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  1. Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hajime; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Tadashi; Ozaki, Shinobu; Hattori, Takashi; Ishii, M.; Sasaki, Minoru; Takeyama, Norihide

    1998-07-01

    We are building the second version of the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph (Ohtani et al., this symposium). This will be mounted on the MAGNUM, a 2-m telescope under construction at Haleakala, and also on the SUBARU. The spectrograph has four observational modes: Fabry-Perot imager, integral field spectrograph (IFS) with a microlens array, long-slit spectrograph, and filter-imaging modes. The new spectrograph is significantly better than the first version in several ways. The IFS has as many as 37 X 37 microlenses, each of which subtends 0' .39 at the MAGNUM. The optics is designed to be used in wide wavelength ranges from 360 nm to 900 nm. The transmission at any wavelength between 370 and 900 nm is designed to exceed 50% for the collimator plus camera system, and to reach almost 40% even at 360 nm. In order to achieve high efficiency at short wavelengths, we use an anti- reflection coated backside-illuminated 2K X 2K CCD. We are also planning a further improvement by using multi-layer anti- reflection coatings for lenses, in collaboration with National Astronomical Observatory, Japan. In order to assure good image quality under a severe weight limit of 150 kg for this instrument, we have carried out mechanical design by calculating the flexure of the instrument for all telescope attitudes with finite element analysis, and succeeded in limiting the maximum flexure to 30 micrometer. This does not degrade image quality. The movements on the CCD of the light from the center of the focal plane have also been simulated, depending on the telescope attitudes. This is important to obtain not only a good image, but also a correct flat field and wavelength calibration in the IFS mode. The movements are expected to be confined almost within one pixel for an attitude, which is considered to be small enough.

  2. Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II: progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hajime; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Shinobu; Hattori, Takashi; Ishii, Motomi; Ishigaki, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Tadashi; Sasaki, Minoru; Takeyama, Norihide

    2000-08-01

    We are building the Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II and are planning to mount it on Subaru telescope. The spectrograph has four observational modes: Fabry-Perot imager, integral field spectrograph (IFS) with a microlens array, long-slit spectrograph, and filter-imaging modes. The optics is designed to be used in wide wavelength range from 360 nm to 900 nm. The design well matches with high spatial resolution of Subaru: 0 inch .06 pixel-1 in Fabry- Perot mode, for which we actually will use binning before adaptive optics at optical wavelengths becomes available, and 0 inch .1 lens-1 in microlens array mode. These well sample image sizes obtained by Subaru, which are about 0 inch .4 in relatively good conditions. We have evaluated a point spread function of our cylindrical microlens array and found that it consists of a diffraction pattern and more extended component which probably comes from border regions between microlenses. With a suitable mask at the micro pupil position, the crosstalk between spectra will be limited down to a few percent. With a suitable mask at the micro pupil position, the crosstalk between spectra will be limited down to a few percent. We have succeeded in synchronizing frequency switching of Fabry-Perot etalons with the movement of charge on the CCD. This technique enables to average out all temporal variations between each passband.

  3. The Kyoto Protocol: A business perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, C.B.

    1998-01-19

    Governments have made a tentative start in responding to climate change. In marathon negotiating sessions that extended into an extra day Dec. 1--11 in Kyoto, Japan, representatives from more than 160 governments hammered out the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The protocol calls for developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on averaged by 5.2% below 1990 levels by the years 2008--2012. Developing countries have no new obligations. The paper discusses the agreement, ratification, future questions, business role, and the challenge.

  4. Increasing use of yellow colors in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Munehira; Nara, Iwao

    2002-06-01

    Colors used for commercial signboards, displayed outdoors as well as indoors through windows, such as a store sign, an advertising sign, a sky sign, a poster, a placard, and a billboard were extensively surveyed in Kyoto City, Japan, in 1998. The survey showed that various kinds of yellow painted signs have increased rapidly and invaded a center area and suburbs of the city. Vivid yellow, what we called it the Y98 virus, is specially considered a color unpleasantly matched to the city image of Kyoto which was the capital of Japan for nearly 1000 years (794 to 1868) and is endowed with cultural and historic heritage. Discussions trying to find out what we could do to prevent the rapid spread of a big commercial display painted with vivid yellows what we called 'the Y98 virus' over the city will be summarized in a main text.

  5. Continuity and Change: Kyoto Chefs Engage with Science.

    PubMed

    de St Maurice, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Kyoto's chefs have reacted proactively to changes brought about by the most recent phase of globalization, hoping to ensure the continued existence and resonance of Kyoto cuisine by using science to adapt it to contemporary circumstances. These chefs are breaking new ground in their pursuit of a scientific understanding of how Kyoto cuisine works. They meet once a month in a kitchen laboratory at Kyoto University to present and analyze culinary experiments in keeping with a predetermined theme. They use their acquired knowledge to more precisely hone their culinary skills and to explain Kyoto cuisine to a global audience. Chefs visit local elementary schools, appear on national television, and welcome chefs from abroad into their kitchens so that people across the world will better understand what authentic Kyoto cuisine consists of. Although these chefs' efforts are groundbreaking, there is also remarkable continuity to their approach. Not only has Kyoto cuisine always been in a steady state of transformation, but the chefs in the Laboratory are engaging with science and a global audience specifically so that they can ascertain Kyoto cuisine's continued existence and importance. Though their means of understanding and articulating what Kyoto cuisine is differs from that of their predecessors, concepts like shun (seasonality) and hin (refinement) still guide chefs today. Ultimately, then, based on interviews and participant observation conducted in and outside of the Japanese Cuisine Laboratory in 2012 and 2013, I argue that by engaging with contemporary food science, Kyoto's chefs achieve a strategic balance of protecting their culinary heritage while adapting it to contemporary circumstances. PMID:26598840

  6. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    The Beyond Kyoto conference in Aarhus March 2009 was organised in collaboration with other knowledge institutions, businesses and authorities. It brought together leading scientists, policy-makers, authorities, intergovernmental organisations, NGO's, business stakeholders and business organisations. The conference was a joint interdisciplinary project involving many academic areas and disciplines. These conference proceedings are organised in central and recurring themes that cut across many debates on climate change, the climatic challenges as well as the solutions. In the front there is a short presentation of the conference concept. Part I of the proceedings focuses on issues related to the society - covering climate policy, law, market based instruments, financial structure, behaviour and consumption, public participation, media communication and response from indigenous peoples etc. Part II of the proceedings concerns the scientific knowledge base on climate related issues - covering climate change processes per se, the potential impacts of projected climate change on biodiversity and adaptation possibilities, the interplay between climate, agriculture and biodiversity, emissions, agricultural systems, increasing pressure on the functioning of agriculture and natural areas, vulnerability to extreme weather events and risks in respect to sea-level rise etc. The conference proceedings committee consists of four professors from Aarhus University: Jens-Christian Svenning, Jørgen E Olesen, Mads Forchhammer and Ellen Margrethe Basse. Aarhus University's Climate Secretariat has had the overall responsibility for coordinating the many presentations, as well as the practical side of arranging the conference and supporting the publication of papers. As Head of the Climate Secretariat and Chair of Aarhus University's Climate Panel, I would like to thank everyone for their contribution. This applies both to the scientific and the practical efforts. Special thanks to

  7. Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1999-04-18

    The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

  8. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  9. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  10. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  11. S-LSR, Cooler Ring Development at Kyoto University

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ikegami, Masahiro; Noda, Akira; Souda, Hikaru; Tanabe, Mikio; Tongu, Hiromu; Noda, Koji; Shibuya, Shinji; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Takeshi; Iwata, Soma; Takubo, Atsushi; Okamoto, Hiromi; Yuri, Yosuke; Grieser, Manfred; Syresin, Evgeny M.

    2006-03-20

    A compact ion cooler ring, S-LSR is under construction in Kyoto University. One of the subjects of S-LSR is a realization of the crystalline beams using the electron beam and the laser cooling. The ring is designed to be satisfied several required conditions for the beam ordering, such as a small betatron phase advance, a small magnetic error and a precise magnet alignment. The design phase advance per a period is less than 127 degree. The calculated closed orbit distortion and the stopband is less than 1 mm and 0.001 without correction, respectively.

  12. Let`s focus on sustainability, not Kyoto

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, H.R.

    1999-03-01

    This article addresses how to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide produced in the combustion of fossil fuels -- oil, natural gas, and coal -- in a less painful way than that called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Adopting a 1,000-gigatonne global carbon budget for years 1991 to 2100 and a peak annual carbon emission level of 11 gigatonnes between years 2030 and 2040 will buy the time to develop and deploy low- and zero-carbon emission technologies while deferring the controversial issue of the compliance of developing countries.

  13. After Kyoto, science still probes global warming causes

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, G.

    1998-01-19

    The Kyoto meeting has come and gone. In the US, the treaty still has to be signed by President Bill Clinton and ratified by the Senate, an action that is most unlikely in view of last year`s 95-0 vote on the issue. In the short term 36 senators are up for reelection in November and therefore likely to come under intense pressure to change their positions, to support the Kyoto treaty, and to push for Senate action. Senators will need support, additional inputs, and overall reinforcement of their positions. One area that this writer believes still has much to offer in this context is the quality--more specifically, the lack of quality--of much of the scientific evidence behind this treaty. Part of that subject is the natural variability in the climate. Natural climate variability is based on cyclical forces, random events, and the Earth`s response to these two factors. These forces create the variability in the climate, the background noise above which any signal of anthropogenic warming must rise in order to be detected. A review of key climatic cycles is the subject of this article.

  14. UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    JA Edmonds; CN MacCracken; RD Sands; SH Kim

    2000-07-06

    The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together the diversity of interests and perspectives represented by the more than 150 delegations. Because the document is complex, its implications are not immediately obvious. If it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol will have far-reaching implications for all nations--both nations with obligations under the Protocol and those without obligations. National energy systems, and the world's energy system, could be forever changed. In this paper the authors develop an assessment of the energy and economic implications of achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. They find that many of the details of the Protocol that remain to be worked out introduce critical uncertainties affecting the cost of compliance. There are also a variety of uncertainties that further complicate the analysis. These include future non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions and the cost of their mitigation. Other uncertainties include the resolution of negotiations to establish rules for determining and allocating land-use emissions rights, mechanisms for Annex 1 trading, and participation by non-Annex 1 members in the Clean Development Mechanism. In addition, there are economic uncertainties, such as the behavior of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in supplying emissions credits under Annex 1 trading. These uncertainties in turn could affect private sector investments in anticipation of the Protocol's entrance into force. The longer the nature of future obligations remains unclear, the less able decision makers will be to incorporate these rules into their investment decisions. They find that the cost of implementing the Protocol in the US can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The marginal cost could be as low as $26 per tonne of

  15. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. Results All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. Conclusions A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. PMID:26187502

  16. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  17. Experimental Equipments for Microwave Power Transmission in Kyoto University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Shinohara, N.; Mitani, T.

    2004-12-01

    RISH, Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere, of Kyoto University is one of the most active research laboratories for a microwave power transmission (MPT) and SSPS (Space Solar Power System) in Japan. Since the first MPT rocket experiment in the ionosphere was conducted in early 1980's by Radio Science Center for Space and Atmosphere (RASC), the former institute of the RISH, the RISH has conducted a variety of theoretical and experimental studies on the MPT and SSPS both in laboratory and field. In the paper, we will show the experimental equipments for the MPT and the SSPS research in the RISH. We have two facilities of METLAB (Microwave Energy Transmission LABoratory) and SPSLAB (SPS LABoratory) for the MPT researches. The METLAB is composed of an anechoic radio wave chamber and an experimental system specially designed for the MPT experiment. The SPSLAB is a facility to promote a systematic research for conceptual, technical and coordinative research with our colleagues in all parts of Japan including the industrial partners. These facilities are now open for inter-universities collaborations. The other available experimental facilities are multiple MPT systems with a phased array transmitter using phase controlled magnetrons (PCMs) at both 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz, and a semiconductor-based beam control system and a retrodirective target detecting system. These facilities are named SPORTS (Space POwer Radio Transmission System) 2.45 and SPORTS5.8.

  18. THE MECHANISM OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-ASSOCIATED ZINC IN CARDIAC INJURY IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently found that inhaled combustion particulate matter (PM) with leachable zinc causes myocardial damage without significant pulmonary inflammation or remodeling; this damage is histologically demonstrable in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Cardiac injury from PM exposure can...

  19. Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

    2002-06-01

    Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

  20. FEL Beamline for Wide Tunable Range and Beam Sharing System at Kyoto University

    SciTech Connect

    Bakr, Mahmoud; Yoshida, K.; Higashimura, K.; Ueda, S.; Kinjo, R.; Sonobe, T.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Ohgaki, H.; Zen, H.

    2010-02-03

    A mid-infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL) facility (KU-FEL: Kyoto University Free Electron Laser) has been constructed for developing energy materials in Institute of Advanced Energy (IAE), Kyoto University. The tunable range of KU-FEL was estimated as 5-13.2 {mu}m by numerical calculation to design the MIR-FEL transport line for application purposes. Aiming to increase the number of FEL users with different desires we decided to develop an FEL beam sharing system that is useful for multi-utilization at different end-stations. The transport line and the beam sharing system has been designed and constructed to the user stations. Applications of the MIR-FEL in the renewable energy research at Kyoto University will start as well.

  1. Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactors in Japanese Universities: Experimental Study Using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroya, S.; Unesaki, H.; Misawa, T.

    2001-06-17

    A series of basic experiments for an accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor (ADSR) was officially launched in financial year 2000 at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) as a joint-use program among Japanese universities. These experiments are closely related to the future plan of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. A final goal of this plan is to establish a next-generation neutron source as a substitute for the 5-MW Kyoto University Reactor and based on the ADSR concept to promote joint research among Japanese universities. An attractive point of the ADSR system is that either pulsed or steady neutrons can be provided depending on the accelerator's operation mode.

  2. Characterization of the winter atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto and Seoul using PIXE, EAS and IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chang-Jin; Kasahara, Mikio; Tohno, Susumu; Hwang, Kyung-Chul

    Characteristics of atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto, Japan and Seoul, Korea were investigated using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), elemental analysis system (EAS) and ion chromatograph (IC). Atmospheric aerosols were collected into fine and coarse fractions using a two-stage filter pack sampler in Kyoto and Seoul in winter of 1998. PIXE was applied to analyze the middle and heavy elements with atomic number greater than 14 (Si), and EAS was applied to analyze the light elements such as H, C and N. The total mass concentration in Seoul was about two times higher than in Kyoto and the concentration of Ca, Si, and Ti that are mainly originated from soil were remarkably higher in Seoul. During an Asian dust storm event, the concentration of soil components increased dramatically and amounted to about 15 times higher than average concentration. The fine/coarse ratios of NH 4+, NO 3-, and SO 42- were extremely high in both sites. The fact that nearly 70% of fine particles in both Kyoto and Seoul consist of the light elements (N, C, and H) suggests the importance of light elements measurement. Good mass closure for fine particles with light element data was achieved.

  3. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  4. Analysis of the Impacts of an Early Start for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Energy Information Administration's analysis of the impacts of an early start, using the same methodology as in Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. Energy Markets and Economic Activity, with only those changes in assumptions caused by the early start date.

  5. Museum as an integrated imaging device: visualization of ancient Kyoto cityscape from folding screen artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Oyabu, Umi; Kojima, Michihiro

    2012-03-01

    Museums hold cultural resources such as artworks, historical artifacts, and folklore materials. The National Museum of Japanese History holds over 200,000 of the cultural resources. A role of museum is to exhibit the cultural resources, therefore a museum could be referred to as a visualization device for the information society. In this research, visualization of a history image from cultural resources with interactive user interface will be mentioned. The material focused on is the oldest extant version of a genre of folding screen paintings that depict the thriving city of Kyoto in the four seasons, named Rekihaku's "Scenes In and Around Kyoto" designated as a nationally important cultural property in Japan. Over 1,400 people and a lot of residences, temples, and houses are drawn, and those are also information resource telling us about city scenes and people's life in Kyoto at that time. Historical researches were done by using a high resolution digital image obtained by a large scaled scanner, and scanned images are used for computer programs to visualize a history image of ancient Kyoto. Combinations between real materials and information provided by using the computer programs are also described in this research.

  6. Considering WTO law in the design of climate change regimes beyond Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Sanford E.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the most important provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements that should be considered in designing laws and regulations under likely post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. The Kyoto Protocol and the expected post-Kyoto international climate agreement depend on national measures to implement market-based mitigation measures. This market strategy promotes international exchanges of goods, investments, and services such as cross-border trading of credits for emissions reductions and transnational financing for projects that avoid emissions through the Clean Development Mechanism. Moreover, the United States and other countries, concerned over "leakage" of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through relocation of industry to other countries coupled with political worry over manufacturing competitiveness, have proposed national climate legislation containing border adjustments on imported goods or implicit subsidies for national producers, raising additional WTO considerations. The article assesses the likely effectiveness of such trade-related measures in achieving climate change mitigation goals and the potential trade policy infringements and trade distortions that they might bring about. Alternative strategies for achieving GHG mitigation goals in closer conformity with WTO law and policy will be suggested.

  7. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Review of Available and Future Technology for Monitoring Treaty Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Rosenquist, A.; Milne, A. K.; Dobson, M. C.; Qi, J.

    2000-01-01

    An International workshop was held to address how remote sensing technology could be used to support the environmental monitoring requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. An overview of the issues addressed and the findings of the workshop are discussed.

  8. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Takamatsu, Terumasa; Hashimoto, Yukimasa; Takashima, Tooru; Nakano, Kooji; Fujita, Setsuya

    2008-01-01

    We started to use virtual slide (VS) and virtual microscopy (VM) systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public Hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a full-time pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use x10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis. PMID:18673520

  9. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs. PMID:16539979

  10. Present status of PACS at Kyoto University Hospital: image workstation for clinical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Okajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Ishu; Takahashi, Takashi; Konishi, Junji; Abe, Mituyuki; Gotoh, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiro

    1990-08-01

    The PAC system: KIDS (Kyoto University Hospital Image Database and Communication System) has been expanded to include several major digital imaging modalities such as X-ray CT, MRI, DSA and CR. The fiber optic high-speed local area network and the workstation with quick image handling are newly designed. The system (new KIDS) is intended to achieve a film-less environment in the department of radiology and to evaluate the feasibility of a hospital-wide PAC system. The present status of the system at the end of 1989 including a image workstation installed in a lecture hall for clinical education is described.

  11. Adaptive Optics at Optical Wavelengths: Test Observations of Kyoto 3DII Connected to Subaru Telescope AO188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, K.; Sugai, H.; Shimono, A.; Akita, A.; Hattori, T.; Hayano, Y.; Minowa, Y.; Takeyama, N.

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) enables us to observe objects with high spatial resolution, which is important in most astrophysical observations. Most AO systems are operational at near-infrared wavelengths but not in the optical range, because optical observations require a much higher performance to obtain the same Strehl ratio as near-infrared observations. Therefore, to enable AO-assisted observations at optical wavelengths, we connected the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII), which can perform integral field spectroscopy, to the second generation AO system of the Subaru Telescope (AO188). We developed a new beam-splitter that reflects light below 594 nm for the wavefront sensors of AO188 and transmits above 644 nm for Kyoto 3DII. We also developed a Kyoto 3DII mount at the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru Telescope. In test observations, the spatial resolution of the combined AO188–Kyoto 3DII was higher than that in natural seeing conditions, even at 6500 Å. The full width at half maximum of an undersampled (1.5 spaxels) bright guide star (7.0 mag in the V-band) was 0.″12.

  12. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  13. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ``Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. Economic Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, March 25, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This hearing focuses on the economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. In the Kyoto Protocol, which was completed in December 1997, the administration agreed to legally binding obligations to reduce US greenhouse gas emissions to seven percent below 1990 levels during the years 2008--2011. This climate treaty does not subject developing countries to emission targets.

  15. Biomedical irradiation system for boron neutron capture therapy at the Kyoto University Reactor.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kanda, K; Ujeno, Y; Ishida, M R

    1990-01-01

    Physics studies related to radiation source, spectroscopy, beam quality, dosimetry, and biomedical applications using the Kyoto University Reactor Heavy Water Facility are described. Also, described are a Nickel Mirror Neutron Guide Tube and a Super Mirror Neutron Guide Tube that are used both for the measurement of boron concentration in phantom and living tissue and for precise measurements of neutron flux in phantom in the presence of both light and heavy water. Discussed are: (1) spectrum measurements using the time of flight technique, (2) the elimination of gamma rays and fast neutrons from a thermal neutron irradiation field, (3) neutron collimation without producing secondary gamma rays, (4) precise neutron flux measurements, dose estimation, and the measurement of boron concentration in tumor and its periphery using guide tubes, (5) the dose estimation of boron-10 for the first melanoma patient, and (6) special-purpose biological irradiation equipment. Other related subjects are also described. PMID:2176458

  16. Design study of multi-imaging plate system for BNCT irradiation field at Kyoto university reactor.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Endo, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    The converter configuration for a multi-imaging plate system was investigated for the application of quality assurance in the irradiation field profile for boron neutron capture therapy. This was performed by the simulation calculation using the PHITS code in the fields at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. The converter constituents investigated were carbon for gamma rays, and polyethylene with and without LiF at varied (6)Li concentration for thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. Consequently, potential combinations of the converters were found for two components, gamma rays and thermal neutrons, for the standard thermal neutron mode and three components of gamma rays, epithermal neutrons, and thermal or fast neutrons, for the standard mixed or epithermal neutron modes, respectively. PMID:27423022

  17. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the Montreal Protocol as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Kanter, D.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Grabiel, P.; Moomaw, W.; Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    While nitrous oxide (N2O) was recently identified as the largest remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer, it is currently regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol due to its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the 1987 Montreal Protocol if they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues for the Montreal Protocol and its parent treaty, the 1985 Vienna Convention, to regulate N2O, as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address its most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to mitigation efforts. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built upon by the Montreal Protocol's existing bodies to implement N2O controls. Given the tight coupling of the nitrogen cycle, such controls would likely simultaneously reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen and hence have co-benefits for ecosystems and public health. Nevertheless, there are at least three major regulatory challenges that are unique and central to N2O control: food security, equity, and the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the Montreal Protocol need not be viewed as a sign of the Kyoto Protocol's failure to adequately deal with climate change, given the complexity of the issue. Rather, it could represent an additional tool in the field of sustainable development diplomacy.lt;img border=0 src="images/B43K-06_B.jpg">

  18. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  19. Global SF6 emission estimates inferred from atmospheric observations - a test case for Kyoto reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, I.; Naegler, T.

    2009-04-01

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the strongest greenhouse gases per molecule in the atmosphere. SF6 emissions are also one of the six greenhouse gases targeted for reduction under the Kyoto Protocol. Here we present a long-term data set of globally distributed high-precision atmospheric SF6 observations which show an increase in mixing ratios from near zero in the 1970s to a global mean value of 6.3 ppt by the end of 2007. Because of its long atmospheric lifetime of around 3000 years, the accumulation of SF6 in the atmosphere is a direct measure of its global emissions: Analysis of our long-term data records implies a decrease of global SF6 sources after 1995, most likely due to emission reductions in industrialised countries. However, after 1998 the global SF6 source increases again, which is probably due to enhanced emissions from transition economies such as in China and India. Moreover, observed north-south concentration differences in SF6 suggest that emissions calculated from statistical (bottom-up) information and reported by Annex II parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) may be too low by up to 50%. This clearly shows the importance and need for atmospheric (top-down) validation of Kyoto reporting which is only feasible with a dense world-wide observational network for greenhouse and other trace gases. Other members of the Global SF6 Trends Team: R. Heinz (1), D. Osusko (1), E. Cuevas (2), A. Engel (3), J. Ilmberger (1), R.L. Langenfelds (4), B. Neininger (5), C.v. Rohden (1), L.P. Steele (4), A. Varlagin (6), R. Weller (7), D.E. Worthy (8), S.A. Zimov (9) (1) Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, (2) Centro de Investigación Atmosférica de Izaña, Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM), 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, (3) Institut für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, J.W. Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany, (4) Centre for Australian Weather and

  20. APFBC repowering could help meet Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction goals[Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.E.; Tonnemacher, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Clinton Administration signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreement that would limit US greenhouse gas emissions, of which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most significant. While the Kyoto Protocol has not yet been submitted to the Senate for ratification, in the past, there have been few proposed environmental actions that had continued and wide-spread attention of the press and environmental activists that did not eventually lead to regulation. Since the Kyoto Protocol might lead to future regulation, its implications need investigation by the power industry. Limiting CO{sub 2} emissions affects the ability of the US to generate reliable, low cost electricity, and has tremendous potential impact on electric generating companies with a significant investment in coal-fired generation, and on their customers. This paper explores the implications of reducing coal plant CO{sub 2} by various amounts. The amount of reduction for the US that is proposed in the Kyoto Protocol is huge. The Kyoto Protocol would commit the US to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions to 7% below 1990 levels. Since 1990, there has been significant growth in US population and the US economy driving carbon emissions 34% higher by year 2010. That means CO{sub 2} would have to be reduced by 30.9%, which is extremely difficult to accomplish. The paper tells why. There are, however, coal-based technologies that should be available in time to make significant reductions in coal-plant CO{sub 2} emissions. Th paper focuses on one plant repowering method that can reduce CO{sub 2} per kWh by 25%, advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle (APFBC) technology, based on results from a recent APFBC repowering concept evaluation of the Carolina Power and Light Company's (CP and L) L.V. Sutton steam station. The replacement of the existing 50-year base of power generating units needed to meet proposed Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction commitments would be a massive undertaking. It is

  1. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating. PMID:25678184

  2. Vitiligo vulgaris and autoimmune diseases in Japan: A report from vitiligo clinic in Kyoto University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tanioka, Miki; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Katoh, Mayumi; Takahashi, Kenzo; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the causes of "loss of skin color" in 144 patients, who visited Vitiligo Clinic of Kyoto University Hospital between April 2005 and August 2008. The numbers of patients with generalized and segmental Vitiligo vulgaris were 98 (68.1%) and 26 (18.1%), respectively. Small numbers of the patients suffered from Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, piebaldism, congenital albinism, Hypomelanosis of Ito, post-inflammatory hypopigmentation, white leaf-shaped macules associated with tuberous sclerosis and nevus hypopigmentosus. One forth of the patients with generalized vitiligo had complications, while no complications were found in the patients with segmental vitiligo. Among the complications, autoimmune diseases dominated 43% (10 of 23 cases). Autoimmune thyroid diseases explained for the most of the complicated autoimmune diseases and were associated with 7.4% of the patients with generalized vitiligo. Minor autoimmune complications include myasthenia gravis, Sjogren syndrome and autoimmune nephritis. Reflecting the condition that our clinic is located in a university hospital, vitiligo patients with end-stage non-melanoma cancers of internal organs accounted for 8.4% of the patients of generalized vitiligo. PMID:20046588

  3. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M.; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  4. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  5. Cocaine self-administration in Wistar-Kyoto rats: a behavioral and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Szumiec, Łukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-10-15

    Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse. PMID:26192911

  6. Cofiring fossil fuels with renewable energy in addressing global climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    In addressing the issue of Global Climate Change, the use of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency has been traditionally touted as the most effective way to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and to sequester carbon-based emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels for the worldwide production of power. The goal set by the Kyoto Protocol of ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere`` will not be met unless the predictions for world energy production based on the use of oil, gas and coal are considered in using renewable energy resources. The use of renewable energy in the US amounted to 7.4 quads in 1997 which was only 7.8% of total domestic gross energy demand. In the US alone the biomass renewable energy economically accessible resource base is estimated at 14 quads per year which can be considered for use in addressing predicted increases in electric power demand. In 1990 the biomass generated power was 3.1 quads in the US alone, and renewable energy accounted for 14.7% of the total world power production allowing for significant increases in the future. The most significant use of renewable energy other than the power sector is the use of biofuels (principally from wood) in the industrial sector which accounts for 21% of the total renewable demand of 7.432 quads in 1997.

  7. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminaryin vitroandin vivoimaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  8. The Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II on Subaru and the University of Hawaii 88 in Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, H.; Hattori, T.; Kawai, A.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, T.; Ishigaki, T.; Ishii, M.; Ohtani, H.; Shimono, A.; Okita, Y.; Matsubayashi, K.; Kosugi, G.; Sasaki, M.; Takeyama, N.

