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Sample records for kuwayana hemiptera psyllidae

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  2. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  3. Detection and characterization of a novel reovirus in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We successfully used a genomics approach to discover viral pathogens in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). These psyllids are vectors of the devastating disease, Huanglongbing, now affecting citrus in the USA, and world wide. Discovery of viral pathogens of psyllids m...

  4. FIRST RECORD OF ACIZZIA JAMATONICA (KUWAYAMA) (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA: FRIEND OR FOE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is reported for the first time in North America. Because the species is thought to feed exclusively on Albizia, it may prove to be an effective biocontrol agent against the invasive Albizia julibrissin Durazzini in the southeaster...

  5. GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ASIAN CITRUS PSYLLID: VECTOR OF CITRUS GREENING (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of a unigene set identified the putative functions of over 500 transcripts from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). D. citri is the primary vector of Huanglongbing, HLB, which is a severe plant pathogenic bacterium that causes severe economic losses...

  6. FK506-binding protein from adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We successfully identified a new member of the FK-binding proteins from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). FK-binding proteins (FKBP) function in many critical pathways needed for psyllid survival. The full length mRNA transcript provides us a new genetic target for ...

  7. Behavioral evidence for a female-produced sex attractant in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important world-wide pest of citrus. It vectors three phloem-restricted bacteria in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter that cause huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and fema...

  8. Midgut gene expression in Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a gene expression dataset from the midgut tissues of the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP is the primary vector of the bacterium associated with a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). The occurrence and spread of the AsCP ...

  9. Response of summerform pear psylla (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to male- and female-produced odors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), assessing response of summerform male and female psyllids to both male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. Male psyllids were attracted to odors from live females an...

  10. Relationships between adult abdominal color and reproductive potential in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdominal colors in the adult stage: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. A previous report showed that—relative to blue/green individuals—gray/brown indi...

  11. Novel delivery of the fungi Paecilomyces formosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for managing the Asian citrus psyllid (Psyllidae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this A...

  12. Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) infection and dissemination of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae)under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...

  13. Novel delivery of the fungi Paecilomyces formosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for managing the Asian citrus psyllid (Psyllidae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...

  14. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  15. Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

  16. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid.

    PubMed

    Kolora, Lakshmi D; Powell, Christopher M; Hunter, W; Bextine, B; Lauzon, C R

    2015-05-01

    The Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive insect pest that transmits Candidatus Liberibacter spp. This insect/pathogen system was first identified in North America in the early 2000's and has become the top threat to the citrus industry. Limited options for management of this problem exist; therefore, innovative pest management strategies are being developed. In this study, we describe the first step toward a paratransgenic approach (also referred to symbiotic control) for control of the insect vector or the pathogen. Culturable bacteria from the gut of Asian Citrus Psyllids were identified using standard culture techniques followed by sequencing of the cultured microorganisms. Further, 454 pyrosequencing of the gut was performed to audit bacterial presence in order to begin to identify any relationship between psyllid symbionts and C. Liberibacter spp. PMID:25645736

  17. Preliminary resistance screening on abamectin in pear psylla (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Peretto, Riccardo; Caroli, Luigi; Pasqualini, Edison; Chicca, Milvia; Leis, Marilena

    2007-10-01

    In northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region), integrated pest management has been used for several years against pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a relevant pest of pear (Pyrus spp.) trees. After the outlawing of amitraz in 2005, the most common active ingredient involved is abamectin, a mixture of avermectin B1a and avermectin B1b. After the development of C. pyri resistance to azinphos methyl in southern France, we evaluated, by topical application, the different sensitivities to abamectin on C. pyri populations collected in orchards from Emilia-Romagna, where different field strategies were used, with alternative success in terms of pest management. The LC50 values ranged between 1.61 and 28.37 mg/liter, and they revealed variations more related to collection time than to field strategies. The failure of abamectin treatments against C. pyri in some Emilia-Romagna locations is probably unrelated to resistance development, but rather it is related to incorrect pest defense management, which could interfere with pest parasitoids and predators. PMID:17972642

  18. Survey of susceptibility to abamectin of pear psylla (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Civolani, S; Cassanelli, S; Rivi, M; Manicardi, G C; Peretto, R; Chicca, M; Pasqualini, E; Leis, M

    2010-06-01

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a relevant pest of pear, Pyrus communis L., trees in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). The susceptibility to the insecticide abamectin was evaluated at different times of the year on C. pyri populations undergoing different control strategies within conventional, integrated, and organic farms. The tests performed were the egg spray and the topic and dip bioassay on adults. The larval mortality was evaluated by dip bioassay on treated leaves. The activity of P450-dependent monooxygenases, a relevant enzyme system involved in insecticide resistance of C. pyri, was also determined in adults by 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD assay). Tests on treated eggs and on larvae showed no significant differences in LC50 and LC90, although these values were always lower in individuals collected from organic farms in comparison with all other farms. Tests on overwintering adults revealed differences among populations, probably more related to collection time than to field pest control strategies. Unexpectedly, the ECOD assay on adults showed a slightly higher cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity in the population undergoing organic control in comparison to others. Our results indicate that egg spray is the most reliable bioassay to verify data of open-field applications. Apparently, no resistance to abamectin has yet been developed by C. pyri in Emilia-Romagna. PMID:20568628

  19. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness. PMID:27247354

  20. The roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to four different host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors three phloem-restricted bacteria in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, the causative agents of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. ...

  1. Ultrastructure of wax-producing structures on the integument of the melaleuca psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and honeydew excretion behavior in males and females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by w...

  2. Ontogenic variation in citrus flush shoots and its relation with host plant finding and acceptance by Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a destructive insect mainly because it vectors the bacterial pathogens that cause the deadly and incurable citrus greening disease. Diaphorina citri adult females lay eggs and immature development occurs exclusively on new flush sh...

  3. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Arduin, M; Fernandes, G W; Kraus, J E

    2005-11-01

    The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae). The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1) A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2) A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3) A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4) A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors. PMID:16532179

  4. Testing Spirotetramat as an Alternative Solution to Abamectin for Cacopsylla pyri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Control: Laboratory and Field Tests.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Cassanelli, Stefano; Tommasini, Maria Grazia; Aschonitis, Vassilis; Fano, Elisa Anna

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance. PMID:26470374

  5. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F; Horton, David R

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect's diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0-3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. PMID:26056318

  6. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, W. Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Horton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect’s diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0–3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. PMID:26056318

  7. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal bacteria were isolated and cultured from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the insect which transmits the plant-infecting bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter, known to infect and kill citrus trees, known as citrus greening disease. The bacteria from Di...

  8. Insecticidal Potential of Clove Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Laboratory and Field.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bao-Liang; Liu, Qi-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Long; Li, Peng; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang and Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in China. As an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. In this study, the essential oil of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major constituents were eugenol (88.61%) and eugenol acetate (8.89%), followed by β-caryophyllene (1.89%). In a laboratory bioassay, clove essential oil, commercial eugenol (99.00%) and β-caryophyllene (98.00%) exhibited strong contact toxicity against the summerform adults of C. chinensis with LD50 values of 0.730, 0.673, and 0.708 µg/adult, and against the nymphs with LD50 values of 1.795, 1.668, and 1.770 µg/nymph, respectively. In contrast, commercial eugenol acetate (98%) had LD50 values of 9.266 µg/adult and 9.942 µg/nymph. In a field trial, clove essential oil caused significant population reductions of 73.01% (4.80 mg/ml), 66.18% (2.40 mg/ml) and 46.56% (1.20 mg/ml), respectively. Our results demonstrated that clove essential oil and its constituents have potential as a source of natural insecticides. PMID:26470216

  9. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hentz, Matthew; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed. PMID:25793934

  10. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hentz, Matthew; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of ‘naturally waxed’ and ‘dewaxed’ nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed. PMID:25793934

  11. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  12. Behavioral, Ultrastructural and Chemical Studies on the Honeydew and Waxy Secretions by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Alessandro, Rocco; Shatters Jr, Robert G.; Hall, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences between nymphs, males and females, and suggested some mechanisms by which the psyllids, especially nymphs and adult females, can minimize their contamination with honeydew excretions. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adult males and females. Video recordings showed that adult males produce clear sticky droplets of honeydew gently deposited behind their body on the leaf surface, whereas adult females produce whitish honeydew pellets powerfully propelled away from the female body, probably to get their excretions away from eggs and newly hatched nymphs. ACP nymphs produce long ribbons or tubes of honeydew that frequently stay attached to the exuviae after molting, or drop when feeding on the lower side of citrus leaves. Furthermore, honeydew excretions of both nymphs and adult females are covered with a thin layer of whitish waxy material ultrastructurally composed of a convoluted network of long fine filaments or ribbons. This material is extruded from intricate arrays of wax pores in the circumanal ring (around the anus) that is found in nymphs and females but not in males of ACP or other psyllid species. Infrared microscopy and mass spectroscopy revealed that, in addition to various sugars, honeydew excretions of ACP nymphs and females are covered with a thin layer of wax similar in profile to ester waxes. PMID:23762268

  13. Potential economic pests of solanaceous crops: a new species of Solanum-feeding psyllid from Australia and first record from New Zealand of Acizzia solanicola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gary S; Kent, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    Acizzia credoensis sp. n. is described from a single population on the native plant, Solanum lasiophyllum, from semi-arid Western Australia. The host range of Acizzia solanicola Kent & Taylor, initially recorded as damaging eggplant, S. melongena, in commercial crops and gardens and on wild tobacco bush, S. mauritianum in eastern Australia, is expanded to include the following Solanaceae: rock nightshade, S. petrophilum, cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, and an undetermined species of angel's trumpet Brugmansia and Datura. New Zealand specimens of A. solanicola collected in early 2012 from S. mauritianum are the first record for this species from outside Australia, and possibly represent a very recent incursion. The potential for the solanaceous-inhabiting Psyllidae to vector Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen, on native Australian Solanaceae is discussed. The occurrence of A. credoensis and A. solanicola on native Australian Solanum supports the Australian origin for the solanaceous-inhabiting Acizzia psyllids. PMID:24698916

  14. Effects of elicitors of host plant defenses on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest of cultivated pear (Pyrus communis L.) in North America and Europe. We examined the effects of foliar applications of three commercially available chemical elicitors of host-plant defenses, Actigard, Employ, and ODC, ...

  15. Novel reovirus in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We discovered a psyllid-infecting Reovirus that we are now examining as a potential biological control agent of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) to reduce huanglongbing disease (HLB) of citrus, a devastating bacterial disease of citrus transmitted by the psyllid. Previously, a psyllid-inf...

  16. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cacopsylla coccinae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Que, Shengquan; Yu, Liping; Xin, Tianrong; Zou, Zhiwen; Hu, Liangxiong; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Cacopsylla coccinae was determined by long PCR and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 14,832 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes as well as a control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (38.16%), T (33.88%), C (17.95%) and G (10.01%). Stop codon was incomplete for coxII gene and ND1 gene. The gene overlaps were suggested between 13 pairs of the contiguous genes in C. coccinae. The mitogenome would contribute to resolving phylogenetic position and interrelationships of Cacopsylla. PMID:25693718

  18. Studies of in aere formed stylet sheath from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and other phytophagous Hemiptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event of these piercing-sucking insects. The stylet sheath composition is unknown and it is suggested that it forms through interactions with external (h...

  19. Host-choice behavior of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of huanglongbing (HLB), considered to be the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Knowledge of the ACP’s host-plant finding behavior aids in our understanding of the epidemiology of HLB and in designing experiments to ...

  20. Daily timing of and age at mating in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors a bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, in Florida which is responsible for citrus greening disease (huanglongbing), one of the most serious diseases of citrus. Despite the great economic importance of D. citri to citrus production, little is kno...

  1. Sticky trap and stem-tap sampling protocols for the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling statistics were obtained to develop a sampling protocol for estimating numbers of adult Diaphorina citri in citrus using two different sampling methods: yellow sticky traps and stem–tap samples. A 4.0 ha block of mature orange trees was stratified into ten 0.4 ha strata and sampled using...

  2. Effects of soil-applied imidacloprid on Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) feeding behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is one of the most important pests of citrus due to its status as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing...

  3. Attraction of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to Female Psylla in Pear Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster), is a major economic pest of pears in North America and Europe. Laboratory studies have shown that males of both the summerform and winterform morphotypes in this species are attracted to volatiles from females. The present study tested whether attrac...

  4. Monitoring for Insecticide Resistance in Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Florida.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Eason, Julius; Haseeb, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad; Stansly, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, populations is a serious threat to the citrus industry. As a contribution to a resistance management strategy, we developed a glass vial technique to monitor field populations of Asian citrus psyllid for insecticide resistance. Diagnostic concentrations needed to separate susceptible genotypes from resistant individuals were determined for cypermethrin (0.5 μg per vial), malathion (1.0 μg per vial), diazinon (1.0 μg per vial), carbaryl (1.0 μg per vial), carbofuran (0.1 μg per vial), methomyl (1.0 μg per vial), propoxur (1.0 μg per vial), endosulfan (1.0 μg per vial), imidacloprid (0.5 μg per vial), acetamiprid (5.0 μg per vial), chlorfenapyr (2.5 μg per vial), and fenpyroximate (2.5 μg per vial). In 2014, resistance to two carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and carbofuran), one organophosphate (malathion), one pyrethroid (cypermethrin), and one pyrazole (fenpyroximate) was detected in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Immokalee, FL. There was no resistance detected to diazinon, methomyl, propoxur, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and chlorfenapyr. The levels of insecticide resistance were variable and unstable, suggesting that resistance could be successfully managed. The results validate the use of the glass vial bioassay to monitor for resistance in Asian citrus psyllid populations and provide the basis for the development of a resistance management strategy designed to extend the efficacy of all classes of insecticides used for control of the Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:26709293

  5. Sampling Methods for Detection and Monitoring of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Monzo, C; Arevalo, H A; Jones, M M; Vanaclocha, P; Croxton, S D; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a key pest of citrus due to its role as vector of citrus greening disease or "huanglongbing." ACP monitoring is considered an indispensable tool for management of vector and disease. In the present study, datasets collected between 2009 and 2013 from 245 citrus blocks were used to evaluate precision, sensitivity for detection, and efficiency of five sampling methods. The number of samples needed to reach a 0.25 standard error-mean ratio was estimated using Taylor's power law and used to compare precision among sampling methods. Comparison of detection sensitivity and time expenditure (cost) between stem-tap and other sampling methodologies conducted consecutively at the same location were also assessed. Stem-tap sampling was the most efficient sampling method when ACP densities were moderate to high and served as the basis for comparison with all other methods. Protocols that grouped trees near randomly selected locations across the block were more efficient than sampling trees at random across the block. Sweep net sampling was similar to stem-taps in number of captures per sampled unit, but less precise at any ACP density. Yellow sticky traps were 14 times more sensitive than stem-taps but much more time consuming and thus less efficient except at very low population densities. Visual sampling was efficient for detecting and monitoring ACP at low densities. Suction sampling was time consuming and taxing but the most sensitive of all methods for detection of sparse populations. This information can be used to optimize ACP monitoring efforts. PMID:26313984

  6. Insecticide sprays, natural enemy assemblages and predation on Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Monzo, C; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2014-10-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is considered a key citrus pest due to its role as vector of 'huanglongbing' (HLB) or citrus greening, probably the most economically damaging disease of citrus. Insecticidal control of the vector is still considered a cornerstone of HLB management to prevent infection and to reduce reinoculation of infected trees. The severity of HLB has driven implementation of intensive insecticide programs against ACP with unknown side effects on beneficial arthropod fauna in citrus agroecosystems. We evaluated effects of calendar sprays directed against this pest on natural enemy assemblages and used exclusion to estimate mortality they imposed on ACP populations in citrus groves. Predator exclusion techniques were used on nascent colonies of D. citri in replicated large untreated and sprayed plots of citrus during the four major flushing periods over 2 years. Population of spiders, arboreal ants and ladybeetles were independently assessed. Monthly sprays of recommended insecticides for control of ACP, adversely affected natural enemy populations resulting in reduced predation on ACP immature stages, especially during the critical late winter/early spring flush. Consequently, projected growth rates of the ACP population were greatest where natural enemies had been adversely affected by insecticides. Whereas, this result does not obviate the need for insecticidal control of ACP, it does indicate that even a selective regimen of sprays can impose as yet undetermined costs in terms of reduced biological control of this and probably other citrus pests. PMID:24830653

  7. Repellency of selected biorational insecticides to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactericera cockerelli has recently become a major concern because of its direct feeding and vectoring of bacterial diseases in many solanaceous crops. The repellency of four biorational insecticides, MOI-201 (a Chinese medicine plant extract), Requiem (a plant extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides), ...

  8. Gene response to stress in the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, under three stress factors were investigated: physical wounding, heat stress, and exposure to low doses of the insecticide imidacloprid. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is a vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium...

  9. Responses of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to conspecific vibrational signals and synthetic mimics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mate-seeking in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a vector of the economically damaging huanglongbing citrus disease, typically includes male-female duetting behaviors. First, the male calls by beating its wings at ca. 170-250 Hz, producing vibrations that are transmitted along the host tree branches to th...

  10. Dispersion patterns and sampling plans for Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abundance and spatial dispersion of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, were studied in thirty-four grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) and six sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) orchards from March to August 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern Texas. Although flush shoot inf...

  11. Daily and seasonal patterns in abdomen color in Diaphoria citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a psyllid vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdomen colors in the adult psyllid: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. We explored the daily (in individuals in the laboratory) and seasonal (in a field population) p...

  12. The authority and types for the hackberry gall psyllid genus Pachypsylla (Riley) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...

  13. Reovirus-like sequences isolated from adult Asian citrus psyllid, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae: Diaphorina citri)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a Fijivirus from North America and which was detected in a new virus host species, the Asian citrus psyllid. Few viruses have ever been reported from psyllids. We discovered an insect infecting virus in field collected Asian citrus psyllids i...

  14. Reovirus-like sequences isolated from adult Asian citrus psyllid, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae: Diaphorina citri)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a fijiviruses from North America detected in a new virus host species, the Asian citrus psyllid. Few viruses have ever been reported from psyllids. We discovered an insect infecting virus in field collected Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. T...

  15. First report of the biological control agent Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in California, USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Australian psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae is a specialized herbivore of Melaleuca quinquenervia and other closely related congeners. Boreioglycaspis melaleucae was discovered in Los Angeles County (California, USA) in late 2009, feeding on ornamentally planted M. quinquenervia trees. The ps...

  16. Antibiosis and antixenosis resistance of Poncirus and Citrus x Poncirus germplasm to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, which is a worldwide pest that spreads citrus greening disease, may best be controlled by finding varieties of citrus that are resistant to the psyllid. We tested trifoliate citrus and trifoliate hybrids for resistance to the psyllid. Trifoliates were nearly all resistant,...

  17. Recapture rate of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) marked with fluorescent dust in dispersal studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge on the dispersal capacity of the insect vector Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is necessary to answer questions related to Huanglongbing epidemiology and improve current management strategies for the disease. The objectives of this field study were to determine the recapture rate and distance o...

  18. Population ecology and phenology of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in two Florida citrus groves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted during 2005 and 2006 to assess population densities and phenology of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama in citrus within east central Florida. Young, irrigated grapefruit and mature, non-irrigated orange trees were sampled weekly for eggs, nymphs and adults on flush shoots;...

  19. Ultrastructure of integument wax and wax-producing structures in the melaleuca psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melaleuca psyllid has been introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida wetland since its introduction earlier from Australia as an ornamental plant. Colonies of the psyllid on young shoots...

  20. Volatile profiles of young leaves of Rutaceae spp. varying in susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid,(Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant volatiles were identified from six species in the family Rutaceae. These species had varying degrees of susceptibility to the Asian citrus psyllid as determined by direct counts of life stages. Using a push system involving charcoal-filtered humidified air, volatiles were adsorbed on SuperQ pa...

  1. Incidence of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease “huanglongbing” or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston, was imported fro...

  2. A comparison of traps and stem tap sampling for monitoring adult Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted at two different field sites to compare yellow sticky card traps, blue sticky card traps, Multi-Lure traps, and CC traps (red, blue, black, white, yellow, and green) for monitoring adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama,in citrus. The Multi-Lure trap is useful f...

  3. Effects of a particle film on biology and behavior of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its infestations in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of a kaolin-based hydrophilic particle film, Surround WP, on the biology and behavior of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and to assess population densities of D. citri in citrus subjected to monthly applications of Surround WP. Laboratory inve...

  4. Unreliable pesticide control of the vector psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) for the reduction of microorganism disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Katsuya; Miyazi, Kastuhiko; Matsuhira, Kunihiko; Yasuda, Keiji; Sadoyama, Yasutsune; Do, Hong Tuan; Doan, Van Bang

    2010-07-01

    Systemic insecticides and application methods were examined for the control of the vector psyllid of citrus greening disease, Diaphorina citri, on grown king mandarin trees in an orchard in southern Vietnam from May 2007 to September 2008. Leaf spraying of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin attained about 50 % to 70 % mortality of the psyllid for one month after the application and showed decreased efficacy thereafter. Imidacloprid was more effective than the other two insecticides, but the efficacy on grown trees was still much lower than that following application to young seedlings. Trunk injection of these insecticides accomplished similar mortality, about 50 %, and the efficacy of the insecticides continued for one month. An adjuvant was used with the goal of protecting the insecticide applied on leaves from precipitation, and mineral oil was used for the same reason, as well as its potential to control the psyllid. Neither the adjuvant nor the mineral oil played an evident role in the increase of insecticide efficacy or longevity. Application of systemic insecticides at even 50 times the dose described above did not show an apparent increase in psyllid mortality. The insecticides commonly used for the control of the psyllid were not as effective on this insect on grown trees as we had expected they would be. PMID:20512737

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO PEAR PSYLLA (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) AND EVALUATION OF FIELD PREDATION BY TWO KEY PREDATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, and related psyllids are important pests of pear worldwide. To improve our understanding of the impact made by the various predators of pear psylla we developed antibodies against this pest to be used in detecting prey remains in the predator’s guts. Antibodie...

  6. Relative abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in females and males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect’s diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella/psyllid interactions and to developing ways to ...

  7. Minute pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) are important sources of biological control of pests in orchards, vegetable crops, forests, on ornamental plants, and in greenhouses. The systematics and biology of the Anthocoridae is briefly reviewed, and information on life history, systematics and taxon...

  8. Development of ovary structures in the last larval and adult stages of psyllids (Insecta, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea).

    PubMed

    Kot, Marta; Büning, Jürgen; Jankowska, Władysława; Drohojowska, Jowita; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    The development and organization of the ovaries of ten species from four Psylloidea families (Psyllidae, Triozidae, Aphalaridae and Liviidae) have been investigated. The ovaries of the last larval stage (i.e. fifth instar) of all examined species are filled with numerous clusters of cystocytes which undergo synchronous incomplete mitotic division. Cystocytes of the given cluster are arranged into a rosette with polyfusome in the centre. These clusters are associated with single somatic cells. At the end of the fifth instar, the clusters begin to separate from each other, forming spherical ovarioles which are surrounded by a single layer of somatic cells. In the ovarioles of very young females all cystocytes enter the prophase of meiosis and differentiate shortly thereafter into oocytes and trophocytes (nurse cells). Meanwhile, somatic cells differentiate into cells of the inner epithelial sheath surrounding the trophocytes and into the prefollicular cells that encompass the oocytes. During this final differentiation, the trophocytes lose their cell membranes and become syncytial. Oocytes remain cellular and most of them (termed arrested oocytes) do not grow. In the ovarioles of older females, one oocyte encompassed by its follicle cells starts growing, still connected to the syncytial tropharium by a nutritive cord. After the short phase of previtellogenesis alone, the oocyte enters its vitellogenic the growth phase in the vitellarium. At that time, the second oocyte may enter the vitellarium and start its previtellogenic growth. In the light of the obtained results, the phylogeny of psyllids, as well as phylogenetic relationships between taxa of Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha are discussed. PMID:27140505

  9. Probing behaviors of adult Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)are not appreciably affected by soil application of field-rate aldicarb to citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, Huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening, was discovered in Florida. The presumptive causal agent of this disease is the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), which is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid,Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Following ...

  10. Influence of Temperature, Humidity, and Plant Terpenoid Profiles on Life History Characteristics of Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a Biological Control Agent of the Invasive Tree Melaleuca quinquenervia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the introduced weed biological control agent Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore is widely established among stands of its host Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtaceae) in south Florida, it’s population densities decline markedly during summer months. We investigated the hypothesis tha...

  11. Geographic distribution and regional impacts of Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), biological control agents of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake is widely distributed throughout peninsular Florida, USA and poses a significant threat to species diversity in the wetland systems of the Everglades. Mitigation of this threat includes the areawide release campaign of the biological control age...

  12. Post-establishment assessment of host plant specificity of Arytainilla spartiophila (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), an adventive biological control agent of Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (Fabaceae), is a shrub native to Europe that is invasive in the USA, New Zealand and Australia. The psyllid Arytainilla spartiophila has been purposely introduced to Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent of C. scoparius, but is an accidental introduc...

  13. Multi-generational impacts of the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on growth and survival of the invasive weed Genista monspessulana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-release efficacy assessments can identify agents with the most potential to impact the target weed. Experiments typically occur within a single generation of the agent, however, and strong impacts on target weeds may take longer to emerge. This study examined the effects of the prospective agent...

  14. Detection and relative titer of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the salivary glands and alimentary canal of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vector of citrus Huanglongbing disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus has been strongly implicated as the causative agent of huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, which is currently the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. In the Americas and Asia, HLB is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri in a persisten...

  15. Incidence of huanglongbing-associated ‘Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus’ in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) collected from plants for sale in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was reported for the first time in Florida in June 1998, and huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), vectored by D. citri, was detected in Florida for the first time in Aug 2005. In Florida, the only known HLB pathogen is ‘Candidatus Liberibacter as...

  16. Sex Attraction in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction, assessing male and female response to male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. In laboratory olfactometer assays, pot...

  17. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  18. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) as a pest in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has many common names including sweetpotato whitefly, silverleaf whitefly, tobacco whitefly, tomato whitefly, and cassava whitefly. It is an important global pest of numerous field and greenhouse agricultural crops. It damages plants from its fee...

