 4 Gyr for the system.

  19. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among midlife Arab women living in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, L.M.; Mamtani, R.; Chiu, Y-L.; Bener, A.; Murphy, M.; Cheema, S.; Verjee, M.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread and is growing worldwide. This cross-sectional study in Qatar examined the use of CAM and its correlates among Arab women in their midlife years. Women aged 40–60 years (n = 814) were recruited at primary health-care centres in Qatar and completed a specially designed, pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 38.2% of midlife women in Qatar had used CAM in the previous 12 months. Nutritional remedies and herbal remedies were the most commonly used CAM therapies, followed by physical methods. Qatari nationality and higher level of education were independently associated with CAM use. Menopause transition status was not independently associated with use of CAM. The prevalence of CAM use by women in Qatar was high, consistent with other reports worldwide. It is essential to educate and inform patients and health-care providers about the benefits and limitations associated with CAM. PMID:25343468

  20. Refining Procedures: A Needs Analysis Project at Kuwait University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basturkmen, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the procedures followed in the needs analysis (NA) project carried out in 1996 at the College of Petroleum and Engineering at Kuwait University. Focuses on the steps taken in the project and the rationale behind them. Offers an illustration of an NA project and to show the procedural steps involved. (Author/VWL)

  1. Investigating Students' Beliefs about Arabic Language Programs at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shaye, Shaye S.

    2009-01-01

    The current study attempted to identify students' of Arabic programs beliefs about their chosen programs. To achieve this purpose, a survey was developed to collect the data from randomly selected students in liberal-arts and education-based programs at Kuwait University. The results showed that students were statistically differentiated as a…

  2. The Lost Kuwait Initiative: The Failure Has Come from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2011-01-01

    A conference titled "Preparing Special Education Teachers in Mild/Moderate Disabilities: Programs, Models, and Exemplary Field Experiences" was organized by College of Education at Kuwait University between April 11-13, 2010. This conference was intended to lead to a better teacher preparation program in the region in the area of mild and moderate…

  3. Evaluation of Section Heads' Performance at Kuwait Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hamdan, Jasem M.; Al-Yacoub, Ali M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The study attempts to examine the viewpoints of those involved in evaluating the performance of section heads in Kuwait secondary schools; mainly section heads themselves, supervisors and principals. It sets out to determine the strength and weaknesses in the performance evaluation form designed for section heads.…

  4. Secondary Education Programs in Kuwait: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Ghada K.; Koushki, Parviz A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the semester and the credit programs of high school education in Kuwait in terms of their graduating students' preparedness for continued and successful academic performance in programs of higher education. Students' percentile graduation rank from high school and their performances in the English, math…

  5. The Lost Kuwait Initiative: The Failure Has Come from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2011-01-01

    A conference titled "Preparing Special Education Teachers in Mild/Moderate Disabilities: Programs, Models, and Exemplary Field Experiences" was organized by College of Education at Kuwait University between April 11-13, 2010. This conference was intended to lead to a better teacher preparation program in the region in the area of mild and moderate…

  6. Deformities in silver pomfret Pampus argenteus caught from Kuwait waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almatar, Sulaiman; Chen, Weizhong

    2010-11-01

    During sampling for spawning stock of the silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus in Kuwait waters, a few seriously deformed individuals were captured. These individuals had been attacked and wounded, but had healed and survived. The fish body deformities are believed to be caused by predation attempts on silver pomfret by predators such as sharks, groupers, and croakers.

  7. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt April 14-16, 2013, published at 78 FR 7752, February 4, 2013. The effect of this... participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service is organizing a Trade Mission to Cairo, Egypt to...

  8. 78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, to... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service is organizing a Trade Mission to Cairo, Egypt to explore... Eastern markets. Meetings will be offered with government authorities that can address questions...

  9. The Efficiency of Public Schools: The Case of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Nadeem A.; Johnes, Jill; Al-Enezi, Mohammed; Al-Musallam, Marwa

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical, and allocative efficiencies of public schools in Kuwait over four levels of schooling (kindergartens, primary, intermediate and secondary) and two periods (1999/2000 and 2004/2005) using data envelopment analysis. Mean pure technical efficiency varies between 0.695 and 0.852 across all levels of education;…

  10. The Efficiency of Public Schools: The Case of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Nadeem A.; Johnes, Jill; Al-Enezi, Mohammed; Al-Musallam, Marwa

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical, and allocative efficiencies of public schools in Kuwait over four levels of schooling (kindergartens, primary, intermediate and secondary) and two periods (1999/2000 and 2004/2005) using data envelopment analysis. Mean pure technical efficiency varies between 0.695 and 0.852 across all levels of education;…

  11. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  12. Source apportionment of fine particles in Kuwait City.

    PubMed

    Alolayan, Mohammad A; Brown, Kathleen W; Evans, John S; Bouhamra, Walid S; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated major sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Kuwait based on a sampling program conducted between February 2004 and October 2005. Three source identification techniques were used in this study: (1) a positive matrix factorization model; (2) backward trajectory profiles; and (3) concentration rose plots. Five major sources of PM2.5 were estimated. These were sand dust (sand storms), oil combustion (power plants), petrochemical industry (fertilizer, nylon or catalyst regeneration facilities), traffic (vehicle emissions and road dust) and transported emissions (emissions from outside Kuwait, such as those from automobiles, road dust or smelters). The estimated contributions to PM2.5 of these sources were: 54% from sand dust, 18% from oil combustion, 12% from petrochemical industry, 11% from traffic and 5% from anthropogenic sources transported from outside the country. Oil combustion, petrochemical industry and traffic were found to emanate from local sources, whereas sand dust and some emissions from traffic, and possibly smelters, appeared to originate from sources outside of Kuwait (transported). The PM2.5 levels in Kuwait during our previous sampling study averaged 53μg/m(3). More than half of the measured PM2.5 appears to have been due to crustal material, much originating outside of the country. However, the relatively high levels of PM2.5 contributed by anthropogenic local sources, such as oil combustion, petrochemical industry emissions, and traffic indicated that there may be great opportunities for Kuwait to improve public health. The application of cost-effective emission controls and development of forward looking environmental health policies have the potential to significantly reduce emissions, population exposures to PM2.5 and the burden of mortality and morbidity from air pollution. PMID:23270730

  13. Seasonal Characteristics of Planetary Boundary Layer in Qatar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Luis; Ayoub, Mohammed A.; Astudillo, Daniel P.; Bachour, Dunia A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) development as well as its seasonal characteristics is essential for predicting meteorological and air quality phenomena. Using data from the vertical backscatter profile of the atmosphere above Qatar from a ceilometer, coupled with a novel Layer Identification Algorithm (LIA) developed by QEERI, a continuous time series of the PBL has been attained. This data has been carefully validated against in-situ measurements via coinciding radiosonde launches. These launches were performed weekly at 13:00 local time during 2014; with occasional launches at 07:00. The detected PBL depth from the sondes show good correlation with LIA. This algorithm uses image recognition methods to identify boundary layers not only by their vertical characteristics; but also by their temporal and spatial signatures. This algorithm was written in Python and is designed to process the ceilometer's output data in real time or as a post-process. The behavior of the PBL depth diurnal variation in Qatar was observed to vary in correlation with the change in seasons. During the winter months the mean PBL depth was higher compared to the summer months; in addition, the diurnal amplitude was higher during winter. Apart from seasonal variations in the PBL depth behavior, short term fluctuations in the daily signature of the PBL structure were observed; with some days exhibiting a well-developed PBL followed by a day with no significant PBL variation. This behavior of the summer PBL (lower daily mean depth and lower diurnal amplitude relative to winter) was explained after looking at diurnal humidity and temperature variations. During these months, the intense temperature and humidity enhances the energy flux towards latent heat, actually diminishing the effect of the high insolation towards the development of the PBL. Lower mean PBL depths during the months of higher photochemical activity affect surface concentrations of secondary pollutants and particle matter.

  14. No variations in transit times for Qatar-1 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Ohlert, J.; Puchalski, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Seeliger, M.; Kitze, M.; Raetz, St.; Errmann, R.; Gilbert, H.; Pannicke, A.; Schmidt, J.-G.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The transiting hot-Jupiter planet Qatar-1 b exhibits variations in transit times that could be perturbative. A hot Jupiter with a planetary companion on a nearby orbit would constitute an unprecedented planetary configuration, which is important for theories of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We performed a photometric follow-up campaign to confirm or refute transit timing variations. Methods: We extend the baseline of transit observations by acquiring 18 new transit light curves acquired with 0.6-2.0 m telescopes. These photometric time series, together with data available in the literature, were analyzed in a homogenous way to derive reliable transit parameters and their uncertainties. Results: We show that the dataset of transit times is consistent with a linear ephemeris leaving no hint of any periodic variations with a range of 1 min. We find no compelling evidence of a close-in planetary companion to Qatar-1 b. This finding is in line with a paradigm that hot Jupiters are not components of compact multiplanetary systems. Based on dynamical simulations, we place tighter constraints on the mass of any fictitious nearby planet in the system. Furthermore, new transit light curves allowed us to redetermine system parameters with better precision than reported in previous studies. Our values generally agree with previous determinations. Partly based on (1) data collected with telescopes at the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory and (2) observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.Tables of light curve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A109

  15. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed.

  16. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  17. Structural reliability assessment of the Oman India Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sharif, A.M.; Preston, R.

    1996-12-31

    Reliability techniques are increasingly finding application in design. The special design conditions for the deep water sections of the Oman India Pipeline dictate their use since the experience basis for application of standard deterministic techniques is inadequate. The paper discusses the reliability analysis as applied to the Oman India Pipeline, including selection of a collapse model, characterization of the variability in the parameters that affect pipe resistance to collapse, and implementation of first and second order reliability analyses to assess the probability of pipe failure. The reliability analysis results are used as the basis for establishing the pipe wall thickness requirements for the pipeline.

  18. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  19. Structure and evolution of the northern Oman margin: gravity and seismic constraints over the Zagros-Makran-Oman collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaut, P.; Bayer, R.; Hassani, R.; Rousset, D.; Yahya'ey, A. Al

    1997-09-01

    The obduction process in Oman during Late Cretaceous time, and continental-to-oceanic subduction along the Zagros-Makran region during the Tertiary are consequences of the Arabian-Eurasian collision, resulting in construction of complex structures composed of the Oman ophiolite belt, the Zagros continental mountain belt and the Makran subduction zone with its associated accretionary wedge. In this paper, we jointly interpret Bouguer anomaly and available petroleum seismic profiles in terms of crustal structures. We show that the gravity anomaly in northern Oman is characterized by a high-amplitude negative-positive couple. The negative anomaly is coincident with Late Cretaceous (Fiqa) and Tertiary (Pabdeh) foreland basins and with the Zagros-Oman mountain belts, whereas the positive anomaly is correlated to the ophiolite massifs. The Bouguer anomaly map indicates the presence of a post-Late Cretaceous sedimentary basin, the Sohar basin, centred north of the Batinah plain. We interpret the negative/positive couple in terms of loading of the elastic Arabian lithosphere. We estimate the different Cretaceous-to-Recent loads, including topography, ophiolite nappes, sedimentary fill and the accretionary prism of the Makran trench. A new method, using Mindlin's elastic plate theory, is proposed to model the 2D deflection of the heterogeneous elastic Arabian plate, taking into account boundary conditions at the ends of the subducted plate. We show that remnant ophiolites are isolated from Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in the Gulf of Oman by a continental basement ridge, a NW prolongation of the Saih-Hatat window. Loading the northward-limited ophiolite blocks explains the deflection of the Fiqa foredeep basin. West of the Musandam Peninsula, the Tertiary Pabdeh foredeep is probably related to the emplacement of a 8-km-thick tectonic prism located on the Musandam Peninsula and in the Strait of Hormuz. Final 2D density models along profiles through the Oman mountain belt and the Gulf of Oman are discussed in the framework of Late Cretaceous obduction of the Tethys and synchronous subduction and exhumation of the Oman margin.

  20. Recreational value of an oasis in Oman.

    PubMed

    Zekri, Slim; Mbaga, Msafiri; Fouzai, Ayoub; Al-Shaqsi, Saif

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for water to develop non-agricultural activities is causing water to be diverted to high-value uses at the expense of irrigation. However, agriculture provides a flow of amenities in the desert environment which are not either accounted or paid. Oases are spread all over the globe and are threatened for various reasons among which is the high pressure of demand for fresh water. This paper estimates the recreation use value of an oasis. The paper is based on the Misfat Al-Abryeen oasis in Oman, a man-made area of streams and woodland. The travel cost method is used through an on-site questionnaire distributed to 230 visitors. Around 75% of visitors to the oasis also visited other historical or ecological sites during the same day-trip. The econometric model is estimated using negative binomial regression with endogenous stratification. The average consumer surplus, or benefit, from visiting Misfat Al-Abryeen is estimated at US$ 104.74 per individual per trip. The total social benefit from this oasis is estimated at $366,590 per year. These results underscore the importance of the role played by irrigated agriculture in the provision of amenity services for the tourism sector in a desert environment. The sustainability of the irrigation activity depends on the recognition of the recreation role of oases and the transfer of part of these benefits to the farmers who maintain the irrigation system. The implementation of an entrance fee to the oasis might increase farmers' profit by 6-21%. PMID:21519874

  1. Characterization of cyclic and acyclic alkanes in Forties and Kuwait petroleum crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W. ); Pakdel, H. ); Bartle, K.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Alkane hydrocarbon fractions from Forties (North Sea) and Kuwait petroleum crudes, separated by distillation, solvent extraction and silicagel column chromatography and sub-fractionated by molecular-sieve adsorption, have been examined by gas chromatography (GC), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and field desorption (FD)MS. GC indicates that Forties contains rather more acyclic isoprenoids and cyclic alkanes than Kuwait; FDMS of Kuwait shows molecular-weight ranges for mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentacyclic alkanes. {sup 13}C NMR spectra provide evidence of higher aromatic carbon, C{sub A}, in Forties than Kuwait and longer T{sub 1} relaxation times.

  2. FIRST REPORT OF PUCCINIA TRITICINA ON WHEAT IN OMAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important crop in the Sultanate of Oman, cultivated both as a forage crop for livestock and for grain production. In April 2005, leaf samples of an unknown local variety showing rust symptoms were collected from Rustaq, 100 km south west of Muscat. Circular to ova...

  3. FIRST REPORT OF PUCCINIA SORGHI ON MAIZE IN OMAN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important annual forage crop cultivated in the Sultanate of Oman during the summer months. It is used both for green fodder and grains and often intercropped in fruit orchards especially under date palms. In April 2005, leaf samples showing rust symptoms were collected fro...

  4. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...This document amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') regulations on an interim basis to implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of...

  5. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  6. The Case of Oman: Preparatory Level. Evaluation of Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razik, Taher A.

    This report assesses the preparatory school curriculum in the Sultanate of Oman. This 3-year post-primary program is comparatively new in the infrastructure. General education is stressed and some practical studies are included. The evaluation examined the degree of congruence between the designers' intentions (as expressed in learning objectives…

  7. The Case of Oman: Primary Level. Evaluation of Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razik, Taher A.

    This report assesses the 1987 primary school (grades 1 through 6) curriculum in the Sultanate of Oman. The evaluation examined the degree of congruence between the designers' intentions (as expressed in learning objectives and recommendations for implementation) and the conceptions of administrators in the country's nine school districts and…

  8. A Need for a Framework for Curriculum Evaluation in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jardani, Khalid Salim; Siraj, Saedah; Abedalaziz, Nabeel

    2012-01-01

    The field of curriculum evaluation is a key part of the educational process. This means that this area needs to be developed continuously and requires ongoing research. This paper highlights curriculum evaluation in Oman, different evaluation procedures and methods and instruments used. The need for a framework for curriculum evaluation is a vital…

  9. Barriers to Adopting Technology for Teaching and Learning in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Senaidi, Said; Lin, Lin; Poirot, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the perceived barriers to adopting information and communication technologies (ICT) in Omani higher education. One hundred faculty members from four different departments at the College of Applied Sciences in Oman participated in the study. The participants took a survey, which was developed based on the Western literature.…

  10. Toward Differentiated Assessment in a Public College in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated assessment (DA) seeks to address the individual differences between students and provides them with the appropriate assessment strategy. This paper looks into the possibility of implementing differentiated assessment in a public college in Oman. Additionally, it attempts to explore teachers' views about the possibility of…

  11. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; H. Tageldin, Mohammed.; Weir, William; Al-Fahdi, Amira; Johnson, Eugene H.; Bobade, Patrick; Alqamashoui, Badar; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Thompson, Joanne; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Babiker, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Background Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle. Methods Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites) representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman. Results We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia). A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST’ = 0.075, θ = 0.07) were detected when the data for T. annulata parasites in Oman was compared with that previously generated for Turkey and Tunisia. Conclusion Genetic analyses of T. annulata samples representing four geographical regions in Oman revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the parasite population. There was little evidence of genetic differentiation between parasites from different regions, and a high level of genetic diversity was maintained within each sub-population. These findings are consistent with a high parasite transmission rate and frequent movement of animals between different regions in Oman. PMID:26469349

  12. Fracture-related diagenesis in the carbonate carapace of a salt dome, Jebel Madar, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahr, J.; John, C. M.; Cosgrove, J. W.; Vandeginste, V.; Sena, C. N.; Jourdan, A.

    2010-12-01

    This study is being carried out in the Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre (QCCSRC) at Imperial College and focuses on the interplay between fractures, diagenetic fluid flow and precipitation of diagenetic minerals in an exposed carbonate carapace of a salt dome in Oman. Understanding fault-related mineralization and the differences between diagenesis in the fractures and fracture walls compared to diagenesis in the rock matrix will help prediction of the reservoir quality of such fractured carapaces in the subsurface. The research questions addressed here are a) what controls the timing, distribution and geometry of fractures in the carapace of a salt dome? b) what controls the timing of the precipitation of minerals in the fracture network? To answer these questions, a dual approach combining structural geology with carbonate diagenesis is being applied. The origin of the fluids and their role in fracturing and diagenesis is being investigated by means of geochemistry and petrography and the processes of fracturing, fluid flow and the migration of fluids along pathways will be determined by reconstructing the structural history by a combination of field mapping and seismic interpretation. This dual approach is powerful and can be used to determine the history of fluid flow. Ultimately, the aim is to develop conceptual models linking fracturation and fluid flow during halokinesis with diagenesis. Jebel Madar is situated in the southern foothills of the Oman Mountains and is a folded and fractured salt dome carapace comprising Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. The structural history of the Jebel is currently being reconstructed using fracture analysis of structural data gathered during fieldwork. This will be augmented with the interpretation of seismic profiles. Initial results indicate that the dominant fracture orientations are ~ N-S and NE-SW. Using the cross-cutting relationships of the fractures an attempt is being made to establish their chronology. To understand the diagenetic history of the fracture infill, several techniques are being used including petrography, major and trace elemental analysis, fluid inclusion, and stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. An important observation made in the fractures of the Jebel Madar is that several generations of calcite cements exist, with crystals ranging in size from several cm in the centre of the fracture to compact, mm- sized crystals close to the host rock. In addition, in some fractures barite and calcite have been co-precipitated, an observation which, with the aid of fluid inclusion studies, could yield the composition and possible origin of the parent diagenetic fluids. The presence of minerals in fractures indicates that these latter acted as fluid pathways. Initial stable isotope results suggest that the precipitating fluids were hot, with average values of ? 18O of -9.74 ‰ PDB and ? 13C of 1.19 ‰ PDB. Initial results indicate that the regional stress stimulated the local development of salt diapirs which produced local stress fields that totally dominated the timing and pattern of fracturing and fluid migration.

  13. Getting Its Ducks in a Row? Qatar Foundation's Agreement with HEC Paris and the Launch of the Qatar Foundation Management, Education and Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week, private, non-profit organisation the Qatar Foundation (QF) announced a partnership agreement with French business institution HEC Paris to offer executive education programmes. According to the terms of the agreement, a full-time faculty will provide executive and short certificate programmes and corporate-specific training, including…

  14. Effects of airborne dust collected from Kuwait on human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, S.M.; Khan, S.A.; Ahmad, S.; Beg, M.U.

    1992-01-01

    Air borne dust as deposited on air conditioner's filter was collected from most polluted regions of Kuwait and for comparison also from Dubai. Kuwait dust samples were found to contain high concentrations of Ni, Mn and Pb and a number of organic compounds different from the oil samples collected from the oil pool in the oil fields. Toxicity evaluation against human erythrocytes showed strong hemolytic nature of the dust. Treatment of erythrocytes with the dust exhibited peroxidative damage of the membrane. The dust collected from Dubai was innocuous. The present data suggest that erythrocyte damaging potential of the dust can be used as a marker of toxicity and provide information about the dissipation of toxic factors from airborne dust with time. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Medical library services in Kuwait: history and future prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, M G; Brennen, P W

    1984-01-01

    Despite immense resources and a growing interest in education and libraries, library development in Kuwait has been restricted by the problems common to all developing countries. These include an overdose of bureaucracy, lack of trained librarians, and little perception of the library's importance in the educational system. Medical librarianship is virtually a new field. The only medical library of any significance in the country is the Faculty of Medicine Library established in 1974 to serve the newly organized Faculty of Medicine of Kuwait University. In recent years, the Faculty of Medicine Library has gone through several reassessments and many changes. It has expanded its collection, begun computerized searching, and recruited several professional librarians. Now semiautonomous from the university's Libraries Department and housed in a new, modern building, the library has the potential to become the main medical library in the Persian Gulf area. PMID:6365225

  16. A Center for Mideast Oceanographic Data in Muscat, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, S.; Belabbassi, L.; Du Vall, K.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Lighthouse designed and installed a real-time cabled ocean observing system off the northern coast of the Sultanate of Oman in 2005 and a second system, farther to the south, existed as autonomous moorings from 2005-2009 and was upgraded to a real-time cabled system in early 2010. Since 2005 Lighthouse has operated and maintained those systems to produce a wealth of data on a poorly understood region of the global oceans. The systems record data hourly on current velocities over a range of depths, and temperature, pressure, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity at the depth of the sensor; the northern system also collects seismic and bottom pressure (tsunami detection) information continuously. Processing codes for all data have been developed and honed over the years in cooperation with oceanographers from Texas A&M University. As a joint and complementary effort, ocean circulation and tsunami impact models have been developed for the regional waters near Oman. In Oman, our work is coordinated through the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth. From the beginning, Lighthouse has intended to transition data processing and analysis over to the Sultanate. To facilitate this transition, we propose to establish a Center for Mideast Oceanographic Data located in Muscat, Oman that may also serve as a regional oceanographic data depository and research center. Main activities to be carried out include: marine data processing and management, training of Omani professionals in data processing and analysis, facilitating regional and international collaboration by hosting workshops or short courses, and employing the models for research purposes. The center would work with the newly-established Hazard Monitoring Center to develop modeled now- and forecast products for marine operations and safety. The goal is to house, in a single location, datasets and models that will help Oman manage and maintain its marine environment and resources for generations to come.

  17. Hemoglobin H disease in Muscat, Oman - A 5 year study

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Suresh; Dhuri, Suchata; Al Jabal, Khalid Bait; Shaju, Alphonsa

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Published data indicate that Alpha thalassemia trait is prevalent in 45% of population of Sultanate of Oman. Recent unpublished data suggest that this prevalence is higher than 45%. Yet clinical suspicion or investigations into ?-thalassemias are lacking. Moreover, Hemoglobin H disease is considered rare in Oman. We decided, therefore to look for Hemoglobin H disease and characterize the clinico–hematopathological features of the disease. Methods Patient demographics, clinical details and detailed hematology parametry of Hemoglobin H disease cases, diagnosed by Department of Laboratory over a period of 5 years between February 2002 and January 2007 in patients presenting at Al-Nahdha Hospital and Genetic counseling unit in Muscat were compiled from hospital and laboratory records and analyzed. Results Twenty cases of Hemoglobin H disease in Omanis were diagnosed mainly during the second decade. 60% belonged to Al-Balushi tribe. 40% of cases presented with body pains. 35% presented with nonspecific symptoms. 50% of cases were erroneously labeled as Iron deficiency anemia. Microcytic erythrocytosis, high Red Cell Distribution Width, numerous misshapen Red Blood Cells, pseudothrombocytosis, low A2 and normal Ferritin were important diagnostic clues. Hemoglobin H inclusions in special reticulocyte smears and Hemoglobin H on HPLC or Electrophoresis were diagnostic. Conclusion Hemoglobin H disease is common in Oman. The need to do HPLC, G6PD activity and Ferritin studies in all cases of anemia in Oman to avoid missing diagnosis of Hemoglobin H disease is stressed. This study is intended to create awareness about Hemoglobin H disease in order to diagnose early, treat rightly, counsel correctly and pave the path for prevention of ?-thalassemia disease in Oman. PMID:22400100

  18. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. Results The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists’ physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Conclusion Pharmacy students’ attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also recognizing the barriers to its widespread adoption. The education and training provided at Kuwait University Faculty of Pharmacy is designed to develop students to be the change agents who can advance pharmacist-provided direct patient care. PMID:25243027

  19. Space Radar Image of Central Plain, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Bright, arc-shaped limestone hills and complex, branching drainage patterns dominate this three-frequency space radar image of a desert area in the north central plain of Oman. The hill along the left side of the image, called Jabal Fuhud, lies just south of the town of Fuhud, which appears as small bright rectangular features. The thin red lines that can be seen radiating out from this town are roads. The 'u'-shaped hill in the right center of the image is called Jabal Natih. Layers in the limestone appear as stripes which parallel the crest of the hill. This region is an active area of petroleum production because these geological structures form natural traps for oil and gas. The branching patterns on the image are ancient drainage channels that formed when the climate in this area was much wetter. Two large dry river channels, called wadis, appear on the image. Wadi Umayri is the yellow stripe at the lower right corner of the image. A second orange-colored wadi runs from right to left below the two sets of hills. The bright yellow patterns between the wadis are areas of bedrock covered with a thin layer of sand. These rocks would not be visible in conventional satellite images or photographs. This image is centered at 22.25 degrees north latitude, 56.58 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 42 kilometers by 78 kilometers (26 miles by 48 miles). North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  20. Spatial and temporal characterizations of water quality in Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, N; Abahussain, A; El-Battay, A

    2014-06-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay have been investigated using data from six stations between 2009 and 2011. The results showed that most of water quality parameters such as phosphorus (PO4), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fluctuated over time and space. Based on Water Quality Index (WQI) data, six stations were significantly clustered into two main classes using cluster analysis, one group located in western side of the Bay, and other in eastern side. Three principal components are responsible for water quality variations in the Bay. The first component included DO and pH. The second included PO4, TSS and NO3, and the last component contained seawater temperature and turbidity. The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay are mainly controlled by seasonal variations and discharges from point sources of pollution along Kuwait Bay's coast as well as from Shatt Al-Arab River. PMID:24768174

  1. Education for a New Era: Design and Implementation of K-12 Education Reform in Qatar. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar has a social and political vision that calls for improving the outcomes of the Qatari K-12 education system. With this vision in mind, the leadership asked RAND to examine Qatar's K-12 education system, to recommend options for building a world-class system, and, subsequently, to develop the chosen option and support its…

  2. All That Glitters Is Not Gold: Challenges of Teacher and School Leader Licensure Licensing System in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellili-Cherif, Maha; Romanowski, Michael H.; Nasser, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the Government of Qatar began a comprehensive education reform (Education for a New Era) based on RAND's recommendations and options for building an educational system that would meet the country's changing needs. Nine years later, Qatar's educational landscape has significantly changed. Among these changes is the introduction of…

  3. Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

  4. Aligning Post-Secondary Educational Choices to Societal Needs: A New Scholarship System for Qatar. Technical Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Krop, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Qatar is experiencing previously unprecedented social and economic development, linked to increased participation in the global market. Growing employment opportunities for Qatari nationals require greater attention to post-secondary education and the development of specific high-demand skills. Since the 1970s, Qatar has complemented its…

  5. Trauma research in Qatar: a literature review and discussion of progress after establishment of a trauma research centre.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, A; Asim, M; Zarour, A; Abdelrahman, H; Peralta, R; Parchani, A; Al-Thani, H

    2016-11-01

    A structured research programme is one of the main pillars of a trauma care system. Despite the high rate of injury-related mortalities, especially road traffic accidents, in Qatar, little consideration has been given to research in trauma. This review aimed to analyse research publications on the subject of trauma published from Qatar and to discuss the progress of clinical research in Qatar and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries with special emphasis on trauma research. A literature search using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines located 757 English-language articles within the fields of internal medicine, surgery and trauma originating from Qatar between the years 1993 and 2013. A steep increase in the number of trauma publications since 2010 could be linked to the setting up of a trauma research centre in Qatar in 2011. We believe that establishing a research unit has made a major impact on research productivity, which ultimately benefits health care. PMID:26857718

  6. Managing Time: A Study among Arab Open University Tutors in Kuwait Branch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, Abdin M.; Ismail, Omer H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate how tutors at the Arab Open University (AOU) in Kuwait Branch manage their time given workloads they are assigned. Group interviews were conducted with a sample that was selected from AOU tutors in Kuwait branch. The findings showed that tutors do not ask for more time or cut down workloads; instead,…

  7. Primary School Teachers' Perceptions regarding ICT Usage and Equipment in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharbi, Ghazwa

    2012-01-01

    Education institutions around the world have seen rapid advances in ICT (Information Communication Technology) within the classroom since the mid 90's. Kuwait has realized the need for a high quality education system, and has seen huge increases in government funding for schools over the last 10 years. However, Kuwait's spending on technology and…

  8. Observations of Students in English as a Second Language at Kuwait University: 1974-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinhoff, Michael; Meinhoff, Joan

    This is a collection of papers which discusses characteristics of ESL (English as a Second Language) students in Kuwait. The first chapter, "Oral Communication," notes the extreme facility with which these students communicate in English. Chapter Two, "Names," explains how people in Kuwait are named and addressed. Chapter Three, "The Effects of…

  9. Evaluation of the In-Service Education and Training Programme for Kuwait Army Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mutawa, Najat; Al-Furaih, Suad

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the In-Service Education and Training (INSET) programme organised for Kuwait Army instructors. The focus is on their perceptual gain in related topics and skills, as they attended 10 courses at the College of Education--Kuwait University. Pre- and post-assessments involved 20 trainees. The analysis indicates significant…

  10. Primary School Teachers' Perceptions regarding ICT Usage and Equipment in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharbi, Ghazwa

    2012-01-01

    Education institutions around the world have seen rapid advances in ICT (Information Communication Technology) within the classroom since the mid 90's. Kuwait has realized the need for a high quality education system, and has seen huge increases in government funding for schools over the last 10 years. However, Kuwait's spending on technology and…

  11. Investigating Students' Attitudes and Preferences towards Learning English at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bustan, Suad Ahmed; Al-Bustan, Lamees

    2009-01-01

    This study is performed by conducting a survey analysis to investigate students' attitudes and preferences towards learning English at Kuwait University in non-English major ESL students. The sample size will be roughly 21-22% of a total of 4950 college level English Language learners at Kuwait University where specific English courses are part of…

  12. Meeting the Challenge: Quality Systems in Private Higher Education in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Atiqi, Imad M.; Alharbi, Lafi M.

    2009-01-01

    In Kuwait, as in other rapidly-developing higher education systems, one major area of concern is ensuring the quality of education offered by private providers. This paper briefly reviews the history of the development of higher education in Kuwait since its inception in 1936. It considers various quality systems currently in place in other…

  13. Meeting the Challenge: Quality Systems in Private Higher Education in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Atiqi, Imad M.; Alharbi, Lafi M.