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate physical conditions of ionized gas in galaxies, as well as its kinematics, we have developed the Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II. It is a multimode optical instrument, including integral field spectrograph (IFS) and Fabry-Perot imager modes. We have designed it compact so that we can mount it on 2 m class telescopes as well as on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Special care was taken to obtain high-quality calibrations in the IFS mode. In order to remove the chromatic aberration of micropupil images produced by a lenslet array, we have introduced a corrector lens system behind the lenslet array. The internal calibration system simulates the telescope optics so that the system provides micropupil images identical to those produced by the telescope. The rigidness of the instrument provides the positional stability of micropupil images. We have succeeded in test observations of all the modes on Subaru and the University of Hawaii 88 in (UH88) telescopes and have verified the performance of the instrument. This includes the instrument efficiencies as well as the effective sky background subtraction and the minimization of crosstalk effects in the IFS mode. In the IFS mode a spatial resolution of 0.4'' was obtained in good seeing conditions. Each of 37 × 37 lenslets subtends 0.1'' in Subaru's case. This samples the image size well. A wider field of view is emphasized in the case of UH88.

  9. Report from the 29th World Congress of Endourology and SWL (November 30-December 3, 2011 - Kyoto, Japan).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2012-02-01

    Kyoto is a city of surprises: from the most beautiful castles and temples known far and wide across the world, to the humblest temples, as beautiful as those appearing in all tourist guides, just hidden away in small lanes among busy traffic of bicycles and pedestrians shopping in markets or attending to their daily business. Add the innumerable tourists busily exploring the city's attractions, although this was not the reason for visiting Kyoto, which was the site of this year's World Congress of Endourology and SWL. Nevertheless, maybe as a compensation, the meeting was held in Kokusaikaikan, literally the International Conference Centre, which is a modern facility in the city outskirts, actually adjoining the Takaragaike park, with a beautiful lake and the mountains, brightly led by the trees' red leaves, just visible through the main hall windows. PMID:22384455

  10. Promoting Health During the American Occupation of Japan The Public Health Section, Kyoto Military Government Team, 1945-1949

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Sey

    2008-01-01

    During the American occupation of Japan (1945–1952), young public health officers from the US Army Medical Corps were posted in local US Army military government teams. These young doctors (aged 25 to 27 years), who had not absorbed the strong anti-Japanese tradition of the US military during World War II, seem to have alleviated the initial resentment felt by the Japanese toward the new governors of their homeland. The case of the Kyoto Military Government Team illustrates the Kyoto citizenry’s positive view of some American-directed public health measures. The team’s services helped to counter widely held negative views on colonialism, occupation, and public health; lessened resentment toward the unilateral command structure of the occupation forces; and contributed to improved relations between the United States and Japan at the local level. PMID:18235076

  11. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyungwoo; Clinton, Sarah M.; Jackson, Nateka L.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs' phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs' behavior to that of Sprague–Dawley (SD), Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST). WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness). WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs' behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e., neonatal handling) that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression. PMID:24744709

  12. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression. PMID:26215574

  13. Interleukin-6 Modulates Colonic Transepithelial Ion Transport in the Stress-Sensitive Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Dervla; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Immunological challenge stimulates secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6, resulting in variety of biological responses. In the gastrointestinal tract, IL-6 modulates the excitability of submucosal neurons and stimulates secretion into the colonic lumen. When considered in the context of the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where plasma levels of IL-6 are elevated, this may reflect an important molecular mechanism contributing to symptom flares, particularly in the diarrhea-predominant phenotype. In these studies, colonic ion transport, an indicator of absorption and secretion, was assessed in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat model of IBS. Mucosa-submucosal colonic preparations from WKY and control Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were mounted in Ussing chambers and the basal short circuit current (ISC) was electrophysiologically recorded and compared between the strains. Exposure to IL-6 (1 nM) stimulated a secretory current of greater amplitude in WKY as compared to SD samples. Furthermore, the observed IL-6-mediated potentiation of secretory currents evoked by veratridine and capsaicin in SD rats was blunted in WKY rats. Exposure to IL-6 also stimulated an increase in transepithelial resistance in both SD and WKY colonic tissue. These studies demonstrate that the neuroexcitatory effects of IL-6 on submucosal plexi have functional consequences with alterations in both colonic secretory activity and permeability. The IL-6-induced increase in colonic secretory activity appears to neurally mediated. Thus, local increases in IL-6 levels and subsequent activation of enteric neurons may underlie alterations in absorpto-secretory function in the WKY model of IBS. PMID:23162465

  14. Kyoto digital database of 44-year synoptic observation of solar chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitai, Reizaburo; Asai, Ayumi; Hayashi, Hiroo; Ueno, Satoru

    2012-07-01

    Solar activity is known to cyclically change in 11 years. However, the amplitude of the variation is not constant but modulated in long term span. The long term variation of solar activity is thought as one of the origin of the global warming or cooling of the earth. In Kyoto University, a continuous synoptic observation of solar chromospheres in CaIIK monochromatic light had been done during the years 1926-1969. CaIIK spectroheliographic images and white light images had been taken on daily base. All the images were recorded in photographic plates. In view of the long term span of the data and the uniqueness of full solar disk images, we think that the data is scientifically a very valuable one. Since we have a risk of aging and degradation of these old photographic plates, we have started a project to digitize all the plates and develop a digital image database for public use via IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) system. Our plan of the project consists of six stages. (1) Compilation of meta-database and its publication. (2) Digitization of all the plates and development of image database. (3) Visualization of long term solar chromospheric variation. (4) Measurement of solar plage area and brightness. (5) Comparative study between variations of sunspot number and plage activity. (6) Study on the long term character of terrestrial upper atmosphere heating with the solar plage activity as a proxy of solar EUV irradiation. In the present paper, we will give the basic plan, the present status of our project and some preliminary scientific results.

  15. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications. PMID:16556480

  16. A simple method for monitoring mutagenicity of river water. Mutagens in Yodo River system, Kyoto-Osaka

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Hayatsu, Hikoya )

    1990-04-01

    Blue cotton is a cotton preparation, bearing copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate as a covalently linked ligand, and is an adsorbent specific for compounds with three or greater number of fused rings. Due to this special property, blue cotton has been used for extracting mutagenic polycyclic compounds from crude materials. In early work, the authors gave a brief account of the results of monitoring river-water mutagenicity with blue cotton. Recently they have improved the quality of the adsorbent; rayon in place of cotton was employed as the support for the ligand, and a more powerful adsorbent, blue rayon, which contains 2-3 times greater amount of the ligand than blue cotton, was prepared. In this paper the authors report the use of the blue-rayon method to detect mutagenic compounds in the Yodo river, which flows through the cities of Kyoto and Osaka and is a major source of drinking water for the 10 million people in the area.

  17. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  18. IG/OG program for generating and displaying NASTRAN input and output data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishima, R.; Myojin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A software system was provided for structural analysis fields using NASTRAN. The HITAC users in Japan can use IG/OG (input generator/output generator) program for NASTRAN. The IG/OG saves time required to make a structure analysis for interpreting NASTRAN results.

  19. The Promotion of Peace Education through Guides in Peace Museums. A Case Study of the Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanigawa, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how peace education at a peace museum is promoted by a volunteer guide service for visitors. Peace museums are places where many materials related to war and peace history are on display. To support the learning experience of museum visitors, many peace museums in Japan provide a volunteer guide service. The Kyoto Museum for…

  20. 2008 OG19: a highly elongated Trans-Neptunian object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.

    2016-03-01

    From two observing runs during the 2014 summer at the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain) and at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada (Spain), we were able to derive CCD photometry of the Trans-Neptunian object 2008 OG19. We analysed the time series and obtained a double-peaked light curve with a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.437 ± 0.011 mag and a rotational period of 8.727 ± 0.003 h. This implies that this object is very elongated, closely resembling the case of Varuna. The photometry also allowed us to obtain an absolute magnitude in the R band of 4.39 ± 0.07 mag. From this result, we estimated an equivalent diameter of 2008 OG19 of 619^{+56}_{-113} km using an average albedo for scattered disc objects. Finally, we interpreted the results under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and found a lower limit for the density of 544^{+42}_{-4} kg m-3. However, a more likely density is 609 ± 4 kg m-3 using an aspect angle of 60°, which corresponds to the most likely configuration for the spin axis with respect to the observer assuming random orientations.

  1. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, John S.; Portmann, Robert W.; Grabiel, Peter M.; Moomaw, William R.; Galloway, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy. PMID:23440192

  2. A post-Kyoto partner: considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L; Ravishankara, A R; Daniel, John S; Portmann, Robert W; Grabiel, Peter M; Moomaw, William R; Galloway, James N

    2013-03-19

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy. PMID:23440192

  3. Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman

    2002-08-15

    The global carbon cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and management of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and management to alter the magnitude of forest-carbon stocks and the direction of forest-carbon fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as carbon 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing carbon offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including carbon sinks in efforts to address global warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of carbon sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. Carbon sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals. PMID:12460486

  4. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  5. Preoperative systemic therapy in locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Toi, Masakazu; Benson, John R; Winer, Eric P; Forbes, John F; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Golshan, Mehra; Robertson, John F R; Sasano, Hironobu; Cole, Bernard F; Chow, Louis W C; Pegram, Mark D; Han, Wonshik; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Ikeda, Tadashi; Kanao, Shotaro; Lee, Eun-Sook; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Ohno, Shinji; Partridge, Ann H; Rouzier, Roman; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Sugie, Tomoharu; Yamauchi, Akira; Inamoto, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Data reviewed at the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference (KBCCC) showed that preoperative systemic therapy (PST) could optimize surgery through the utilization of information relating to pre- and post-PST tumor stage, therapeutic sensitivity, and treatment-induced changes in the biological characteristics of the tumor. As such, it was noted that the biological characteristics of the tumor, such as hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, histological grade, cell proliferative activity, mainly defined by the Ki67 labeling index, and the tumor's multi-gene signature, should be considered in the planning of both systemic and local therapy. Furthermore, the timing of axillary sentinel lymph node diagnosis (i.e., before or after the PST) was also noted to be critical in that it may influence the likelihood of axillary preservation, even in node positive cases. In addition, axillary diagnosis with ultrasound and concomitant fine needle aspiration cytology or core needle biopsy (CNB) was reported to contribute to the construction of a treatment algorithm for patient-specific or individualized axillary surgery. Following PST, planning for breast surgery should therefore be based on tumor subtype, tumor volume and extent, therapeutic response to PST, and patient preference. Nomograms for predicting nodal status and drug sensitivity were also recognized as a tool to support decision-making in the selection of surgical treatment. Overall, review of data at the KBCCC showed that PST increases the likelihood of patients receiving localized surgery and individualized treatment regimens. PMID:23143284

  6. beta. -adrenergic receptor binding characteristics and responsiveness in cultured Wistar-Kyoto rat arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jazayeri, A.; Meyer, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    The tone of arterial blood vessels is regulated by the catecholamines through their receptors on arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMC). ..beta..-/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors of ASMC mediate vasodilation through agonist mediated c-AMP production. Previous reports have described these receptors on freshly isolated blood vessels. This study demonstrates the presence of ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on cultured rat ASMC and that these receptors are functional. ..beta..-adrenergic receptor binding was measured using (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding to the membrane of cultured ASMC from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. The ASMC ..beta..-adrenergic receptors have a Kd of 0.56 +/- 0.16 nM and a Bmax of 57.2 +/- 21.7 fmol/mg protein. Competition binding studies revealed a much greater affinity of these receptors for epinephrine than norepinephrine, indicating the preponderance of a ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype. Isoproterenol stimulation of cultured ASMC resulted in a 14 +/- 7 fold increase in intracellular c-AMP content of these cells indicating these receptors are functional. ..beta..-adrenergic receptors of cultured ASMC provide an excellent system in which the association between hypertension and observed ..beta..-adrenergic receptor differences can be further explored.

  7. Experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system at the Kyoto Univ. critical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pyeon, C. H.; Yagi, T.; Lim, J. Y.; Misawa, T.

    2012-07-01

    The experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system (ADS) is conducted in the Kyoto Univ. Critical Assembly (KUCA). The experiments are carried out in both the critical and subcritical states for attaining the reaction rates of the thorium capture and fission reactions. In the critical system, the thorium plate irradiation experiment is carried out for the thorium capture and fission reactions. From the results of the measurements, the thorium fission reactions are obtained apparently in the critical system, and the C/E values of reaction rates show the accuracy of relative difference of about 30%. In the ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons and 100 MeV protons, the subcritical experiments are carried out in the thorium-loaded cores to obtain the capture reaction rates through the measurements of {sup 115}In(n, {gamma}){sup 116m}In reactions. The results of the experiments reveal the difference between the reaction rate distributions for the change in not only the neutron spectrum but also the external neutron source. The comparison between the measured and calculated reaction rate distributions demonstrates a discrepancy of the accuracy of reaction rate analyses of thorium capture reactions through the thorium-loaded ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons. Hereafter, kinetic experiments are planned to be carried out to deduce the delayed neutron decay constants and subcriticality using the pulsed neutron method. (authors)

  8. Experience With A Small Scale All Digital CT And MRI Clinical Service Unit: Present Status Of Kyoto University Hospital Image Database And Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, K.; Komori, M.; Nakano, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Kyoto University Hospital is currently developing a prototype PAC system named KIDS (Kyoto univ. hosp. Image Database and communication System). The present goal of the system is to achieve the totally digital CT and MRI unit in the radiological department. Because KIDS is designed as a first step of a long-range plan towards a hospital wide system, it includes all of the basic functions required in realizing the PAC system, such as communication networks, a long term archiving unit, a laser film printer and image workstations. The system concept, architecture and current status are described in this paper. Our early experience and evaluations with the system in a clinical environment are also mentioned.

  9. Differential expression of MYB gene (OgMYB1) determines color patterning in floral tissue of Oncidium Gower Ramsey.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-03-01

    The yellow coloration pattern in Oncidium floral lip associated with red sepal and petal tissues is an ideal model to study coordinate regulation of anthocyanin synthesis. In this study, chromatography analysis revealed that the red coloration in floral tissues was composed of malvidin-3-O-galactoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside compounds. By contrary, these pigments were not detected in yellow lip tissue. Four key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, i.e. chalcone synthase (OgCHS), chalcone isomerase (OgCHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (OgDFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (OgANS) were isolated and their expression patterns were characterized. Northern blot analysis confirmed that although they are active during floral development, OgCHI and OgDFR genes are specifically down-regulated in yellow lip tissue. Bombardment with OgCHI and OgDFR genes into lip tissue driven by a flower-specific promoter, Pchrc (chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated gene), demonstrated that transient expression of these two genes resulted in anthocyanin production in yellow lip. Further analysis of a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, OgMYB1, revealed that although it is actively expressed during floral development, it is not expressed in yellow lip tissue. Transient expression of OgMYB1 in lip tissues by bombardment can also induce formation of red pigments through the activation of OgCHI and OgDFR transcription. These results demonstrate that differential expression of OgMYB1 is critical to determine the color pattern of floral organ in Oncidium Gower Ramsey. PMID:18161007

  10. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  11. Nuclear orphan receptor Nor-1 contributes to depressive behavior in the Wistar-Kyoto rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Daniel J; Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Shukla, Pradeep K; Volenec, Andreja; Redei, Eva E

    2010-11-29

    The current study explored the effects of prolonged antidepressant treatment on mRNA levels of two nuclear receptors in specific brain regions of an animal model of depression, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Both nuclear receptors have been implicated in the development or treatment of depression. The expression of nuclear orphan receptor-1 (Nor-1), a member of the NR4A nuclear orphan receptor family, is induced by electroconvulsive shock, an effective treatment for depression. Deficit in the levels or function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) found in depressed patients has been causally implicated in depression, as this deficit is normalized by antidepressant treatments. Baseline levels of amygdalar Nor-1 and GR mRNA were higher in the WKYs compared to the comparison control Sprague-Dawley rats (SD). Prolonged treatment with the antidepressant desipramine (DMI) decreased the expression of both transcripts in the WKY strain concomitantly with decreased immobility in the forced swim test (FST) of depressive behavior. Using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted against Nor-1, we investigated the direct contribution of elevated Nor-1 expression in the amygdala of WKY to their exaggerated depressive behavior in the FST. After validating the shRNA targeting of Nor-1 in vitro, Nor-1 shRNA containing vector was infused intracerebroventricularly, using a linear polyethylenimine (PEI)-containing in vivo gene delivery system. Repeated administration of Nor-1 shRNA ameliorated the depressive behavior of WKYs in the FST and decreased amygdalar Nor-1 mRNA levels without affecting GR mRNA levels. These data demonstrate that brain region-specific changes in GR expression in response to DMI are strain dependent and that elevated amygdalar Nor-1 expression can contribute to depressive behavior in the WKY model of depression. PMID:20851110

  12. The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin enhances sleep continuity in fear-conditioned Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Benjamin M.; Gajewski, Nicholas D.; Mann, Graziella L.; Kubin, Leszek; Morrison, Adrian R.; Ross, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Fragmentation of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is well described in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and likely has significant functional consequences. Fear-conditioned rodents may offer an attractive model of the changes in sleep that characterize PTSD. Following fear conditioning (FC), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a strain known to be particularly stress-sensitive, have increased REMS fragmentation that can be quantified as a shift in the distribution of REMS episodes towards the more frequent occurrence of sequential REMS (inter-REMS episode interval ≤ 3 min) vs. single REMS (interval > 3 min). The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin has demonstrated efficacy in normalizing sleep in PTSD. To determine the utility of fear-conditioned WKY rats as a model of sleep disturbances typical of PTSD and as a platform for the development of new treatments, we tested the hypothesis that prazosin would reduce REMS fragmentation in fear-conditioned WKY rats. Sleep parameters and freezing (a standard measure of anxiety in rodents) were quantified at baseline and on days 1, 7, and 14 following FC, with either prazosin (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle injections administered prior to testing in a between-group design. Fear conditioning was achieved by pairing tones with a mild electric foot shock (1.0 mA, 0.5 s). One, 7, and 14 days following FC, prazosin or vehicle was injected, the tone was presented, freezing was measured, and then sleep was recorded from 11 AM to 3 PM. WKY rats given prazosin, compared to those given vehicle, had a lower amount of seq-REMS relative to total REMS time 14 days after FC. They also had a shorter non-REMS latency and fewer non-REMS arousals at baseline and on days 1 and 7 after FC. Thus, in FC rats, prazosin reduced both REMS fragmentation and non-REMS discontinuity. PMID:24246572

  13. The influence of pharmacogenetics on fatty liver disease in the wistar and kyoto rats: a combined transcriptomic and metabonomic study.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Julian L; Scott, James; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2007-01-01

    Although fatty liver disease is caused by a number of toxicological insults and the metabolic syndrome, the exact mechanisms by which many of these pathophysiological stimulii induce fatty liver are unknown. The rapid and profound steatosis caused by orotic acid, resulting from an impairment in the production of ApoB, has been investigated in the Wistar strain rat using a combined transcriptomic and metabonomic/metabolomic approach. Analysis of liver tissue from rats exposed to orotic acid for 1, 3, and 14 days was performed by DNA microarrays and high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy based metabonomics of both tissue extracts and intact tissue (n = 3). Data were analyzed using a combination of ANOVA and principal components analysis, used as a data reduction tool to visualize the most perturbed transcripts and metabolites. Orotic acid produced a profound 8-fold increase in total lipids, and in particular increases in resonances associated with polyunsaturated fats (CH=CH and CH2CH=CH groups). This was accompanied by increases in the concentrations of trimethylamine-oxide (TMAO), betaine, choline, and phosphocholine, as well as a relative decrease in glucose and glycogen. At the transcriptional level, perturbations were detected in both oxidative stress and osmoregulation/pH homeostasis. However, this contrasts with a previous transcriptomic/metabolic study of fatty liver disease in a combined data set of Wistar (out-bred) and Kyoto (in-bred) strains of rats, with only 4 transcripts being found to be in common between the two analyses. This emphasizes the need to understand how strain background interacts with a given toxic lesion or genetic modification. PMID:17203948

  14. Detrimental effects of acute nicotine on the response-withholding performance of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Gabriel J.; Wood-Isenberg, Gabriel; Watterson, Elizabeth; Sanabria, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a higher prevalence of smoking, which may be related to potential therapeutic effects of nicotine on ADHD symptoms. Whereas nicotine offers robust improvements in sustained attention, the effects of nicotine on impulsivity are unclear. Objectives The present study examined the effects of nicotine on the response inhibition capacity of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD, compared to that of a normotensive control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) using the Fixed Minimum Interval (FMI) schedule of reinforcement. Methods Tests were conducted following acute injections of subcutaneous nicotine (0.1 – 0.6 mg/kg). On each FMI trial, the first lever press initiated an inter-response time (IRT); a head entry into a food receptacle terminated the IRT. IRTs longer than 6 s were intermittently reinforced with sucrose. Results A model that assumes that only a proportion of IRTs are sensitive to the timing contingencies of the FMI provided a close fit to the data, regardless of strain or treatment. No baseline difference in FMI performance was observed between SHR and WKY. Nicotine reduced the duration of timed IRTs and the duration of latencies to the IRT-initiating lever press similarly for both strains. Nicotine dose-dependently increased the proportion of timed IRTs; the dose-response curve was shifted leftwards in SHR relative to WKY. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine (a) reduces response-inhibition capacity (b) enhances the reinforcement efficacy of sucrose, and (c) dose-dependently enhances attention-like sensitivity to contingencies of reinforcement, through mechanisms that are yet unknown. PMID:24414609

  15. Effect of renal sympathetic nerve on adrenergically and angiotensin II-induced renal vasoconstriction in normal Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of renal sympathetic innervation on adrenergically and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced renal vasoconstriction in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Methods Forty-eight WKY rats were treated with either losartan (10 mg/kg/day p.o.) or carvedilol (5 mg/kg/day p.o.) or a combination of them (10 mg/kg/day + 5 mg/kg/day p.o.) for 7 days. On day 8, the rats were anaesthetized, and renal vasoconstrictor experiments were carried out. A group of rats was subjected to acute unilateral renal denervation during the acute study. Changes in the renal vasoconstrictor responses were determined in terms of reductions in renal blood flow caused by Ang II, noradrenaline (NA), and methoxamine (ME). Results In normal animals, losartan decreased (P < 0.05) the renal vasoconstrictor response to Ang II but not to NA or ME. Carvedilol treatment, however, blunted (P < 0.05) the renal vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II and adrenergic agonists. Combination of losartan and carvedilol blunted (P < 0.05) the renal vasoconstrictor response to Ang II but augmented the responses to NA and ME (all P < 0.05). Interestingly, when denervated rats were treated with the same combination, there was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the renal vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II and adrenergic agonists. Conclusions Data suggest that the renal sympathetic nerve contributes to adrenergic agonist-mediated renal vasoconstrictions in normal rats. The data further indicate an interactive relationship between renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems in modulating adrenergically and Ang II-induced renal vasoconstriction in WKY rats. PMID:21047287

  16. Test observations of the Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II at the University of Hawaii 88-in and Subaru Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hajime; Hattori, Takashi; Kawai, Atsushi; Ozaki, Shinobu; Kosugi, George; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tadashi; Ishigaki, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Motomi; Sasaki, Minoru; Shimono, Atsushi; Okita, Yoshiko; Sudo, Jun; Takeyama, Norihide

    2004-09-01

    In order to investigate the physical conditions of ionized gas in galaxies, as well as its kinematics, we have developed the Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II (3DII). It is a multi-mode instrument designed for Cassegrain focus, including integral field spectrograph (IFS) and Fabry-Perot imager modes. We have designed it compact so that we can mount it at 2-m class telescopes as well as at 8-m Subaru telescope. We have succeeded in test observations of the 3DII. In the IFS mode the spatial resolution of ~ 0".5 and 0".4 was obtained in 30-minute exposures at University of Hawaii 88-inch (UH88) and Subaru, respectively, in relatively good weather conditions. Each of 37 × 37 microlenses subtends ~ 0".1 in Subaru's case. This samples well the image size. A wider field of view is emphasized in the case of UH88. Because our micropupil spectroscopy is free from a slit effect, we have reached the accuracy of an order of one tenth of a pixel for deriving velocity fields in terms of velocity center while the full width at half maximum of the instrumental profile corresponds to two pixels. At Subaru we have used a container designed in a collaboration with National Astronomical Observatory, Japan: it fits with a robotic instrument exchanger. The containerincludes two heat exchangers to keep its surface cool and void degrading the image quality. We have established effective observational equences by realizing a software interface with Subaru operating system. ome results from target observations are shown.

  17. /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

    1988-06-01

    To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

  18. Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ilangkovan, Menaga; Jantan, Ibrahim; Mesaik, Mohamed Ahmed; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A-stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for

  19. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  20. Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilangkovan, Menaga; Jantan, Ibrahim; Mesaik, Mohamed Ahmed; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A–stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for

  1. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  2. Nisin-Triggered Activity of Lys44, the Secreted Endolysin from Oenococcus oeni Phage fOg44▿

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, João Gil; Guerreiro-Pereira, Maria Carolina; Costa, Sérgio Fernandes; São-José, Carlos; Santos, Mário Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic resistance of Oenococcus oeni cells to the secreted endolysin from oenophage fOg44 (Lys44) was investigated. Experiments with several antimicrobials support the hypothesis that the full activity of Lys44 requires sudden ion-nonspecific dissipation of the proton motive force, an event undertaken by the fOg44 holin in the phage infection context. PMID:17981964

  3. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  4. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durì, G.

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS (Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude Mw = 6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 12 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 93 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy, as shown in Fig. 1 (Bragato et al., 2011; Saraò et al., 2010). Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps" (Bragato et al., 2010; Pesaresi et al., 2008). SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. A new OGS-CRS real time seismological website (http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) has also been operative since several years.

  5. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  6. From Black Power to Hip-Hop: Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin V.

    2005-01-01

    While history for most conjures up images of places and experiences far removed, for Dr. Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar, the field provides a "wonderful medium" to illuminate contemporary issues as well. Much of Ogbar's current research centers on events occurring in the latter half of the 20th century, such as the civil rights and Black power movements as…

  7. Decouple a coupled KdV system of Nutku and Og˜uz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Heng Chun; Liu, Q. P.

    2002-02-01

    A coupled KdV system with a free parameter proposed by Nutku and Og˜uz is considered. It is shown that the system passes the WTC's Painlevé test for arbitrary value of the parameter. A further analysis yields that the parameter can be removed and the system can be decoupled.

  8. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durı, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 15 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite on several workstations plus a SUN Cluster as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. The OGS-CRS Real Time Seismological website (RTS, http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) operative since several years was initially developed in the framework of the Italian DPC-INGV S3 Project: the RTS website shows classic earthquake locations

  9. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  10. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed. PMID:12408308

  11. Inter-Strain Differences in Default Mode Network: A Resting State fMRI Study on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat and Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Yi-Ling; Peng, Shin-Lei; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ho, Kung-Chu; Wang, Fu-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Genetic divergences among mammalian strains are presented phenotypically in various aspects of physical appearance such as body shape and facial features. Yet how genetic diversity is expressed in brain function still remains unclear. Functional connectivity has been shown to be a valuable approach in characterizing the relationship between brain functions and behaviors. Alterations in the brain default mode network (DMN) have been found in human neuropsychological disorders. In this study we selected the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY), two inbred rat strains with close genetic origins, to investigate variations in the DMN. Our results showed that the major DMN differences are the activities in hippocampal area and caudate putamen region. This may be correlated to the hyperactive behavior of the SHR strain. Advanced animal model studies on variations in the DMN may have potential to shed new light on translational medicine, especially with regard to neuropsychological disorders. PMID:26898170

  12. The Kyoto protocol and payments for tropical forest: An interdisciplinary method for estimating carbon-offset supply and increasing the feasibility of a carbon market under the CDM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Kerr, Suzi; Hughes, R. Flint; Liu, Shuguang; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Schimel, David; Tosi, Joseph; Watson, Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Protecting tropical forests under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could reduce the cost of emissions limitations set in Kyoto. However, while society must soon decide whether or not to use tropical forest-based offsets, evidence regarding tropical carbon sinks is sparse. This paper presents a general method for constructing an integrated model (based on detailed historical, remote sensing and field data) that can produce land-use and carbon baselines, predict carbon sequestration supply to a carbon-offsets market and also help to evaluate optimal market rules. Creating such integrated models requires close collaboration between social and natural scientists. Our project combines varied disciplinary expertise (in economics, ecology and geography) with local knowledge in order to create high-quality, empirically grounded, integrated models for Costa Rica.

  13. Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of the Bonn and Marrakech decisions and their effect on the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiora, C. della

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this document is to present an overview of recent climate change developments, in particular with regards to carbon markets under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The document is divided into three sections. The first section describes the history of the climate change negotiations. Section two presents an overview of the recent decisions adopted at the last international meetings (Bonn Agreements and Marrakech Accord), which have improved the odds of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002. The third section analyzes the carbon credit market. The first part of this section briefly presents the available information regarding real carbon credit transactions, while the second section focuses on the literature review of several theoretical models and presents the theoretical estimates of the price and size of the carbon market.