  19. Metagenomics of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new insect-infecting viruses, three endosymbiotic bacteria, a fungus, and a bacterial phage were discovered using a metagenomics approach to identify unknown organisms that live in association with the sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The genetic composition of ...

  20. Metagenomics of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Metagenomics approach was used to identify unknown organisms which live in association with the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Metagenomics combines molecular biology and genetics to identify, and characterize genetic material from unique biological ...

  1. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae) of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Argentina are reviewed and keyed. Newly described are Anagrus (Anagrus) empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Mymaridae, parasitoid of M. scutellaris Berg on water hyacinth, Eichhornia cras...

  2. Association of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with "zebra chip," a new potato disease in southwestern United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Munyaneza, J E; Crosslin, J M; Upton, J E

    2007-06-01

    A new defect of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., "zebra chip," so named for the characteristic symptoms that develop in fried chips from infected potato tubers, has recently been documented in several southwestern states of the United States, in Mexico, and in Central America. This defect is causing millions of dollars in losses to both potato producers and processors. Zebra chip plant symptoms resemble those caused by potato purple top and psyllid yellows diseases. Experiments were conducted to elucidate the association between the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) and zebra chip by exposing clean potato plants to this insect under greenhouse and field conditions. Potato plants and tubers exhibiting zebra chip symptoms were tested for phytoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction. Potato psyllids collected from infected potato fields also were tested. Results indicated that there was an association between the potato psyllid and zebra chip. Plants exposed to psyllids in the greenhouse and field developed zebra chip. In the greenhouse, 25.8 and 59.2% of tubers exhibited zebra chip symptoms in the raw tubers and fried chips, respectively. In the field, 15 and 57% of tubers showed symptoms in raw tubers and chips, respectively. No zebra chip was observed in tubers from plants that had not been exposed to psyllids, either in the greenhouse or field. No phytoplasmas were detected from potato plants or tubers with zebra chip symptoms, suggesting that these pathogens are not involved in zebra chip. Of the 47 samples of potato psyllids tested, only two tested positive for the Columbia Basin potato purple top phytoplasma. PMID:17598522

  3. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  4. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton across the southeastern U.S., however, little is known concerning its spatial distribution in corn fields of this region. It is likely that the proximity of other adjacent row crops, i.e., cotton an...

  5. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  6. Redescription of Dardjilingia Yang (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Salini, S

    2016-01-01

    The genus Dardjilingia Yang, 1936 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Lestonocorini), comprising a single species, Dardjilingia nigriventris Yang, 1936, is redescribed and illustrated, including the descriptions of male and female genitalia for the first time. The genus Dardjilingia is removed from the present tribe Lestonocorini. PMID:27470843

  7. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  8. Pan trapping soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since it’s introduction into the United States in the past ten years, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been a damaging pest to soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Predicting their arrival in a soybean field on a year-by-year basis has been difficult as little is ...

  9. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): immature stages and biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) are described, keyed and illustrated. The descritpion of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are body size, color, number...

  10. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  11. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  12. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  13. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Triatomini and Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) tribes include the most diverse Chagas disease vectors; however, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribes remain obscure. This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of Triatomini reported to date. Methods The relationships between all of the Triatomini genera and representatives of the three Rhodniini species groups were examined in a novel molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the following six molecular markers: the mitochondrial 16S; Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII) and Cytochrome B (Cyt B); and the nuclear 18S and 28S. Results Our results show that the Rhodnius prolixus and R. pictipes groups are more closely related to each other than to the R. pallescens group. For Triatomini, we demonstrate that the large complexes within the paraphyletic Triatoma genus are closely associated with their geographical distribution. Additionally, we observe that the divergence within the spinolai and flavida complex clades are higher than in the other Triatoma complexes. Conclusions We propose that the spinolai and flavida complexes should be ranked under the genera Mepraia and Nesotriatoma. Finally, we conclude that a thorough morphological investigation of the paraphyletic genera Triatoma and Panstrongylus is required to accurately assign queries to natural genera. PMID:24685273

  15. Photosharing websites may improve Hemiptera biodiversity knowledge and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Goula, Marta; Sesma, José-Manuel; Vivas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Internet photosharing websites is a very recent and powerful tool for the study of biodiversity, and a meeting point of general public fond of nature and professional naturalists. The article discusses when an uploaded picture is scientifically valuable, and the benefits of structured hosting websites for the most fruitful information retrieval. Examples are given of faunistic, biological, ecological and conservation results concerning Hemiptera provided by information download from photosharing websites. PMID:24003310

  16. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    PubMed Central

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P.; Miller, Gary L.; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid. PMID:26668546

  17. Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; Martins, David S.; Ventura, José A.; Wolff, Vera S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are newly recorded from Espírito Santo, Brazil, and information on the host plants and geographic distribution of the 31 species of Diaspididae that have been identified in the State is provided. New plant host records are reported for 11 of the diaspidid species studied and results are discussed with respect to development of agriculture in this and similar areas with objectives of modernization and diversification. PMID:20337558

  18. Initial impacts and field validation of host range for Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae),a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae: Leptosp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of south Florida wetlands by the Australian paperbark tree (“melaleuca”), Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca) has caused adverse economic and environmental impacts. The tree’s biological attributes along with favorable ambient biophysical conditions combine to complicate ...

  19. Comparative anaylsis of Asian citrus psyllid and potato psyllid antennae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and the potato/tomato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the antennal sensory arrays being...

  20. Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-com...

  1. Jumping performance of planthoppers (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2009-09-01

    The structure of the hind limbs and the kinematics of their movements that propel jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) were analysed. The propulsion for a jump was delivered by rapid movements of the hind legs that both move in the same plane beneath the body and parallel to its longitudinal axis, as revealed in high-speed sequences of images captured at rates up to 7500 images s(-1). The first and key movement was the depression of both trochantera about their coxae, powered by large depressor muscles in the thorax, accompanied by rapid extension of the tibiae about their femora. The initial movements of the two trochantera of the hind legs were synchronised to within 0.03 ms. The hind legs are only 20% longer than the front and middle legs, represent 65% of the body length, and have a ratio of 1.8 relative to the cube root of the body mass. The two hind coxae have a different structure to those in frog- and leafhoppers. They are fused at the mid-line, covered ventrally by transparent cuticle, and each is fixed laterally to a part of the internal skeleton called the pleural arch that extends to the articulation of a hind wing. A small and pointed, ventral coxal protrusion covered in microtrichia engages with a raised, smooth, white patch on a dorsal femur when a hind leg is levated (cocked) in preparation for a jump. In the best jumps by a male Issus, the body was accelerated in 0.8 ms to a take-off velocity of 5.5 m s(-1), was subjected to a force of 719 g and was displaced a horizontal distance of 1.1 m. This performance required an energy output of 303 microJ, a power output of 388 mW and exerted a force of 141 mN, or more than 700 times its body mass. This performance implies that a catapult mechanism must be used, and that Issus ranks alongside the froghopper Philaenus as one of the best insect jumpers. PMID:19684220

  2. Young citrus leaves decrease dispersal distance of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To manage citrus Huanglongbing, understanding factors that affect dispersal behavior of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is required to answer questions related to disease epidemiology and to improve management tactics. Currently, little is known about cues medi...

  3. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) foliage can result in leaf senescence and abscission. The plant growth regulators chlorforfenuron (CPPU), gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoet...

  4. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  5. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  6. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  7. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  8. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  9. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  10. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera:Dictyopharidae)in Formosa Argentina with descriptions of new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and Platygastridae) of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) are reviewed and keyed. This planthopper feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach, and was collected in Formosa, Argentina, where some of ...

  11. Susceptibility of immature stages of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to selected insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of immatures of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), to 10 insecticides that included chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, endosulfan, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam was evaluated...

  12. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  13. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chordas, Stephen W., III; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  14. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host. PMID:26957084

  15. Review of the family Veliidae in Romania (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha).

    PubMed

    Berchi, Gavril Marius; Kment, Petr

    2015-01-01

    A critical review of the family Veliidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) in Romania is provided. In total, two genera and eight species (Microvelia Westwood, 1834-3 species, Velia Latreille, 1804-5 species) are known from the country. Microvelia buenoi Drake, 1920 and Velia serbica Tamanini, 1951 are recorded for the first time from Romania. The occurrence of V. affinis filippii Tamanini, 1947 and V. mancinii mancinii Tamanini, 1947 is confirmed by additional records. Based on proven or suspected misidentifications, V. currens (Fabricius, 1794) and V. rivulorum (Fabricius, 1775) are excluded from the Romanian fauna. A checklist of the Veliidae of Romania and updated distribution maps are provided. Biogeographical aspects of the fauna are summarized. PMID:26249393

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper. PMID:26436567

  17. Three new Asiatic species of Hyadaphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Nafría, Juan M Nieto; Hidalgo, Nicolas Pérez; Brown, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Hyadaphis Kirkaldy, 1904 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are established: Hyadaphis levantina sp. n. from specimens caught on Lonicera nummulariifolia from Lebanon and Israel, and Hyadaphis anethi sp. n. plus Hyadaphis parva sp. n. from specimens respectively caught on Anethum sp. and Andrachne (?) cordifolia from Pakistan. Apterous viviparous females of all three species, alate viviparae of the first two and males of H. anethi are described. Known and new species of Hyadaphis are grouped for two relevant characters: (1) size and shape of siphunculi, and (2) host plant and life cycle; and the discriminant features of apterous viviparous females of the new species are compared with the already described species of the same group and a key for the Hyadaphis species is provided. PMID:27394868

  18. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  19. Efficacy of insecticide residues on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) mortality and injury in apple and peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary threat from Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) originates from populations continuously dispersing from and among wild and cultivated hosts. Many individuals may not come in contact with freshly applied insecticides, but only dried, aged residues. Limited information e...

  20. Optimal Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) density and time of introduction for suppression of bruchid progeny in stored legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of both predator density and elapsed time between initial infestation and introduction of predators were determined for suppression of bruchids infesting stored grain legumes by Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter)(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Suppression of Acanthoscelides obtectus approached er...

  1. Heated controlled atmosphere postharvest treatments for Macchiademus diplopterus (Distant)(Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus (Schoenherr)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-chemical, environmentally-friendly quarantine treatments are preferred for use in postharvest control of insect pests. Combined high temperature and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for phytosanitary fruit pests, Macchiademus diplopterus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus ...

  2. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  3. Spatial distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut-cotton farmscapes in this study were composed of peanut and cotton fields whose edges interface with each other and woodland habitats. The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton, but little is known concerning its spatial distribu...

  4. Effect of plant barriers and citrus leaf age on dispersal of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Studies designed to measure dispersal capacity of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) are needed to provide epidemiological knowledge necessary to improve management of citrus Huanglongbing. In the present study, a mark-release-recapture technique was used to investigate whet...

  5. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  6. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  7. Virus entry and replication in the Glassy-winged sharpshhoter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently discovered leafhopper viral pathogen was examined to determine the route of virus entry and sites of replication in the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, (Homalodisca vitripennis, Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The virus, HoCV-1, has been associated with increased nymphal mortality and is a co...

  8. Use of video assays to assess feeding behavior by Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key cotton pest in the western United States that injures and induces abscission of squares and small bolls. Feeding behavior varies among individual lygus, and this variation complicates interpretation of studies to elucidate lygus/cotton interactions...

  9. A visual guide to identification of Euschistus spp. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in central Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stink bugs have become pests in cotton following successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil. Species of the genus Euschistus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are common in cotton and other commodities, and species within the genus are commonly grouped as the brown stink bug complex. This generic ...

  10. Survey of natural enemies of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt with new local and world records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are some of the most problematic global pests of agricultural crops. Natural enemies serve an effective role in controlling populations of different whitefly species. A survey was conducted to identify and record the natural enemies associated with whiteflies in...

  11. Injury to cotton by adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) of different gender and reproductive states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the western United States that injures floral buds (squares) and developing fruit (bolls). However, no clear relationship between Lygus population level and plant injury has been established. Age-dependent feedi...

  12. Variation in susceptibility to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae),among Solanum verrucosum germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato and the vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. Development of potato cultivars with genetic resistance to potato psyllid would enable cost-effecti...

  13. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  14. Diversity of stink bug (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae) egg parasitoids in woodland and crop habitats in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. They move within and between closely associated crop and non-crop habitats throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their current host plant...

  15. Transfer of the assassin bug Nitornus fuliginosus to the genus Apronius
    (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Stenopodainae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Webb, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Based on examination of its lectotype (here designated), the assassin bug Nitornus fuliginosus Distant, 1902 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Stenopodainae) is transferred to the genus Apronius Stål, 1865, with the resulting new combination: Apronius fuliginosus (Distant, 1902), comb. nov. PMID:27395164

  16. Preparation of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for genetic characterization and morphological examination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. Due to their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide...

  17. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  18. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  19. Comparisons of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations from two distinct geographical regions of Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a major pest of cotton in the state of Mississippi. Economic data indicates that L. lineolaris is a more serious pest of cotton in the Delta region of Mississippi than in the Hills region, however, little data exists comparing the two populations. Two experim...

  20. Evaluation of trap designs and deployment strategies for capturing Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive pest that attacks numerous tree fruit crops season-long. For growers to make informed management decisions against H. halys throughout the growing season, an effective monitoring tool must be in place....

  1. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  2. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  3. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host-plant resistance a...

  4. A phagostimulant blend for T1 the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical cues that condition orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. Previous work in our lab identified a blend of formic and acetic acids as s...

  5. A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera:Dictyopharide) from South America associated with Water Hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is described. All the stages were collected on the aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) at several localities on the Paraguay River in Argentina, and the upper Amazon River in Perú. Taosa impictifrons Remes Leni...

  6. A remarkable fossil leptosaldine bug from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodomorpha: Leptopodidae).

    PubMed

    Popov, Yuri A; Heiss, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of leptosaldine bugs, Leptosaldinea cobbeni gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodidae) is described and illustrated from Burmese Middle Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber found in Kachin State, northern Myanmar. This is the third record of a leptosaldine bug from Burmese amber. A brief analysis of the characters and systematic relationships of Leptosaldinae is provided. PMID:27470718

  7. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  8. Production of Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) on Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a natural enemy candidate for a classical biological control program targeting the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Little is known about A. epos biology or ecology when usi...

  9. Hyperspectral spectrometry as a means to differentiate uninfested and infested winter wheat by greenbug (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although spectral remote sensing techniques have been used to study many ecological variables and biotic and abiotic stresses to agricultural crops over decades, the potential use of these techniques for greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) infestations and damage to wheat,...

  10. The assassin bug genera Nagustoides and Stenolemus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) newly recorded from Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tadashi; Naka, Takeru

    2016-01-01

    Two assassin bug genera, Nagustoides Miller, 1954 of Harpactorinae and Stenolemus Signoret, 1858 of Emesinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), are recorded from Japan for the first time, with the presence of the representative species N. lii Zhao, Cai & Ren, 2006 and S. alikakay Rédei & Tsai, 2010. Distribution ranges of the two species are revised by the present finding. PMID:27615956

  11. Pseudowuiessa, a new genus of brachypterous Mezirinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kai; Bai, Xiaoshuan; Wu, Zhiyi; Heiss, Ernst; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    A new brachypterous flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) genus and species, Pseudowuiessa producta Bai, Heiss & Cai, gen. nov. & sp. nov., is described from Yunnan, China. A key to related genera is given and the diagnostic characters of the new taxon are illustrated. PMID:27615877

  12. Two new planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) collected in pitfall traps in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chmurova, Lucia; Webb, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of planthoppers in the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are described from Zambia, i.e., Afronaso spinosa sp. n. and Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. All specimens are flightless males and nearly all were collected from baited pitfall traps (except for one specimen collected from a yellow pan trap), suggesting that they live near to or on the ground. PMID:27615842

  13. Epidaus wangi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), a new assassin bug from Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Jianyun; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Epidaus wangi Chen, Zhu, Wang & Cai, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) from Tibet, China, is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens. The new species is morphologically similar to E. tuberosus Yang, 1940. The new species represents the first record of Epidaus species from Tibet. PMID:27615827

  14. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  15. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  16. Host plant effects on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphal development and survivorship

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a highly polyphagous invasive species and an important pest of orchard crops in the US. In the Mid-Atlantic region, wild hosts of H. halys are common in woodlands that often border orchards, and H. halys movement from them into orchards poses ongo...

  17. Review of the planthopper genus Neodurium Fennah, 1956 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Webb, Mick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The planthopper genus Neodurium Fennah is reviewed and Neodurium fennahi Chang & Chen, sp. n. (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from China (Yunnan), is described and illustrated. A checklist of the species of Neodurium is given and a key provided for their separation. The female genitalia of Neodurium species are described for the first time. PMID:26312028

  18. Stridulation by Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae): Production mechanism and associated behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hemiptera displays a notable diversity of vibratory communication signals across its various families. Here we describe the substrate and airborne vibrations (sounds), the mechanism of production, and associated behaviors of Jadera haematoloma Herrich-Schaeffer, a member of the family, Rhopalida...

  19. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  20. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  1. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  2. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial shipments of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. To determine whether alternative dietary conditions for young adult females might improve predation, O. in...

  3. Interceptions of Anthocoridae, Lasiochilidae, and Lyctocoridae at the Miami Plant Inspection Station (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specimens of pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)) intercepted at Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services inspection stations and housed at the Miami Inspection Station were examined and identified to species or genus. The 127 specimens were distributed among 14 genera and 26 identified species...

  4. Neostusakia, a new name for preoccupied Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Berytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of homonymy in the heteropteran family Berytidae is addressed. The genus Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera) is preoccupied by Stusakia Frýda, 1998 (Mollusca: Gastropoda). As a consequence, the replacement name Neostusakia, new name, is proposed. In addition, the only two included s...

  5. Predation of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by a complex of predators in soybean habitats adjoining cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular gut-content analysis was used to examine predation on stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by arthropod predators in habitats of soybean with and without buckwheat and adjoining cotton. Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), Chinavia hilaris (Say), and Euschistus quadrator Rolston,...

  6. Sharpshooter Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellinae). An Illustrated Checklist. Part 1: Old World Cicadellini

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafhoppers comprise by far the largest family within the Hemiptera, with approximately 19,500 described species in over 40 subfamilies (Oman et al. 1990a) of which the subfamily Cicadellinae comprises around 2,400 species in around 330 genera. The name “sharpshooter” for this group of xylem-fe...

  7. BAYESIAN PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL COI DNA SEQUENCE FROM GLOBAL SAMPLES OF BEMISIA TABACI (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.)(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most devastating agricultural pests worldwide and affects the yield of a broad range of agricultural, fiber, vegetable and ornamental crops. Global phylogenetic relationships of the major races of B. tabaci remain unresolved thus a Bayesi...

  8. Proteins expressed in the blue-green sharpshooter, Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular markers are playing a bigger role in biological control programs. We sequenced 44 cDNA’s from the blue-green sharpshooter, BGSS, Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) as a potential source for new marker development. The BGSS is a leafhopper which is endemic to California, a...

  9. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  10. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  11. Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°...

  12. A new species of Neophyllaphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) with keys to species on Podocarpus (Pinales: Podocarpaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adventive, previously undescribed species of Neophyllaphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is described and illustrated. Both COI and EF-1a sequences are presented for Neophyllaphis n.sp. Modified keys to Neophyllaphis spp. found on Podocarpus spp. Podocarpaceae) are provided for identification....

  13. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  14. Global relationships of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) revealed using Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial COI DNA sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.)(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex that is one of the most devastating agricultural pests worldwide and affects a broad range of food, fiber and ornamental crops. Unfortunately, using parsimony and neighbor joining methods, global phylogenetic relationships of the ma...

  15. Movement of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-affected and healthy citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a vector transmitting the pathogen of citrus huanglongbing (HLB, also called yellow shoot disease or citrus greening disease). A typical symptom of citrus HLB is leaf yellowing. ACP adults behaved differently on HLB-affe...

  16. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults. PMID:26463200

  17. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Melo, Cecilia M.; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults. PMID:26463200

  18. Effect of temperature on immatures of Stiretrus decastigmus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Poncio, S; Dequech, S T B; Bolzan, A; Güths, C; Walker, M P; Sturza, V S; Nava, D E

    2016-06-01

    Stiretrus decastigmus (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an important predator of the insect pest Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The present study investigated the pre-imaginal development of S. decastigmus at different temperatures. The temperatures were: 20, 25, and 30 °C, with a relative humidity of 70 ± 10% and a photofase of 12 h, and the nymphs were fed larvae of M. ochroloma. We evaluated the duration and viability of the egg and nymphal stages, the duration of each instar, and the predation potential. The incubation time decreased with increasing temperature, and the viability was highest at 25 °C. The duration of the nymphal stage was inversely proportional to the temperature, ranging from 18 days at 30 °C to 40.6 days at 20 °C. The highest S. decastigmus predation rates were found at 20 °C (90.4 larvae) and 30 °C (72.5 larvae). S. decastigmus showed the highest viability and lowest consumption of larvae of M. ochroloma at 25 °C. PMID:26983086

  19. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Ted E.; Tillman, P. Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn–cotton farmscapes, four of six corn–peanut farmscapes, and in both corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton–sorghum at the peanut–cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  20. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. PMID:27012869

  1. Novel Rickettsiella Bacterium in the Leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Weintraub, Phyllis G.; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Robinson, Wyatt E.; Perlman, Steve J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsiella (Coxiellaceae), which are mainly known as arthropod pathogens, are emerging as excellent models to study transitions between mutualism and pathogenicity. The current report characterizes a novel Rickettsiella found in the leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a major vector of phytoplasma diseases in Europe and Asia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing were used to survey the main symbionts of O. albicinctus, revealing the obligate symbionts Sulcia and Nasuia, and the facultative symbionts Arsenophonus and Wolbachia, in addition to Rickettsiella. The leafhopper Rickettsiella is allied with bacteria found in ticks. Screening O. albicinctus from the field showed that Rickettsiella is highly prevalent, with over 60% of individuals infected. A stable Rickettsiella infection was maintained in a leafhopper laboratory colony for at least 10 generations, and fluorescence microscopy localized bacteria to accessory glands of the female reproductive tract, suggesting that the bacterium is vertically transmitted. Future studies will be needed to examine how Rickettsiella affects host fitess and its ability to vector phytopathogens. PMID:23645190

  2. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  3. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-01-01

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed. PMID:25283672

  4. Spatiotemporal distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in corn farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn-cotton farmscapes, four of six corn-peanut farmscapes, and in both corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton-sorghum at the peanut-cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  5. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    PubMed Central

    Auad, A. M.; Resende, T. T.; Hott, M. C.; Borges, C.A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum (Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32°C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4°C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24°C but equal at 28°C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28°C than at 20°C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28°C than at 20°C, whereas adult longevity at 24°C did not differ from that at 20 and 28°C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. PMID:27012869

  6. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801

  7. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  8. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tavvs M.; Macrae, Ian V.; Koch, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  9. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  10. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: Effect of bloom period of infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  11. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  12. Temperature-Dependent Survival of Adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Spurgeon, Dale W

    2015-06-01

    The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a key pest of many horticultural and agronomic crops in the western United States. Despite its well documented pest status, many aspects of the basic biology, including overwintering ecology, of L. hesperus are poorly understood. We examined the influence of eight constant temperatures from 10 to 35°C on survival of nondiapausing adult L. hesperus held with or without food, and the consequences of exposure to an extended period at 10°C on subsequent reproduction. Survival analyses indicated that, on average, fed insects tended to live longer than unfed insects, females lived longer than males, and the survival time decreased with increasing temperature. Nonlinear regressions indicated that median survival for insects grouped by gender and feeding status declined exponentially with increasing temperature. Survival functions for combinations of insect class (gender and feeding status) and temperature were adequately described by the respective two-parameter logistic functions. When adults were held for 9 d at 27°C with food after a 33-d period at 10°C either with or without food, no deleterious effects of prior starvation on propensity to mate or fecundity were demonstrated. These findings indicate that when temperatures are low, nondiapausing L. hesperus adults are capable of extended host-free survival with little or no impact on subsequent reproduction. Our findings suggest the current understanding of L. hesperus overwintering dynamics is incomplete. In addition, our results provide quantitative baseline information to facilitate more comprehensive investigation of the ecology of L. hesperus overwintering. PMID:26313987

  13. Identity of two sympatric species of Orius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Shirk, Paul D; Kelley, Karen; Lewis, Tamera M; Horton, David R

    2010-01-01

    The minute pirate bugs, Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), are closely related species known to be sympatric in north Florida. Here, male and female genitalia, DNA sequences, and the effects of within- and between-species pairings on egg production and egg development were examined to develop a better understanding of the relationship between these two species. Interspecific matings between the two species did not result in viable progeny. Although there were gross similarities in the morphology of the male parameres (external genitalia) between the two species, the cone in O. pumilio was much broader with a greater spiral twist and the flagellum was longer than in O. insidiosus. Correspondingly, there were differences in the morphology of the copulatory tubes of the females of the two species. In O. insidiosus, the organ was somewhat longer than in O. pumilio and oriented parallel to the abdominal midline, while the copulatory tube in O. pumilio tilted slightly towards the midline. Additionally, the copulatory tube for O. pumilio included a sclerotized basal mound that was not present in O. insidiosus. These morphological differences suggest that successful copulation between these species could be difficult. In contrast to conspecific matings, interspecific matings resulted in few or no eggs laid over a period of two weeks and no viable progeny. Comparison of the 18S ribosomal gene ITS-1 sequences between the two species demonstrated only 91% homology. When yolk protein contents were examined to determine whether reproductive physiology had shifted to full egg production, interspecifically mated females contained amounts of yolk protein comparable to that in fed, but unmated females; this was less than 10% of the yolk protein previously found in fed and conspecifically mated females. These findings together confirm that O. insidiosus and O. pumilio are indeed two separate species. PMID:21265614

  14. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites. PMID:24498754

  15. Elevational gradient of Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha) on a tropical mountain in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen W.; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    Malaise trap sampling of Hemiptera (Heteroptera; Auchenorrhyncha) was conducted at 500 m intervals along an elevational gradient from 200 m to 3,700 m on the east slope of Mount Wilhelm, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Hemiptera had a decrease in morphospecies richness and overall abundance with increasing elevation, however, the Heteroptera did not exhibit either pattern. A few species were relatively abundant at each elevation, whereas the majority of species were represented by ≤5 specimens. Morphospecies richness of Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha, Cicadellidae, Cixiidae, and Derbidae also decreased with increasing elevation but abundance decline was not significant due to the large number of specimens captured at 200 m relative to those captured at higher elevations. The percentage of Cicadomorpha specimens decreased with increasing elevation relative to that of the Fulgoromorpha which increased with increasing elevation. Environmental factors that may influence patterns of species richness along the elevational gradient are discussed. PMID:26056617

  16. The identity and distribution of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae), with a new synonym.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gillian W; Williams, Douglas J; Miller, Douglass R

    2015-01-01

    The morphologies of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae) and F. coronata Williams & Watson are reviewed, and the name F. coronata is placed as a junior synonym of the name F. phantasma syn. n. The known geographical distribution and host range of F. phantasma is documented and discussed. An identification key to 12 of the 16 species of Fiorinia known from the Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical Regions is provided. PMID:26624751

  17. First report of Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851) in Europe (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae).