    2009-01-01

    In Kuwait, as in other rapidly-developing higher education systems, one major area of concern is ensuring the quality of education offered by private providers. This paper briefly reviews the history of the development of higher education in Kuwait since its inception in 1936. It considers various quality systems currently in place in other…

  14. Curriculum Implementation and Reform: Teachers' Views about Kuwait's New Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshammari, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The MoE (Ministry of Education) in the state of Kuwait is starting to reform the science curriculum in all school academic stages: primary (1-5) grades, intermediate (6-9) grades, and secondary (10-12) grades. The purpose of this study was to explore the opinions of science teachers about Kuwait's new sixth and seventh grade science curriculum,…

  15. Do socioeconomic factors influence breast cancer screening practices among Arab women in Qatar?

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al-Meer, Nabila; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Chaudhry, Sofia; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Breast cancer incidence rates are rising in Qatar. Although the Qatari government provides subsidised healthcare and screening programmes that reduce cost barriers for residents, breast cancer screening (BCS) practices among women remain low. This study explores the influence of socioeconomic status on BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Setting A multicentre, cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted with 1063 Arab women (87.5% response rate) in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Women who were 35 years or older and had lived in Qatar for at least 10 years were recruited from seven primary healthcare centres and women's health clinics in urban and semiurban regions of Qatar. Associations between socioeconomic factors and BCS practice were estimated using χ2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Findings indicate that less than one-third of the participants practised BCS appropriately, whereas less than half of the participants were familiar with recent BCS guidelines. Married women and women with higher education and income levels were significantly more likely to be aware of and to practise BCS than women who had lower education and income levels. Conclusions Findings indicate low levels of awareness and low participation rates in BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Socioeconomic factors influence these women's participation in BCS activities. The strongest predictors for BCS practice are higher education and higher income levels. Recommendations Additional research is needed to explore the impact of economic factors on healthcare seeking behaviours in the Middle Eastern countries that have a high national gross domestic product where healthcare services are free or heavily subsidised by the government; promotion of BCS and intervention strategies in these countries should focus on raising awareness about breast cancer, the cost and benefit of early screening for this disease, particularly among low-income women. PMID:25613951

  16. Anaglyph, Landsat overlay, Southernmost Coastal Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D view of a coastal area in southernmost Oman shows how topographic information can be used to enhance satellite images, deriving a better understanding of the processes that sculpt the landscape. The coastline in the upper half of the image appears to follow the same trend as a canyon in the lower half of the image. Both features are probably coincident with a single fault that cuts the limestone bedrock. Note how in this climate limestone erodes sharply along the stream courses resulting in deep and narrow canyons. Generally the landscape is barren, but the darker areas have sparse vegetation that is supported by summer monsoon moisture. The Arabian Sea is on the right.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then using the topographic data to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter (100 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 20.5 by 18.3 kilometers (12.7 by 11.3 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top-left Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  17. Permian age from radiolarites of the Hawasina nappes, Oman Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wever, Patrick; Bourdillon-de Grissac, Chantal; Bechennec, François

    1988-10-01

    The Hawasina nappes of the Oman Mountains yielded Permian radiolarians from cherts stratigraphically overlying a thick volcanic basement (AI Jil Formation) at the base of the Hamrat Duru Group. This fauna represents the first Permian radiolarians and radiolarites in the central and western Tethyan realm. A Permian age for pelagic sequences within the Hawasina Complex of Oman has major significance for regional paleogeographic reconstruction. A clear differentiation between platform (reefal sediments) and basin (radiolarites) from the base of the Late Permian (255 Ma) is implied. It suggests a flexure of the platform during Permian time; the present date implies that a zone of rifting was already developed adjacent to the northeast Gondwana platform margin during the Late Permian. The Hamrat Duru Basin corresponds to an opening intracontinental rift area (sphenochasm) between Arabia and northeast Gondwana, a reentrant of the paleo-Tethys.

  18. Permian age from radiolarites of the Hawasina nappes, Oman Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Wever, P.D. ); Grissac C.B. ); Bechennec, F. )

    1988-10-01

    The Hawasina napper of the Oman Mountains yielded Permian radiolarians from cherts stratigraphically overlying a thick volcanic basement (Al Jil Formation) at the base of the Hamrat Duru Group. This fauna represents the first Permian radiolarians and radiolarites in the central and western Tethyan realm. A Permain age for pelagic sequences within the Hawasina Complex of Oman has major significance for regional paleogeographic reconstruction. A clear differentiation between platform (reefal sediments) and basin (radiolarites) from the base of the Late Permian (255 Ma) is implied. It suggests a flexure of the platform during Permian time; the present data implies that a zone of rifting was already developed adjacent to the northeast Gondwana platform margin during the Late Permian. The Hamrat Duru Basin corresponds to an opening intracontinental rift area (sphenochasm) between Arabia and northeast Gondwana, a reentrant of the paleo-Tethys.

  19. Work Related Injuries in an Oil field in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaee, Faisal Rabia; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of occupational injuries in the Harweel oil field, Oman. Methods The study is based on data gathered from a computerized database maintained by Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO). All non-fatal work-related occupational injuries registered between April 2007 and December 2009 were gathered and analyzed. Results A total of 170 work-related injuries were reported during the study period. Foreign body to the eye was the most common type of injury (27.6%) encountered among all injuries, followed by man falls/slips (11.8%). Injury to the upper extremities accounted for the largest percentage (38.8%) among other body parts. While, a significant portion of the injuries (52%) affected workers aged less than 30 years. The average injury rate per 1000 exposed workers per year was 19.8. Conclusion The study outlines the types of injuries most commonly encountered in the oil field in Oman. Additional data is required in order to devise proper epidemiological analysis. Establishing a comprehensive surveillance system for injuries is essential to ascertain factors influencing such injuries. PMID:22125724

  20. Horizontal well application in QGPC - Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Jubralla, A.F.; Al-Omran, J.; Al-Omran, S.

    1995-08-01

    As with many other areas in the world, the application of horizontal well technology in Qatar has changed the {open_quotes}old time{close_quotes} reservoir development philosophy and approach. QGPC`s first experience with this technology was for increased injectivity in an upper Jurassic reservoir which is comprised by alternating high and low permeable layers. The first well drilled in 1990 offshore was an extreme success and the application was justified for fieldwide implementation. Huge costs were saved as a result. This was followed by 2 horizontal wells for increased productivity in a typically tight (< 5 mD) chalky limestone of Cretaceous age. A fourth offshore well drilled in a thin (30 ft) and tight (10-100 mD) Jurassic dolomite overlaying a stack of relatively thick (25-70 ft) and {open_quotes}Watered Out{close_quotes} grain and grain-packstones, (500-4500 mD) indicated another viable and successful application. A similar approach in the Onshore Dukhan field has been adopted for another Upper Jurassic reservoir. The reservoir is 80 ft thick and is being developed by vertical wells. However, permeability contrast between the upper and lower cycles had caused preferential production and hence injection across the lower cycles, leaving the upper cycles effectively undrained. Horizontal wells have resulted in productivity and injectivity improvements by a factor 3 to 5 that of vertical wells. Therefore a field wide development scheme is being implemented. 3D seismic and the imaging tools, such as the FMS, reconciled with horizontal cores have assisted in understanding the lateral variation and the macro and micro architectural and structural details of these reservoirs. Such tools are essential for the optimum design of horizontal wells.

  1. Characterizing surface temperature and clarity of Kuwait's seawaters using remotely sensed measurements and GIS analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

    Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The spatial and temporal distributions of these important water characteristics should be well understood to obtain a better knowledge about this productive coastal environment. The aim of this project was therefore to study the spatial and temporal distributions of: Kuwait SST using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images collected from January 2003 to July 2007; and Kuwait Secchi Disk Depth (SDD), a water clarity measure, using Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and MODIS data collected from November 1998 to October 2004 and January 2003 to June 2007, respectively. Kuwait SST was modeled based on the linear relationship between level 2 MODIS SST data and in situ SST data. MODIS SST images showed a significant relationship with in situ SST data ( r2= 0.98, n = 118, RMSE = 0.7°C). Kuwait SST images derived from MODIS data exhibited three spatial patterns of Kuwait SST across the year that were mainly attributed to the northwestern counterclockwise water circulation of the Arabian Gulf, and wind direction and intensity. The temporal variation of Kuwait SST was greatly influenced by the seasonal variation of solar intensity and air temperatures. Kuwait SDD was measured through two steps: first, computing the diffuse light attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, Kd(490), and 488 nm, Kd(488), derived from SeaWiFS and MODIS, respectively, using a semi-analytical algorithm; second, establishing two SDD models based on the empirical relationship of Kd(490) and Kd(488) with in situ SDD data. Kd(490) and Kd(488) showed a significant relationship with in situ SDD data ( r2= 0.67 and r2= 0.68, respectively). Kuwait SDD images showed distinct spatial and temporal patterns of Kuwait water clarity that were mainly attributed to three factors: the Shatt Al-Arab discharge, water circulation, and coastal currents. The SeaWiFS and MODIS data compared to in situ measurements provided a comprehensive view of the studied seawater characteristics that improved their overall estimation within Kuwait's waters. Also, the near-real-time availability of SeaWiFS and MODIS data and their highly temporal resolution make them a very advantageous tool for studying coastal environments. Thus, I recommend involving this method in monitoring Kuwait coastal environments.

  2. Trace gas measurements in the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, W.T.; Kok, G.L.; Schillawski, R.D.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Greenberg, J.P.; Kadavanich, M.

    1992-09-20

    The authors report trace gas measurements made both inside and outside the Kuwait oil-fire smoke plume during a flight of an instrumented research aircraft on May 30, 1991. Concentrations of SO{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub x} averaged vertically and horizontally throughout the plume 80 km downwind of Kuwait City were 106, 127, and 9.1 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), respectively, above background concentrations. With the exception of SO{sub 2}, trace gas concentrations were far below typical US urban levels and primary national ambient air quality standards. Ambient ozone was titrated by NO in the dark, dense core of the smoke plume close to the fires, and photochemical ozone production was limited to the diffuse edge of the plume. Photochemical O{sub 3} production was noted throughout the plume at a distance of 160 km downwind of Kuwait City, and averaged 2.3 ppbv per hour during the first 3 hours of transport. Little additional photochemical production was noted at a downwind range of 340 km. The fluxes of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and reactive nitrogen from the roughly 520 fires still burning on May 30, 1991 are estimated at 1.4 x 10{sup 7} kg SO{sub 2}/d, 6.9 x 10{sup 6} kg CO/d, and 2.7 x 10{sup 5} kg N/d, respectively. Generally low concentrations of CO and NO{sub x} indicate that the combustion was efficient and occurred at low temperatures. Low total nonmethane hydrocarbon concentrations suggest that the volatile components of the petroleum were burned efficiently. 37 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation among mothers in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the optimal way to feed infants for the first six months of life. While overall breastfeeding rates are high, exclusive breastfeeding is relatively uncommon among Middle Eastern women. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of breastfeeding amongst women in the six governorates of Kuwait and the factors associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Methods A sample of 373 women (aged 17-47 years), recruited shortly after delivery from four hospitals in Kuwait, completed a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Results In total, 92.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding and at discharge from hospital the majority of mothers were partially breastfeeding (55%), with only 30% of mothers fully breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding was the norm (81.8%) and less than 1 in 5 infants (18.2%) received colostrum as their first feed. Only 10.5% of infants had been exclusively breastfed since birth, the remainder of the breastfed infants having received either prelacteal or supplementary infant formula feeds at some time during their hospital stay. Of the mothers who attempted to breastfeed, the majority of women (55.4%) delayed their first attempt to breastfeed until 24 hours or more after delivery. Breastfeeding at discharge from hospital was positively associated with paternal support for breastfeeding and negatively associated with delivery by caesarean section and with the infant having spent time in the Special Care Nursery. Conclusions The reasons for the high use of prelacteal and supplementary formula feeding warrant investigation. Hospital policies and staff training are needed to promote the early initiation of breastfeeding and to discourage the unnecessary use of infant formula in hospital, in order to support the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding by mothers in Kuwait. PMID:20667112

  4. Geomorphic changes in Ras Al-Subiyah area, Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hurban, A.; El-Gamily, H.; El-Sammak, A.

    2008-06-01

    The Ras Al-Subiyah area is considered one of the most promising areas in Kuwait for future development. This development will include a new town called Subiyah and its associated infrastructure. This area is also being considered as the location for connection between Boubyan Island, which is now undergoing major development and the Kuwait mainland. The present study investigates the geomorphology of the Ras Al-Sabiyah area in the northern sector of Kuwait. The study area is generally flat, and it is located west of the Jal Az-Zor escarpment. It is bordered on the east by the Khor Al-Sabiyah tidal channel and on the south by Kuwait Bay. The area receives sediments from several sources; currently the most important are aeolian sediments and the deposition of mud delivered through the Khor Al-Sabiyah from the Iraqi marshes. The study area has been subjected to severe environmental changes due to the Gulf wars and the drainage of Iraqi marshes and the associated artificial changes in fluvial system. Twenty-two surface sediments were collected from the Ras Al-Subiyah area. Samples were collected to include the main geomorphologic characteristic features of the study area. Field observations and remote sensing images from 1990 and 2001 were used to produce an updated geomorphologic map for the Ras Al-Subiyah and a map showing geomorphic changes between 1990 and 2001. Grain size of the surface sediment ranges from gravel to medium sand. In general, grain size statistical analysis indicates that most of the areas are composed of two or more classes of sands transported and deposited from different sources including aeolian, sabkhas, river and the bays. The variability in the grain size statistical parameters may be attributed to the complexity of surface morphology as well as the diversity in the type of depositional environment in the Ras Al-Subiyah area. The total area subjected to change during the 12-year period (1990 2001) is about 32 km2 as calculated using GIS techniques.

  5. Heavy metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast

    SciTech Connect

    Buo-Olayan, A.H.; Subrahmanyam, M.N.V.

    1996-12-31

    Marine algae are considered as important primary producers in the coastal region. Several marine algal species are being considered as raw material for various economically important products and this has resulted in their increasing demand. Marine algal species also have been suggested to be the indicators of pollution. Keeping in view the importance of marine algal species for direct or indirect human and cattle consumption, it is necessary to monitor the bioaccumulation of certain elements in these species. This study was aimed at establishing the concentration levels of trace metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Toxic metals in imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, A.; Baroon, Z.; Al-Khalafawi, M.

    1995-12-31

    The concentration of lead, cadmium, and mercury in 134 samples of imported fruits and vegetables marketed in Kuwait were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace and the cold vapor technique. Results obtained showed that the concentration of these metal ions in most cases did not exceed the maximum permissible concentration of metals in fresh fruits and vegetables as restricted by some countries. Only a few samples of fruits and vegetables contained levels of mercury, cadmium, and lead which exceeded these maximum permissible levels.

  7. Human Impacts on Coral Reefs in the Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jufaili, S.; Al-Jabri, M.; Al-Baluchi, A.; Baldwin, R. M.; Wilson, S. C.; West, F.; Matthews, A. D.

    1999-08-01

    A rapid assessment survey of the coral reefs of the Sultanate of Oman was conducted by the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Environment during the first half of 1996. The survey revealed new information on the distribution pattern of corals in Oman and identified impacts, threats and potential threats to coral communities for the purpose of preparation of a National Coral Reef Management Plan (Phase One of the implementation of a National Coastal Zone Management Plan). Impacts on coral reefs in Oman were found to be attributable to both natural and human causes, resulting in significant and widespread degradation. Damage resulting from fisheries activities was the most commonly recorded human impact, with the most severe effects. Other human impacts resulted from coastal construction, recreational activities, oil pollution and eutrophication. Predation of corals by Acanthaster planci, damage caused by storms, coral diseases and temperature-related stress were the most commonly recorded natural impacts to coral reefs. Further minor natural impacts were attributable to siltation, rock falls and predation by a corallivorous gastropod (Drupella sp.). Significant differences between different areas of the country were found in terms of human impacts on coral reefs and these were related to coastal demography and human activity. Eighty per cent of sites studied were recorded to have been affected by human impacts to some degree. Impacts attributable to fisheries activities were found at 69% of the sites. Lost or abandoned gill nets were found to affect coral reefs at 49% of sites throughout Oman and accounted for 70% of all severe human impacts. Lost gill nets were also found to have a negative affect on fisheries resources and other marine wildlife. Observations of the behaviour of gill nets on coral reefs suggested a predictable pattern of damage over time and a significant increase in damage intensity during storms. Fishing nets were found to act selectively, causing greater damage to certain coral communities than to others. Results of the study are discussed in relation to management of coral reef areas in Oman.

  8. Spatial assessment of monitoring network in coastal waters: a case study of Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf; AbaHussain, Asma; El-Battay, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Spatial analyses of water-quality-monitoring networks in coastal waters are important because pollution sources vary temporally and spatially. This study was conducted to evaluate the spatial distribution of the water-quality-monitoring network of Kuwait Bay using both geostatistical and multivariate techniques. Three years of monthly data collected from six existing monitoring stations covering Kuwait Bay between 2009 and 2011 were employed in conjunction with data collected from 20 field sampling sites. Field sampling locations were selected based on a stratified random sampling scheme oriented by an existing classification map of Kuwait Bay. Two water quality datasets obtained from different networks were compared by cluster analysis applied to the Water Quality Index (WQI) and other water quality parameters, after which the Kriging method was used to generate distribution maps of water quality for spatial assessment. Cluster analysis showed that the current monitoring network does not represent water quality patterns in Kuwait Bay. Specifically, the distribution maps revealed that the existing monitoring network is inadequate for heavily polluted areas such as Sulaibikhat Bay and the northern portion of Kuwait Bay. Accordingly, the monitoring system in Kuwait Bay must be revised or redesigned. The geostatistical approach and cluster analysis employed in this study will be useful for evaluating future proposed modifications to the monitoring stations network in Kuwait Bay. PMID:26362877

  9. National Student Research Fairs as Evidence for Progress in Qatar's Education for a New Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Margery K.; Alnaimi, Tarfa Nasser; Alhajri, Shaikha Hamad

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the State of Qatar has positioned itself as a leader of educational reform. In 2004, Education for a New Era (ENE) established internationally benchmarked curriculum in Qatari "Independent Schools". Educational reform was to provide an educated workforce and economic prosperity based on a competitive, knowledge-based…

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Organizational Learning and Career Resilience among Faculty Members at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Two main purposes guide this study. The first is to assess the level of individual, group, and organizational learning at Qatar University (QU), and the level of career resilience among its faculty members. The second is to explore the relationships between these levels of learning at QU and the career resilience of its faculty members.…

  11. An assessment of patients’ knowledge of osteoporosis in Qatar: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudeh, Samer; Abdelrahman, Magdi Hassan; Chandra, Prem; Hammoudeh, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease that affects the bones. It leads to increased risk of fractures as a result of decreased bone mineral density. The goal of this study was to assess the general perception of osteoporosis as well as knowledge of lifestyle, risk factors, and preventive measures among patients in Qatar. The study was conducted between September 2013 and September 2014. The study subjects (n = 93) were patients diagnosed with osteoporosis who attended the Outpatient Rheumatology Clinic at Hamad General Hospital in Doha, Qatar. The results showed that those with a university or graduate degree had a significantly higher level of knowledge about osteoporosis (p = 0.009) than those with less education. Among those in our study, knowledge related to osteoporosis was principally obtained through media sources such as television and radio (39%). In conclusion, osteoporosis patients in Qatar need a better understanding of the disease. Identifying thought patterns related to the perception of osteoporosis and treatment might assist in building a foundation for management modalities and effective preventive strategies for the disease in Qatar. PMID:26835409

  12. Mothers' Perceptions of the Treatment of Their Children with Disabilities in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alyn K.

    2011-01-01

    This article constitutes one part of a study of the perceptions of mothers of children with disabilities in Qatar with the purpose of obtaining mothers' unique perceptions of treatment of their children within their community. Participants included 40 mothers of one or more children with disabilities from ages 4 to 19 who attended the same…

  13. Lessons Learned from Developing and Implementing the Qatar Student Assessment System. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Broer, Markus; Mariano, Louis T.; Froemel, J. Enrique; Goldman, Charles A.; DaVanzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of Qatar's standards-based student assessment system, the first in the region, offers several lessons for other nations instituting similar reforms. These include the need to coordinate on standards and assessment development, allow sufficient time for a fully aligned assessment, and communicate about the purposes and uses of testing.…

  14. Post-Secondary Education in Qatar: Employer Demand, Student Choice, and Options for Policy. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasz, Cathleen; Eide, Eric R.; Martorell, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Qatar has made significant efforts to improve post-secondary educational opportunities to ensure that its citizens are able to contribute to the country's social and economic goals. These initiatives, however, have not been subjected to a broad strategic review. The authors describe RAND's analysis of skill and occupational demands and related…

  15. A New System for K-12 Education in Qatar. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan, Gery; Goldman, Charles A.; Stasz, Cathleen; Constant, Louay

    2007-01-01

    The leadership of the Arabian Gulf nation of Qatar, like that of many other countries, views education as the key to future economic, political, and social progress. Many have concluded that a country's ability to compete in the global economy and enable its citizens to take full advantage of technological advances relies on upgrading the quality…

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transit times of Qatar-1b (Maciejewski+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Fernandez, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Ohlert, J.; Puchalski, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Seeliger, M.; Kitze, M.; Raetz, St.; Errmann, R.; Gilbert, H.; Pannicke, A.; Schmidt, J.-G.; Neuhaeuser, R.

    2015-03-01

    Light curves for eighteen Qatar-1 b's transits observed in 2011-2014 are given. Data were collected with 0.6-2.0-m telescopes located in six observatories in Europe. Details on observations, data reduction, and analysis are given in the source paper. (1 data file).

  17. Developing a School Finance System for K-12 Reform in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Galama, Titus; Constant, Louay; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Tanner, Jeffery C.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Reform-minded leaders of Qatar, who have embarked on a sweeping reform of their nation's education system, asked RAND to evaluate the education finance system that has been adopted and to offer suggestions for improvements. The authors analyze the system's evolution and resource allocation patterns between 2004 and 2006 and develop analytic tools…

  18. Roles and Responsibilities of Teaching Assistants in Primary Independent Schools of Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Almula, Badriya; Al Motawaha, Fatma; Fakhro, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the roles and responsibilities of teaching assistants in the primary independent schools in the State of Qatar and to determine whether these roles and responsibilities differed for subgroups in our sample. Results from the study were used to inform and improve certificate programs for teaching assistants.…

  19. Identifying Priorities for Post-Secondary Education in Qatar. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasz, Cathleen; Eide, Eric R.; Martorell, Francisco; Salem, Hanine; Constant, Louay; Goldman, Charles A.; Moini, Joy S.; Nadareishvili, Vazha

    2007-01-01

    Although Qatar has improved its post-secondary educational opportunities, the country's efforts have not undergone a broad strategic review. This study analyzed the extent to which the current offerings can meet the country's future needs and identified priorities for developing further educational options. Researchers found that Qataris' current…

  20. Adequacy, Accountability, Autonomy and Equity in a Middle Eastern School Reform: The Case of Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and…

  1. Exploring the Relationship between Organizational Learning and Career Resilience among Faculty Members at Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Two main purposes guide this study. The first is to assess the level of individual, group, and organizational learning at Qatar University (QU), and the level of career resilience among its faculty members. The second is to explore the relationships between these levels of learning at QU and the career resilience of its faculty members.…

  2. Promoting Quality and Variety through the Public Financing of Privately Operated Schools in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constant, Louay; Goldman, Charles A.; Zellman, Gail L.; Augustine, Catherine H.; Galama, Titus; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Guarino, C. A.; Karam, Rita; Ryan, Gery W.; Salem, Hanine

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, Qatar began establishing publicly funded, privately operated "independent schools" in parallel with the existing, centralized Ministry of Education system. The reform that drove the establishment of the independent schools included accountability provisions such as (a) measuring school and student performance and (b) distributing school…

  3. Qatar's K-12 Education Reform Has Achieved Success in Its Early Years. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Judy

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate progress made in the first years of Qatar's implementation of K-12 education reform, RAND analyzed data from school-level observations, national surveys, and national student assessments. The study found that students in the new, Independent schools were performing better than those in Ministry schools, and there was greater student…

  4. Little Steps at Improving Preschool Teachers Practices through Counseling Skills in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Thani, Aisha; Nasser, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    The study focused on the effects of basic counseling skills program, such as listening, understanding, respecting, and empathizing, to elementary school teachers in Qatar. Through a three-hour intervention program, the authors used a self-reported questionnaire, interview questions and classroom observations to examine changes in how preschool…

  5. "Hope in the Life": The Children of Qatar Speak about Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Lazarus, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Qatar supports the rights of children with special needs to obtain suitable opportunities to learn and be included with other children. However, the concept of inclusion in education is relatively new in this country. In 2001, the Special Needs Committee of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs set up a task force to begin planning for including…

  6. An assessment of patients' knowledge of osteoporosis in Qatar: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Samer; Abdelrahman, Magdi Hassan; Chandra, Prem; Hammoudeh, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease that affects the bones. It leads to increased risk of fractures as a result of decreased bone mineral density. The goal of this study was to assess the general perception of osteoporosis as well as knowledge of lifestyle, risk factors, and preventive measures among patients in Qatar. The study was conducted between September 2013 and September 2014. The study subjects (n = 93) were patients diagnosed with osteoporosis who attended the Outpatient Rheumatology Clinic at Hamad General Hospital in Doha, Qatar. The results showed that those with a university or graduate degree had a significantly higher level of knowledge about osteoporosis (p = 0.009) than those with less education. Among those in our study, knowledge related to osteoporosis was principally obtained through media sources such as television and radio (39%). In conclusion, osteoporosis patients in Qatar need a better understanding of the disease. Identifying thought patterns related to the perception of osteoporosis and treatment might assist in building a foundation for management modalities and effective preventive strategies for the disease in Qatar. PMID:26835409

  7. "Hope in the Life": The Children of Qatar Speak about Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Lazarus, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Qatar supports the rights of children with special needs to obtain suitable opportunities to learn and be included with other children. However, the concept of inclusion in education is relatively new in this country. In 2001, the Special Needs Committee of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs set up a task force to begin planning for including…

  8. Evaluating psychosocial support needs of female cancer patients in the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Alagraa, Razzan; Abujaber, Ahmad; Chandra, Prem; Doughty, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Patient perceived perceptions of psychosocial support are increasingly important to understanding appropriate holistic patient-centred care. Information is scarce regarding the attitudes of female cancer patients in Arab and Muslim populations. This study was undertaken in the State of Qatar among female cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate what extent women undergoing cancer treatment in the State of Qatar view the importance of psychosocial support? Another aim of this study was to determine which demographic indicators, if any, may predict for certain preferences in support. The authors hypothesized that a majority of female cancer patients will perceive psychosocial support as an important aspect. This study used English and Arabic questionnaires to glean data from female cancer patients attending clinics at the National Centre for Cancer Care and Research in Doha, Qatar. For the purpose of this study, psychosocial support was defined under four categories: 1) family support, 2) religious/spiritual support, 3) support groups 4) physician referred support. Results showed that 88% of female respondents rated psychosocial support categories as important. There was no significance between patient demographics and specific preferences for the support categories in the study. This study may provide some areas for future research that may shape guidelines for improving holistic patient care and in assisting the Supreme Health Council in meeting its targets for the Qatar National Cancer strategy, which states that cancer treatment should be patient-centred focusing on both medical and psychosocial needs of patients. PMID:26535172

  9. Alignment of Teacher-Developed Curricula and National Standards in Qatar's National Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Al Mula, Badria; Al Mutawaha, Fatma; Al Bin Ali, Hessa; Kerr, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which teacher developed curriculum was aligned with the national standards in Qatar. Three sources of data included teacher response to a questionnaire, teacher interviews and expert rating of the alignment of teacher-developed materials with curriculum standards. A survey and interview questions measured…

  10. An International Collaboration: Establishing an Education Collection in a Library in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Texas A&M University has a history of international collaboration, cooperation and global outreach. Texas A&M University at Qatar provides engineering students in the Middle East with an education, and ultimately, a degree comparable to that found on our home campus in College Station. The Texas A&M University Libraries have provided curricular…

  11. Development of Education in Qatar (1975/76 and 1976/77).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Youth Welfare (Qatar).

    The national educational system of Qatar was established in 1956, when the discovery of oil provided a financial base for educational expansion. The government provides free education from primary school through the university and has stressed a system of incentives for students rather than declaring education compulsory on any level. Four types…

  12. Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Autism in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheir, Nadir; Ghoneim, Ola; Sandridge, Amy L.; Al-Ismail, Muna; Hayder, Sara; Al-Rawi, Fadhila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Caring for a child diagnosed with autism could affect the quality of life of the caregiver in various different ways. No previous research has assessed the quality of lives of caregivers of children with autism in Qatar. Methods: Caregivers of a child with autism between 3 and 17 years old were recruited from child rehabilitation…

  13. Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Autism in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheir, Nadir; Ghoneim, Ola; Sandridge, Amy L.; Al-Ismail, Muna; Hayder, Sara; Al-Rawi, Fadhila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Caring for a child diagnosed with autism could affect the quality of life of the caregiver in various different ways. No previous research has assessed the quality of lives of caregivers of children with autism in Qatar. Methods: Caregivers of a child with autism between 3 and 17 years old were recruited from child rehabilitation…

  14. An International Collaboration: Establishing an Education Collection in a Library in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Texas A&M University has a history of international collaboration, cooperation and global outreach. Texas A&M University at Qatar provides engineering students in the Middle East with an education, and ultimately, a degree comparable to that found on our home campus in College Station. The Texas A&M University Libraries have provided curricular…

  15. Training Needs Assessment of Fishermen on Oman's Batinah Coast: Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belwal, Rakesh; Belwal, Shweta; Al Jabri, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Oman's 3165-km-long coastline, which includes bays, islands and lagoons, has been rich in fish and crustaceans. In spite of this, the fishing sector and fishermen in Oman have not developed well. The fishermen have just managed to subsist and their motivation to stay in the traditional or artisanal fishery has declined. Assuming that the…

  16. English Communication Skills: How Are They Taught at Schools and Universities in Oman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate, from a student perspective, how English communication skills are taught in Oman's schools and higher education institutions. Previous research has documented the lack of communicative ability in English among school and higher education graduates in Oman (Al-Issa, 2007; Moody, 2009). However, the reasons…

  17. Training Needs Assessment of Fishermen on Oman's Batinah Coast: Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belwal, Rakesh; Belwal, Shweta; Al Jabri, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Oman's 3165-km-long coastline, which includes bays, islands and lagoons, has been rich in fish and crustaceans. In spite of this, the fishing sector and fishermen in Oman have not developed well. The fishermen have just managed to subsist and their motivation to stay in the traditional or artisanal fishery has declined. Assuming that the…

  18. Assessment of Using 99Mo and 99mTc Isotopes in Kuwait Medical Sector.

    PubMed

    Ali, Naser

    2016-04-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the state of Kuwait currently depends on importing the radioisotope molybdenum (Mo) in its isotopic form (Mo) to fulfill its demands. The present study was conducted on all nuclear medicine departments in the state of Kuwait. Daily, weekly, and monthly data were analyzed to statistically determine the current and future demands for the isotope Tc. This analysis was performed by collecting and analyzing data on MOH consumption of Tc for different diagnostic applications. The overall results indicate a partial decrease of 1.012% in the overall total demand for Tc up to the year 2018 for the state of Kuwait. PMID:26910031

  19. Trends and characteristics of injuries in the State of Qatar: hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Abdul Rahman, Yassir S; Abdel Aleem, Eltayib Y; Khalid, Muayad K

    2012-01-01

    Injuries account for a large burden of mortality and morbidity in the State of Qatar. No comprehensive study has been conducted on all types of injuries in the State of Qatar. The objective of this study was to determine the trend in the number, incidence and pattern of injuries in the State of Qatar. This hospital-based study is a retrospective analysis of 53,366 patients treated at the accident and emergency and trauma centres for injuries during the period from 2006 to 2010. Injuries were determined according to the ICD 10 criteria. The details of the entire trauma patients who were involved in occupational/domestic injuries were extracted from the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Hamad Medical Corporation. Our results demonstrated that the rates of injury remained relatively stable in the State of Qatar over the five-year period. Those most at risk of injury were non-Qatari males who were below 30 years. Road traffic accidents (RTA) (36.7%) followed by falls causing back injuries (11.0%) were the most common types of injuries during the period. Most of the injuries occurred at the head for both males (17.7%) and females (13.5%); this was consistently the case across all of the age groups. The greatest proportion of RTA (21.2%), industrial machinery injuries (16.4%), construction injuries (15.5%), recreational sporting injuries (20.5%) and beach/sea/ocean injuries (15.0%) resulted in head injuries. Intervention efforts need to be aimed at reducing occupational injuries, RTA injuries and work-related hazards in the State of Qatar. PMID:22455450

  20. Public’s attitudes towards community pharmacy in Qatar: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Salem, Samah; Mansoor, Hend

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess the public’s attitudes towards the community pharmacist’s role in Qatar, to investigate the public’s use of community pharmacy, and to determine the public’s views of and satisfaction with community pharmacy services currently provided in Qatar. Materials and methods Three community pharmacies in Qatar were randomly selected as study sites. Patients 16 years of age and over who were able to communicate in English or Arabic were randomly approached and anonymously interviewed using a multipart pretested survey. Results Over 5 weeks, 58 patients were interviewed (60% response rate). A total of 45% of respondents perceived community pharmacists as having a good balance between health and business matters. The physician was considered the first person to contact to answer drug- related questions by 50% of respondents. Most patients agreed that the community pharmacist should provide them with the medication directions of use (93%) and advise them about the treatment of minor ailments (79%); however, more than 70% didn’t expect the community pharmacist to monitor their health progress or to perform any health screening. Half of the participants (52%) reported visiting the pharmacy at least monthly. The top factor that affected a patient’s choice of any pharmacy was pharmacy location (90%). When asked about their views about community pharmacy services in Qatar, only 37% agreed that the pharmacist gave them sufficient time to discuss their problem and was knowledgeable enough to answer their questions. Conclusion This pilot study suggested that the public has a poor understanding of the community pharmacist’s role in monitoring drug therapy, performing health screening, and providing drug information. Several issues of concern were raised including insufficient pharmacist– patient contact time and unsatisfactory pharmacist knowledge. To advance pharmacy practice in Qatar, efforts may be warranted to address identified issues and to promote the community pharmacist’s role in drug therapy monitoring, drug information provision, and health screening. PMID:21949604

  1. Prevalence and Determinants of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al Zenki, Sameer; Alomirah, Husam; Al Hooti, Suad; Al Hamad, Nawal; Jackson, Robert T; Rao, Aravinda; Al Jahmah, Nasser; Al Obaid, Ina'am; Al Ghanim, Jameela; Al Somaie, Mona; Zaghloul, Sahar; Al Othman, Amani

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID) of a nationally representative sample of the Kuwait population. We also determined if anemia differed by socioeconomic status or by RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. The subjects who were made up of 1830 males and females between the ages of 2 months to 86 years, were divided into the following age groups (0-5, 5-11, 12-14, 15-19, 20-49, ≥50 years). Results showed that the prevalence of anemia was 3% in adult males and 17% in females. The prevalence of ID varied according to age between 4% (≥50 years) and 21% (5-11 years) and 9% (12-14 years) and 23% (15-19 years), respectively, in males and females. The prevalence of anemia and ID was higher in females compared to males. Adults with normal ferritin level, but with low RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels had higher prevalence of anemia than those with normal RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. This first nationally representative nutrition and health survey in Kuwait indicated that anemia and ID are prevalent and ID contributes significantly to anemia prevalence. PMID:26264015

  2. Groundwater control for construction purposes: a case study from Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqour, Fathi M.; Hasan, Syed E.