  14. PREFACE: MEM05: The 3rd International Workshop on Mechano-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Kyoto, Japan, 17 20 July 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

    2005-12-01

    One of the important challenges facing the international scientific community at the beginning of the third millennium is how to manage the world's energy resources properly. Superconductivity will provide one of the strategies employed to avoid an energy crisis. Of course the ITER Fusion Tokomak that is to be built in France provides an exciting focus for the whole superconductivity community. In parallel, we can expect that other key technologies for superconductivity such as large capacity transmission cables, energy storage systems, and generators and motors will have a real impact in technologically advanced countries. There is broadly a consensus that the prototype stage for high-current high-field superconducting applications is largely completed, and the required performance has been demonstrated. However, before we move to full industrialization of large-scale superconducting technologies, feasibility studies suggest there are two types of problem that remain. The first is the development of high performance and low cost materials which are fully optimized in terms of critical current, low ac loss and high strength. The second is the establishment of optimal procedures for system design accompanying scale up. As the system design is dependent on material development, there is a critical need to study the key issues for developing high performance superconducting materials. Under the activities of the NEDO Grant Project (Applied Superconductivity), MEM05 was organized by Professor Osamura (Kyoto University), Professor Itoh (NIMS), Professor Hojo (Kyoto University) and Professor Matsumoto (Kyoto University) and held in Kyoto, Japan. The focus for the workshop was the elimination of grain boundary weak links, the creation of strong flux pinning sites, the optimal arrangement of filaments and barriers for reducing ac losses, and the design of high strength strain tolerant composite conductors. Five subsessions were held at MEM05. • Mechanical properties of

  15. Differences in monthly variation, cause, and place of injury between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures: 6-year survey (2008–2013) in Kyoto prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nagae, Masateru; Oka, Yoshinobu; Sawada, Koshiro; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The incidence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures reportedly differ by age and regionality. We investigated differences in monthly variations of the occurrence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures as well as place and cause of injury in the Kyoto prefecture over a 6-year period. Methods Fracture type (neck or trochanteric fracture), age, sex, place of injury, and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥ 65 years with hip fractures that occurred between 2008 and 2013 who were treated in 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 in an urban area and 8 in a rural area). The proportion of sick beds in the participating hospitals was 24.7% (4,151/16,781). Monthly variations in the number of patients were investigated in urban and rural areas in addition to the entire Kyoto prefecture. Place of injury was classified as indoors or outdoors, and cause of injury was categorized as simple fall, accident, or uncertain. Results There were 2,826 patients with neck fractures (mean age, 82.1 years) and 3,305 patients with trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). There were similarities in the monthly variation of the number of fractures in addition to the place and cause of injury between neck and trochanteric fractures. Indoors (approximately 74%) and simple falls (approximately 78%) were the primary place and cause of injury, respectively. The place of injury was not significantly different by fracture type with each age group. Significantly more patients with neck fracture had “uncertain” as the cause of injury than trochanteric fracture in all age groups. Conclusions Based on the results of the present study, the injury pattern might not have a great effect on the susceptibility difference between neck and trochanteric fractures. PMID:27252738

  16. Antidepressant-like activity and cardioprotective effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB694 in socially stressed Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Vacondio, Federica; Rossi, Stefano; Callegari, Sergio; Macchi, Emilio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In humans, depression is often triggered by prolonged exposure to psychosocial stressors and is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Mounting evidence suggests a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of both emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. Here, we examined cardiac activity in a rodent model of social stress-induced depression and investigated whether pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which terminates signaling of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts antidepressant-like and cardioprotective effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to five weeks of repeated social stress or control procedure. Starting from the third week, they received daily administration of the selective FAAH inhibitor URB694 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Cardiac electrical activity was recorded by radiotelemetry. Repeated social stress triggered biological and behavioral changes that mirror symptoms of human depression, such as (i) reductions in body weight gain and sucrose solution preference, (ii) hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and (iii) increased immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats showed (i) alterations in heart rate daily rhythm and cardiac autonomic neural regulation, (ii) a larger incidence of spontaneous arrhythmias, and (iii) signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Daily treatment with URB694 (i) increased central and peripheral anandamide levels, (ii) corrected stress-induced alterations of biological and behavioral parameters, and (iii) protected the heart against the adverse effects of social stress. Repeated social stress in Wistar Kyoto rats reproduces aspects of human depression/cardiovascular comorbidity. Pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling might be a promising strategy for the treatment of these comorbid conditions. PMID:26391492

  17. The Spontaneously Hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto Rat Models of ADHD Exhibit Sub-Regional Differences in Dopamine Release and Uptake in the Striatum and Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Erin M.; Pomerleau, Francois; Huettl, Peter; Russell, Vivienne A.; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Glaser, Paul E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR/NCrl), which best represents the combined subtype (ADHD-C). Recent evidence has revealed that a progenitor strain, the Wistar Kyoto from Charles River Laboratories (WKY/NCrl), is useful as a model of the inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI) and the Wistar Kyoto from Harlan Laboratories (WKY/NHsd) and the Sprague Dawley (SD) have been suggested as controls. Dopamine (DA) dysfunction in the striatum (Str) and nucleus accumbens core (NAc) is thought to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of ADHD but data obtained with the SHR is equivocal. Using high-speed chronoamperometric recordings with carbon fiber microelectrodes, we found that the SHR/NCrl displayed decreased KCl-evoked DA release versus the WKY/NCrl model of ADHD-PI in the dorsal Str. The WKY/NCrl and the WKY/NHsd control did not differ from each other; however, the control SD released less DA than the WKY/NCrl model of ADHD-PI in the dorsal Str and less than the control WKY/NHsd in the intermediate Str. The SHR/NCrl had faster DA uptake in the ventral Str and NAc versus both control strains, while the WKY/NCrl model of ADHD-PI exhibited faster DA uptake in the NAc versus the SD control. These results suggest that increased surface expression of DA transporters may explain the more rapid uptake of DA in the Str and NAc of these rodent models of ADHD. PMID:22960443

  18. European Forest Carbon Mass Balances Estimated with Remote Sensing and the Production Efficiency Model C-Fix: A hot Future Unfolds for Kyoto Protocol Implementation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Verstraeten, W. W.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon emission and -fixation fluxes are key variables to guide climate change stakeholders in the use of remediation techniques as well as in the follow-up of the Kyoto protocol. A common approach to estimate forest carbon fluxes is based on the forest harvest inventory approach. However, harvest and logging inventories have their limitations in time and space. Moreover, carbon inventories are limited to the estimation of net primary productivity (NPP). Additionally, no information is available when applying inventory based methods, on the magnitude of water limitation. Finally, natural forest ecosystems are rarely included in inventory based methods. To develop a Kyoto Protocol policy support tool, a good perspective towards a generalised and methodologically consistent application is offered by expert systems based on satellite remote sensing. They estimate vegetation carbon fixation using a minimum of meteorological inputs and overcome the limitations mentioned for inventory based methods. The core module of a typical expert system is a production efficiency model. In our case we used the C-Fix model. C-Fix estimates carbon mass fluxes e.g, gross primary productivity (GPP), NPP and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for various spatial scales and regions of interest (ROI's). Besides meteorological inputs, the C-Fix model is fed with data obtained by vegetation RTF (Radiative Transfer Model) inversion. The inversion is based on the use of look-up tables (LUT's). The LUT allows the extraction of per pixel biome type (e.g. forests) frequencies and the value of a biophysical variable and its uncertainty at the pixel level. The extraction by RTF inversion also allows a land cover fuzzy classification based on six major biomes. At the same time fAPAR is extracted and its uncertainty quantified. Based on the biome classification, radiation use efficiencies are stratified according to biome type to be used in C-Fix. Water limitation is incorporated both at the GPP level

  19. Activation of defense response pathways by OGs and Flg22 elicitors in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Denoux, Carine; Galletti, Roberta; Mammarella, Nicole; Gopalan, Suresh; Werck, Danièle; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Dewdney, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10 day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Flg22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose dependent, but even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of aminocyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response. PMID:19825551

  20. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  1. Microbial population dynamics during startup of a full-scale anaerobic digester treating industrial food waste in Kyoto eco-energy project.

    PubMed

    Ike, Michihiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyano, Tomoki; Liu, Tong Tong; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Kadoshin, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the 150-day startup period, coffee grounds as a main food waste, along with potato, kelp and boiled beans, tofu, bean curd lees, and deep-fried bean curd were fed to the digestion process step-by-step (max. 40t/d). Finally, the methane yield reached 360m3/t-feed with 40days' retention time, although temporary accumulation of propionate was observed. Eubacterial communities that formed in the thermophilic digestion tank differed greatly from both thermophilic and mesophilic types of seed sludge. Results suggest that the Actinomyces/Thermomonospora and Ralstonia/Shewanella were contributors for hydrolyzation and degradation of food waste into volatile fatty acids. Acetate-utilizing methanogens, Methanosaeta, were dominant in seed sludges of both types, but they decreased drastically during processing in the digestion tank. Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter/Methanobacterium were, respectively, possible main contributors for methane production from acetate and H2 plus CO2. PMID:20129780

  2. The medical-irradiation characteristics for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    At the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor, the mix irradiation of thermal and epi-thermal neutrons, and the solo irradiation of epi-thermal neutrons are available additionally to the thermal neutron irradiation, and then the neutron capture therapy (NCT) at this facility became more flexible, after the update in 1996. The estimation of the depth dose distributions in NCT clinical irradiation, were performed for the standard irradiation modes of thermal, mixed and epi-thermal neutrons, from the both sides of experiment and calculation. On the assumption that the 10B concentration in tumor part was 40 ppm and the ratio of tumor to normal tissue was 3.5, the advantage depth were estimated to 5.4, 6.0, and 8.0, for the respective standard irradiation modes. It was confirmed that the various irradiation conditions can be selected according to the target-volume conditions, such as size, depth, etc. Besides, in the viewpoint of the radiation shielding for patient, it was confirmed that the whole-body exposure is effectively reduced by the new clinical collimators, compared with the old one. PMID:12408307

  3. Effect of sodium depletion on the release of /sup 3/Hnorepinephrine from central and peripheral tissue of Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, M.J.; Xue, C.S.; Badino, L.; Westfall, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    To study the relationship between sodium intake, the sympathetic nervous system, and hypertension, a study was made of the effects of a 7-9 day dietary restriction of sodium in three different ages of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Field-stimulated (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine ( (/sup 3/H)NE) release was measured in portal vein, anterior hypothalamus, and the A2 region of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of 5- to 6-, 10- to 11-, and 28- to 30- week-old SHR and age-matched WKY. A low-sodium diet (0.05% Na+, control 0.5% Na+) significantly lowered stimulated (/sup 3/H)NE release from portal vein and anterior hypothalamus in SHR and WKY at all three ages. However, release from the A2 region was not altered by sodium restriction. The results of the present study suggest that lowered dietary sodium can selectively alter norepinephrine release in both the peripheral and central sympathetic nervous system of SHR and WKY. The results also suggest that the SHR at 5-6 weeks are more sensitive to altered dietary sodium than are age-matched WKY.

  4. Differential Responses to Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Effects of Antioxidant (Honey) Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N. S.; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types, severity, and complications of diseases as well as strains may influence responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress. PMID:21673929

  5. Climate change: The impact of the third conference of the parties at Kyoto on the U.S. Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, D.; Nisbet, M.; O`Hare, A.

    1998-12-31

    The paper provides, as background, a brief review of the structure of the US cement industry. It outlines the growth trends of the industry over the last 20 years. It describes the sources and significance of cement imports in the US market, and the importance of exports to Canadian cement producers. The sources of CO{sub 2}, the primary greenhouse gas emitted in the cement manufacturing process, are explained and the impact of improved energy efficiency and fuel switching on CO{sub 2} emissions per ton of product are discussed. The aspects of the Kyoto Protocol relevant to the US cement industry are analyzed as are the types of impacts they can be expected to have on: cement trade, domestic cement production, long term growth of the US cement industry, and US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper projects the US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions to 2010, taking into account anticipated improvements in energy efficiency. It discusses manufacturing process and changes that could be made to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper also covers the types of product modifications that might be made to reduce the embodied CO{sub 2} content. Where possible the potential reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from process and product changes are quantified.

  6. Pharmacologic analysis of 7-O-ethyl-fangchinoline-induced vasodilation properties in isolated perfused common carotid arteries of Wistar Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, M; Zenda, H; Chiba, S

    1991-10-01

    Using the cannula insertion method, we investigated vascular effects of 7-O-ethyl-fangchinoline (TJN-220) derived from tetrandrine in isolated and perfused common carotid arteries of Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A single dose of TJN-220 caused a vasodilation in a dose-related manner in arteries preconstricted by phenylephrine. The vasodilation was not inhibited by propranolol, a potent beta-adrenoceptor antagonist. A potent alpha-antagonist bunazosin inhibited the vasoconstriction to norepinephrine while TJN-220 did not modify the norepinephrine-induced constriction, indicating TJN-220 had no alpha-blocking activity. A potent calcium entry blocker, diltiazem, markedly attenuated the KCl-induced vasoconstriction, and TJN-220 slightly but significantly attenuated the KCl-induced one in large doses. The vasodilation of TJN-220 was not abolished after removing the endothelium by an intraluminal administration of saponin, although the ACh-induced dilation was completely abolished by it. A comparison of vascular responses in WKY and SHR revealed no significant differences. From these results, it is concluded that 1) a new tetrandrine derivative, TJN-220 has relatively long-lasting vasorelaxant properties, 2) the dilatory effects might not be related to adrenergic, muscarinic or endothelium-dependent mechanisms, and 3) the effects might partially be due to calcium entry antagonistic properties. PMID:1806292

  7. [Prof. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Kyoto University and his achievements in orthopaedic surgery in the Meiji era of Japan (Part 5, Faculty members and training of doctors from Nagoya)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2010-09-01

    During the years when Dr. M. Matsuoka was professor of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University (June, 1907-January, 1914), seven doctors worked as his faculty members and founded the base of the current development and reputation of the Department. After resignation from their academic positions, they served in orthopaedic practice in several areas in Japan where orthopaedic surgery was not well recognized. In addition, Prof. Matsuoka trained three doctors from the Aichi Prefectural Medical College (School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in the orthopaedic practice, including x-ray technique and they contributed to the development of orthopaedic surgery in the areas of Nagoya city and Tokai. Backgrounds and achievements of these ten doctors are described. PMID:21560319

  8. Comparative assessment of an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT filariasis test: a study of Myanmar migrants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Porksakorn, Chantima; Junpee, Alisa; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Poovorawan, Yong

    2003-12-01

    Detection of circulating filarial antigen has now emerged as an alternative method for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. We compared two antigen detection assays, an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT (immunochromatography) Filariasis test, for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in migrant Myanmar workers in Tak province, Western Thailand. A total of 337 Myanmars participated in this study. The microfilarial rate was 3.3%. The Og4C3 ELISA could detect 19.1% of bancroftian filariasis while the ICT test detected 12.7%. Both antigen assays could detect all microfilaremics. The Og4C3 ELISA detected 14.8% of amicrofilaremics while the ICT test identified 8.1%. Those who were positive for the ICT test were also positive by the Og4C3 ELISA. Those Og4C3 positive cases, that were ICT negative (ICT-ve/Og4C3+ve) had statistically significant (p < 0.05, unpaired t-test) lower Og4C3 antigen levels (409.5 units, range 117-2,389) than those that were ICT positive (ICT+ve/Og4C3+ve) (5,252.0 units, range 130-28,062). Our results emphasize the problem of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar migrants working in Thailand. Close monitoring and control of this disease in Myanmar migrants are of public health importance. Antigen detection systems are promising tools for the surveillance of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:15198343

  9. Acquiring, archiving, analyzing and exchanging seismic data in real time at the Seismological Research Center of the OGS in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraò, Angela; Pesaresi, Damiano; Bragato, Pier Luigi; di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Percy Plasencia Linares, Milton

    2010-05-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake (magnitude M=6.4) occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-east Italy (NI) seismic network: it currently consists of 11 very sensitive broad band and 23 more simple short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 89 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. At OGS-CRS we then adapted existing programs and created new ones like: a customized web-accessible server to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, plus scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. A new OGS-CRS real time web site has also been recently designed and made operative in the framework of the DPC-INGV S3 Project.

  10. ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECTS OF LOW KETAMINE DOSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED HIPPOCAMPAL AMPA/NMDA RECEPTOR DENSITY RATIO IN FEMALE WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    PubMed Central

    Tizabi, Yousef; Bhatti, Babur H; Manaye, Kebreten F; Das, Jharna R; Akinfiresoye, Luli

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical as well as limited clinical studies indicate that ketamine, a non-competitive glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, may exert a quick and prolonged antidepressant effect. It has been postulated that ketamine action is due to inhibition of NMDA and stimulation of AMPA receptors. Here, we sought to determine whether ketamine would exert antidepressant effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression and whether this effect would be associated with changes in AMPA/NMDA receptor densities in the hippocampus. Adult female WKY rats and their control Wistar rats were subjected to acute and chronic ketamine doses and their locomotor activity (LMA) and immobility in the forced swim test (FST) were evaluated. Hippocampal AMPA and NMDA receptor densities were also measured following a chronic ketamine dose. Ketamine, both acutely (0.5–5.0 mg/kg ip) and chronically (0.5–2.5 mg/kg daily for 10 days) resulted in a dose-dependent and prolonged decrease in immobility in the FST in WKY rats only, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in this model. Chronic treatment with an effective dose of ketamine also resulted in an increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density ratio in the hippocampus of WKY rats. LMA was not affected by any ketamine treatment in either strain. These results indicate a rapid and lasting antidepressant-like effect of a low ketamine dose in WKY rat model of depression. Moreover, the increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density in hippocampus could be a contributory factor to behavioral effects of ketamine. These findings suggest potential therapeutic benefit in simultaneous reduction of central NMDA and elevation of AMPA receptor function in treatment of depression. PMID:22521815

  11. Comparison of calcium import as a function of contraction in the aortic smooth muscle of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, M A; DeGray, G; David, V; Ampy, F R; Jones, L

    1999-04-15

    Genetic variations of far-reaching consequences have been established between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their controls, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). The SHR strain is the most widely used model for the study of genetic hypertension. Calcium homeostasis in the vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is controlled by calcium channels and calcium pumps located in both VSM and the overlying endothelial cells that line the large blood vessels and the heart. Hypertension adversely affects calcium homeostasis. Investigations on the import of calcium from extracellular spaces with alpha1-adrenergic stimulation as a function of contractility of VSM cells in SHR and WKY were made and compared with the contractility observed in VSM cells of Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. Experiments were performed on rings from thoracic aortas of three strains with endothelial lining intact or removed to discern the paracrine control of endothelium on contractility in response to calcium import. The internal stores of Ca2+ were depleted by repeated alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation with phenylephrine (PE) and refilling of these stores was prevented by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and/or thapsigargin (TG), two known inhibitors of Ca2+ATPase, the enzyme that drives sarcoplasmic calcium pumps. The two components of tonic muscular contraction, T I and T II, which are known to be due to the flow of Ca2+ from the extracellular gradient controlled via the poly-phosphoinositide cascade and nifedipine sensitive Ca2+ channels were found to be variable among these strains. Implications of these variations are discussed in this report PMID:10209059

  12. Prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone 178-199 immunoreactivity is altered in the hypothalamus of the Wistar-Kyoto strain of rat.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Solberg, L C; Redei, E E; Handa, R J

    2001-09-21

    The rat prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) 178-199 is derived from prepro-TRH by the actions of the endopeptidases, prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) and PC2. PPTRH 178-199 attenuates the synthesis and secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting an inhibitory action on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. This peptide also acts centrally to increase activity and decrease anxiety related behaviors. To elucidate the involvement of this peptide in these functions, we have compared the expression of PPTRH 178-199, PPTRH mRNA, and PC1 and PC2 mRNAs in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar strains of rat. WKY rats have been shown to possess neuroendocrine abnormalities (HPA hyper-activity) and hyper-emotional behavioral characteristics. Immunohistochemical analysis of PPTRH 178-199 demonstrated significant strain differences in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the parastrial nucleus (PSN). WKY rats had significantly greater numbers of immunoreactive (IR) cell body profiles (P<0.0005) than Wistar rats in the PVN and a significantly lower fiber density (P<0.002) in the PSN. Levels of PPTRH, PC1, and PC2 mRNA were not different between strains in any brain region examined. These data suggest that altered levels of PPTRH 178-199 in WKY rats could cause, at least in part, the hyper-activity of the HPA axis and the hyper-emotional behavioral characteristics seen in this rat strain. Such data fit with the hypothesis that PPTRH 178-199 is involved in the regulation of the HPA axis and behavior. PMID:11549391

  13. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2.

    PubMed

    Tambunan, Usman Sf; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  14. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman SF; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  15. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  16. SalB inactivation modulates culture supernatant exoproteins and affects autolysis and viability in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Jayendra; Walker, Rachel G; Wilkinson, Mark C; Ward, Deborah; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2012-07-01

    The culture supernatant fraction of an Enterococcus faecalis gelE mutant of strain OG1RF contained elevated levels of the secreted antigen SalB. Using differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis (DIGE) the salB mutant was shown to possess a unique complement of exoproteins. Differentially abundant exoproteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Stress-related proteins including DnaK, Dps family protein, SOD, and NADH peroxidase were present in greater quantity in the OG1RF salB mutant culture supernatant. Moreover, several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis and cell division, including d-Ala-d-Lac ligase and EzrA, were present in reduced quantity in OG1RF salB relative to the parent strain. The salB mutant displayed reduced viability and anomalous cell division, and these phenotypes were exacerbated in a gelE salB double mutant. An epistatic relationship between gelE and salB was not identified with respect to increased autolysis and cell morphological changes observed in the salB mutant. SalB was purified as a six-histidine-tagged protein to investigate peptidoglycan hydrolytic activity; however, activity was not evident. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of reduced muropeptides from peptidoglycan digested with mutanolysin revealed that the salB mutant and OG1RF were indistinguishable. PMID:22563054

  17. Exposure to morphine-associated cues increases mu opioid receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens of Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Torry S; Beck, Kevin D; Cominski, Tara P; Bobzean, Samara A M; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V; Servatius, Richard J; Perrotti, Linda I

    2016-10-15

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been proposed as a model of anxiety vulnerability as it exhibits pronounced behavioral inhibition, passive avoidance, exaggerated startle response, enhanced HPA-axis activation, and active avoidance that is resistant to extinction. Accumulating evidence suggests that WKY rats respond differently to rewarding stimuli when compared to outbred strains of rat. Conditioned responding to drug-associated cues is linked with alterations in the activation of mu opioid receptors (MOR) and kappa opioid receptors (KOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, alterations in KOR expression/activation in the NAc of WKY rats are implicated in the regulation of some of the components that make up the unique behavioral phenotype of this strain. The purpose of this study was to extend upon previous work from our laboratory by investigating conditioned morphine reward in adult male WKY and SD rats, and to examine levels of KOR mRNA and MOR mRNA in the NAc at baseline and after acquisition of morphine CPP. Our results demonstrate that SD rats displayed morphine-induced CPP to each of the six doses of morphine tested (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10mg/kg). Interestingly, WKY rats demonstrated CPP for only the 1.25, 2.5, and 5mg/kg doses, yet no preference at the lowest (0.5mg/kg) or highest (7.5 and 10mg/kg) doses. qPCR analysis of MOR and KOR in the NAc revealed no strain differences in basal levels of MOR, but higher levels of KOR in WKY rats compared to those of SD rats. Interestingly, after completion of the CPP task, WKY rats had overall higher levels of NAc MOR mRNA compared to SD rats; the initial basal differences in NAc KOR levels persisted without change due to CPP in either strain. These results demonstrate that the WKY rat exhibits a unique pattern of behavioral responding to morphine and implicates differences in NAc KOR signaling as a potential source of aversion to higher doses of morphine. Additionally, the CPP-induced upregulation of

  18. Antiplatelet therapy discontinuation and the risk of serious cardiovascular events after coronary stenting: observations from the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hirotoshi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kadota, Kazushige; Yamaji, Kyohei; Ando, Kenji; Shizuta, Satoshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tada, Tomohisa; Tazaki, Junichi; Kato, Yoshihiro; Hayano, Mamoru; Abe, Mitsuru; Tamura, Takashi; Shirotani, Manabu; Miki, Shinji; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Mamoru; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Masaru; Aoyama, Takeshi; Doi, Osamu; Hattori, Ryuichi; Kato, Masayuki; Suwa, Satoru; Takizawa, Akinori; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Shinoda, Eiji; Eizawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Teruki; Lee, Jong-Dae; Inoko, Moriaki; Ogawa, Hisao; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Horie, Minoru; Nohara, Ryuji; Kambara, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kastrati, Adnan; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Relation of antiplatelet therapy (APT) discontinuation with the risk of serious cardiovascular events has not been fully addressed yet. This study is aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic event after APT discontinuation based on long-term APT status of large cohort. In the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2 enrolling 15939 consecutive patients undergoing first coronary revascularization, 10470 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention either with bare-metal stents (BMS) only (N=5392) or sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) only (N=5078). Proportions of patients taking dual-APT were 67.3% versus 33.4% at 1-year, and 48.7% versus 24.3% at 5-year in the SES and BMS strata, respectively. We evaluated daily APT status (dual-, single- and no-APT) and linked the adverse events to the APT status just 1-day before the events. No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was associated with significantly higher risk for stent thrombosis (ST) beyond 1-month after SES implantation (cumulative incidence rates beyond 1-month: 1.23 versus 0.15/0.29, P<0.001/P<0.001), while higher risk of no-APT for ST was evident only until 6-month after BMS implantation (incidence rates between 1- and 6-month: 8.43 versus 0.71/1.20, P<0.001/P<0.001, and cumulative incidence rates beyond 6-month: 0.31 versus 0.11/0.08, P=0.16/P=0.08). No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was also associated with significantly higher risk for spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke regardless of the types of stents implanted. Single-APT as compared with dual-APT was not associated with higher risk for serious adverse events, except for the marginally higher risk for ST in the SES stratum. In conclusion, discontinuation of both aspirin and thienopyridines was associated with increased risk for serious cardiovascular events including ST, spontaneous MI and stroke beyond 1-month after coronary stenting. PMID:25853836

  19. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  20. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  1. [Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements (Part 6: Studying abroad of Dr. Matsuoka and opening to public, reputation and achievement of the department)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2011-03-01

    Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka studied orthopaedic surgery in Germany, Austria and other countries during the period from August, 1902 to May, 1906. He visited many university pathological institutes and surgical and orthopaedic clinics to study pathology and to learn the practice of orthopaedic surgery. After that, he started his practice at the newly established Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in the Medical School of Kyoto Imperial University in June, 1906. The department was opened in 1907 and in 1911 it was opened to all citizens and practical doctors in Kyoto City and exhibited many orthopaedic specimens and instruments. In particular, the x-ray apparatus of the Department was so well equipped that a German radiologist who visited the Department admired it in his article that was published in the journal of radiology in 1911. The Department was not surpassed by others for the number of patients with the dislocation of the hip and tuberculous spondylitis as well as the advanced quality and variety of roentgenological and pathological researches on these diseases. PMID:21797054

  2. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON RHIC SPIN PHYSICS III AND IV, POLARIZED PARTONS AT HIGH Q2 REGION, AUGUST 3, 2000 AT BNL, OCTOBER 14, 2000 AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BUNCE, G.; VIGDOR, S.

    2001-03-15

    International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce.

  3. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden. PMID:8014511

  4. PET2OGS: Algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.-H.; Shinn, Y. J.; Park, Y.-C.; Huh, D.-G.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination in the paper.