    PubMed

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Fabrizio; Gargani, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Italo; Roversi, Pio Federico; Cianferoni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae) is reported for the first time in Europe. Both nymphs and adults were observed from 2009 in several municipalities of Liguria (Italy). Since the species is extremely polyphagous and is a real pest for several crops in tropical and subtropical areas, the presence of this alien insect is noteworthy, representing a new possible threat for native species and human activities.  PMID:25283410

  18. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli. PMID:23156144

  19. Jumping mechanisms of treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M

    2013-03-01

    The kinematics and jumping performance of treehoppers (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae) were analysed from high speed images. The eight species analysed had an 11-fold range of body mass (3.8-41 mg) and a 2-fold range of body length (4.1-8.4 mm). Body shape was dominated by a prothoracic helmet that projected dorsally and posteriorly over the body, and in some species forwards to form a protruding horn. Jumping was propelled by rapid depression of the trochantera of the hindlegs. The hindlegs were only 30-60% longer than the front and middle legs, and 47-94% the length of the body in different species. They were slung beneath the body and moved together in the same plane. In preparation for a jump, the hindlegs were initially levated and rotated forwards so that the femora were pressed into indentations of the coxae. The tibiae were flexed about the femora and the tarsi were placed on the ground directly beneath the lateral edges of the abdomen. Movements of the front and middle legs adjusted the angle of the body relative to the ground, but for most treehoppers this angle was small, so that the body was almost parallel to the ground. The rapid depression of the hindlegs accelerated the body to take-off in 1.2 ms in the lighter treehoppers and 3.7 ms in the heavier ones. Take-off velocities of 2.1-2.7 m s(-1) were achieved and were not correlated with body mass. In the best jumps, these performances involved accelerations of 560-2450 m s(-2) (g forces of 47-250), an energy expenditure of 13.5-101 μJ, a power output of 12-32 mW and exerted a force of 9.5-29 mN. The power output per mass of muscle far exceeds the maximum active contractile limit of normal muscle. Such requirements indicate that treehoppers must be using a power amplification mechanism in a catapult-like action. Some jumps were preceded by flapping movements of the wings, but the propulsive movements of the hindlegs were crucial in achieving take-off. PMID:23155084

  20. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  1. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  2. GENE EXPRESSION IN TWO LEAFHOPPER VECTORS OF PIERCES DISEASE OF GRAPES, GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER AND BLUE-GREEN SHARPSHOOTER (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of a unigene set identified the putative functions of over 350 transcripts from two leafhopper species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) which vector the plant infecting bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa. Genetic similarities between the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata, and the blue...

  3. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  4. A chemical lure for stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is used as a kairomone by Astata occidentalis (Hymenoptera: sphecidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The digger wasp Astata occidentalis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is a predator of pentatomid stink bugs (Hemiptera). In the states of Washington and Georgia, adult females were consistently captured in the field in traps baited with lures that included methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, a comp...

  5. Changes in behavioral responses of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) from various applied signal voltages during EPG recordings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3rd-generation AC-DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitor was used to study feeding behaviors of pre-reproductive adult Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) on pinhead (<3mm) cotton squares, applying different signal voltages at several input impedances. The AC-DC monitor allows a user to s...

  6. A revision of the Australian genus Trachylestes with the description of two new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae).

    PubMed

    Malipatil, M B; Kwak, M L; Gunawardene, N

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Trachylestes barrowensis sp. nov. from Barrow Island, Western Australia and T. queenslandensis sp. nov. from southeastern Queensland are described, and a key for their separation from other known species of the Australian endemic genus Trachylestes Stål, 1868 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) is given. PMID:27394766

  7. Previous exposure to other males leads to prolonged copulation by a predatory true bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating pairs of Anthocoris whitei Reuter (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) irregularly exhibit prolonged copulations exceeding 5 hrs in duration. Atypically long copulations may act as a form of post-insemination mate guarding to prevent insemination of a guarded female by other males. In many...

  8. Laboratory studies of variations in feeding behaviors among Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) of different gender and reproductive states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the western United States that injures floral buds (squares) and developing fruit (bolls). Levels of lygus-induced damage to cotton can vary among lygus stages or gender, and these variations complicate interpreta...

  9. Diversity of stink bug (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae) egg parasitoids in woodland and crop habitats in southwest Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. They move within and between closely associated crop and non-crop habitats throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their current host plant...

  10. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  11. Predation of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by a complex of predators and adjoining soybean habitats in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular gut-content analysis was used to examine predation on stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by arthropod predators in habitats of soybean with and without buckwheat and adjoining cotton. Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), Chinavia hilaris (Say), and Euschistus quadrator Rolston,...

  12. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  13. Introduction and Recovery of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a predator of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Alyerodidae) is an important pest of many crops on a global scale. The use of biological control organisms such as coccinelid predators can help manage this pest. Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is an obligate predator of whiteflies, in...

  14. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  15. Molecular profiling of proteolytic and lectin transcripts in Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) feeding on sunflower and cowpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homalodisca vitripennis Germar 1821 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Takiya et al. 2006, syn. H. coagulata (Say)) gut and salivary gland EST libraries were used to isolate cDNA fragments of the genes encoding for cathepsin L, asparaginyl endopeptidase, cathepsin B, metalloendopeptidase, cathepsin D, multi...

  16. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  17. Eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and roots of conifer and willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and/or roots of conifer or willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis ...

  18. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  19. Effects of atmospheric pressure trends on calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects and other animals sometimes modify behavior in response to changes in atmospheric pressure, an environmental cue that can provide warning of potentially injurious windy and rainy weather. To determine if Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis behaviors w...

  20. Changes of oxidase and hydrolase activities in pecan leaves elicited by black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a foliar feeder of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch (Juglandaceae). The pest causes chlorosis of leaflet lamina, physiological damage to foliage and trees, and commonly limits the profitability of comme...

  1. Dispersal capacity and behavior of nymphal stages of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) evaluated under laboratory and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous and mobile pest causing perimeter-driven crop damage over the growing season. Understanding the dispersal biology of H. halys is critical for the development of reliable monitoring ...

  2. Mestus cruciatus, a new delphacid species from southwest China with some remarks on the genus (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Feng-juan; Xie, Qi; Qin, Dao-zheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new delphacid (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae) species, Mestus cruciatus sp. n. is described based on specimens from Yunnan Province, China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia are provided. The Mestus species and phylogenetic arrangement of this genus is discussed. A key to the species of Mestus is also provided. PMID:26798294

  3. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  4. Care and feeding of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae): Assessing the impact of diet on predation following adult female eclosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction in female Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) is a stringent process, and requires a source of nutrition high in quantity and quality of protein and lipid for optimal production of eggs. Adults can survive solely on a source of carbohydrates, but at the cost of suspending th...

  5. Effects of host plant on development and body size of three haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera:Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is an economic pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America, and (as an introduction) in New Zealand. Four genetic haplotypes of the psyllid have been identified in North America. Three of these haplotypes (Central, West...

  6. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and phylogenetic relationships of Hemipteran suborders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly sequenced complete mitochondrial genome of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a circular molecule of 16,518 bp with a total A+T content of 76.4% and two extensive repeat regions in A+T rich region. Nucleotide composition and codon usage ...

  8. Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to pecan foliage promotes aphid settling and nymphal development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nature of the interaction between the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the chlorosis it causes to foliage of its pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch)] host is poorly understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the settling behavior of t...

  9. Impact of insecticide residue exposure on the invasive pest, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): analysis of adult mobility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory to characterize the impact of specific compounds on locomotory behavior and mobility of adult Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Horizontal distance and angular velocity were measured for individuals exposed to dry insecti...

  10. 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' titer over time in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) after acquisition from infected potato and tomato plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious pest of potato and other solanaceous crops. Recently, B. cockerelli has been associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso), the causal agent of zebra chip, a new and economically import...

  11. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  12. Review of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan and Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), was accidently introduced into the United States in the mid-1990s. Since establishing in the United States, this invasive species has caused significant economic losses in...

  13. Populations of predators and parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) after the application of eight biorational insecticides in vegetable crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Some insecticides may be more compatible with natural enemies for whitefly management than others. Nine biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant deri...

  14. Biology and host preference of the planthopper Taosa longula (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) a candidate for biological control of water hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...

  15. Antifeedant activity and high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae) induced by biostable insect kinin analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect kinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable insect kinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet t...

  16. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potatoes that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum). In recent years, ...

  17. An annotated checklist of the planthoppers of Iran (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha) with distribution data

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Wilson, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A list of Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers) of Iran is provided, based primarily on literature records from 1902 to the present. In total 15 families and 235 species are recorded, with taxonomic details. Distribution data in Iran are given. Iranissus ephedrinus Dlabola, 1980 is transferred from Issidae to Nogodinidae. To resolve nomenclatural difficulty the following new combinations in Issidae are given: Iranodus dumetorus (Dlabola, 1981), Iranodus khatunus (Dlabola, 1981) and Iranodus repandus (Dlabola, 1981). Due to published generic synonomy the following are new combinations: Duilius seticulosus (Lethierry, 1874), Duilius tamaricis (Puton & Lethierry, 1887), Duilius tamaricicola (Dubovsky, 1966) and Duilius v-atrum (Dlabola, 1985). PMID:22287883

  18. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material. PMID:25083170

  19. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil. PMID:27143143

  20. A new species of Acyrthosiphon (Hemiptera, Aphididae) from France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Nafría, Juan M Nieto; Aldea, Marta; Castro, Marta

    2015-01-01

    A new species in one of the largest genera of Macrosiphini (Hemiptera, Aphididae), Acyrthosiphon pilosum sp. n., is described from apterous and alate viviparous females and oviparous females from French and Spanish Mediterranean localities, living on species of Ononis (Fabaceae), mainly O. natrix. The new species is characterized by the presence of many accessory setae on the ultimate rostral segment, and usually five setae on the first tarsal segments, a combination that is not present in any other known Acyrthosiphon species; in addition marginal tubercles are present on prothorax and several of abdominal segments 2-5. PMID:25781131

  1. The genus Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera, Ortheziidae) with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Szita, Éva; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Fetykó, Kinga; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes a new species of Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae) from the Palaearctic region. The specimens were extracted from forest litter in the collections of Muséum d’histoire Naturelle de Genève, Switzerland, using Berlese funnels. Three further species, Arctorthezia cataphracta (Olafsen), Arctorthezia occidentalis (Douglas) and Arctorthezia pseudoccidentalis Morrison, are redescribed and re-illustrated. The genus Arctorthezia now contains five species. An identification key, diagnostic illustrations, photographs of unmounted females and new locality records of the Arctorthezia species currently known are provided. PMID:25632249

  2. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures. PMID:26198869

  3. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the treehopper Leptobelus gazella (Membracoidea: Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The first complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leptobelus gazelle (Membracoidea: Hemiptera) is determined in this study. The circular molecule is 16,007 bp in its full length, which encodes a set of 37 genes, including 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and contains an A + T-rich region (CR). The gene numbers, content, and organization of L. gazelle are similar to other typical metazoan mitogenomes. Twelve of the 13 PCGs are initiated with ATR methionine or ATT isoleucine codons, except the atp8 gene that uses the ATC isoleucine as start signal. Ten of the 13 PCGs have complete termination codons, either TAA (nine genes) or TAG (cytb). The remaining 3 PCGs (cox1, cox2 and nad5) have incomplete termination codons T (AA). All of the 22 tRNAs can be folded in the form of a typical clover-leaf structure. The complete mitogenome sequence data of L. gazelle is useful for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Membracoidea and Hemiptera. PMID:25714149

  4. Psyllid biology: Expressed genes in Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional genomics provides new insights into psyllid biology. We created and described the first genetic data set from the Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, ‘Diaphorina citri’, Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The identification of these genes and proteins advances the field in understanding of the ge...

  5. Effects on Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior of fenpropathrin and chlorpyrifos within 24 hours of application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus production. The phloem-limited bacterium associated with HLB is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). One component of HLB managem...

  6. Endosymbiotic microbiota of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causes of huanglongbing may be induced by more than one microbial agent. Thus, we examined the microbial community in the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP) (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Citrus greening is one of the most severe diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa and is caused by an uncu...

  7. Identification of a Sex Attractant Pheromone for Male Winterform Pear Psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with...

  8. Comparative analysis of Asian citrus psyllid and Potato psyllid antennae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in two psyllid species, Diaphorina citri (the Asian citrus psyllid), and Bacterocera cockerelli (the potato/tomato psyllid) (both species Hemiptera:Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidat...

  9. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors Candidatus Liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to volatiles emitted by the ...

  10. Discovery of a viral pathogen in the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a Metagenomics approach and discovered an insect-infecting virus in adult Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. Though wide spread in nature, this is the first report of a Fijivirus in North America. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a small insect tha...

  11. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB. Laboratory and field studies were cond...

  12. Temperature studies with the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama: cold hardiness and temperature thresholds for oviposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to obtain information on the cold hardiness of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), and to assess upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition. The psyllid is an important pest in citrus because it transmits the bacterial pathoge...

  13. Psyllid cell culture: A system to study Candidatus Liberibacter species replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Primary cell cultures were made from the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The potato psyllid is an important agricultural pest insect due to its ability to transmit the bacterial pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous, CLp. The pathogen is a phloem limited bacteri...

  14. Population levels of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida, Texas and Puerto Rico as indicated by yellow sticky traps deployed in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to compare population levels of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida, Texas and Puerto Rico. Four grove locations were studied in Florida, one location near each of the following cities: Leesburg, Vero Beach, Fort Pierce, and Immoka...

  15. Asian Citrus Psyllid, Genetic Basis of Immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a genomics approach to identify some of the genetic bases of D. citri immunity, identifying in particular genes associated with environmental and biological stresses. Only a few insecticides are being used to manage the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), to...

  16. Abundance of Asian citrus psyllid on yellow sticky traps in Florida, Puerto Rico, and Texas citrus groves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to obtain information on population dynamics of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in some managed citrus groves in Florida, Texas and Puerto Rico using yellow sticky traps deployed directly in trees. Four groves were studied in Florida (th...

  17. Research toward an artifical diet for adult Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research progress is reported on an artificial diet for adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The primary objective was to develop a system for screening antimicrobial peptides and other potential toxic proteins for activity against adults. The base diet was a...

  18. Gene expression in Asian citrus psyllid adults feeding from Florida citrus: Application to biology and vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a genomics approach to identify some of the genetic basis of D. citri biology, identifying in particular genes associated with feeding, reproduction, pathology, and insecticide resistance. The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector ...

  19. Expressed Genes in Asian Citrus Psyllid adults feeding on citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We created and described the first genetic data set from the Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP spread the plant-infecting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is associated with the citrus disease Huanglongbing, HLB, known as Citru...

  20. Asian citrus psyllid viral pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly discovered viral pathogen of Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Psyllidae: Hemiptera) was classified as a Reoviridae. This virus may serve as a biological control agent for AsCP. The AsCP is an efficient vector of the plant-infecting bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter as...

  1. Gender differences and effect of photophase on Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), thought to be primarily a phloem-feeding insect, transmits the presumptive pathogen for Huanglongbing, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. Because this bacterium is restricted to the phloem and bacterial transmission is the res...

  2. Huanglongbing and psyllid cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We successfully established cell cultures of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera), DcHH-1. The cell culture also supported growth of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. This bacterial pathogen is associated with Huanglongbing, known as citrus greening disease. Research on...

  3. Relative attractiveness of colour traps to pear psylla in relation to seasonal changes in pear phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents temporal color trap preference of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) over a 24 month duration. Black, blue, brown, clear, green, orange, red, white, and yellow traps were assayed against wild psylla populations. While pear psylla had a strong prefe...

  4. Gene expression in midgut tissues of Diaphorina citri: Application to biology and vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a gene expression dataset from the midgut tissues of the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP is the primary vector associated with the spread of a devastating citrus trees disease, huanglongbing (HLB). The occurrence and spread of the AsCP and H...

  5. Identification of Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Diaphornia citri, an economically important psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty P450’s in the CYP monooxygenases were identified in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The psyllid is responsible for the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causative agent of huanglongbing ( HLB), also known as citrus greening dise...

  6. The phloem-sap feeding mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) carries 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' populations without transmitting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Currently the known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria are three species of psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae), Trio...

  7. Importance of multiple mating to female reproductive output in Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluate the importance of multiple mating to female reproductive output in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) by grouping individual females with one or three males for 24 h (short duration) or two weeks (long duration) and examining oviposition over 18-19 days. For the short durat...

  8. Flight activity of Diaphorina citri in and around a citrus grove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to assess flight activity by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in and around a Florida citrus grove. Yellow sticky card traps were deployed within citrus trees and on 3 meter poles scattered within the grove near trees and at various distanc...

  9. Retracted stylets in nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid are held externally against the clypeus by a special paired organ not found in the adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in ultrastructure of the mouthparts in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), vector of the bacterium associated with citrus huanglongbing disease, were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The number of sensilla on the labial tip in...

  10. Attraction of Male Winterform Pear Psylla to Female-produced Volatiles and to Female Extracts and Evidence of Male-Male Repellency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a major pest of commercial pears in North America and Europe. Olfactometer trials have shown that males of both the summerform and winterform morphotype are attracted to female-infested host material. Additional work with the su...

  11. ATTRACTION OF MALE SUMMERFORM PEAR PSYLLA TO VOLATILES FROM FEMALE PSYLLA: EFFECTS OF FEMALE AGE, MATING STATUS, AND PRESENCE OF HOST PLANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a pest of pears throughout North America and western Europe. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that males of the overwintering form (winterform morphotype) were attracted to volatiles from pear shoots infested with post-d...

  12. Molecular genetic studies confirm that populations of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Texas and Florida area a single species: natural enemies of the Asian citrus psylild

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a natural enemy of the Asian citrus pysllid [Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae]). D. citri is an important economic world-wide pest of citrus that recently invaded Texas, among several other states in the U. S. D. citri vecto...

  13. Establishment of Asian citrus psllid (Diaphorina citri) primary cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new cell line was developed from the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), as a novel approach to culture the bacteria associated with huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. Methods to culture the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus L...

  14. Antifeedant and lethal effects of the fungi Isaria fumosorosea on the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insect-infecting fungal pathogen increases mortality of Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri,Hemiptera:Psyllidae). The entomopathogenic fungi(Isaria fumosorosea [Ifr])sold as the product PFR 97™ was shown to be effective at killing and reducing feeding of the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid ...

  15. Asian citrus psyllid, genetic basis of immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We successfully used a genomics approach to determine some of the genes which function in immunity, stress, and insecticide resistance in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). These psyllids are vectors of the devastating disease, Huanglongbing, now affecting citrus in F...

  16. Localization of Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus associated with huanglongbing disease in various organs of its insect vector Diaphorina citri using FISH and Q-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) has been associated with huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, which is currently the most devastating citrus disease in many areas of the world. HLB is transmitted in Florida by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) in a persiste...

  17. Diurnal patterns in flight activity and effects of light on host finding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive pest of citrus in the United States. The psyllid feeds and reproduces primarily on new flush growth of citrus and other rutaceous plants. Because it vectors the bacterial causal agents of the deadly citrus green...

  18. Review of the planthopper genus Neohemisphaerius (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) with description of one new species from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Chang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The planthopper genus Neohemisphaerius Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Issidae) is reviewed to include 3 species: Neohemisphaerius wugangensis Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (China: Hunan), Neohemisphaerius yangi Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (China: Guangdong) and Neohemisphaerius guangxiensis sp. n. (China: Guangxi). A revised generic diagnosis is given. The new species is described and all species illustrated. A key to these three species is also given. The species Neohemisphaerius signifer (Walker) is transferred back to Hemisphaerius as Hemisphaerius signifer Walker, comb. revived. PMID:27103871

  19. Two more new species of Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae), and a note on variation in Aphidura bozhkoae Narzikulov

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan M.; Blackman, Roger L.; Martin, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Aphidura Hille Ris Lambers, 1956 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are described; Aphidura libanensis sp. n. from Prunus prostrata in Lebanon, and Aphidura corsicensis sp. n. from Cerastium soleirolii in Corsica (France). Studies of Aphidura bozhkoae specimens from different localities have revealed that this species varies in its pattern of dorsal sclerotisation and other morphological characters, within and between populations. An updated key for identifying the world’s species of Aphidura is presented. PMID:25147453

  20. Two more new species of Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae), and a note on variation in Aphidura bozhkoae Narzikulov.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan M; Blackman, Roger L; Martin, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Aphidura Hille Ris Lambers, 1956 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are described; Aphidura libanensis sp. n. from Prunus prostrata in Lebanon, and Aphidura corsicensis sp. n. from Cerastium soleirolii in Corsica (France). Studies of Aphidura bozhkoae specimens from different localities have revealed that this species varies in its pattern of dorsal sclerotisation and other morphological characters, within and between populations. An updated key for identifying the world's species of Aphidura is presented. PMID:25147453

  1. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-01-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China. PMID:27395186

  2. The identity of the Brachyplatys species recently introduced to Panama, with a review of bionomics (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae).

    PubMed

    Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    A recent report of a population of Brachyplatys vahlii (Fabricius, 1787) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) introduced to Panama is considered as misidentification, the species in concern is recognized as B. subaeneus (Westwood, 1837). Syntypes of B. subaeneus and diagnostic characters of the species are illustrated, published information on its distribution, bionomics and economic importance is reviewed. Syntypes of B. vahlii are illustrated, taxonomic problems in connection with the species are highlighted. PMID:27395708

  3. Revision of the Afrotropical genus Fernandea Melichar, 1912 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Dictyopharidae), with description of a new species from Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Shun; Malenovský, Igor; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The Afrotropical planthopper genus Fernandea Melichar, 1912 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Dictyopharidae: Dictyopharinae: Orthopagini) is revised to include two species: F. conradti Melichar, 1912 (the type species), with material studied from Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko island) and Togo, and F. latifemorata sp. nov., described as new from mainland Equatorial Guinea. A lectotype is designated and a redescription is provided for F. conradti together with habitus photographs and detailed illustrations of the male and female terminalia which are published for the first time. PMID:27470788

  4. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  5. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)). PMID:24883360

  6. Genetic Variability of the Invasive Species Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Gyu; Min, Sujeong; Lee, Gwan-Seok; Kim, Sora; Lee, Yerim; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Ki-Jeong; Wilson, Stephen W; Akimoto, Shin-Ichi; Lee, Wonhoon

    2016-08-01

    Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) has caused substantial agricultural damage since its recent introduction to the Republic of Korea; however, the source of this introduction is still unclear. To examine the genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships among several populations of M. pruinosa from Korea and foreign countries, 251 COI sequences from 251 samples collected from Korea, France, Italy, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States were newly analyzed, together with seven published COI sequences from Canada. In total, 19 haplotypes were detected from the 258 COI sequences, and three haplotypes, H1, H3, and H9, were detected from samples in Korea. The MJ network and Bayesian inference revealed that the three haplotypes of Korea were closely connected with samples of Italy, Spain, Slovenia, France, and the United States. Our study revealed the possibility of multiple invasions of M. pruinosa from Europe and/or North America into Korea. PMID:27247301

  7. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    PubMed

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-01-01

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit.  PMID:25112239

  8. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidae sensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna. PMID:23794928

  9. Description of the Immature Stages of the Planthopper Lacertinella australis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Batiz, M. F. Rossi; Lenicov, A. M. Marino de Remes

    2014-01-01

    The five immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Saccharosydnini) are described and illustrated. The main characters that allowed us to distinguish the various stages were body size, number of tarsomeres and metatibial spines, and number of teeth on the spur. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observations showed that L. australis can carry out its biological cycle successfully on the graminaceous pampas grass (Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). In addition, the efficient rearing in captivity, the high survivorship registered, and overwintering only on this host plant suggests that L. australis is a potential biocontrol agent of this invasive graminaceous weed. This study provides information about the immature stages, including a key for their identification, based on laboratory reared specimens and field observations. PMID:25199992

  10. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  11. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

    PubMed Central

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)). PMID:24883360

  12. Madagascar Flatidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha): state-of-the-art and research challenges

    PubMed Central

    Świerczewski, Dariusz; Stroiński, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The paper provides a historical review of the research on Flatidae in Madagascar and indicates future prospects. While the first two species of Madagascar Flatidae were described by Guérin-Méneville (1844), it was Signoret (1860) who made the first real attempt to enhance our knowledge of the Hemiptera fauna of Madagascar by describing several additional species. Over the following century and a half, several investigators have turned their attention to this group of insects, with the final number of species recorded for the island reaching 79. Despite this long history of research, it is evident that much still remains to be done. Detailed taxonomic research will allow the natural history of Madagascar and changes in the biological diversity of its endemic ecosystems to be better understood. This paper should be considered as an introduction to a complex study on the systematics and phylogeny of worldwide Flatidae planthoppers. PMID:24039526

  13. Wolbachia infection density in populations of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

    2014-10-01

    The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts. PMID:25259690

  14. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature. PMID:25276919

  15. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    PubMed

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n. PMID:27394512

  16. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-01-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté. PMID:26249973

  17. Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Ricardo; Monroy, Carlota; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2004-05-01

    For the first time, the reduviid bug Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón and Ponce (Hemiptera; Reduviidae) was recorded to inhabit the epiphyte Tillandsia xerographica Rohweder (Bromeliaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala. These bromeliads grow mainly in drought-resistant trees with rough bark such as Pereskia lychnidiflora (Cactaceae). In our study site, we investigated 30 T. xerographica, and 53 specimens of T. ryckmani were found. Most T. ryckmani (68.5%) were unfed. Ants (Formicidae) were the predominant (92.2%) insect taxon in T. xerographica. Other insects such as Blattidae (3.0%), Reduviidae (T. ryckmani: 2.5%), Blaberidae (2.2%), Gryllidae (0.1%), and Acrididae (0.1%) were recorded in the bromeliads. T. xerographica is illegally commercialized without previous inspection. This may cause accidental introduction of T. ryckmani to houses and to other countries. PMID:15185931

  18. Morphology of the mouthparts of the spittlebug Philagra albinotata Uhler (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Aphrophoridae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Pan, Liuxing; Zhang, Yalin; Dai, Wu

    2015-03-01

    Mouthparts associated with feeding behavior and feeding habits are important sensory and feeding structures in insects. To obtain a better understanding of feeding in Cercopoidea, the morphology of mouthparts of the spittlebug, Philagra albinotata Uhler was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The mouthparts of P. albinotata are of the typical piercing-sucking type found in Hemiptera, comprising a cone-shaped labrum, a tube-like, three-segmented labium with a deep groove on the anterior side, and a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets. The mandibles consist of a dorsal smooth region and a ventral serrate region near the apical half of the external convex region, and bear five nodules or teeth on the dorsal external convex region on the distal extremity; these are regarded as unique features that distinguish spittlebugs from other groups of Hemiptera. The externally smooth maxillary stylets, interlocked to form a larger food canal and a smaller salivary canal, are asymmetrical only in the internal position of longitudinal carinae and grooves. One dendritic canal is found in each maxilla and one in each mandible. Two types of sensilla trichodea, three types of sensilla basiconica and groups of multi-peg structures occur in different locations on the labium, specifically the labial tip with two lateral lobes divided into anterior sensory fields with ten small peg sensilla arranged in a 5+4+1 pattern and one big peg sensillum, and posterior sensory fields with four sensilla trichodea. Compared with those of previously studied Auchenorrhyncha, the mouthparts of P. albinotata may be distinguished by the shape of the mandibles, the multi-peg structures and a tooth between the salivary canal and the food canal on the extreme end of the stylets. The mouthpart morphology is illustrated using scanning electron micrographs, and the taxonomic and putative functional significance of the different structures is briefly discussed. PMID

  19. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields

    PubMed Central

    Weiser Erlandson, L. A.; Obrycki, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m2 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August–September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4–9.2 per 0.25 m2 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields. PMID:26320260

  20. On dorsal prothoracic appendages in treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and the nature of morphological evidence.