    2008-02-01

    One of the major rehabilitation projects in Kuwait during the 1990s was improvement of the wastewater treatment plant at Jahra, a town 30 km north of Kuwait City. The project incorporates construction of a pumping station to collect the sewage via a network of sewer lines throughout the city. Groundwater occurs 4 m below the ground surface and construction specifications required lowering the groundwater table by 16 m to the foundation grade, 20 m below the ground surface. Open excavation with four stage well point system of dewatering was selected to ensure dry foundation conditions; but the system failed to lower the groundwater table down to the desired depth. Review of site investigation records and recalculation of field hydraulic conductivity resulted in design changes, augmenting the well point system with a number of deep wells and sumps to lower the water table down to the foundation grade. The paper discusses subsurface conditions and presents an analysis of the cause of failure of the well point system. The actual hydraulic conductivity proved to be several folds higher than the calculated one that was determined using Hazen’s formula. It was found that use of Hazen’s formula led to serious underestimation of field hydraulic conductivity. It is advised not to use such formulas without thorough investigation and proper interpretation of borehole data.

  3. Chemical and physical properties of emissions from Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.; Pinto, J.; Mamane, Y.; Ondov, J.; Abdulraheem, M.

    1992-01-01

    After the Iraqi retreat from Kuwait in 1991, airborne sampling was conducted in the oil fire plumes near Kuwait City and ground-level samples were taken of the air within the city. For the airborne sampling, a versatile air pollution sampler was used to determine the SO(2), elemental concentrations, the aerosol mass loadings and SO4(2-) and NO3(1-) concentrations. Striking differences between the black and white plumes were associated with high concentrations of NaCl and CaCl(2) measured in the white plumes and large numbers of carbon chain agglomerates in the black plumes. For the ground-based measurements, an annular denuder system was used to determine levels of SO(2), SO4(2-), trace elements, and mass loadings. Certain pollutant levels rose in the city during inversion conditions, when winds were too weak to continue moving the combustion products directly to the Persian Gulf, and the increased levels of Pb and certain trace elements were comparable to those in other large urban areas in Europe.

  4. Effect of oil pollution on fresh groundwater in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sulaimi, J.; Viswanathan, M.N.; Szekely, F.

    1993-11-01

    Massive oil fires in Kuwait were the aftermath of the Gulf War. This resulted in the pollution of air, water, and soil, the magnitude of which is unparalleled in the history of mankind. Oil fires damaged several oil well heads, resulting in the flow of oil, forming large oil lakes. Products of combustion from oil well fires deposited over large areas. Infiltrating rainwater, leaching out contaminants from oil lakes and products of combustion at ground surface, can reach the water table and contaminate the groundwater. Field investigations, supported by laboratory studies and mathematical models, show that infiltration of oil from oil lakes will be limited to a depth of about 2 m from ground surface. Preliminary mathematical models showed that contaminated rainwater can infiltrate and reach the water table within a period of three to four days, particularly at the Raudhatain and Umm Al-Aish regions. These are the only regions in Kuwait where fresh groundwater exists. After reaching the water table, the lateral movement of contaminants is expected to be very slow under prevailing hydraulic gradients. Groundwater monitoring at the above regions during 1992 showed minor levels of vanadium, nickel, and total hydrocarbons at certain wells. Since average annual rainfall in the region is only 120 mm/yr, groundwater contamination due to the infiltration of contaminated rainwater is expected to be a long-term one. 13 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children, an Evolving Problem in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qabandi, Wafa’a A.; Buhamrah, Eman K.; Hamadi, Khaled A.; Al-Osaimi, Suad A.; Al-Ruwayeh, Ahlam A.; Madda, JohnPatrick

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought a rare disease among children in Kuwait since most diarrhea cases were attributed to infections. In the past few years we observed an increase in the number of patients presenting with IBD. In this study we aimed to determine the epidemiology of IBD among children in the State of Kuwait. Patients and Methods: The charts of all children with IBD who were referred to the pediatric gastroenterology unit during the period February 1998 to January 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Out of a total of 130 children with IBD, 92 (71%) had Crohn's disease, 36 (28%) had ulcerative colitis and two (1%) had indeterminate colitis. The estimated annual incidence for IBD was 2.16/105 /year. The age range was nine months-15 years (median: 11 years). Fifty-three percent of all patients were females and 77% were Kuwaiti nationals. Positive family history was found in 23%. The commonest presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (87%) and diarrhea (82%). Failure to thrive was detected in 35% and short stature in 20% at presentation. The ileocolonic region was the most common presentation site affected in Crohn's patients and pancolitis was the commonest in ulcerative colitis. Conclusion: Inflammatory bowel disease is not uncommon in our children. We found no differences regarding disease presentation and clinical features compared to the Western world. PMID:21912059

  6. Prevalence and Determinants of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al Zenki, Sameer; Alomirah, Husam; Al Hooti, Suad; Al Hamad, Nawal; Jackson, Robert T.; Rao, Aravinda; Al Jahmah, Nasser; Al Obaid, Ina’am; Al Ghanim, Jameela; Al Somaie, Mona; Zaghloul, Sahar; Al Othman, Amani

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID) of a nationally representative sample of the Kuwait population. We also determined if anemia differed by socioeconomic status or by RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. The subjects who were made up of 1830 males and females between the ages of 2 months to 86 years, were divided into the following age groups (0–5, 5–11, 12–14, 15–19, 20–49, ≥50 years). Results showed that the prevalence of anemia was 3% in adult males and 17% in females. The prevalence of ID varied according to age between 4% (≥50 years) and 21% (5–11 years) and 9% (12–14 years) and 23% (15–19 years), respectively, in males and females. The prevalence of anemia and ID was higher in females compared to males. Adults with normal ferritin level, but with low RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels had higher prevalence of anemia than those with normal RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. This first nationally representative nutrition and health survey in Kuwait indicated that anemia and ID are prevalent and ID contributes significantly to anemia prevalence. PMID:26264015

  7. Seasonal Variability in Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Over Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis

    2015-04-01

    We report on the vertical distribution and seasonal variability in tropospheric ozone over the Middle East through one year of weekly ozonesondes launched from Doha, Qatar during 2014. A total of 49 2Z-V7 DMT/EN-SCI Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesondes employing a 1% buffered potassium iodide solution (KI), coupled with iMet-1-RS GPS radiosondes were launched around 1300 local time. The authors used the SkySonde telemetry software (developed by CIRES and NOAA/ESRL) and developed robust in-house data quality assurance and validation methodologies. The average height of the thermal tropopause is between 15-17.5 km (125-85 hPa). Monthly average relative humidity around the tropopause shows an enhancement during the months of June through the beginning of October. Monthly average temperature profiles show the development of the subtropical subsidence inversion around 5-6 km (450-520 hPa) between the months of April through October. The subsidence inversion is strongest during the months of June and July and is accompanied by a sharp drop in relative humidity over a 100-300 m in the vertical. The monthly average ozone background concentration between the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height and the subsidence inversion increases from 50 ppb in the winter to almost 80 ppb in the summer months. An enhancement of up to 50% in the average ozone in the mid-to-upper troposphere (above the subsidence inversion) is strongest during the summer months (June through September) and results in average concentrations between 80-100 ppb. In the upper troposphere (above 13 km/200 hPa) ozone concentrations are highest during the spring and summer months. This is coupled with a drop in the average height of the tropopause. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows the enhancement in mid-to-upper tropospheric ozone in the summer is due to persistent high pressure over the Middle East between the months of June through September. Evidence of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE) in the winter and spring months and Monsoonal outflow observed in late summer are also reflected in the ozone profiles and HYSPLIT back-trajectories.

  8. Tsunami Hazard Assessment along the Coast of Oman from Near- and Far-field Tectonic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, Issa; Baptista, Maria; Omira, Rachid; Al-Rawas, Ghazi; Deif, Ahmed; Al-Habsi, Zaid; Al-Jabri, Khalifa

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas of Oman are exposed to tsunami threat associated with earthquakes generated in two major subduction zones, namely Makran and Sumatra. Both zones were responsible of triggering tsunamis that reached/impacted Oman coast. The Mw8.1 earthquake event of 1945, occurred in Makran zone, has caused a tsunami that was reported to affect the coast of Oman. The Mw9.2 Indian Ocean event of 2004 triggered a tsunami that was recorded in various tide-gauges stations of Oman with wave amplitude reaching ~1.7m in the port of Salalah. This work aims to assess tsunami hazard along the Oman coast considering both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Deterministic approach uses particular source scenarios (most credible and/or worst case) from Makran and Sumatra subduction zones and computes the tsunami coastal impact through numerical modeling of expected waveforms, maximum wave heights distribution, and site-specific inundations. While, probabilistic approach includes the contribution of small and large sources and employs the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment together with the numerical modeling to evaluate the likelihood that a certain level of tsunami threat is exceeded at a certain location of Oman coast within a certain period of time. We present deterministic results in terms of regional scale distribution of maximum wave heights, tsunami waveforms computation, and inundation maps for a selected coastal area. For probabilistic assessment, we derive 250- and 500-years probability hazard exceedance maps and hazard curves for the Oman coast. The hazard maps consist of computing the likelihood that tsunami waves exceed a specific amplitude for the entire coast of Oman, and the hazard curves describe the variation of cumulative probabilities as function of wave amplitudes at some critical coastal points. Finally, we discuss the usefulness of obtained results for tsunami mitigation in Oman. Keywords: Tsunami, Oman, Deterministic approach, Probabilistic approach.

  9. Geology and hydrogeology of the Dammam Formation in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Awadi, E.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Senafy, M. N.

    The Dammam Formation of Middle Eocene age is one of the major aquifers containing useable brackish water in Kuwait. Apart from the paleokarst zone at the top, the Dammam Formation in Kuwait consists of 150-200m of dolomitized limestone that is subdivided into three members, on the basis of lithology and biofacies. The upper member consists of friable chalky dolomicrite and dolomite. The middle member is mainly laminated biomicrite and biodolomicrite. The lower member is nummulitic limestone with interlayered shale toward the base. Geophysical markers conform to these subdivisions. Core analyses indicate that the upper member is the most porous and permeable of the three units, as confirmed by the distribution of lost-circulation zones. The quality of water in the aquifer deteriorates toward the north and east. A potentiometric-head difference exists between the Dammam Formation and the unconformably overlying Kuwait Group; this difference is maintained by the presence of an intervening aquitard. Résumé La formation de Damman, d'âge Éocène moyen, est l'un des principaux aquifères du Koweit, contenant de l'eau saumâtre utilisable. A part dans sa partie supérieure où existe un paléokarst, la formation de Damman au Koweit est constituée par 150 à 200m de calcaires dolomitisés, divisés en trois unités sur la base de leur lithologie et de biofaciès. L'unité supérieure est formée d'une dolomicrite crayeuse et friable et d'une dolomie. L'unité médiane est pour l'essentiel une biomicrite laminée et une biodolomicrite. L'unité inférieure est un calcaire nummulitique avec des intercalations argileuses vers la base. Les marqueurs géophysiques sont conformes à ces subdivisions. Les analyses de carottes montrent que l'unité supérieure est la plus poreuse et la plus perméable des trois. La répartition des zones d'écoulement souterrain confirment ces données. La qualité de l'eau dans l'aquifère se dégrade en direction du nord et de l'est. Une différence de niveau piézométrique est observée entre la formation de Damman et le groupe de Koweit qui la recouvre en discordance; cette différence est due à la présence d'un niveau imperméable qui la maintient captive. Resumen La Formación Damman, del Eoceno Medio, es uno de los mayores acuíferos de agua salobre aprovechable en Kuwait. Además de una zona de paleokarst en la parte superior, la Formación Damman en Kuwait consiste en 150-200m de caliza dolomitizada, que se subdivide en tres zonas en función de la litología y la biofacies. La parte superior está formada por dolomicrita yesífera friable y dolomita. La parte central es básicamente biomicrita laminada y biodolomicrita. La inferior es caliza nummulítica, con intercalaciones de pizarra en la base. Los marcadores geofísicos reflejan claramente estas subdivisiones. Los análisis de testigos revelan que la parte superior es la más porosa y permeable de las tres unidades. Esto queda confirmado con la distribución de zonas de circulación perdidas. La calidad del agua en el acuífero se deteriora hacia el norte y el este. Sobre la Formación Damman, y de manera no conforme, suprayace otra formación, que se conoce como Grupo Kuwaití. Existe una diferencia de niveles piezométricos entre ambas formaciones, la cual se mantiene por la presencia de una capa semiconfinante.

  10. Qatar-2: A K Dwarf Orbited by a Transiting Hot Jupiter and a Longer-Period Massive Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Marta; Alsubai, K. A.; Latham, D. W.; Quinn, S. N.; Collier Cameron, A.; Carter, J. A.; Buchave, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-2b, a hot Jupiter transiting a K dwarf in a circular orbit with a short period, Pb = 1.34 days. Differential photometry and model fitting of transit data from both KeplerCam and LCOGT yielded light curve parameters Rp/Rs, a/Rs, u1, u2, and i that were optimized using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Radial velocity measurements from the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph of Qatar-2 over a span of 153 days provided a mass estimate for Qatar-2b, with velocity residuals from the orbital solution that pointed to the presence of a third body in the system. The light curve parameter a/Rs and spectroscopic values for effective temperature and metallicity were used in conjunction with stellar models to estimate the mass and radius of Qatar-2, leading to a mass and radius for Qatar-2b of MP = 2.54 MJ and RP = 1.14 RJ, respectively. Next we used the Systemic Console to explore possible orbital solutions for the outer companion, Qatar-2c. Plausible solutions have periods slightly less than a year and a mass of several MJ. However, further observations are needed to determine a reliable orbit for Qatar-2c. Qatar-2 is only the fourth example in the short but growing list of systems with a transiting hot Jupiter and an outer companion. This system architecture is in sharp contrast to that found by Kepler for multi-transiting systems, which are dominated by objects smaller than Neptune, usually with tightly spaced orbits that must be nearly coplanar.

  11. Changes in the water quality conditions of Kuwait's marine waters: Long term impacts of nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M J; Massoud, M S; Hamid, S A; Al-Zaidan, A; Al-Sarawi, H; Al-Enezi, M; Al-Ghofran, L; Smith, A J; Barry, J; Stentiford, G D; Morris, S; da Silva, E T; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    This work analyses a 30year water quality data set collated from chemical analyses of Kuwait's marine waters. Spatial patterns across six sites in Kuwait Bay and seven sites located in the Arabian Gulf are explored and discussed in terms of the changing influences associated with point and diffuse sources. Statistical modelling demonstrated significant increases for dissolved nutrients over the time period. Kuwait marine waters have been subject to inputs from urban development, untreated sewage discharges and decreasing river flow from the Shatt al-Arab River. Chlorophyll biomass showed a small but significant reduction; the high sewage content of the coastal waters from sewage discharges likely favouring the presence of smaller phytoplankton taxa. This detailed assessment of temporal data of the impacts of sewage inputs into Kuwait's coastal waters establishes an important baseline permitting future assessments to be made as sewage is upgraded, and the river continues to be extracted upstream. PMID:26490407

  12. Middle cretaceous carbonate reservoirs, Fahud Field and northwestern Oman: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.

    1985-05-01

    A discussion is presented of the Cretaceous formations involved in Fahud field. Along the Trucial Coast, as in northwestern Oman, it is not difficult to date the time of formation of the foredeep. This article provides a stratigraphic correlation chart for the Cretaceous along the Arabian side of the Arabian Gulf. The terminology presented on this correlation chart reflects oil-industry usage in the area, including correlations published by Owen and Nasr, Loutfi and Jaber, Arabian American Oil Company, Beydoun and Dunnington, and Hassan et al.

  13. Cost effectiveness of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Oman

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) is the leading cause of diarrhea in young children in Oman, incurring substantial healthcare and economic burden. We propose to formally assess the potential cost effectiveness of implementing universal vaccination with a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) on reducing the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) in Oman Methods A Markov model was used to compare two birth cohorts, including children who were administered the RV5 vaccination versus those who were not, in a hypothetical group of 65,500 children followed for their first 5 years of life in Oman. The efficacy of the vaccine in reducing RGE-related hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) and office visits, and days of parental work loss for children receiving the vaccine was based on the results of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST). The outcome of interest was cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from health care system and societal perspectives. Results A universal RV5 vaccination program is projected to reduce, hospitalizations, ED visits, outpatient visits and parental work days lost due to rotavirus infections by 89%, 80%, 67% and 74%, respectively. In the absence of RV5 vaccination, RGE-related societal costs are projected to be 2,023,038 Omani Rial (OMR) (5,259,899 United States dollars [USD]), including 1,338,977 OMR (3,481,340 USD) in direct medical costs. However, with the introduction of RV5, direct medical costs are projected to be 216,646 OMR (563,280 USD). Costs per QALY saved would be 1,140 OMR (2,964 USD) from the health care payer perspective. An RV5 vaccination program would be considered cost saving, from the societal perspective. Conclusions Universal RV5 vaccination in Oman is likely to significantly reduce the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis and may be cost-effective from the payer perspective and cost saving from the societal perspective. PMID:24941946

  14. Probing Shallow Aquifers in Northern Kuwait Using Airborne Sounding Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggy, E.; Fadlelmawla, A.; Farr, T. G.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the global warming observations, scientific interest and data analyses have concentrated on the earth Polar Regions and forested areas, as they provide direct measurable impacts of large scale environmental changes. Unfortunately, the arid environments, which represent ~20% of the earth surface, have remained poorly studied. Yet water rarity and freshness, drastic changes in rainfall, flash floods, high rates of aquifer discharge and an accelerated large-scale desertification process are all alarming signs that suggest a substantial large-scale climatic variation in those areas that can be correlated to the global change that is affecting the volatile dynamic in arid zones. Unfortunately the correlations, forcings and feedbacks between the relevant processes (precipitation, surface fresh water, aquifer discharge, sea water rise and desertification) in these zones remain poorly observed, modeled, let alone understood. Currently, local studies are often oriented toward understanding small-scale or regional water resources and neither benefit from nor feedback to the global monitoring of water vapor, precipitation and soil moisture in arid and semi-arid areas. Furthermore techniques to explore deep subsurface water on a large scale in desertic environments remain poorly developed making current understanding of earth paleo-environment, water assessment and exploration efforts poorly productive and out-phased with current and future needs to quantitatively understand the evolution of earth water balance. To address those deficiencies we performed a comprehensive test mapping of shallow subsurface hydro-geological structures in the western Arabic peninsula in Kuwait, using airborne low frequency sounding radars with the main objectives to characterize shallow fossil aquifers in term of depth, sizes and water freshness. In May 2011, an experimental airborne radar sounder operating at 50 MHz was deployed in Kuwait and demonstrated an ability to penetrate down to the water table ~35 m deep in Um-Al-Aish and Al-Rawdateen aquifers located on the northern part of Kuwait. In addition the radar achieved penetration into several dry sediments down to 65 m deep mapping the succession of residual gravel deposits. The obtained radargrams of several kilometers-long traced the variability in the water table depth and identified the discharge location of the Al-Rawdateen aquifer. These radar cross-sections were verified through comparisons with water wells, Transient Electromagnetic Method and Resistivity profiles. We will discuss the implication of these results for performing future airborne and orbital detailed mapping of the occurrence and spatial distribution of shallow aquifers in the most arid desert regions on Earth to understand ground water hydrology, enhance ground water flow models and provide new insights into available water resources and recent paleo-climate changes.

  15. Ozone chemistry in the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.A.; Hobbs, P.V.

    1992-09-20

    Ozone depletion occurred in the core of the plume of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires within 100 km of the fires, primarily in regions where NO{sub x} concentrations were high and ultraviolet flux was near zero. Rapid conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} can explain almost all of the ozone loss. Ozone was produced in diffuse regions of the plume, where the ultraviolet flux was higher than in the core. However, due to the relatively high ratio of nonmethane hydrocarbons to NO{sub x}, ozone production was slow. Since ozone was produced in a much larger volume than it was depleted, the plume as a whole was a source of ozone on a regional scale. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Preventing non-communicable disease in Oman, a legislative review.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahlani, Sabah; Mabry, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) is a major global concern and is projected to increase by 15% over the next 10 years. NCD is the leading cause of mortality in Oman and other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Some of the most successful interventions to address NCD include legislations like banning smoking in public places. A desk review of available policies and legislations related to the behavioural risk factors of NCD from the GCC and from Oman was conducted with a focus on policies and legislations related to food, physical activity and tobacco. The review identified numerous documents; most were policies and resolutions related to tobacco control. Although only a few documents were laws, a majority were issued by non-health sectors. This policy review is the first effort in the GCC to consolidate information on the regulatory framework for the three key risk behaviours in the region, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Further work is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework, at both the national and regional levels, to strengthen tobacco control as well as to improve dietary patterns and physical activity levels. Given that a bulk of laws, regulations and policies are beyond the scope of the health sector, significant advocacy efforts are required to generate a multisectoral response. PMID:25217359

  17. Seismic hazard evaluation of the Oman India pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.W.; Thenhaus, P.C.; Mullee, J.E.; Preston, R.

    1996-12-31

    The proposed Oman India pipeline will traverse approximately 1,135 km of the northern Arabian Sea floor and adjacent continental shelves at depths of over 3 km on its route from Ra`s al Jifan, Oman, to Rapar Gadhwali, India. The western part of the route crosses active faults that form the transform boundary between the Arabian and Indian tectonic plates. The eastern terminus of the route lies in the vicinity of the great (M {approximately} 8) 1829 Kutch, India earthquake. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis was used to estimate the values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) with return periods of 200, 500 and 1,000 years at selected locations along the pipeline route and the submarine Indus Canyon -- a possible source of large turbidity flows. The results defined the ground-shaking hazard along the pipeline route and Indus Canyon for evaluation of risks to the pipeline from potential earthquake-induced geologic hazards such as liquefaction, slope instability, and turbidity flows. 44 refs.

  18. Emerging Burden of Frail Young and Elderly Persons in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Alawi, Mohammed; Al-Lawati, Rehab; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Recent improvements in health and an increased standard of living in Oman have led to a reduction in environment-related and infectious diseases. Now the country is experiencing an epidemiological transition characterised by a baby boom, youth bulge and increasing longevity. Common wisdom would therefore suggest that Omanis will suffer less ill health. However, a survey of literature suggests that chronic non-communicable diseases are unexpectedly becoming common. This is possibly fuelled by some socio-cultural patterns specific to Oman, as well as the shortcomings of the ‘miracle’ of health and rapid modernisation. Unfortunately, such new diseases do not spare younger people; a proportion of them will need the type of care usually reserved for the elderly. In addition, due to their pervasive and refractory nature, these chronic non-communicable diseases seem impervious to the prevailing ‘cure-oriented’ health care system. This situation therefore calls for a paradigm shift: a health care system that goes beyond a traditional cure-orientation to provide care services for the chronically sick of all ages. PMID:22548135

  19. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among University Students in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Zakiya; Bhargava, Kamlesh; Al-Ismaily, Aida; Al-Lawati, Hadia; Al-Kindi, Rahma; Al-Shafaee, Mohammad; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with gender, academic year, and college among university students in Oman. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Omani students attending the students’ clinic of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU). A systematic sampling of students, males and females, from different colleges, who visited the clinic during the study period, was carried out. The self-administered Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to screen for propensity to depression. Results A total of 481 students participated in the study (243 males and 238 females). Overall, 133 (27.7%) of the participants (66 males and 67 females) had depression of various grades based on the PHQ-9 diagnostic criteria using a cut point of more than 11. Depression score at the cut point of 11 was not statistically associated with gender, college and the academic year. Conclusion Tendency for depression might be a common health problem among college students in Oman attending primary health care facilities. Further research on socio-demographic characteristics and the effect of depression on the academic performance is needed. PMID:22043426

  20. Masirah Graben, Oman: A hidden Cretaceous rift basin

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, W.H.; Ries, A.C.; Coward, M.P.

    1995-06-01

    Reflection seismic data, well data, geochemical data, and surface geology suggest that a Cretaceous rift basin exists beneath the thrusted allochthonous sedimentary sequence of the Masirah graben, Oman. The Masirah graben is located east of the Huqf uplift, parallel to the southern coast of Oman. The eastern side of the northeast-trending Huqf anticlinorium is bounded by an extensional fault system that is downthrown to the southeast, forming the western edge of the Masirah graben. This graben is limited to the east by a large wedge of sea floor sediments and oceanic crust, that is stacked as imbricate thrusts. These sediments/ophiolites were obducted onto the southern margin of the Arabian plate during the collision of the Indian/Afghan plates at the end of the Cretaceous. Most of the Masirah graben is covered by an allochthonous sedimentary sequence, which is complexly folded and deformed above a detachment. This complexly deformed sequence contrasts sharply with what is believed to be a rift sequence below the ophiolites. The sedimentary sequence in the Masirah graben was stable until further rifting of the Arabian Sea/Gulf of Aden in the late Tertiary, resulting in reactivation of earlier rift-associated faults. Wells drilled in the Masirah graben in the south penetrated reservoir quality rocks in the Lower Cretaceous Natih and Shuaiba carbonates. Analyses of oil extracted from Infracambrian sedimentary rocks penetrated by these wells suggest an origin from a Mesozoic source rock.

  1. Dentists' and Parents' Attitude Toward Nitrous Oxide Use in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Alkandari, Sarah A; Almousa, Fatemah; Abdulwahab, Mohammad; Boynes, Sean G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude of dentists in Kuwait toward the use of nitrous oxide sedation as a behavior management technique (BMT) for pediatric patients and assess their training in nitrous oxide sedation. In addition, we assessed parents' knowledge of and attitude toward the use of nitrous oxide as a BMT for their children. The objective was to determine if nitrous oxide sedation is being provided and utilized as a means to enhance dental care for pediatric patients. A cross-sectional survey was randomly distributed to both groups of interest: parents accompanying their children to the dentist and licensed dentists in Kuwait. Participants had to meet certain inclusion criteria to be included in the survey and had to complete the entire questionnaire to be part of the analysis. A total of 381 parents completed the questionnaires. The majority of parents responded that they were unaware of nitrous oxide sedation and were not aware of it as a BMT (79%). Two thirds of the parent would accept nitrous oxide sedation if recommended by a dentist treating their children. Two hundred and one dentists completed the survey and met the inclusion criteria. The majority (74.5%) of dentists were willing to use nitrous oxide as a BMT. However, only 6% were utilizing nitrous oxide sedation and providing it to their child patient if indicated. The main reasons for this huge gap are lack of facilities/equipment and lack of training as indicated by the dentists. This study showed that parents are accepting nitrous oxide sedation as a BMT for their children. It also showed the willingness of the dentists to provide such BMT to their patients. The lack of training and lack of equipment are the main barriers to providing such service to the patients. More training courses and more facilities should be provided to eliminate such barriers. PMID:26866406

  2. The health care system of Kuwait: the social paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Meleis, A I

    1979-11-01

    Because of its oil resources, Kuwait today has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. In the last 6 years, its population has increased by 25%, including immigrants and temporary workers. More than 1/2 of the population is non-Kuwaiti, leading to rigid segregation and extreme nationalism. 60% of the population is under 20 years of age. With the achievement of independence and the great increase in wealth from oil, the Kuwaiti government embarked on a plan to distribute the wealth among its citizens in various ways. A substantial amount has been spent on health, education, and public works, with the health ministries accounting for about 20% of the budget. The health care system has been organized around provision of primary health care, and the primary health care clinic is the main point of entry into the health care system, designed to reach all sectors of the population. Combined clinics offer primary care and specialty clinics. The number of hospitals has increased more than 2-fold over the last 10 years. The emphasis is on curative care. Western medicine is much valued, and campaigns for immunization and vaccination were highly successful. The concept of the "evil eye" is widespread, causing difficulties in interviewing patients, but also creating a demand for curative medicine when the effects of the "eye" reach the body. Injections are especially desirable, preferred over oral medications. The large percentage of health professionals from foreign countries has created communications problems, even within the health profession itself. The interplay between certain social qualities in the country and the health care system has created a series of paradoxes which must be recognized if they are to be dealt with, a necessary step to improve the quality of health care in Kuwait. PMID:538489

  3. Celiac disease in children: is it a problem in Kuwait?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qabandi, Wafa’a; Buhamrah, Eman; Al-Abdulrazzaq, Dalia; Hamadi, Khaled; Al Refaee, Fawaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine triggered by gluten ingestion. The objective of this study is to describe our experience with CD children in Kuwait. Methods The records of children with CD seen in the pediatric gastroenterology unit between February 1998 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were referred because of symptoms or positive CD antibody screening of a high-risk group (type 1 diabetes and Down syndrome). Results Forty-seven patients were diagnosed: 53% were symptomatic and 47% were identified by screening. The median age at diagnosis was 66 (range 7–189) months. All cases were biopsy-proven except one. The symptomatic patients were significantly younger than those identified following screening (P<0.004). In the whole group, 66% were females and 77% were Kuwaitis; 9% had a positive family history of CD. The estimated cumulative incidence was 6.9/105. The median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 8.5 (range 2–54) months. Failure to thrive was the most common presenting complaint (72%) followed by diarrhea (64%) and abdominal distension (56%). Atypical manifestations were seen in 60% of patients. Underweight and short stature were confirmed in 19% and 17% of patients, respectively. Overweight and obesity were detected in 14% and 6%, respectively. CD serology was based on a combination of antiendomysial and antigliadin antibodies. The median follow up was 24 (range 12–144) months. All patients were commenced on a gluten free diet, but good compliance was only achieved in 78%. Conclusion The low frequency of childhood CD in Kuwait could probably be attributed to either an underestimation of the atypical presentations or failure of proper screening. Also, adherence to a gluten free diet is a major problem in our population. PMID:25565879

  4. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard assessment for Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hussain, I. W.; Deif, A.; El-Hady, S.; Toksoz, M. N.; Al-Jabri, K.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Toubi, K. I.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic hazard assessment for Oman is conducted utilizing probabilistic approach. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed within a logic tree framework. An earthquake catalogue for Oman was compiled and declustered to include only independent earthquakes. The declustered catalogue was used to define seismotectonic source model with 26 source zones that characterize earthquakes in the tectonic environments in and around Oman. The recurrence parameters for all the seismogenic zones are determined using the doubly bounded exponential distribution except the seismogenic zones of Makran subduction zone which were modeled using the characteristic distribution. The maximum earthquakes on known faults were determined geologically and the remaining zones were determined statistically from the compiled catalogue. Horizontal ground accelerations in terms of geometric mean were calculated using ground-motion prediction relationships that were developed from seismic data obtained from the shallow active environment, stable craton environment, and from subduction earthquakes. In this analysis, we have used alternative seismotectonic source models, maximum magnitude, and attenuation models and weighted them to account for the epistemic uncertainty. The application of this methodology leads to the definition of 5% damped seismic hazard maps at rock sites for 72, 475, and 2475 year return periods for spectral accelerations at periods of 0.0 (corresponding to peak ground acceleration), 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 sec. Mean and 84th percentile acceleration contour maps were represented. The results also were displayed as uniform hazard spectra for rock sites in the cities of Khasab, Diba, Sohar, Muscat, Nizwa, Sur, and Salalah in Oman and the cities of Abu Dhabi and Dubai in UAE. The PGA across Oman ranges from 20 cm/sec2 in the Mid-West and 115 cm/sec2 at the northern part for 475 years return period and between 40 cm/sec2 and 180 cm/sec2 for 2475 years return period. The highest hazard is found in the most northern city (Khasab) close to both Zagros and Makran Zones with maximum spectral accelerations at 0.2 sec period reaching 243 cm/s2 for a return period of 475 years and 397 cm/s2 for 2475 years. Earthquakes at a distance of 90 km from Khasab City contribute most to the hazard of this city at both 475 and 2475 year return period hazard levels for all considered spectral periods. For the cities of Diba, Muscat, Nizwa, Sur, and Salalah, the hazard is dominated by large distant earthquakes at all response periods for 475 year return period, while for the 2475 year return period, the hazard is dominated by nearby small to moderate earthquakes for short spectral periods and by distant larger events for longer ones. The results support the UBC97 classification of Sohar, Muscat, Nizwa, Sur, and Salalah cities to be in Zone 0 (no seismic design required), whereas in Khasab and Diba Zone 1 would be appropriate.