  5. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  6. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  7. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity correlates with cortical perfusion parameters determined by bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Shane; Rouine, Jennifer; McIntosh, Allison; Kerskens, Christian; Harkin, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in astrocyte number and function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric disorders. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in the animal laboratory has enabled an investigation of the relationship between pathological and neuroimaging markers in animal models. However the physiological processes which underlie these markers and their role in mediating behavioural deficits is still poorly understood. Rodent models have provided us with important insights into physiological and cellular mechanisms which may mediate anxiety and depression-related behaviours. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a strain which endogenously expresses highly anxious and depressive-like behaviours and has previously been reported to exhibit alterations in immunoreactivity for the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in brain sub-regions relative to more stress resilient out-bred strains. Here we report that the depressive and anxiety-like behaviours exhibited by the WKY rat strain are associated with alterations in brain morphology including a decrease in hippocampal volume, coupled with reduced resting state frontal cortical perfusion as assessed by MR bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) relative to the out-bred Wistar strain. Pre-limbic cortical GFAP immunoreactivity and astrocyte cell number were positively correlated with cortical blood perfusion in the WKY strain. These experiments provide a link between pathological and neuroimaging markers of aberrant astrocytic function and add validity to the WKY rat as a model for co-morbid anxiety and depression. PMID:27068181

  9. Dissociation between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) andWistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats in baseline performance and methylphenidate response on measures of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-08

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely accepted rodent model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MP) is a central nervous systemstimulant that has been shown to have a dose-related positive effect on attention task performance in humans with ADHD. The current study was undertaken to compare SHR to its typical control strain, Wistar-Kyoto(WKY) rats, on the performance of a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task (VSPDT) as well as of the responsiveness of the two rat strains to MP treatment. The rats were initially trained on the VSPDT, in which a light cue was presented randomly at three different cue-light intervals (1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms) over one of two levers, and presses on the lever corresponding to the light cue were reinforced with a food pellet. Once rats reached stable performance, the treatment phase of the study began, during which they received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg of MP in a randomized order immediately prior to being tested on the VSPDT. Baseline performance accuracy on the VSPDT did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, a striking strain dissociation was evident in the response of the two strains to treatment; VSPDT performance was substantially disrupted by the 5 and 10 mg/kg dose in the WKY rats but only mildly in the SHR rats. Response omissions were also increased only in WKY rats. Finally, both strains had increased locomotor activity in the operant chamber following MP treatment. These findings point to an important difference in response tendency toMP in the two strains that supports a view that a critical difference between these strains may suggest neurochemical and neuroadaptive differences associated with the behavioral impairments of ADHD.

  10. Differential ERK1/2 Signaling and Hypertrophic Response to Endothelin-1 in Cardiomyocytes from SHR and Wistar-Kyoto Rats: A Potential Target for Combination Therapy of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-an; Fang, Ning-yuan; Gao, Ping-jin; Jin, Xian; Wang, Hai-ya; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signal regulated kinase½ (ERK1/2) signaling is critical to endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. This study was to investigate ERK1/2 signaling and hypertrophic response to ET-1 stimulation in cardiomyocytes (CMs) from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Primary neonatal SHR and WKY CMs were exposed to ET-1 for up to 24 hrs. Minimal basal ERK1/2 phosphorylation was present in WKY CMs, while a significant baseline ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed in SHR CMs. ET-1 induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in both SHR and WKY CMs. However, ET-1-induced ERK1/2 activation occurred much earlier with significantly higher peak phosphorylation level, and stayed elevated for longer duration in SHR CMs than that in WKY CMs. ET-1-induced hypertrophic response was more prominent in SHR CMs than that in WKY CMs as reflected by increased cell surface area, intracellular actin density, and protein synthesis. Pre-treatment with ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibitor PD98059 completely prevented ET-1-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increases in cell surface area and protein synthesis in SHR and WKY CMs. The specific PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 blocked ET-1-induced Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and protein synthesis in CMs. These data indicated that ERK1/2 signaling was differentially enhanced in CMs, and was associated with increased cardiac hypertrophic response to ET-1 in SHR. ET-1-induced ERK1/2 activation and cardiac hypertrophy appeared to be mediated via PI3 kinase/Akt signaling in SHR and WKY. The differential ERK1/2 activation in SHR CMs by ET-1 might represent a potential target for combination therapy of hypertension. PMID:25360842

  11. Effects of AT1 receptor antagonism on kainate-induced seizures and concomitant changes in hippocampal extracellular noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Loyens, Ellen; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-05-01

    In the management of epilepsy, AT1 receptor antagonists have been suggested as an additional treatment strategy. A hyperactive brain angiotensin (Ang) II system and upregulated AT1 receptors are implicated in the cerebrovascular alterations in a genetic form of hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension could also, in turn, be a risk factor for a seizure threshold decrease and development of epileptogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the effects of the selective AT1 receptor antagonist ZD7155 on kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) development and accompanying changes in the hippocampal extracellular (EC) neurotransmitter levels of noradrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their parent strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, since monoamines are well-known neurotransmitters involved in mechanisms of both epilepsy and hypertension. Status epilepticus was evoked in freely moving rats by a repetitive intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of KA in subconvulsant doses. In the treatment group, ZD7155 (5mg/kg i.p.) was coadministered with the first KA injection. Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibited higher susceptibility to SE than WKY rats, but the AT1 receptor antagonist did not alter the development of SE in SHRs or in WKY rats. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated significant KA-induced increases of the hippocampal NAD and DA levels in SHRs and of NAD, 5-HT, and DA in WKY rats. Although SHRs developed more severe seizures while receiving a lower dose of KA compared to WKY rats, AT1 receptor antagonism completely prevented all KA-induced increases of hippocampal monoamine levels in both rat strains without affecting seizure development per se. These results suggest a lack of direct relationship between KA-induced seizure susceptibility and adaptive changes of hippocampal NAD, 5-HT, and DA levels in the effects of ZD7155 in WKY rats and SHRs. PMID:25922088

  12. Chemical Soil Degradation n the Area of the Głogów Copper Smelter Protective Forest/ Degradacja Ziemi Na Terenach Byłej Strefy Ochronnej Huty Miedzi Głogów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, Jakub; Greinert, Andrzej; Drab, Michał; Wasylewicz, Róża; Walczak, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Earth surface is under the continous influence of the environmental factors - both natural and anthropogenic. The significant impact on the environment can be noted in areas adjacent to the metal industry plants, in a consequence of pollutants emission, especially dusts containing the heavy metals, into the atmosphere,. In the surroundings of Głogów Copper Smelter (GCS) elevated amounts of copper and lead has been noted. In the soils of the test sites were found up to 5250 mg kg-1 Cu and 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. The forest litter contained 3.3-5.1 more Cu and 3.9-8.6 Pb than the humic horizon of the soil. Analyse of the different soils covering the GCS protective forest area let specify the stabilising role of particle size distribution, TOC content and the soil reaction to Cu and Pb migration in the environment. Powierzchnia ziemi jest nieustannnie narażona na oddziaływania o charakterze naturalnym i antropogenicznym. Znaczące oddziaływanie jest łatwo zauważalne na terenach przemysłowych. Szczególnie na obszarach objętych wydobyciem i przeróbką metali. Na terenach przyległych do Huty Miedzi Głogów stwierdzono wysoką koncentrację miedzi i ołowiu sięgającą 5250 mg kg-1 Cu i 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. Poziom ściółki leśnej zawierał 3,3-5,1 raza więcej Cu i 3,9-8,6 Pb niż poziom próchniczny analizowanych gleb. Analiza różnych gleb pokrywających las ochronny HMG pozwoliła wskazać na znaczącą rolę składu granulometrycznego, zawartości węgla organicznego oraz odczynu na stabilizację migracji Cu i Pb w środowisku.

  13. Transient Receptor Potential Channel Opening Releases Endogenous Acetylcholine, which Contributes to Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Induced by Mild Hypothermia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat but Not Wistar-Kyoto Rat Arteries.

    PubMed

    Zou, Q; Leung, S W S; Vanhoutte, P M

    2015-08-01

    Mild hypothermia causes endothelium-dependent relaxations, which are reduced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. The present study investigated whether endothelial endogenous acetylcholine contributes to these relaxations. Aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were contracted with prostaglandin F2 α and exposed to progressive mild hypothermia (from 37 to 31°C). Hypothermia induced endothelium-dependent, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive relaxations, which were reduced by atropine, but not by mecamylamine, in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. The responses in SHR aortae were also reduced by acetylcholinesterase (the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine degradation), bromoacetylcholine (inhibitor of acetylcholine synthesis), hemicholinium-3 (inhibitor of choline uptake), and vesamicol (inhibitor of acetylcholine release). The mild hypothermia-induced relaxations in both SHR and WKY rat aortae were inhibited by AMTB [N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-[(3-methylphenyl)methoxy]-N-(2-thienylmethyl)-benzamide; the transient receptor potential (TRP) M8 inhibitor]; only those in SHR aortae were inhibited by HC-067047 [2-methyl-1-[3-(4-morpholinyl)propyl]-5-phenyl-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide; TRPV4 antagonist] while those in WKY rat aortae were reduced by HC-030031 [2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide; TRPA1 antagonist]. The endothelial uptake of extracellular choline and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate was enhanced by mild hypothermia and inhibited by HC-067047 in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. Compared with WKY rats, the SHR preparations expressed similar levels of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase, but a lesser amount of vesicular acetylcholine transporter, located mainly in the endothelium. Thus, mild hypothermia causes nitric oxide-dependent relaxations by opening TRPA1 channels in WKY rat aortae

  14. Application of PET2OGS to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer of the CO2CRC Otway project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Shinn, Young Jae

    2014-05-01

    PET2OGS, a set of algorithms that integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys), is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. The Otway Basin is the first demonstration site of the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Australia. During Stage 2 of the CO2CRC Otway project, CO2 was injected into a saline aquifer along the injection interval of 1435 - 1450 m in a well. Upon conversion and adaption of the geological model into the dynamic model, the simulation of CO2 injection at 159 tone/day for 5 months is carried out for a hypothetical scenario. CO2 storage in each facies are analyzed for storage capacities. The discrete nature of CO2 plume behaviors known in multiphase flow in heterogeneous media is observed in the numerical simulation of CO2 storage. Sensitivity analysis of the storage capacity with respect to facies, porosity, and permeability is provided.

  15. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  16. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  17. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  18. The North East Italy (NI) broadband seismic network run by OGS: experience in improving the long period performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.

    2009-04-01

    experimented and routinely used by the world wide GEOFON seismic network and the German regional seismic network: examples and performances of a typical OGS installation will be shown.

  19. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors. Results 263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5–35.3, p = 0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1–23.8, p = 0.041). Conclusion This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration

  20. Og4C3 circulating antigen, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 titers in Wuchereria bancrofti infected patients, according to their parasitological status.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1994-09-01

    This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection. PMID:7899800

  1. Rolling-leaf14 is a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase family protein that modulates rice leaf rolling by affecting secondary cell wall formation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Likui; Zhao, Fangming; Cong, Yunfei; Sang, Xianchun; Du, Qing; Wang, Dezhong; Li, Yunfeng; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; He, Guanghua

    2012-06-01

    As an important agronomic trait, leaf rolling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has attracted much attention from plant biologists and breeders. Moderate leaf rolling increases the amount of photosynthesis in cultivars and hence raises grain yield. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the gene RL14, which was found to encode a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase of unknown function. rl14 mutant plants had incurved leaves because of the shrinkage of bulliform cells on the adaxial side. In addition, rl14 mutant plants displayed smaller stomatal complexes and decreased transpiration rates, as compared with the wild type. Defective development could be rescued functionally by the expression of wild-type RL14. RL14 was transcribed in sclerenchymatous cells in leaves that remained wrapped inside the sheath. In mature leaves, RL14 accumulated mainly in the mesophyll cells that surround the vasculature. Expression of genes related to secondary cell wall formation was affected in rl14-1 mutants, and cellulose and lignin content were altered in rl14-1 leaves. These results reveal that the RL14 gene affects water transport in leaves by affecting the composition of the secondary cell wall. This change in water transport results in water deficiency, which is the major reason for the abnormal shape of the bulliform cells. PMID:22329407

  2. Contribution of Individual Ebp Pilus Subunits of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF to Pilus Biogenesis, Biofilm Formation and Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Chang, Chungyu; Singh, Kavindra V.; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Harvey, Barrett R.; Ton-That, Hung; Murray, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    The endocarditis and biofilm-associated pilus (Ebp) operon is a component of the core genome of Enterococcus faecalis that has been shown to be important for biofilm formation, adherence to host fibrinogen, collagen and platelets, and in experimental endocarditis and urinary tract infection models. Here, we created single and double deletion mutants of the pilus subunits and sortases; next, by combining western blotting, immunoelectron microscopy, and using ebpR in trans to increase pilus production, we identified EbpA as the tip pilin and EbpB as anchor at the pilus base, the latter attached to cell wall by the housekeeping sortase, SrtA. We also confirmed EbpC and Bps as the major pilin and pilin-specific sortase, respectively, both required for pilus polymerization. Interestingly, pilus length was increased and the number of pili decreased by deleting ebpA, while control overexpression of ebpA in trans restored wild-type levels, suggesting a dual role for EbpA in both initiation and termination of pilus polymerization. We next investigated the contribution of each pilin subunit to biofilm formation and UTI. Significant reduction in biofilm formation was observed with deletion of ebpA or ebpC (P<0.001) while ebpB was found to be dispensable; a similar result was seen in kidney CFUs in experimental UTI (ΔebpA, ΔebpC, P≤0.0093; ΔebpB, non-significant, each vs. OG1RF). Hence, our data provide important structural and functional information about these ubiquitous E. faecalis pili and, based on their demonstrated importance in biofilm and infection, suggest EbpA and EbpC as potential targets for antibody-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:23874774

  3. L'Anti-Atlas occidental du Maroc: étude sédimentologique et reconstitutions paléogéographiques au Cambrien inférieur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, M.; Hamoumi, N.

    2001-04-01

    L'étude lithostratigraphique en sédimentologique des formations du Cambrien inférieur de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité extrême des faciès allant des faciès continentaux jusqu'au faciès franchement marins. La répartition verticale de ces faciès ainsi que leurs associations ont permis de (i) proposer un nouveau découpage de la succession en formations lithostratigraphiques, (ii) reconstituer les milieux de dépôt (système fluviatile, lacs, fan-deltas, milieu littoral, plate-forme dominée par des constructions stromatolitiques et récifales et plate-forme dominée par les tempêtes) et (iii) établir des modèles paléogéographiques retraçant les différentes étapes d'évolution de ce bassin qui fait partie de la plate-forme nord-gondwanienne au Cambrien inférieur. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Early Cambrian formations in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco) evidence their large diversity of facies ranging from continental to clearly marine. Vertical distribution and associations of facies afford opportunities to (i) suggest a new classification of the sedimentary sequence in terms of lithostratigraphic formations, (ii) restore the depositional environments (fluvial system, lake, delta fan, coast, stromatolite and reef-dominated platform, tempest-dominated platform), and (iii) establish palæogeographic models displaying the different evolutionary stages of this basin that constituted a part of the Lower Cambrian north-Gondwanian platform.

  4. Microdosimetry of epithermal neutron field at the Kyoto University reactor.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Y; Endo, S; Ishikawa, M; Hoshi, M; Takada, M; Kobayashi, T; Sakurai, Y; Utsumi, H; Uehara, S; Hayabuchi, N; Maeda, N; Takatuji, T; Fujika, K

    2002-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra were measured in order to gain the microdosimetric parameters of some epithermal neutron fields. Changes in dose mean lineal energy YD as a function of depth of heavy water showed a trend of softening with heavy water of the beam. The neutron absorbed dose was obtained by using the frequency mean lineal energy. Results show good agreement with measurements with the activation method using gold foil. This study demonstrated how microdosimetric parameters change in radiation quality as a function of heavy water depth. PMID:12194334

  5. My Coming out Story as a Gay Teacher in Kyoto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takatori, Shoji; Ofuji, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    This essay is about the experiences, feelings, and thoughts of a Japanese teacher before and after an article appeared in a nationwide newspaper, "Asahi Shinbun". Here he discusses the reactions of administrators and students as well as his efforts in working with students in writing and producing a play about a lesbian high school student. This…

  6. Current status of numerical-relativity simulations in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    >. It is shown that the typical total neutrino luminosity of the HMNS is ˜(3-10) × 1053 ergs/s and the effective amplitude of gravitational waves from the HMNS is (2-6) × 10-22 at f ≈ 2-2.5 kHz for a source distance of 100 Mpc.

  7. Konno Operation: The 2015 Kyoto Symposium Konno Memorial Lecture.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    The Konno operation consists of a prosthetic aortic valve replacement by using an anterior enlargement of the small aortic annulus. The original procedure includes a longitudinal incision in the aortic septum placed near the midpoint between the two coronary ostia, a vertical incision in the outflow tract of the right ventricle to join the septal incision, prosthetic aortic valve replacement, and patch reconstruction of the outflow tracts of both ventricles by means of a fusiform Dacron patch. The concept of this operation has been applied in other complex operations, such as modified Konno operation, Ross-Konno operation, and aortic valve replacement after arterial switch operation. PMID:27587492

  8. The Art of a Deal: A Kyoto Protocol Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlishaw, Richard; Hunter, Charles; Coy, Jason; Tessmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, groups of students represent countries as they negotiate an agreement to limit greenhouse-gas emissions. While initially developed for and used in an environmental-science course for first-year college students, the case could be applicable to other courses dealing with conflict resolution such as public policy, international…

  9. Appendix E. The Path I Have Followed ---at Shimogamo, Kyoto, in April 1974---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukawa, H.

    This is an English translation, adopted from an essay written in Japanese as the preface to the book, Order and Chaos (on Hideki Yukawa), by Sosuke Taka-uchi; it was published by Kosakusha, Tokyo in 1974 and in 1979 (enlarged revised edition). For his book, Taka-uchi, a poet, was awarded a prize by the (well-known) Rekitei group of poets. Translated by M. Konuma by kind permission of Professor H. Yukawa and the publisher.

  10. DIFFERENTIAL CARDIAC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR) TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is linked to increases in cardiovascular effects. This is enhanced in individuals with pre-existing disease. Animal models of cardiovascular disease are used to study this susceptibility. The heart is rich in mitochondria, which produce ...

  11. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  12. Education for Peace: A Conference Report from Kyoto. Peace Education Reports No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.

    Conference sessions of the Peace Education Commission (PEC), a transnational network of people interested in peace education and research related to peace education, are reported in this document. Following an introductory overview of the conference as a whole, the report is divided into four parts. The first part contains three area studies; that…

  13. INHALED ENVIRONMENTAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES CAUISE MYOCARDIAL INJURY IN THE WISTAR KYOTO RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, direct experimental evidence showing causality and pathogenesis of PM-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We ...

  14. Reconstruction assessment of historical land use: A case study in the Kamo River basin, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pingping; Takara, Kaoru; Apip; He, Bin; Nover, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction assessment of historical land use can be useful for understanding historical conditions and the impact of long-term land-use change. This study establishes a new method to estimate historical land use based on a set of basic rules generated from the comparison of present land-use and historical documents. This method has been formalized in the paleo-land-use reconstruction (PLUR) program, allowing users to quickly reconstruct historical land use using historical information. The 1843, 1902 and 1927 historical land use conditions were generated using the PLUR model for the Kamo River basin (KRB). Our results show that between 1902 and 1976, three golf courses (Ohara Public course, Kamigamo course and Funayama course) replaced forest land in the KRB. As a result of agricultural development, the area occupied by paddy fields in 1843 was 2.48 km2 less than that in 1902. Urban areas increased from 1843 to 1976, mainly reflecting declining coverage of paddy fields after 1902. The approach presented in this study can be used to support land-use change analyses and reconstruction of paleo-hydrology. This study also provides a discussion of the major drivers of land use change.

  15. COMPARISON OF CARDIOPULMONARY RESPONSES OF WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) AND STROKE PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHRSP) TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although a clear link between cardiopulmonary disease and an increased susceptibility to air pollution has been established epidemiologically, the mechanistic link remains undefined. Animal models of disease are widely used to investigate this link. Here we compare the cardiopu...

  16. REPEATED TREATMENTS WITH DOXORUBICIN CAUSES ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) CHANGES AND INCREASED VENTRICULAR PREMATURE BEATS IN WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anthracycline anti-neoplastic drug used to treat tumors. However it has been implicated in irreversible cardiac toxicity via the generation of a proxidant semiquinone free radical, which often results in cardiomyopathy and changes in the ECG. Ac...

  17. Vascular reconstruction and complications in living donor liver transplantation in infants weighing less than 6 kilograms: the Kyoto experience.

    PubMed

    Shirouzu, Yasumasa; Kasahara, Mureo; Morioka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Taira, Kaoru; Uryuhara, Kenji; Ogawa, Kohei; Takada, Yasutsugu; Egawa, Hiroto; Tanaka, Koichi

    2006-08-01

    Smaller-size infants undergoing living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) are at increased risks of vascular complications because of their smaller vascular structures in addition to vascular pedicles of insufficient length for reconstruction. Out of 585 child patients transplanted between June 1990 and March 2005, 64 (10%) weighing less than 6 kg underwent 65 LDLTs. Median age and weight were 6.9 months (range: 1-16 months) and 5 kg (range: 2.8-5.9 kg), respectively. Forty-five lateral segment, 12 monosegment, and 8 reduced monosegment grafts were adopted, and median graft-to-recipient weight ratio was 4.4% (range: 2.3-9.7). Outflow obstruction occurred in only 1 patient (1.5%). Portal vein complication occurred in 9 (14%) including 5 with portal vein thrombosis. Hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) occurred in 5 (7.7%). Patient and graft survivals were 73% and 72% at 1 yr, and 69% and 68% at 5 yr after LDLT, respectively. Thirteen of 22 grafts (58%) lost during the follow-up period occurred within the first 3 months posttransplantation. Overall graft survival in patients with and without portal vein complication was 67% and 65%, respectively (P = 0.54). Overall graft survival in patients with and without HAT was 40% and 67%, respectively. HAT significantly affected graft survival (P = 0.04). In conclusion, our surgical technique for smaller-size recipients resulted in an acceptable rate of vascular complications. Overcoming early posttransplantation complications will further improve outcomes in infantile LDLT. PMID:16868949

  18. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive ana...

  19. A single inhalation exposure to acrolein desensitizes baroreflex responsiveness in Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arterial baroreflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that regulate blood pressure (BP) by changing heart rate (HR) and vasoconstriction. Increases in BP reflexively cause HR to decrease, whereas decreases in BP depress the baroreflex and cause HR to rise. As such, baro...

  20. International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, 5th, Kyoto, Japan, Nov. 26-30, 1990, Technical Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference on photovoltaic science and engineering encompasses amorphous silicon materials, compound solar cells, a national photovoltaic project, solar cells fabricated from polycrystalline silicon and amorphous silicon, the use of solar cells in space systems, photovoltaic systems components, and experience from field use of the systems. Specific issues addressed include the status of the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program, a novel p-type window material for amorphous silicon solar cells, low dislocation-density GaAs on Si for solar cells, the spin-cast process for Si solar cells, advances in a-Si:H alloy multijunction devices, and n-ZnO/p-MoSe2 heterojunction solar cells. Also addressed are polycrystalline photovoltaic silicon-ingot production, cells with large areas and high efficiency, a vacuum-evaporated CdS/CdTe solar cell, proton-irradiation damage in thin-film GaAs solar cells fabricated on Si substrates, and advanced power systems for the Space Station Freedom.

  1. Atmospheric Tides Middle Atmosphere Program (ATMAP): Report of the workshop, Kyoto, Japan, December 5-6, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M. (Editor); Aso, T.; Avery, S.; Bowhill, S.; Coy, L.; Forbes, J.; Fraser, G.; Fukao, S.; Kato, S.; Kurshner, D.

    1986-01-01

    Experimentalists, data analysts, and theoreticians were brought together to study and interpret the results of four solstice campaigns conducted prior to the symposium. Emphasis was placed on campaigns III and V. Topics discussed included: review of the data and evaluation of the consistency with available theoretical models; interpretation of the data; recommendations on how the Atmospheric Tides Middle Atmosphere Program (ATMAP) results should reach the open literature such that the advancement of middle atmosphere science and the proprietary rights of the individual experimenters are best served; and recommendations concerning future campaigns and the future emphasis of ATMAP.

  2. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CARBARYL IN BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are crucial for quantitative human health risk assessment. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have long been used in studies on the etiology and mechanisms of hypertension and are known to be prone to oxidative stress. Previous studies indica...

  3. Large carbon-sink potential by Kyoto forests in Sweden-a case study on willow plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelle, Achim; Aronsson, Pär; Weslien, Per; Klemedtsson, Leif; Lindroth, Anders

    2007-11-01

    Fluxes of CO2 were measured in a 75-ha short-rotation willow plantation at Enköping, central Sweden. The plantation was irrigated with wastewater for fertilization and water-filtering purposes. The harvested biomass was used locally for combined heat and power production. The plantation was a sink of ca. 8 tonnes C ha-1 during 2003, of which ca. 50% was estimated to be attributed to fertilization. Biomass increment by shoot growth was 5 tonnes C ha-1 during the same year. Belowground carbon allocation was estimated to 3 tonnes C ha-1 yr-1 by a model that relates carbon allocation to shoot growth. Thus, the ecosystem carbon balance was closed by these estimations. The carbon uptake by the willow plantation was 5.5 times as high compared to a normally managed spruce forest, but only half as high as from an experimental, well-managed willow plantation in the same region. This illustrates the vast potential of short-rotation willow plantations for CO2 uptake from the atmosphere.

  4. Fuel ethanol produced from U.S. Midwest corn : help or hindrance to the vision of Kyoto?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Wu, M.; Energy Systems

    1999-07-01

    In this study, we examined the role of corn-feedstock ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, given present and near-future technology and practice for corn farming and ethanol production. We analyzed the full-fuel-cycle GHG effects of corn-based ethanol using updated information on corn operations in the upper Midwest and existing ethanol production technologies. Information was obtained from representatives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, faculty of midwestern universities with expertise in corn production and animal feed, and acknowledged authorities in the field of ethanol plant engineering, design, and operations. Cases examined included use of E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) and E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). Among key findings is that Midwest-produced ethanol outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG emissions (on a mass emission per travel mile basis). The superiority of the energy and GHG results is well outside the range of model noise. An important facet of this work has been conducting sensitivity analyses. These analyses let us rank the factors in the corn-to-ethanol cycle that are most important for limiting GHG generation. These rankings could help ensure that efforts to reduce that generation are targeted more effectively.

  5. DIFFERENCES IN CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PM EXPOSURE BETWEEN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE STROKE-PRONE (SHSP) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are associated with exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM), notably in people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand the mechanisms of PM...

  6. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  7. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  8. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  9. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  10. Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Leslie C.; Radin, M. Judith; Heller, Lois; Rogers, Lynette K.; Tobias, Anthony; Matise, Ilze; Wang, Qi; Apple, Fred S.; McCune, Sylvia A.

    2013-11-15

    Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: • Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. • Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. • Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids increased in response to doxorubicin in SHR and SHHF. • Altered leukotriene metabolism may contribute greater toxicity in SHR vs. SHHF rats.

  11. Mechanical behaviour of materials - VI; Proceedings of the 6th International Conference, Kyoto, Japan, July 29-Aug. 2, 1991. Vols. 1-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jono, Masahiro; Inoue, Tatsuo

    Papers included in these proceedings are grouped under the topics of computational plasticity, dynamic plasticity and fracture, reliability analysis and reliability-based design, statistical properties of advanced materials, computer-assisted fatigue technology, advanced techniques in structural integrity assessment, the fatigue of advanced and functional materials. Other topics discussed are interface and processing of fiber-reinforced composites, strength and fracture of metal matrix composites, mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds, structure and properties of polymer alloys, mechanical behavior of advanced materials, constitutive relations and damage mechanics, fracture and fracture mechanics, fatigue and fatigue mechanisms, creep and high-temperature strength, and new technology in testing and evaluation. Papers presented include those describing an analysis of ductile fracture of Al alloys, a constitutive model of several materials at high rates of strain, a simulation of probabilistic fatigue crack growth, and the effect of grain size on rupture life under creep-fatigue loading for 321 stainless steel.

  12. Continuous electrocardiogram reveals differenced in the short-term cardiotoxic response of Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats to doxorubicin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrocardiography (ECG) is one of the standard technologies used to monitor and assess cardiac function, and provide insight into the mechanisms driving myocardial pathology. Increased understanding of the effects of cardiovascular disease on rat ECG may help make ECG assessmen...

  13. Towards Gender Equality in Basic Education: Major Challenges in Meeting Dakar EFA Goals. Regional Seminar in Asia (Kyoto, Japan, November 28-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A regional UNESCO seminar aimed to follow up on the goals set at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 and to contribute to the "Ten Year UN Girls' Education Initiative" (UNGEI). The seminar established three primary aims: (1) to develop a regional cooperation mechanism or network of Education for All (EFA) gender focal points, to reinforce…

  14. [Prof. Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements. Part 3: books written by prof. Dr. M. Matsuoka].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2009-03-01

    In addition to articles written by Prof. Dr. M. Matsuoka previously reported in Part 2, books written by him are presented as Part 3 of the articles regarding his academic achievements. He published four text books, including the first textbook of orthopaedic surgery in Japan that was written by a Japanese doctor and a monograph on the x-ray atlas of congenital dislocation of the hip that was written in German and published in Germany. He was also invited to submit articles to three books as co-author. Furthermore, his five educational lectures given to the public were published in two books. PMID:19831253

  15. THE ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MITOCHONDRIA IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED CARDIOPULMONARY INJURY IN STROKE PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHRSP) AND WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have associated PM exposure with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and this effect seems to be enhanced in populations with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. One hypothesis for this exacerbation is that the higher underlying level of oxidative st...