    PubMed

    Mikó, István; Friedrich, Frank; Yoder, Matthew J; Hines, Heather M; Deitz, Lewis L; Bertone, Matthew A; Seltmann, Katja C; Wallace, Matthew S; Deans, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the "helmet" (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body) of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax) via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the "helmet" was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) thoracic segments. In this context, the "helmet" could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the "helmet"-wing homology, the relationship of the "helmet" to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the "helmet"-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1) the "helmet" actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs); 2) the "T1 tergum" is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3) the putative articulation between the "helmet" and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE) of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies. PMID:22272287

  1. On Dorsal Prothoracic Appendages in Treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and the Nature of Morphological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mikó, István; Friedrich, Frank; Yoder, Matthew J.; Hines, Heather M.; Deitz, Lewis L.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Seltmann, Katja C.; Wallace, Matthew S.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the “helmet” (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body) of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax) via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the “helmet” was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) thoracic segments. In this context, the “helmet” could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the “helmet”-wing homology, the relationship of the “helmet” to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the “helmet”-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1) the “helmet” actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs); 2) the “T1 tergum” is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3) the putative articulation between the “helmet” and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE) of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies. PMID:22272287

  2. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands and bacteria-like structures in the gut and other organs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of huanglongbing disease bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera, Liviidae) is the principal vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Liberibacter asiaticus is transmitted i...

  3. Potential of the bean alpha-amylase inhibitor alpha-AI-1 to inhibit alpha-amylase activity in true bugs(Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    True bugs (Hemiptera) are an important pest complex not controlled by Bt crops. An alternative source of resistance includes inhibitors of digestive enzymes. aAI-1, an a-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, has been shown to inhibit a-amylases of bruchid pests of grain legumes. Here we quantify t...

  4. Deep characterization of the microbiomes of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) gall-inducing psyllids reveals the absence of plant pathogenic bacteria and three dominant endosymbionts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria associated with sap-feeding insect herbivores include not only symbionts that may increase their hosts’ fitness, but also harmful plant pathogens. Calophya spp., gall-inducing psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), are being investigated for their potential as biological control agents of the n...

  5. Can we predict brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) abundance in corn using previous pheromone trap capture and early season weather data?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the southern US. Scouting stink bugs in corn is time consuming and could be improved if scouts were aware of conditions that favored imminent stink bug infestations. Changes in seas...

  6. The effect of the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on shoot growth of the invasive plant Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the effect of feeding by the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi, 1920) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on the growth of the plant Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) was evaluated under field conditions in its native range. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of R. donacis, a c...

  7. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  8. Impact of the Arundo scale Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on the weight of Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) rhizomes in Languedoc southern France and Mediterranean Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) is native to Mediterranean Europe and invasive in the Rio Grande Basin of North America. Rhizomes from nine sites in France and Spain infested with a candidate control agent, the armoured scale Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) weighed 50% less than those fro...

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of the Obligate Symbionts "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" from the Pestiferous Leafhopper Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gordon M; Abbà, Simona; Kube, Michael; Marzachì, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial symbionts of the European pest leafhopper, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. Genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, M. quadrilineatus. PMID:26798106

  10. Establishment of papaya banker plant system for Parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphilidae) against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and other vegetable crops worldwide. To combat this pest, a non-crop banker plant system was evaluated that employs a parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) ...

  11. Comparative Biology and Life Tables of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter Solanacearum’-Infected and -Free Bactericera Cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Potato and Silverleaf Nightshade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), vectors the pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Several cultivated and wild plants are reported to serve as alternate hosts for B. cockerelli and Lso, including silverl...

  12. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  13. Infestation by Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and incidence of whitefly-transmitted viruses after the application of four biorational insecticides in some crops in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a global insect pest that transmits many important plant viruses. A field study was conducted on infestation by B. tabaci and incidence of whitefly-transmitted viruses after the application of selected foliar and seed-treated biorational insecti...

  14. Temperature-dependent development, survival and potential distribution of Ischnodemus variegatus (Hemiptera: Blissidae), an herbivore of West Indian marsh grass (Hymenachne amplexicaulis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bug Ischnodemus variegatus (Signnoret) (Hemiptera: Blissidae) is a fortuitous herbivore of the invasive grass Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Poaceae). This grass is a problematic weed in Florida and Australia but a highly valued forage in Mexico, Cuba and Venezuela. We studied the influence of nine c...

  15. First record of the leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) from China, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    The erythroneurine leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) is reported for the first time from China, with descriptions and illustrations of two new species, Zyginopsis paraverticalis and Zyginopsis gracilis spp. nov., and one newly recorded species from China, Zyginopsis verticalis Ahmed n. rec. A key for identification of Chinese species (adult males) is provided. PMID:27515621

  16. A study of the scale insect genera Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Putoidae) and Ceroputo Šulc (Pseudococcidae) with a comparison to Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For almost a century, the scale insect genus Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) was considered to belong to the family Pseudococcidae (the mealybugs), but recent consensus accords Puto its own family, the Putoidae. This paper reviews the taxonomic history of Puto and family Putoida...

  17. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  18. Injury to apples and peaches at harvest from feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs early and late in the season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive species that has become an important orchard pest in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Adults and nymphs feed on tree fruit. Feeding injury from adults has been characterized but the injury from nymphs has not been examined system...

  19. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean; and to d...

  20. Impact of Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on primary physiology of four near-isogenic wheat lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of feeding injury by the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), and bird cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on susceptible and resistant wheat, Triticum aestivum L., near-isogenic lines ‘Tugela’ (susceptible), Tugela-Dn1 (antibiotic), -Dn2 (tolera...

  1. A Multiyear Study on Seasonal Flight Activity Based on Captures of Southern Green Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blacklight Traps in Central Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is cosmopolitan in distribution and feeds on many cultivated plants. On cotton, it reduces yield and transmits fungal and bacterial pathogens that result in necrosis of the locule and boll rotting. Objectives of this study...

  2. Long-term patterns and feeding sites of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Hawaii macadamia orchards, and sampling for management decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula, Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a pest of macadamia nuts, causing pitting to kernels by feeding. In spite of its pest status, many aspects of the ecology of this insect in macadamia orchards are poorly understood. This study analyzes long-term N. viridula damag...

  3. Biostable multi-Aib analogs of tachykinin-related peptides demonstrate potent oral aphicidal activity in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). Two novel biostable TRP analogs containing multiple, sterically-hindered Aib residues were synthesized and found to exhi...

  4. A new species in the indigenous New Zealand soft scale insect genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) on Gahnia setifolia (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Chris J; Gunawardana, D N; Richmond, J E

    2016-01-01

    The genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) is currently only known from New Zealand. The adult female and pupa of a new species, K. martini Hodgson & Richmond are described and illustrated below and the possible taxonomic relationships of the genus to other New Zealand genera are discussed. PMID:27394370

  5. Interhaplotype fertility and host effects of potato and bittersweet nightshade on selected reproductive traits of three haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a serious pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America and New Zealand. This insect vectors the bacterium that causes zebra chip disease of potato. Four distinct genetic populations, or haplotypes, of B. cockerelli ha...

  6. Survey of resistance to four insecticides and their associated mechanisms in different genotypes of the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of agriculture worldwide that is particularly adept at evolving insecticide resistance very frequently develop insecticide resistance. Seven mechanisms that confer resistance to many insecticide types have been des...

  7. Biostable and PEG polymer-conjugated insect pyrokinin analogs demonstrate antifeedant activity and induce high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyrokinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable pyrokinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet to the ...

  8. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  9. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  10. Bionomics of Oncometopia tucumana (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae), a sharpshooter from Argentina, with notes on its distribution, host plants and egg parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bionomics of the proconiine sharpshooter Oncometopia tucumana Schroder (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) from northern Argentina is reported. Leafhoppers were monitored during the entire season in a citrus orchard in Horco Molle, Tucuman Province, and also sampled in Jujuy and Salta provinces. The sharpshoot...

  11. Assessment of Impact of Insecticides on Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae), an Egg Parasitoid of the Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Anagrus Nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae) is a major natural enemy of the rice planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). It plays an important role in the IPM of the rice planthopper. Contact and oral toxicity and residual effect of fourteen pesticide...

  12. Effectiveness of glues for harmonic radar tag attachment on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and their impact on adult survivorship and mobility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effectiveness of three cyanoacrylate glues (trade names: Krazy, Loctite, and FSA) to securely attach harmonic radar tags on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and quantified the effect of the radar tag attachment on insect survivorship and mobility. In the l...

  13. Within-plant distribution of the Foxglove Aphid (Aulacorthum Solani Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various greenhouse plants with implications for control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach; Hemiptera: Aphididae) has recently undergone a status change from an occasional pest to a serious pest of greenhouse crops in North America and the UK. Consequently, little non-anecdotal information exists on the ecology of this insect in greenhouse cro...

  14. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015). PMID:27395151

  15. Bites caused by giant water bugs belonging to Belostomatidae family (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) in humans: a report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Schwartz, Elisabeth F; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Carvalho, Lucélia Nobre

    2010-06-01

    We report 7 cases of patients bitten by giant water bugs, large predatory insects belonging to the Belostomatidae family (Hemiptera, Heteroptera). These insects have toxic saliva capable of provoking intense pain and paralysis in vertebrates. Victims experienced intense, excruciating pain and 1 manifested hypoesthesia in the forearm. Bites by Belostomatidae are often reported by clinicians working in areas where these insects live, but there are no detailed case reports in the medical literature. There are no specific treatment modalities known to be effective, making prevention an important strategy. PMID:20591375

  16. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarcta zealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kaulfuss, Uwe; Moulds, Max

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae) is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarcta zealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea) fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns. PMID:25829843

  17. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko. PMID:24163586

  18. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  19. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Dellieu, Louis Sarrazin, Michaël Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-14

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  20. First report of a mermithid nematode infecting the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stubbins, F L; Agudelo, P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Greene, J K

    2015-05-01

    Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) has become a pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.), in the United States. While several natural enemies of M. cribraria have been reported, our study is the first to report nematodes beneath the pleural membranes in the abdominal cavities of adults. Morphological and molecular analyses suggest this nematode belongs to the family Mermithidae. This first report of a nematode infection in M. cribraria adds to the current inventory of enemies attacking this insect. Our observations provide a basis for future research to examine the impact of nematodes on M. cribraria mortality and to investigate their capacity to reduce populations. PMID:25731127

  1. Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding patterns in macadamia nut in Hawaii: nut maturity and cultivar effects.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Wright, Mark G; Golden, Mary

    2009-08-01

    Nezara viridula L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious pest of macadamia nuts, Macadamia integrifolia, in Hawaii. Using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes, feeding activity was determined for nuts of various maturity levels harvested from the tree and off the ground throughout the growing season in five commercial cultivars. Damage occurred in the tree and on the ground during all nut growth stages. Damage on the ground was often higher than in the tree. Cultivar 246 was more susceptible to attack than cultivars 333 and 800. It was previously thought that cultivar susceptibility was related to husk and shell thickness, but cultivar 246 showed higher damage than other cultivars even during early nut development when the nuts are small and before the shell has formed. This suggests that shell and husk thickness may play a secondary role in susceptibility to feeding by N. viridula. Monitoring N. viridula feeding activity during early nut development may help alert growers to potential problems later in the season, but early-season probing activity in immature nuts was not a good predictor of damage levels in mature nuts later in the season in our study. PMID:19689896

  2. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817

  3. Susceptibility of Five Sugar Beet Cultivars to the Black Bean Aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Golizadeh, A; Abedi, Z; Borzoui, E; Golikhajeh, N; Jafary, M

    2016-08-01

    The black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the important pests of sugar beet. The relative impact of resistance, including antibiosis and antixenosis of five sugar beet cultivars (Doroti, Perimer, Pershia, Rozier and 006) on A. fabae was studied under laboratory conditions using clip cages. The antibiosis test was based on life table parameters. Significant differences on developmental time, mean number of nymphs/aphid/day, fecundity, and adult longevity of A. fabae were found across tested sugar beet cultivars. In addition, there were significant differences among the sugar beet cultivars for population growth parameters such as the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), net reproductive rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ), doubling time (DT), and mean generation time (T) of A. fabae. The highest and lowest (r m ) values were observed on Pershia (0.449 nymphs/female/day) and Perimer (0.358 nymphs/female/day), respectively. No significant differences were found for the preference of the black bean aphid, and antixenosis had no effect on resistance against this aphid. As a result, our findings showed that the Pershia cultivar was a relatively susceptible host plant. Two cultivars (Perimer and Rozier) were relatively resistant to A. fabae, which could prove useful in the development of IPM programs for this aphid in sugar beet fields. PMID:26927334

  4. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines. PMID:21882698

  5. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  6. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  7. Respiratory morphology of the Abedus herberti Hidalgo egg chorion (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Goforth, Christine L; Smith, Robert L

    2011-07-01

    Although giant water bugs (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) are large, aquatic insects known for their obligate paternal egg brooding behaviors, little research has focused on the structure of their eggs. The respiratory requirements of developing embryos likely created selection for brooding, so a thorough understanding of the respiratory morphology of belostomatid eggs could help explain how brooding behaviors facilitate embryonic gas exchange. This study used scanning electron microscopy to document the respiratory microstructure of the eggs of Abedus herberti, a back brooding giant water bug. The exochorion is similar to that of other belostomatids in texture and organization except that the respiratory region is confined to the uppermost quarter of the egg. This is the area exposed to the atmosphere by encumbered males. A plastron network made up of densely packed vertical projections demarcates the boundary between the respiratory and nonrespiratory regions of the chorion. The internal chorion is composed of alternate air-filled and denser layers that likely facilitate the movement of oxygen from the aeropyles at the top of the eggs to the developing embryonic tissues. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21472766

  8. Practical solutions for treating laundry infested with Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Naylor, R A; Boase, C J

    2010-02-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is known to become associated, from time to time, with clothing or linen. In such locations, it may escape insecticide treatment, and may be carried to new locations. We test the suggestion that laundering is sufficient to kill all life stages and thus help prevent reinfestation and dispersion. We establish minimum temperatures for washing and minimum temperatures and times for tumble-drying, as well as testing cold soaking, dry cleaning, and freezing as alternative strategies for delicate items. Data loggers were used to confirm temperature settings and monitor temperature changes during the treatments. Adult bed bugs, nymphs, and eggs were sealed into small, permeable cotton pouches, which were then placed into garments of clothing. Washing at 60 degrees C was found to be effective against all life stages, as was tumble drying on a hot cycle (>40 degrees C) for at least 30 min, dry cleaning with perchloroethylene, and freezing at -17 degrees C for at least 2 h. Using data loggers it was also shown that 2.5 kg of loosely packed, dry laundry takes approximately 8 h to reach -17 degrees C. Soaking for 24 h in detergent-free water was found to be effective against active stages but had no effect on eggs. PMID:20214378

  9. A binomial sequential sampling plan for Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Solanum lycopersicum (Solanales: Solanacea).

    PubMed

    Prager, Sean M; Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2014-04-01

    The tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of many solanaceous plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In tomato, feeding by nymphs is associated with "psyllid yellows." B. cockerelli also vectors "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous," an infectious bacterium that causes "vein greening" disease. Decisions about management action are much more effective when guided by robust sampling. However, there are few previous studies of potato psyllid spatial distribution in tomato fields, and no published sequential sampling plans for the pest in tomato. We studied B. cockerelli in various tomato fields in California and used these data to generate a sequential sampling plan. We found that juvenile B. cockerelli in tomato fields exhibit an edge effect, an aggregated distribution, and individuals are primarily located on the bottom of leaves. Psyllids were concentrated in the upper segments of plants, but this changed over time. Finally, we present three binominal sequential sampling plans for managing tomato psyllids in tomato fields. These plans differed from both those for bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and potato, indicating that B. cockerelli needs to be sampled using crop-specific sampling plans. PMID:24772568

  10. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the treehopper Darthula hardwickii (Hemiptera: Aetalionidae).

    PubMed

    Liang, Ai-Ping; Gao, Jie; Zhao, Xing

    2016-09-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the treehopper Darthula hardwickii is presented. The circular genome is 15,359 bp long with 37 genes and 77.4% A + T content. Twenty-three genes are located on the J-strand, the remaining being oriented on the N-strand. Gene order is identical to that of the typical arrangement of other treehoppers. This genome is highly economized with 66 overlapped nucleotides between neighboring genes in 16 locations. All protein-coding genes initiate with ATN codons. All of the 22 tRNAs, ranging from 60 to 73 bp, have the clover-leaf structure, except the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNA(Ser (AGN)) and tRNA(Arg) forms a simple loop as seen in many other metazoans. The sizes of the large and small ribosomal RNA genes are 1198 and 737 bp, respectively. The control region is 1081 bp in length with 83.72% A + T content. The complete mitogenome sequence of D. hardwickii could provide fundamental data for the phylogenetic studies of the Aetalionidae and Membracoidea and the Hemiptera as well. PMID:25693704

  11. New records of bat ectoparasites (Diptera, Hemiptera and Siphonaptera) from northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Autino, Analía G; Claps, Guillermo L; Sánchez, Mariano S; Barquez, Rubén M

    2009-01-01

    New species of bat-ectoparasite insects are added to the fauna of Argentina and distributional limits are extended for others, based on information obtained from 21 species of bats collected. New data is reported for the distribution of 23 species of bat ectoparasites, of which 17 belong to the Order Diptera [14 Streblidae: Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, Anatrichobius scorzai Wenzel, Aspidoptera phyllostomatis (Perty), Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Sèguy), Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, Noctiliostrebla aitkeni Wenzel, N. dubia (Rudow), Paradyschiria fusca Speiser, Paradyschiria sp., Strebla chrotopteri Wenzel, Strebla diaemi Wenzel, Trichobius parasiticus Gervais y Xenotrichobius noctilionis Wenzel, and three Nycteribiidae: Basilia carteri Scott, B. plaumanni Scott y B.neamericana Schuurmans Stekhoven (Jr)], three belong to the Order Siphonaptera [one Ischnopsyllidae: Myodopsylla isidori (Weyenbergh), one Tungidae: Rhynchopsyllus pulex Haller, and one Stephanocircidae: Craneopsylla m. minerva (Rothschild)] and three belong to Order Hemiptera [two Polyctenidae: Hesperoctenes fumarius (Westwood) and H. vicinus Jordan, and one Cimicidae: Latrocimex spectans Lent]. Some records are new for Argentina, while others are new for the provinces of Corrientes, Chaco, Entre Ríos, Jujuy, Misiones and Salta. Also new host-parasite relationships are reported. PMID:19488504

  12. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. PMID:26470241

  13. The Damage Capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Tiago Teixeira; Auad, Alexander Machado; Fonseca, Marcy das Graças; Souza Sobrinho, Fausto; Ribeiro dos Santos, Dayane; da Silva, Sandra Elisa Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard) under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots' dry matter, and the forage's ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria. PMID:24453825

  14. Bioactivity of neem, Azadirachta indica, against spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Garcia, José Francisco; Grisoto, Eliane; Vendramim, José Djair; Botelho, Paulo Sérgio Machado

    2006-12-01

    The effect of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, on some biological parameters of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stil) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) was studied in the laboratory by using NeemAzal-T/S, Nimkol-LS, and an aqueous neem seed extract. Initially, the LC,, was estimated for nymphs. Later, nymphs fed on sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., roots were sprayed with the respective LC,, for each product. The adults were maintained in cages on sugarcane plants sprayed at the base with the maximum rate recommended commercially for the crop (3 liter/ha). Moistened cotton discs surrounding the base of the plant were used as oviposition substrates. The LCso values estimated for NeemAzal, Nimkol, and aqueous extract were 0.014, 0.225, and 0.611%, respectively. There was a reduction in spittlebug longevity, regardless of sex, in relation to the control. Males exposed to the neem products, and aqueous extract showed longevity reductions of approximately 50%, whereas for females the reductions were 55-60%. The neem products and extract reduced fecundity by 75-85%. Morphological and physiological changes were observed in 9% of the eggs from individuals submitted to NeemAzal. Neem-based products, especially NeemAzal, have potential for the control of M. fimbriolata. PMID:17195667

  15. [Faunistic analysis of leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) species in vineyards of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Rudiney; Lopes, João R S; Botton, Marcos; Azevedo-Filho, Wilson S De; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2010-01-01

    In some American countries, grapevines are affected by Pierce's disease (PD), which is caused by a particular strain of Xylella fastidiosa not yet reported in Brazil. In order to investigate the potential for PD spread in Brazil in case of pathogen introduction, we conducted a faunistic analysis of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated to vineyards in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with emphasis in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters), which includes the main potential vectors of X. fastidiosa. Leafhopper samplings were carried out fortnightly during two years (9/2004-9/2006) in four Vitis vinifera vineyards in the municipalities of Bento Gonçalves and Farroupilha (RS). Thirtyfour leafhopper and six spittlebug species were collected, but most (98.4%) of the 3,893 specimens trapped were leafhoppers, distributed in the subfamilies Cicadellinae (60.2%), Gyponinae (34.1%), Deltocephalinae (3.8%) and Coelidinae (0.3%). The sharpshooter specimens were divided in the tribes Cicadellini (68.5%; 12 species) and Proconiini (31.5%; 11 species). Based on the faunistic indices, five species of Cicadellini, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Dilobopterus dispar (Germar), Macugonalia cavifrons Stal, Sibovia sagata (Signoret) and Spinagonalia rubrovittata Cavichioli, and three of Proconiini, Molomea consolida (Schöder), Oncometopia facialis (Signoret) and Oncometopia fusca Melichar were prevalent in the vineyards. The high diversity of native sharpshooters in Rio Grande do Sul indicates the existence of a high risk of PD spread if the pathogen is introduced in grapevines. PMID:20498954

  16. Soil temperature and diapause maintenance in eggs of the spittlebug, Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera: Cercopidae).