  5. Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Qaradawi, Ilham; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Al-Yafei, Mohsin Al-Ansi; Al-Ansari, Ebrahim; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Holm, Elis; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Mauring, Alexander; Pinto, Primal V; Abdulmalik, Dana; Amir, Amina; Miller, Mark; Yigiterhan, Oguz; Persson, Bertil

    2015-01-15

    A study on (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (238)U was carried out along the EEZ of Qatar. Results serve as the first ever baseline data. The level of (137)Cs (mean value 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3)) in water filters was found to be in the same order of magnitude as reported by others in worldwide marine radioactivity studies. Results are also in agreement with values reported from other Gulf regions. The computed values of sediment-water distribution coefficients Kd, are lower than the values given by IAEA. Measurements were carried out for bottom sediments, biota samples like fish, oyster, sponge, seashell, mangrove, crab, shrimp, starfish, dugong and algae. The 'concentration factors' reported for biota samples are below the levels published by IAEA and cause no significant impact on human health for seafood consumers in Qatar. PMID:25480154

  6. Development, implementation and evaluation of a medication safety programme for schoolchildren in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Wilby, K J; Hazi, H M; Ashour, M A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the needs of schoolchildren relating to medication safety and to develop and implement a health promotion programme in Qatar. Semi-structured interviews were completed with teachers, nurses and school administrators at 2 primary schools in Doha. Two main themes were identified from these interviews, namely medication basics and medication safety. Subsequently, a 25-minute health promotion programme was developed and delivered to 11 groups of schoolchildren aged 6-10 years. The student groups contained both expatriate and local Qatari students. The programme was evaluated based on perceptions of site representatives, investigators and peer reviewers using a standardized evaluation form. All the evaluators agreed that the programme was beneficial and should be recommended to other schools in Qatar. This study can serve as a prototype for future programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and elsewhere. PMID:25907194

  7. Adequacy, accountability, autonomy and equity in a Middle Eastern school reform: The case of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Tanner, Jeffery C.

    2012-04-01

    This study examines Qatar's recent and ambitious school reform in the early stages of its implementation against a set of four criteria for successful education systems drawn from guidelines developed by the international community: adequacy, accountability, autonomy and gender equity. We investigate both the initial structure of the reform and its sustainability in light of concerns that movements in these directions might be politically unfeasible. To some degree, these concerns are substantiated by the developments we trace. However, it is important to note that the reform has changed the landscape of primary and secondary education in Qatar and that many reform principles, though diluted, have been retained. This paper highlights lessons learned - both hopeful and cautionary - in the first few years of reform and presents a methodology for evaluating progress along key dimensions that can be applied to school systems in many nations.

  8. An analysis of wind and solar energy resources for the State of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhusainan, Haya Nasser

    Kuwait is an important producer of oil and gas. Its rapid socio-economic growth has been characterized by increasing population, high rates of urbanization, and substantial industrialization, which is transforming it into a large big energy consumer as well. In addition to urbanization, climatic conditions have played an important function in increasing demand for electricity in Kuwait. Electricity for thermal cooling has become essential in the hot desert climate, and its use has developed rapidly along with the economic development, urbanization, and population growth. This study examines the long-term wind and solar resources over the Kuwait to determine the feasibility of these resources as potential sustainable and renewable energy sources. The ultimate goal of this research is to help identify the potential role of renewable energy in Kuwait. This study will examine the drivers and requirements for the deployment of these energy sources and their possible integration into the electricity generation sector to illustrate how renewable energy can be a suitable resource for power production in Kuwait and to illustrate how they can also be used to provide electricity for the country. For this study, data from sixteen established stations monitored by the meteorological department were analyzed. A solar resource map was developed that identifies the most suitable locations for solar farm development. A range of different relevant variables, including, for example, electric networks, population zones, fuel networks, elevation, water wells, streets, and weather stations, were combined in a geospatial analysis to predict suitable locations for solar farm development and placement. An analysis of recommendations, future energy targets and strategies for renewable energy policy in Kuwait are then conducted. This study was put together to identify issues and opportunities related to renewable energy in the region, since renewable energy technologies are still limited in Kuwait because, compared to the cost of conventional electricity in Kuwait, the cost of renewable energy-based electricity is very high. However, the abundant availability of the solar and wind energy as clean renewable energy in Kuwait offers the country significant opportunities to become a leader in the renewable energy sector. In a competition with subsidized oil and gas energy, the success of renewable energy technologies in Kuwait will be subject to the ability of the state to introduce supporting policies, including financial incentives and a regulatory framework to encourage deployment and reduce cost.

  9. Utilisation of gas resources in qatar: A decade of planned development and integration

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdin, J.P.

    1985-03-01

    Qatar's demand for energy has increased tremendously during the last decade due to expanded economic activity since the early 1970's and subsequent diversification through development of downstream industries. Most of the energy requirement is met by natural gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a gas oriented producing country and the operating philosophy for maintaining maximum efficiency and preserving the Nation's natural resources.

  10. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538). Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3%) and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms) after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important implications for the health authorities in Qatar. PMID:22053720

  11. Geology and hydrocarbon potential in the state of Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S. ); Nairn, A.E.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The state of Qatar is situated in the southern Arabian Gulf and covers an area of 12,000 km{sup 2}. It is formed by a large, broad anticline, which is part of the regional south-southwest-north-northeast-trending Qatar-South Fars arch. The arch separates the two Infracambrian salt basins. The Dukhan field was the first discovery, made in 1939, in the Upper Jurassic limestones. Since then, a series of discoveries have been made so that Qatar has become one of the leading OPEC oil states. Hydrocarbon accumulations are widely dispersed throughout the stratigraphic column from upper Paleozoic to Cretaceous producing strata. The most prolific reservoirs are the Permian and Mesozoic shelf carbonate sequences. Minor clastic reservoirs occur in the Albian and Paleozoic sequences. Seals, mainly anhydrite and shale. occur both intraformationally and regionally. Several stratigraphic intervals contain source rocks or potential source rocks. The Silurian shales arc the most likely source of the hydrocarbon stored in the upper Paleozoic clastics and carbonates. The upper Oxfordian-middle Kimmeridgian rocks formed in the extensive starved basin during the Mesozoic period of sea level rise. Total organic carbon ranges between 1 and 6%, with the sulfur content approximately 9%. The source material consists of sapropelic liptodetrinite and algae. The geological background of the sedimentary facies through geologic time, stratigraphy, and structural evolution which control source, and the subsequent timing and migration of large-scale hydrocarbon generation are presented in detail.

  12. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

  13. The private-public literacy divide amid educational reform in Qatar: What does PISA tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2015-04-01

    The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools. The idea was to give public schools more autonomy in terms of hiring decisions, adoption of curriculum and textbooks, and budget spending, enabling them to emulate some of the private schools' strategies for turning out successful students. This study examines evidence from the 2006-2012 administrations of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Qatar in order to evaluate whether or not recent educational reform efforts in this country have succeeded in bridging the literacy divide between private and public schools. The results, presented in a number of detailed tables and discussed in the last part of the article, indicate that there is a significant difference in key literacy skills between the two types of schools. Private schools were found to outperform their public counterparts in areas such as mathematics, reading and science, both before and after controlling for important student-level differences, and this gap has evidently persisted from 2006 to 2012.

  14. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East. During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar. WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar. PMID:21272322

  15. An overview of the surface and near-surface geology, geomorphology and natural resources of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaimi, J.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2000-06-01

    The surface and near-surface geology, geomorphology and natural resources of Kuwait have been reviewed based on the published work. The stratigraphy and structure of the near-surface sediments of Kuwait have been mainly controlled by the Tertiary tectonic activity of the Arabian Shield. The shield started separating from the African mainland by the close of the Eocene and drifted northeastward towards the Asian plate, giving rise to the folding and thrusting of the Zagros Mountains of Iran. The tectonic activity superimposed a northwest-southeast trend over an earlier north-south structural trend, and gave rise to parallel ridges and valleys trending northwest-southeast through differential erosion. It has been possible to identify 15 geomorphic zones and 11 morphostructures from analysis of the surface features of Kuwait. Seven of these morphostructures can be attributed to tectonic processes and two to fluvial processes. It has not been possible, however, to explain satisfactorily the origin of the Jal Az-Zor escarpment or the Ad-Dalmaniyah cliff. The whole of Kuwait can be divided into seven drainage zones. Of these, the internal drainage systems of the Ar-Raudhatain-Umm Al-Aish drainage system and the Ad-Dibdibba drainage system are hydrogeologically most important. The clastic deposits of Kuwait Group sediments, often affected by low-temperature carbonate (calcite and dolomite) and sulfate (gypsum) precipitation, form the surface rock of Kuwait. These are covered by recent aeolian and residual deposits; playa deposits in the enclosed basins; and near the coast, oolitic sediments, beach sands and sabkha deposits. The surface and near-surface deposits of Kuwait contain important reserves of construction sand and gravel as well as the only naturally occurring freshwater reserves of the country. An understanding of the nature of these surface deposits is required for the management of environmental issues like sand encroachment, land-use planning, and soil and groundwater pollution.

  16. Underlying Factors Behind the Low Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Oman: Sociocultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Waly, Mostafa; Gupta, Ishita; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological surveys from various countries indicate an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), leading researchers to debate whether there are now 'more affected' or 'more detected'. The epidemiology of ASD in developing countries, such as Oman, has generally indicated a lower prevalence compared to developed countries in the West. In Oman, the prevalence is low; however, this article highlights some of the factors that could contribute to the appearance of a low ASD rate: cross-cultural variations in the presentation of distress; a lack of reliable biological markers for diagnosing ASD, and a lack of health services for children with ASD, thus limiting the number of participants in epidemiological surveys. While the defining features of ASD have yet to be established, pilot studies in Oman indicate a substantial number of children with these disorders. Therefore, it is important that these discrepancies be addressed and the need for appropriate services for this patient population in Oman be highlighted. PMID:26052454

  17. Holocene ITCZ Migration Recorded in Stalagmites From Oman (Southern Arabia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, D.; Burns, S. J.; Mudelsee, M.; Neff, U.; Kramers, J.; Mangini, A.; Matter, A.

    2003-12-01

    The latitudinal migration of the ITCZ during boreal summer in response to the annual solar cycle and maximum surface heating determines the start, duration and end of the rainy season from across Northern Africa to India. The Dhofar area in Southern Oman sits at the northern limit of the summer migration of the ITCZ and the associated Indian Ocean monsoon rainfall belt. Annual precipitation in this region is highly seasonal, more than 80% of total annual precipitation falls during the summer monsoon months (July to September) when the ITCZ reaches its northernmost position. To date, the clouds are unable to rise higher than ˜1500 m because of a temperature inversion created by the convergence between the hot dry north-westerly winds and the low-level southwest monsoon winds. As a result, monsoon precipitation occurs as fine drizzle, seldom exceeding more than 5 mm d-1. Variations in the mean latitudinal summer position of the ITCZ over Southern Arabia directly affect the height of the temperature inversion. For instance, a northward shift of the ITCZ into the Arabian Peninsula would lead to stronger convective cloud development and higher monsoonal rainfall over Southern Oman. Due to the so-called amount effect, δ 18O values of precipitation become more negative (depleted). Such variations are accurately recorded in high-resolution δ 18O records obtained from three Uranium-series dated stalagmites, which continuously cover the period from 10.3 and 2.7 and 1.4 and 0.4 kyr BP. The oxygen isotope profiles show three distinct features: 1) A rapid northward migration of the ITCZ and increase in monsoon precipitation respectively between 10.3 and 9.8 kyr BP is indicated by a sharp decrease in δ 18O from -0.8‰ to ˜-2‰ . 2) An interval of generally high monsoon precipitation lasting from 9.8 to 5.5 kyr BP with δ 18O values averaging -2‰ . 3) A long-term gradual southward migration of the ITCZ and decrease in monsoon precipitation starting at around 8 kyr BP is indicated by a slow shift in δ 18O from -2.2‰ at 8 kyr BP to ˜-0.9‰ (slightly more negative than δ 18O values of modern stalagmites) at 2.7 kyr BP. Superimposed on the long-term trends are distinct decadal to multi-decadal variations in δ 18O, which likely reflect changes in the convection activity over Southern Oman

  18. First report of Albizia lebbeck dieback caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum in Oman.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Ba-Omar, Taher

    2002-01-01

    Over 200 Albizia lebbeck trees at Sultan Qaboos University campus wilted and died. The symptoms were dieback of large branches due to infection by Scytalidium dimidiatum. The fungus has also infected Ficus benghalensis, F. carica, F. retusa, Thespesia populnea, Delonix regia and Peltophorum petrocarpum. This is the first report of the fungus in Oman and on A. lebbeck, T. populnea, D. regia and P. petrocarpum. The strain of this fungus has not been found to cause human disease in Oman. PMID:12041870

  19. Socioeconomic associations of improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Bener, Abdulbari; El Ansari, Walid

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the temporal association between socioeconomic development indices and improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar over a period of 35 years (1974–2008). We explored the association between reduction in poverty, improvement in maternal education, and perinatal health care on the one hand, and increased maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival on the other hand. Yearly mortality data was ascertained from the perinatal and neonatal mortality registers of the Women’s Hospital and the national database in the Department of Preventive Medicine at Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha. A total of 323,014 births were recorded during the study period. During these 35 years, there was a remarkable decline (P < 0.001) in Qatar’s neonatal mortality rate from 26.27/1000 in 1974 to 4.4/1000 in 2008 and in the perinatal mortality rate from 44.4/1000 in 1974 to 10.58/1000 in 2008. Qatar’s maternal mortality rate remained zero during 1993, 1995, and then in 1998–2000. The maternal mortality rate was 11.6/100,000 in 2008. For the rest of the years it has been approximately 10/100,000. Across the study period, the reduction in poverty, increase in maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with a significant improvement in maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival. The total annual births increased five-fold during the study period, with no negative impact on survival rates. Neonatal mortality rates in Qatar have reached a plateau since 2005. We also conducted a substudy to assess the association between improvements in survival rates in relation to health care investment. For this purpose, we divided the study period into two eras, ie, era A (1974–1993) during which major health care investment was in community-based, low-cost interventions, and era B (1994–2008) during which the major health care investment was in high-technology institutional interventions. Although from 1974–1993 (era A) the per capita health expenditure increased by only 19% as compared with a 137% increase in 1994–2008 (era B). The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was three times steeper during era A than in era B. The decline in neonatal and perinatal mortality rates was also significant (P < 0.001) when analyzed separately for era A and era B. We concluded that across the 35-year period covered by our study, the reduction in poverty, increased maternal education, and improved perinatal health care were temporally associated with improved maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival in the State of Qatar. From the subanalysis of era A and era B, we concluded that low-cost, community-based interventions, on the background of socioeconomic development, have a stronger impact on maternal, neonatal, and perinatal survival as compared with high-cost institutional interventions. PMID:21151678

  20. Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

    2007-05-01

    On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different environmental factors acting upon the shell assemblages. These results suggest that tsunamigenic shell deposits can be identified based on their taphonomic characteristics when compared to beach and storm deposits in the same setting. Our data indicates that the following diagnostic taphonomic characteristics may indicate a tsunamigenic deposit: 1) presence/absence of articulated bivalves, 2) increased percentage of fragmented valves, 3) increased percentage of angular fragments, and 4) the large number of offshore bivalves in the lagoon. This study highlights the potential benefits and opportunity for using bivalve taphonomy as a useful indicator of paleotsunami deposits, particularly in protected coastal embayments in arid regions where stratified deposits might not readily preserve. This technique holds potential, as shell deposits are easy to identify in the field by non-experts, is very low cost, and analysis uses simple, easily applicable and recognizable taphonomic characteristics. Furthermore, this proxy can be used for risk assessment purposes in coastal areas with a seismic history but lacking a paleotsunami record. Further testing of this hypothesis should be conducted along the Omani coastline, particularly in the lagoons along the Eastern promontory. Key Words: tsunami, taphonomy, Oman, bivalve

  1. Gravity field of Kuwait and its relevance to major geological structures

    SciTech Connect

    Warsi, W.E.K. )

    1990-10-01

    Regional gravity surveys were done in the state of Kuwait during 1986-1988. The new gravity maps show a good correlation with geomorphological features as well as with deeper geological structures. The free-air anomaly map clearly reflects the topography of the Jal Az Zor and Ahmadi ridges, and Wadi Al-Batin. The Bouguer anomaly map is dominated by two prominent gravity highs correlatable with subsurface structural arches. The north-trending gravity high in eastern Kuwait represents the effect of a major structure, the Kuwait arch, along which many important oil fields are located. A smaller northwest-trending high mapped in western Kuwait indicates the presence of a second subsurface arch, which in this paper is named the Dibdibba arch. The two gravity highs are separated by a wedge-shaped gravity low presumably caused by thicker sediments of the Dibdibba basin. Magnetic measurements along selected profiles show the two arches to be associated with 100-200-nT (nannotesla) anomalies apparently reflecting the positive subsurface relief of the crystalline basement. Along the length of the Kuwait arch, magnetic data also indicate lateral susceptibility variations possibly related to lithological variations within the basement.

  2. Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman.

    PubMed

    Booij, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan; Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jiří; Dvorská, Alice; Magulová, Katarína; Al-Zadjali, Said; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-04-15

    In Oman, DDT was sprayed indoors during an intensive malaria eradication program between 1976 and 1992. DDT can remain for years after spraying and is associated with potential health risk. This raises the concern for human exposure in areas where DDT was used for indoor spraying. Twelve houses in three regions with a different history of DDT indoor spraying were chosen for a sampling campaign in 2005 to determine p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) levels in indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil. Although DDT was only sprayed indoor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were also found in outdoor soil. The results indicate that release and exposure continue for years after cessation of spraying. The predicted cancer risk based on concentrations determined in 2005, indicate that there was still a significant cancer risk up to 13 to 16years after indoor DDT spraying. A novel approach, based on region-specific half-lives, was used to predict concentrations in 2015 and showed that more than 21years after spraying, cancer risk for exposure to indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil are acceptable in Oman for adults and young children. The model can be used for other locations and countries to predict prospective exposure of contaminants based on indoor experimental measurements and knowledge about the spraying time-schedule to extrapolate region-specific half-lives and predict effects on the human population years after spraying. PMID:26820926

  3. Fully carbonated peridotite (listvenite) from the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, E. S.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Extensive outcrops of listvenite--fully carbonated peridotite, with all Mg in carbonate minerals and all Si in quartz--occur along the basal thrust of the Samail Ophiolite in Oman. The presence of these listvenites demonstrates that peridotite carbonation reactions can proceed to completion on a large scale under natural conditions. Thus, understanding the conditions of listvenite formation can provide insights into the feasibility of achieving complete carbonation of peridotite through engineered approaches for carbon capture and storage. The Oman listvenites likely formed during emplacement of the ophiolite, as CO2-bearing fluids derived from underlying metasediments reacted with peridotite in the hanging wall. Listvenite outcrops occur within 500 meters of the basal thrust, where peridotite overlies carbonate-bearing metasediments. 87Sr/86Sr values in listvenite are higher than seawater values and consistent with values in these underlying metasediments. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data are also consistent with values in some of the metasediments. An internal Rb-Sr isochron from one listvenite sample yields an age of 97 × 29 Ma, consistent with the timing of emplacement of the ophiolite. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry in listvenites yields temperatures around 100°C, and thermodynamically stable coexistence of antigorite, talc, and quartz in serpentinite along the margins of the listvenite would require reaction temperatures around 80°C, as calculated in THERMOCALC. While constraints on the pressure of listvenite formation are lacking, these moderate temperatures suggest that listvenites probably formed at relatively shallow depths, making release of carbonate-saturated pore-water due to compaction of subducted sediment or low-pressure phase transitions of hydrous minerals more probable sources of the CO2-bearing fluid than deeper metamorphic reactions without significant transport of fluids along the slab interface. Through EQ3/6 geochemical reaction path models of these processes over a range of pressures, temperatures, and water-rock ratios we explore the conditions under which listvenite could have formed.

  4. Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions In Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Raaie, Faiza; Banodkar, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) from all regions of Oman are monitored by spontaneous adverse reaction reporting and monitoring system. Methods A total of 100 patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions were analyzed in a cohort study for 15 months from 1st June 2005 to 31st August 2006. Results Out of 100, 85 cases were reported in one year time; from 1st of June 2005 to 31st of May 2006, where 80 were Omani patients and 5 expatriates. Therefore, the incidence was found to be 36 cases per million of total population of Oman (85/ 2,340,815), and 45 per million of Omani population (80/ 1,781,558) for that period. CADR patients comprised 8.5% of the total admitted patients in the skin ward at Al-Nahda Hospital; a tertiary dermatology center. While incidence of CADR among outpatients attending dermatology clinics in Al-Nahda hospital was found to be only 0.3%. Under reporting was the main reason behind this low incidence. However, relatively higher incidence was reported in cases of Toxic Epidermolytic Necrosis (TEN); 2 per million. The clinical patterns and the drugs causing CADR are remarkably similar to those observed in other countries except for minor variations. Urticaria followed by Fixed Drug Eruptions (FDE) and Maculopapular Eruptions (MPE) were the most common reactions. Based on WHO definition of severe ADR; 21% of the cases were classified as severe reactions. One death reported a case of TEN due to Intramuscular Diclofenac. Non-steroidal,anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the antimicrobial agents were the most frequent offending drugs. Most cases of TEN were caused by injection Diclofenac, where most of FDE were caused by NSAIDs. Conclusion Based on these results; it was recommended in a circular no. 44/2007/47 from the Director General of the Directorate of Drug Control to restrict the use of Diclofenac Injection. PMID:22567204

  5. Shigellosis Outbreak in Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman

    PubMed Central

    Abaidani, Idris; Raju, Prasanna A.; Al-Shualli, Issa; Al-Sa’di, Khalid; Al-Shaqsi, Nasser; Al-Khatri, Amer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to Shigella flexneri occurred in August 2012 in the catchment area of the Wadi Sahtan Health Center in Rustaq, Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman. The aim of this study was to discover possible causes of this outbreak in the villages of Fassa, Rogh and Amk and to measure the risk of exposure among cases and controls. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in September 2012 in Fassa, Rogh and Amk. All households in the three villages were interviewed. Case and control households were compared to determine possible exposure avenues, including place of residence, source of drinking water, hand hygiene levels and practices related to drinking water, food preparation and environmental sanitation. Results: Residing in Fassa (P <0.0001; odds ratio [OR] = 4.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22–10.63) and average hand hygiene practices (P = 0.008; OR = 13.97, 95% CI = 1.58–123.36) were associated with an increased risk of contracting shigellosis. No significant differences were found with regards to the other exposure avenues. Conclusion: This was the first study conducted in Oman regarding an outbreak of shigellosis in a community setting. The only variables that significantly impacted the risk of acute gastroenteritis were residing in Fassa and average hand hygiene practices. The source of the outbreak could not be identified. However, septic tank sanitation and water and food consumption practices were not satisfactory in the studied villages. These need to be addressed to prevent similar outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in this region in the future. PMID:26357558

  6. Studies of the Kuwait oil fire plume during midsummer 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, P. H.; Al-Sunaid, A.; Busness, K. M.; Hales, J. M.; Mazurek, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports aircraft observations of the Kuwait oil fire plume conducted during the period July 31-August 17, 1991. During this study the plume was transported almost exclusively to the south of Kuwait over the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula. The plume base was generally found to be well above the surface, in some cases as high as 1-2 km; plume tops did not exceed 5 km. Aerosol mass (based on measured aerosol constituents) in the central section of the plume, ca. 150-200 km downwind of the source region, was found to be >500 ?g/m3, with number densities in the size range (approximate) 0.2 < d < 3 ?m (where d is diameter) as high as 30,000/cm3. The aerosol was composed of (in order of approximate contribution to mass) inorganic salts, elemental carbon, and organic carbon. Sodium chloride constituted a surprisingly large component of the soluble inorganic mass. The aerosol particles appeared to function as good cloud condensation nuclei, with a large fraction of accumulation mode particles (by number) activated at a supersaturation of 0.6%. Under conditions in which the plume was relatively compact, transmittance of solar radiation to the surface was only 10-20%. Plume albedo was observed to be as low as 2-3% close to the source region, consistent with the high elemental-carbon concentrations present in the plume. Trace gas concentrations were consistent with fuel composition and with current knowledge of atmospheric chemical processes. Sulfur dioxide concentrations close to the source region were found to be as high as 300-400 ppb. The emissions factor for S (expressed as a percentage) was estimated to be 1.8%, which is consistent with estimates of a fuel sulfur content of 2-2.5%. SO2 was found to be only slowly oxidized (<1%/h). Nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to be quite low (<50 ppb near the source, decreasing to 1-2 ppb well downwind), which is consistent with a crude oil nitrogen source. Despite relatively low concentrations, sufficient NOx was present to act as a catalyst to generate excess ozone in the plume as the plume was transported downwind and dispersed.

  7. The Gulf Cooperation Council: Policies, problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhleh, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    In May 1981, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman established the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) to facilitate cooperation, settle disputes, and strengthen security. This is the first English-language book to describe the GCC and assess its impact on the security and stability of the Gulf. It addresses four specific aspects of the GCC: a description of the basic charter and the United Economic Agreement; its structure and the policy of summitry; its achievements and the challenges before it; and the official, popular, and reformist views of its proper role.

  8. The unstable Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an analysis of the international political environment for business in the Gulf region. To secure the flow of oil supplies to the West, the U.S. relies on stable relations with the key Gulf states: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. The region's dynamic balance of power, however, is inherently destabilizing, which threatens the investment climate and the billions of dollars of international commerce with the Gulf states expected in the next decade. Dr. Martin analyzes the effects of the religious, ethnic, and ideological differences in the Persian Gulf on superpower competition and U.S. energy policy.

  9. Education in the Gulf Monarchies: Retrospect and Prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahgat, Gawdat

    1999-03-01

    For the last several decades there has been tremendous expansion in the educational facilities in all the six Gulf monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The quality of education, however, does not correspond to the needs of Gulf societies. This study examines three of the apparent deficiencies in the educational system in the region: the mismatch between traditional and modern learning, the imbalance between indigenous and expatriate labor forces, and the gap between men and women. The paper concludes that a fundamental change in the quality of education needs to be made in order to overcome these imbalances.

  10. Spatial-temporal variations and diversity of the bacterioplankton communities in the coastal waters of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Awatef

    2015-11-30

    The dynamics and composition of the bacterial community in the coastal waters of Kuwait are poorly understood. In this study, the spatial-temporal variations in the bacterial composition in the surface water along the Kuwaiti coast was examined by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and phylogeny analyses. The sampling sites were Kuwait Bay, Al-Sabbiya (north of the bay) and Al-Khairan (to the south). The bacterial composition was more variable in the summer for all sites. A cluster analysis of the DGGE fingerprint revealed two main clusters, indicating a temporal similarity between sites. Kuwait Bay and Al-Khairan were more similar to each other than to Al-Sabbiya. The bacterial community composition exhibited distinctive spatial variations, with more diversity at Al-Khairan and less diversity at Al-Sabbiya. At all sites, the dominant bacteria were Alphaproteobacteria, in particular Rhodobacteraceae, followed by Alteromonadaceae (Gammaproteobacteria) and Bacteroidetes. PMID:26404068

  11. Drug information centers as bases for continuing education programs in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Tarifi, H A; Assad, A M; Ani, F M

    1990-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a modernization of pharmaceutical services in Kuwait. In 1983 a drug information center was opened. A one-year postgraduate, long-distance program leading to a diploma in clinical pharmacy was started in October 1987 in cooperation with Queen's University of Belfast, Ireland. Pharmacist and physician tutors were assigned to supervise students in the major hospitals in Kuwait. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 50 practicing pharmacists to assess the feasibility of using the Drug Information Center at Adan Hospital (DICAH) as a base for continuing education programs. Although certain difficulties were identified, it was concluded that the DICAH has the potential to be used as a base for future continuing education for pharmacists in Kuwait, especially as there is no school of pharmacy in the country. PMID:2375144

  12. Extent and nature of hydrocarbon occurrence in the groundwater of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Awadi, Eman; Quinn, Michael; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Hauser, Andre; Akber, Adnan; Al-Haddad, Adel; Al-Rashedi, Majed

    2009-01-01

    A study, aimed at characterizing the nature of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater of Kuwait, was carried out using fluorescence spectroscopy and other analytical techniques. The results of these analyses have demonstrated that the groundwater in certain areas of northern Kuwait has been significantly impacted by contamination originating from the oil-contaminated surface soils. The study revealed that a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of the crude oil surface contamination appeared to be slowly leaching into the freshwater lenses located in the area. The study also showed that hydrocarbon pollutants were practically absent in the brackish water areas of central and southern Kuwait, except for a few isolated sites. However, nonpetroleum hydrocarbons, with ultraviolet-visible absorption characteristics and fluorescence characteristics typically associated with humic substances, were observed at a few sites in the brackish water fields.

  13. Genotoxicity to human cells induced by air particulates isolated during the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.; Xia, F.; Christiani, D.C.; Liber, H.L.; Spengler, J.D.; Dockery, D.W. ); Bodell, W.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to examine the potential of exposure to soot from the 1991 oil fires in the Kuwait desert for inducing genetic effects we studied the in vitro genotoxicity of this materials. Air particulates isolated near the Kuwait oil fires were studied using three assays. Dose-dependent increases were observed for both sister chromatid exchanges in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mutation at the hprt locus in the metabolically competent human lymphoblast cell line AHH-1. Similar magnitudes of response were seen using these two assays when testing a standard air particulate sample which had been isolated from the Washington, DC, area. Using the [sup 32]P-postlabeling assay, no increase in DNA adduct formation was observed in AHH-1 cells treated with particulates isolated from sampling in Kuwait. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Evaluation of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Renu; Al-saeed, Osama; Azizieh, Fawaz; Albusairi, Abdullatif; Gupta, Pushpak; Mohammed, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is the major risk factor for the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in women. In this study, we determined the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Kuwait and compared it with that of other Middle East and west countries. Two thousand two hundred ninety-six postmenopausal women ranging in age from 40 to 87yr were included in the study and divided into 4 age groups by decade. We measured body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), BMD, and BMC. The mean age, height, and weight were 59.1+7.9yr, 154.7+6.5cm, and 77.3+14.9kg, respectively. The mean BMI and BMC were 32.4+6.6kg/m(2) and 0.9+0.14g/cm(2), respectively. The average T-scores for the hip and lumbar spine were -0.280+1.2 and -1.297+1.33, respectively. BMC significantly decreased with age from 0.95 to 0.81g/cm(2). Four hundred forty-four (19.3%) were found to have osteoporosis. The incidence of osteoporosis significantly increased from 4.3% to 39.9% with age, which is lower than that reported for Saudi (40%) and Moroccan women (39.6%) and higher than that for US/European (31%) and Lebanese women (11%). PMID:22154433

  15. Application of indices for air quality management in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.; Al-Ajmi, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to adapt an earlier uniform ambient air quality index structure to fit the unique local environmental conditions prevailing in Kuwait. The new index is based on linear segmented functions for calculating subindices and a maximum operator function for calculating the overall index. It incorporates five regularly monitored air pollutants (total suspended particulates. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and ozone), and their corresponding descriptive categories. Due to the very special nature of the natural arid environment in the region and the frequent occurrence of dust storms, total suspended particulates was found to be responsible for the highest values of the ambient air quality index. To overcome this problem in applying the index, a statement should be attached to indicate the {open_quotes}critical air pollutant{close_quotes} causing the index to exceed the permissible standard and the natural origin of the pollutant in the case of dust storms. In general, the index developed was able to reflect the day-to-day variations in ambient air quality in a reasonable fashion. It also reduced the volume of reported data for better dissemination, while retaining the meaning of the information to be communicated. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Impact of aerosol on air temperature in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, I.