  16. Up Regulation of cystathione γ lyase and Hydrogen Sulphide in the Myocardium Inhibits the Progression of Isoproterenol–Caffeine Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar A.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Abdulla, Mohammed H.; Khan, Safia A.; Azam, Maleeha; Abdullah, Nor A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C) and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L) for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE) mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05) in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05) in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05) plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress LVH. Exogenous administration of H2S augmented the reduced renal cortical blood perfusion in the LVH state. PMID:26963622

  17. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-04-28

    This seventh quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Considerable progress has been made on coal analysis. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) target recognition software has been tested and incorporated into the system. This software decreases analysis time considerably and is more intuitive to use. Work with board-level computers has proceeded well; ultimately this will make the technology more compact and fieldable. Work with talc will be delayed because the graduate student working on this project is leaving the program. Ongoing work is devoted to more detailed coal analysis, improving the software interface, and developing procedures and a users manual.

  18. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-10-22

    This thirteenth quarterly technical report describes data collection at the Stillwater Mine and an additional improvement to the lighting system. The data collection system was returned to the Stillwater Mine during this reporting period and a large amount of data was collected. The data will be analyzed and correlated with fire assays in the next reporting period. The majority of work done this quarter has been devoted to collecting data from cores scanned in the Stillwater Mining Company core room. This work is somewhat tedious and tiresome, but essential to: (1) obtain enough data to reliably determine the correlation between assay results and spectral imaging results; (2) find bugs and glitches in the system that arise only periodically or after long periods of use; and (3) obtain data on the natural (and man-made) variations in the Stillwater ore that may confuse the machine vision algorithms.

  19. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-07-21

    This eighth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and preparations for Year-3 system deployment. Classification maps for coal have been generated and shown to two coal-mining executives. An application for licensing high-speed hyperspectral data analysis software from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been made. Both Western Energy and Stillwater Mining Company have offered platforms for Year-3 deployment. Barretts Minerals has expressed renewed interest in using Resonon's machine vision system for identifying dolomite in their talc ore and have agreed to provide samples to the Montana Tech team.

  20. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-10-24

    This fifth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Recent work has been devoted to implementing new hardware and examining defects in titanium sponge, a new application for the machine vision system. With the improvements in hardware and software, the data collection is much improved. Early results from data taken on titanium sponge defects indicate that some defects will be relatively easy to identify, but others will be much more difficult. Consequently, additional work is required with software algorithms for target recognition. Ongoing work will be divided into several fronts, which include data collection and analysis, improving the target recognition capabilities, and improving the electronic interface.

  1. Gocad2OGS: Workflow to Integrate Geo-structural Information into Numerical Simulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Walther, Marc; Naumov, Dmitri; Sattler, Sabine; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of fluid circulation in the Thuringian syncline is one of the INFLUINS project's targets. A 3D geo-structural model including 12 stratigraphic layers and 54 fault zones is created by geologists in the first step using the Gocad software. Within the INFLUINS project a ground-water flow simulation is used to check existing hypotheses and to gain new ideas of the underground fluid flow behaviour. We used the scientific, platform independent, open source software OpenGeoSys that implements the finite element method to solve the governing equations describing fluid flow in porous media. The geo-structural Gocad model is not suitable for the FEM numerical analysis. Therefore it is converted into an unstructured grid satisfying all mesh quality criteria required for the ground-water flow simulation. The resulting grid is stored in an open data format given by the Visualization Toolkit (vtk). In this work we present a workflow to convert geological structural models, created using the Gocad software, into a simulation model that is easy to use from numerical simulation software. We tested our workflow with the 3D geo-structural model of the Thuringian syncline and were able to setup and to evaluate a hydrogeological simulation model successfully.

  2. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-01-23

    This tenth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for ore grading based on hyperspectral imaging. A graduate student at Montana Tech has successfully defended her thesis related to this project. Arrangements with Stillwater Mining Company to deploy a machine vision system in their core room have been completed. Designs for they system that will be installed next quarter have been drawn and parts are being machined. Presentations on the spectral imaging system developed during this effort have been made to Stillwater Mining Company and at a remote sensing symposium at Montana State University.

  3. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2003-04-27

    This eleventh quarterly technical report discusses the installation of a spectral machine vision system in the Stillwater mine's core room. In brief, the system has been fabricated, installed, and preliminary measurements have been made. A first round of refinements has been made, included replacing a bad bearing and applying filters to the lighting. A high-speed Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) program was written to classify the cores in real time. This program identifies sulfides in the core sample quite well, but also produces false positives at boundaries and breaks in the core. Additionally, bright reflections from facets within the ore occasionally saturate the camera. Overall, the project is on schedule, but additional refinement in the algorithm and lighting is required to obtain more accurate results.

  4. Phenological tracking og agricultural feilds investigated by using dual polarimetry tanDEM-X images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing plays a key role in monitoring and assessing environmental changes. Because of its special imaging characteristics such as high-resolution, capabilities to obtain data in all weather conditions and sensitivity to geometrical and dielectric properties of the features, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology has become a powerful technique to detect small scale changes related to earth surface.SAR images contain the information of both phase and intensity in different modes like single, dual and full polarimetric states which are important in order to extract information about various targets. In this study we investigate phenological changes in an agricultural region using high-resolution X-band SAR data. The case study is located in Doroud region of Lorestan province, west of Iran. The purpose is to investigate the ability of copolar and interferometric coherence extracted from TanDEM-X dual polarimetry (HH/VV) in bistatic StripMap mode for tracking the phenological changes of crops during growing season. The data include 11 images acquired between 12.06.2012 and 02.11.2012 and 6 images acquired between 30.05.2013 and 04.08.2013 in the CoSSC format. Results show that copolar coherence is almost able to follow phenological changes but interferometric coherence has a near constant behaviour with fluctuations mainly related to baseline variations.

  5. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-03-01

    This technical paper presents an efficient and performance-oriented method to model reactive mass transport processes in environmental and geotechnical subsurface systems. The open source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled, to combine their individual strengths and features to simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes in porous and fractured media with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions. Furthermore, a flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand, and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other hand. The coupling interface and parallelization scheme have been tested and verified in terms of precision and performance.

  6. A kind of integrated method discuss of fOG signal processing circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Pan, Xin; Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In view of the circuit miniaturization need in project application of fiber optic gyroscope(FOG), a new integrated technical scheme adopting system in package(SIP) for signal processing circuit of FOG was put forward. At first, the principle on signal processing circuit of FOG was analyzed, and the technical scheme adopting SIP based on low-temperature co-fired substrate technology was presented according to circuit characteristic and actual condition. Secondly, under the prerequisite of the concept introduction of SIP and LTCC, the SIP prototype of signal processing circuit of FOG was trialed produced,and it passed through the debug test. This SIP modular is an overall circuit complete integrated the signal processing circuit of FOG, and only a potentiometer and EPROM do not case outside. The testing results indicate that SIP is a kind of feasible scheme that carries out miniaturization for signal processing circuit of FOG.

  7. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-04-25

    This third quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. The work done this quarter has utilized a miniature imaging spectrometer. Procedures to collect and process the spectral and spatial data from the imaging spectrometer have been established, and software routines have been employed to use this data to differentiate sulfides from background rock in platinum/palladium core samples. These sulfides are indicator minerals for high-grade platinum/palladium ore. Mappings of the sulfides generated with this procedure have been quite accurate. Samples of coal have also been obtained and preliminary measurements with the imaging spectrometer have been made.

  8. Handels- og Kontorfunktionaerernes Forbund i Danmark v. Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening [17 October 1989].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The plaintiff employee's Danish union challenged as contrary to Sex Discrimination Directive 75/117 the salary practice of the defendant employer, which resulted in male employees receiving an average wage 6.85% higher than that received by female employees in the same job category. The difference resulted from a system of supplements paid to employees on the basis of mobility, vocational training, and length of service. The court held that when an employer applies a system of remuneration that is totally lacking in transparency, the employer is required to prove that the system does not discriminate against women if it is shown that the system results in women receiving average pay less than that received by men. It also ruled that pay differentials based on seniority were acceptable and that pay differentials based on mobility and vocational training were acceptable only if it was shown that such mobility or vocational training was important to the performance of specific tasks entrusted to an employee. PMID:12344117

  9. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-01-31

    The overall approach of this effort is to spectrally image ore or coal, and then use the spectral content (i.e., the particular colors of the ore or coal) to differentiate between the ore or coal grades. Currently, experts with practiced eyes do just this to identify the grade of platinum/palladium ore from the Stillwater Mine in south-central Montana. Additionally, trained eyes can identify high-sulfur and high-ash coal visually. The premise of this effort is that machine vision can accomplish this same differentiation. During the first quarter, machine vision results using a digital color camera did not correlate as well with assay results for platinum/palladium ore as would be required for a commercial device. One of the possible reasons for this is that the digital camera did not provide enough spectral information to obtain good differentiation between the sulfides associated with high-grade platinum/palladium ore and background interference, most notably yellow grease that contaminates some of the sample and green colored rock. The second quarter efforts have largely been devoted to implementing an imaging spectrometer for machine vision. In brief, modifying an imaging spectrometer that was designed for remote sensing from a Remotely Controlled (RC) airplane has done this. The imaging spectrometer provides 320 spectral channels, allowing for much better spectral resolution that can be obtained with a digital color camera, which provides 3 spectral channels. Preliminary results, as discussed below in more detail, are encouraging. The technical portion of the report below is organized into subsections as dictated by the DoE contract for this effort. These sections are: Experimental Apparatus, Experimental and Operating Data, Data Reduction, and Hypothesis and Conclusions. Partners in this effort are: Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Stillwater Mining Co., Western Syncoal, and the Montana Board of Research and Commercialization.

  10. [Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements. (Part 7: The academic carrier of Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka--from elementary school to the graduate school, Imperial University of Tokyo)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2011-12-01

    The background of the higher education of Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka shown on the official resume was disclosed by Dr. Kazuo Naito in 1986, but the courses of the elementary and secondary schools were not described in it. In regard to his lower educational courses, the author referred to the laws and regulations issued by the Ministry of Education of the Japan Government and the Yamaguchi Prefectural Office. Those were often revised with times. The author presumed the elementary school (Murozumi Primary School [the first established primary school at the birthplace; Murozumi, Hikari-City, Yamaguchi Prefecture]) and middle schools (Prefectural Yamaguchi Middle School and Yamaguchi High School) to which he had been admitted. These presumptions were made to explain his whole educational course without unreasonableness. After finishing the first school year of the Yamaguchi High School, he was transferred to the Preparatory Course of the Yamaguchi Higher School (Yamaguchi Kotô Chugakkô, Yoka), because of the amendment of the educational system. Then he was transferred to the Preparatory Course of the Daisan Higher School (Daisan Kotô Chugakkô, Yoka), and to the Preparatory Course of Daiichi Higher School (Daiichi Kotô Chugakkô, Yoka). After his graduation from the Regular Course of the Daiichi Higher School (Daiichi Kotô Chugakkô, Honka), he was admitted to the Medical College of the Imperial University from which he graduated in 1897. In addition, he was a medical student of the Graduate School of the Imperial University of Tokyo just before he left Japan for studying abroad. The whole academic carrier of Dr. Matsuoka is not only clearly clarified, but it is also indicated that he was one of the successful examples of the educational system proposed by Yamaguchi Prefecture in Meiji era which articulated the local primary and middle schools with the Imperial University of Tokyo. PMID:22586890

  11. GO2OGS: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Walther, M.; Sattler, S.; Naumov, D.; Kolditz, O.

    2015-08-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the software Paradigm™ GOCAD© into the open-source VTU format for the usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of similar environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modelling. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  12. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  13. The formation of pentagon-heptagon pair defect by the reconstruction og vacancy defects in carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.D.; Wang, C.Z.; Yoon, E.; Hwang, N.M.; Ho, K.M.

    2008-01-29

    The reconstruction process of vacancy hole in carbon nanotube is investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations and by ab initio total energy calculations. In the molecular dynamics simulation, a vacancy hole is found to reconstruct into two separated pentagon-heptagon pair defects. As the result of reconstruction, the radius of the carbon nanotube is reduced and the chirality of the tube is partly changed. During the vacancy hole healing process, the formation of pentagonal and heptagonal rings is proceeded by the subsequent Stone-Wales.

  14. A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator exhibiting dual-channel responsive sensing behaviours towards fluoride ion via gel-gel states.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Hassan; Pang, Hongchang; Gong, Weitao; Dhinakaran, Manivannan Kalavathi; Wajahat, Ali; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling

    2016-07-01

    A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator G-16 containing anion and metal-coordination ability has been designed and synthesized. It shows excellent and robust gelation capability as a strong blue fluorescent supramolecular organic gel OG in DMF. Addition of Zn(2+) produced Zn(2+)-coordinated supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn. Organic gel OG and organometallic gel OG-Zn exhibited efficient and different sensing behaviors towards fluoride ion due to the variation in self-assembling nature. Supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn displayed specific selectivity for fluoride ion and formed OG-Zn-F with dramatic color change from blue to blue green in solution and gel to gel states. Furthermore after directly addition of fluoride into OG produced fluoride containing organic gel OG-F with drastically modulation in color from blue to greenish yellow fluorescence via strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. A number of experiments were conducted such as FTIR, (1)H NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies, XRD, SEM and rheology. These results revealed that the driving forces involved in self-assembly of OG, OG-Zn, OG-Zn-F and OG-F were hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, π-π interactions, and van der Waal forces. In contrast to the most anion responsive gels, particularly fluoride ion responsive gels showed gel-sol state transition on stimulation by anions, the gel state of OG and OG-Zn did not show any gel-to-sol transition during the whole F(-) response process. PMID:27193611

  15. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  16. Re-oxidation Kinetics of Flash-Reduced Iron Particles in H2-H2O(g) Atmosphere Relevant to a Novel Flash Ironmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhixue; Sohn, Hong Yong; Olivas-Martinez, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    A novel flash ironmaking process based on hydrogen-containing reduction gases is under development at the University of Utah. The goal of this work was to study the possibility of the re-oxidation of iron particles in a H2-H2O gas mixture in the lower part of the flash reactor from the kinetic point of view. The last stage of hydrogen reduction of iron oxide, i.e., the reduction of wustite, is limited by equilibrium. As the reaction mixture cools down, the re-oxidation of iron could take place because of the decreasing equilibrium constant and the high reactivity of the freshly reduced fine iron particles. The effects of temperature and H2O partial pressure on the re-oxidation rate were examined in the temperature range of 823 K to 973 K (550 °C to 700 °C) and H2O contents of 40 to 100 pct. The nucleation and growth kinetics model was shown to best describe the re-oxidation kinetics. The partial pressure dependence with respect to water vapor was determined to be of first order, and the activation energy of re-oxidation reaction was 146 kJ/mol. A complete rate equation that adequately represents the experimental data was developed.

  17. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc 5.5.7-3.1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled to set up and simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions faster and easier on high-performance computers. In combination with the elaborated and extendable chemical database of IPhreeqc, it will be possible to set up a wide range of multiphysics problems with numerous chemical reactions that are known to influence water quality in porous and fractured media. A flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other. This technical paper presents the implementation, verification, and parallelization scheme of the coupling interface, and discusses its performance and precision.

  18. Paléogéographie du Jurassique supérieur au sud du choot El Hodna, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissaoui, D. M.

    The Upper Jurassic outcrops as isolated mounts along the southern end of chott el Hodna, Algeria. They consist mainly on shallow platform deposited limestones immediately north (Bout Taleb) and east (Aures) of chott el Hodna, the carbonates of the same age are pelagic and deposited within basin or external platform respectively. Detailed study of Meharga-Fnoud series demonstrates that the shallow carbonate sedimentation in this sector is interrupted by periodic emersions as indicated by vadose diagenesis (birds-eyes, opened burrows, evaporite and dolomite, vadose silts etc). The proposed paleogeography locates the internal jurassic shoreline near the present southern limit of chott el Hodna. Each maximal extension of the emersion leads to the formation of a tidal flat whose origin is not associated with a reefal nor a sedimentary barrier. The emersions are mainly favored by the large dimension and the absence of significant submarine relief within the Jurassic platform. Each emersion starts in the north then progrades southwards by lateral accretions. Its progression is interrupted by deep tectonic reactivation which provokes marine transgression over the tidal flat. One of the main interest of the Jurassic paleogeography in this region concerns the association between the tidal flat and an extensive dolomitization which may transform limestones precursors into good reservoirs.

  19. Work Programme, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This publication presents the work program for 2001 for the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) set in the framework of four operational guidelines (OGs). The section on each OG contains an introduction including CEDEFOP's aims, followed by descriptions of research projects relevant to the OG. Each of the 11…

  20. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Department of the Interior Strategic Science Group

    2013-01-01

    This report documents results from the March 2013 deployment of the OGS. It includes background information on Hurricane Sandy and the federal response; the OGS methodology; scenarios for Hurricane Sandy’s impact on coastal communities and urban ecosystems; potential interventions to improve regional resilience to future major storms; a discussion of scenario results; and lessons learned about the OGS process.

  1. Two Grammatical Models of Modern English. The Old and the New from A to Z. Germanic Linguistic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuurman, Frits

    Case studies provide detailed comparisons, arranged alphabetically by title for ease of reference, of 26 problems in Modern English grammar, from both the old grammar (OG) and new grammar (NG) viewpoints. This A-Z approach juxtaposes contributions made by OG and NG to the description of Modern English grammar. Part I surveys large OG and NG…

  2. The English Program at Murasakino Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minagawa, Haruo

    2010-01-01

    Murasakino High School is a municipal senior high school located in the northern part of Kyoto, an ancient capital city of Japan. With a little over one thousand students studying in three grades (from fifteen to eighteen years of age), Murasakino has a distinctive scholastic tradition that makes it different from other high schools in Kyoto. Over…

  3. S. 2019: This Act may be cited as the Economic Growth and Sovereignty Protection Act, introduced in the Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, April 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this bill is to prohibit the use of Federal funds to implement the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change unless or until the Senate has given its advice and consent to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and to clarify the authority of Federal agencies with respect to the regulation of the emissions of carbon dioxide.

  4. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  5. The 2-oxoglutarate supply exerts significant control on the lysine synthesis flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Héctor; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Rumjanek, Franklin D; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2013-11-01

    To determine the extent to which the supply of the precursor 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) controls the synthesis of lysine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing exponentially in high glucose, top-down elasticity analysis was used. Three groups of reactions linked by 2-OG were defined. The 2-OG supply group comprised all metabolic steps leading to its formation, and the two 2-OG consumer groups comprised the enzymes and transporters involved in 2-OG transformation into lysine and glutamate and their further utilization for protein synthesis and storage. Various 2-OG steady-state concentrations that produced different fluxes to lysine and glutamate were attained using yeast mutants with increasing activities of Krebs cycle enzymes and decreased activities of Lys synthesis enzymes. The elasticity coefficients of the three enzyme groups were determined from the dependence of the amino acid fluxes on the 2-OG concentration. The respective degrees of control on the flux towards lysine (flux control coefficients) were determined from their elasticities, and were 1.1, 0.41 and -0.52 for the 2-OG producer group and the Lys and Glu branches, respectively. Thus, the predominant control exerted by the 2-OG supply on the rate of lysine synthesis suggests that over-expression of 2-OG producer enzymes may be a highly effective strategy to enhance Lys production. PMID:24034837

  6. Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Williams, Kelly; Shukla, Maulik; Snyder, Eric E.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Dharmanolla, Chitti; Rainey, Daphne; Soneja, Jeetendra; Shallom, Joshua M.; Vishnubhat, Nataraj Dongre; Wattam, Rebecca; Purkayastha, Anjan; Czar, Michael; Crasta, Oswald; Setubal, Joao C.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group specific genes (class 1 OGs or C1OGs) from those distributed indiscriminately throughout the rickettsial tree (class 2 OG or C2OGs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present 1823 representative (no gene duplications) and 259 non-representative (at least one gene duplication) rickettsial OGs. While the highly reductive (∼1.2 MB) Rickettsia genomes range in predicted ORFs from 872 to 1512, a core of 752 OGs was identified, depicting the essential Rickettsia genes. Unsurprisingly, this core lacks many metabolic genes, reflecting the dependence on host resources for growth and survival. Additionally, we bolster our recent reclassification of Rickettsia by identifying OGs that define the AG (ancestral group), TG (typhus group), TRG (transitional group), and SFG (spotted fever group) rickettsiae. OGs for insect-associated species, tick-associated species and species that harbor plasmids were also predicted. Through superimposition of all OGs over robust phylogeny estimation, we discern between C1OGs and C2OGs, the latter depicting genes either decaying from the conserved C1OGs or acquired laterally. Finally, scrutiny of non-representative OGs revealed high levels of split genes versus gene duplications, with both phenomena confounding gene orthology assignment. Interestingly, non-representative OGs, as well as OGs comprised of several gene families typically involved in microbial pathogenicity and/or the acquisition of virulence factors, fall predominantly within C2OG distributions. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, we determined the relative conservation and distribution of 14354 predicted

  7. Nouveaux restes aviens du Néogène de la Sperrgebiet (Namibie): Complément à la biostratigraphie avienne des éolianites du désert de Namib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Dauphin, Yannicke; Pickford, Martin

    1998-11-01

    Two new types of fossil ratite eggshells discovered in aeolianites at Karingarab (Sperrgebiet, Namibia) exhibit morphologies intermediate between those of types already described. They help to refine the biochronology of the aeolianites of the Namib Desert.

  8. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  9. Différenciation paléogéographique à l'Ordovicien supérieur dans le Tafilalt (Anti-Atlas oriental, Maroc) sous l'interaction de la glaciation et de la tectonique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Maazouz, Brahim; Hamoumi, Naima

    2007-07-01

    The Tafilalt domain, which corresponded, during the Lower and Middle Ordovician, to a storm and/or tide-dominated epeiric shelf with east-west- to ENE-WSW-trending isopachs, such as the whole 'Anti-Atlasic basin', recorded major palaeogeographical changes during the Upper Ordovician. An extensional tectonic event resulted in the individualization of two sub-basins: the 'Khabt-El-Hejar sub-basin' and the 'western Tafilalt sub-basin', where new environments developed under the interplay between tectonics and glaciation. In the northeastern Tafilalt sub-basin took place an isolated carbonate platform, where Bryozoan mounds nucleated, and a mixed siliciclastic carbonate high-energy peritidal littoral. In the 'western Tafilalt sub-basin', the siliciclastic shelf was structured in half-graben, where sediments from the Saharan glacier and the carbonate platform of the Khabt-El-Hejar sub-basin accumulated in fan deltas.

  10. L'Arenig Llanvirn du Haut Atlas occidental et central (Maroc). Environnements sédimentaires, paléogéographie et contrôle de la sédimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacrone, Choukri; Hamoumi, Naïma

    2005-09-01

    The sedimentological study of Arenig-Llanvirn successions of Aït Lahsen (western High Atlas), Tizi-n-Tichka and Imini (central High Atlas) allow us to recognise two independent epeiric seas. In the western High Atlas, the sedimentation occurred in a wave- and storm-influenced delta, alimented by a source situated at the present-day location of the Argana corridor, under the control of sea-level fluctuations and subsidence. In the central High Atlas, the sedimentation occurred in an influenced tide and episodic storm delta, alimented by sources situated at the present-day location of the Siroua and Ouzellagh Massifs under the control of sea-level fluctuations and tectonics. To cite this article: C. Chacrone, N. Hamoumi, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  11. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  12. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.) PMID:24575366

  13. Structural Underpinnings of Nitrogen Regulation by the Prototypical Nitrogen-Responsive Transcriptional Factor NrpR

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Dranow, David M.; Lie, Thomas J.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Patskovsky, Yury; Ozyurt, Sinem A.; Sauder, J. Michael; Almo, Steven C.; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Burley, Stephen K.; Leigh, John A.; Gonen, Tamir

    2010-11-29

    Plants and microorganisms reduce environmental inorganic nitrogen to ammonium, which then enters various metabolic pathways solely via conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to glutamate and glutamine. Cellular 2OG concentrations increase during nitrogen starvation. We recently identified a family of 2OG-sensing proteins - the nitrogen regulatory protein NrpR - that bind DNA and repress transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes. We used X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of NrpR regulatory domain. We identified the NrpR 2OG-binding cleft and show that residues predicted to interact directly with 2OG are conserved among diverse classes of 2OG-binding proteins. We show that high levels of 2OG inhibit NrpRs ability to bind DNA. Electron microscopy analyses document that NrpR adopts different quaternary structures in its inhibited 2OG-bound state compared with its active apo state. Our results indicate that upon 2OG release, NrpR repositions its DNA-binding domains correctly for optimal interaction with DNA thereby enabling gene repression.

  14. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  15. 13C/12C AND D/H ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC METHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The magnitudes of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases like methane need to be better understood to accurately measure changes in emissions and ensure international compliance with global environmental policies such as the Kyoto Protocol.

  16. *GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PRODUCE DIFFERENTIAL CARDIOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN HEALTHY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicited changes in cardiac gene expression pattern that broadly mimicked gene expression in non-exposed spontaneously hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that healthy ...

  17. Blood Pressure Interventions Affect Acute and Four-Week Diesel Exhaust Induced Pulmonary Injury in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicits changes in cardiac gene expression that broadly mimics expression in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats without DE. We hypothesized that pharmacol...

  18. 6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BAMBOO GATE LEADING INTO WHITE GRAVEL AND ROCK CLUSTER GARDEN REMINISCENT OF RYOAN-JI TEMPLE GARDEN IN KYOTO - Kykuit, Japanese Gardens, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

  19. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  20. How I Created the Theory of Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.

    1982-01-01

    This translation of a lecture given in Kyoto (Japan) on 14 December l922 sheds light on Einstein's path to the theory of relativity and offers insights into many other aspects of his work on relativity. (Author/JN)

  1. 78 FR 56245 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for... limited exclusion order against certain wireless consumer electronics devices and components thereof... Corporation of Kyoto, Japan; Kyocera Communications, Inc. of San Diego, California; LG Electronics, Inc....

  2. Avoiding Gridlock on Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Benedick, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    With the Kyoto Protocol’s global process bogging down, a parallel strategy of smaller, focused negotiations to achieve partial solutions could put the world back on the right path. This article will focus on that.

  3. 78 FR 64009 - Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... U.S.A., Inc., 1000 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632. Nintendo Co., Ltd., 11-1 Hokotate-cho, Kamitoba, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601- 8501, Japan. Nintendo of America, Inc., 4600 150th Avenue NE, Redmond,...

  4. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness. PMID:27131175

  5. Aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum improves hematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats via its antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Shehu-Tijani Toyin; Oyeyemi, Wahab A; Lasisi, Taye J; Shittu, Seyid Alli-Siise; Lawal, Temitope T; Olujobi, Samuel T

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) on hematological parameters and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male rats (150–200 g) were randomly grouped into five as control, normal + OG, diabetic untreated, diabetic + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups. Diabetes was induced by 100 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in the diabetic untreated and diabetic + OG groups followed by treatment with distilled water and 400 mg/kg OG, respectively, whereas control, normal + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups were treated with distilled water, 400 mg/kg OG, and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored weekly. After 28 days of treatments, under anesthesia induced by 50 mg/kg sodium thiopental i.p., blood samples were obtained for hematological analysis, malondialdehyde (MDA) level determination, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Data were compared using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: There was a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic + OG animals compared to the diabetic untreated and the initial reduction in weight observed in this group was reversed at the end of the experiments. Packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the diabetic + OG when compared with the untreated group. The MDA concentration was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) in the diabetic + OG group when compared with diabetic untreated while SOD activity was significantly reduced in the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: It was concluded that OG reverses anemia secondary to alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats probably via its antioxidant activity. PMID:27127737

  6. Compositional range in the Canyon Diablo meteoroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Ouyang, Xinwei

    1990-11-01

    The compositional range within the Canyon Diablo (CD) iron meteorites associated with the formation of the Meteor Crater (Arizona) was examined, using the INAA to analyze a set of CD samples consisting of nine irons collected within 7 km of the Meteor Crater, four Arizona IAB irons that were identified by Wasson (1968) as transported CD fragments, and irons from Las Vegas (Nevada) and Moab (Utah) that Buchwald (1975) suggested to be transported CD fragments. Results show that the irons named Helt Township, Idaho, Las Vegas, Mamaroneck, Moab, and Pulaski County are, most likely, mislabeled CD specimens. On the other hand, meteorites named Alexander County, Allan Hills A77283, Ashfork, Fairfield, and Rifle are identified as compositionally distinct independent falls.