    PubMed

    Sujii, E R; Garcia, M A; Fontes, E M; da Silva, S M; Meyer, J F

    2001-11-01

    Diapausing eggs of the neotropical pasture pest, Deois flavopicta (Stal) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), were exposed to low overnight temperatures that simulated field conditions during the dry season (23/12, 23/15 and 23/18 degrees C day/night), for different periods (0-60 days). After treatment, eggs were kept at 28 degrees C and contact water (100% humidity) until hatching. A group of diapausing eggs were kept all the time under this last condition as a control treatment. Time for hatching (in degree-days) was reduced with decrease in low overnight temperature and increase of exposure time to these cold shocks, although there was no interaction between the factors. Regression of exposure time to cold shock influencing the expected mean hatching time produced independent equations for temperatures below 18 degrees C and 15 degrees C. We constructed a model that simulates the expected proportion of the population hatching after the beginning of rainy season based on regression equations to mean hatching time and associated standard deviation. The simulation generated for the model correlated significantly with nymphal population observed in the field. These results showed that overnight soil temperatures below 18 degrees C, as occurs in Central and South-eastern Brazil between May and August, shorten the period of diapause, increase quiescent eggs in the soil, and may have synchronize population hatching. PMID:12071316

  17. Susceptibility of twolined spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) life stages to entomophagous arthropods in turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Nachappa, Punya; Guillebeau, L P; Braman, S K; All, J N

    2006-10-01

    Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), the twolined spittlebug, is an economic pest of turfgrass in the southeastern United States. No data concerning natural enemies of P. bicincta in turfgrass have been reported previously. We compared predation of spittlebug eggs, nymphs, and adults in the laboratory by potential generalist predators commonly found in turfgrass: bigeyed bugs Geocoris uliginosus Say and Geocoris punctipes Say; red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren; wolf spiders (Lycosa sp. Walckenaer); carabid beetles Harpalaus pensylvanicus DeGeer and Calosoma sayi Dejean; and tiger beetles Megacephala carolina carolina L. Eggs were readily consumed by generalist predators. S. invicta consumed 100% of the eggs offered. H. pensylvanicus and C. sayi were also significant predators of P. bicincta eggs. Nymphs live in spittlemasses that protect them from attack by predators, but exposed nymphs were susceptible to attack when mechanically removed from their spittlemasses. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina caused significant mortality of exposed nymphs. P. bicincta adults are aposematic and have the ability to reflex bleed; however, reflex bleeding did not prevent attack by predators. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina killed 100% of the adult spittlebugs offered in laboratory bioassays. Lycosa sp. are less voracious predators of adults. Sound background knowledge about P. bicincta and its potential natural enemy complex is important for the development and implementation of a detailed, site-specific, biologically based pest management program in turfgrass. PMID:17066803

  18. Characterization of resistance to adult spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Lina M; Cardona, César; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Nymphs and adults of several spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species are key pests of forage brachiariagrasses (Brachiaria spp.) in tropical America. To support current breeding programs, a series of experiments aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of resistance to adult feeding damage were carried out. Five genotypes were used: two susceptible checks (CIAT 0606 and CIAT 0654) and three nymph-resistant genotypes (CIAT 36087, CIAT 6294, and SX01NO/0102). Test insects were Aeneolamia varia (F.), A. reducta (Lallemand), and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand). The nymph-resistant genotypes showed tolerance to all spittlebug species tested. Tolerance in these genotypes can be classified as only moderate given the extent of losses (60-80%) caused by both female and male adults. None of the nymph-resistant genotypes had antibiotic effects on adults feeding on foliage. The results also indicated that antixenosis for feeding is not a plausible explanation for lower damage scores and less biomass losses in resistant genotypes. The fact that adult longevity (usually 8 d) was not affected when the adults were forced to feed on roots of a genotype with strong antibiotic resistance to nymphs is regarded as additional evidence that resistances to nymphs and to adults in Brachiaria are largely independent. PMID:24020305

  19. Resistance of Sugarcane Cultivars to Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae).

    PubMed

    Dinardo-Miranda, L L; da Costa, V P; Fracasso, J V; Perecin, D; de Oliveira, M C; Izeppi, T S; Lopes, D O P

    2014-02-01

    The spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is one of the most important pests of the sugarcane crop in Brazil. Despite of its importance, there is currently a lack of information regarding sugarcane cultivars' resistance to the spittlebug. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the response of sugarcane genotypes to this species. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using a random block design with treatments in a factorial arrangement of 2 × 13 (experiment 1) and 2 × 12 (experiment 2), with six replicates. The first factor included two levels of infestation (infested and noninfested plants with spittlebugs), while the second consisted of the cultivars. Nymph survival varied from 47.9 to 84.5%, indicating that there are different levels of antibiosis to M. fimbriolata among the tested cultivars. The highest degree of antibiosis was found in cultivars IACSP96-7586 and IACSP96-2008, in which nymph survival was close to 48%. IACSP96-7586 also presented some degree of tolerance, but IACSP96-7569 and IACSP97-6682 stood out as the most tolerant cultivars to the pest, showing the lowest reduction in weight of aboveground biomass. On average, spittlebug infestations caused a significant reduction in relative leaf chlorophyll content and aboveground biomass weight. PMID:27193410

  20. The damage capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis pasture.

    PubMed

    Resende, Tiago Teixeira; Auad, Alexander Machado; Fonseca, Marcy das Graças; Souza Sobrinho, Fausto; dos Santos, Dayane Ribeiro; da Silva, Sandra Elisa Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard) under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots' dry matter, and the forage's ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria. PMID:24453825

  1. Gut Content Analysis of a Phloem-Feeding Insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Unruh, Thomas R; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-08-01

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the psyllid regularly occurs on numerous uncultivated annual and perennial species within the Solanaceae. A better understanding of landscape-level ecology of B. cockerelli would substantially improve our ability to predict which potato fields are most likely to be colonized by infected psyllids. We developed three PCR-based methods of gut content analysis to identify what plant species B. cockerelli had previously fed upon. These methods included-1) sequencing PCR amplicons of regions of plant-derived internal transcribed spacer (ITS) or the chloroplast trnL gene from psyllids, 2) high-resolution melting analysis of ITS or trnL real-time PCR products, and 3) restriction enzyme digestion of trnL PCR product. Each method was used to test whether we could identify psyllids that had been reared continuously on potato versus psyllids reared continuously on the perennial nightshade, Solanum dulcamara. All three methods of gut content analysis correctly identified psyllids from potato and psyllids from S. dulcamara Our study is the first to demonstrate that plant DNA can be detected in a phloem-feeding insect. Gut content analysis, in combination with other landscape ecology approaches, could help elucidate patterns in landscape-level movements and host plant associations of B. cockerelli. PMID:27271944

  2. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Agustín C; da Rocha, Aline C P; Parra, José R P

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn't). The 68% viability for the egg-adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  3. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, T.D.; Kidd, K.A.; Cunjak, R.A.; Arp, P.A.

    2009-07-15

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (similar to 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species.

  4. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  5. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis. PMID:26951150

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions. PMID:27313962

  7. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary. PMID:26694371

  8. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNA(ser)), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups--Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. PMID:26798143

  9. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  10. The Hemiptera (Insecta) of Canada: Constructing a Reference Library of DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, H. Eric L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided. PMID:25923328

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  12. [Biotypes and phylogenetic analysis of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Cai, Li; Shen, Wei-Jiang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is considered taxonomically as a species complex and could cause serious damages to crops by directly feeding on phloem and/or indirectly transmission of plant viruses. In this study, biotypes and phylogenetic relationships of 33 geographic populations of B. tabaci collected from nine provinces of China in 2010 and 2011 were studied based on the mitochondrial COI gene. The results showed there were a total of six biotypes of B. tabaci (B, Q, ZHJ-1, ZHJ-3, An and Nauru) recovered in China and the geographical distribution of these six biotypes was uneven. Phylogenetic analysis showed that biotype An B. tabaci from Taiwan clustered together with Hainan biotype An populations, indicating these two geographic populations might originate from a same ancestor. In addition, biotype B B. tabaci in China had a 99% genetical similarity compared to that from France and Uganda. However, relationships of biotype Q on the phylogenetic tree were divided into two different clusters. One was occupied with the population from China and Western Mediterranean Sea countries (France and Morocco) and the other contained biotype Q populations from Eastern Mediterranean Sea countries (Israel and Turkey). Overall, the results suggested that biotype Q B. tabaci in China was genetically similar to that from Western Mediterranean Sea countries and it could be highly possible that Chinese biotype Q B. tabaci originated from Western Mediterranean Sea areas. PMID:25011310

  13. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  14. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran-Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida-Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan-Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks' lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  15. Species clarification of Isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C

    2016-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions. PMID:26895870

  16. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200–700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165–172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m−1. By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103–129° and SFEs above 20 mN m−1. Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates. PMID:23235705

  17. Repellence produced by monoterpenes on Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) decreases after continuous exposure to these compounds.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Alejandra; Sfara, Valeria; Alzogaray, Raúl Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Botanical monoterpenes are secondary metabolites present in essential oils produced by plants. Some of them are insect repellents. The bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Ståhl (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in the north of South America and some countries in Central America. In this study, we studied the repellence produced by two monoterpenes, menthyl acetate and geraniol, on fifth instar nymphs of R. prolixus. In the absence of other stimuli, both menthyl acetate and geraniol produced a repellent effect from 740 μg/cm(2) and 74 μg/cm(2), respectively. Pre-exposure to each monoterpene reduced the repellent activity produced by the same substance. Additionally, pre-exposure to one monoterpene decreased the behavioral response of the nymphs to the other one. The repellent effect of both monoterpenes also decreased when nymphs' antennae were previously treated with the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-cysteine. PMID:25525113

  18. Chlorophyll loss caused by soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding on soybean.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Reese, John C; Schapaugh, William T; Campbell, Leslie R

    2007-10-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a worldwide pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Studies to find control methods were initiated in 2000 when it was first detected in North America. A. glycines can reduce yields by as much as 50%, and it is the vector of several viral diseases. A. glycines removes phloem sap, which can result in a reduction of chlorophyll content. Quantification of chlorophyll loss caused by A. glycines feeding on soybean is of vital importance. The SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter is a device that has been used to measure chlorophyll loss caused by nonchewing insects. Chlorophyll loss was studied in no-choice tests on the infested and uninfested leaves of a susceptible check (KS4202). The minimum combined number of days and aphids needed to detect significant chlorophyll loss was 30 aphids confined for 10 d. In a similar experiment, seven resistant entries and two susceptible checks were evaluated. There was no significant chlorophyll reduction between infested and uninfested leaves of five of the resistant entries (K1621, K1639, Pioneer 95B97, Dowling, and Jackson). Percentage of loss of chlorophyll in the susceptible checks was approximately 40%; Jackson and Dowling had a significantly lower percentage loss (13 and 16%, respectively) compared with the susceptible checks. The percentages of chlorophyll loss of K1621, K1639, and Pioneer 95B97 were not statistically different from the percentage of loss of Jackson. PMID:17972645

  19. The Effect of Different Host Plants on Development and Survival of Nysius natalensis (Hemiptera: Orsillidae).

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Hannalene; Byrne, Marcus; Van Den Berg, Johnnie

    2015-02-01

    Nysius natalensis Evans (Hemiptera: Orsillidae) is a pest of sunflower in South Africa. Adults invade sunflower fields from their weedy hosts. The host plant suitability for development and survival and the effect of between-generation host switching were studied on different wild host plants and sunflower. Parameters used to assess host plant suitability were nymphal development, head widths, mean mass, and survival. Nymphs and adults were provided with crushed seed of five host plants, as well as a combination of seeds of the five species. Duration of the nymphal stage, development and mortality, and mean development time to adult were recorded. Between-generation host switching was studied by providing first-instar nymphs (F2) with seed of either the same plant species or transferred to different ones. Mean mass and mean head widths of adults (F2) were determined. The food source during the first and second generation, as well as the interaction thereof, has a significant effect on head widths of resultant males and females, as well as on female mass, but first-generation food did not have a significant effect on male mass. Feeding the F2 on sunflower proved to be beneficial to the false chinch bug, as it provided the heaviest males and females as well as females with the biggest head widths. Lack of constant availability of moisture had a detrimental effect on longevity. Host plant switching to sunflower likely happens as a result of senescence of wild host plants prior to winter. PMID:26308814

  20. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

    PubMed

    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards. PMID:17849850

  1. Species Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota Field Corn.

    PubMed

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    In response to concerns of increasing significance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in northern states, a survey was conducted over 2 yr in Minnesota to characterize the Pentatomidae associated with field corn, Zea mays L. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), an exotic species, was not detected in this survey, despite continued detection of this species as an invader of human-made structures in Minnesota. Five species of Pentatomidae (four herbivorous; one predatory) were collected from corn. Across years, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven) had the greatest relative abundances and frequencies of detection. In 2012, the abundance of herbivorous species exceeded 25 nymphs and adults per 100 plants (i.e., an economic threshold) in 0.48% of fields. However, the abundance of herbivorous species did not reach economic levels in any fields sampled in 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults was highest during reproductive growth stages of corn. The predator species, Podisus maculiventris (Say), was detected in 0 to 0.32% of fields. These results provide baseline information on the species composition and abundance of Pentatomidae in Minnesota field corn, which will be necessary for documentation of changes to this fauna as a result of the invasion of H. halys and to determine if some native species continue to increase in abundance in field crops. PMID:26313176

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars

  3. Limited endosymbiont variation in Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes from the United States and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanevelder, Z H; Surridge, A K J; Venter, E; Botha, A M

    2010-06-01

    Symbiosis allows an insect access to imbalanced food sources on which other organisms cannot survive. A bacterial endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, gives aphids the ability to feed on phloem depleted of certain essential amino acids by producing those required. Pseudogenes and lower plasmid copy numbers of essential amino acid genes in B. aphidicola, endosymbiont of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), suggest that this symbiotic relationship is degenerating. The complete endosymbiont assemblages, copy numbers of plasmids (important in essential amino acid production), and sequence variation in B. aphidicola, from 10 Russian wheat aphid biotypes, were investigated. B. aphidicola was found to be monosymbiotic in the Russian wheat aphid biotypes and other Diuraphis species examined. An insert, occurring in an inverted repeat region on the leucine plasmid, was the only variation found in the approximately 10-kb B. aphidicola sequence analyzed from each Russian wheat aphid biotype. This inverted repeat was shown previously to be conserved within the family Aphididae. The insert occurred in B. aphidicola sequences isolated from four Russian wheat aphid biotypes. Copy numbers of the leucine plasmid differ between the South African and U.S. biotypes and were similar to previously reported values for biotypes from the same geographic regions. These results suggest that B. aphidicola may still contribute to Russian wheat aphid fitness when the aphid feeds on a variety of hosts. PMID:20568636

  4. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  5. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  6. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008). PMID:27615953

  7. Host Preference of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) on Selected Edible Beans and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Sparks, A N

    2015-06-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an Old World pest of legumes in Asia. Since its 2009 discovery in Georgia, it has become an economic pest of soybeans in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the host preference of M. cribraria on edible legumes that might incur economic damage from injury of this pest. From 2012 to 2013 choice, no-choice, and field trials were conducted to evaluate the host suitability of several beans of commercial interest including pinto bean, lima bean, winter pea, and black-eyed pea. Choice and no-choice studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions. Plants in greenhouse trials were infested with adults and egg masses collected from kudzu and soybean and monitored for ∼2 wk. Field trials were allowed to be infested by naturally occurring M. cribraria populations. Sweep and whole plant counts of adults, egg masses, and nymphs were used to quantify field infestations. The legume crops found to be suitable developmental hosts are soybean, edamame, and pigeon pea. Low levels of development were seen on fava bean and none on the remaining entries. PMID:26470234

  8. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors. PMID:22679860

  9. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors' experience. PMID:25977817

  10. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. PMID:26503344

  11. Extensive Mitochondrial Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of a Resurging Human Pest, the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Robison, G A; Balvin, O; Schal, C; Vargo, E L; Booth, W

    2015-07-01

    Homoplasmy, the occurrence of a single mitochondrial DNA haplotype within an individual, has been the accepted condition across most organisms in the animal kingdom. In recent years, a number of exceptions to this rule have been reported, largely due to the ease with which single nucleotide polymorphisms can be detected. Evidence of heteroplasmy-two or more mitochondrial variants within a single individual-has now been documented in a number of invertebrates; however, when present, heteroplasmy usually occurs at low frequencies both within individuals and within populations. The implications of heteroplasmy may be far reaching, both to the individual in relation to its health and fitness, and when considering the evolutionary dynamics of populations. We present novel evidence for frequent mtDNA heteroplasmy in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Our findings show that heteroplasmy is common, with 5 of 29 (17%) populations screened exhibiting two mitochondrial variants in a ∼1:2 ratio within each individual. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying heteroplasmy in bed bugs is paternal leakage because some haplotypes were shared among unrelated populations and no evidence for nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences was detected. PMID:26335484

  12. Life Table Parameters of Three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) Species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under Contrasted Relative Humidity Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests. PMID:25541705

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions. PMID:27313962

  14. Infectivity and transmission of Xylellua fastidiosa by Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Cornara, Daniele; Yokomi, Raymond K; De Stradis, Angelo; Boscia, Donato; Bosco, Domenico; Martelli, Giovanni P; Krugner, Rodrigo; Porcelli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Discovery of Xylella fastidiosa from olive trees with "Olive quick decline syndrome" in October 2013 on the west coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards during a 3-mo survey was the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae). Adult P. spumarius, collected in November 2013 from ground vegetation in X. fastidiosa-infected olive orchards, were 67% (40 out of 60) positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Euscelis lineolatus Brullé were also collected but tested negative for the pathogen. Transmission tests with P. spumarius collected from the Salento area were, therefore, conducted. After a 96-h inoculation access period with 8 to 10 insects per plant and a 30-d incubation period, PCR results showed P. spumarius transmitted X. fastidiosa to two of five periwinkle plants but not to the seven olive plants. Sequences of PCR products from infected periwinkle were identical with those from X. fastidiosa-infected field trees. These data showed P. spumarius as a vector of X. fastidiosa strain infecting olives trees in the Salento Peninsula, Italy. PMID:25195417

  15. Heated-controlled atmosphere postharvest treatments for Macchiademus diplopterus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, S A; Neven, L G

    2011-04-01

    Nonchemical, environmentally friendly quarantine treatments are preferred for use in postharvest control of insect pests. Combined high temperature and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for phytosanitary fruit pests Macchiademus diplopterus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus (Schoenherr) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were investigated to determine the potential of such treatments for quarantine security. Field-collected, aestivating M. diplopterus adults and P. callosus adults were treated using a controlled atmosphere waterbath system. This system simulates the controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system (CATTS) used to control a number of phytosanitary pests in the United States and allows for a rapid assessment of pest response to treatment. Insects were treated under regular air conditions and a controlled atmosphere of 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide in nitrogen, at two ramping heat rates, 12 and 24 degrees C/h. Treatment of both species was more effective under both heating rates when the controlled atmosphere condition was applied. Under these conditions of controlled atmospheres, mortality of P. callosus was greater when the faster heating rate was used, but the opposite was true for M. diplopterus. This could be due to the physiological condition of aestivation contributing to metabolic arrest in response to the stresses being applied during treatment. Results indicate that the potential for the development of CATTS treatments for these phytosanitary pests, particularly P. callosus, is promising. PMID:21510185

  16. Plant responses to seven Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes found in the United States.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Terri L; Peairs, Frank; Weiland, Aubrey; Rudolph, Jeffrey B; Puterka, Gary J

    2009-10-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a serious wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and barley, Hordeum vulgare L., pest throughout the small grain-producing areas in the western United States. The virulency and classification of recently described Russian wheat aphid biotypes 1-7 (RWA1-7) were clarified using 24 plant differentials. These seven biotypes had been described previously using various methods and test environments; therefore, the purpose of this study was to test them all under uniform environmental conditions. RWA1 was the least virulent of the biotypes tested, with susceptible ratings observed in five plant differentials and intermediate ratings observed in four plant differentials. RWA4, RWA5, RWA6, and RWA7 had intermediate virulence. RWA4, RWA5, and RWA7 share similar responses, with susceptible responses in six plant differentials and intermediate responses in five plant differentials. Small differences within a few plant differentials separate RWA4, RWA5, and RWA7. RWA6 has susceptible responses with only four plant differentials, but 10 plant differentials had intermediate responses. RWA3 was highly virulent, with susceptible responses in 10 plant differentials and intermediate responses in five plant differentials. RWA2 was the most virulent strain tested with susceptible responses to 12 plant differentials and intermediate responses to five plant differentials. This study has demonstrated that RWA1-7 have different combinations of virulence to the plant differentials tested, thereby confirming previous Russian wheat aphid biotype designations. PMID:19886462

  17. Limited genetic variation within and between Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shufran, Kevin A; Payton, Tracey L

    2009-02-01

    Insect biotypes are populations able to kill or injure crops with resistance genes and complicate pest management programs based on host plant resistance. Biotypes occur in Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a worldwide pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and barley, Hordeum vulgare L., that was introduced into Mexico in 1980 and then spread into Texas by 1986. Five D. noxia biotypes were described in the United States and given the number designations 1 through 5. Of these, only Biotypes 1 and 2, which are nondamaging and damaging to Dn4-resistant wheat, respectively, are common and agriculturally important. Only a single clone of Biotypes 3, 4, and 5 were found in nature and now exist in the laboratory. The biotypes were found after 5 yr of the commercial planting of resistant wheat and their origin is unknown. To understand the genetic relatedness and origin of D. noxia biotypes in the United States, we used three molecular markers to assay for genetic variation within and between Biotypes 1 and 2, and for variation between Biotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. A single random amplified polymorphic DNA polymorphism was found in only two individuals. No DNA sequence variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene was found between 26 D. noxia clones. No variation was found at seven examined simple sequence repeat loci. Results suggest Biotype 2 originated from the extant population and does not represent a second introduction of a genetically divergent biotype. PMID:19253666

  18. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Agustín C.; da Rocha, Aline C. P.

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2°C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn’t). The 68% viability for the egg–adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  19. Insecticide Toxicity to Adelphocoris lineolatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) and its Nymphal Parasitoid Peristenus spretus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Bing; Ali, Abid; Luo, Shu-Ping; Lu, Yan-Hui; Liang, Ge-Mei

    2015-08-01

    In China, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important pest of alfalfa, cotton, and other crops, while Peristenus spretus (Chen & van Achterberg) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is the dominant nymphal parasitoid of this mirid bug. In the present study, the toxicity of 17 common insecticides to A. lineolatus was evaluated, and the susceptibility of P. spretus to the insecticides with high toxicity to A. lineolatus was tested under laboratory conditions. Of the 17 insecticides tested, 12 (beta cypermethrin, deltamethrin, carbosulfan, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, acephate, profenophos, hexaflumuron, and abamectin) had a highly toxic effect on second-instar nymphs of A. lineolatus, with LC(50) values ranging from 0.58 to 14.85 mg a.i. (active ingredient) liter(-1). Adults of P. spretus were most sensitive to chlorpyrifos, with LC(50) values of 0.03 mg a.i. liter(-1), followed by phoxim, acetamiprid, profenophos, carbosulfan, acephate, deltamethrin, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, beta-cypermethrin, and abamectin, with LC(50) values ranging from 0.06 to 3.09, whereas hexaflumuron exhibited the least toxicity to the parasitoid, with LC(50) values >500 mg a.i. liter(-1). A risk quotient analysis indicated that beta-cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate, abamectin, and hexaflumuron when applied against A. lineolatus were the least toxic to P. spretus. PMID:26470319

  20. Location of the mechanism of resistance to Amphorophora agathonica (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in red raspberry.

    PubMed

    Lightle, D M; Dossett, M; Backus, E A; Lee, J C

    2012-08-01

    The aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important virus vector in red (Rubus idaeus L.) and black (Rubus occidentalis L.) raspberries in North America. Raspberry resistance to A. agathonica in the form of a single dominant gene named Ag1 has been relied upon to help control aphid-transmitted plant viruses; however, the mechanism of resistance to the insect is poorly understood. Aphid feeding was monitored using an electrical penetration graph on the resistant red raspberry 'Tulameen' and compared with a susceptible control, 'Vintage'. There were no differences in pathway feeding behaviors of aphids as they moved toward the phloem. Once in the phloem, however, aphids feeding on resistant plants spent significantly more time salivating than on susceptible plants, and ingested significantly less phloem sap. This suggests that a mechanism for resistance to A. agathonica is located in the phloem. Reduced ingestion of phloem may result in inefficient acquisition of viruses and is a likely explanation for the lack of aphid-transmitted viruses in plantings of resistant cultivars. PMID:22928330

  1. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Insecticides in Laboratory and Greenhouse Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, John C; Prabhaker, Nilima; Reed, Darcy A; Perring, Thomas M; Castle, Steven J; Huang, Ta-I

    2015-04-01

    Field-collected nymphs and adults of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Penatatomidae) from three locations were evaluated for susceptibility to insecticides representing 10 classes of insecticide chemistry. Although relative susceptibilities differed between leaf-spray and leaf-dip Petri dish bioassays, consistently low LC50 values were determined for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. Fenpropathrin and methomyl had intermediate values. Susceptibility to dinotefuran varied depending on the bioassay, possibly owing to leaf substrates used in the two bioassays. In soil systemic bioassays, the LC50 value of dinotefuran was significantly greater than that of two other neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and the anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole. Mortality and feeding damage of B. hilaris and plant growth on insecticide-treated plants in greenhouse trials were consistent with the laboratory bioassays; the best results were seen with bifenthrin, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos. Mortality to the neonicotinoids was not evident; however, feeding damage and plant growth responses on dinotefuran-treated plants damage were similar to the noninfested control. This highlights the apparent antifeedant properties of dinotefuran that may have prevented adults from injuring broccoli plants after exposure to foliar spray residues. Data presented serve as baseline susceptibilities that can be used to monitor for resistance development in field populations of B. hilaris. PMID:26470178

  2. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNAser), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups—Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. PMID:26798143

  3. Spatial Distribution of Adults of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Guava Plants.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, M C S; Barbosa, J C

    2016-04-01

    The psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest in guava, feeding primarily on new shoots. Despite its importance, there are no studies on the spatial distribution of T. limbata on guava. Such studies are needed to establish sequential sampling plans for decision making in pest control. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a 9-year-old commercial guava orchard divided into 100 sampling units or plots. Double-sided yellow sticky traps were placed on one plant per plot (sample unit) to capture and monitor T. limbata adults from April 2011 to May 2012. To determine the insect distribution in the area, we calculated the variance-to-mean ratio index (I), the Morisita index (I δ ), Green's coefficient (Cx), and the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution. Most of the samples showed that the adults had a moderate to highly aggregated distribution. Statistical models were also used to study the pest spatial distribution by fitting the number of adults captured to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution model best fitted the data of the number of adult psyllids captured by the traps, which is consistent with an aggregated distribution. PMID:26597967

  4. [Characterization of the behavioral and vibrational signals in Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) during courtship and copulation].