    2010-08-01

    This work uses MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data observed over Kuwait during the 7-year interval 2000-2007. The values of AOT and the Ångström wavelength exponent ( ?) show a clear annual cycle. These data are categorized into two catalogues in terms of the values of the AOT of the 870 nm channel ( ?870). One catalogue (71 days) includes days with high values of AOT ( ?870 ? 0.75). The most probable "modal" value of ? for these days is 0.52. The other catalogue (1162 days) consists of the background days with a modal value ~ 1.1 for the exponent ?. This analysis is extended to include water vapor content (WVC), surface wind speed (V), visibility (Vis) and the diurnal temperature range (DTR). Chree's method of superposed-epoch analysis is applied to these parameters in order to compare the variation in the daily averages during days with high AOT values with respect to background days. The high values of AOT during the 71 days are positively correlated with aerosol size, near-surface winds and poor visibility. This concludes that the aerosol particles during these days were mostly dust. The mean daily value of the DTR (? T) and visibility reduced significantly during these days. This reduction on DTR is a direct result of increasing the atmospheric opacity due to the presence of dust.

  17. Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Aten, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

  18. Optical extinction of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Hobbs, P.V.

    1992-09-20

    Aircraft-based measurements of optical extinction, optical scattering, and particle mass concentrations were obtained in the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires during May and June 1991. These measurements were used to derive optical absorption, single-scattering albedo ({anti {omega}}), specific absorption and the amount of soot in the smoke. Measurements were made in smoke from individual oil wells, pool fires and in composite smoke plumes. The value of {anti {omega}} for smoke from the individual fires was either 0.35-0.4 (for the black smoke) or 0.85-0.95 (for the white smoke). For the aged composite plume from all of the fires, {anti {omega}} ranged from 0.52 to 0.6. The specific absorption of the composite smoke varied from about 2 m{sup 2} g{sup {minus}1} near the fires to about 1.5 m{sup 2} g{sup {minus}1} well downwind. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Application of Indices for Air Quality Management in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordagui, Hosny K.; Al-Ajmi, Dhari N.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to adapt an earlier uniform ambient air quality index structure to fit the unique local environmental conditions prevailing in Kuwait. The new index is based on linear segmented functions for calculating subindices and a maximum operator function for calculating the overall index. It incorporates five regularly monitored air pollutants (total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and ozone), and their corresponding descriptive categories. Due to the very special nature of the natural arid environment in the region and the frequent occurrence of dust storms, total suspended particulates was found to be responsible for the highest values of the ambient air quality index. To overcome this problem in applying the index, a statement should be attached to indicate the “critical air pollutant” causing the index to exceed the permissible standard and the natural origin of the pollutant in the case of dust storms. In general, the index developed was able to reflect the day-to-day variations in ambient air quality in a reasonable fashion. It also reduced the volume of reported data for better dissemination, while retaining the meaning of the information to be communicated.

  20. Paediatric burns in Kuwait: incidence, causes and mortality.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prem N; Bang, Rameshwar L; Al-Fadhli, Ahmad N; Sharma, Promila; Bang, Sarla; Ghoneim, Ibrahim E

    2006-02-01

    From a prospective study on burn patients admitted at the Burn Center in Kuwait during 1993-2001, 826 paediatric burn cases, in 0-14 years age group, were retrieved to study incidence, causes, and mortality among children. The demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcome constituted our data file in Statistical Software, SPSS. Overall incidence rate was 17.5/100,000 children aged 0-14 years, being almost twice (34/100,000) among those between 0 and 4 years, constituting 70.8% of all paediatric burns. Scald was the main cause of burn (67%), followed by flame (23%). Mean age (6.4 years) of children with flame burns, was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those with scalds, or other causes. A positive significant correlation existed between duration of hospital stay and TBSA% (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). Overall mortality rate was 0.23/100,000 children, maximum (0.52/100,000) being in children below 5 years. Among 11 (1.3%) non-survivors, flame burns caused nine fatalities. Multiple logistic regression mooring predicted children aged < 5 years, flame burns and TBSA >or= 70%, (OR = 29.2, p < 0.001), as main contributing factors to fatal outcome among children. Gender and nationality had no influence on incidence or mortality. These findings will hopefully stimulate development of targeted and sustainable interventions for reducing burns occurrence among identified paediatric high-risk groups. PMID:16406370

  1. Drought Analysis for Kuwait Using Standardized Precipitation Index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of adequate measures to assess and monitor droughts is recognized as a major matter challenging researchers involved in water resources management. The objective of this study is to assess the hydrologic drought characteristics from the historical rainfall records of Kuwait with arid environment by employing the criterion of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). A wide range of monthly total precipitation data from January 1967 to December 2009 is used for the assessment. The computation of the SPI series is performed for intermediate- and long-time scales of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The drought severity and duration are also estimated. The bivariate probability distribution for these two drought characteristics is constructed by using Clayton copula. It has been shown that the drought SPI series for the time scales examined have no systematic trend component but a seasonal pattern related to rainfall data. The results are used to perform univariate and bivariate frequency analyses for the drought events. The study will help evaluating the risk of future droughts in the region, assessing their consequences on economy, environment, and society, and adopting measures for mitigating the effect of droughts. PMID:25386598

  2. A conceptual approach to selection of a control measure for residual chlorine discharge in Kuwait bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordagui, Hosny K.

    1992-05-01

    It is estimated that some 17 metric tons of residual oxidants (chlorine) are discharged into the enclosed coastal seawater of Kuwait on a daily basis from power-desalination plants alone. Alarmed by the unlimited number of reported cases of damage to marine aquatic systems due to chlorine discharge around the world, several alternatives were proposed to control such a massive discharge of residual oxidant into seawaters. Most of the proposed alternatives lacked the basic criteria necessary for their evaluation, justification, and then selection. The objective of this article is to provide a conceptual approach that can be used to select a control measure for residual oxidant discharge in Kuwait coastal seawaters. This approach is based on state-of-the-art knowledge and the unique operational and environmental factors involved. A matrix system was designed whereby the cost of residual chlorine control alternative, its effectiveness, and environmental and public health impact, performance, and reliability in Kuwait can be compared and evaluated. The selection approach considered currently operating power plants in terms of their engineering design and material (cast iron or steel condensers), current operational conditions, operator's perception, acceptability, and projected problems associated with the environmental management of proposed modifications. The proposed approach revealed that in Kuwait, conventinal chlorination was marginally superseded only by chlorination/dechlorination using SO2 and operation alteration using process optimization. The overall cost-effective assessment matrix classified other alternatives as worse than chlorination by various degrees. Ozone and UV were found to be the worst and the least desirable alternatives for biofouling control of seawater in Kuwait. In light of the available information on the consequences of the Gulf War on the marine environment, and the potential formation of additional halogenated organic compounds through the reaction of residual chlorine with the released petroleum hydrocarbons, it is essential to control residual chlorine discharged into the nearshore environment of Kuwait.

  3. A preliminary evaluation of naturally occurring radioactivity concentration levels across the State of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Shams, H; Bajoga, A D; Alazemi, N; Bradley, D A; Regan, P H

    2016-03-01

    An evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a surface radiological map of the State of Kuwait. Soil samples were collected from twelve locations across Kuwait and analysed using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The (226)Ra and (235)U specific activity concentrations have been determined and used to estimate the (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratios which are found to be comparable to that expected for naturally occurring uranium material. PMID:26717795

  4. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  5. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire in Arab Gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-07-01

    Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring self-reported driving style and investigating the relationship between driving behaviour and accident involvement. In spite of the fact that Arab Gulf countries have a higher road accident fatality rate compared to European countries and USA, the DBQ has not been used in Arab countries so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ, then to examine the relationships between the factors of the DBQ and accident involvement, and finally to compare DBQ scores between the two gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 1110 Qatari (263 females and 847 males) and 1286 UAE drivers (294 females and 992 males) filled a survey questionnaire including the DBQ and background information. The results showed that UAE drivers scored higher on almost all DBQ items than Qatari drivers. Surprisingly, only very small differences between men and women on the DBQ item scores were found in UAE. Factor analysis resulted in four factors, which were named as errors, pushing-speeding violations, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations. However, there were a number of differences in the factor structure of the DBQ in UAE and Qatar when compared to the theoretical four-factor structure of the DBQ. Reliabilities of some subscales were also questionably lower than in the original British data. Logistic regression analyses showed that errors, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations predicted accident involvement in Qatar but not in UAE after controlling the effect of the demographic variables (age, sex, and annual mileage). PMID:18606274

  6. Twenty years of sedimentary change and diagenesis, Qatar Peninsula, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1988-02-01

    Re-examination in February 1986 of areas studied by the author in 1966 and 1967 revealed rapid rates of sedimentation and diagenesis along the east coast of the Qatar Peninsula. At Ras Um Sa on the north-east side of Qatar, a series of chenier-like beaches and curved spits is building southward under the influence of longshore currents. Beach and spit growth increasingly protects the shoreline and allows tidal flats to form in their lee. As these spits accrete, they become armored on their lagoonal side by beachrock formation. In the last 20 years a spit approximately 1/2 km long has grown, and beachrock has already armored its recurved lagoonal side. At Umm Said on the southeast side of Qatar, seawardly accreting barchan dunes composed of quartz sand have built a 40-km long, 10-km wide sabkha as thick as 30 m. Aerial and ground photographs show that certain dunes near the seaward edge of the sabkha have migrated into the sea and have contributed to shoreline accretion. The observed rate of dune migration suggests that within approximately 100 years the remaining quartz sands will be depleted and blown into the sea because there is no replenishment of the dune field. Subsequently, the area will revert to one of carbonate deposition. Fine-grained dolomite is presently precipitating in interstitial brines in the landwardmost portions of this unusual sabkha. In the geologic record, such a deposit would be an anomalous, porous and permeable, cross-bedded, linear, 30-m thick, dolomite-cemented sandstone body encased in carbonate sediments. A modern model such as the one at Umm Said can provide useful clues for determining the origin of similar deposits in ancient rocks.

  7. Physician perceptions of pharmacist roles in a primary care setting in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacists are uniquely trained to provide guidance to patients in the selection of appropriate non-prescription therapy. Physicians in Qatar may not always recognize how pharmacists function in assuring safe medication use. Both these health professional groups come from heterogeneous training and experiences before migrating to the country and these backgrounds could influence collaborative patient care. Qatar Petroleum (QP), the largest private employer in the country, has developed a pharmacist-guided medication consulting service at their primary care clinics, but physician comfort with pharmacists recommending drug therapy is currently unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize physician perceptions of pharmacists and their roles in a primary care patient setting in Qatar. Methods This cross-sectional survey was developed following a comprehensive literature review and administered in English and Arabic. Consenting QP physicians were asked questions to assess experiences, comfort and expectations of pharmacist roles and abilities to provide medication-related advice and recommend and monitor therapies. Results The median age of the 62 (77.5%) physicians who responded was between 40 and 50?years old and almost two-third were men (64.5%). Fourteen different nationalities were represented. Physicians were more comfortable with pharmacist activities closely linked to drug products than responsibilities associated with monitoring and optimization of patient outcomes. Medication education (96.6%) and drug knowledge (90%) were practically unanimously recognized as abilities expected of pharmacists, but consultative roles, such as assisting in drug regimen design were less acknowledged. They proposed pharmacist spend more time with physicians attending joint meetings or education events to help advance acceptance of pharmacists in patient-centered care at this site. Conclusions Physicians had low comfort and expectations of patient-oriented pharmacist roles but were not threatened to learn more about these capabilities or explore enhanced collaboration in patient care. PMID:22650614

  8. Twenty years of sedimentary change and diagenesis, Qatar Peninsula, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Re-examination in February 1986 of areas studied by the author in 1966 and 1967 revealed rapid rates of sedimentation and diagenesis along the east coast of the Qatar Peninsula. At Ras UmSa on the northeast side of Qatar, a series of chenier-like beaches and curved spits is building southward under the influence of longshore currents. Beach and spit growth increasingly protects the shoreline and allows tidal flats to form in their lee. As these spits accrete, they become armored on their lagoonal side by beachrock formation. In the last 20 years a spit approximately 1/2 km long has grown, and beachrock has already armored its recurved lagoonal side. At Umm Said on the southeast side of Qatar, seawardly accreting barchan dunes composed of quartz sand have built a 40-km long, 10-km wide sabkha as thick as 30 m. Aerial and ground photographs show that certain dunes near the seaward edge of the sabkha have migrated into the sea and have contributed to shoreline accretion. The observed rate of dune migration suggests that within approximately 100 years the remaining quartz sands are depleted and blown into the sea because there is no replenishment of the dune field. Subsequently, the area reverts to one of carbonate deposition. Fine-grained dolomite is presently precipitating in interstitial brines in the landwardmost portions of this unusual sabkha. In the geologic record, such a deposit would be an anomalous, porous and permeable, cross-bedded, linear, 30-m thick, dolomite-cemented sandstones body encased in carbonate sediments. A modern model such as the one at Umm Said can provide useful clues for determining the origin of similar deposits in ancient rocks.

  9. Nature of gamma rays background radiation in new and old buildings of Qatar University

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Houty, L.; Abou-Leila, H.; El-Kameesy, S. )

    1987-01-01

    Measurements and analysis of gamma-background radiation spectrum in four different places of Qatar University campus were performed at the energy range 10 keV-3 MeV using hyper pure Ge-detector. The dependence of the detector absolute photopeak efficiency on gamma-ray energies was determined and correction of the data for that was also done. The absorbed dose for each gamma line was calculated and an estimation of the total absorbed dose for the detected gamma lines in the four different places was obtained. Comparison with other results was also performed.

  10. The Senior-Loken syndrome: Two cases from the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Muftah; Rashed, Awad; Bakr, Adel

    2012-01-01

    We are describing two sisters with the rare Senior-Loken syndrome, which is a combination of familial juvenile nephronophthisis and retinal dystrophy. The earliest presenting features include an impaired urinary concentrating ability, leading to polyuria and polydipsia and these are associated with visual impairment. The two patients had blindness shortly after their births. They presented to us with evidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in their teens, that required the initiation of the renal replacement therapy. We are reporting these two cases, as this was the first occurrence of this condition in the State of Qatar. PMID:23205360

  11. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69%) were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (< 2%) gradually falling even further in the elderly. In contrast the prevalence of non-pathogenic amoebae (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii) peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the increase in prevalence over the period 2005-2008, in helminth infections prevalence increasing 2-3 fold by 2008, and in protozoan infections by 1.5-2.0 fold. Conclusions We suggest that helminth infections are probably acquired abroad when immigrants visit their home villages, whilst protozoan infections are reinforced by transmission in Qatar, possibly in the poorer areas of the state where immigrant workers live. We discuss the significance of these findings and emphasize that they have clear implications for the health authorities. PMID:20946623

  12. Evaluation of pesticide residues of organochlorine in vegetables and fruits in Qatar: statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamary, Noora M; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Meer, Saeed H; Ahmad, Talaat A

    2016-03-01

    The study aimed to examine the residues of organochlorines pesticides (OCPs) in vegetables and fruits in Qatar. A total of 127 samples was studied. Ninety percent of the imported samples recorded residues above the maximum residue levels (MRLs). The most frequently detected OCP in the samples was heptachlor (found in 75 samples). In the comparisons between the washed and unwashed samples, no significant differences were observed (P?>?0.05). However, the effect of washing process with tap water depended on the type of vegetables and fruits. PMID:26922748

  13. Carbon recycling in ophiolite-hosted carbonates, Oman-UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, A.; Jenkin, G. R.; Smith, D. J.; Styles, M. T.; Naden, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Bryant, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale surface and subsurface freshwater carbonate deposits of probable Quaternary age have formed on the Oman-UAE ophiolite. Here, serpentinisation reactions in ultramafic rocks have produced calcite and magnesite. These carbonates are frequently cited as examples of natural atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the possibility of carbon recycling has not been addressed. The aim of this study is to assess the degree of atmospheric CO2 being incorporated into carbonates versus that which has been recycled from alternative sources such as soil CO2, or limestones that underlie the ophiolite. This has been determined through ?13C/?18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 14C analysis of all major carbonate lithofacies identified. Our analyses of modern carbonate crusts forming on the surface of stagnant hyperalkaline (pH >11) waters show highly depleted ?13C and ?18O values (-25.5‰ ×0.5 PDB and -16.8‰ ×0.5 PDB respectively). This depletion has been attributed to a kinetic isotope effect occurring during atmospheric CO2 exchange with Ca(OH)2 hyperalkaline waters [1]. By comparison, inactive travertine deposits show a large range in ?13C (-10.5 to -21.8‰ PDB) which lies on a trajectory from the composition of modern crusts towards bicarbonate fluids in equilibrium with soil CO2. We interpret this trend as being produced by the mixing of different carbon sources, either at the time of formation or during later alteration. Modern carbonates and inactive travertines also have 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentrations similar to Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones which surround the ophiolite, whilst subsurface veins also display 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to these Cretaceous limestones. Carbon recycling can also be determined with 14C. Modern atmospheric CO2 has a global average of 105-106% modern 14C (pMC), therefore freshwater carbonates forming solely from atmospheric CO2 would be expected to contain >100 pMC. However, modern carbonates display varied results from 94.5-101.4 pMC. Low values could be caused by meteoric waters incorporating 14C 'dead' carbon through the dissolution of limestones and/or uptake of soil CO2. This 'dead' carbon would then be assimilated into veins and surface deposits, offsetting pMC values. Inactive travertines show significant fluctuations in 14C values within a single hand sample, where stratigraphically younger samples give older radiocarbon 'ages' outside of error. These fluctuations may have been caused by the presence of limestone sourced 'dead' carbon in waters at time of formation, surface runoff containing soil CO2 or by later recrystallisation. Isotopic evidence indicates that mixing of contemporary atmospheric carbon and recycled older carbon has taken place during the on-going carbonation of the Oman-UAE ophiolite sequence. Failure to account for this recycled carbon could lead to inaccurate estimates of natural CO2 sequestration rates. References [1] Clark, I.D. and Fontes, J. (1990) Palaeoclimatic reconstruction in Northern Oman based on carbonates from hyperalkaline groundwaters. Quaternary Res, 33, 320-336

  14. Late Precambrian-Cambrian sediments of Huqf group, Sultanate of Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Gorin, G.E.; Racz, L.G.; Walter, M.R.

    1982-12-01

    The Huqf Group is the oldest known sedimentary sequence overlying crystalline basement in the Sultanate of Oman. It crops out on a broad regional high, the Huqf Axis, which forms a dominating structural element on the southeastern edge of the Arabian peninsula. Subsurface and outcrop evidence within and outside of Oman suggests that the sediments of the Huqf Group lie within the age span of late Precambrian to Early-Middle Cambrian. The Huqf Group is subdivided into five formations corresponding to an alternation of clastics (Abu Mahara and Shuram Formations) and carbonates (Khufai and Buah Formations) deposited in essentially shallow marine to supratidal (or fluviatile) conditions and terminated by an evaporitic sequence (Ara Formation). Evaporites are absent on the Huqf Axis, but they are thickly developed to the west over a large part of southern and central Oman, where they acted as the major structure former of most of Oman's fields, and even locally pierced up to the surface. Regional correlations suggest that the predominantly carbonate-evaporitic facies of the Huqf Group was widely distributed in late Precambrian-Early Cambrian time: the Huqf basin is tentatively considered part of a belt of evaporitic basins and intervening carbonate platforms, which stretched across the Pangea landmass from the Indian subcontinent (Salt Range of Pakistan) through South Yemen, Oman, and Saudi Arabia into the gulf states and Iran (Hormuz Series and carbonate platform north of the Zagros).

  15. 76 FR 78615 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 72173 (November 22, 2011). Currently, the preliminary determinations... Administrative Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005... India, the Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), The United Arab Emirates (``the UAE''), and the...

  16. Radioactivity in the Kuwait marine environment - Baseline measurements and review.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Fowler, S W; Behbehani, M; Ismaeel, A; Al-Shammari, H; Alboloushi, A; Mietelski, J W; Al-Ghadban, A; Al-Ghunaim, A; Khabbaz, A; Alboloushi, O

    2015-11-30

    The Arabian Gulf region is moving towards a nuclear energy option with the first nuclear power plant now operational in Bushehr, Iran, and others soon to be constructed in Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia. Radiological safety is becoming a prime concern in the region. This study compiles available data and presents recent radionuclide data for the northern Gulf waters, considered as pre-nuclear which will be a valuable dataset for future monitoring work in this region. Radionuclide monitoring in the marine environment is a matter of prime concern for Kuwait, and an assessment of the potential impact of radionuclides requires the establishment and regular updating of baseline levels of artificial and natural radionuclides in various environmental compartments. Here we present baseline measurements for (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (3)H in Kuwait waters. The seawater concentration of (3)H, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr vary between 130-146, 0.48-0.68, 0.75-0.89, 1.25-1.38 and 0.57-0.78mBqL(-1), respectively. The (40)K concentration in seawater varies between 8.9-9.3BqL(-1). The concentration of (40)K, total (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (239+240)Pu and (238)Pu were determined in sediments and range, respectively, between 353-445, 23.6-44.3, 1.0-3.1, 4.8-5.29, 17.3-20.5, 15-16.4, 28.7-31.4, 1.26-1.30, 29.7-30.0, 0.045-0.21 and 0.028-0.03Bqkg(-1) dry weight. Since, radionuclides are concentrated in marine biota, a large number of marine biota samples covering several trophic levels, from microalgae to sharks, were analyzed. The whole fish concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs, (210)Po and (90)Sr range between 230-447, 0.7-7.3, <0.5-6.6, <0.5-15.80, <0.17, 0.88-4.26 and 1.86-5.34Bqkg(-1) dry weight, respectively. (210)Po was found to be highly concentrated in several marine organisms with the highest (210)Po concentration found in Marica marmorata (193.5-215.6Bqkg(-1) dry weight). (210)Po in most dissected fish samples shows increasing concentrations in the following order: edible tissue, gills, digestive system, liver and fecal matter. Fish fecal pellets had (210)Po concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than the seawater, fish muscle, and the fishes' ingested food. The high (210)Po concentration in fish fecal matter, suggest that the bulk of (210)Po content in fish was eventually excreted back into the environment as fecal pellets. In most fish high concentrations were noted in liver, with the highest (210)Po concentration recorded in shark liver (126.2-141.5Bqkg(-1) wet). Moreover, (210)Po concentration in the soft tissue of molluscs (10.36-215.60Bqkg(-1) dry weight) was far higher than that in fish muscle (0.05-7.49Bqkg(-1) wet weight). A seasonal drop in (210)Po concentration in seawater was observed to vary with the abundance of phytoplankton and macroalgae due possibly to biological dilution. (137)Cs concentration in all the fish sampled was below the detection limit, and the concentration in seawater was also low; hence such low levels provide an opportunity to use this radionuclide as an indicator for any future radiocesium releases in this region. PMID:26490408

  17. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  18. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  19. A Course-based Cross-Cultural Interaction among Pharmacy Students in Qatar and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeff; Khalifa, Sherief I.; Jorgenson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a course-based, cross-cultural student interaction using real-time videoconferencing between universities in Canada and Qatar. Design. A professional skills simulation practice session on smoking cessation was run for students in Qatar (n=22) and Canada (n=22). Students role played cases in small group situations and then interacted with colleagues from the other country regarding culturally challenging situations and communication strategies. Assessment. Students were assessed on analytical content and communication skills through faculty member and peer evaluation. Cultural competency outcomes were assessed using a postsession survey. Overall, 92.3% of respondents agreed that learning was enhanced through the cross-cultural exchange, and 94.9% agreed that insight was gained into the health-related issues and needs of people from another culture. Conclusion. A course-based, cross-cultural interaction was an effective method to incorporate cultural competency principles into student learning. Future initiatives should increase direct student interaction and focus on culturally sensitive topics. PMID:25861107

  20. Patient satisfaction in government health facilities in the state of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Abdal Kareem, A; Aday, L A; Walker, G M

    1996-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in assessing patients' satisfaction with medical care in the United States and other countries. Patient satisfaction studies have, however, received comparatively little attention in public or government-sponsored settings, and in developing countries in particular. The research reported upon here is based on a mail, self-administered survey of patients receiving care in two major government outpatient health care facilities-Hamad General Hospital and the Khalifa Town Health Center-in the State of Qatar, for the purpose of providing data to improve service delivery and the quality of primary care provided in that country. Analysis was performed on data from 444 patients on seven dimensions of patient satisfaction with medical care: general satisfaction, availability of services, convenience of services, facilities (physical environment), humaneness of doctors, quality of care, and continuity of care. The study pointed to a number of deficiencies in the availability and delivery of services in government health facilities in the State of Qatar. It also surfaced methodological issues that should be addressed in comparable studies of culturally diverse populations. PMID:8894961

  1. Project analysis procedures for an OPEC country: case study of Qatar's Northwest Dome Gas Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.B.; Khalifah, H.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of oil in most OPEC countries in the 1940s changed the economies of these countries from a state of capital shortage and stagnation to a state of capital surplus and economic growth. This growth, however, is lopsided. Oil production and export dominate the gross domestic products (GDPs) of those economies. Concern arising during the 1970s about overdependence on crude oil export as the main source of national income has resulted in the initiation of various industrial development programs in OPEC states aiming to diversify their economies. This study was conducted with two primary objectives: (1) to identify and understand the features of selected OPEC countries' development problems, strategies and plans, focusing on the role of oil and gas resources and opportunities for diversification, and (2) to suggest an appropriate development strategy, with project evaluation implications, for capital-abundant, labor-scarce OPEC countries in the Gulf region such as Qatar. This proposed approach is designed to evaluate the project from its contribution to the national income, people's welfare, the expansion of the economy's absorptive capacity, and relief of the economy's dependence on nonrenewable resources. The Northwest Dome Gas Project in Qatar was selected as an illustrative case study for this approach.

  2. Prehospital versus Emergency Room Intubation of Trauma Patients in Qatar: A-2-year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of prehospital intubation (PHI) in improving outcome of trauma patients has not been adequately evaluated in the developing countries. Aims: The present study analyzed the outcome of PHI versus emergency room intubation (ERI) among trauma patients in Qatar. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively reviewed for all intubated trauma patients between 2010 and 2011. Patients were classified according to location of intubation (PHI: Group-1 versus ERI: Group-2). Data were analyzed and compared. Results: Out of 570 intubated patients; 482 patients (239 in group-1 and 243 in group-2) met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 32 ? 14.6 years Head injury (P = 0.003) and multiple trauma (P = 0.004) were more prevalent in group-1, whereas solid organ injury predominated in group-2 (P = 0.02). Group-1 had significantly higher mean injury severity scoring (ISS), lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS), greater head abbreviated injury score and longer activation, response, scene and total emergency medical services times. The mortality was higher in group-1 (53% vs. 18.5%; P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GCS [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, P = 0.005) and ISS (OR 1.12, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: PHI is associated with high mortality when compared with ERI. However, selection bias cannot be ruled out and therefore, PHI needs further critical assessment in Qatar. PMID:24678471

  3. D Model of AL Zubarah Fortress in Qatar - Terrestrial Laser Scanning VS. Dense Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Mechelke, K.; Maziull, L.

    2015-02-01

    In September 2011 the fortress Al Zubarah, built in 1938 as a typical Arabic fortress and restored in 1987 as a museum, was recorded by the HafenCity University Hamburg using terrestrial laser scanning with the IMAGER 5006h and digital photogrammetry for the Qatar Museum Authority within the framework of the Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project. One goal of the object recording was to provide detailed 2D/3D documentation of the fortress. This was used to complete specific detailed restoration work in the recent years. From the registered laser scanning point clouds several cuttings and 2D plans were generated as well as a 3D surface model by triangle meshing. Additionally, point clouds and surface models were automatically generated from digital imagery from a Nikon D70 using the open-source software Bundler/PMVS2, free software VisualSFM, Autodesk Web Service 123D Catch beta, and low-cost software Agisoft PhotoScan. These outputs were compared with the results from terrestrial laser scanning. The point clouds and surface models derived from imagery could not achieve the same quality of geometrical accuracy as laser scanning (i.e. 1-2 cm).

  4. LNG scene; Qatar's export plans intensify; sale of Columbia's U. S. terminal in doubt

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that Activity continues to percolate in Qatar's massive liquefied natural gas export program. In the latest development, France's Ste. Nationale Elf Aquitaine and Japan's Sumitomo Corp. agreed to promote development of Qatar's LNG export project based on supergiant North Offshore gas field and step up discussions with potential buyers in coming months. Target markets lie in Japan and the Far East. Among other LNG operations, Columbia Gas System Inc. last week the it was told by Shell LNG Co. it is unlikely that presale conditions will be met prior to Shell LNG's scheduled purchase July 29 of 40.8% of the stock in Columbia LNG. Columbia LNG owns and LNG receiving terminal at Cove Point, Md., with a design sendout capacity of 1 bcfd of regasified LNG. That makes it the biggest in type U.S. Columbia the it had not received work on what action Shell LNG will take on the purchase agreement. However, failure to meet the undisclosed conditions will allow Shell LNG to end the agreement.

  5. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  6. Chromite deposits in the northern Oman ophiolite: Mineralogical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augé, T.

    1987-01-01

    Chromite deposits in the northern Oman ophiolitic complex occur in three structural contexts, i.e., (1) at the base of the cumulate series, (2) in the top kilometer of the mantle sequence, and (3) in the deeper parts of the mantle. Types 1 and 2 are characterized by the diversity of interstitial silicates where in decreasing order of abundance olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, and amphibole occur, as opposed to type 3 which contains only olivine. They differ however in ore texture. Similar silicates also occur as euhedral inclusions in chromite crystals, but their proportions are reversed. The composition of the interstitial silicates is comparable to that found in early cumulates. Type-1 and type-2 chromite deposits crystallized from a magma similar to that from which the basal cumulates formed (Al2O3, 15.1 16.1 wt%; FeO/MgO, 0.55 0.60). The type-3 chromites were derived from a magma of much lower Al2O3 content (12.5 wt%). It is considered that they belong to an older episode in the magmatic evolution of the complex.

  7. Ophiolite emplacement in NE Oman: constraints from magnetotelluric sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, S.; Heinson, G.; Gray, D. R.; Gregory, R. T.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data have been acquired across the Samail Ophiolite, Oman mountains, along a 115km transect in January 2005. Twenty-five MT stations were deployed approximately every 4km along a profile perpendicular to the coastline near Muscat. The profile extends from the Huw'l/Meeh subwindow in the northwestern part of the profile and crosses the Saih Hatat window, a Tertiary domal culmination that folds a major NE-facing recumbent fold nappe, and ends along the southern boundary between the Dasir and Ibra ophiolite blocks. The survey aimed to investigate the tectonic evolution of the emplacement of the Samail Ophiolite by delineating major faults and geological boundaries on a crustal scale. The data shows complex behaviour with the influence of static shift effects and anomalously high phases exceeding 90°. Phase tensor analysis and 3-D forward modelling hint that the upper plate-lower plate (UP-LP) shear zone has a 3-D effect on the data in the northern part of the profile. Rotated MT impedances were inverted using a 2-D code. Major resistivity interfaces coincide with the location of the UP-LP shear zone near the surface, and dip towards the Arabian margin suggesting a southwest orientated underthrusting prior to the ophiolite emplacement. The para-autochthonous and less deformed upper plate is a resistor, whereas the strongly deformed lower plate is more conductive.

  8. Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

    2012-07-01

    An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

  9. Case studies from Oman for coiled tubing deployed completion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Conrad, B.