  7. Compositional range in the Canyon Diablo meteoroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.; Ouyang, Xinwei

    1990-01-01

    The compositional range within the Canyon Diablo (CD) iron meteorites associated with the formation of the Meteor Crater (Arizona) was examined, using the INAA to analyze a set of CD samples consisting of nine irons collected within 7 km of the Meteor Crater, four Arizona IAB irons that were identified by Wasson (1968) as transported CD fragments, and irons from Las Vegas (Nevada) and Moab (Utah) that Buchwald (1975) suggested to be transported CD fragments. Results show that the irons named Helt Township, Idaho, Las Vegas, Mamaroneck, Moab, and Pulaski County are, most likely, mislabeled CD specimens. On the other hand, meteorites named Alexander County, Allan Hills A77283, Ashfork, Fairfield, and Rifle are identified as compositionally distinct independent falls.

  8. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C.; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  9. VERTICAL STRATIFICATION OF SOIL WATER STORAGE AND RELEASE DYNAMICS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONIFEROUS FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for journal article We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal depletion of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root up...

  10. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20...

  11. 40 CFR 432.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitations specified in... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in §...

  12. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20...

  13. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400.... 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20...

  14. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  15. The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O2 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-09-01

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films have been used in fusion devices. In this environment, lithiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 monolayer (ML)) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that as the lithium film thickness decreased from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L (L) of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide were formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. After 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.

  16. 40 CFR 432.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitations specified in § 432.12(a)(1... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in §...

  17. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  18. 40 CFR 432.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the corresponding limitations specified in § 432.12(a)(1... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in §...

  19. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  20. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1); and standards... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  1. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1); and standards... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  2. Reading and Spelling Gains Following One Year of Orton-Gillingham Intervention in Singaporean Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lois; Oei, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Orton-Gillingham (OG) based approaches to dyslexia remediation, empirical support documenting its effectiveness is lacking. Recently, Chia and Houghton demonstrated the effectiveness of the OG approach for remediation of dyslexia in Singapore. As a conceptual replication and extension of that research, we report…

  3. Detection of induced seismicity due to oil and gas extraction in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadugba, Oluwaseun Idowu

    Drilling operations and extraction of oil and gas (O&G) may lead to subsurface slumping or compression of sediments due to reduced vertical principal stress which may lead to small earthquakes at the drilling site. O&G extraction is common in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) and only thirty-five earthquakes of magnitudes between 2.3 and 6.0 have been recorded in the area from 1974 to the present. The purpose of this research is to detect more earthquakes using stacks of seismic data from the Transportable USArray (TA) from 2011 to 2013, and determine the spatiotemporal relationship between the detected earthquakes and O&G extraction. Five new small offshore earthquakes, that may be associated with the offshore O&G production, have been detected in the data. Spatial correlation of the epicenters with offshore drilling sites shows that the earthquakes may be due to the O&G extraction.

  4. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances.

    PubMed

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata

    2004-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  5. Morphology and structure of extremely red objects at z ∼ 1 in the CANDELS-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guan-Wen; Ma, Zhong-Yang; Chen, Yang; Kong, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Using high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 F125W imaging from the CANDELS-COSMOS field, we report the structural and morphological properties of extremely red objects (EROs) at z ∼ 1. Based on the UVJ color criteria, we separate EROs into two types: old passive galaxies (OGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DGs). For a given stellar mass, we find that the mean size of OGs (DGs) is smaller by a factor of ∼ 2 (1.5) than that of present-day early-type (late-type) galaxies at a rest-frame optical wavelength. We derive the average effective radii of OGs and DGs, corresponding to 2.09 ± 1.13 kpc and 3.27 ± 1.14 kpc, respectively. Generally, the DGs are heterogeneous, with mixed features including bulges, disks and irregular structures, with relatively high M20, large size and low G. By contrast, OGs have elliptical-like compact morphologies with lower M20, smaller size and higher G, indicating a more concentrated and symmetric spatial extent of the stellar population distribution in OGs than DGs. These findings imply that OGs and DGs have different evolutionary processes, and that the minor merger scenario is the most likely mechanism for the structural properties of OGs. However, the size evolution of DGs is possibly due to the secular evolution of galaxies. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  6. A comparison of surgical procedures and postoperative cares for minimally invasive laparoscopic gastrectomy and open gastrectomy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong-Na; Hu, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive, laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) has assumed an ever-expanding role in gastric cancer treatment. Accumulating data so far seem to suggest that LG is at least a viable alternative of conventional open gastrectomy (OG) in different contexts. However, even though reviews and meta-analyses have compared the advantages and limitations of each option, it is still controversial whether LG is a better alternative to OG, especially in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). The major goal of this study is to evaluate the readouts of LG, in comparison with OG. A literature search was performed for studies published from 2009 to 2013. Medical records of 20868 gastric cancer patients from 32 independent studies were reviewed and analyzed. All 32 studies concluded that LG is at least comparable with OG. LG is superior to OG in offering less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower risk of complications, although LG is probably inferior in operative time, and not different from OG in mortality. Considering the merits and the potential future technical improvement, it is reasonable to speculate that LG may eventually replace OG in most clinical contexts. PMID:26379823

  7. Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G in aqueous solution via a heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction catalysed by goethite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghai; Dou, Xiaowen; Deng, Dayi; Guan, Yufeng; Zhang, Liguo; He, Guangping

    2012-01-01

    Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G (OG) was investigated by using goethite/H2O2 as a heterogeneous Fenton-like reagent. Five principle operational parameters, namely pH, ion strength, concentrations ofgoethite (alpha-FeOOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and reaction temperature, were taken into account to investigate how these controlling factors mediated OG decolourization. Goethite surfaces catalysed a Fenton-like reaction responsible for decolourizing OG following pseudo-first-order kinetics (R2 > 0.964). This process was effective but seriously impacted by the medium pH and the dosages of both alpha-FeOOH and H2O2. The decolourization efficiencies of OG increased with the decrease of solution pH and NaCl (chloride ion) concentration and/or the increase of H2O2. The acidic aqueous medium conditions were likely favourable due to the surface adsorption of the negatively charged OG leading to the promotion of decolourizing OG. The apparent activation energy (E) for this reaction was 42.18 kJ mol(-1), a relatively low value. This is consistent with the OG decolourization being enhanced with the reaction temperature increase. PMID:22988614

  8. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity. PMID:23380593

  9. Land-use change effects on soil quality in Montilla-Moriles DO, Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Carrillo, M.; Parras-Alcántara, L.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-02-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last few decades, a significant number of AC has a land use change (LUC) to olive grove cultivations (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 yr) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (DO), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the thickness horizon, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C:N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG, respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG, respectively). With respect to the soil quality, the effect was opposite; 46 yr after LUC improved the soil quality, increasing the stratification ratio (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio.

  10. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-05-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  11. Studies of DNA Aptamer OliGreen and PicoGreen Fluorescence Interactions in Buffer and Serum.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G; Sivils, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Spectrofluorometric and emission peak titration and timed studies of OliGreen (OG) and PicoGreen (PG) were conducted in Tris EDTA (TE) buffer, pooled rat and fetal bovine serum with two different aptamers of 72 and 192 bases in length to determine if OG or PG were suitable for aptamer pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in sera. Results indicated that OG and PG detected the single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) stem-loop structures of the two aptamers quite well in TE with reliable standard curves having exponential character (or several linear detection regions) up to 1 μg/ml of aptamer DNA with detection limits of ~1 ng/ml. The intensity of OG and PG staining appeared to correlate with the number and percentage of ss and ds bases in each aptamer. OG and PG fluorescence in pooled rat serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) did not titer as a function of DNA aptamer concentration from 1 μg/ml to 1 ng/ml. This lack of OG or PG aptamer assays in serum is contrary to most published reports of OG or PG assays for ss antisense oligonucleotides, ds PCR amplicons or other types of DNA in serum or plasma. Further studies suggested that the lack of OG and PG assay titration in serum might not be entirely due to aptamer degradation from nucleases in serum since the fluorescence signals in serum appeared relatively stable over time from 30 min to 4 hours. A hypothesis is presented which attributes the inability of OG or PG to assay aptamers in serum to a combination of high blue-green autofluorescence in serum with possible serum nuclease degradation of aptamers over time and the changing aptamer to serum protein ratio coupled to nonspecific binding of serum proteins to aptamers thereby possibly changing aptamer conformations as a function of aptamer concentration during titration experiments. PMID:27209004

  12. Mechanism of 2-oxoglutarate signaling by the Synechococcus elongatus PII signal transduction protein

    PubMed Central

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Chellamuthu, Vasuki-Ranjani; Forchhammer, Karl; Zeth, Kornelius

    2010-01-01

    PII proteins control key processes of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria, archaea, and plants in response to the central metabolites ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), signaling cellular energy and carbon and nitrogen abundance. This metabolic information is integrated by PII and transmitted to regulatory targets (key enzymes, transporters, and transcription factors), modulating their activity. In oxygenic phototrophs, the controlling enzyme of arginine synthesis, N-acetyl-glutamate kinase (NAGK), is a major PII target, whose activity responds to 2-OG via PII. Here we show structures of the Synechococcus elongatus PII protein in complex with ATP, Mg2+, and 2-OG, which clarify how 2-OG affects PII–NAGK interaction. PII trimers with all three sites fully occupied were obtained as well as structures with one or two 2-OG molecules per PII trimer. These structures identify the site of 2-OG located in the vicinity between the subunit clefts and the base of the T loop. The 2-OG is bound to a Mg2+ ion, which is coordinated by three phosphates of ATP, and by ionic interactions with the highly conserved residues K58 and Q39 together with B- and T-loop backbone interactions. These interactions impose a unique T-loop conformation that affects the interactions with the PII target. Structures of PII trimers with one or two bound 2-OG molecules reveal the basis for anticooperative 2-OG binding and shed light on the intersubunit signaling mechanism by which PII senses effectors in a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21041661

  13. Mechanism of 2-oxoglutarate signaling by the Synechococcus elongatus PII signal transduction protein.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Chellamuthu, Vasuki-Ranjani; Forchhammer, Karl; Zeth, Kornelius

    2010-11-16

    P(II) proteins control key processes of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria, archaea, and plants in response to the central metabolites ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), signaling cellular energy and carbon and nitrogen abundance. This metabolic information is integrated by P(II) and transmitted to regulatory targets (key enzymes, transporters, and transcription factors), modulating their activity. In oxygenic phototrophs, the controlling enzyme of arginine synthesis, N-acetyl-glutamate kinase (NAGK), is a major P(II) target, whose activity responds to 2-OG via P(II). Here we show structures of the Synechococcus elongatus P(II) protein in complex with ATP, Mg(2+), and 2-OG, which clarify how 2-OG affects P(II)-NAGK interaction. P(II) trimers with all three sites fully occupied were obtained as well as structures with one or two 2-OG molecules per P(II) trimer. These structures identify the site of 2-OG located in the vicinity between the subunit clefts and the base of the T loop. The 2-OG is bound to a Mg(2+) ion, which is coordinated by three phosphates of ATP, and by ionic interactions with the highly conserved residues K58 and Q39 together with B- and T-loop backbone interactions. These interactions impose a unique T-loop conformation that affects the interactions with the P(II) target. Structures of P(II) trimers with one or two bound 2-OG molecules reveal the basis for anticooperative 2-OG binding and shed light on the intersubunit signaling mechanism by which P(II) senses effectors in a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21041661

  14. Use of benzo analogs to enhance antimycotic activity of kresoxim methyl for control of aflatoxigenic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L.; Campbell, Bruce C.; Haff, Ronald P.; Stanker, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine two benzo analogs, octylgallate (OG) and veratraldehyde (VT), as antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and A.flavus (toxigenic or atoxigenic). Both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains used were capable of producing kojic acid, another cellular secondary product. A. fumigatus was used as a genetic model for this study. When applied independently, OG exhibits considerably higher antifungal activity compared to VT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OG were 0.3–0.5 mM, while that of VT were 3.0–5.0 mM in agar plate-bioassays. OG or VT in concert with the fungicide kresoxim methyl (Kre-Me; strobilurin) greatly enhanced sensitivity of Aspergillus strains to Kre-Me. The combination with OG also overcame the tolerance of A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants to Kre-Me. The degree of compound interaction resulting from chemosensitization of the fungi by OG was determined using checkerboard bioassays, where synergistic activity greatly lowered MICs or minimum fungicidal concentrations. However, the control chemosensitizer benzohydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor conventionally applied in concert with strobilurin, did not achieve synergism. The level of antifungal or chemosensitizing activity was also “compound—strain” specific, indicating differential susceptibility of tested strains to OG or VT, and/or heat stress. Besides targeting the antioxidant system, OG also negatively affected the cell wall-integrity pathway, as determined by the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-integrity MAPK pathway mutants. We concluded that certain benzo analogs effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess chemosensitizing capability to increase efficacy of Kre-Me and thus, could reduce effective dosages of strobilurins and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal practices. OG also exhibits moderate antiaflatoxigenic activity. PMID

  15. Nanopore Detection of 8-Oxoguanine in the Human Telomere Repeat Sequence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human telomere repeat sequence 5′-TTAGGG-3′ is a hot spot for oxidation at guanine, yielding 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), a biomarker of oxidative stress. Telomere shortening resulting from oxidation will ultimately induce cellular senescence. In this study, α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore technology was applied to detect and quantify OG in the human telomeric DNA sequence. This repeat sequence adopts a basket G-quadruplex in the NaCl electrolyte used for analysis that enters the α-HL channel, slowly unfolds, and translocates. The basket fold containing OG disrupts the structure, leading to >10× increase in the unfolding kinetics without yielding a detectable current pattern. Therefore, detection of OG with α-HL required labeling of OG with aminomethyl-[18-crown-6] using a mild oxidant. The labeled OG yielded a pulse-like signal in the current vs time trace when the DNA strand was electrophoretically passed through α-HL in NaCl electrolyte. However, the rate of translocation was too slow using NaCl salts, leading us to further refine the method. A mixture of NH4Cl and LiCl electrolytes induced the propeller fold that unravels quickly outside the α-HL channel. This electrolyte allowed observation of the labeled OG, while providing a faster recording of the currents. Lastly, OG distributions were probed with this method in a 120-mer stretch of the human telomere sequence exposed to the cellular oxidant 1O2. Single-molecule profiles determined the OG distributions to be random in this context. Application of the method in nanomedicine can potentially address many questions surrounding oxidative stress and telomere attrition observed in various disease phenotypes including prostate cancer and diabetes. PMID:25768204

  16. USGS 1-min Dst index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  17. Overview of Ground Station 1 of the NASA space communications and navigation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. T.; Antsos, D.; Croonquist, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Roberts, L. C.; Garkanian, V.; Trinh, T.; Wright, M. W.; Rogalin, R.; Wu, J.; Clare, L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Ground Station 1 (OGS1) is the first of a new breed of dedicated ground terminals to support NASA's developing space-based optical communications infrastructure. It is based at NASA's Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at the Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The system will serve as the primary ground station for NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) experiment. This paper presents an overview of the OCTL telescope facility, the OGS1 ground-based optical communications systems, and the networking and control infrastructure currently under development. The OGS1 laser safety systems and atmospheric monitoring systems are also briefly described.

  18. Severe suppression of Frzb/sFRP3 transcription in osteogenic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Deendayal; Srivastava, Alok; Mahlum, Eric; Desai, Dinakar; Maran, Avudaiappan; Yaszemski, Michael; Jalal, Syed M; Gitelis, Steven; Bertoni, Franco; Damron, Tim; Irwin, Ronald; O'connor, Mary; Schwartz, Herbert; Bolander, Mark E; Sarkar, Gobinda

    2007-01-15

    Deciphering the molecular basis of cancer is critical for developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. To better understand the early molecular events involving osteogenic sarcoma (OGS), we have initiated a program to identify potential tumor suppressor genes. Expression profiling of total RNA from ten normal bone cell lines and eleven OGS-derived cell lines by microarray showed 135-fold lower expression of FRZB/sFRP3 mRNA in OGS cells compared to bone cells; this down-regulation of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression was found to be serum-independent. Subsequently, fourteen OGS biopsy specimens showed nine-fold down-regulation of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression compared to expression in eight normal bone specimens as determined by microarray. FRZB /sFRP3 protein level was also found to be at a very low level in 4/4 OGS cell lines examined. Quantitation by RT-PCR indicated approximately 70% and approximately 90% loss of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression in OGS biopsy specimens and OGS-derived cell lines respectively, compared to expression in bone (p<0.0001). Hybridization experiments of a cDNA microarray containing paired normal and tumor specimens from nineteen different organs did not show any significant difference in the level of Frzb/sFRP3 mRNA expression between the normal and the corresponding tumor tissues. Exogenous expression of FRZB/sFRP3 mRNA in two OGS-derived cell lines lacking endogenous expression of the mRNA produced abundant mRNA from the exogenous gene, eliminating degradation as a possibility for very low level of FRZB/sFRP3 mRNA in OGS specimens. Results from PCR-based experiments suggest that the FRZB/sFRP3 gene is not deleted in OGS cell lines, however, karyotyping shows gross abnormalities involving chromosome 2 (location of the FRZB gene) in five of twelve OGS-derived cell lines. Together, these data suggest a tumor-suppressive potential for FRZB/sFRP3 in OGS. PMID:17079093

  19. Development of KURAMA-II and its operation in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, M.; Okumura, R.; Takamiya, K.; Sato, N.; Yoshino, H.; Yoshinaga, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Uehara, A.; Yamana, H.

    2015-05-01

    A carborne survey system, named as KURAMA (Kyoto University RAdiation MApping system), was developed as a response to the nuclear accident at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Now the system has evolved into KURAMA-II, characterized by its compactness, autonomous operation, and acquisition of pulse-height spectrum data. A two-year field test of radiation monitoring by KURAMA-II on local buses, performed by Kyoto University, has successfully proceeded to the phase of official operation by the Fukushima prefectural government, supported by Kyoto University and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). An outline and the current status of KURAMA-II, including some results of the continuous monitoring by KURAMA-II on local buses in Fukushima, are introduced.

  20. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Osamu; Saito, Nagahiro; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Terashima, Chiaki; Ueno, Tomonaga; Sakai, Osamu; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Akamatsu, Kensuke; Ito, Takahiro; Yogo, Toshinobu; Inoue, Yasushi; Ohtake, Naoto; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Tosa, Masahiro; Takai, Madoka; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Matsuda, Naoki; Teshima, Katsuya; Seki, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Daisuke

    2013-03-01

    The International Conference on Thin Films is the most established conference for all researchers and persons interested in thin films and coatings. It is one of the tri-annual conference series endorsed and co-organized by the Thin Film Division of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA), a union of national member societies whose role is to stimulate international collaboration in the fields of vacuum science, techniques and applications and related multi-disciplinary topics including solid-vacuum and other interfaces. The 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15) is organized by The Vacuum Society of Japan (VSJ) and held at Kyoto TERRSA in Kyoto, Japan on 8-11 November 2011, following the 14th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-14), which was held in Ghent, Belgium in 2008. Thin films and coatings are daily becoming increasingly important in the fields of various industries. This International Conference provides a multi-disciplinary forum for recent advances in basic research, development and applications of thin films and coatings. This conference will present a unique opportunity for researchers, engineers and managers to acquire new knowledge of thin films and coatings. We hope that our understanding on thin films and coatings will be deepened through this conference. The conference site, 'Kyoto TERRSA' is located in the historical heart of the old capital Kyoto. Kyoto is an ancient city with a 1200-year history. It was established as Japan's capital under the name 'Heian-kyo' in the year 794. Although many transformations have taken place over the years, Kyoto has always embraced the most advanced standards of the times. It has greatly contributed to the nation's industrial, economic and cultural development. The dauntless spirit of leadership of Kyoto's past as a capital city is still felt here today. Kyoto also preserves the beloved examples of its culture as testimonials of time. This is shown

  1. Clearing the air

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, D.

    1998-05-01

    Like thunderclouds, predictions of doom for the environment and for business interests hover over the international climate treaty completed in Kyoto, Japan, last December. In the agreement, dubbed the Kyoto Protocol, participating countries agreed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below 1990 levels in an effort to slow down the phenomenon known as global warming. However, real-life effects of the United Nations-sponsored summit remain up in the air. Proposed regulation of greenhouse gas emissions would have profound effects on worldwide economies -- particularly the waste industry. But the Kyoto Protocol does not appear to satisfy any one group`s interests. This article examines all sides of this contentious and ongoing debate.

  2. 40 CFR 432.117 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G (as HEM), and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified...

  3. 40 CFR 432.127 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G (as HEM), and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified...

  4. Protein Hydroxylation Catalyzed by 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Markolovic, Suzana; Wilkins, Sarah E.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues, as catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases, was first identified in collagen biosynthesis. 2OG oxygenases also catalyze prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation of the hypoxia-inducible factors that play important roles in the adaptive response to hypoxia. Subsequently, they have been shown to catalyze N-demethylation (via hydroxylation) of Nϵ-methylated histone lysyl residues, as well as hydroxylation of multiple other residues. Recent work has identified roles for 2OG oxygenases in the modification of translation-associated proteins, which in some cases appears to be conserved from microorganisms through to humans. Here we give an overview of protein hydroxylation catalyzed by 2OG oxygenases, focusing on recent discoveries. PMID:26152730

  5. What Is Coronary Angiography?

    MedlinePlus

    ... OG-rah-fee) is a test that uses dye and special x rays to show the insides ... the coronary arteries. Overview During coronary angiography, special dye is released into the bloodstream. The dye makes ...

  6. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols – Nh, Mc, Ts and Og – after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  7. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  8. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  9. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  10. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  11. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  12. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  13. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  14. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  15. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  16. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  17. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  18. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  19. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  20. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  1. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  2. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  3. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  4. 40 CFR 432.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... expiration of the applicable time period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.42(a)(1... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  5. Orcinol glucoside produces antidepressant effects by blocking the behavioural and neuronal deficits caused by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Gao, Wen-Chao; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Lu, Wei-Li; Tang, Jie; Peng, Lei; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the antidepressant potential of orcinol glucoside (OG) and its possible mechanisms of action. We established a depressed rat model using 3 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The antidepressant-like effect of OG was revealed using the sucrose preference test, the open field test, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST). The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus. The protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and total phosphorylated-ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. The results showed that OG treatment (1.5, 3, or 6mg/kg) alleviated the depression-like behaviour of rats under CUMS, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobility in both the FST and TST, although the rearing frequency in the open field test increased only in the group that received the lowest dose (1.5mg/kg OG). Rats that received OG treatment exhibited reduced serum CORT levels and CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by OG treatment. Moreover, OG treatment upregulated the protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus, even above control levels. Our findings suggest that OG improved depressive behaviour in CUMS rats by downregulating HPA axis hyperactivity and increasing BDNF expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:23838013

  6. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  7. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  8. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  9. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  10. Rapid Oligo-Galacturonide Induced Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kohorn, Bruce D; Hoon, Divya; Minkoff, Benjamin B; Sussman, Michael R; Kohorn, Susan L

    2016-04-01

    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs)(1)are receptor protein kinases that bind to long polymers of cross-linked pectin in the cell wall. These plasma-membrane-associated protein kinases also bind soluble pectin fragments called oligo-galacturonides (OGs) released from the wall after pathogen attack and damage. WAKs are required for cell expansion during development but bind water soluble OGs generated from walls with a higher affinity than the wall-associated polysaccharides. OGs activate a WAK-dependent, distinct stress-like response pathway to help plants resist pathogen attack. In this report, a quantitative mass-spectrometric-based phosphoproteomic analysis was used to identify Arabidopsis cellular events rapidly induced by OGsin planta Using N(14/)N(15)isotopicin vivometabolic labeling, we screened 1,000 phosphoproteins for rapid OG-induced changes and found 50 proteins with increased phosphorylation, while there were none that decreased significantly. Seven of the phosphosites within these proteins overlap with those altered by another signaling molecule plants use to indicate the presence of pathogens (the bacterial "elicitor" peptide Flg22), indicating distinct but overlapping pathways activated by these two types of chemicals. Genetic analysis of genes encoding 10 OG-specific and two Flg22/OG-induced phosphoproteins reveals that null mutations in eight proteins compromise the OG response. These phosphorylated proteins with genetic evidence supporting their role in the OG response include two cytoplasmic kinases, two membrane-associated scaffold proteins, a phospholipase C, a CDPK, an unknown cadmium response protein, and a motor protein. Null mutants in two proteins, the putative scaffold protein REM1.3, and a cytoplasmic receptor like kinase ROG2, enhance and suppress, respectively, a dominantWAKallele. Altogether, the results of these chemical and genetic experiments reveal the identity of several phosphorylated proteins involved in the kinase

  11. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step. PMID:26837219

  12. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  13. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... animals on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in paragraph (a)(1)...

  14. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1) and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  15. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1), and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  16. 40 CFR 432.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.22..., fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.22(a)(1), and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  17. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.50 0.25 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  18. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.50 0.25 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  19. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  20. 40 CFR 432.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.32..., fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the limitations specified in § 432.32(a)(1) and the... on-site, the standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the...

  1. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  2. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been proposed by Schmidt-Effing (1976a. Münster Forsch. Géol. Paläont.38-39, 201-217; 1976b. Publ. geol. ICAITI, Guatemala, 5, 22-23; 1980. In: The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico and the Early Opening of the Central North Atlantic Ocean (Edited by Pilger, R. H., Jr), pp. 79-86, Von Hillebrandt (1981b. Geol. Rdsch.70 (2), 570-582; 1984. Int. Symp. Jurassic Stratigraphy3, 716-729) and Riccardi (1983. In: The Phanerozoic Geology of the World (Edited by Moullade, M. and Nairn, A. E. M.), II. B, 201-264). Unless one believes that in all localities cosmopolitan faunas arrived from a universal ocean, these relationships lead to the model of an "Atlantic corridor", starting in the Middle, and perhaps even the Early Liassic (the "Paleotethys" of Bernoulli and Lemoine, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 168-179; or the "proto-Atlantic" or "Atlantic Tethys" of Lancelot, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 215-223; and Lancelot and Winterer, 1980 Initial Report of the Deep Sea Drilling Project50, 801-821; although the latter authors postulate such a connection only from Late Liassic time on). This model raises the specific question whether or not Early Jurassic deposits are present in the Senegal basin (Guieu, 1976. Rapp. Dépt. Géol. Fac. Sci. Univ. Dakar32, 1-87).

  3. Explosion and/or fire risk assessment methodology: a common approach, structured for underground coalmine environments / Metoda szacowania ryzyka wybuchu i pożarów: podejście ogólne, dostosowane do środowiska kopalni podziemnej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioca, Ionel-Lucian; Moraru, Roland Iosif

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet statutory requirements concerning the workers health and safety, it is necessary for mine managers within Valea Jiului coal basin in Romania to address the potential for underground fires and explosions and their impact on the workforce and the mine ventilation systems. Highlighting the need for a unified and systematic approach of the specific risks, the authors are developing a general framework for fire/explosion risk assessment in gassy mines, based on the quantification of the likelihood of occurrence and gravity of the consequences of such undesired events and employing Root-Cause analysis method. It is emphasized that even a small fire should be regarded as being a major hazard from the point of view of explosion initiation, should a combustible atmosphere arise. The developed methodology, for the assessment of underground fire and explosion risks, is based on the known underground explosion hazards, fire engineering principles and fire test criteria for potentially combustible materials employed in mines.

  4. "Dieu a cree la femelle, l'homme a fait la femme." En rekognoscering i dansk og undenlandsk konssprogsforskning ("God Created the Female, Man Created Woman." A Reconnaissance in Danish and Foreign Research on Sex Differences and Language). ROLIG papir 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennicke, Annette

    Research on sex differences and language includes the following (many titles are English translations): "Language--The Child, the Women, the Family"; "Woman and Man"; "In Society's Words"; "The Life of Words"; "Verbs and Women"; "Lines from a Ladies Luncheon"; "The History of the Danish Language"; "How Sex Roles Are Represented and Conserved in…

  5. Le graben de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) : contrôle tectonique de la paléogéographie et des séquences au Cambrien inférieurThe Lower-Cambrian western Anti-Atlasic graben: tectonic control of palaeogeography and sequential organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, Mohammed; Hamoumi, Naı̈ma

    2003-03-01

    In the Moroccan western Anti-Atlas, the combined extensive tectonic events with a long-term sea-level rise is the main factor on building vertical stacking transgressive-regressive sequences. In the Ait Abdallah-Boussafene axis, the subsidence processes, relayed by a brutal platform tilting generated an elongated NE-SW graben. This is an evidence of the persistence of the Anti-Atlasic rifting process during the last part of the Lower-Cambrian succession.