    PubMed

    Briceño, R Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection. PMID:24912346

  5. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard

    2009-10-01

    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI. PMID:19886461

  6. Vineyard Colonization by Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) Induced by Stinging Nettle Cut Along Surrounding Ditches.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C; Reggiani, N; Pavan, F

    2016-02-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is the most important host plant for both phytoplasma associated with Bois noir disease of the grapevine and its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Vector abundance in vineyards is favored by stinging nettle growing in surrounding areas. Nettle control by herbicides or cutting can reduce vector population in vineyards. However, chemical weeding can cause environmental problems. Many authors suggest that stinging nettle control applied during H. obsoletus flight could force adults to migrate into vineyards. We evaluate if cutting of nettle growing along ditches during adult flight favors vineyard colonization by H. obsoletus. Three different weed management regimes ("no cuts," "one cut" just before the beginning of adult flight, and "frequent cuts" over the whole vegetative season) were applied to the herbaceous vegetation in ditches bordering two vineyards. The flight dynamics of H. obsoletus were recorded by placing yellow sticky traps on the vegetation along the ditches and at different positions in the vineyards. Frequent stinging nettle cuts (compared with a single cut) in surrounding areas favored the dispersion of vectors inside the vineyards. Stinging nettle control should be based on an integration of a single herbicide application before H. obsoletus emergence followed by frequent cuts to minimize negative side effects of chemical weeding. In organic viticulture, a frequent-cuts strategy should avoid cuts during H. obsoletus flight period, at least in the first year of adoption. PMID:26352752

  7. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance. PMID:24331611

  8. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. PMID:27329621

  9. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  10. Performance of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Weeds.

    PubMed

    Sottoriva, L D M; Lourenção, A L; Colombo, C A

    2014-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is regarded as a pest with a large number of hosts, including crops and weeds. The performance of this whitefly on seven weeds was evaluated in order to identify the most suitable host. The following weeds that are very common in intense agricultural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected for this study: spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla), beggarticks (Bidens pilosa), red tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia), small-flower galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora), pigweed (Amaranthus viridis), black nightshade (Solanum americanum), and morning glory (Ipomoea sp.). In free-choice tests, adult preference and oviposition were greatest on spurge. In contrast, morning glory was the least attractive and least oviposited plant. In assays carried out for egg-adult development, egg viability was greater than 87% over all weeds, whereas nymph viability ranged from 74 to 97%. The developmental period from egg to adult ranged from 26.7 to 49.1 days among the hosts under study. The lowest nymph density rate was observed for beggarticks and morning glory. Cluster analysis resulted in a single group formed by spurge, indicating its superiority as a host for B. tabaci biotype B. Even though the parameters evaluated indicate that spurge is the most suitable host among the weeds, all the others allow the reproduction of B. tabaci biotype B. For this reason, they should be observed during cropping and the intercrop period in areas infested by this whitefly. PMID:27194066

  11. Biology and life table parameters of Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cauliflower cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Fatemeh; Abbasipour, Habib; Askarianzadeh, Alireza; Hassanshahi, Golamhossein; Saeedizadeh, Ayatallah

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the biology and fertility life table parameters of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were studied on cauliflower leaves, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), of the cultivars Smilla, Snow mystique, White cloud, Buris, Galiblanka, Snow crown, SG, and Tokita. This study was conducted under controlled conditions: 25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiods. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. Further, the maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Galiblanka and Buris cultivars, respectively. The shortest nymphal instar growth period was observed on the Smilla cultivar (6.70 d), and the longest lifespan was seen on the White cloud (8.10 d). The Smilla cultivar (39%), in an adult emergence stage, and the SG (88%) revealed the lowest and highest rates of survival, respectively. Aphids reared on the Smilla cultivar were found to have increased due to the high intrinsic (r(m)) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the low doubling time (DT). The results indicated that the application of cultivars affecting adult reproductive parameters could be a good solution to cabbage aphid control management. PMID:25527591

  12. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    PubMed

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant. PMID:21510203

  13. Energy storage and synchronisation of hind leg movements during jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M

    2010-02-01

    The hind legs of Issus (Hemiptera, Issidae) move in the same plane underneath the body, an arrangement that means they must also move synchronously to power jumping. Moreover, they move so quickly that energy must be stored before a jump and then released suddenly. High speed imaging and analysis of the mechanics of the proximal joints of the hind legs show that mechanical mechanisms ensure both synchrony of movements and energy storage. The hind trochantera move first in jumping and are synchronised to within 30 micros. Synchrony is achieved by mechanical interactions between small protrusions from each trochantera which fluoresce bright blue under specific wavelengths of ultra-violet light and which touch at the midline when the legs are cocked before a jump. In dead Issus, a depression force applied to a cocked hind leg, or to the tendon of its trochanteral depressor muscle causes a simultaneous depression of both hind legs. The protrusion of the hind leg that moves first nudges the other hind leg so that both move synchronously. Contractions of the trochanteral depressor muscles that precede a jump bend the metathoracic pleural arches of the internal skeleton. Large areas of these bow-shaped structures fluoresce bright blue in ultraviolet light, and the intensity of this fluorescence depends on the pH of the bathing saline. These are key signatures of the rubber-like protein resilin. The remainder of a pleural arch consists of stiff cuticle. Bending these composite structures stores energy and their recoil powers jumping. PMID:20086132

  14. Impact of Diuraphis noxia and Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on primary physiology of four near-isogenic wheat lines.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Tulio B; Peterson, Robert K D; Weaver, David K; Ni, Xinzhi

    2009-02-01

    The impact of feeding injury by the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on susceptible and resistant wheat, Triticum aestivum L., near-isogenic lines 'Tugela' (susceptible), Tugela-Dn1 (antibiotic), Tugela-Dn2 (tolerant), and Tugela-Dn5 (antixenotic) was evaluated by assessing photosynthetic parameters. Photosynthesis and closely related parameters, pigment composition, and nonstructural carbohydrates were measured at 1, 3, and 9 d after aphids were introduced on plants maintained under greenhouse conditions. Overall, R. padi had a higher reproductive capacity within a period of 9 d compared with D. noxia on all lines except Tugela-Dn2. Although the visible injury symptoms associated with aphid injury can be highly species specific, the data indicate that photosynthetic reduction is a common physiological pattern of wheat response to aphid feeding, irrespective of chlorosis elicitation. Although both aphids negatively affected net photosynthesis, D. noxia had a greater impact than R. padi, even when aphid numbers were considerably fewer for D. noxia (100-150 aphids per plant) compared with R. padi (> 200 aphids per plant). The photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate data suggest that the initial net photosynthesis reduction elicited by aphid feeding may not be directly related to the light reaction portion of the photosynthetic pathway via pigment losses. It is also unlikely that source-sink manipulation is the primary cause for the observed short-term inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:19253663

  15. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    PubMed

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%). PMID:26470369

  16. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Raman; Mamidala, Praveen; Mian, M A Rouf; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Michel, Andy P

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a common and robust tool for accurate quantification of mRNA transcripts. To normalize results, a housekeeping gene ([HKG], reference gene or endogenous control gene) is mandatory. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a significant soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., pest, yet gene expression and functional genomics studies are hindered by a lack of stable HKGs. We evaluated seven potential HKGs (SDFS, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit; EF1a, elongation factor-la; HEL, helicase; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; TBP, TATA-box binding protein; and UBQ, ubiquitin-conjugating protein) to determine the most efficient HKGs that have stable expression among tissues, developmental stages, and aphids fed on susceptible and host plant-resistant soybean. HKG stability was determined using GeNorm and NormFinder. Results from three different experimental conditions revealed high stability of TBP compared with the other HKGs profiled across the samples assayed. RPS9 showed stable expression among aphids on susceptible and resistant plants, whereas EF1a showed stable expression in tissues and developmental stages. Therefore, we recommend the TBP as a suitable HKG for efficient normalization among treatments, tissues, and developmental stages of A. glycines. In addition, RPS9 may be used for host-plant resistance experiments and EF1a could be considered for testing differential expression across tissues or developmental stages. These results will enable a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in A. glycines. PMID:22928326

  17. Temperature thresholds and thermal requirements for development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Diaz, Beatriz Maria; Muñiz, Mariano; Barrios, Laura; Fereres, Alberto

    2007-08-01

    Early detection of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce is of primary importance for its effective control. Temperature thresholds for development of this pest were estimated using developmental rates [r(T)] at different constant temperatures (8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 26, and 28 degrees C). Observed developmental rates data and temperature were fitted to two linear (Campbell and Muñiz and Gil) and a nonlinear (Lactin) models. Lower temperature threshold estimated by the Campbell model was 3.6 degrees C for apterous, 4.1 degrees C for alates, and 3.1 degrees C for both aphid adult morphs together. Similar values of the lower temperature threshold were obtained with the Muñiz and Gil model, for apterous (4.0 degrees C), alates (4.2 degrees C), and both adult morphs together (3.7 degrees C) of N. ribisnigri. Thermal requirements of N. ribisnigri to complete development were estimated by Campbell and Muñiz and Gil models for apterous in 125 and 129 DD and for both adult morphs together in 143 and 139 DD, respectively. For complete development from birth to adulthood, the alate morph needed 15-18 DD more than the apterous morph. The lower temperature threshold determined by the Lactin model was 5.3 degrees C for alates, 2.3 degrees C for apterous, and 1.9 degrees C for both adult morphs together. The optimal and upper temperature thresholds were 25.2 and 33.6 degrees C, respectively, for the alate morph, 27 and 35.9 degrees C, respectively, for the apterous morph, and 26.1 and 35.3 degrees C, respectively, for the two adult morphs together. The Campbell model provided the best fit to the observed developmental rates data of N. ribisnigri. This information could be incorporated in forecasting models of this pest. PMID:17716458

  18. Sampling strategies for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott; Villanueva, Raul T

    2012-06-01

    Sampling methods for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., were compared with the intent to assess if one approach was viable for two species occurring from early-season squaring to late bloom in 25 fields located along the coastal cotton growing region of south Texas. Cotton fleaphopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), damages squares early-season and dominated collections using five sampling methods (approximately 99% of insects collected). A major species composition shift occurred beginning at peak bloom in coastal fields, when verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, represented 55-65% of collections. Significantly more cotton fleahoppers were captured by experienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than with the other methods (30-100% more). There were more than twice as many verde plant bugs captured by experienced and inexperienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than captured with the KISS and visual methods. Using a beat bucket or sweep net reduced sampling time compared with the visual method for the experienced samplers. For both species, comparing regressions of beat bucket-based counts to counts from the traditional visual method across nine cultivar and water regime combinations resulted in only one combination differing from the rest, suggesting broad applicability and ability to translate established visual-based economic thresholds to beat bucket-based thresholds. In a first look at sample size considerations, 40 plants (four 10-plant samples) per field site was no more variable than variation associated with larger sample sizes. Overall, the beat bucket is much more effective in sampling for cotton fleahopper and verde plant bug than the traditional visual method, it is more suited to cotton fleahopper sampling early-season when plants are small, it transitions well to sample for verde plant bug during bloom, and it performs well under a variety of soil

  19. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Peanut-Cotton Farmscapes

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, P. Glynn; Cottrell, Ted E.

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States, but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in agricultural farmscapes. Therefore, spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes where cotton fields adjoined peanut was examined weekly. Spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using SADIE (Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices) methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops. For the six peanut-cotton farmscapes studied, the frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (94.8%) was significantly higher than in peanut (5.2%), and nymphs were rarely detected in peanut, indicating that peanut was not a source of C. hilaris into cotton. Significantly, aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton. Maps of local clustering indices depicted patches of C. hilaris in cotton, mainly at field edges including the peanut-to-cotton interface. Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis [L.] R. Bolli) grew in habitats adjacent to crops, C. hilaris were captured in pheromone-baited stink bug traps in these habitats, and in most instances, C. hilaris were observed feeding on black cherry and elderberry in these habitats before colonization of cotton. Spatial distribution of C. hilaris in these farmscapes revealed that C. hilaris colonized cotton field edges near these two noncrop hosts. Altogether, these findings suggest that black cherry and elderberry were sources of C. hilaris into cotton. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in peanut-cotton farmscapes are discussed. PMID:26175464

  20. Screening for resistance to adult spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.: methods and categories of resistance.

    PubMed

    López, Francisco; Cardona, Cesar; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo; Montoya, James

    2009-06-01

    Both nymphal and adult stages of several species of spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) are key economic pests of brachiariagrasses (Brachiaria spp.) in tropical America. Progress has been made in the characterization and development of antibiosis resistance to nymphs in brachiariagrasses. Essentially no attention has been given to screening germplasm for resistance to adults. To support current breeding programs, a series of experiments was conducted to develop a methodology to screen for adult damage and to study categories of resistance to adult feeding damage. Six host brachiariagrass genotypes were used: two susceptible checks (CIAT 0606 and CIAT 0654) and four nymph-resistant genotypes (CIAT 6294, CIAT 36062, CIAT 36087, and SX01NO/0102). Test insects were Aeneolamia varia (F.) and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand). None of the nymph-resistant genotypes was antibiotic to adults. All four nymph-resistant genotypes showed tolerance to A. varia and Z. carbonaria feeding damage. The levels of tolerance to adults of Z. carbonaria, a larger, more aggressive species, were lower. Of the four nymph-resistant genotypes, only CIAT 6294 and CIAT 36087 showed some tolerance to Z. carbonaria expressed as lower leaf damage scores, less chlorophyll loss, and lower functional plant loss indices. The fact that a genotype like SX01NO/0102, which is highly antibiotic to nymphs, is susceptible to adult damage suggests that mechanisms of resistance to the two spittlebug life stages may be independent. Results of these studies suggest a need to incorporate routine screening for tolerance to adult feeding damage as an additional selection criterion in the breeding scheme. PMID:19610452

  1. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vincent P.; Nielsen, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  2. Comparative Mitogenomics of Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Identifying the AGG Codon Reassignments between Serine and Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24988409

  3. The assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Vietnam: an annotated checklist of species.

    PubMed

    Lam, Truong Xuan; Cai, Wanzhi; Tomokuni, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of all known Vietnamese species of the assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is presented with distributional and taxonomic notes. Sixty-five species in 35 genera of the subfamily are recognized in Vietnam. Eleven genera and 32 species are reported herein for the first time from this country. Newly recorded genera are Henricohahnia Breddin, 1900, Kalonotocoris Miller, 1941, Lingnania China, 1940, Lopodytes Stål, 1853, Macracanthopsis Reuter, 1881, Sclomina Stål, 1861, Serendiba Distant, 1906, Serendus Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius Stål, 1866, Villanovanus Distant, 1904, and Yolinus Amyot & Serville, 1843. New record species are Biasticus confusus Hsiao, 1979, B. flavinotus (Matsumura, 1913), Cosmolestes annulipes Distant, 1879, C. pulcher Hsiao, 1979, Cydnocoris fasciatus Reuter, 1881, C. gilvus (Burmeister, 1838), Endochus nigricornis Stål, 1859, Henricohahnia vittata Miller, 1954, Isyndus heros (Fabricius, 1803), I. pilosipes Reuter, 1881, Kalonotocoris curvipes Miller, 1941, Lingnania braconiformis China, 1940, Lopodytes spectabilis Miller, 1941, Macracanthopsis nodipes Reuter, 1881, Sclomina erinacea Stål, 1861, Serendiba nigrospina Hsiao, 1979, S. staliana (Horváth, 1879), Serendus geniculatus Hsiao, 1979, Sphedanolestes annulipes Distant, 1903, S. gularis Hsiao, 1979, S. impressicollis (Stål, 1861), S. pubinotus Reuter, 1881, S. trichrous Stål, 1874, S. xiongi Cai & Cai, 2004, Sycanus croceus Hsiao, 1979, Velinus annulatus Distant, 1879, V. malayus (Stål, 1863), V. rufiventris Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius purpureus (Thunberg, 1784), V. sanguinosus Stål, 1874, Villanovanus nigrorufus Hsiao, 1979, and Yolinus albopustulatus China, 1940. All the species are examined with Vietnamese materials except for Agriosphodrus dohrni (Signoret, 1862), Cydnocoris russatus Stål, 1867, and Sycanus atrocoeruleus Signoret, 1862. PMID:25781817

  4. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species) is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae), an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). The control regions (CRs) among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp), making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp) within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68%) of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%), and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))). PMID:26042898

  5. Biology and biotype determination of greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on seashore paspalum turfgrass (Paspalum vaginatum).

    PubMed

    Nuessly, G S; Nagata, R T; Burd, J D; Hentz, M G; Carroll, A S; Halbert, S E

    2008-04-01

    Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), was first discovered damaging seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) turfgrass in November 2003 at Belle Glade, FL. Inquiries to several golf courses with seashore paspalum turf across southern Florida indicated infestation was wide spread by April 2004. Damage symptoms progress from water soaked lesions surrounding feeding sites within 24 h to chlorosis and necrosis of leaf tips within 96 h. Problems caused by greenbug feeding were initially misdiagnosed as fertilizer, disease, other insects, or water management problems because aphids were not previously found on warm season turfgrasses. Greenbug development and fecundity studies were conducted on six seashore paspalum varieties: 'Aloha,' 'SeaDwarf,' 'SeaGreen,' 'SeaIsle,' 'SeaWay,' and 'SeaWolf.' Greenbug did not survive on 'SeaWolf.' Development rates (mean +/- SEM) ranged from 7.6 +/- 0.2 to 8.2 +/- 0.2 d on the remaining varieties. Greenbug longevity and fecundity on 'Aloha' were significantly less than on the other varieties. The estimated intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) for greenbug ranged from 0.24 to 0.26 across tested varieties. Values for net reproductive rate (R(o)) ranged from 12.3 on 'Aloha' to 40.4 on 'SeaWay.' In feeding trials on indicator plants, the Florida isolate of greenbug exhibited a unique biotypic profile most commonly found on noncultivated grass hosts. It was virulent on the wheat variety GRS1201 that is resistant to the principal agricultural biotypes attacking small grains and to all currently available resistant sorghum varieties. PMID:18419932

  6. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Brett R; Jones, Vincent P; Nielsen, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow's milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were "marked" with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  7. Biology of the Huanglongbing vector Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on different host plants.

    PubMed

    Alves, G R; Diniz, A J F; Parra, J R P

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. This study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (Citrus spp. L.)--Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, Ponkan, and Valencia-and orange jasmine [Murraya exotica (L.) Jack] on the development of D. citri. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on orange jasmine (85.7%) and on Valencia (83.3%). The lowest viability of the nymphal stage was also observed on Hamlin, averaging 57.4%. Values for total viability ranged from 65.9 to 32.6%, and were highest on Valencia. The longest egg-adult development time was on Natal, with a mean of 18.4 d; the shortest total development time was on orange jasmine, with a mean of 17.3 d. Based on the fertility life table, the net reproductive rate (Ro) of D. citri was 2.5 times higher when reared on Valencia than on Hamlin. The other parameters (duration of each generation [T], finite rate of increase [lambda], and innate capacity to increase in number [r(m)]) also demonstrated that Valencia is best suited to this insect. The results obtained for the biological parameters and the fertility life table indicate that Valencia and orange jasmine were the most suitable hosts, whereas Hamlin was least suitable for the development of D. citri. These results provide information for the installation of new citrus groves, especially in the choice of varieties to be planted and the location of different varieties within the groves, with a view toward the management of Huanglongbing or HLB. PMID:24772551

  8. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Li, Chun-Hua; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear. Results Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts—hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash—were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants. Conclusions Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber) are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant. PMID:26735973

  9. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Xu, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences. PMID:27494615

  10. What is the economic threshold of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in enemy-free space?

    PubMed

    McCarville, M T; Kanobe, C; MacIntosh, G C; O'Neal, M

    2011-06-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a serious pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., in the North Central United States. Current management recommendations rely on the application of insecticides based on an economic threshold (ET) of 250 aphids per plant. Natural enemies are important in slowing the increase of aphid populations and can prevent them from reaching levels that can cause economic losses. However, biological control of A. glycines is inconsistent and can be affected negatively by the intensity of agricultural activity. We measured the impact of a natural-enemy-free environment on the capacity of the current ET to limit yield loss. In 2008 and 2009, caged microplots were assigned to one of three treatments: plants kept aphid-free (referred to as the control), plants that experienced a population of 250 aphids per plant (integrated pest management [IPM]), and plants that experienced unlimited aphid population growth (unlimited). The population growth rate of aphids in the unlimited treatment for the 10 d after the application of insecticides to the IPM treatment was calculated using linear regression. The linear equation was solved to determine the mean number of days between the ET and the EIL for an aphid population in absence of predators. The number of days was determined to be 6.97 +/- 1.11 d. The 2-yr average yield for the IPM treatment was 99.93% of the control treatment. Our study suggests the current soybean aphid ET of 250 aphids per plant can effectively protect yield even if the impact of natural enemies is reduced. PMID:21735903

  11. Host preference and development of Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on satsuma mandarin.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yingfang; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2009-10-01

    Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) has recently emerged as a key pest of satsuma mandarin, Citrus unshiu Marcovitch, and other fruit crops in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Studies were conducted under laboratory conditions (25 +/- 2 degrees C, 50 +/- 10% RH, and a photoperiod of 14:10 [L:D] h) to investigate host preference and suitability of satsuma fruit as host for this pest. Three separate multiple choice experiments were performed to compare attraction of L. zonatus nymphs and adults to the fruit of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.; satsuma mandarin; peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch; kumquat (Fortunella spp.); and lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. Results of all three experiments clearly showed that tomato was the most preferred by both the nymphs and adults, with satsuma a distant second. Attraction to tomato and satsuma fruit was not due mainly to color but mediated by host volatile semiochemicals (kairomones). Developmental experiments with L. zonatus on satsuma fruit suggest that it is a suitable host that can maintain modest to high populations of the pest. Approximately 39 eggs were deposited per female on satsuma fruit with a hatch rate of 98%. Total developmental time from egg through the fifth nymphal stage was approximately = 50 d. High survivorship was recorded for all stages and ranged from 100% for the fourth instars to approximately = 89.1% for second instars. Cumulative survivorship from eggs through the fifth stage was 75.6%. Sex ratio (female:male) of emerged adults was 1:1.03, and female longevity (approximately = 73 d) was significantly greater than male longevity (57 d). Other aspects of the developmental biology of L. zonatus on satsuma are described, and the results are discussed in relation to the field ecology of the pest. PMID:19886456

  12. Seasonality and Distribution Pattern of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Basnet, S; Kuhar, T P; Laub, C A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2015-08-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous invasive insect pest from eastern Asia that feeds on numerous fruit, vegetable, and field crops. Four commercial vineyards in Virginia were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to study the basic biology, seasonality, and distribution pattern of H. halys in vineyards. At each vineyard, two blocks were selected. Weekly 3-min timed count visual samplings were performed in border and interior sections from late May until mid-September. Overwintering adult bugs were first detected in vineyards in May; however, the timing of first detection differed among vineyards. Egg masses were found primarily in June and July, and were usually found on the lower surface of grape leaves, although they were occasionally on the upper leaf surface, on the berry, or on the rachis. All developmental stages of H. halys were found in vineyards, suggesting that grape can serve as a reproductive host for H. halys. Substantial variation in H. halys densities was found among vineyards and throughout the growing season. The first instars were found on egg masses and after molting, dispersed throughout the grape vines. The date on which the first egg mass was collected was considered as a biofix. Based on a degree-day model, there were sufficient degree-days for completion of a generation in Virginia vineyards. Significantly higher numbers of H. halys were collected in border sections compared with interior sections. These results are discussed in relation to the potential pest status of H. halys in vineyards and implications for possible control strategies. PMID:26470333

  13. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest. PMID:26314066

  14. Biological characteristics of geographically isolated populations of Meccus mazzottii (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Nogueda-Torres, B; Vargas-Llamas, V; García-Benavides, G; Bustos-Saldaña, R; Villagrán, M E; de Diego-Cabrera, J A; Tapia-González, J M

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, is one of the most epidemiologically important vector-borne zoonoses in Mexico. Among the 32 reported triatomine species from Mexico, Meccus mazzottii (Usinger) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the most important vectors of T. cruzi in the southern part of the country. Variability among populations of triatomines has been recorded for several species (Meccus longipennis (Usinger) and Meccus pallidipennis (Stal)) that are closely related to M. mazzottii, showing an apparent influence of local environmental conditions on the biology of each population, which could modify the impact of vector control measurements. Therefore, this study sought to compare the biological features of populations of M. mazzottii from two geographically far apart areas that have similar environmental characteristics and to compare populations from close geographical areas that have different environmental characteristics. The mean longevity, percentages of mortality of nymphs, the total mean number of bloodmeals to molt (considered instar by instar), the mean number of eggs laid by females, and the percentage of hatched eggs were similar between the two localities that are geographically far apart but have similar environmental characteristics. On the other hand, important differences were noticed when a comparison was carried out on the two localities with similar environmental conditions with respect to that locality with different conditions, independent of geographic distance. Most of the studied parameters led us to conclude that the three studied populations are very highly influenced by local environmental conditions. The results of this study indicate the importance of studying the biological characteristics of local populations of triatomines to carry out specific control measurements, instead of using standard ones that could fail if they are not adapted to the target population. PMID:25502028

  15. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengqi; Wang, Ran; Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Luo, Chen; Xu, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences. PMID:27494615

  16. Resistance of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), to Conventional and Novel Chemistry Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Saif; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2016-02-01

    The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), is polyphagous in nature and has become one of the severe sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. O. hyalinipennis has the potential to develop resistance to a number of insecticides, and as a result, O. hyalinipennis outbreaks occur. There is no previous study from Pakistan regarding O. hyalinipennis resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the resistance of different field populations of O. hyalinipennis to conventional (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, triazophos) and novel chemistry (emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram) insecticides. Five populations of O. hyalinipennis, collected from Multan, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, and Bahawalpur, were tested for resistance to selected insecticides by the leaf dip method. For three pyrethroids, the resistance ratios were in the range of 14- to 30-fold for bifenthrin, 2.14- to 8.41-fold for deltamethrin, and 9.12- to 16-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin, compared with the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-PK). For two organophosphates, the range of resistance ratios was 12- to 14-fold for profenofos and 9.04- to 15-fold for triazophos. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 4.68- to 9.83-fold for emamectin benzoate, 6.38- to 17-fold for spinosad, 16- to 46-fold for chlorfenapyr, 11- to 22-fold for imidacloprid, and 1.32- to 11-fold for nitenpyram. Regular assessment of resistance to insecticides and integrated management plans like judicious use of insecticides and rotation of insecticides along with different modes of action are required to delay resistance development in O. hyalinipennis. PMID:26546488

  17. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Heloise

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C), 2050 (25°C) and 2100 (29°C), respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C). This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts. PMID:27434232