    1996-09-01

    Although the use of ultra-large coiled tubing to complete wells is relatively new, it is gaining widespread industry application. This paper will detail the equipment necessary to perform an operation of this type and will present information from several case studies in Oman in which an operator has successfully deployed completion equipment on 3-1/2-inch-OD coiled tubing. In addition to a discussion of the equipment required to perform the necessary operations, the trial parameters that were established by this operator will be given. The information presented has been selected to allow an initial evaluation to be made of coiled tubing completions in general and will help to determine whether this method can prove to be less expensive than traditional rig-based completions. The topics presented have been chosen to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of the techniques and preparation needed to execute a coiled tubing completion. The summary of experiences will conclude that this innovative completion technique can be a viable method for completing wells. Although long-term advantages regarding production and well maintenance cannot yet be determined, the operator`s experiences to date have confirmed his initial belief that use of coiled tubing in ultra-large continuous-pipe applications can be cost effective.

  10. On-site digital heritage inventory development at Bat, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Miki, T.; Kuronuma, T.; Oguchi, T.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the on-site development of a local-scale digital heritage inventory (DHI) of the Bronze Age site at Bat in the interior of Oman. The goal of this inventory project was to share geospatial and archaeological information of tombs and other built structures with researchers and government agents to conduct cultural heritage management, scientific research, outreach, and education. To this end, the Bat Digital Heritage Inventory (BatDHI) was compiled at the local office by incorporating previous survey records, which were concurrently crosschecked and updated by ground-truth surveys. The current version of the BatDHI was implemented using a combination of a network-access-ready database application, open source geographical information system, and web-based map engine. This system assisted both fieldwork and management works including decision making and planning. This inventory project exemplified a transdisciplinary research, in which researchers and societal stakeholders collaborated for co-design of research agendas, co-production of knowledge, and co-dissemination of outcomes.

  11. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon–D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon–Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca–Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  12. Experience of intravitreal injections in a tertiary Hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hinai, Ahmed S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To find out statistical data regarding intravitreal injections in an outpatient department setup at a tertiary center in Oman. Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Data collection of patients who underwent intravitreal injections from November 2009 to May 2013 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Results: Throughout a period of 42 months, a total of 711 intravitreal injections were performed. That included 214 patients (275 eyes). Around one-third of the eyes received two injections or more. The injected agents were bevacizumab (59.8%), ranibizumab (32.3%), triamcinolone (7.5%), and very few patients with endophthalmitis received intravitreal antibiotics and antifungal agents. The three most common indications for the injection therapy were diabetic macular edema (50.9%), choroidal neovascularization (24.3%), and retinal vein occlusive diseases (11.5%). Serious adverse events were rare, and they occurred as ocular (0.9% per patient) and systemic (3.3% per patient). There were 42 eyes received intravitreal triamcinolone, and 24% of them developed intraocular hypertension that required only medical treatment. Conclusion: Different intravitreal agents are currently used to treat many ocular diseases. Currently, therapy with intravitreal agents is very popular, and it carries a promising outcome with more efficiency and safety. PMID:26903722

  13. Familial Mineralocorticoid Induced Hypertension in the Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Nicholas JY; Elshafie, Omayma T; Ben Abid, Fatma; Doi, Suhail A

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: In Oman, many hypertensive patients with a family history of the disease respond to treatment with spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MC-R) blocking agent thus suggesting a high prevalence of mineralocorticoid (MC) induced disease. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of MC induced disease in patients with a positive family history of hypertension (HTN). Methods: Serum calcium, potassium, creatinine, aldosterone and renin levels were measured under standard conditions in all patients together with an abdominal ultrasound scan and an adrenal computed tomography (CT) scan in four patients. Results: In this small study, we show that 18 of the 27 patients (66%) had undetectable (suppressed) renin levels with usually normal aldosterone values (14 patients) and respond to treatment with spironoactone. Conclusion: We suggest that MC induced hypertension is likely to be common in the Middle East. In evolutionary terms, this makes sense as the ability to conserve salt in hot climates might be expected to confer a definite survival advantage. PMID:21748054

  14. Packaged air cleaning systems tame desert dust storms in Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Vast storms created when cold, northwesterly air masses slam into hot, southwesterly monsoons, moving lethargically over the Sudan and Red Sea, generate swift downdrafts that strike the ground and deflect forward in a powerful, swirling air stream up to 500 km long. As the wind moves along the ground, it churns up particles ranging in size from 80 to 2000 micrometers. This churning also kicks up particles in the 0.1 to 80 micrometer range, and these may rise to heights of 500 m or more, the smaller of which remain suspended for hours. These conditions made it imperative to protect the blades and internal mechanisms of the gas turbines in use at Yibal, Sultanate of Oman. Each of the gas turbines is equipped with a packaged intake air cleaning system. Because no single air filter has been designed to handle effectively the extremely high concentrations of particulates encountered during storms, the AAF air filters are multistage filtration systems. These systems are discussed.

  15. The Attitudes, Knowledge and Beliefs of Arab Parents in Kuwait about Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq

    2009-01-01

    An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. ("The ASHA Leader," 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in Kuwait. The…

  16. NNSA Signs Memorandum with Kuwait to Increase Cooperation on Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    On June 23, 2010, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation on nuclear safeguards and other nonproliferation topics with the Kuwait National Nuclear Energy Committee (KNNEC). NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino and KNNEC's Secretary General, Dr. Ahmad Bishara, signed the memorandum at a ceremony at U.S. Department of Energy headquarters in Washington.

  17. A Survey of Leadership Standards for Professional Preparation of Public School Principals in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alansari, Amal EEHE

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Over the last decade, the Ministry of Education in Kuwait undertook the responsibility of reforming the Kuwaiti education system. While it noted the importance of school principals in this reform process, it has not yet focused on the development of school leaders through formal preparation. There were no standards set to guide school…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions toward the Secondary Physical Education Program in the State of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kandari, Khaled A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the perceptions of physical education teachers and supervisors toward the secondary physical education program in eight domains in the State of Kuwait. Stratified and cluster sampling were used to select two schools of female teachers and two schools of male teachers from each district (6 districts);…

  19. NNSA Signs Memorandum with Kuwait to Increase Cooperation on Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-06-23

    On June 23, 2010, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation on nuclear safeguards and other nonproliferation topics with the Kuwait National Nuclear Energy Committee (KNNEC). NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino and KNNEC's Secretary General, Dr. Ahmad Bishara, signed the memorandum at a ceremony at U.S. Department of Energy headquarters in Washington.

  20. Perception of Teachers on Health Education and Nutrition for Kindergarten Students in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Amari, Hanaa

    2012-01-01

    This study is designed to assess the perception of Kindergarten teachers in Kuwait regarding the role of health education in Promoting healthy nutrition for children in KG Level. For this purpose, a questionnaire was administered to 250 Kindergarten female teachers. Percentage, mean and standard deviation scores were obtained. The results of the…

  1. LIS Students' ICT Skills in Kuwait: Perspectives of Employers, Teaching Staff and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buarki, Hanadi; Hepworth, Mark; Murray, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In Kuwait and elsewhere, developments in electronic information resources have led to the demand for employees with ICT (information and communication technology) skills especially in information handling institutions. There is, therefore, a need to prepare the students for this workplace. As a result, the ICT skills of current LIS (library and…

  2. Humanistic Qualities of the Teacher as Perceived by Undergraduate Students in Bahrain and Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Musawi, Nu'man; Karam, Ebraheem M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the main qualities of the teacher as a person as perceived by university students in Bahrain and Kuwait. A 25-item questionnaire, which reflected the basic humanistic qualities of the teacher as related to effective teaching, was designed and then administered to a random sample of 520 students enrolled…

  3. The Attitudes, Knowledge and Beliefs of Arab Parents in Kuwait about Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq

    2009-01-01

    An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. ("The ASHA Leader," 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in Kuwait. The…

  4. Extent of Parental Involvement in Improving the Students' Levels in Special Education Programs in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    This research study investigates the degree to which parental involvement impacts students' levels in special education programs in Kuwait. More specifically, this research discusses several scientific methods for research included within the significance of the study and research questions for this study. Research methods and results using a…

  5. Mastering Leadership Concepts through Utilizing Critical Thinking Strategies within Educational Administration Courses at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh; Al-Enezi, Mutlaq M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims at exploring the students' perceptions of mastering leadership concepts and critical thinking strategies implemented by faculty members in the college of education at Kuwait University, and the impact of the later on former. The data was collected using a questionnaire on a sample consisting of 411 students representing…

  6. New Private Universities in Kuwait Pin Their Hopes on U.S. Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When Kuwait lifted a ban on private higher education less than a decade ago, it decided that the best way to ensure the development of academically sound universities was to require all new institutions to have foreign partners. That policy has helped the country rapidly build a credible private higher-education system where none existed before.…

  7. Implementation of Cooperative Learning in the Center for Community Service and Continuing Education at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alansari, Eissa M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the success of implementation of cooperative learning in various courses delivered at the Center for Community Service and Continuing Education at Kuwait University. According to recent research in the field of social cognition, learning situations which make use of the social context often achieve superior…

  8. A Study in Kuwait of Health Risks Associated with Using Cell Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between cell phone use and various symptoms. Analysis of 3,274 completed questionnaires from throughout Kuwait show a significant effect of exposure to cell phones for burning sensation on the ear, temporal pain, pain in the back of the head, auricular pain, noises in the ear, ear numbness, heartbeat…

  9. A Study in Kuwait of Health Risks Associated with Using Cell Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between cell phone use and various symptoms. Analysis of 3,274 completed questionnaires from throughout Kuwait show a significant effect of exposure to cell phones for burning sensation on the ear, temporal pain, pain in the back of the head, auricular pain, noises in the ear, ear numbness, heartbeat…

  10. Vocational Education and Training in Kuwait: Vocational Education versus Values and Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilboe, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Since the opening up of private universities and colleges in the Kuwait education system in the late 1990s, there has been an explosion of tertiary institutions (both domestic and international) established in the country, with many of them offering vocational education and training. The move towards vocational and educational training forms part…

  11. Vocational Education and Training in Kuwait: Vocational Education versus Values and Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilboe, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Since the opening up of private universities and colleges in the Kuwait education system in the late 1990s, there has been an explosion of tertiary institutions (both domestic and international) established in the country, with many of them offering vocational education and training. The move towards vocational and educational training forms part…

  12. The Language Needs Analysis Project at the College of Petroleum and Engineering, Kuwait University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basturkmen, Helen; Al-Huneidi, Amal

    A study of the English language needs and attitudes of students and faculty in Kuwait University's College of Petroleum and Engineering is reported. The objective was to create a basis for assessing the relevance of the institution's current English second language program. Data were gathered through: (1) interviews with faculty, teaching…

  13. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives, post-secondary…

  14. New Private Universities in Kuwait Pin Their Hopes on U.S. Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When Kuwait lifted a ban on private higher education less than a decade ago, it decided that the best way to ensure the development of academically sound universities was to require all new institutions to have foreign partners. That policy has helped the country rapidly build a credible private higher-education system where none existed before.…

  15. A Survey of Leadership Standards for Professional Preparation of Public School Principals in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alansari, Amal EEHE

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Over the last decade, the Ministry of Education in Kuwait undertook the responsibility of reforming the Kuwaiti education system. While it noted the importance of school principals in this reform process, it has not yet focused on the development of school leaders through formal preparation. There were no standards set to guide school…

  16. Students Opinions and Attitudes towards Physical Education Classes in Kuwait Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Heyam Reda; Mohammad, Mona Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate student opinion and attitude toward physical education classes. Two thousand seven hundred (2700) students answered the survey: 1239 (45.3%) were male students and 1497 (54.7%) were female from Kuwait six districts: Al_Hawalli, Al_Asimah, Al_Jahra, Al_Mobarak, Al_Farwniah, Al_Ahmadi. Weight Status was determined…

  17. Extent of Parental Involvement in Improving the Students' Levels in Special Education Programs in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    This research study investigates the degree to which parental involvement impacts students' levels in special education programs in Kuwait. More specifically, this research discusses several scientific methods for research included within the significance of the study and research questions for this study. Research methods and results using a…

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma patients in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Kapila, Kusum; Al-Mulla, Fahd R; Francis, Issam M; Al-Waheeb, Salah; Al-Ayadhy, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Context: Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most frequently diagnosed form of lung cancer in Kuwait. NSCLC samples from Kuwait have never been screened for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene aberration, which is known to affect treatment options. Aims: This study investigated the feasibility of using fine-needle aspiration (FNA) material for mutational screening, and whether common EGFR mutations are present in NSCLC samples from Kuwait. Settings and Design: Eighteen NSCLC samples from five Kuwaitis and 13 non-Kuwaitis were included in this study. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from FNA cell blocks and screened for EGFR gene mutations using peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-clamp assay, and EGFR gene amplification using fluorescent in situ hybridization (EGFR-FISH). EGFR protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Five EGFR mutations were detected in five non-Kuwaiti NSCLC patients (27.8%). EGFR gene amplification was evident in 10 samples (55.5%) by direct amplification or under the influence of chromosomal polysomy. Four samples had EGFR mutations and EGFR gene amplification, out of which only one sample had coexisting EGFR overexpression. Conclusions: Given the evidence of EGFR gene alterations occurring in NSCLC patients in Kuwait, there is a need to incorporate EGFR gene mutational screen for NSCLC patients to implement its consequent use in patient treatment. PMID:27011433

  19. Predictors of Breastfeeding Duration among Women in Kuwait: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Manal; Scott, Jane A.; Edwards, Christine A.; Al-Sughayer, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% of all infants were receiving some breast milk and only 2% of infants had been fully breastfed to 26 weeks. Women born in other Arab countries were less likely to discontinue breastfeeding than women born in Kuwait. Other factors positively associated with breastfeeding duration were level of maternal education, higher parity, infant being demand fed in hospital and a preference for breastfeeding on the part of the infant’s father and maternal grandmother. The introduction of a pacifier before four weeks of age and the mother intending to return to work by six months were negatively associated with duration. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in Kuwait. PMID:24561360

  20. Evaluation of Student-Teachers' Performance in TEFL Practicum at Kuwait University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mutawa, Najat; Al-Dabbous, Jawahir

    A study investigated the process used in evaluating student teachers of English as a foreign language (TEFL) during the practicum period, in an effort to assess and improve the supervision process. Subjects were 34 student teachers from Kuwait University practice-teaching in intermediate and secondary schools. The students' evaluation was…

  1. Perception of Teachers on Health Education and Nutrition for Kindergarten Students in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Amari, Hanaa

    2012-01-01

    This study is designed to assess the perception of Kindergarten teachers in Kuwait regarding the role of health education in Promoting healthy nutrition for children in KG Level. For this purpose, a questionnaire was administered to 250 Kindergarten female teachers. Percentage, mean and standard deviation scores were obtained. The results of the…

  2. Working Memory Tasks in Relation to Phonological Processes of Arab Dyslexics in the State of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-dyiar, Mosaad Abo; Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between the working memory tasks and the phonological processes of Arab dyslexics in the primary stage in the State of Kuwait. The researchers used the descriptive research design. The sample of the study consists of 500 pupils (250 males and 250 females), their ages range from (9.05 ± 0.49) years…

  3. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  4. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  5. English Teachers' Use of Learners' L1 (Arabic) in College Classrooms in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrabah, Sulaiman; Wu, Shu-hua; Alotaibi, Abdullah M.; Aldaihani, Hussein A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated English teachers' use of learners' L1 (Arabic) in college classrooms in Kuwait. The purpose of the study was three-fold: (1) to describe the functions for which L1 was employed by the teachers, (2) to explore the affective, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic factors that may have led teachers to use L1 in L2 teaching,…

  6. Prevalence of Online Reading among High School Students in Qatar: Evidence from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested presence of a significant relationship between prevalence of online reading and reading literacy. In this study we examined the prevalence of online reading among 15-year old students in Qatar using a nationally representative sample of 8,089 students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted at the item and…

  7. Lessons from the Field: Developing and Implementing the Qatar Student Assessment System, 2002-2006. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Broer, Markus; Mariano, Louis T.; Froemel, J. Enrique; Goldman, Charles A.; DaVanzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Qatar has recently positioned itself to be a leader in education. Central to the country's efforts is the implementation of reforms to its K-12 education system. Central to the reform initiatives was the development of internationally benchmarked curriculum standards in four subjects: Arabic, English as a foreign language, mathematics, and…

  8. Qatar-2: A K Dwarf Orbited by a Transiting Hot Jupiter and a More Massive Companion in an Outer Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Alsubai, Khalid A.; Latham, David W.; Parley, Neil R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Quinn, Samuel N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; F?rész, Gábor; Gråe Jørgensen, Uffe; Horne, Keith D.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Street, Rachel A.; Torres, Guillermo; West, Richard G.; Dominik, Martin; Harpsøe, Kennet B. W.; Liebig, Christine; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; Ricci, Davide; Skottfelt, Jesper F.

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-2b, a hot Jupiter transiting a V = 13.3 mag K dwarf in a circular orbit with a short period, P b = 1.34 days. The mass and radius of Qatar-2b are M P = 2.49 M J and R P = 1.14 R J, respectively. Radial-velocity monitoring of Qatar-2 over a span of 153 days revealed the presence of a second companion in an outer orbit. The Systemic Console yielded plausible orbits for the outer companion, with periods on the order of a year and a companion mass of at least several M J. Thus, Qatar-2 joins the short but growing list of systems with a transiting hot Jupiter and an outer companion with a much longer period. This system architecture is in sharp contrast to that found by Kepler for multi-transiting systems, which are dominated by objects smaller than Neptune, usually with tightly spaced orbits that must be nearly coplanar.

  9. Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and…

  10. Developing Intercultural Competence in Future Student Affairs Professionals through a Graduate Student Global Study Course to Doha, Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Paige; Getz, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a 2-week global study course to Doha, Qatar for graduate students in the higher education leadership and student affairs program at the University of San Diego. The course sought to develop intercultural competence with a specific focus on understanding Qatari and Middle Eastern perspectives and culture, understanding the…

  11. QATAR-2: A K DWARF ORBITED BY A TRANSITING HOT JUPITER AND A MORE MASSIVE COMPANION IN AN OUTER ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Marta L.; Alsubai, Khalid A.; Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Stefanik, Robert P.; Torres, Guillermo; Parley, Neil R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Horne, Keith D.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Street, Rachel A.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jorgensen, Uffe Grae; West, Richard G.; and others

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-2b, a hot Jupiter transiting a V = 13.3 mag K dwarf in a circular orbit with a short period, P{sub b} = 1.34 days. The mass and radius of Qatar-2b are M{sub P} = 2.49 M{sub J} and R{sub P} = 1.14 R{sub J}, respectively. Radial-velocity monitoring of Qatar-2 over a span of 153 days revealed the presence of a second companion in an outer orbit. The Systemic Console yielded plausible orbits for the outer companion, with periods on the order of a year and a companion mass of at least several M{sub J}. Thus, Qatar-2 joins the short but growing list of systems with a transiting hot Jupiter and an outer companion with a much longer period. This system architecture is in sharp contrast to that found by Kepler for multi-transiting systems, which are dominated by objects smaller than Neptune, usually with tightly spaced orbits that must be nearly coplanar.

  12. 75 FR 66360 - Transportation and Energy Products and Services Trade Mission; Doha, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ..., and Abu Dhabi and Dubai, U.A.E. I. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce's... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... key decision makers in the U.A.E. and Qatar, and form partnerships which will allow their companies...

  13. Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and…

  14. Upper Maastrichtian to Lutetian nannofossil biostratigraphy, United Arab Emirates, west of the Northern Oman Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Mahmoud; Abdelghany, Osman; Zahran, Esam

    2014-05-01

    The latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Middle Eocene (Lutetian) interval of shallow water carbonate rocks in the NE part of the Arabian Pensinsula (Oman Mountains) includes important regional oil reservoir units. These carbonates are richly fossiliferous in foraminifera, which have been useful in correlating sequences and formations. Previous foraminiferal studies have indicated the existence of several hiatuses or lacunae related to sea level changes or due to erosion. Subsequent studies of the abundant calcareous nannofossils have permitted definition of these hiatuses via high resolution biostratigraphy. However, these previous studies were of limited extent. In this study a total of 103 nannofossil species were identified from the upper Maastrichtian-Lutetian successions at Jabal Qarn El Barr, El Faiyah Range Mountains (Jabal Thanays and western side of Jabal Buhays), United Arab Emirates, as well as Jabal El Rawdah, west of the Northern Oman Mountains, Oman.

  15. Oman India Pipeline: An operational repair strategy based on a rational assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    German, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a repair strategy for the operational phase of the Oman India Pipeline based upon the probability and consequences of a pipeline failure. Risk analyses and cost benefit analyses performed provide guidance on the level of deepwater repair development effort appropriate for the Oman India Pipeline project and identifies critical areas toward which more intense development effort should be directed. The risk analysis results indicate that the likelihood of a failure of the Oman India Pipeline during its 40-year life is low. Furthermore, the probability of operational failure of the pipeline in deepwater regions is extremely low, the major proportion of operational failure risk being associated with the shallow water regions.

  16. Annotated checklist of the decapod crustaceans of the Gulf of Oman, northwestern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Naderloo, Reza; Ebrahimnezhad, Saeed; Sari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The decapod crustaceans of the Gulf of Oman have been documented based on the published literature and new sampling along the Iranian coast between 2005 and 2015. A total of 121 species were collected along the Iranian coast, of which 43 are new records for the Gulf of Oman. The Decapoda of the Gulf is currently represented by 258 species belonging to five infraorders: Axiidea, Achelata, Anomura, Brachyura, and Caridea. Brachyura, with 176 species, are the best represented group, followed by Anomura and Caridea with 42 and 17 species, respectively. The least diverse groups are Achelata, with five species, and Axiidea, with three. On the basis of the available information, the northern (Iranian) coast with 189 species is more diverse than the southern (United Arab Emirates and Oman) coast with 134 species. PMID:26624317

  17. Broader spectrum of ?-thalassemia mutations in Oman: regional distribution and comparison with neighboring countries.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Suha M; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Bakker, Egbert; Giordano, Piero C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to expand and study the molecular spectrum of ?-thalassemia (?-thal) mutations in Oman by examining cases from seven different regions and comparing the prevalence with neighboring countries. A total of 446 cases of ? hemoglobinopathies was obtained and analyzed to determine the frequency and distribution of the different ? alleles. The molecular spectrum of ?-thal in Oman revealed the presence of 32 mutations from different origins and 11 alleles are reported for the first time in the Omani population. The wide heterogeneous spectrum of ?-thal mutations found can be associated with the history of trade and migration as well as the past domination from other countries. The presented data will facilitate the development of a comprehensive prevention strategy in Oman. PMID:25677748

  18. Temporal and Spatial Assessment of Yearly Solar Maps Derived from Satellite Images over the UAE and Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Y.; Marpu, P. R.; Ghedira, H.; Chiesa, M.

    2012-12-01

    The unique climate of countries located within the Arabian Peninsula, characterized by high dust concentrations, high humidity and modest cloud coverage, requires regional models to retrieve the solar irradiance components from satellite images. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has shown promising results in estimating the direct normal, diffuse horizontal and global horizontal irradiances using thermal satellite channels over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This model is trained with six thermal channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard Meteosat Second Generation, along with the solar zenith angle, day number, solar time and eccentricity correction. The outputs of this model are the solar irradiance components at 15-min temporal and 3-km spatial resolutions, which are then utilized to derive the daily, monthly and yearly irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar. The purpose of this research is to examine the temporal and spatial variations for annual irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar, derived using the ANN approach. For the period ranging from 2008 to 2010, the year of 2009 shows the lowest annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation, and the highest diffuse horizontal irradiation. That is due to frequent dust events which occurred during 2009. The annual direct normal irradiation maps for 2008 to 2010 show the same trend, with the higher irradiation values in the southern area of UAE and the values decreasing as the coast approaches in the northern region. For any given year, Qatar generally shows lower direct normal irradiation values than the UAE. This might be explained by higher humidity in Qatar due to its coastal climate. As for the annual diffuse horizontal irradiation maps, the lower irradiation values are observed in the southern area of UAE and along some coastal regions, with the higher values being in the middle. Qatar shows higher values in the western region, due to the increased airborne dust coming from Saudi Arabia, as opposed to the eastern coast which is along the Arabian Gulf. The annual global horizontal irradiation maps show less spatial variations. For the UAE the values consistently increase from north to south, while for Qatar lower values are observed along the eastern coast and the higher values are in the inland and southern locations. The direct normal irradiation map over the UAE and Qatar for the year 2010, which had values greater than 2008 and 2009.

  19. Low-temperature peridotite hydration in the shallow subsurface in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J.; Templeton, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Samail Ophiolite in Oman contains over 10 trillion tons of peridotite undergoing hydration and carbonation reactions at low temperature [1]. The active coupling between subsurface hydrology, geochemistry and microbiology will soon be accessible via targeted drilling by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program and the Sloan Foundation, among others. In advance, we collected hyperalkaline fluids with millimolar concentrations of H2 and CH4 from 300-meter deep groundwater monitoring wells to characterize low-temperature reaction pathways in the aquifer. We are also conducting low-temperature serpentinization experiments (40°C, 55°C, 100°C) with crushed dunite and harzburgite from Oman to identify rock-derived energy sources for microorganisms. We are measuring H2 production (up to 400nmol/g), aqueous chemical changes and production of acetate and formate (40-80?M). The aqueous geochemical data from Oman fluids and experiments is coupled with detailed mineralogical investigation of natural samples (XRD, QEMSCAN and synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of Fe speciation) to identify the operative reaction pathways. The Oman fluids are rich in dissolved H2, but there is an absence of magnetite formation associated with this; instead, we observe extensive serpentine. We are currently investigating the possibility that H2 production is associated with oxidized, Fe3+ in low temperature serpentine. We have enriched stable cultures of methanogenic organisms from deep fluids from site NSHQ04 (pH 10.5, ~1.44 ?m/mL CH4). This exciting discovery points to the possibility of deep subsurface life in Oman subsisting under energetic and C limitation. Quantifying the extent of in-situ methanogenesis will be critical to future investigations of microorganisms inhabiting the Oman aquifer to fully understand subsurface carbon cycling and the potential of microbes to control peridotite weathering rates, CH4 production, and carbonate formation. 1. Kelemen & Matter PNAS 2008

  20. The practice of consanguineous marriage in Oman: prevalence, trends and determinants.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2012-09-01

    The practice of consanguineous marriage has been the culturally preferred form of marriage in most Arab and the Middle Eastern countries, including Oman, but due to a paucity of population-based data in the past there is a dearth of information about its form and dynamics in Oman. Recent national-level surveys allow this gap to be filled. This paper examines the prevalence, trends and determinants of consanguineous marriages in Oman using data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. The results indicate a very high prevalence of consanguineous marriage in Oman, as more than half (52%) of marriages are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. The study observed various patterns of consanguinity, some of them common with other Arab nations, and some unique in nature. Women's age at marriage, employment, place of childhood residence and geographical region appear to be significant determinants of consanguineous marriages. Consanguineous marriage shows a strong association with marital stability, early age at marriage and early-age childbearing. There has been no appreciable change in the prevalence of consanguineous unions in Oman over the last four decades despite massive socioeconomic development and modernization. However, recent marriage cohorts show slight declining trends. The results suggest that consanguinity is likely to remain stable in the future or decline at a slow rate. Specific health education and genetic counselling should be followed in line with WHO recommendations to minimize the negative health consequences of consanguinity for child health. PMID:22317781

  1. High-precision multiband time series photometry of exoplanets Qatar-1b and TrES-5b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mislis, D.; Mancini, L.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Ciceri, S.; Southworth, J.; D'Ago, G.; Bruni, I.; Ba?türk, Ö.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bachelet, E.; Bramich, D. M.; Henning, Th.; Hinse, T. C.; Iannella, A. L.; Parley, N.; Schroeder, T.

    2015-04-01

    We present an analysis of the Qatar-1 and TrES-5 transiting exoplanetary systems, which contain Jupiter-like planets on short-period orbits around K-dwarf stars. Our data comprise a total of 20 transit light curves obtained using five medium-class telescopes, operated using the defocusing technique. The average precision we reach in all our data is RMSQ = 1.1 mmag for Qatar-1 (V = 12.8) and RMST = 1.0 mmag for TrES-5 (V = 13.7). We use these data to refine the orbital ephemeris, photometric parameters, and measured physical properties of the two systems. One transit event for each object was observed simultaneously in three passbands (gri) using the BUSCA imager. The QES survey light curve of Qatar-1 has a clear sinusoidal variation on a period of P? = 23.697 ± 0.123 d, implying significant star-spot activity. We searched for star-spot crossing events in our light curves, but did not find clear evidence in any of the new data sets. The planet in the Qatar-1 system did not transit the active latitudes on the surfaces of its host star. Under the assumption that P? corresponds to the rotation period of Qatar-1A, the rotational velocity of this star is very close to the vsin i? value found from observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The low projected orbital obliquity found in this system thus implies a low absolute orbital obliquity, which is also a necessary condition for the transit chord of the planet to avoid active latitudes on the stellar surface.

  2. Mapping in the Oman ophiolite using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.

    1988-01-01

    The level of apparent lithological discrimination possible with Landsat TM images in the Oman are discussed. It is found that by using parts of the short-wavelength IR spectrum, the discrimination revealed by the TM data is sufficiently uniform throughout the Oman ophiolite to produce lithological maps at 1:100,000 scale. Decorrelation stretching of the data produces images in which allows for the recognition of variations in gabbro composition, the identification of small acidic, gabbroic, and ultramafic intrusions, the discrimation of the uppermost mantle from the deeper mantle, the precise location of the Moho, and the delineation of gossans and areas subject to choritic-epidotic alteration.

  3. Storm Surge Hazard in Oman Based on Cyclone Gonu and Historic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, C.; Fritz, H. M.; Albusaidi, F. B.; Al-Harthy, A. H.

    2008-12-01

    Super Cyclone Gonu was the strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Arabian Sea. Gonu developed sustained winds reaching 240 km/h with gusts up to 315 km/h and an estimated central pressure of 920 mbar by late 4 June 2007 while centered east-southeast of Masirah Island on the coast of Oman. Gonu weakened after encountering dry air and cooler waters prior to the June 5 landfall on the eastern-most tip of Oman, becoming the strongest tropical cyclone to hit the Arabian Peninsula. Gonu dropped heavy rainfall near the eastern coastline, reaching up to 610 mm which caused wadi flooding and heavy damage. The shore parallel cyclone track resulted in coastal damage due to storm surge and storm wave impact along a 300km stretch of Omani coastline. Maximum high water marks, overland flow depths, and inundation distances were measured along the Gulf of Oman during the 1-4 August 2007 reconnaissance. The high water marks peaked at Ras al Hadd at the eastern tip of Oman exceeding 5 meters, surpassing 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami runup at every corresponding point. The cyclone caused $4 billion in damage and at least 49 deaths in the Sultanate of Oman. Prior to Gonu, only two similar cyclones struck the coast of Oman in the last 1200 years (in 865 and 1890). The 1890 storm, which remains the worst natural disaster in Oman's history, drenched the coast from Soor to Suwayq causing inland wadi flooding. Matrah and Muscat were the hardest hit areas with many ships being washed ashore and wrecked. The storm is known to have killed about 727 people and caused huge agricultural and shipping losses. Similarly, the 865 storm affected areas between Gobrah and Sohar. A high-resolution finite element ADCIRC mesh of the Arabian Sea is created to model storm surge and is coupled with STWAVE. Modeling results from Gonu are compared to measurements and used to determine the contribution from storm surge and waves. The 1890 and 865 storms are modeled with standard cyclone parameters and results are compared to historical records to estimate the storm tracks. These results can be used to assess the coastal vulnerability in the Gulf of Oman.