  6. Activités volcaniques sous-marines à la limite Jurassique-Crétacé dans le Rif externe (Maroc). Âge et relation avec la sédimentation et la paléogéographie du sillon rifain externe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaggagh, Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    Following the recent stratigraphic works carried out on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the external Rif chain (Mesorif area and Bou Haddoud nappe), numerous submarine volcanism traces have been discovered in Upper Oxfordian to Upper Berriasian deposits. These traces display various aspects: volcaniclastic complexes incorporated within Upper Berriasian marls; volcanic lavas and basalt clasts included in the breccias with clay matrix of Upper Oxfordian to Lower Berriasian age, or in brecciated Lower Tothonian calcareous beds of the Early Tithonian. These submarine volcanic activities took place in a carbonate platform environment during the Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian interval or in a pelagic basin from Late Tithonian onwards. They caused an intense brecciation of Upper Jurassic carbonate formations and a general dismantling of marly calcareous alternations of Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian. Therefore, the Upper Tithonian-Lower Berriasian deposits are marked by frequent stratigraphic gaps in many outcrops of Mesorif, Prerif areas and in the Bou Haddoud nappe.

  7. La coupe d'Ouled Haddou (Rif externe oriental) : un affleurement continu de la transition Crétacé Paléogène au Maroc, révélé par les Foraminifères planctoniquesThe Ouled Haddou section (oriental external Rif): a continuous outcrop of the Cretaceous Palaeogene transition in Morocco, revealed by planktonic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toufiq, Abdelkabir; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Feinberg, Hugues

    2002-10-01

    In the Ouled Haddou section, deposits of the Uppermost Maastrichtian correspond to the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Biozone. The index species is regularly present until the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, which is marked by a mass extinction affecting 41 species (large and complex). Some Cretaceous small species persist in the Lowermost Danian. The first levels of the Danian are assigned to the Guembelitria cretacea Biozone, in which the species index persist without being affected, and the first species of the Tertiary appear. The upper part of the Lower Danian corresponds to the succession of Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, Parasubbotina pseudobulloides, and Subbotina triloculinoides Biozones. From the P. eugubina Biozone, associations of Danian vary to undergo a complete renewal in the upper zones. The Ouled Haddou section, described for the first time, presents, according to planktonic Foraminifera, a complete record of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene transition. To cite this article: A. Toufiq et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 995-1001.

  8. PREFACE: International & Interdisciplinary Workshop on Novel Phenomena in Integrated Complex Sciences: from Non-living to Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Ohta, Hiroto; Murase, Masatoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    In this workshop recent advancements in experiments and theories were discussed on magnetism and superconductivity, emergent phenomena in biological material, chemical properties and economic problems of non-living and living systems. The aim of the workshop was to discuss old, but also new problems from a multidisciplinary perspective, and to understand the general features behind diversity in condensed matter physics, experimental chemistry and physics in biology and economic science. The workshop was broadly based, and was titled 'International & Interdisciplinary Workshop on Novel Phenomena in Integrated Complex Sciences from Non-living to Living Systems'. However, the primary focus was on magnetism and superconductivity, and NMR research into strongly correlated electrons. The meeting was held as an ICAM workshop, upon official approval in January 2010. Both young scientists and graduate students were invited. We hope that these young scientists had the chance to talk with invited speakers and organizers on their own interests. We thank the participants who contributed through their presentations, discussions and these papers to the advancement of the subject and our understanding. The proceedings are published here in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (UK). We thank the International Advisory Committee for their advice and guidance: Evgeny Antipov Moscow State University, Russia Nicholas Curro University of California, Davis, USA Minghu Fang Zhejiang University, China Jurgen Haase University of Leipzig, Germany Takashi Imai McMaster University, Canada Peter Lemmens TU Braunschweig, Germany Herwig Michor Vienna TU, Austria Takamasa Momose University of British Columbia, Canada Raivo Stern NICPB, Estonia Louis Taillefer University of Sherbrooke, Canada Masashi Takigawa University of Tokyo, Japan This workshop was mainly organized by the International Research Unit of Integrated Complex System Science, Kyoto University, and was supported by ICAM

  9. Investigation of the Effects of MIR-FELIrradiation on the Photoluminescence of Titanium Dioxides

    SciTech Connect

    Sonobe, T.; Hachiya, K.; Bakr, M.; Yoshida, K.; Higashimura, K.; Kinjo, R.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Ohgaki, H.

    2010-02-03

    A mid-infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL: 5 {mu}m-20 {mu}m) facility (KU-FEL: Kyoto University Free Electron Laser) has been constructed in Institute of Advanced Energy Kyoto University, and first laser saturation at 13.2 {mu}m was achieved in May 2008. Currently, we have started to develop the application of MIR-FEL in the field of energy and material science. This study aimed at investigating the feasibility for the development of new evaluation technique of electron-phonon interaction in metal oxides by MIR-FEL. A preliminary result of electrical and optical properties of titanium dioxides was presented.

  10. Cell therapy clinical trials in Germany--Critical aspects of quality data content: Summary of meeting presentation.

    PubMed

    Renner, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    This article is summarizing a presentation given by the author at the International Alliance for Biological Standardization and Japan Science and Technology Agency (IABS-JST) Joint Workshop on "Challenges towards sound scientific regulation of cell therapy products" held at the Kyoto International Conference Center, Kyoto Japan on March 7-8, 2014. The main topics of the presentation were to give a short overview about the regulatory approval process for clinical trials in Germany and to summarize important manufacturing aspects of cell based medicinal products (CBMPs) which are intended to be studied in clinical trials in Germany. PMID:26044762

  11. Diplomats try to establish greenhouse gas emissions-reduction rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Ministers and other senior officials will participate in the next follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change when they deliberate on how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at a November 2-13 meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentina."The Kyoto conference on the Climate Change Convention was a high-profile event because for the first time industrialized countries adopted emission-reduction targets that are legally binding," said Michael Zammit Cutajar, executive secretary of the convention. "In Buenos Aires, governments will try to establish the rules of the game for reaching these targets.""

  12. Diplomats try to establish greenhouse gas emissions-reduction rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Ministers and other senior officials will participate in the next follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change when they deliberate on how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at a November 2-13 meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentina.“The Kyoto conference on the Climate Change Convention was a high-profile event because for the first time industrialized countries adopted emission-reduction targets that are legally binding,” said Michael Zammit Cutajar, executive secretary of the convention. “In Buenos Aires, governments will try to establish the rules of the game for reaching these targets."”

  13. Global warming at the summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

  14. PII signal transduction proteins are ATPases whose activity is regulated by 2-oxoglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Radchenko, Martha V.; Thornton, Jeremy; Merrick, Mike

    2013-01-01

    PII proteins are one of the most widespread families of signal transduction proteins in nature, being ubiquitous throughout bacteria, archaea, and plants. In all these organisms, PII proteins coordinate many facets of nitrogen metabolism by interacting with and regulating the activities of enzymes, transcription factors, and membrane transport proteins. The primary mode of signal perception by PII proteins derives from their ability to bind the effector molecules 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and ATP or ADP. The role of 2-OG as an indicator of cellular nitrogen status is well understood, but the function of ATP/ADP binding has remained unresolved. We have now shown that the Escherichia coli PII protein, GlnK, has an ATPase activity that is inhibited by 2-OG. Hence, when a drop in the cellular 2-OG pool signals nitrogen sufficiency, 2-OG depletion of GlnK causes bound ATP to be hydrolyzed to ADP, leading to a conformational change in the protein. We propose that the role of ATP/ADP binding in E. coli GlnK is to effect a 2-OG-dependent molecular switch that drives a conformational change in the T loops of the PII protein. We have further shown that two other PII proteins, Azospirillum brasilense GlnZ and Arabidopsis thaliana PII, have a similar ATPase activity, and we therefore suggest that this switch mechanism is likely to be a general property of most members of the PII protein family. PMID:23818625

  15. Decolorization of azo dye Orange G by aluminum powder enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei Qiang; Wei, Xiao Qin; Song, Zhi Jun; Jin, Mi Cong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the decolorization of azo dye Orange G (OG) in aqueous solution by aluminum powder enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation (AlP-UI) was investigated. The effects of various operating operational parameters such as the initial pH, initial OG concentration, AlP dosage, ultrasound power and added hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration were studied. The results showed that the decolorization rate was enhanced when the aqueous OG was irradiated simultaneously by ultrasound in the AlP-acid systems. The decolorization rate decreased with the increase of both initial pH values of 2.0-4.0 and OG initial concentrations of 10-80mg/L, increased with the ultrasound power enhancing from 500 to 900W. An optimum value was reached at 2.0g/L of the AlP dosage in the range of 0.5-2.5g/L. The decolorization rate enhanced significantly by the addition of hydrogen peroxide in the range of 10-100mM to AlP-UI system reached an optimum value of 0.1491min(-1). The decolorization of OG appears to involve primarily oxidative steps, the cleavage of NN bond, which were verificated by the intermediate products of OG under the optimal tested degradation system, aniline and 1-amino-2-naphthol-6,8-disulfonate detected by the LC-MS. PMID:25132495

  16. Three Years of on Orbit ISS Oxygen Generation System Operation 2007-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg S.; Polis, Pete; VanKeuren, Steven P.; Erickson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) has accumulated 240 days of continuous operation at varied oxygen production rates within the US Laboratory Module (LAB) since it was first activated in July 2007. OGS relocated from the ISS LAB to Node 3 during 20A Flight (February 2010). The OGS rack delivery was accelerated for on-orbit checkout in the LAB, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006. During the on-orbit checkout interval within the LAB from July 2007 to October 2008, OGS operational times were limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Longer runtimes are now achievable due to the continuous feedwater availability after ULF2 delivery and activation of the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. OGS is considered a critical function to maintaining six crew capability. There have been a number of failures which interrupted or threatened to interrupt oxygen production. Filters in the recirculation loop have clogged and have been replaced, Hydrogen sensors have fallen out of specifications, a pump delta pressure sensor failed, a pump failed to start, and the voltage on the cell stack increased out of tolerance. This paper will discuss the operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  17. Development of reactive transport features within the OpenGeoSys project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Zolfaghari, R.; Centler, F.; Maier, U.; He, W.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    The numerical modeling of reactive transport processes has wide applications in different disciplines of earth sciences. In contaminant hydrogeology, it was often utilized to predict the degradation of chemical pollutants in the groundwater. For the waste repositories, it is one of the tools to evaluate long term behaviors of hazardous materials' migration. In geothermal research, it is also helpful in the understanding of geochemical water-rock reactions and accessing its impact on the performance of deep geothermal reservoirs. To simulate the above mentioned reactive transport problems, the sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) has been implemented. Previously, this approach has been adopted. In the resulting coupled codes, namely OGS-PhreeqC, OGS-GEMS and OGS-BRNS, the mass transport part is simulated by OGS in each time step, and a chemical solver is then employed to handle the local chemical systems. Recently, the Global Implicit Approach (GIA) with reduction scheme proposed by Kräutel et al (2010) has been implemented into OGS6. The new method allows a separation of linearly transported components and chemically coupled nonlinear ones. Through the separation, it reduces the number of primary unknowns in the nonlinearly coupled partial differential equation system, thus alleviated the memory and computational demand of the simulation. This newly developed reactive transport feature of OGS has been verified by a set of benchmarks. For mineral equilibrium reactions, the OGS6 code is verified against the OGS-PhreeqC result using the calcite example, in which calcite in a column slowly dissolves under the flushing of MgCl2 solution and dolomite is temporarily precipitated. For kinetic reactions, a sequential degradation benchmark has been simulated. In it, benzene is degraded through both aerobic oxidation and anaerobic sulfate reduction pathways. Three different codes, namely MIN3P, OGS-BRNS, and the newly implemented reduction scheme in OGS6 have produced

  18. The Pion cloud: Insights into hadron structure

    SciTech Connect

    A.W. Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Modern nuclear theory presents a fascinating study in contrasting approaches to the structure of hadrons and nuclei. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the treatment of the pion cloud. As this discussion really begins with Yukawa, it is entirely appropriate that this invited lecture at the Yukawa Institute in Kyoto should deal with the issue.

  19. Oxidized lipids and lipid-mediators are involved in cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles and ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which air pollutants induce cardiac and vascular injuries are unknown. We hypothesized that these injuries involve alterations in'aortic membrane lipids and lipid-mediators. We exposed male Wistar Kyoto rats (12-15 wk old), nose-only to air, ozone (03; 0.5 ppm),...

  20. Biography of Hideki Yukawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Humitaka

    2008-06-01

    Life history of Hideki Yukawa is described, together with that of Sin-itiro Tomonaga. They grew upiin Kyoto city and were classmate. Their independency and collaboration had contributed to the growth of physics research in Japan after the end of WWII.

  1. Magnetic properties of rare-earth permanent magnets under a high radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, M.; Takamiya, K.; Komeno, Y.; Taniguchi, A.; Ohkubo, Y.

    An study on the demagnetization of rare-earth permanent magnets under high radiation environment is started from the microscopic point of view. The demagnetization of NEOMAX is successfully induced by the well defined neutron field produced by the 5 MW reactor in Kyoto University. Preliminary TDPAC measurement of 111Cd(←111In) in NEOMAX, including demagnetized one, is reported.

  2. Magnetic properties of rare-earth permanent magnets under a high radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, M.; Takamiya, K.; Komeno, Y.; Taniguchi, A.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2007-04-01

    An study on the demagnetization of rare-earth permanent magnets under high radiation environment is started from the microscopic point of view. The demagnetization of NEOMAX is successfully induced by the well defined neutron field produced by the 5 MW reactor in Kyoto University. Preliminary TDPAC measurement of 111Cd(←111In) in NEOMAX, including demagnetized one, is reported.

  3. Teacher Training in the Research University: A Survey of Teachers' Opinions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masato; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics and opinions of 510 public school teachers who were graduate and undergraduate alumni of Kyoto University (Japan), a research university, were analyzed in an effort to assess the teacher education experience in a general research university program as compared to preservice education in a teacher training institution or department.…

  4. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  5. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  6. Update of Carbon Market Programs in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere require all nations to establish international and national goals and policies for GHG reductions. Most climate scientists say that the targets set in the Kyoto Protocol are merely scratching the surface of the problem. The agreement aims to...

  7. Persuading and Dissuading by Conditional Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, V.A.; Evans, J.St.B.T.; Handley, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Informal reasoning typically draws on a wider range of inferential behaviour than is measured by traditional inference tasks. In this paper, we developed several tasks to study informal reasoning with two novel types of conditional statements: Persuasions (e.g., if the Kyoto accord is ratified, greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced) and…

  8. Elemental composition, isotopes, electrons and positrons in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

    1979-01-01

    Papers presented at the 16th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Kyoto, Japan, dealing with the composition of cosmic rays are reviewed. Particular interest is given to data having bearing on nucleosynthesis sites, supernovae, gamma-process, comparison with solar system composition, multiplicity of sources, and the energy dependence of composition.

  9. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-DVD Copy Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... August 3, 2001 (66 FR 40727). The last notification was filed with the Department on August 26, 2011. A... FR 65749). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE P ...- CHINA; Eizo Nano Corporation, Ishikawa, JAPAN; Nintendo Co., Ltd., Kyoto, JAPAN; Novatron Co.,...

  10. CARDIAC INJURY FROM LONG TERM EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): SOLUBLE COMPONENTS OR SOLID PARTICLES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term exposure to PM has been associated with cardiac injury in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate if cardiac injury was due to soluble metals (i.e., zinc), insoluble PM, or pulmonary injury/inflammation. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (n=8) were exposed intratracheal...

  11. Potential for Soil Carbon Sequestration in Central Kazakhstan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The World Bank Kazakhstan Drylands Management Project has the goal of restoring degraded soils associated with abandoned croplands in Kazakhstan. Global markets for carbon sequestration are likely to grow with continued implementation of international agreements such as Kyoto as well as those expec...

  12. Thirteen Years after Rio: The State of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Shahram

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions are adversely affecting the earth's climate, a global common and a public good. The contribution of individual countries has a limited effect on the biosphere, implying that only globally coordinated efforts may result in significant climate improvements. The Rio Earth Summit (1992) and Kyoto Protocol (1997) are…

  13. NOVEL INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANISM OF SUBCHRONIC AIR POLLUTANT-INDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR IMPAIRMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which air pollutants induce cardiovascular mortality are unknown. We hypothesized that blood vessels are the target of injury by circulating oxidation by-products following pollutant exposure. We exposed male Wistar Kyoto rats (12-15 wks old), nose-only to air, ...

  14. Public Understanding of Climate Change: Certainty and Willingness To Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Lee, Jae-Young; Corney, Jeffrey R.; Romanello, Samantha; Bonnell, Joseph; Luthy, Brian; Figuerido, Claudia; Ntsiko, Nyathi

    2000-01-01

    Describes two parallel studies conducted shortly before the Kyoto conference on climate change: (1) an examination of media portrayals of global warming and the certainty with which information was reported; and (2) a telephone survey to assess public knowledge and attitudes about global climate change. Findings do not support a hypothesis that…

  15. Cacao Flavor through Genetics – Anatomy of Fine Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will discuss the transcript analysis of Moniliophthora roreri infected pods, which revealed a total of 3009 differentially expressed transcripts among resistant and susceptible clones. Comparison of the tolerant and susceptible clones by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome...

  16. Extraction of DNA from human embryos after long-term preservation in formalin and Bouin's solutions.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Momoko; Minegishi, Katsura; Komada, Munekazu; Tsuchiya, Maiko; Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2016-05-01

    The "Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos" at Kyoto University was begun in 1961. Although morphological analyses of samples in the Kyoto Collection have been performed, these embryos have been considered difficult to genetically analyze because they have been preserved in formalin or Bouin's solution for 20-50 years. Owing to the recent advances in molecular biology, it has become possible to extract DNA from long-term fixed tissues. The purpose of this study was to extract DNA from wet preparations of human embryo samples after long-term preservation in fixing solution. We optimized the DNA extraction protocol to be suitable for tissues that have been damaged by long-term fixation, including DNA-protein crosslinking damage. Diluting Li2 CO3 with 70% ethanol effectively removed picric acid from samples fixed in Bouin's solution. Additionally, 20.0 mg/mL proteinase was valuable to lyse the long-term fixed samples. The extracted DNA was checked with PCR amplification using several sets of primers and sequence analysis. The PCR products included at least 295- and 838-bp amplicons. These results show that the extracted DNA is applicable for genetic analyses, and indicate that old embryos in the Kyoto Collection should be made available for future studies. The protocol described in this study can successfully extract DNA from old specimens and, with improvements, should be applicable in research aiming to understand the molecular mechanisms of human congenital anomalies. PMID:26662860

  17. 2007: make or break for emissions trading

    SciTech Connect

    Vitelli, A.

    2006-11-15

    With the Kyoto Protocol's first compliance period beginning in 2008, much of 2007 will be focussed on implementing the institutions needed to ensure the Protocol's effectiveness. The big unknown is whether governments and international bodies can make tough decisions in time to let the emissions market function effectively to reduce greenhouse gases.

  18. Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate…

  19. Lessons that Non-Scientists Can Teach Us about the Concept of Energy: A Human-Centred Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Energy is not only a core concept in physics but also a major issue in our post-Kyoto world. When using a constructivist approach to teaching, we need to be aware of students' preconceptions. A palette of alternative frameworks, which includes those used by adults within the community, can facilitate this. An exploration of energy issues with…

  20. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats ...

  1. Simulating Global Climate Summits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…

  2. 78 FR 24287 - Call for Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review of the 2013 Revised Supplementary Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... climate change, potential impacts, and options for mitigation and adaptation. Among the IPCC's products is... provide guidance to periodic submissions by Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change... Practice Guidance Arising From the Kyoto Protocol SUMMARY: The United States Global Change Research...

  3. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Integrating Photovoltaic and Wind-Turbine Energy Systems in the Canadian Residential Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Ali M.; Fung, Alan S.; Ugursal, V. Ismet

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian residential sector contributes approximately 80 megatons of GHGs to the environment yearly. With the ratification of Kyoto Protocol, Canada has committed to reduce its 1990 GHG emission levels by at least 5% between 2008 and 2012. To meet this target, Canada must evaluate and exploit all feasible means to reduce fossil fuel energy…

  4. The Bukkyo University and University of Hawai'i College of Education Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Hunter; Goto, Sunao; Horike, Yukiyo

    2010-01-01

    For the past ten years, the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UHM-COE) and Bukkyo University in Kyoto, Japan have enjoyed a special relationship designed to promote cooperation and academic exchanges between the two institutions. The agreement of cooperation was signed on June 5, 2000 by President Shinko Nakai of Bukkyo…

  5. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking. PMID:25687435

  6. JBP1 and JBP2 Proteins Are Fe2+/2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenases Regulating Hydroxylation of Thymidine Residues in Trypanosome DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Cliffe, Laura J.; Hirsch, Gwen; Wang, Jin; Ekanayake, Dilrukshi; Bullard, Whitney; Hu, Muhan; Wang, Yinsheng; Sabatini, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that O-linked glucosylation of thymine in trypanosome DNA (base J) regulates polymerase II transcription initiation. In vivo analysis has indicated that base J synthesis is initiated by the hydroxylation of thymidine by proteins (JBP1 and JBP2) homologous to the Fe2+/2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent dioxygenase superfamily where hydroxylation is driven by the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-OG, forming succinate and CO2. However, no direct evidence for hydroxylase activity has been reported for the JBP proteins. We now demonstrate recombinant JBP1 hydroxylates thymine specifically in the context of dsDNA in a Fe2+-, 2-OG-, and O2-dependent manner. Under anaerobic conditions, the addition of Fe2+ to JBP1/2-OG results in the formation of a broad absorption spectrum centered at 530 nm attributed to metal chelation of 2-OG bound to JBP, a spectroscopic signature of Fe2+/2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. The N-terminal thymidine hydroxylase domain of JBP1 is sufficient for full activity and mutation of residues involved in coordinating Fe2+ inhibit iron binding and thymidine hydroxylation. Hydroxylation in vitro and J synthesis in vivo is inhibited by known inhibitors of Fe2+/2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. The data clearly demonstrate the JBP enzymes are dioxygenases acting directly on dsDNA, confirming the two-step J synthesis model. Growth of trypanosomes in hypoxic conditions decreases JBP1 and -2 activity, resulting in reduced levels of J and changes in parasite virulence previously characterized in the JBP KO. The influence of environment upon J biosynthesis via oxygen-sensitive regulation of JBP1/2 has exciting implications for the regulation of gene expression and parasite adaptation to different host niches. PMID:22514282

  7. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products. PMID:27514694

  8. IMPACT OF DEFICIENT NUTRITION IN BONE MASS AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; PAGANOTO, Mariana; RADOMINSKI, Rosana Bento; BORBA, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential nutrients are considered for the prevention of the bone loss that occurs after bariatric surgery. Aim: Evaluate nutrients involved in bone metabolism, and relate to serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone, and the use of supplements and sun exposure on the bone mass of patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery. Methods: An observational study, with patients who had undergone the surgery 12 or more months previously, operated group (OG), compared to a control group (CG). Results: Were included 56 in OG and 27 in the CG. The mean age was 36.4±8.5 years. The individuals in the OG, compared to CG, consumed inadequate amounts of protein and daily calcium. The OG had a higher prevalence of low sun exposure, lower levels of 25OH Vitamin D (21.3±10.9 vs. 32.1±11.8 ng/dl), and increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (68.1±32.9 vs. 39.9±11.9 pg/ml, p<0.001). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present only in the OG (41.7%). The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density was lower in the OG. Four individuals from the OG had low bone mineral density for chronological age, and no one from the CG. Conclusion: The dietary components that affect bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery were inadequate. The supplementation was insufficient and the sun exposure was low. These changes were accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and a high prevalence of low bone mass in lumbar spine in these subjects. PMID:27120738

  9. Streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., isolated from a black rat (Rattus rattus).

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Imaoka, Koichi; Kimura, Masanobu; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Ewers, Christa; Semmler, Torsten; Rau, Jörg; Nicklas, Werner; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Kämpfer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium, strain OGS16T, was isolated from an oral swab of a feral black rat (Rattus rattus) in 2007 in Japan. It stained Gram-negative and had pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain OGS16T was assigned to the genus Streptobacillus, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99.3, 99.0, 98.6 and 95.5 % to the type strains of Streptobacillus moniliformis, Streptobacillus notomytis, Streptobacillus felis and Streptobacillus hongkongensis, respectively. Strain OGS16T could also be differentiated clearly from other species of the genus Streptobacillus by rpoB, groEL and recA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis. DNA-DNA relatedness as obtained by average nucleotide identity was 89.10 % between strain OGS16T and Streptobacillus moniliformis DSM 12112T. Chemotaxonomic and physiological data for strain OGS16T were congruent with results for other closely related members of the family Leptotrichiaceae, represented by highly similar enzyme profiles and fatty acid patterns. MALDI-TOF MS analysis also proved suitable in discriminating strain OGS16T unequivocally from all currently described taxa of the genus Streptobacillus. On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species Streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., with the type strain OGS16T ( = JCM 31098T = DSM 101843T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 25.9 mol% and the genome size is 1.50 Mbp. PMID:26705259

  10. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites. PMID:26148553

  11. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: The LOC-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Michitaka; Hiki, Naoki; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Yabusaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Nunobe, Souya; Terada, Mitsumi; Matsuki, Atsushi; Sunagawa, Hideki; Aizawa, Masaki; Healy, Mark A.; Iwasaki, Manabu; Furukawa, Toshi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials comparing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus traditional open gastrectomy (OG) have been planned, their surgical outcomes reported but their oncologic outcomes are still pending. Consequently, we have conducted this large-scale historical cohort study to provide relevant information rapidly to guide our current practice. Methods: Through a consensus meeting involving surgeons, biostatisticians, and epidemiologists, 30 variables of preoperative information possibly influencing surgeons’ choice between LG versus OG and potentially associating with outcomes were identified to enable rigorous estimation of propensity scores. A total of 4235 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were identified and their relevant data were gathered from the participating hospitals. After propensity score matching, 1848 patients (924 each for LG and OG) were selected for comparison of long-term outcomes. Results: In the propensity-matched population, the 5-year overall survival was 96.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.0–97.6] in the OG as compared with 97.1% (95% CI, 95.9–98.3) in LG. The number of all-cause death was 33/924 in the OG and 24/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio (LG/OG) for overall death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.44–1.27; P = 0.290). The 3-year recurrence-free survival was 97.4% (95% CI, 96.4–98.5) in the OG and 97.7% (95% CI, 96.5–98.8) in the LG. The number of recurrence was 22/924 in the OG and 21/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.55–1.84; P = 0.981). Conclusions: This observational study adjusted for all-known confounding factors seems to provide strong enough evidence to suggest that LG is oncologically comparable to OG for gastric cancer. PMID:27115899

  12. Enterococcus faecalis adhesin, ace, mediates attachment to extracellular matrix proteins collagen type IV and laminin as well as collagen type I.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, S R; Qin, X; Weinstock, G M; Höök, M; Murray, B E

    2000-09-01

    Adhesin-mediated binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is thought to be a crucial step in the pathogenic process of many bacterial infections. We have previously reported conditional adherence of most Enterococcus faecalis isolates, after growth at 46 degrees C, to ECM proteins collagen types I and IV and laminin; identified an E. faecalis-specific gene, ace, whose encoded protein has characteristics of a bacterial adhesin; and implicated Ace in binding to collagen type I. In this study, we constructed an ace disruption mutant from E. faecalis strain OG1RF that showed marked reduction in adherence to collagen types I and IV and laminin when compared to the parental OG1RF strain after growth at 46 degrees C. Polyclonal immune serum raised against the OG1RF-derived recombinant Ace A domain reacted with a single approximately 105-kDa band of mutanolysin extracts from OG1RF grown at 46 degrees C, while no band was detected in extracts from OG1RF grown at 37 degrees C, nor from the OG1RF ace mutant grown at 37 or 46 degrees C. IgGs purified from the anti-Ace A immune serum inhibited adherence of 46 degrees C-grown E. faecalis OG1RF to immobilized collagen type IV and laminin as well as collagen type I, at a concentration as low as 1 microg/ml, and also inhibited the 46 degrees C-evoked adherence of two clinical isolates tested. We also showed in vitro interaction of collagen type IV with Ace from OG1RF mutanolysin extracts on a far-Western blot. Binding of recombinant Ace A to immobilized collagen types I and IV and laminin was demonstrated in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and was shown to be concentration dependent. These results indicate that Ace A mediates the conditional binding of E. faecalis OG1RF to collagen type IV and laminin in addition to collagen type I. PMID:10948147

  13. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the

  14. Cytotoxicity of obacunone and obacunone glucoside in human prostate cancer cells involves Akt-mediated programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2015-03-01