  18. Warm-Season (C4) Turfgrass Genotypes Resistant to Spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae).

    PubMed

    Gusmão, M R; Valério, J R; Matta, F P; Souza, F H D; Vigna, B B Z; Fávero, A P; Barioni, W; Inácio, G R

    2016-08-01

    Screening for resistance to insect pests is one of the early stages of grass breeding programs. Pasture spittlebugs are sap-sucking insects that potentially cause severe damage to turfgrasses, including the loss of functional quality and perenniallity. The Brazilian flora has a large number of grass species with wide morphological variability and adaptability to different soil and climate conditions that can potentially be used as lawns. However, no study has screened turfgrass genotypes for resistance to spittlebug attack. In this study, we evaluated the intra- and interspecific variability of 35 turfgrass genotypes in the genera Paspalum, Axonopus, and Zoysia for resistance to the pasture spittlebugs, Deois flavopicta (Stal) and Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), as measured by damage scores, densities of nymphs and adults, and level of antibiosis resistance. Genotypes were grouped into three groups using cluster analysis and principal component analysis: GroupI had genotypes associated with low damage scores and high density of adult spittlebugs; GroupII had genotypes with intermediate damage scores and low density of nymphs and adults; and GroupIII was formed by genotypes with high damage scores and high nymph density. Intra- and interspecific genotypic variability was related to antibiosis resistance and morphological variation among genotypes with some indicating nonpreference resistance and others indicating tolerance resistance. Our results indicate that besides antibiosis resistance studies, it is essential to evaluate the morphological variability of grass genotypes when screening for resistance to insects. Further studies are needed to elucidate the intraspecific variability of Paspalum notatum Flüggé genotypes for resistance to spittlebug attack. PMID:27329631

  19. Effects of Bt cotton on Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its predator, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rishi; Tian, Jun-Ce; Naranjo, Steven E; Shelton, Anthony M

    2014-06-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate tritrophic transfer of insecticidal Cry proteins from transgenic cotton to an herbivore and its predator, and to examine effects of these proteins on the predator's development, survival, and reproduction. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced in Bollgard-II (BG-II, Event 15985) cotton plants were acquired by Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important sucking pest of cotton, and its generalist predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The average protein titers in BG-II cotton leaves were 1,256 and 43,637 ng Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab per gram fresh leaf tissue, respectively. At the second trophic level, larvae of T. tabaci reared on BG-II cotton for 48-96 h had 22.1 and 2.1% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab levels expressed in leaves, respectively. At the third trophic level, O. insidiosus that fed on T. tabaci larvae had 4.4 and 0.3% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab protein levels, respectively, expressed in BG-II plants. O. insidiosus survivorship, time of nymphal development, adult weight, preoviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and adult longevity were not adversely affected owing to consumption of T. tabaci larvae that had fed on BG-II cotton compared with non-Bt cotton. Our results indicate that O. insidiosus, a common predator of T. tabaci, is not harmed by BG-II cotton when exposed to Bt proteins through its prey. Thus, O. insidiosus can continue to provide important biological control services in the cotton ecosystem when BG-II cotton is used to control primary lepidopteran pests. PMID:25026649

  20. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Peanut-Cotton Farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P Glynn; Cottrell, Ted E

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States, but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in agricultural farmscapes. Therefore, spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes where cotton fields adjoined peanut was examined weekly. Spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using SADIE (Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices) methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops. For the six peanut-cotton farmscapes studied, the frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (94.8%) was significantly higher than in peanut (5.2%), and nymphs were rarely detected in peanut, indicating that peanut was not a source of C. hilaris into cotton. Significantly, aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton. Maps of local clustering indices depicted patches of C. hilaris in cotton, mainly at field edges including the peanut-to-cotton interface. Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis [L.] R. Bolli) grew in habitats adjacent to crops, C. hilaris were captured in pheromone-baited stink bug traps in these habitats, and in most instances, C. hilaris were observed feeding on black cherry and elderberry in these habitats before colonization of cotton. Spatial distribution of C. hilaris in these farmscapes revealed that C. hilaris colonized cotton field edges near these two noncrop hosts. Altogether, these findings suggest that black cherry and elderberry were sources of C. hilaris into cotton. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in peanut-cotton farmscapes are discussed. PMID:26175464

  1. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sagata, Katayo; Gibb, Heloise

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C), 2050 (25°C) and 2100 (29°C), respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C). This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts. PMID:27434232

  2. The Biology and Thermal Requirements of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Malaquias, José B.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Oliveira, Flávia Q.; Fernandes, Francisco S.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Zanuncio, José C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae)) crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h) produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C) to 19 (15°C) days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0%) was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest. PMID:25003593

  3. Early-Season Host Switching in Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) of Differing Host Breadth

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev), Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009–2012), we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species) and A. lineolatus (7 species). Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management. PMID:23527069

  4. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  5. Horizontal transmission of the symbiotic bacterium Asaia sp. in the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the genus Asaia have been recently recognized as secondary symbionts of different sugar-feeding insects, including the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, vector of Flavescence dorée phytoplasmas. Asaia has been shown to be localized in S. titanus gut, salivary glands and gonoducts and to be maternally transmitted to the progeny by an egg smearing mechanism. It is currently not known whether Asaia in S. titanus is transmitted by additional routes. We performed a study to evaluate if Asaia infection is capable of horizontal transmission via co-feeding and venereal routes. Results A Gfp-tagged strain of Asaia was provided to S. titanus individuals to trace the transmission pathways of the symbiotic bacterium. Co-feeding trials showed a regular transfer of bacterial cells from donors to recipients, with a peak of frequency after 72 hours of exposure, and with concentrations of the administrated strain growing over time. Venereal transmission experiments were first carried out using infected males paired with uninfected females. In this case, female individuals acquired Gfp-labelled Asaia, with highest infection rates 72-96 hours after mating and with increasing abundance of the tagged symbiont over time. When crosses between infected females and uninfected males were conducted, the occurrence of “female to male” transmission was observed, even though the transfer occurred unevenly. Conclusions The data presented demonstrate that the acetic acid bacterial symbiont Asaia is horizontally transmitted among S. titanus individuals both by co-feeding and venereal transmission, providing one of the few direct demonstrations of such a symbiotic transfer in Hemiptera. This study contributes to the understanding of the bacterial ecology in the insect host, and indicates that Asaia evolved multiple pathways for the colonization of S. titanus body. PMID:22376056

  6. Assessment of the insecticidal potential of Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil against Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, S P; Favero, S

    2013-08-01

    The resistance of triatomines to pyrethroids has been reported in several Latin American countries, including Brazil, indicating the need for the development of new approaches for the control of vectors of the Chagas disease. In here, we evaluated the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae) against unsexed third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in topical application, fumigation, surface contact, and repellency . The insecticidal activity of the essential oil tested was detected by topical application (LD50 = 0.1731 μL/insect and LD99 = 0.2948 μL/insect for 24 h), fumigation (LC50 = 0.021 mL/mL air and LC99 = 0.1525 mL/mL air for 24 h) and surface contact (LC50 = 0.7073 μL/cm(2) and LC99 = 4.59 μL/cm(2) for 24 h). Mortality observed after 48-72-h exposure was very high and did not allow for any adjustment of the mortality curve. In the repellency assay, an effect was observed on 80% of tested nymphs. However, no repellency was observed after 24 h of exposure. Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil has a high insecticidal and repellent potential for R. neglectus nymphs, whether serving as a molecular model for new substances or as an alternative for the control of these insects. PMID:23949865

  7. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

  8. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Timothy D; Kidd, Karen A; Cunjak, Richard A; Arp, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (approximately 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species. They also suggest that striders may be more appropriate as a terrestrial rather than an aquatic Hg sentinel, underscoring the importance of understanding the origin of food for organisms used in contaminant studies. PMID:19215185

  9. Life History Traits and Demographic Parameters of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Fed on Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Medone, Paula; Balsalobre, Agustin; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Marti, Gerardo A; Menu, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the main vector of Chagas disease in South America, feeds primarily on humans, but ethical reasons preclude carrying out demographical studies using people. Thus, most laboratory studies of T. infestans are conducted using bird or mammal live hosts that may result in different demographic parameters from those obtained on human blood. Therefore, it is of interest to determine whether the use of an artificial feeder with human blood would be operational to rear triatomines and estimate population growth rates. We estimated life history traits and demographic parameters using an artificial feeder with human blood and compared them with those obtained on live hens. Both groups of T. infestans were kept under constant conditions [28 ± 1°C, 40 ± 5% relative humidity, a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h] and fed weekly. On the basis of age-specific survival and age-specific fecundity, we calculated the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r), the finite rate of population growth (λ), the net reproductive rate (Ro), and the mean generation time (Tg). Our results show differences in life history traits between blood sources, resulting in smaller population growth rates on human blood than on live hens. Although demographic growth rate was smaller on human blood than on hens, it still remains positive, so the benefit/cost ratio of this feeding method seems relatively attractive. We discuss possibility of using the artificial feeder with human blood for both ecological and behavioral studies. PMID:26373893

  10. Regulated deficit irrigation and density of Erythroneura spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on grape.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This study looked at regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on leafhoppers in the genus Erythroneura (Erythroneura elegantula Osborn, or western grape leafhopper, and Erythroneura variabilis Beamer) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which are serious pests of cultivated grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in California. RDI is an irrigation strategy that reduces irrigation during a critical point in the phenology of a cultivated perennial crop, to improve vegetative balance and crop quality. Erythroneura spp. are known to respond negatively to vine water stress, and the second generation ofleafhoppers begins during a potential RDI initiation period, between berry set and veraison (beginning of fruit maturation). In experiments at commercial wine grape vineyards, I imposed deficits of between 25 and 50% of crop full evapotranspiration (ET(c)) between berry set and veraison, with control treatments based on the growers' standard irrigations (typically between 0.8 and 1.0 ET(c)), and then we counted leafhopper nymphs weekly, and leafhopper eggs after the second generation. Results show a consistent reduction of second generation nymphal density with this type of RDI, with average density approximately 50% lower under deficit treatments in all three studies. Deficit irrigation reduced second generation egg density by 54% at one site and by 29.9% at another. These results confirm previous studies regarding the sensitivity of Erythroneura spp. to grapevine water stress, and, in addition, they show that a season-wide irrigation deficit is not necessary for reduction in leafhopper density. Results suggest that lower oviposition at least partly explains the lower nymphal density in the deficit treatments. PMID:18767738

  11. Host plant determines the phytoplasma transmission competence of Empoasca decipiens (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Galetto, L; Marzachì, C; Demichelis, S; Bosco, D

    2011-04-01

    Phytoplasmas are phloem-restricted plant pathogens transmitted by leafhoppers, planthoppers, and psyllids (Hemiptera). Most known phytoplasma vectors belong to the Cicadellidae, but many are still unknown. Within this family, Empoasca spp. (Typhlocybinae) have tested positive for the presence of some phytoplasmas, and phytoplasma transmission has been proven for one species. The aim of this work was to investigate the ability of Empoasca decipiens Paoli in transmitting chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (CYP, "Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris", 16SrI-B) and Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDP, 16SrV-C) to Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousboe (tricolor daisy) and Viciafaba (L.) (broad bean). Euscelidius variegatus Kirschbaum, a known vector of CYP and FDP, was caged together with Em. decipiens on the same source plants as a positive control of acquisition. Em. decipiens acquired CYP from daisies, but not from broad beans, and inoculated the pathogen to daisies with alow efficiency, but not to broad beans. Em. decipiens did not acquire FDP from the broad bean source. Consistent with the low transmission rate, CYP was found in the salivary glands of very few phytoplasma-infected Em. decipiens, indicating these organs represent a barrier to phytoplasma colonization. In the same experiments, the vector Eu. variegatus efficiently acquired both phytoplasmas, and consistently CYP was detected in the salivary glands of most samples of this species. The identity of the CYP strain in leafhoppers and plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The CYP titer in Em. decipiens was monitored over time by real-time PCR. The damage caused by Em. decipiens feeding punctures was depicted. Differences in feeding behavior on different plant species may explain the different phytoplasma transmission capability. Em. decipiens proved to be an experimental vector of CYP. PMID:21510180

  12. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy. PMID:27203082

  13. The Effects of Kernel Feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Commercial Hazelnuts.

    PubMed

    Hedstrom, C S; Shearer, P W; Miller, J C; Walton, V M

    2014-10-01

    Halyomorpha halys Stål, the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest with established populations in Oregon. The generalist feeding habits of H. halys suggest it has the potential to be a pest of many specialty crops grown in Oregon, including hazelnuts, Corylus avellana L. The objectives of this study were to: 1) characterize the damage to developing hazelnut kernels resulting from feeding by H. halys adults, 2) determine how the timing of feeding during kernel development influences damage to kernels, and 3) determine if hazelnut shell thickness has an effect on feeding frequency on kernels. Adult brown marmorated stink bugs were allowed to feed on developing nuts for 1-wk periods from initial kernel development (spring) until harvest (fall). Developing nuts not exposed to feeding by H. halys served as a control treatment. The degree of damage and diagnostic symptoms corresponded with the hazelnut kernels' physiological development. Our results demonstrated that when H. halys fed on hazelnuts before kernel expansion, development of the kernels could cease, resulting in empty shells. When stink bugs fed during kernel expansion, kernels appeared malformed. When stink bugs fed on mature nuts the kernels exhibited corky, necrotic areas. Although significant differences in shell thickness were observed among the cultivars, no significant differences occurred in the proportions of damaged kernels based on field tests and laboratory choice tests. The results of these studies demonstrated that commercial hazelnuts are susceptible to damage caused by the feeding of H. halys throughout the entire period of kernel development. PMID:26309276

  14. Taxonomic review of the genus Tambinia Stål (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Tropiduchidae) with descriptions of four new species from the Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong-rong; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Tambinia Stål (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Tropiduchidae), Tambinia conus sp. n. (Papua New Guinea), Tambinia macula sp. n. (Malaysia: Borneo), Tambinia robustocarina sp. n. (Malaysia: Sabah) and Tambinia sexmaculata sp. n. (Australia: Kuranda) are described and illustrated from the Pacific region. The diagnostic characters of this genus are redefined. A checklist and a key to the known species of Tambinia are provided. PMID:22140331

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of the Obligate Symbionts “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” and “Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola” from the Pestiferous Leafhopper Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abbà, Simona; Kube, Michael; Marzachì, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial symbionts of the European pest leafhopper, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” and “Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola” represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. Genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, M. quadrilineatus. PMID:26798106

  16. Host plant preference of harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and evaluation of a trap cropping strategy for its control in collard.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Anna K; Kuhar, Thomas P; Pfeiffer, Douglas G; Tholl, Dorothea B; Freeman, Joshua H; Doughty, Hélène B; Schultz, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cole crops, causing cosmetic damage in low populations, while heavy pest pressure can kill plants or entire fields. Field studies were conducted to evaluate a trap crop for control of harlequin bug in collard. Field-cage choice tests found that potential trap crop plant species, mustard (Brassica juncea 'Southern Giant Curled'), rapeseed (B. napus 'Athena'), rapini (B. rapa), and arugula (Eruca satica) attracted more harlequin bugs than collard (B. oleracea 'Champion') and a nonbrassica control, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris'Bronco'). Mustard was the most consistently selected by harlequin bug over collard in choice tests, and was found to be an effective trap crop for reducing feeding injury on collard at two experimental sites. Augmentation of the mustard trap crop with a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide provided no added control of harlequin bug for the 10 wk duration in the spring season. PMID:23448042

  17. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  18. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  19. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  20. Morphology of the European species of the aphid genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae) - A SEM comparative and integrative study.

    PubMed

    Kanturski, Mariusz; Karcz, Jagna; Wieczorek, Karina

    2015-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods were used for the first time to elucidate the external morphology of the European species of the genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae), a representative genus of the conifer-feeding aphids tribe Eulachnini. We examined and compared the external morphology of apterous and alate viviparous females from the parthenogenetic generation as well as oviparous females and alate males belonging to the sexual generation. FE-SEM images based on HMDS and cryo-SEM preparation techniques revealed better image quality than the CPD technique in regard to surface tension and morphological signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of depressions, drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Three morphologically different species groups "agilis", "brevipilosus" and "cembrae" were proposed due to the differences in head, antennae, legs and dorsal chaetotaxy as well as dorsal sclerotization. The most characteristic features and differences of representatives of these groups are presented and discussed. PMID:26021259

  1. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from Bogota, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kondo, Takumasa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) species, Pulvinaria caballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficus soatensis Dugand (Moraceae) in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles Pulvinaria drymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae), but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., Pulvinaria caballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas Pulvinaria drymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided. PMID:25829845

  2. Predation potential of Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the prickly pear cacti pest Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Olvera, H; Rodríguez, S; Barranco, J

    2013-08-01

    Functional response of the predator Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on five densities of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) female adults was assessed under laboratory conditions. The searching efficiency of C. cacti significantly decreased as prey density increased. The logistic regression for the predator had a negative and significant linear parameter indicating a type II functional response. Non-linear regression for Holling predator equation estimated a handling time of 1.79 ± 0.129 h and attack rate coefficient of 0.1003 ± 0.030. Most of this handling time was because the predator spent a lot of time removing the waxy coating that protects adult females of D. opuntiae. Chilocorus cacti consumes females of D. opuntiae in their reproductive stage; therefore, it could be an effective natural enemy to suppress or regulate low density populations of D. opuntiae, preventing them to reach high densities. PMID:23949861

  3. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum” the Flavobacterial Endosymbiont of Llaveia axin axin (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Mora, Jaime; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) constitute a very diverse group of sap-feeding insects with a large diversity of symbiotic associations with bacteria. Here, we present the complete genome sequence, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of the giant scale insect Llaveia axin axin. The gene repertoire of its 309,299 bp genome was similar to that of other flavobacterial insect endosymbionts though not syntenic. According to its genetic content, essential amino acid biosynthesis is likely to be the flavobacterial endosymbiont's principal contribution to the symbiotic association with its insect host. We also report the presence of a γ-proteobacterial symbiont that may be involved in waste nitrogen recycling and also has amino acid biosynthetic capabilities that may provide metabolic precursors to the flavobacterial endosymbiont. We propose “Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum” as the name of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of insects from the Monophlebidae family. PMID:24610838

  4. Differences in bacterial diversity of host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory.

    PubMed

    Medina, R F; Nachappa, P; Tamborindeguy, C

    2011-04-01

    Host-associated differentiation (HAD) is the presence of genetically divergent, host-associated populations. It has been suggested that microbial symbionts of insect herbivores may play a role in HAD by allowing their insect hosts to use different plant species. The objective of this study was to document if host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory corresponded with differences in the composition of their associated bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the symbionts present in P. notabilis associated with these two tree species through metagenomic analyses using 454 sequencing. Differences in bacterial diversity were found between P. notabilis populations associated with pecan and water hickory. The bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia marcescens, were absent in the P. notabilis water hickory population, whereas both species accounted for more than 69.72% of bacterial abundance in the pecan population. PMID:21261774

  5. Occurrence of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) on oaks in delaware water gap national recreation area, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    A total of 870 treehoppers and 24 species from the tribe Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) were collected from various oaks in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in 2006 using yellow sticky cards. Combining all years and collecting methods, 27 species were found in the park. A majority of the specimens collected in 2006 were males of Cyrtolobus vau and Ophiderma pubescens, as in previous years. Most of the treehoppers were caught in mid to late June, comparable to 2004 and 2005. It appears that many species are segregated either temporally or by oak group; some treehopper species show preference for either the red or white oak group rather than for one species of oak. Color photographs for 27 treehopper species (many including both sexes) are included. PMID:20302540

  6. Occurrence of Treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) on Oaks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Matthew S.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 870 treehoppers and 24 species from the tribe Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) were collected from various oaks in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in 2006 using yellow sticky cards. Combining all years and collecting methods, 27 species were found in the park. A majority of the specimens collected in 2006 were males of Cyrtolobus vau and Ophiderma pubescens, as in previous years. Most of the treehoppers were caught in mid to late June, comparable to 2004 and 2005. It appears that many species are segregated either temporally or by oak group; some treehopper species show preference for either the red or white oak group rather than for one species of oak. Color photographs for 27 treehopper species (many including both sexes) are included. PMID:20302540

  7. The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Insecta, Hemiptera, Rhopalidae): First Asian record, with a review of bionomics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jing-Fu; Hsieh, Yi-Xuan; Rédei, Dávid

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhopalidae: Serinethinae), a species native in tropical and subtropical regions of the New World and accidentally introduced to Hawaii, is reported for the first time from Asia (Taiwan). This record represents the first occurrence of the species in Asia. Stable populations composed of hundreds of specimens were found in seven localities of Kaohsiung City and one locality in Tainan City, and a single specimen was observed in Chiayi County. Aggregating adults and larvae fed in large numbers on the sapindacean plants Cardiospermum halicacabum L. and Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A. C. Smith ssp. formosana (Hayata) F. G. Meyer. Diagnostic characters of adults and larvae of Jadera haematoloma are discussed. A review of its bionomics and a bibliography are provided. Initial observations on the populations in southern Taiwan are presented. The species is potentially invasive, and further extension of its range is anticipated in Southeast Asia. PMID:23794880

  8. Temperature-Dependent Fecundity and Life Table of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Zanuncio, José C; Fernandes, Francisco S

    2015-01-01

    Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a cosmopolitan species and the main pest of fennel in northeastern Brazil. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of H. foeniculi is essential to predict the population dynamics of this aphid in the fennel crop. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of constant temperature on the adult prereproductive period and the life table fertility parameters (infinitesimal increase ratio (rm), gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproduction rate (R0), finite increase ratio (λ), generation time (GT), the time required for the population to double in the number of individuals (DT), and the reproduction value (RVx)) of the fennel pest H. foeniculi. The values of lx (survival of nymphs at age x) increased as the temperature rose from 15 to 28°C and fell at 30°C, whereas mx (number of nymphs produced by each nymph of age x) increased from 15 to 25°C and fell at 28 and 30°C. The net reproduction rates (R0) of populations of H. foeniculi increased with temperature and ranged from 1.9 at 15°C to 12.23 at 28°C for each generation. The highest population increase occurred with the apterous aphids at 28°C. The rate of population increase per unit time (rm) (day) ranged from 0.0033 (15°C) to 0.1995 (28°C). The highest values of rm were recorded at temperatures of 28°C and 30°C. The rm values were a good fit to the models tested, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The models tested (Davidson, Sharpe and DeMichele modified by Schoolfield et al., Logan et al., Lamb, and Briere et al.) were very good fits for the rm values observed, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The only exception was the Davidson model. Of the parameters studied, the reproductive capacity was higher in the apterous aphids, with the unique exception of daily fecundity at 28°C, which was higher in the alate aphids of H. foeniculi. Parameters relating to the age-specific fertility table for H

  9. Temperature-Dependent Fecundity and Life Table of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Francisco S.; Malaquias, José B.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Oliveira, Flávia Q.; Zanuncio, José C.; Fernandes, Francisco S.

    2015-01-01

    Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a cosmopolitan species and the main pest of fennel in northeastern Brazil. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of H. foeniculi is essential to predict the population dynamics of this aphid in the fennel crop. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of constant temperature on the adult prereproductive period and the life table fertility parameters (infinitesimal increase ratio (rm), gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproduction rate (R0), finite increase ratio (λ), generation time (GT), the time required for the population to double in the number of individuals (DT), and the reproduction value (RVx)) of the fennel pest H. foeniculi. The values of lx (survival of nymphs at age x) increased as the temperature rose from 15 to 28°C and fell at 30°C, whereas mx (number of nymphs produced by each nymph of age x) increased from 15 to 25°C and fell at 28 and 30°C. The net reproduction rates (R0) of populations of H. foeniculi increased with temperature and ranged from 1.9 at 15°C to 12.23 at 28°C for each generation. The highest population increase occurred with the apterous aphids at 28°C. The rate of population increase per unit time (rm) (day) ranged from 0.0033 (15°C) to 0.1995 (28°C). The highest values of rm were recorded at temperatures of 28°C and 30°C. The rm values were a good fit to the models tested, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The models tested (Davidson, Sharpe and DeMichele modified by Schoolfield et al., Logan et al., Lamb, and Briere et al.) were very good fits for the rm values observed, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The only exception was the Davidson model. Of the parameters studied, the reproductive capacity was higher in the apterous aphids, with the unique exception of daily fecundity at 28°C, which was higher in the alate aphids of H. foeniculi. Parameters relating to the age-specific fertility table for H

  10. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  11. Fumigation of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): effective application rates for sulfuryl fluoride.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, Michael J; Thoms, Ellen; Demark, Joe; Wang, Changlu

    2014-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has resurged recently as a domestic pest in North America with very limited options for decisive control. We report efficacy studies with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) toward use as a structural fumigant to control bed bugs. Laboratory studies were conducted in which eggs, adults, and nymphs from a pesticide susceptible laboratory population were fumigated for 24 h using SF at 99.8% purity in airtight, 3.8-liter glass containers under two temperatures, 25 degrees C and 15 degrees C. Bed bugs were placed in separate ventilated glass vials and wrapped in mattress padding before fumigation. The gas concentration within each jar was determined using quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dose-response trials using eggs of known age (48-96 h) were conducted at five or six target concentrations measured as concentration x time accumulated dosages (g-h/m3) and one untreated control at each temperature. Each target dose was replicated in four different fumigation containers (replicates), with at least 32 eggs per replicate. The number of hatched and unhatched eggs postfumigation, and number of live and dead nymphs that resulted from hatched eggs, were evaluated daily for at least 1 wk after egg hatch. The lethal accumulated dosage (LAD99) for bed bug eggs was 69.1 (95% fiducial limits [FLs] of 62.9-79.5) g-h/m3 at 25 degrees C and 149.3 (95% FLs of 134.4-177.9) g-h/m3 at 15 degrees C. Confirmatory trials with dosages of 1.5x the LAD99 were conducted at 25 degrees C and 1.5x the threshold mortality dose at 15 degrees C with at least 15 adults, 13 late-instar nymphs and 79 eggs of known age per replicate. At 25 degrees C, a target dosage of 103.7 g-h/m3 resulted in 100% mortality of adults and late-instar nymphs. Nymphs emerged and survived from two of 439 eggs treated with SF dosages that were 6-7 g-h/m3 less than the target dosage. No nymphs emerged from eggs fumigated with dosages > 97.9 g-h/m3 in the

  12. Host specificity testing and examination for plant pathogens reveals that the gall-forming psyllid, Calophya latiforceps (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), is safe to release for biological control of Schinus terebinthifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi) is one of the worst upland exotic weeds in Florida. Foreign exploration for natural enemies led to the discovery of a pit-galling psyllid, Calophya latiforceps (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), in the state of Bahia, Brazil in 2010. Crawlers of C. latifor...