  4. Lessons Learned from Adopting Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porcaro, David S.; Al Musawi, Ali S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent investments in and rapid modernization of university campuses in places like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, higher education in the Middle East still faces many obstacles. One of the greatest has been a fundamental disconnect between education and employment, a possible factor contributing to many of the recent riots in the Arab World. In…

  5. Lessons Learned from Adopting Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porcaro, David S.; Al Musawi, Ali S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent investments in and rapid modernization of university campuses in places like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, higher education in the Middle East still faces many obstacles. One of the greatest has been a fundamental disconnect between education and employment, a possible factor contributing to many of the recent riots in the Arab World. In…

  6. Morphometric Characterization and Classification of Alluvial Fans in Eastern Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschner, Annette; Mattern, Frank; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Morphologic characteristics of alluvial fans are a product of fluvial erosion, transportation and deposition. Consequently, fans have been described and defined on the basis of their shape, their composition, conditions and processes under which they from, their so-called "controlling factors", and their geomorphic and tectonic settings. The aim of our study is to reconstruct the morphologic evolution and to relate it to past and present climate conditions. In order to achieve this, we first characterize alluvial fans based on their climatic settings and conditions and classify them accordingly using satellite image data and digital elevation models. For mapping of different alluvial fan bodies multispectral images of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with a scale of 15-30 m/px were utilized. For the detection of morphometric parameters as input data for subsequent hydrological studies digital terrain model data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the ASTER GDEM with a scale of 90 m/px and 30m, respectively, were used. Using these datasets morphological characteristics, such as sizes of drainage basins, transport areas and areas of deposition derived from spatial semi-automatic analysis, have been computed. The area of Muscat at the Oman Mountains has been selected as a study area because of its size, accessibility and climate conditions and it is considered well-suited for studying the development of alluvial fans and their controlling factors. The Oman Mountains are well-known for the world's largest intact and best exposed obducted ophiolite complex, the Semail Ophiolite. They are today subjected to a mild desert climate (Bwh), influenced by the Indian Ocean but they have experienced extensive pluvial periods in the geologic past. Formation of alluvial fans was, therefore, likely triggered by the interplay of increased sediment production caused by high rainfalls with enhanced erosion of hillslopes and transport rates during pluvial periods. Typical morphometric parameters controlled by hydrological conditions are sizes of catchment areas, the morphometry of associated rivers and slope angles as well as sizes of alluvial fans. In order to distinguish the catchment areas, semi-automatized spatial analyses based on DEM data were carried out within a commercial GIS environment. Our analyses generally verify that there is a positive correlation between, e.g., fan areas and sizes of catchment areas as well as between fan areas and lengths of valley lines of associated rivers. Furthermore, our analyses show a negative correlation between average fan slopes and sizes of catchment areas. The observations are in good agreement with previous analyses from other areas we conducted. The applied methodology has shown to be adequate to be compared to and combined with future field investigations. Flow events are dominant in fan evolution, but the way in which alluvial fan systems responded to fluvial environmental conditions differs between systems under different climate conditions. We compared our results with data from other places located in different climate zones around the world. This allows us to constrain boundary conditions and their potential influence on shapes in a more efficient way.

  7. The Jiddat al Harasis 073 strewn field, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnos, E.; Lorenzetti, S.; Eugster, O.; Jull, A. J. T.; Hofmann, B. A.; Al-Kathiri, A.; Eggimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    The recently discovered Jiddat al Harasis (JaH) 073 strewn field is the largest found so far in the Sultanate of Oman, covering an area of 19 × 6 km. The 3463 single stones collected range in weight from 52.2 kg down to <1 g (total weight 600.8 kg) and show a pronounced mass sorting. The strewn field shape can be approximated by a NW-SE-oriented ellipsoid, indicating an atmospheric entry from SE at a low angle relative to the surface. The meteorite belongs to the L6 ordinary chondrite group and shows S4 average shock grade. Smaller stones generally show a higher weathering grade resulting in a spread from W2 and W4. Enhanced weathering of the stones causing fragmentation after the fall is observed in sandy depressions. Five 14C measurements on stones of variable size and weathering grade yielded 14C from 3.8 to 49.9 dpm/kg. Three samples give a 14C/ 10Be age consistent with about 14.4 ka. For two samples the cosmogenic, trapped, and radiogenic noble gases were measured. The ratio of the 4He and 40Ar gas retention ages of 0.29 ± 0.10 and that of the 3He and 21Ne cosmic ray exposure ages of 0.36 ± 0.08 Ma indicate that JaH 073 experienced a complex exposure history and lost 4He and 40Ar due to a major collision. Fragmentation statistics indicate a single major atmospheric disruption and an originally relatively spherical shape of the object. Assuming the material collected represents the majority of fallen mass, and 90-99% of the original weight was lost by ablation, the pre-atmospheric minimum radius of the meteoroid with density 3.4 g cm-3 would have been at least 75 cm.

  8. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA), YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA) and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA). Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items). Work-related SNS usage was also measured. Results: A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%). Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%), followed by Facebook (91.4%) and Twitter (70.4%). Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%). However, addiction rates decreased when work-related activity was taken into account. Conclusion: Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that work-related activities should be taken into account during measurement. PMID:26357556

  9. Concerns and considerations among caregivers of a child with autism in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism impacts the lives of the family looking after a child with the condition in different ways, and forces family members to modify their daily lives to suit their reality. To our knowledge, no previous research investigated concern and considerations of parents/caregivers of children with autism in Qatar or the Arabic speaking Middle Eastern region. Methods Caregivers of a child who was between the age of 3 to17 years old at the time of the study and who was diagnosed with ASD (Autistic Group or AG) were recruited from the two main developmental pediatric and children rehabilitation clinics in Qatar. The control group (non-autism group, or NAG) was represented by caregivers of a non-autistic child between the age of 3 to 17 years old at the time of the study and who were visiting a family clinic of a primary health care facility for routine medical check-up. Data collected from both groups included related to the child (e.g. the child’s date of birth, his/her relation to the caregiver, number of siblings, number of hours of sleep in a day, number of hours spent watching television or videos prior to age 3, time spent indoors prior to age 3, absenteeism from school, and use of a nanny to care for the child) and to the caregiver (education level, profession, level of consanguinity using the phylogram method). In addition to these questions, caregivers in the AG were asked specific questions around maternal concern and considerations in respect to the future of their children and the specialized services they receive. Results Children in the autism group spent more time indoors, watching television, or sleeping than children in the non-autism group. Only around 40% of caregivers in the autism group said they would encourage their child to get married and become a parent when s/he grows up. A number of caregivers of children with autism frequently utilize specialized rehabilitation services; others did express their needs for these services and made comments about having to wait a long time before they were provided with some of the services. Religious faith helped caregivers in accepting having a child with autism. General health-related quality of life did not differ significantly between the caregivers of the two groups, although mental health was consistently poorer in the autism group of caregivers. Conclusions The study draws attention to the concerns of the families of children with autism and their expectations about the future of their children. The findings can be used by policy makers in planning services to support these families in Qatar. PMID:22695064

  10. Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in the State of Qatar: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Hassan; Haddad, Pascale; Allam, Ayman; Hassan, Azza

    2014-01-01

    Background International studies show that most people prefer to die at home; however, hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD). This study aims to investigate the patterns in PoD and the associated factors, which are crucial for end-of-life cancer care enhancement. Method This retrospective, population-based study analyzed all registered cancer deaths in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n?=?1,224). The main outcome measures were patient characteristics: age, gender, nationality, cancer diagnosis, year of death, and PoD. Time trends for age-standardized proportions of death in individual PoDs were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Odds ratio (OR) were determined for variables associated with the most preferred (acute palliative care unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least preferred (ICU and general medicine ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality. Results The hematology/oncology ward was the most common PoD (32.4%; 95% CI 26.7–35.3%) followed by ICU (31.4%; 95% CI 28.7–34.3%), APCU (26.9%; 95% CI 24.3–29.6%), and general medicine ward (9.2%; 95% CI 7.6–11.1%). APCU trended upward (+0.057/year; p<0.001), while the hematology/oncology ward trended downward (?0.055/year; p<0.001). No statistically significant changes occurred in the other PoDs; home deaths remained low (0.4%; 95% Cl 0.38–0.42). Qataris who died from liver cancer (OR 0.23) and aged 65 or older (OR 0.64) were less likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Non-Qataris who died from pancreatic cancer (OR 3.12) and female (OR 2.05) were more likely to die in the APCU or hematology/oncology ward (p<0.05). Both Qataris and non-Qataris who died from hematologic malignancy (OR 0.18 and 0.41, respectively) were more likely to die in the ICU or general medicine ward (p<0.05). Conclusion A high percentage of cancer deaths in Qatar occur in hospital. As home was the preferred PoD for most people, effective home care and hospice programs are needed to improve end-of-life cancer care. PMID:25536076

  11. Blood glucose control for patients with acute coronary syndromes in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Wilby, Kyle John; Elmekaty, Eman; Abdallah, Ibtihal; Habra, Masa; Al-Siyabi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood glucose is known to be elevated in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. However a gap in knowledge exists regarding effective management strategies once admitted to acute care units. It is also unknown what factors (if any) predict elevated glucose values during initial presentation. Objectives: Objectives of the study were to characterize blood glucose control in patients admitted to the cardiac care unit (CCU) in Qatar and to determine predictive factors associated with high glucose levels (>10 mmol/l) on admission to the CCU. Setting: All data for this study were obtained from the CCU at Heart Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Method: A retrospective chart review was completed for patients admitted to the CCU in Qatar from October 1st, 2012 to March 31st, 2013, of which 283 were included. Baseline characteristics (age, gender, nationality, medical history, smoking status, type of acute coronary syndrome), capillary and lab blood glucose measurements, and use of insulin were extracted. Time spent in glucose ranges of <4, 4 to <8, 8 to <10, and >10 mmol/1 was calculated manually. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess factors associated with high glucose on admission. The primary analysis was completed with capillary data and a sensitivity analysis was completed using laboratory data. Main outcome measure: Blood glucose values measured on admission and throughout length of stay in the CCU. Results: Capillary blood glucose data showed majority of time was spent in the range of >10 mmol/l (41.95%), followed by 4–8 mmol/l (35.44%), then 8–10 mmol/l (21.45%), and finally <4 mmol/l (1.16%). As a sensitivity analysis, laboratory data showed very similar findings. Diabetes, hypertension, and non-smoker status predicted glucose values >10 mmol/l on admission (p < 0.05) in a univariate analysis but only diabetes remained significant in a multivariate model (OR 23.3; 95% CI, 11.5–47.3). Conclusion: Diabetes predicts high glucose values on hospital admission for patients with ACS and patients are not being adequately controlled throughout CCU stay.

  12. Analysis of pediatric trauma data from a hospital based trauma registry in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Alyafei, Khalid A; Toaimah, Fatihi; El Menyar, Ayman; Al Thani, Hassan; Youssef, Bashir; Mollazehi, Muneera; Consunji, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trauma is the leading killer in the young age children, but data about the injury burden on pediatric population are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcome of the traumatic injuries among children in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a trauma registry database, which reviewed all cases of serious traumatic injury (ISS ≥ 9) to children aged 0–18 years who were admitted to the national pediatric Level I trauma center at the Hamad General Hospital (HGH), over a period of one year. Data included demographics, day of injuries, location, time, type and mechanism of injuries, co-morbidity, safety equipment use, pre-hospital intubation, mode of pre-hospital transport, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), emergency department (ED) intervention, hospital length of stay and mortality outcome. Results: The incidence of severe pediatric trauma was 163 per 280,000 children who visited the ED of HGH in 2011. Out of them, 83% were male, mean age was 9.6 ± 5.9 years and mortality rate was 1.8%. On presentation to the ED, the mean ISS was 13.9 ± 6.6 and GCS was 13.4 ± 3.8. Over half of the patients needed ICU admission. For the ages 0-4 years, injuries most frequently occurred at home; for 5-9 years (59%) and 15-18 years (68%), the street; and for 10-14 years (50%), sports and recreational sites. The most common mechanisms of injury for the age groups were falls for 0-4 years, motor vehicle collision (MVC) or pedestrian injury for 5-9 years, all-terrain vehicle (ATV)/bicycle injuries for 10-14 years, and MVC injuries for 15-18 years. Head (34%) and long bone (18%) injuries were the most common, with 18% suffering from polytrauma. None of the patients were using safety equipment when injured. Conclusion: Traumatic injuries to children have an age- and mechanism-specific pattern in Qatar. This has important implications for the formulation of focused injury prevention programs for the children of Qatar. PMID:25810960

  13. Stratigraphic and regional distribution of fractures in Barremian Aptian carbonate rocks of Eastern Oman: outcrop data and their extrapolation to Interior Oman hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, G.; Immenhauser, A.; Koppen, J. K. J. Taal-Van

    2005-07-01

    The carbonates of the Barremian to Aptian Qishn Formation are outcrop equivalents to major hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Middle East and in Oman specifically. The rocks are exposed in the Haushi Huqf area of eastern Oman where they are affected by pervasive jointing and localized folding and faulting. Information gathered in the Huqf outcrops can be used to formulate predictions on fracture patterns in adjacent reservoirs. Systematic joints are confined to few meters-thick intervals of widely differing lithologies, which can be correlated over hundreds of square kilometers. Over the entire area, systematic joints are typically more than tens of meters long, have spacings of 4 18 cm and homogeneous morphologies. These joints are interpreted to be of Late Aptian age. The dominant set of joints strikes consistently NW SE and developed parallel to the causative maximum horizontal compression SH. The direction of compression is at an high angle to the two major tectonic domains of the region, the subsiding Oman Interior basins and the elevated Haushi-Huqf High. NW SE compression is proposed to have caused crustal/lithospheric buckling and thereby to have controlled Jurassic to Early Tertiary patterns of vertical movements. In such a scenario, the direction of compression is predicted to be constant over the entire domain. It is thus expected that Qishn carbonates in the subsiding Oman Interior basins also experienced NW SE compression and developed systematic joints similar to those observed in the Huqf region. In the Neogene, with the establishment of the “Zagros” stress field, the maximum horizontal compression became roughly N S, thereby possibly leading to the closure of pre-existing joint systems.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Light curves of Qatar-2 transit events (Mancini+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Ciceri, S.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Crossfield, I.; Nikolov, N.; Bruni, I.; Zambelli, R.; Henning, T.

    2014-11-01

    17 light curves of five transits of the extrasolar planetary system Qatar-2, observed between 2012 and 2013, are presented. Three of the transits were observed simultaneously in the SDSS griz passbands using the seven-beam GROND imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope. A fourth was observed simultaneously in Gunn grz using the CAHA 2.2-m telescope with BUSCA, and in Gunn r using the Cassini 1.52-m telescope. The last was observed in Cousins I with the CAHA 1.23-m telescope.Every light curve shows small anomalies due to the passage of the planetary shadow over a cool spot on the surface of the host star. (18 data files).

  15. RR Lyrae Stars in the GCVS Observed by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramich, D. M.; Alsubai, K. A.; Arellano Ferro, A.; Parley, N. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Horne, K.; Pollacco, D.; West, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    We used the light curve archive of the Qatar Exoplanet Survey to investigate the RR Lyrae variable stars listed in the GCVS. Of 588 variables studied, we reclassified 14 as eclipsing binaries, one as an RS CVn type variable, one as an irregular variable, four as classical Cepheids, and one as a type II Cepheid, while also improving their periods. We also report new RR Lyrae sub-type classifications for 65 variables and improve on the GCVS period estimates for 135 RR Lyrae variables. There are seven double-mode RR Lyrae stars in the sample for which we measured their fundamental and first overtone periods. Finally, we detected the Blazhko effect in 38 of the RR Lyrae stars for the first time and we successfully measured the Blazhko period for 26 of them.

  16. Primary coronary angioplasty for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Qatar: First nationwide program.

    PubMed

    Gehani, Abdurrazzak; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Arafa, Salah; Tamimi, Omer; Alqahtani, Awad; Al-Nabti, Abdulrahman; Arabi, Abdulrahman; Aboughazala, Tarek; Bonow, Robert O; Yacoub, Magdi

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline the plans, protocols and strategies to set up the first nationwide primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) program for ST-elevation myocardial Infarction (STEMI) in Qatar, as well as the difficulties and the multi-disciplinary solutions that we adopted in preparation. We will also report some of the landmark literature that guided our plans. The guidelines underscore the need for adequate number of procedures to justify establishing a primary-PCI service and maintain competency. The number of both diagnostic and interventional procedures in our centre has increased substantially over the years. The number of diagnostic procedures has increased from 1470 in 2007, to 2200 in 2009 and is projected to exceed 3000 by the end of 2012. The total number of PCIs has also increased from 443 in 2007, to 646 in 2009 and 1176 in 2011 and is expected to exceed 1400 by the end of 2012. These figures qualify our centre to be classified as 'high volume', both for the institution and for the individual interventional operators. The initial number of expected primary PCI procedures will be in excess of 600 procedures per year. Guidelines also emphasize the door to balloon time (DBT), which should not exceed 90 minutes. This interval mainly represents in-hospital delay and reflects the efficiency of the hospital system in the rapid recognition and transfer of the STEMI patient to the catheterization laboratory for primary-PCI. Although DBT is clearly important and is in the forefront of planning for the wide primary PCI program, it is not the only important time interval. Myocardial necrosis begins before the patient arrives to the hospital and even before first medical contact, so time is of the essence. Therefore, our primary PCI program includes a nationwide awareness program for both the population and health care professionals to reduce the pre-hospital delay. We have also taken steps to improve the pre-hospital diagnosis of STEMI. In addition to equipping all ambulances to perform 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) we will establish advanced wireless transmission of the ECG to our Heart Centre and to the smart phone of the consultant on-call for the primary-PCI service. This will ensure that the patient is transferred directly to the cath lab without unnecessary delay in the emergency rooms. A single phone-call system will allow the first medic making the diagnosis to activate the primary PCI team. The emergency medical system is acquiring capability to track the exact position of each ambulance using GPS technology to give an accurate estimate of the time needed to arrive to the patient and/or to the hospital. We also plan for medical helicopter evacuation from remote or inaccessible areas. A comprehensive research database is being established to enable specific pioneering research projects and clinical trials, either as a single centre or in collaboration with other regional or international centers. The primary-PCI program is a collaborative effort between the Heart Hospital, Hamada Medical Corporation and the Qatar Cardiovascular Research Centre, a member of Qatar Foundation. Qatar will be first country to have a unified nationwide primary-PCI program. This clinical and research program could be a model that may be adopted in other countries to improve outcomes of patients with STEMI. PMID:24688990

  17. Hydrodynamic trapping in the Cretaceous Nahr Umr lower sand of the North Area, Offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.R.A.

    1988-03-01

    A hydrodynamic model is described to account for oil and gas occurrences in the Cretaceous of offshore Qatar, in the Arabian Gulf. Variable and inconsistent fluid levels and variable formation water potentials and salinities cannot be explained by combinations of stratigraphic and structural trapping. Indeed, there is no structural closure to the southwest of the oil and gas accumulations. The water-potential and salinity data and oil distribution are consistent with this model and indicate that a vigorous hydrodynamic system pervades the Cretaceous of the Arabian Gulf region. Extensive upward cross-formational discharge is taking place in the North Area. This cross-formation water flow could be partly responsible for localized leaching and reservoir enhancement in the chalky limestones.

  18. Higher Education in the Sultanate of Oman: The Challenge of Access, Equity and Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Lamki, Salma M.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of higher education in the Sultanate of Oman found management by several government entities, no tradition of charging fees or tuition, and supply of higher education inadequate to demand. Proposes a framework for a consolidated management system and market-oriented reforms. (EV)

  19. Can Mission Predict School Performance? The Case of Basic Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Ismail, Omer Hashim

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the relationship between the mission statements and performance of Basic Education Schools in Oman. The process of mission statement framing was also investigated. A sample of 161 school mission statements was randomly collected from the Ministry of Education school mission portal database representing…

  20. FIRST REPORT OF THE RUST MELAMPSORA EUPHORBIAE ON EUPHORBIA HETEROPHYLLA IN OMAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia heterophylla L. or painted spurge or is a serious weed in many parts of the world and considerable efforts have been made to limit its invasiveness and impact on crop productivity. This has included evaluation of fungi as biocontrol agents. In Oman, E. heterophylla is a rare, introduced ...

  1. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus Originating from Oman

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Akhtar J.; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W.; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6–99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93–98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:22852046

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:22852046

  3. 77 FR 11384 - Removal of Oman from the Restricted Destinations List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... NRC's export and import regulations in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 110, ``Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material,'' with regard to U.S. Government law and policy on... the Commission) is amending its export and import regulations by removing Oman from the list...

  4. Oman Ophiolite Structural Constraints Complement Models of Crustal Accretion at the EAST Pacific RISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A. A.; Jousselin, D.; Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    This review documents significant similarities between East Pacific Rise (EPR), especially EPR at 9°-10°N and the Oman ophiolites. Both share comparable fast spreading rates, size and their dominant source of information that is mainly geophysical in EPR and structural in Oman. In these respects, they are remarkably complementary. Mantle upwelling zones at the EPR and mantle diapirs in Oman have a similar size and spacing. They punctually introduce basaltic melt and heat in the accreting crust, thus controlling elementary segments structure and activity. A tent-shaped magma chamber fits onto the diapir head, the top of which is a Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ) that stores, modifies, and injects the modified melt into the upper Axial Melt Lens (AML) beneath the lid. This MTZ-AML connection is central in crustal accretion, as documented in Oman. Heat from the diapir is captured above the Moho by the magma chamber and escapes through its walls, into a thin thermal boundary layer that bounds the chamber. Beyond, seawater at lower temperatures feeds smokers on the seafloor.

  5. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  6. Similar Paths, Different Destinations: Gender Differences in Teacher Career Paths in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Al Maawali, Fathiya; Jones, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Jones ABSTRACT: Across Oman, girls outnumber and outperform boys at the secondary school level. While welcoming girls' success, the government is concerned that low male achievement may have negative consequences on national competitiveness and economic growth. One reason posited for this discrepancy in achievement is differences in the…

  7. English Language Teaching Reform in Sultanate of Oman: The Case of Theory and Practice Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S.; Al-Bulushi, Ali H.

    2012-01-01

    Sultanate of Oman is one out of many developing countries around the world which have valued English as a very important international language and a tool for achieving multiple purposes. When His Majesty the Sultan came to power in 1970, the government accepted English as the only official foreign language and allocated huge budgets and resources…

  8. Progress in Developing a National Quality Management System for Higher Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Martin; Razvi, Salim; Goodliffe, Tess; Al-Habsi, Fakhriya

    2009-01-01

    The post-secondary education sector in Oman consists of a complex suite of public and private institutions, in a number of distinct segments, offering local and foreign programmes developed through their respective quality assurance systems. The Omani higher education quality management system is undergoing significant advances to address this…

  9. Investigating Faculty Members' Beliefs about Distance Education: The Case of Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Naifa Eid; Al-Suqri, Mohammed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    This research paper aims to investigate the beliefs (perceptions) about distance education(DE) held by the faculty members of Sultan Qaboos Uuniversity (SQU) at the Sultanate of Oman as well as the differences between their beliefs (perceptions) with regards to gender, teaching experience, college academic rank, nationality, etc. This study used a…

  10. First Report of rust caused by Tranzschelia discolor on Peach in Oman

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is the dominant fruit crop in parts of the northern mountainous regions of Oman. Local cultivars, propagated by seedling, are used to produce fruit for local markets and for shade to fodder crops planted underneath. In February of 2006, leaf samples showing rust symptoms ...

  11. Consanguinity, endogamy and inborn errors of metabolism in Oman: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Hashmi, Nadia; Al-Mamari, Watfa; Islam, M Mazharul; Al-Yahyaee, Said A

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman, like many other Arab countries, has relatively high rates of consanguinity. Reports suggest that the incidence of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is also high in Oman. This retrospective cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the number of patients with IEM being followed at the only two tertiary centers in Oman treating such patients, and to calculate the consanguinity rates among these families. The electronic medical records of all patients were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics. A total of 285 patients with IEM were being followed at the 2 centers involved; 162 (56.8%) were male and 123 (43.2%) were female. The history of consanguinity was documented or available for 241 patients: 229 patients (95%) were born to consanguineous parents related as second cousins or closer. First-cousin marriages were reported in 191 families (79.3%), while 31 patients (12.9%) were born to second cousins. The parents of 5 patients (2%) were related as double first cousins, and 2 patients (1%) were born to first cousins once removed. The average coefficient of inbreeding (F) in our study was 0.081. Seventeen patients (6%) had associated comorbid conditions other than IEM. Our study highlights the clinical burden of IEM in Oman and emphasizes the high consanguinity rates among the parents of affected patients. PMID:25060282

  12. Underlying Factors Behind the Low Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Waly, Mostafa; Gupta, Ishita; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys from various countries indicate an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), leading researchers to debate whether there are now ‘more affected’ or ‘more detected’. The epidemiology of ASD in developing countries, such as Oman, has generally indicated a lower prevalence compared to developed countries in the West. In Oman, the prevalence is low; however, this article highlights some of the factors that could contribute to the appearance of a low ASD rate: cross-cultural variations in the presentation of distress; a lack of reliable biological markers for diagnosing ASD, and a lack of health services for children with ASD, thus limiting the number of participants in epidemiological surveys. While the defining features of ASD have yet to be established, pilot studies in Oman indicate a substantial number of children with these disorders. Therefore, it is important that these discrepancies be addressed and the need for appropriate services for this patient population in Oman be highlighted. PMID:26052454

  13. Factors Affecting the Quality of Diabetic Care in Primary Care Settings in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Azri, Hilal; Al-Hashmi, Fatma; Al-Rasbi, Samira; El-Shafie, Kawther; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The quality of services delivered to type 2 diabetic patients in primary health care has an important impact on long-term outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore diabetic patients’ views of factors affecting quality of diabetic services delivered in primary care in Oman, a developing country with a high burden of diabetes. Methods: Semi-structured face to face interviews were conducted with 19 type 2 diabetic patients recruited from four selected primary healthcare centres (PHCs) in Muscat region, the capital city of Oman. A framework approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. Results: Participants identified several factors which could affect the quality of diabetic services provided in PHCs: delays in the follow-up process; lack of continuity of care; diabetes educational materials unavailable in waiting areas; shortage of Omani nurses able to speak the patients’ language; inadequate explanations from the attending primary care physician (PCP); under involvement of dieticians in patient management; delays in provision of laboratory results; inadequate supplies of diabetic medication between appointments, and long waits to see ophthalmologists. Conclusion: Several factors were identified by diabetic patients that may influence the quality of diabetic services provided in the PHC setting in Oman. Health care professionals and decision makers in the Ministry of Health (MOH) and other health care sectors in Oman should consider patients’ views and concerns in order to improve the quality of diabetic care services in primary health care. PMID:21969892

  14. A Field Guide for Continued Study of the Arabic Language in Yemen and Oman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critchfield, David Lawrence

    A set of materials for independent study of Arabic is designed for Peace Corps volunteers working in Oman and Yemen who have had Arabic language training but need additional skills. It establishes guidelines for independent study and working with a tutor, helps check language performance, and provides grammatical information for reference. The…

  15. Similar Paths, Different Destinations: Gender Differences in Teacher Career Paths in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Al Maawali, Fathiya; Jones, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Jones ABSTRACT: Across Oman, girls outnumber and outperform boys at the secondary school level. While welcoming girls' success, the government is concerned that low male achievement may have negative consequences on national competitiveness and economic growth. One reason posited for this discrepancy in achievement is differences in the…

  16. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  17. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  18. Oman: a case for a sink of begomoviruses of geographically diverse origins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W

    2014-02-01

    Oman is a trading nation and intensive agriculture is only a recent phenomenon. Exotic geminiviruses have recently emerged as a constraint to horticultural crops, and can be traced to trade and human migration. Greater phytosanitary precautions need to be implemented to limit future problems and prevent their outward spread. PMID:24485409

  19. 19 CFR 10.890 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Oman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.890 Goods re-entered... this part, relating to the documentary requirements for goods entered under subheading 9802.00.40...

  20. 19 CFR 10.890 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Oman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.890 Goods re-entered... this part, relating to the documentary requirements for goods entered under subheading 9802.00.40...

  1. 19 CFR 10.890 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Oman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.890 Goods re-entered... this part, relating to the documentary requirements for goods entered under subheading 9802.00.40...

  2. 19 CFR 10.890 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Oman.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.890 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, renovation, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment which does not destroy...

  3. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  4. Middle East: Iran isn't missed much

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A concerted effort to further develop productive capacity is evident in most Middle Eastern Countries, through exploration, field development, and secondary recovery. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Abu Dhabi all plan expanded petroleum industry programs in 1980. Oil production in Saudi Arabia through the first one-half of 1980 averaged 9.5 million bpd, and the Saudis are proceeding with the large-scale associated gas utilization and industrialization program. Iraq's near-term interest is in development of the Majnoon Discovery. Abu Dhabi is continuing efforts to complete development of a giant offshore field and finalize an onshore/offshore associated gas utilization facility. Only Iran and Kuwait are expected to be relatively inactive in petroleum programs during the remainder of 1980. Individual country reports are presented for Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, Kuwait, the Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, South Yemen, and Yemen Arab Republic.

  5. Epidemiology of workplace-related fall from height and cost of trauma care in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Tuma, Mazin A.; Acerra, John R.; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Recicar, John F.; Al Yazeedi, Wafaa; Maull, Kimball I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to identify the incidence, injury patterns, and actual medical costs of occupational-related falls in Qatar, in order to provide a reference for establishing fall prevention guidelines and recommendations. Settings and Design: Retrospective database registry review in Level 1 Trauma Center at Tertiary Hospital in Qatar. Materials and Methods: During a 12-month period between November 1st 2007 and October 31st 2008, construction workers who fell from height were enrolled. A database was designed to characterize demographics, injury severity score (ISS), total hospital length of stay, resource utilization, and cost of care. Statistical Analysis: Data were presented as proportions, mean ± standard deviation or median and range as appropriate. In addition, case fatality rate and cost analysis were obtained from the Biostatistics and finance departments of the same hospital. Results: There were 315 fall-related injuries, of which 298 were workplace related. The majority (97%) were male immigrants with mean age of 33 ± 11 years. The most common injuries were to the spine, head, and chest. Mean ISS was 16.4 ± 10. There was total of 29 deaths (17 pre-hospital and 12 in-hospital deaths) for a case fatality rate of 8.6%. Mean cost of care (rounded figures) included pre-hospital services Emergency Medical Services (EMS), trauma resuscitation room, radiology and imaging, operating room, intensive care unit care, hospital ward care, rehabilitation services, and total cost (123, 82, 105, 130, 496, 3048,434, and 4418 thousand United States Dollars (USD), respectively). Mean cost of care per admitted patient was approximately 16,000 USD. Conclusions: Falling from height at a construction site is a common cause of trauma that poses a significant financial burden on the health care system. Injury prevention efforts are warranted along with strict regulation and enforcement of occupational laws. PMID:23724377

  6. Morphology and Late Quaternary sedimentation in the Gulf of Oman Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchupi, Elazar; Swift, S. A.; Ross, D. A.

    The morphology of the Gulf of Oman Basin, a 3,400 m deep oceanic basin between Oman and southern Pakistan and southern Iran, ranges from a convergent margin (Makran margin) along the north side, a passive type (Oman margin) along the south side, translation types along the basin's west (Zendan Fault-Oman Line) and east (Murray Ridge) sides and a narrow continental rise and a wide abyssal plain in the centre of the basin. Sediment input into the basin during the Late Quaternary has been mainly from the north as a result of the uplift of the Coast Makran Mountains in the Late Miocene-Pliocene. Today most of this detritrus is deposited on the shelf and upper continental slope and perched basins behind the fold/fault ridges on the lower slope. The presence of fans and channels on the continental rise on the north side of the basin indicate, however, that continental derived debris was, and possibly is, being transported to the deep-sea by turbidity currents via gaps in the ridges on the lower slope. In addition to land derived terrigenous sediments, the basin deposits also contain biogenic (organic matter and calcium carbonate), eolian detritus and hydrates and authigenic carbonates from the tectonic dewatering of the Makran accretionary wedge. The eolian sediment is carried into the Gulf of Oman Basin from Arabia and the Mesopotamia Valley by the northwesterly Shamal winds. This type of detritus was particularly abundant during the glacial arid periods 21,000-20,000 and 11,000 (Younger Dryas) years ago when exposure of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf increased the area of dust entrainment and shifted the position of the source of the eolian sediments closer to the basin.