  13. Identifying the predator complex of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): a comparative study of the efficacy of an ELISA and PCR gut content assay.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Valerie; Hagler, James; Daane, Kent; de León, Jesse; Groves, Russell

    2008-10-01

    A growing number of ecologists are using molecular gut content assays to qualitatively measure predation. The two most popular gut content assays are immunoassays employing pest-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays employing pest-specific DNA. Here, we present results from the first study to simultaneously use both methods to identify predators of the glassy winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). A total of 1,229 arthropod predators, representing 30 taxa, were collected from urban landscapes in central California and assayed first by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a GWSS egg-specific mAb and then by PCR using a GWSS-specific DNA marker that amplifies a 197-base pair fragment of its cytochrome oxidase gene (subunit I). The gut content analyses revealed that GWSS remains were present in 15.5% of the predators examined, with 18% of the spiders and 11% of the insect predators testing positive. Common spider predators included members of the Salticidae, Clubionidae, Anyphaenidae, Miturgidae, and Corinnidae families. Common insect predators included lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), praying mantis (Mantodea: Mantidae), ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), and damsel bugs (Hemiptera: Nabidae). Comparison of the two assays indicated that they were not equally effective at detecting GWSS remains in predator guts. The advantages of combining the attributes of both types of assays to more precisely assess field predation and the pros and cons of each assay for mass-screening predators are discussed. PMID:18618149

  14. First record of Clonostachys rosea (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as an entomopathogenic fungus of Oncometopia tucumana and Sonesimia grossa (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, A V; Virla, E; Humber, R A; Paradell, S L; Lastra, C C López

    2006-05-01

    Clonostachys rosea (Link: Fries) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert, and Gams (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) has been reported as a mycoparasite of fungi and nematodes and as saprobe in soils, but this fungus has not been reported previously to be entomopathogenic. Many species of cicadellid leafhoppers cause economic damage to crops as vectors of plant pathogens. In the present work, we report the first record of C. rosea as an entomopathogenic fungus of two leafhoppers pest, Oncometopia tucumana and Sonesimia grossa (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina and evaluate the pathogenicity of C. rosea against them. PMID:16580016

  15. Description of the immature stages and new host plant records of Deois (Deois) mourei (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), a species newly recorded from Argentina and Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Foieri, Alvaro; Lenicov, Ana M Marino De Remes; Virla, Eduardo G

    2016-01-01

    Deois (Deois) mourei Cavichioli & Sakakibara (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is recorded for the first time from Argentina and Paraguay. The eggs and immature stages of the species are described and illustrated; the main characters that distinguish instars are body size, color, number of flagellomeres, and number of tibial and metatarsomere spines. A key for identification of nymphs of D. (D.) mourei and a key to differentiate nymphs of the sympatric species D. (D.) mourei and Notozulia entreriana Berg are provided. In addition, a list of host plants of D. (D.) mourei in Argentina is given. PMID:27615941

  16. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World. PMID:27394765

  17. Descriptions of the immature stages and new host plant records of Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) pests of grasses in subtropical areas of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Foieri, Alvaro; Lenicov, Ana M Marino De Remes; Virla, Eduardo G

    2016-01-01

    Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is one of the most common spittlebugs inhabiting the subtropical region of the America, inflicting important economic damage to grass crops. The immature stages are described and illustrated; the main characteristics that distinguish instars are the body size, color, number of flagellomeres, and number of tibial and metatarsomere spines. A key for identification of nymphs is provided as a tool to develop field studies.  Nine host plants, all belonging to Poaceae, are recorded as breeding and feeding host plants from different localities in northern Argentina. PMID:27394613

  18. Characterization of 12 Novel Microsatellite Markers of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Identified From Next-Generation Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hwa Yeun; Coates, Brad; Kim, Kyung Seok; Park, Marana; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest of rice and has long-range migratory behavior in Asia. Microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats) have been widely used to determine the origins and genetic diversity of insect pests. We identified novel microsatellite loci for S. furcifera samples collected from Laos, Vietnam, and three localities in Bangladesh from next-generation Roche 454 pyrosequencing data. Size polymorphism at 12 microsatellite loci was verified for 40 adult individuals collected from Shinan, South Korea. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.92. The mean values of observed (Ho) and expected heterozygosities (HE) were 0.615 and 0.757, respectively. These new microsatellite markers will be a resource for future ecological genetic studies of S. furcifera samples across more broad geographic regions in Asia and may assist in estimations of genetic differentiation and gene flow among populations for implementation of more effective management strategies to control this serious rice pest. PMID:26163593

  19. Within-plant distribution of Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on various greenhouse plants with implications for control.

    PubMed

    Jandricic, S E; Mattson, N S; Wraight, S P; Sanderson, J P

    2014-04-01

    Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has recently undergone a status change from an occasional pest to a serious pest in greenhouses of North America and the United Kingdom. Little nonanecdotal information exists on the ecology of this insect in greenhouse crops. To help improve integrated pest management decisions for A. solani, the within-plant distribution of this pest was explored on a variety of common greenhouse plants in both the vegetative and flowering stage. This aphid generally was found on lower leaves of vegetative plants, but was found higher in the canopy on reproductive plants (on flowers, flower buds, or upper leaves). Aphid numbers were not consistently positively correlated with total leaf surface areas within plant strata across plant species. Thus, the observed differences in preferred feeding sites on vegetative versus flowering plants are possibly a response to differences in nutritional quality of the various host-plant tissues. Despite being anecdotally described as a "stem-feeding aphid," A. solani was rarely found feeding on stems at the population densities established in our tests, with the exception of racemes of scarlet sage (Salvia splendans). Although some previous reports suggested that A. solani prefers to feed on new growth of plants, our results indicate that mature leaves are preferred over growing tips and young leaves. The implications of the within-plant feeding preferences of A. solani populations with respect to both biological and chemical control are discussed. PMID:24772552

  20. Encasing mattresses in black plastic will not provide thermal control of bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Doggett, Stephen L; Geary, Merilyn J; Russell, Richard C

    2006-12-01

    The suggestion that bed bug (Cimex spp.; Hemiptera: Cimicidae)-infested mattresses wrapped in black plastic and exposed to sunlight will be heated sufficiently to kill the bed bugs was tested. Two types of mattresses were tested: a thin mattress of solid foam rubber and a thick multilayered inner spring mattress. Temperature probes were placed on both upper and lower sides of the mattresses, which were wrapped in black plastic and placed outside on a summer day for >9 h wherein the ambient temperature peaked at 36.5 degrees C. The maximum recorded temperature on the upper (sun-exposed) sides was 85 degrees C for both mattresses, whereas lower side temperatures for the thick mattress never exceeded 35 degreesC, and some areas of the thin mattress failed to exceed 36.50C. Therefore, with published thermal death points of 40-45 degrees C depending on exposure time, and opportunities for bed bugs to avoid lethal temperatures by retreating from hot zones, this technique seems to be not suitable for bed bug management. PMID:17195683

  1. Toxicity, feeding preference, and repellency associated with selected organic insecticides against Acrosternum hilare and Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Kamminga, Katherine L; Herbert, D Ames; Kuhar, Thomas P; Malone, Sean; Doughty, Helene

    2009-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the toxicity, feeding preference, repellency, and field efficacy associated with the organic insecticides azadirachtin, pyrethrins, and spinosad against two stink bug species, Acrosternum hilare (Say) and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Laboratory toxicity bioassays were conducted using treated green bean pods. The conventional pyrethroid lamda-cyhalothrin was included for comparison. A. hilare adults and nymphs were most susceptible to lamda-cyhalothrin and to tank mixes of pyrethrins + spinosad. E. servus adults were susceptible to lamda-cyhalothrin, spinosad, and all tank mixes, whereas E. servus nymphs were susceptible to lamda-cyhalothrin only. Feeding preference tests were conducted using insecticide-treated tomatoes and counting the number of feeding stylet sheaths on fruit after 24 h. All tomatoes treated with either azadirachtin, pyrethrins, or tank mixes resulted in fewer numbers of stylet sheaths than the untreated control, whereas treatment with spinosad alone did not. In filter paper repellency tests, both E. serous and A. hilare were repelled by pyrethrins and exhibited no response to azadirachtin. E. servus was attracted to spinosad in comparison with a water-treated control; however, A. hilare displayed no response. In field efficacy trials, each of the organic insecticides reduced the number of stink bugs in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., for up to 2 d after treatment; however, none of the insecticides reduced stink bug damage to fruit in tomatoes even after multiple applications. Implications for organic growers and integrated pest management programs are discussed. PMID:19886457

  2. Selection of prey to improve biological parameters of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bortoli, S A De; Vacari, A M; Laurentis, V L; Bortoli, C P De; Santos, R F; Otuka, A K

    2016-06-01

    Mass production of predatory stinkbugs in the laboratory is prioritized to release them into the field as part of IPM programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the best prey for rearing the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) among five different species of insect (three of Lepidoptera, one of Coleoptera, and one of Diptera). Second-instar P. nigrispinus nymphs were conditioned in transparent 1000-mL plastic pots, adults were placed in Petri dishes for mating, and both stages were maintained under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 12 hours of photophase, 70 ± 10% RH). Nymphs and adults of P. nigrispinus consumed more Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae than the other tested prey. The consumption of fly larvae was 1.5 larvae/day/nymph and adults 1.7 larvae/day/adult. However, the number of eggs per female was less when the predator consumed M. domestica larvae (407.8 eggs/female) and most when consumed the Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae (797.7 eggs/female). Furthermore, the percentage of hatched eggs was greater when the predator females consumed D. saccharalis larvae (90.0%). D. saccharalis larvae is the best prey to rearing P. nigrispinus. PMID:26934159

  3. The secondary contact zone of phylogenetic lineages of the Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae): an example of incomplete allopatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Lis, Agata; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota; Kajtoch, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) suggest the existence of a contact zone of its main phylogenetic lineages along mountain chains in Europe and western Asia. This study presents a detailed examination of the population genetics of P. spumarius within the Carpathian Mountains. The main objective was to determine whether the populations inhabiting that area consist of individuals belonging to different genetic units and whether the observed pattern could be an example of secondary contact zone which formed after incomplete allopatric speciation. Specimens from six transects across the Carpathian arc were examined. The mitochondrial phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug in the examined area clearly shows that individuals from both main clades meet and mix there. Representatives of all three main EF1-α clades were also found. The present distribution of the main clades with a zone of overlap along the mountain ranges may suggest that these phylogenetic lineages form a young hybrid zone. Moreover, a limited number of individuals were shown to possess heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA, which gives additional support to intraspecific hybridization. P. spumarius could be used in future work as an excellent model species in investigating population genetics, intraspecific hybridization, and speciation in progress. PMID:25500280

  4. Sublethal effects of antibiosis resistance on the reproductive biology of two spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species affecting Brachiaria spp.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Paola A; Miller, María F; Cardona, Cesar; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo; Montoya, James

    2008-04-01

    Several greenhouse experiments were used to measure how high levels of antibiosis resistance to nymphs in two interspecific Brachiaria (brachiariagrass) hybrids affect life history parameters of the spittlebugs Aeneolamia varia (F.) and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand), two of the most important spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species affecting Brachiaria production in Colombia. The A. varia-resistant hybrid CIAT 36062, the Z. carbonaria-resistant hybrid SX01NO/0102, and the susceptible accession CIAT 0654 were used to compare the effect of all possible combinations of food sources for nymphs and adults. Calculation of growth indexes showed a significant impact of antibiosis resistance on the biology of immature stages of both species. Median survival times of adults feeding on resistant genotypes did not differ from those recorded on the susceptible genotype, suggesting that factors responsible for high mortality of nymphs in the resistant hybrids did not affect adult survival. Rearing nymphs of A. varia on CIAT 36062 and of Z. carbonaria on SX01NO/0102 had deleterious sublethal effects on the reproductive biology of resulting adult females. It is concluded that high nymphal mortality and subsequent sublethal effects of nymphal antibiosis on adults should have a major impact on the demography of the two spittlebug species studied. PMID:18459425

  5. How many adults of Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) should be used for screening Brachiaria ruziziensis (Poales: Poaceae) resistance?

    PubMed

    Resende, T T; Auad, A M; Fonseca, M G

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the number of spittlebug adults, Mahanarva spectabilis Distant (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), that should be used in selection tests of the forage grass, Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain and Evrard). In this study, 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 M. spectabilis adults were kept in plants for 4 or 8 d per experimental plot. After these periods, the insects were removed from the plants and chlorophyll content, damage score, dry weight, fresh weight, and percent dry matter of shoots were evaluated. Chlorophyll content decreased significantly with higher density of M. spectabilis in plants exposed to the pest for 4 or 8 d. Plants that were exposed to eight spittlebugs for 8 d showed a approximately 60% loss of chlorophyll content. When the forage was infested with eight adults for 4 d, the average damage score was 3 (50% of the leaf area was affected). The damage score and fresh and dry weights of the forage did not change depending on the exposure time of the plants to the spittlebugs. The percentage of dry matter of the plants infested was higher with the increase insect density and exposure time for all densities. Thus, the minimum recommended number is eight M. spectabilis adults for 4 d in resistance tests of B. ruziziensis to this pest species. PMID:24665725

  6. The secondary contact zone of phylogenetic lineages of the Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae: Cercopidae): an example of incomplete allopatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Lis, Agata; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota; Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae: Cercopidae) suggest the existence of a contact zone of its main phylogenetic lineages along mountain chains in Europe and western Asia. This study presents a detailed examination of the population genetics of P. spumarius within the Carpathian Mountains. The main objective was to determine whether the populations inhabiting that area consist of individuals belonging to different genetic units and whether the observed pattern could be an example of secondary contact zone which formed after incomplete allopatric speciation. Specimens from six transects across the Carpathian arc were examined. The mitochondrial phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug in the examined area clearly shows that individuals from both main clades meet and mix there. Representatives of all three main EF1-α clades were also found. The present distribution of the main clades with a zone of overlap along the mountain ranges may suggest that these phylogenetic lineages form a young hybrid zone. Moreover, a limited number of individuals were shown to possess heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA, which gives additional support to intraspecific hybridization. P. spumarius could be used in future work as an excellent model species in investigating population genetics, intraspecific hybridization, and speciation in progress. PMID:25368093

  7. Insect mitochondrial genomics: the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidae).

    PubMed

    Stewart, James Bruce; Beckenbach, Andrew T

    2005-02-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidae). This contribution represents the second mitochondrial genome from the Hemiptera and the second of the three hemipteran suborders sampled. The genome is a circular molecule of 16 324 bp with a total A+T content of 77.0% and 76.7% for coding regions only. The gene content, order, and structure are consistent with the Drosophila yakuba genome structure (Clary and Wolstenholme 1985) and the hypothesized ancestral arthropod genome arrangement (Crease 1999). Nucleotide composition and codon usage are near the means observed in other insect mitochondria sequenced to date but have a higher A+T richness compared with the other hemipteran example, the kissing bug Triatoma dimidiata (Dotson and Beard. 2001. Insect Mol. Biol. 10: 205-215). The major noncoding region (the A+T rich region or putative control region) between the small ribosomal subunit and the tRNAIle gene includes two extensive repeat regions. The first repeat region includes 19 tandem repeats of a 46-bp sequence, whereas the second contains a longer sequence (146 bp) tandemly repeated four times. PMID:15729396

  8. Relations of Wolbachia Infection with Phylogeography of Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) Populations Within and Beyond the Carpathian Contact Zone.

    PubMed

    Lis, Agata; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2015-08-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread intracellular α-proteobacteria maternally inherited endosymbiont of insects and nematodes. These bacteria are associated with a number of different reproductive phenotypes of their hosts. Relatively few studies have dealt with distribution of infections across populations and with the influence of these bacteria on host genetic diversification and speciation. The aims of this study are to determine the distribution and rate of infection and to characterize the Wolbachia strains associated with Philaenus spumarius spittlebug (Hemiptera) by using multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) analysis and host phylogeography. The results showed that infection rate was significantly different between members of both main mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages of P. spumarius. We detected much higher infection rates of Wolbachia in P. spumarius populations from the north-east clade than the south-west clade. Moreover, the frequency of these infections varied within and outside the contact zone known from the Carpathians. Given the reproductive alterations which are often associated with this endosymbiont, Wolbachia probably maintain genetic differentiation of its hosts in its contact zone in the Carpathians. This is one of the first studies demonstrating the presence of Wolbachia across a large part of the range of insect species, including the contact zone. The spread of Wolbachia in P. spumarius populations can potentially cause speciation by compromising the potential reproductive barrier between infected and uninfected populations. We discuss possible implications of Wolbachia infection inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in the population dynamics of this spittlebug but confirm that more studies are also required. PMID:25681033

  9. Population genetic structure and post-LGM expansion of the plant bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Huaizhu; Li, Hu; Li, Shujuan; Wei, Shujun; Zhang, Lijuan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Yang, Hailin; Han, Fei; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    The plant bug, Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae), is one of the most thermophilous dicyphines in agroecosystems and is widely distributed in China. Little is known regarding the genetic structure of N. tenuis and the effect of historical climatic fluctuations on N. tenuis populations. We analyzed partial sequences of three mitochondrial protein-coding genes (COI, ND2 and CytB) and nuclear genes (5.8S, ITS2 and 28S) for 516 specimens collected from 37 localities across China. Analyses of the combined mitochondrial dataset indicated that the Southwestern China group (SWC) was significantly differentiated from the remaining populations, other Chinese group (OC). Asymmetric migration and high level of gene flow across a long distance within the OC group was detected. The long-distance dispersal of N. tenuis might be affected by air currents and human interference. Both the neutrality tests and mismatch distributions revealed the occurrence of historical population expansion. Bayesian skyline plot analyses with two different substitution rates indicated that N. tenuis might follow the post-LGM (the Last Glacial Maximum) expansion pattern for temperate species. Pleistocene climatic fluctuation, complicated topography and anthropogenic factors, along with other ecological factors (e.g. temperature and air current) might have accounted for the current population structure of N. tenuis. PMID:27230109

  10. Phylogeography of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae): an evaluation of historical, geographical and ecological factors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Zhu, Gengping; Damgaard, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Chen, Pingping; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2). The phylogenic analysis revealed a shallow divergence in mitochondrial data. Clade I was mostly confined to the northern region and clade II was nearly restricted to the southern region. The historical process of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations during the LGM promoted divergence, along with such geographical barriers as the Wuyi, Nanling and Xuefeng mountains and ecological factors of temperature and vegetation type, contributed to these shallow genetic divergences and helped maintain them. The north-south population differentiation probably occurred during the transition from LIG to LGM, with post-LGM population expansion. The results of genetic data were mostly consistent with the spatial predictions from ENM. Our study emphasizes the multiple effects influencing genetic population differentiation, and also contributes to our knowledge of the phylogeography of other aquatic organisms in subtropical China. PMID:26923804

  11. Phylogeography of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae): an evaluation of historical, geographical and ecological factors

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhen; Zhu, Gengping; Damgaard, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Chen, Pingping; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2). The phylogenic analysis revealed a shallow divergence in mitochondrial data. Clade I was mostly confined to the northern region and clade II was nearly restricted to the southern region. The historical process of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations during the LGM promoted divergence, along with such geographical barriers as the Wuyi, Nanling and Xuefeng mountains and ecological factors of temperature and vegetation type, contributed to these shallow genetic divergences and helped maintain them. The north-south population differentiation probably occurred during the transition from LIG to LGM, with post-LGM population expansion. The results of genetic data were mostly consistent with the spatial predictions from ENM. Our study emphasizes the multiple effects influencing genetic population differentiation, and also contributes to our knowledge of the phylogeography of other aquatic organisms in subtropical China. PMID:26923804

  12. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Glenda L.; Cooper, W. Rodney; Horton, David R.; Swisher, Kylie D.; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Munyaneza, Joseph E.; Barcenas, Nina M.

    2015-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Proteobacteria) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae) in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales) are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention. PMID:26555359

  13. Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Correa, M C G; Zaviezo, T; Le Maguet, J; Herrbach, E; Malausa, T

    2014-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter- and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266. PMID:24345408

  14. A case of ecological specialization in ladybirds: Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), potential biocontrol agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Mendel, Z; Branco, M

    2014-06-01

    Specialization is an important attribute of a biological control agent. The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera Matsucoccidae), is an invasive species in Southeast France and the North of Italy. Iberorhyzobius rondensis Eizaguirre (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is a recently described ladybird species. Both adults and larvae are predaceous, feeding on egg masses of M. feytaudi, and are strongly attracted to M. feytaudi's sex pheromone. To evaluate the potential of I. rondensis as a biocontrol agent of the scale, we studied its niche breadth and prey range with emphasis on pine forests and hemipterans as tested prey. In this study, I. rondensis was found to achieve complete development only when fed on M. feytaudi egg masses (92.9% survival) and an artificial prey: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (27.6% survival). From the 2nd instar onwards, complete development could be achieved using other prey species, although larvae had significantly higher mortality and slower development. In choice tests, M. feytaudi was the preferred prey. Surveys of the ladybird populations in the Iberian Peninsula revealed that it was found exclusively on Pinus pinaster Aiton, the sole host of M. feytaudi. The unusual specialization of I. rondensis, among other predaceous ladybirds, makes it an appropriate candidate for classical biological control of M. feytaudi. PMID:24666751

  15. Reproductive Requirements and Life Cycle of Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Potential Biological Control Agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Branco, M

    2015-06-01

    Several pine bast scales (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) are important pests of pine trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Some species are invasive and cause significant economic and environmental impacts. Such is the case with Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, an invasive pest of maritime pine forests in Southeastern France, Italy, and Corsica. The ladybird Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Eizaguirre) is a recently described species that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and is a potential candidate for the biological control of M. feytaudi. However, little is known of the biology of I. rondensis. As part of the risk assessment study for a classical biological control program, the phenology and reproductive mechanisms of the beetle were analyzed. I. rondensis is univoltine and is seasonally synchronized with the phenology of the prey M. feytaudi, which is also univoltine. An obligatory reproductive diapause of 5-6 mo and the need to feed on the eggs of the prey to begin oviposition emerged as the two primary mechanisms that assure life cycle synchronization of the ladybird with its prey. Female fecundity was also higher when the ladybirds were fed M. feytaudi eggs. Life cycle synchronization with M. feytaudi and reproduction triggered by consumption of prey eggs indicate that I. rondensis is a promising biological control agent of the pine bast scale. PMID:26313991

  16. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  17. Population genetic structure and post-LGM expansion of the plant bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in China

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Huaizhu; Li, Hu; Li, Shujuan; Wei, Shujun; Zhang, Lijuan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Yang, Hailin; Han, Fei; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    The plant bug, Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae), is one of the most thermophilous dicyphines in agroecosystems and is widely distributed in China. Little is known regarding the genetic structure of N. tenuis and the effect of historical climatic fluctuations on N. tenuis populations. We analyzed partial sequences of three mitochondrial protein-coding genes (COI, ND2 and CytB) and nuclear genes (5.8S, ITS2 and 28S) for 516 specimens collected from 37 localities across China. Analyses of the combined mitochondrial dataset indicated that the Southwestern China group (SWC) was significantly differentiated from the remaining populations, other Chinese group (OC). Asymmetric migration and high level of gene flow across a long distance within the OC group was detected. The long-distance dispersal of N. tenuis might be affected by air currents and human interference. Both the neutrality tests and mismatch distributions revealed the occurrence of historical population expansion. Bayesian skyline plot analyses with two different substitution rates indicated that N. tenuis might follow the post-LGM (the Last Glacial Maximum) expansion pattern for temperate species. Pleistocene climatic fluctuation, complicated topography and anthropogenic factors, along with other ecological factors (e.g. temperature and air current) might have accounted for the current population structure of N. tenuis. PMID:27230109

  18. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae), a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Dai, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments) and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera. PMID:27253390

  19. Protease and phospholipase inhibition protect Veneza zonata (Hemiptera Coreidae) against septicemia caused by parasite trypanosomatid 563DT.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniele; de Souza, Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil; Murate, Letícia Sayuri; Jankevicius, José Vitor; Gaziri, Luiz Carlos Jabur; Jankevicius, Shiduca Itow

    2004-01-01

    Veneza zonata (Hemiptera Coreidae) is an insect which causes losses in several crops, and it is also an important vector of lower trypanosomatids. V. zonata specimens were collected on rural properties in Londrina, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Inoculation of Leptomonas 563DT into V. zonata hemocoel caused insect death within approximately 24 h, with large bacterial proliferation into their hemocoels. Some bacteria which were found in the digestive tract of those insects, such as Escherichia coli, Providencia rettgeri, and Kluyveria ascorbata, were also found in their hemolymph, which suggests that trypanosomatid crossing into hemocoel caused mechanical lesions in the digestive tract that allowed intestinal bacteria to infect the hemolymph, thereby leading to lethal septicemia. In this study we analysed proteolytic activities from the 563DT Leptomonas strain, which is pathogenic for V. zonata, aiming at evaluating the potential use of this Leptomonas strain for the biocontrol of the insect. The proteolytic action was evaluated on cells and on culture supernatants of trypanosomatids. We also evaluated the gelatinolytic activities, the action over natural and synthetic substrates for aminopeptidases, and the action of protease inhibitors during all trypanosomatid growth stages. A significant reduction in the number of insect deaths was observed when Leptomonas 563DT were incubated with inhibitors of proteases and phospholipases before being inoculated into the insects, which suggests that those enzymes are involved in the pathogenic mechanism. PMID:14992855

  20. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Torres, Glenda L; Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Swisher, Kylie D; Garczynski, Stephen F; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Barcenas, Nina M

    2015-01-01

    "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Proteobacteria) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae) in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales) are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention. PMID:26555359