  7. Microbial water quality and sedimentary faecal sterols as markers of sewage contamination in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B P; Devlin, M J; Abdul Hamid, S A; Al-Otiabi, A F; Al-Enezi, M; Massoud, M S; Al-Zaidan, A S; Smith, A J; Morris, S; Bersuder, P; Barber, J L; Papachlimitzou, A; Al-Sarawi, H A

    2015-11-30

    Microbial water quality and concentrations of faecal sterols in sediment have been used to assess the degree of sewage contamination in Kuwait's marine environment. A review of microbial (faecal coliform, faecal streptococci and Escherichia coli) water quality data identified temporal and spatial sources of pollution around the coastline. Results indicated that bacterial counts regularly breach regional water quality guidelines. Sediments collected from a total of 29 sites contained detectable levels of coprostanol with values ranging from 29 to 2420ngg(-1) (dry weight). Hot spots based on faecal sterol sediment contamination were identified in Doha Bay and Sulaibikhat Bay, which are both smaller embayments of Kuwait Bay. The ratio of epicoprostanol/coprostanol indicates that a proportion of the contamination was from raw or partially treated sewage. Sewage pollution in these areas are thought to result from illegal connections and discharges from storm drains, such as that sited at Al-Ghazali. PMID:26228071

  8. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto inhalable particulate matter during the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Yakoob, S.N.; Al-Sudairawi, M.M. ); Nasrallah, H.A. ); Al-Majed, N. )

    1993-10-01

    During the Kuwait oil fires (Feb-Nov., 1991), exposure to inhalable particulate matter (PM[sub 10]) was significant and data on PM[sub 10]-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was scarce. Based on daily measurements of PM[sub 10] ambient levels and 4 measurements of associated PAHs (10, 15, 23, and 31 May, 1991), particle adsorption characteristics were utilized to describe the patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs in Al-Mansoria residential area (Kuwait city) during the period 10-31 May, 1991. Contrary to what is currently perceived, low levels of PM[sub 10] did not reflect low inhalation exposures to adsorbed PAHs. Patterns of daily levels of PM[sub 10]-bound PAHs were more related to the extent of PM[sub 10] occupancy by PAHs than to PM[sub 10] levels in air. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Laursen, K.K.; Ferek, R.J.; Hobbs, P.V.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1992-09-20

    Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle emissions accounted for {approximately} 2% of the fuel burned. In general, soot emission factors were substantially lower than those used in recent {open_quotes}nuclear winter{close_quotes} calculations. Differences in the emissions and appearances of some of the individual fires are discussed. Carbon budget data for the composite plumes from the Kuwait fires are summarized; most of the burned carbon in the plumes was in the form of CO{sub 2}. Fluxes are presented for several combustion products. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Price and income elasticities of energy demand: Some estimates for Kuwait using two econometric models

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.; Eltony, M.N.

    1995-12-31

    This paper estimates the demand for energy in Kuwait for the period 1965-1989 using two econometric models: a cointegration and error correction model (ECM) and a simultaneous-equation model (SEM). The results obtained from both models are similar. It is found that the energy demand is inelastic with respect to price in the short and long run, and while it is elastic in the long run, the energy demand is inelastic with respect to income in the short run. Both models` validation shows that the ECM performed better in replicating the past than the simultaneous model, suggesting the need to use the ECM to identify future prospects for energy demand in Kuwait.

  11. Directional and spectral reflectance of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    The angular reflectance pattern of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke was measured from an aircraft at 13 discrete wavelengths between 0.5 and 2.3 microns. Measurements at 0.75 and 1.64 micron showed that the reflectance of the smoke layer was about 12 percent in the nadir direction, with considerable limb brightening toward the horizon. Furthermore, these observations revealed a backscattering maximum in the antisolar direction and an enhanced scattering near the rainbow direction. These characteristics suggest that the smoke layer 90 km downwind of the Kuwait oil fires was composed of a significant number of oil drizzle droplets that scatter solar radiation as a layer composed of spherical particles.

  12. Estimates of dietary exposure of children to artificial food colours in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Husain, A; Sawaya, W; Al-Omair, A; Al-Zenki, S; Al-Amiri, H; Ahmed, N; Al-Sinan, M

    2006-03-01

    To assess the intake of artificial food colour additives by 5-14-year-old children in the State of Kuwait, a 24-h dietary recall was conducted twice on 3141 male and female Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti children from 58 schools. The determination of colour additives in 344 foods items consumed was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. A comparison with the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) was undertaken to evaluate the potential risk associated with the consumption of artificial colour additives by children in Kuwait. The results indicated that out of nine permitted colours, four exceeded their ADIs by factors of 2-8: tartrazine, sunset yellow, carmoisine and allura red. Further, follow-up studies to provide insight into potential adverse health effects associated with the high intakes of these artificial colour additives on the test population are warranted. PMID:16517526

  13. Historic and contemporary contamination in the marine environment of Kuwait: An overview.

    PubMed

    Al-Sarawi, Hanan A; Jha, Awadhesh N; Al-Sarawi, Mohammad A; Lyons, Brett P

    2015-11-30

    The rapid expansion of industry, along with previous pollution events linked to conflicts in the region, have led to a variety of contaminants being inadvertently or deliberately discharged into Kuwait's marine environment. These include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals, from the petrochemical industry, and contaminated brine from the region's desalination industries. The present paper has reviewed over 60 studies that have reported the levels of contaminants, including PAHs, metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in seawater, sediment and representative marine organisms. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that while Kuwait's marine environment has been subjected to a wide array of pollution events, the actual levels of contamination remains relatively low. However, sediment contamination hotspots associated with point sources of industrial contamination, such as originating from the Shuaiba industrial area, do exist at a number of locations around the coast. PMID:26228067

  14. Kuwait National Programme for Healthy Living: first 5-year plan (2013-2017).

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    The Kuwait National Programme for Healthy Living is an initiative to promote the health and well-being for individuals residing in the country. The plan has been created based on current data and available information pertaining to the various lifestyles of the populations living in Kuwait and their impact on health in general and chronic diseases in particular. Leading a healthy lifestyle is important because it means living in an environment, such as the Kuwaiti society, where chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart diseases are significantly reduced. Several factors regarding lifestyles among the various ethnic groups residing in Kuwait have been identified, including inactivity resulting from the lack of need for physical exertion in daily-life activities and social rituals involving the serving of food amongst the various ethnic groups residing in Kuwait. For Kuwaitis and other ethnicities as well, traditional social gatherings include serving food as an integral element of the social ritual. The environments of school and work also contribute to an individual's lifestyle. The goal of the programme is to address the contribution of lifestyle choices and the social environment to health with the goal of creating a healthy environment that will sustain good health and social well-being. This can be accomplished by involving the various stakeholders in promoting the aim of the programme. Finally, addressing the research needs for healthy lifestyle issues can have a huge impact on the outcome of the programmes designed and would aid in creating a healthy living environment. PMID:24662472

  15. Student Drop-Out Trends at Sultan Qaboos University and Kuwait University: 2000-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghanboosi, Salim Saleem; Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the drop-out trends at Sultan Qaboos. University and Kuwait University. Archival data of the period 2000-2011 were used to achieve this goal. Main findings showed that (a) male drop-out rates are higher than female drop-out rates; (b) drop- out rates at scientific colleges are higher; (c) drop-out rates of…

  16. Identification of nonhydrocarbon aromatic compounds in the gas oil fraction of Kuwait petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Ijam, M.J.; Arif, S.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The amounts of individual components in the nonhydrocarbon aromatic portion of a Kuwait gas oil boiling in the range from 218 to 345C are reported. Twenty-eight nonhydrocarbon aromatic components were isolated and identified from their separated fractions. The majority are C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} benzo- and dibenzothiophenes. The compounds were isolated principally by using preparative scale high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography supplemented by mass spectrometry.

  17. Student Drop-Out Trends at Sultan Qaboos University and Kuwait University: 2000-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghanboosi, Salim Saleem; Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the drop-out trends at Sultan Qaboos. University and Kuwait University. Archival data of the period 2000-2011 were used to achieve this goal. Main findings showed that (a) male drop-out rates are higher than female drop-out rates; (b) drop- out rates at scientific colleges are higher; (c) drop-out rates of…

  18. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C.; Ball, J.C.; Stevens, R.

    1995-03-01

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

  19. A prospective study of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection in Kuwait: Epidemiology and ribotypes.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Wafaa; Pauline, Eunice; Rotimi, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly recognized as a significant community acquired pathogen that causes disease in the community. The aim of the study was to investigate prospectively the incidence of community-acquired-CDI (CA-CDI) in Kuwait. Of the 2584 patients with diarrhea, 16 (0.62%) were confirmed cases of CA-CDI. The other notable pathogens were Salmonella spp. (0.39%) and Campylobacter spp. (0.23%). The mean age was 39 years and the CDI was mild. Exposure to antibiotics in the previous 12 weeks, contact with infant aged <2 years and history of foreign travel was significantly associated with CA-CDI (P < 0.001; P < 0.0001; P < 0.002, respectively). Detected PCR ribotypes were 139 (n = 4) and 014, 056, 070, 097 and 179 (each n = 2). CA-CDI in Kuwait is more likely to occur in younger age and associated with ribotype 139. CA-CDI is not a common problem in Kuwait however extra vigilance must be maintained to detect it in the community even without traditional predisposing factors. PMID:26144314

  20. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal

    2014-01-01

    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait. PMID:24025146

  1. Assessment of damage to the desert surfaces of Kuwait due to the Gulf War

    SciTech Connect

    El-Baz, F. . Center for Remote Sensing); Al-Ajmi, D. . Environmental and Earth Sciences Div.)

    1993-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on a joint research project by Boston University and the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research that commenced in April 1992. The project aim is to establish the extent and nature of environmental damage to the desert surface and coastal zone of Kuwait due to the Gulf War and its aftermath. Change detection image enhancement techniques were employed to enhance environmental change by comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper images obtained before the wars and after the cessation of the oil and well fires. Higher resolution SPOT images were also utilized to evaluate the nature of the environmental damage to specific areas. The most prominent changes were due to: (1) the deposition of oil and course-grained soot on the desert surface as a result of oil rain'' from the plume that emanated from the oil well fires; (2) the formation of hundreds of oil lakes, from oil seepage at the damaged oil well heads; (3) the mobilization of sand and dust and (4) the pollution of segments of the coastal zone by the deposition of oil from several oil spills. Interpretation of satellite image data are checked in the field to confirm the observations, and to assess the nature of the damage. Final results will be utilized in establishing the needs for remedial action to counteract the harmful effects of the various types of damage to the environment of Kuwait.

  2. Radioactivity concentrations in sediments and their correlation to the coastal structure in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Saad, H R; Al-Azmi, D

    2002-06-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed on sediment samples from the coast of Kuwait to study the concentration of natural as well as man-made radioactive sources. The coast of Kuwait, which extends for some 170 km is mainly soft sedimentary colitic limestones or sandstones, overlaid in many areas with beach or wind-blown sand. In the north, suspended material from the Shatt Al-Arab delta has settled to form extensive soft areas of intertidal mud within Kuwait Bay. Forty samples were taken at different points along the coast in undisturbed areas at intervals of about 5 km. Collection was carried out during low-tide, where it was possible to collect sediments from the wet region that was covered by seawater during the high tide. At each of the sample sites, a sampling area of about 1 m2 was considered. Samples collected from the north were of a muddy nature, whereas the southern samples were sandy. All samples were left to dry in open air before drying in the oven at 105 degrees C for 2-3 days to remove all water content. The radioactivity in southern areas reaches about one half of the values commonly assigned as the world average. In the northern areas, higher radioactivity concentrations are found but are still below the international levels. PMID:12102362

  3. Detection of bacterial endotoxin in drinking tap and bottled water in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Abdulraheem, Abdulkareem; Mustafa, Seham; Al-Saffar, Nabeel; Shahjahan, Muhammed

    2012-12-01

    This study was carried out to measure and compare the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in a variety of samples from drinking tap and bottled water available in Kuwait by using the Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test. A total of 29 samples were tested. Samples were collected from a variety of locations throughout the six governorates of Kuwait and 23 brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market. The concentration of bacterial endotoxin was measured by using the standard Limulus Amoebocyte lysate test, gel clot method. This study showed that measured endotoxin concentrations in tap drinking water varied from 2.4 to 33.8 EU/ml with the average endotoxin concentration of 14.2 EU/ml. While the results of endotoxin concentrations in the bottled water were <0.03 to 20.1 EU/ml with an average of 1.96 EU/ml. The average concentration of endotoxin in bottled water is 13.5 % of the average concentration of endotoxin in tap drinking water. This experimental investigation has proved that drinking bottled water has less endotoxin as compared to tap water in Kuwait. It is also demonstrated that the endotoxin concentration did not exceed the acceptable level in drinking tap water. PMID:22270589

  4. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among new outpatients with dyspepsia in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Testing and treatment for Helicobacter pylori has become widely accepted as the approach of choice for patients with chronic dyspepsia but no alarming features. We evaluated H. pylori status among outpatients with uninvestigated dyspepsia in Kuwait. Methods A prospectively collected database for 1035 patients who had undergone 13C-urea breath tests (UBT) for various indications was reviewed for the period from October 2007 to July 2009. The status of H. pylori in dyspeptic patients was determined by UBT. Results Among the 362 patients who had undergone UBT for uninvestigated dyspepsia, 49.7% were positive for H. pylori (95% CI = 44%-55%) and the percentage increased with age (35.8% at 20-29 years, 95% CI = 25.4% - 47.2%; 59.3% at 30-39 years, 95% CI = 48.5% - 69.5%) (P = 0.013). The prevalence of H. pylori was 42.6% among Kuwaitis (95% CI = 35%-50%) and 57.6% (95% CI = 49.8%-65%) among expatriates (p = 0.004). The prevalence among males was 51.3%, while in females it was 48.6%. Conclusions Almost half of the patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Kuwait were positive for H. pylori, though the prevalence varied with age and was higher among expatriates. The American Gastroenterology Association guidelines recommending testing and treatment for H. pylori for patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia should be endorsed in Kuwait. PMID:20128917

  5. Brief communication: Effect of nomadic subsistence practices on lactase persistence associated genetic variation in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah Catherine; Mohammad, Talal Ramadan; Kivisild, Toomas

    2013-09-01

    Lactase persistence (LP)-the ability to digest lactose in adulthood-is paradigmatic of Holocenic dietary change affecting the evolutionary trajectory of specific populations. Kuwait represents one location of high LP where the variation in associated genomic regions has not been examined. Here, we present new sequence data from a 427 bp amplicon 14 kb upstream of the LCT (lactase) gene for two Bedouin tribal populations, the Ajman and Mutran. We estimate the frequency of known LP associated alleles and discuss the impact of nomadic-pastoralism on the associated genetic variation. We observe high frequency (56% on average) of the -13,915*G allele in both tribes, which is consistent with the high prevalence of LP in Kuwait. Whilst LP associated alleles occur in Kuwait at a similar frequency to other regional populations, we suggest that the -13,915*G allele frequency among the Kuwaiti Bedouin may be higher than among non-Bedouin Kuwaitis, possibly due to greater historical reliance on milk consumption or genetic drift. PMID:23913618

  6. Comparison of pharmacist knowledge, perceptions and training opportunities regarding maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Qatar and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Serena; Kitutu, Freddy E.; Rahhal, Ala’a; Abu Samaha, Rana; Wilby, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pharmacists have great potential to modify and optimize drug therapy in pregnancy and lactation, current literature demonstrates that they do not routinely provide this care and often feel ill equipped to do so. The objective of this study was to determine pharmacists’ knowledge and perceptions of maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Uganda and Qatar. Secondary objectives were to determine factors associated with pharmacists’ knowledge and to characterize training opportunities and resources available to practising pharmacists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using online software (SurveyMonkey) was sent to the e-mails of potential research participants. Practising pharmacists and resident pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada; the country of Qatar; and the country of Uganda were eligible for inclusion. The survey was designed to assess knowledge and perceptions, and to create a baseline inventory of current practice and information resources used in practice. Results: The mean knowledge assessment scores of pharmacists in Canada, Qatar and Uganda were 62.9%, 53.3%, and 57.7%, respectively (p < 0.05). Pharmacists in British Columbia scored higher on knowledge assessment than pharmacists in Qatar (p < 0.05), but other country comparisons were not significant. No predefined factors (gender, years of experience, practice area or parental status) were found to be significant in determining the knowledge score. More than two-thirds of pharmacists expressed interest in participating in continuing education opportunities in maternal-fetal medicine. Conclusion: Pharmacists have differing levels of knowledge in the area of maternal-fetal medicine. Continuing education and degree curricula should be reviewed and developed to fill the knowledge gaps of student pharmacists and practising pharmacists in maternal-fetal medicine. PMID:25364351

  7. The Qatar National Historic Environment Record: a Platform for the Development of a Fully-Integrated Cultural Heritage Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttler, R. T. H.; Tonner, T. W. W.; Al-Naimi, F. A.; Dingwall, L. M.; Al-Hemaidi, N.

    2013-07-01

    The development of the Qatar National Historic Environment Record (QNHER) by the Qatar Museums Authority and the University of Birmingham in 2008 was based on a customised, bilingual Access database and ArcGIS. While both platforms are stable and well supported, neither was designed for the documentation and retrieval of cultural heritage data. As a result it was decided to develop a custom application using Open Source code. The core module of this application is now completed and is orientated towards the storage and retrieval of geospatial heritage data for the curation of heritage assets. Based on MIDAS Heritage data standards and regionally relevant thesauri, it is a truly bilingual system. Significant attention has been paid to the user interface, which is userfriendly and intuitive. Based on a suite of web services and accessed through a web browser, the system makes full use of internet resources such as Google Maps and Bing Maps. The application avoids long term vendor ''tie-ins'' and as a fully integrated data management system, is now an important tool for both cultural resource managers and heritage researchers in Qatar.

  8. Intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar in the period 2005 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Doiphode, Sanjay H

    2013-06-01

    The expanding economy of Qatar in the last two decades has attracted immigrants, often from countries with poor socio-economic levels. Many arrive with patent intestinal parasitic infections, and recent analyses have indicated consistently rising trends in the prevalence of some infections. Here, we examined 18,563 hospital records of subjects in Qatar seeking medical assistance for a variety of ailments, combining data from 2009 to 2011 with the earlier dataset from 2005 to 2008 to enable trends to be identified across a 7-year period. We found that 8.6% were infected with one or more species of parasites, however in contrast to the earlier period (2005-2008), in the latter 3 years there were falling trends of prevalence providing some optimism that parasitic infections among the resident immigrants have begun to decline. We identified also geographic regions from which resident workers still maintain a relatively high prevalence of helminth infections despite their long-term residence in Qatar. PMID:23478576

  9. Traffic-related pedestrian injuries amongst expatriate workers in Qatar: a need for cross-cultural injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Zarour, Ahmad; Parchani, Ashok; Abdulrahman, Husham; Asim, Mohammad; Peralta, Ruben; Consunji, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Qatar is a rapidly developing country in which expatriate workers constitute the majority of population. Also, Qatar is an example of right-sided road driving convention (RDC) country. The aim of our study is to analyse the traffic-related pedestrian injuries (TRPI) amongst expatriates in relation to RDC. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of TRPI patients who were admitted to the only Level I trauma centre in Qatar between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Demographics, country of origin, time of injury, injury severity score (ISS), RDC, morbidity and mortality were analysed. Of the 4997 injured patients, 601 (12%) were pedestrians. Of these, 92% were expatriates. The mean age was 31.8 ± 17 and 64% of them were 18-45 years old. Mean ISS was higher in those who were injured on weekends (15.4 ± 10) in comparison to working days (13.5 ± 10) (p = 0.04). The overall mortality was 15%. Sixty-seven percent of those who died were from left RDC countries. Expatriate workers, originally from left RDC countries are disproportionately affected by TRPI. This group of injured patients requires focused injury prevention programmes that are culture and language appropriate. PMID:24392875

  10. Megadroughts at the dawn of Islam recorded in a 2600-year long stalagmite from Northern Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, D.; Mudelsee, M.; Bradley, R. S.; Pickering, P.; Kramers, J.; Burns, S. J.; Mangini, A.; Matter, A.

    2009-04-01

    Climate on the Arabian Peninsula is strongly affected by two major climate systems; the North Atlantic/Siberian pressure system in winter and the Indian monsoon in summer. Their influence is clearly discernable in the present-day precipitation pattern in Oman. Southern Oman (so-called Dhofar region) receives most of its total annual precipitation during the Indian summer monsoon (June - August), whereas northern Oman receives most precipitation during the northeast monsoon season (December - March) by southeast ward moving Mediterranean frontal system. To date, the late Holocene climatic history of Oman and the entire Arabian Peninsula is poorly understood due to the lack of well dated and highly resolved paleoclimate records. In order to fill this gap of knowledge an actively growing stalagmite (specimen H12) was collected from Hoti Cave located in northern Oman. Total annual rainfall in this area varies between 50 and 255 mm yr-1, with more than 65% of total annual rainfall occurring between December and March. The chronology of stalagmite H12 is based on 22 Th-U ages, which indicate that H12 grew continuously during the last 2650 years. The H12 oxygen isotope record (^18O) is based on 1345 measurements corresponding to a temporal resolution of around 2 years. The comparison of the H12 ^18O record with meteorological data reveals that ^18O values reflect the amount of precipitation. The H12 ^18O time series shows distinct centennial- to decadal-scale changes in the amount of precipitation. The most striking feature of the H12 isotope profile is a series of severe droughts between A.D. 500 and A.D. 1000, the most severe perennial drought is centered at around A.D. 530. During this time South Arabia experienced a series of profound societal changes, such as the collapse of the Himyarite Kingdom which was the dominant state in Arabia. Our stalagmite ^18O time series from Northern Oman seems to support the hypothesis that the collapse of the 1500-year-old South Arabian civilizations and transition from the pre-Islamic to the Islamic era in the 6th and early 7th century A.D. may have been triggered by reoccurring severe droughts.

  11. Megadroughts at the Dawn of Islam Recorded in a Stalagmite from Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, D.; Mudelsee, M.; Bradley, R. S.; Burns, S. J.; Cheng, H.; Mangini, A.; Edwards, R.; Matter, A.

    2010-12-01

    Climate on the Arabian Peninsula is strongly affected by two major climate systems; the North Atlantic/Siberian pressure system in winter and the Indian monsoon in summer. Their influence is clearly discernable in the present-day precipitation pattern in Oman. Southern Oman (so-called Dhofar region) receives most of its total annual precipitation during the Indian summer monsoon (June - August), whereas northern Oman receives most precipitation during the northeast monsoon season (December - March) by southeast ward moving Mediterranean frontal system. To date, the late Holocene climatic history of Oman and the entire Arabian Peninsula is poorly understood due to the lack of well dated and highly resolved paleoclimate records. In order to fill this gap of knowledge an actively growing stalagmite (specimen H12) was collected from Hoti Cave located in northern Oman. Total annual rainfall in this area varies between 50 and 255 mm yr-1, with more than 65% of total annual rainfall occurring between December and March. The chronology of stalagmite H12 is based on 24 Th-U ages, which indicate that H12 grew continuously during the last 2650 years. The H12 oxygen isotope record (?18O) is based on 1345 measurements corresponding to a temporal resolution of around 2 years. The comparison of the H12 ?18O record with meteorological data reveals that ?18O values reflect the amount of precipitation. The H12 ?18O time series shows distinct centennial- to decadal-scale changes in the amount of precipitation. The most striking feature of the H12 isotope profile is a series of severe droughts between A.D. 500 and A.D. 1000, the most severe perennial drought is centered at around A.D. 530. During this time South Arabia experienced a series of profound societal changes, such as the collapse of the Himyarite Kingdom which was the dominant state in Arabia. Our stalagmite ?18O time series from Northern Oman seems to support the hypothesis that the collapse of the 1500-year-old South Arabian civilizations and transition from the pre-Islamic to the Islamic era in the 6th and early 7th century A.D. may have been triggered by reoccurring severe droughts.

  12. The Efficiency of the "Learning Management System (LMS)" in AOU, Kuwait, as a Communication Tool in an E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfadly, Ahmad Assaf

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The integration of a Learning Management System (LMS) at the Arab Open University (AOU), Kuwait, opens new possibilities for online interaction between teachers and students. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of the LMS at AOU, Kuwait as a communication tool in the E-learning system and to find the best automated…

  13. The Efficiency of the "Learning Management System (LMS)" in AOU, Kuwait, as a Communication Tool in an E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfadly, Ahmad Assaf

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The integration of a Learning Management System (LMS) at the Arab Open University (AOU), Kuwait, opens new possibilities for online interaction between teachers and students. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of the LMS at AOU, Kuwait as a communication tool in the E-learning system and to find the best automated…

  14. Constraints on the Hydrologic Settings and Recharge of the Freshwater Lenses in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; Sultan, M.; Al-Dousari, A.

    2010-12-01

    The majority of the World’s arid and semi-arid countries receive rare, yet extreme, precipitation events. Recharge is minimal due to high evaporation and low infiltration rates. We show that Kuwait experiences geologic and hydrologic settings that are quite different, conditions that promote groundwater recharge. Kuwait is generally flat (slope: 2m/km) and is largely covered (80% of Kuwait’s land) by alluvial deposits with high infiltration capacities; these conditions inhibit runoff and promote infiltration and recharge of aquifers. On the average Kuwait receives 200 mm/yr over a few, but intensive events. Groundwater flows from the SW to the NE and the salinity increases along the flow gradient reaching salinities of 150,000 TDS in the NE. The presence of saline and hypersaline groundwater on local and/or regional scales in arid and hyperarid environments is usually considered as unwelcome news to hydrogeologists. That is not the case everywhere in Kuwait. In the southern regions, infiltrating fresh water mixes with the saline groundwater (TDS: 5,000 to 10,000) in the unconfined aquifers rendering it unsuitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, whereas in the northern regions, infiltrating water form lenses of fresh water on top of the highly saline (TDS >35,000) unconfined aquifers. Using the Raudhatain Watershed (3,696 km^2) in northern Kuwait as our test site, and knowing the locations of fresh water lenses in the watershed, we identified settings which facilitate the formation of these lenses and used these criteria to identify additional potential occurrences. Identified criteria include the presence of gentle slopes, permeable surface material, infrequent yet intensive (>20mm/hr) precipitation events, drainage depressions to collect the limited runoff, and presence of regional unconfined saline aquifers. Approximately 20 locations (size: 3 km2 to 150 km^2) were identified. Over the investigated period (1998- 2006), 25 precipitation events were reported, five of which exceeded 20 mm/hr; no flows were reported at the watershed outlet and no long-term ponding was detected on Landsat TM images acquired shortly after (1 to 14 days) each of the precipitation events suggesting that infiltration is quite high. This suggestion is supported by: (1) examination of NDVI images (from Landsat TM) and soil moisture images (from AMSR-E) which show that the observed increases in soil moisture content and vegetation index following a large precipitation events are not restricted to the valley network, and (2) the highly porous nature of the mapped soils (e.g., gravel, sand) and the high infiltration rates (up to 9m/day) reported for these soils. Using the SWAT continuous rainfall runoff model and taking advantage of global remote sensing datasets and GIS technologies, we estimate: (1) the average annual precipitation, runoff, and recharge at: 837 x 106m3, 6.9 x 10^6m^3, and 636 x 10^6m^3, respectively, and (2) recharge in the identified depressions at 41.6 x 10^6m^3. Results demonstrate the enhanced opportunities for groundwater recharge in the examined watershed and highlight the potential for similar applications in arid areas elsewhere.

  15. Structure of Submarine Large Lobate Sheet from the Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umino, S.

    2009-12-01

    Coalescence and inflation of flow lobes are common to fluidal basaltic lava emplaced on a gentle slope and a flat field, which are fundamental mechanisms to form vast sheet-like lava flows. Flow-lobe coalescence and inflation are also known from submarine sheet flows from mid-ocean ridges and submarine extensions of Hawaiian rift zones. The V3 extrusive unit (Salahi Volcanics) of the Oman Ophiolite has an extensive sheet flow of alkali basalt attaining 12 km in length and as thick as 100 m. We propose that this unusually thick sheet flow was formed by complex flow-lobe coalescence and inflation of subaqueous lava lobes extruded at low supply rates of lava. V3 mainly consists of 3 sheet flows separated by red shale beds associated with pillow and pahoehoe flows. An alkali dolerite dyke >30 m in thickness to the southern end of V3 distribution is assumed to be the source of V3 lavas, intruding into the Alley Volcanics (V2) beneath V3. Ropy wrinkles are commonly observed on the top and bottom of the sheets, indicating north to north-westerly flow directions. Sheet flows occasionally grade into pillows and pahoehoe lobes both laterally and downward. Pillows and pahoehoe lobes directly broke out from the base or peripherals of sheet flows are observed. Red shale fills interstices between pillows and fractures along the cooling joints in the base of sheet flows. Because pillows are formed on slopes >5 degrees, the above occurrence indicates that the slowly advancing lava formed pillows as it flowed down into a depression filled with unconsolidated mud. When the depression was filled with the pillows, the lava form changed into pahoehoe lobes which were coalesced and inflated to a thick sheet flow. The lowest sheet flow (SF-1) has the largest extension and thickness among the three flows. It has columnar jointed upper and lower crusts, and massive cores, among which the upper crust is thickest. Such joint structures also develop in subaerial flood basalts, but are more complex in the Salahi SF-1. Most part of SF-1 has only one core between the upper and lower crusts, while in places double cores are present separated by a columnar jointed layer, or no core appears in other places. The core lacks dendritic clinopyroxene, showing a typical doleritic texture. In contrast, the crust contains thin and elongated clinopyroxene, suggestive of crystallization under a large degree of supercooling.The roof of the sheet develops domed structures several metres to a few hundred metres across. Finely jointed zones beneath such domed roofs sometimes continue into and thin out within the crust below the neighbouring roof. Such finely jointed layers and lenses are most plausibly seal zones of coalesced flow lobes. Hyaloclastite veins and lenses are found along vertical joints in the lower part of the upper crust. Repeated fragmentation of chilled margins along the joints indicates that molten lava was in contact with water, which entered through deep cracks into the upper crust. All these observations led us to conclude that the crusts were formed by coalescence of partially overlapped or stacked flow lobes, while the core developed endogenously as the sheet inflated. Meanwhile inflation cracks opened and penetrated deep into the crust.

  16. Phytochemistry and Biologic Activities of Caulerpa Peltata Native to Oman Sea

    PubMed Central

    Movahhedin, Nasrin; Barar, Jaleh; Fathi Azad, Fatemeh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    General toxicity, antiproliferative, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Caulerpa peltata J.V.Lamouroux (Caulerpaceae) collected from Oman Sea were investigated. Dried, ground alga was Soxhlet-extracted with hexane, dichloromethane and methanol successively. The methanol extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) fractionation on silica gel using a step gradient of different mixture of solvents. A known alkaloid, caulerpin, was subsequently isolated from the fraction eluted by ethyl acatete100%. The antioxidant activity of all extracts was assessed by using the (DPPH) assay. Antiproliferative activity of the all extracts and caulerpin against the cancerous cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. General toxicity of extracts was determined using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). Based on our results, a weak activity observed for all extracts in MTT assay, while they were toxic toward brine shrimp nauplii comparing to the podophylotoxin. This is the first report on phytochemistry and bioactivity of C. peltata which collected from Oman Sea. PMID:25237346

  17. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; ?erný, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ?128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ?106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

  18. Awareness about autism among school teachers in Oman: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum disorder in an urban region in Oman. A total of 164 teachers were randomly enrolled from five schools. Misconceptions about autism spectrum disorder were found to be common among mainstream teachers in the country. We posit that such lack of awareness was likely to be rooted with sociocultural patterning as well as conflicting views often "spun" by the scientific community and mass media. Enlightened views toward children with autism spectrum disorder should be presented to Omani teachers to overcome misconceptions and negative attitudes toward children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24151129

  19. Deceased donor renal transplantation and the disruptive effect of commercial transplants: the experience of Oman.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, N; Al-Busaidy, Q; Al-Marhuby, H; Al-Lawati, J; Daar, A S

    2014-01-01

    The Oman Renal Transplantation Program was established in 1988 as a joint venture between Sultan Qaboos University and the Ministry of Health. It began with both living related donor (LRD) and deceased donor (DD) transplants. Over the next nine years, while the LRD programme progressed relatively well, there were only thirteen DD transplants. Two of the DD kidneys were obtained from overseas via an active collaboration with the Euro-transplant organisation, and one DD kidney was obtained from Saudi Arabia within the Gulf Cooperative Council exchange programme. The rest of the DD kidneys were obtained in Oman. The Omani DD programme, although it was a pioneering effort in the Gulf region at the time, was not entirely sustainable. In this paper we focus on the challenges we encountered. Among the major challenges was the absence of resources to establish a dedicated DD programme and particularly the failure to develop a cadre of dedicated transplant coordinators. PMID:25160966

  20. Phytochemistry and biologic activities of caulerpa peltata native to oman sea.

    PubMed

    Movahhedin, Nasrin; Barar, Jaleh; Fathi Azad, Fatemeh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    General toxicity, antiproliferative, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Caulerpa peltata J.V.Lamouroux (Caulerpaceae) collected from Oman Sea were investigated. Dried, ground alga was Soxhlet-extracted with hexane, dichloromethane and methanol successively. The methanol extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) fractionation on silica gel using a step gradient of different mixture of solvents. A known alkaloid, caulerpin, was subsequently isolated from the fraction eluted by ethyl acatete100%. The antioxidant activity of all extracts was assessed by using the (DPPH) assay. Antiproliferative activity of the all extracts and caulerpin against the cancerous cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. General toxicity of extracts was determined using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). Based on our results, a weak activity observed for all extracts in MTT assay, while they were toxic toward brine shrimp nauplii comparing to the podophylotoxin. This is the first report on phytochemistry and bioactivity of C. peltata which collected from Oman Sea. PMID:25237346