    Obacunone and obacunone glucoside (OG) are naturally occurring triterpenoids commonly found in citrus and other plants of the Rutaceae family. The current study reports the mechanism of cytotoxicity of citrus-derived obacunone and OG on human androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Both limonoids exhibited time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, with more than 60% inhibition of cell viability at 100 μM, after 24 and 48 h. Analysis of fragmentation of DNA, activity of caspase-3, and cytosolic cytochrome-c in the cells treated with limonoids provided evidence for activation of programmed cell death by limonoids. Treatment of LNCaP cells with obacunone and OG resulted in dose-dependent changes in expression of proteins responsible for the induction of programmed cell death through the intrinsic pathway and down-regulation of Akt, a key molecule in cell signaling pathways. In addition, obacunone and OG also negatively regulated an inflammation-associated transcription factor, androgen receptor, and prostate-specific antigen, and activated proteins related to the cell cycle, confirming the ability of limonoids to induce cytotoxicity through multiple pathways. The results of this study provided, for the first time, an evidence of the cytotoxicity of obacunone and OG in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells. PMID:25592883

  15. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Li, Baohua; Soltis, Nicole E; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Hillmer, Rachel A; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Pauly, Markus; Glazebrook, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  16. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  17. Laser-induced optogalvanic signal oscillations in miniature neon glow discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K

    2013-06-20

    Laser-induced optogalvanic (OG) signal oscillations detected in miniature neon glow discharge plasma are investigated using a discharge equivalent-circuit model. The damped oscillations in OG signal are generated when a pulsed dye laser is tuned to a specific neon transition (1s5→2p2) at 588.2 nm under the discharge conditions where dynamic resistance changes its sign. Penning ionization via quasi-resonant energy transfer collisions between neon gas atoms in metastable state and sputtered electrode atoms in ground state is discussed to explain the negative differential resistance properties of discharge plasma that are attributed to oscillations in the OG signal. The experimentally observed results are simulated by analyzing the behavior of an equivalent discharge-OG circuit. Good agreement between theoretically calculated and experimental results is observed. It is found that discharge plasma is more sensitive and less stable in close vicinity to dynamic resistance sign inversion, which can be useful for weak-optical-transition OG detection. PMID:23842186

  18. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  19. Effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan (HBG) on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters which were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets, containing 5‰ HBG or 5‰ oat β-glucan (OG), for 30days. The HBG, as well as OG, lowered the concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol significantly. The excretion of total lipids and cholesterol in feces were increased in HBG and OG groups compared with the control group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver was reduced significantly in the HBG group compared with the control and OG groups. The activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver, in the HBG and OG groups, was significantly increased compared with the control group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were not significantly different between the HBG and control groups. These results indicate that dietary HBG reduces the concentration of plasma LDL cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, and regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. PMID:25236236

  20. Disruption of Microtubular Cytoskeleton Induced by Cryptogein, an Elicitor of Hypersensitive Response in Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Humbert, Claude; Lecourieux, David; Vantard, Marylin; Pugin, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of microtubular cytoskeleton were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cells in response to two different plant defense elicitors: cryptogein, a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the plant cell wall. In tobacco plants cryptogein triggers a hypersensitive-like response and induces systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, whereas OGs induce defense responses, but fail to trigger cell death. The comparison of the microtubule (MT) dynamics in response to cryptogein and OGs in tobacco cells indicates that MTs appear unaffected in OG-treated cells, whereas cryptogein treatment caused a rapid and severe disruption of microtubular network. When hyperstabilized by the MT depolymerization inhibitor, taxol, the MT network was still disrupted by cryptogein treatment. On the other hand, the MT-depolymerizing agent oryzalin and cryptogein had different and complementary effects. In addition to MT destabilization, cryptogein induced the death of tobacco cells, whereas OG-treated cells did not die. We demonstrated that MT destabilization and cell death induced by cryptogein depend on calcium influx and that MT destabilization occurs independently of active oxygen species production. The molecular basis of cryptogein-induced MT disruption and its potential significance with respect to cell death are discussed. PMID:11161014

  1. Impact of surgical approach on postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing gastrectomy: laparoscopic versus open approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is a frequent complication in elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and is associated with a poor outcome. We compared postoperative delirium in elderly patients following laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus open gastrectomy (OG). Methods In total, 130 patients aged ≥ 65 years with gastric cancer undergoing LG and OG were enrolled prospectively. Postoperative delirium and cognitive status were assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), respectively, for 3 days postoperatively. For CAM-positive patients, delirium severity was then assessed using the Delirium Index (DI). Results In total, 123 subjects (LG, n = 60; OG, n = 63) were included in the analysis. In both groups, the overall incidences of postoperative delirium were similar: 31.6% (19/60) in the LG group and 41.2% (26/63) in the OG group. When considering only those with delirium, the severity, expressed as the highest DI score, was similar between the groups. A decline in cognitive function (reduction in MMSE ≥ 2 points from baseline) during 3 days postoperatively was observed in 23 patients in the LG group (38.3%) and 27 patients in the OG group (42.9%) (P = 0.744). In both groups, postoperative cognitive decline was significantly associated with postoperative delirium (P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that, compared with traditional open gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy did not reduce either postoperative delirium or cognitive decline in elderly patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26257851

  2. Evolution of food provision to athletes at the summer Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona E; O'Connor, Helen T; Denyer, Gareth S; Caterson, Ian D

    2011-06-01

    The history of food provision at the summer Olympic Games (OG) over the past century (1896-2008) provides insight into the evolution of sports nutrition research and the dietary strategies of athletes. Early research favoring protein as the main fuel for exercise was reflected in OG menus from 1932 to 1968. Despite conclusive research from the 1960s demonstrating the clear benefit of carbohydrate on exercise performance, a specific emphasis on carbohydrate-rich foods was not noted until the 1970s. Athlete food preferences and catering complexity evolved rapidly between 1970 and 2000, driven predominantly by a dramatic expansion of the OG and the emergence of systematic sports nutrition research. Nutritional advice by experts and sponsorship by food companies became increasingly important beginning with the 1984 Los Angeles OG. More recent developments include nutritional labeling of menu items and provision of a nutrition information desk (Barcelona 1992), demand for a "high-starch, low-fat menu" (Atlanta 1996), the addition of a dedicated menu website and the systematic gathering of information on athletes' apparent consumption (Sydney 2000), and appointment of the first international dietetic review committee (Beijing 2008). The history of catering at the OG tracks the evolution of sports nutrition practice from anecdotes and myth towards an established specialty in nutrition and dietetics grounded in evidence-based science. PMID:21631513

  3. Nonmetabolizable analogue of 2-oxoglutarate elicits heterocyst differentiation under repressive conditions in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Sophie; Chen, Han; Bédu, Sylvie; Ziarelli, Fabio; Peng, Ling; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2005-01-01

    In response to combined nitrogen starvation in the growth medium, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is able to develop a particular cell type, called a heterocyst, specialized in molecular nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts are regularly intercalated among vegetative cells and represent 5–10% of all cells along each filament. In unicellular cyanobacteria, the key Krebs cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), has been suggested as a nitrogen status signal, but in vivo evidence is still lacking. In this study we show that nitrogen starvation causes 2-OG to accumulate transiently within cells of Anabaena PCC 7120, reaching a maximal intracellular concentration of ≈0.1 mM 1 h after combined nitrogen starvation. A nonmetabolizable fluorinated 2-OG derivative, 2,2-difluoropentanedioic acid (DFPA), was synthesized and used to demonstrate the signaling function of 2-OG in vivo. DFPA is shown to be a structural analogue of 2-OG and the process of its uptake and accumulation in vivo can be followed by 19F magic angle spinning NMR because of the presence of the fluorine atom and its chemical stability. DFPA at a threshold concentration of 0.3 mM triggers heterocyst differentiation under repressing conditions. The multidisciplinary approaches using synthetic fluorinated analogues, magic angle spinning NMR for their analysis in vivo, and techniques of molecular biology provide a powerful means to identify the nature of the signals that remain unknown or poorly defined in many signaling pathways. PMID:15985552

  4. Characterization of the Effects of an rpoC Mutation That Confers Resistance to the Fst Peptide Toxin-Antitoxin System Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Cassandra L.; Bumgarner, Roger; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Dunman, Paul M.; Kuechenmeister, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the Fst toxin in Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1X leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. The M7 mutant derivative of OG1X is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of Fst. Full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between M7 and its OG1X parent. First, OG1X contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etaR response regulator gene, while M7 is a wild-type revertant for etaR. Second, the M7 mutant contains a missense mutation in the rpoC gene, which encodes the β′ subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rpoC mutation was primarily responsible for the resistance phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of transporters were induced in OG1X when Fst was overexpressed. These transporters were not induced in M7 in response to Fst, and further experiments indicated that this had a direct protective effect on the mutant cells. Therefore, exposure of cells to Fst appears to have a cascading effect, first causing membrane stress and then potentiation of these effects by overexpression of certain transporters. PMID:23104812

  5. A new overgrowth syndrome is due to mutations in RNF125.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Mansilla, Alicia; Valencia, María; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Romanelli, Valeria; Arias, Pedro; Castrejón, Nerea; Poletta, Fernando; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Gordo, Gema; Mansilla, Elena; García-Santiago, Fé; González-Casado, Isabel; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares, María; Mori, María A; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Fernández, Luis; Mena, Rocío; Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Pozo, Ángela; Silla, Juan Carlos; Ibañez, Kristina; López-Granados, Eduardo; Martín-Trujillo, Alex; Montaner, David; Heath, Karen E; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nevado, Julián; Monk, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Overgrowth syndromes (OGS) are a group of disorders in which all parameters of growth and physical development are above the mean for age and sex. We evaluated a series of 270 families from the Spanish Overgrowth Syndrome Registry with no known OGS. We identified one de novo deletion and three missense mutations in RNF125 in six patients from four families with overgrowth, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjögren syndrome. RNF125 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a novel gene of OGS. Our studies of the RNF125 pathway point to upregulation of RIG-I-IPS1-MDA5 and/or disruption of the PI3K-AKT and interferon signaling pathways as the putative final effectors. PMID:25196541

  6. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  7. Biochemistry and Occurrence of O-Demethylation in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism. PMID:21423357

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  9. Photochemistry of phytoalexins containing phenalenone-like chromophores: photophysics and singlet oxygen photosensitizing properties of the plant oxoaporphine alkaloid oxoglaucine.

    PubMed

    Flors, Cristina; Prat, Chantal; Suau, Rafael; Nájera, Francisco; Nonell, Santi

    2005-01-01

    Oxoglaucine (OG) is an oxoaporphine alkaloid, which has been linked to plant defense mechanisms. It contains a phenalenone (PN)-like chromophore, which suggests a role as singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) photosensitizer. Indeed, OG is able to photosensitize (1)O(2) with 100% efficiency in nonpolar environments, similar to PN. However, this efficiency decreases in polar and protic media, although (1)O(2) is formed in all environments ranging from benzene to water. OG is a rather inefficient (1)O(2) quencher (k(q) = 8 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) unlike the related alkaloids boldine and glaucine, for which an antioxidant role has been suggested. The results of this study contribute to the view that plant defense mediated by PN-like secondary metabolites may have a photochemical component. PMID:15493958

  10. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et sédimentologiques des formations carbonifères de la région de Bouqachmir (Maroc central). Implications sur la paléogéographie des bassins carbonifères nord-mésétiensNew biostratigraphic and sedimentological data of the Carboniferous formations in the Bouqachmir area (central Morocco). Implications on the palaeogeography of the north Mesetian Carboniferous basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izart, Alain; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; El Boursoumi, Abdou; Vachard, Daniel; Saidi, Mariam; Chèvremont, Philippe; Berkhli, Mostafa

    2001-02-01

    New Visean formations and biozones of foraminifera were defined on the Bouqachmir map. The new biozonation concerns the Moroccan biozone, Cfm1, which is subdivided into two subzones, Cfm1a and Cfm1b. This map exhibited, from north-west to south-east, the Tilouine, Bouqachmir-Tougouroulmès and Fourhal turbiditic basins. The first one, from Tournaisian to Late Visean, was the equivalent of the Sidi Bettache basin, located westwards. The second extended the Tilouine basin eastwards during the Visean. The third was a basin from Visean to Westphalian. They were separated by the Zaer-Oulmes and El Hammam horsts, else emerged or immersed, bordered by faults and with materials feeding chaotic deposits.

  11. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2), 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2) and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2), were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients. PMID:21943156

  12. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region. PMID:27355197

  13. Six Novel O Genotypes from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Iyoda, Sunao; Seto, Kazuko; Nishii, Hironobu; Ohnishi, Makoto; Mekata, Hirohisa; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Serotyping is one of the typing techniques used to classify strains within the same species. O-serogroup diversification shows a strong association with the genetic diversity of O-antigen biosynthesis genes. In a previous study, based on the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster (O-AGC) sequences of 184 known Escherichia coli O serogroups (from O1 to O187), we developed a comprehensive and practical molecular O serogrouping (O genotyping) platform using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, named E. coli O-genotyping PCR. Although, the validation assay using the PCR system showed that most of the tested strains were successfully classified into one of the O genotypes, it was impossible to classify 6.1% (35/575) of the strains, suggesting the presence of novel O genotypes. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of O-AGCs from O-genotype untypeable Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains and identified six novel O genotypes; OgN1, OgN8, OgN9, OgN10, OgN12 and OgN31, with unique wzx and/or wzy O-antigen processing gene sequences. Additionally, to identify these novel O-genotypes, we designed specific PCR primers. A screen of O genotypes using O-genotype untypeable strains showed 13 STEC strains were classified into five novel O genotypes. The O genotyping at the molecular level of the O-AGC would aid in the characterization of E. coli isolates and will assist future studies in STEC epidemiology and phylogeny. PMID:27242776

  14. Six Novel O Genotypes from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Iyoda, Sunao; Seto, Kazuko; Nishii, Hironobu; Ohnishi, Makoto; Mekata, Hirohisa; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Serotyping is one of the typing techniques used to classify strains within the same species. O-serogroup diversification shows a strong association with the genetic diversity of O-antigen biosynthesis genes. In a previous study, based on the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster (O-AGC) sequences of 184 known Escherichia coli O serogroups (from O1 to O187), we developed a comprehensive and practical molecular O serogrouping (O genotyping) platform using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, named E. coli O-genotyping PCR. Although, the validation assay using the PCR system showed that most of the tested strains were successfully classified into one of the O genotypes, it was impossible to classify 6.1% (35/575) of the strains, suggesting the presence of novel O genotypes. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of O-AGCs from O-genotype untypeable Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains and identified six novel O genotypes; OgN1, OgN8, OgN9, OgN10, OgN12 and OgN31, with unique wzx and/or wzy O-antigen processing gene sequences. Additionally, to identify these novel O-genotypes, we designed specific PCR primers. A screen of O genotypes using O-genotype untypeable strains showed 13 STEC strains were classified into five novel O genotypes. The O genotyping at the molecular level of the O-AGC would aid in the characterization of E. coli isolates and will assist future studies in STEC epidemiology and phylogeny. PMID:27242776

  15. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Linton, J A Voelker; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism. PMID:26774713

  16. Differences in the Therapeutic Approach to Colorectal Cancer in Young and Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Ana B.; García-Alhambra, María A.; Pla, Rosa; Vidán, Maite; Rodríguez, Paz; Ortiz, Javier; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Martín, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze differences in the therapeutic approach to and tumor-related mortality of young and elderly colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Patients and Methods. This was a descriptive study of a retrospective cohort, based on administrative databases, of all patients with CRC diagnosed or treated in our institution. We extracted data on sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity, type of cancer, type of treatment received, survival time, and cause of death. We compared differences between a young group (YG) (age <75 years) and an older group (OG) (age ≥75 years) and assessed the variables associated with receiving different therapeutic options (multivariate analysis) and with survival time (Cox proportional hazards models). Results. The study included 503 patients (YG, 320; OG, 183), with mean ages of 63.1 years in the YG and 81.8 years in the OG. No differences were observed between the groups in degree of differentiation, extension, tumor stage, or comorbidity. After adjustment for gender, comorbidity, and tumor localization and extension, YG patients were more likely than OG patients to receive surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and less likely to receive palliative care. After a median follow-up of 36.5 months, YG patients had a longer tumor-specific survival time than OG patients (36.41 months vs 26.05 months). After further adjustment, the YG had a lower tumor-specific mortality risk (hazard ratio, 0.66) than the OG. Conclusion. In comparison with younger patients, elderly CRC patients are undertreated, mainly because of their age and not because of their tumor type or comorbidity. Elderly patients have a significantly shorter tumor-specific survival time, partially because of this undertreatment. PMID:22923453

  17. Diode laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy of glow discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Barshick, C.M.; Shaw, R.W.; Post-Zwicker, A., Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    The development of diode-laser-excited isotopically-selective optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of uranium metal, oxide and fluoride in a glow discharge (GD) is presented. The technique is useful for determining isotopic ratios of {sup 235}U/({sup 235}U + {sup 238}U) in the above samples. The precision and accuracy of this determination is evaluated, and a study of experimental parameters pertaining to optimization of he measurement is discussed. Application of the GD-OGS to other f-transition elements is also described.

  18. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  19. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  20. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  1. Catalytic Mechanisms of Fe(II)- and 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Salette; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear non-heme Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases comprise a large family of enzymes that utilize an Fe(IV)-oxo intermediate to initiate diverse oxidative transformations with important biological roles. Here, four of the major types of Fe(II)/2OG-dependent reactions are detailed: hydroxylation, halogenation, ring formation, and desaturation. In addition, an atypical epimerization reaction is described. Studies identifying several key intermediates in catalysis are concisely summarized, and the proposed mechanisms are explained. In addition, a variety of other transformations catalyzed by selected family members are briefly described to further highlight the chemical versatility of these enzymes. PMID:26152721

  2. Octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside partitioning into lipid bilayers: thermodynamics of binding and structural changes of the bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Wenk, M R; Alt, T; Seelig, A; Seelig, J

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the nonionic detergent octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) with lipid bilayers was studied with high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and solid-state 2H-NMR spectroscopy. The transfer of OG from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) can be investigated by employing detergent at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration; it can be defined by a surface partition equilibrium with a partition coefficient of K = 120 +/- 10 M-1, a molar binding enthalpy of delta H degrees D = 1.3 +/- 0.15 kcal/mol, and a free energy of binding of delta G degrees D = -5.2 kcal/mol. The heat of transfer is temperature dependent, with a molar heat capacity of delta CP = -75 cal K-1 mol-1. The large heat capacity and the near-zero delta H are typical for a hydrophobic binding equilibrium. The partition constant K decreased to approximately 100 M-1 for POPC membranes mixed with either negatively charged lipids or cholesterol, but was independent of membrane curvature. In contrast, a much larger variation was observed in the partition enthalpy. delta H degrees D increased by about 50% for large vesicles and by 75% for membranes containing 50 mol% cholesterol. Structural changes in the lipid bilayer were investigated with solid-state 2H-NMR. POPC was selectively deuterated at the headgroup segments and at different positions of the fatty acyl chains, and the measurement of the quadrupolar splittings provided information on the conformation and the order of the bilayer membrane. Addition of OG had almost no influence on the lipid headgroup region, even at concentrations close to bilayer disruption. In contrast, the fluctuations of fatty acyl chain segments located in the inner part of the bilayer increased strongly with increasing OG concentration. The 2H-NMR results demonstrate that the headgroup region is the most stable structural element of the lipid membrane, remaining intact

  3. Structure, thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid MgSiO 3: Comparison of molecular models and laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Frank J.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Nevins, Dean

    2011-03-01

    Liquid MgSiO 3 is a model for the Earth's magma ocean and of remnant melt present near the core-mantle boundary. Here, models for molten MgSiO 3 are computed employing empirical potential molecular dynamics (EPMD) and results are compared to published results including two EPMD studies and three first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) models and to laboratory data. The EPMD results derived from the Oganov (OG) potential come closest to the density of MgSiO 3 liquid at the 1-bar melting point inferred from the melting curve. At higher P, EPMD densities calculated from the OG potential and FPMD broadly match shock wave studies, with the OG potential yielding the better comparison. Matsui (M) potential results deviate from other studies above ˜50 GPa. Overall, results based on the OG potential compare best to experimental densities over the P-T range of the mantle. Isothermally, upon increasing P the mean coordination numbers ( CN¯) of oxygen around Si and Mg monotonically increase with pressure. Tetrahedral Si and octahedral Si monotonically increase and decrease, respectively, whereas pentahedral Si maximizes at 10-20 GPa. Tetrahedral Mg decreases monotonically as P increases whereas pentahedral, octahedral and higher coordination polyhedra each show similar behavior first increasing and then decreasing after attaining a maximum; the P of the maximum for each polyhedra type migrates to higher P as the CN increases. Free oxygen and oxygen with one nearest neighbor of either Si or Mg decreases whereas Si or Mg with two or three nearest oxygens (i.e., tricluster oxygen) increases with increasing P isothermally. The increase of tricluster oxygen is consistent with spectroscopy on MgSiO 3 glass quenched from 2000 K and 0-40 GPa and high-energy X-ray studies constraining the coordination of O around Mg and around Si at 2300 K and 1 bar. Coordination statistics from FPMD studies for O around Si and Si around O are in agreement with the EPMD results based on the M and

  4. Rates of particle size reduction and passage are faster for legume compared with cool-season grass, resulting in lower rumen fill and less effective fiber.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-06-01

    Effects of forage family on rates of particle size reduction in, and passage from, the rumen and the relationship of these effects with preliminary dry matter intake (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 19.6 to 29.5 kg/d (mean = 25.9 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing either a) alfalfa silage (AL) or b) orchardgrass silage (OG) as the sole forage. Silages were chopped to 10-mm theoretical length of cut and contained 42.3 and 58.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) for alfalfa and orchardgrass, respectively. Both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Feed, orts, rumen, and duodenal samples were wet sieved to fractionate particles above (large) and below (small) 2.36 mm. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) was used as a flow marker. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of forage family and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Approximately 75% of the NDF consumed was large and 25% was small for both treatments, but cows fed AL consumed more iNDF and less potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) than cows fed OG. The AL diet increased the reduction rate (large to small) compared with OG despite less rumination per unit of forage NDF for AL than OG, suggesting alfalfa NDF was more fragile than orchardgrass NDF. Over 55% of particles in the rumen were below 2.36 mm for AL and OG, indicating that particle size was not a limiting constraint to passage. Passage rates (k(p)) of large iNDF and large pdNDF were similar for AL and OG, but AL increased k(p) of large pdNDF and OG decreased it as pDMI increased. The AL diet increased k(p) of small iNDF and small pdNDF compared with OG, resulting in lower rumen fill

  5. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  6. Modeling the spatial dynamics of culture spreading in the presence of cultural strongholds.

    PubMed

    Lizana, Ludvig; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2011-06-01

    Cultural competition has throughout our history shaped and reshaped the geography of boundaries between humans. Language and culture are intimately connected and linguists often use distinctive keywords to quantify the dynamics of information spreading in societies harboring strong culture centers. One prominent example, which is addressed here, is Kyoto's historical impact on Japanese culture. We construct a minimal model, based on shared properties of linguistic maps, to address the interplay between information flow and geography. We show that spreading of information over Japan in the premodern time can be described by an Eden growth process with noise levels corresponding to coherent spatial patches of sizes given by a single day's walk (~15 km), and that new words appear in Kyoto at times comparable to the time between human generations (~30 yr). PMID:21797450

  7. Localization in a spanwise-extended model of plane Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Chantry, M; Kerswell, R R

    2015-04-01

    We consider a nine-partial-differential-equation (1-space and 1-time) model of plane Couette flow in which the degrees of freedom are severely restricted in the streamwise and cross-stream directions to study spanwise localization in detail. Of the many steady Eckhaus (spanwise modulational) instabilities identified of global steady states, none lead to a localized state. Spatially localized, time-periodic solutions were found instead, which arise in saddle node bifurcations in the Reynolds number. These solutions appear global (domain filling) in narrow (small spanwise) domains yet can be smoothly continued out to fully spanwise-localized states in very wide domains. This smooth localization behavior, which has also been seen in fully resolved duct flow (S. Okino, Ph.D. thesis, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2011), indicates that an apparently global flow structure does not have to suffer a modulational instability to localize in wide domains. PMID:25974578

  8. The study of hydrogen peroxide level under cisplatin action using genetically encoded sensor hyper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, A. S.; Orlova, A. G.; Maslennikova, A. V.; Brilkina, A. A.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Antonova, N. O.; Mishina, N. M.; Shakhova, N. M.; Belousov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the work was to study the participation of hydrogen peroxide in reaction of cervical cancer cell line HeLa Kyoto on cisplatin action. Determination of hydrogen peroxide level was performed using genetically encoded fluorescent sensor HyPer2. The dependence of cell viability on cisplatin concentration was determined using MTT assay. Mechanisms of cell death as well as HyPer2 reaction was revealed by flow cytometry after 6-hours of incubation with cisplatin in different concentrations. Cisplatin used in low concentrations had no effect on hydrogen peroxide level in HeLa Kyoto cells. Increase of HyPer2 fluorescence was detected only after exposure with cisplatin in high concentration. The reaction was not the consequence of cell death.

  9. On the high correlation between storm sudden commencements and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, W.; Lee, J.; Oh, S.; Yi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Storm Sudden Commencements (SSCs) occur due to sudden compression of magnetic field and current enhancement in the magnetopause, which is generally believed to be caused by interplanetary shock. However, neither all geomagnetic storms exhibit the SSC nor all SSCs are accompanied by interplanetary shocks. In this study, we search for geomagnetic storms without SSC using the SYM-H index data which is provided by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism Kyoto (WDC Geomag, Kyoto) during the period of 1998-2010. We also investigate the physical conditions such as density and velocity of protons, IMF Bz and total field strength provided by Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. Finally, we classify the geomagnetic storms into two groups depending on whether or not accompanied by SSC and then further classify them based on their association with interplanetary shocks. Physical characteristics of the storms in each group will briefly be discussed.

  10. US RERTR program, its fuel-development activities, and application in the KUHFR

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.; Stahl, D.

    1981-01-01

    The goals, structure, and accomplishments to date of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program are described in detail. Plans and schedules for future program activities are outlined with the effect which these activities may potentially have on the research-reactor community. The fuel-development activities of the program are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the new low-enrichment, high-uranium-density fuels which the RERTR Program is developing for application in research reactors in the near future. The results of a joint study program between the RERTR Program and the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), aimed at converting the Kyoto University High-Flux Reactor (KUHFR) to the use of reduced-enrichment uranium, are presented. It is shown that the study has resulted in a positive decision and in a cooperative, well-structured plan for the KUHFR conversion.

  11. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education.

    PubMed

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  12. New Directions: The end of the pipeline—are hydrocarbons running out?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.

    2004-09-01

    For some years a quiet debate has rumbled among geologists: is the oil running out? The evidence is mixed, but some geologists suspect that the era of cheap oil is about to end (Deffeyes, Hubbert's peak: the impending world oil shortage, Princeton University Press, 2003). Influential economists and many resource geologists, on the other hand, argue that oil is abundant (Maugeri, Science 304, 1114-1115, 2004). The outcome has major implications for the greenhouse, perhaps far outweighing Kyoto. Moreover, if the "end-of-cheap-oil" geologists are correct then nations which take Kyoto seriously will be greatly advantaged, being pre-adapted to the post-oil era. There is also greenhouse danger here: the other option is coal.

  13. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Kurylo, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We seek funding from NASA for the third year (2005) of the four-year period January 1, 2003 - December 31, 2006 for continued support of the MIT contributions to the multi-national global atmospheric trace species measurement program entitled Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). The case for real-time high-frequency measurement networks like AGAGE is very strong and the observations and their interpretation are widely recognized for their importance to ozone depletion and climate change studies and to verification issues arising from the Montreal Protocol (ozone) and Kyoto Protocol (climate). The proposed AGAGE program is distinguished by its capability to measure over the globe at high frequency almost all of the important species in the Montreal Protocol and almost all of the significant non-CO2 gases in the Kyoto Protocol.

  14. Localization in a spanwise-extended model of plane Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantry, M.; Kerswell, R. R.

    2015-04-01

    We consider a nine-partial-differential-equation (1-space and 1-time) model of plane Couette flow in which the degrees of freedom are severely restricted in the streamwise and cross-stream directions to study spanwise localization in detail. Of the many steady Eckhaus (spanwise modulational) instabilities identified of global steady states, none lead to a localized state. Spatially localized, time-periodic solutions were found instead, which arise in saddle node bifurcations in the Reynolds number. These solutions appear global (domain filling) in narrow (small spanwise) domains yet can be smoothly continued out to fully spanwise-localized states in very wide domains. This smooth localization behavior, which has also been seen in fully resolved duct flow (S. Okino, Ph.D. thesis, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2011), indicates that an apparently global flow structure does not have to suffer a modulational instability to localize in wide domains.

  15. Effects of melatonin and Pycnogenol on small artery structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rezzani, Rita; Porteri, Enzo; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Bonomini, Francesca; Rodella, Luigi F; Paiardi, Silvia; Boari, Gianluca E M; Platto, Caterina; Pilu, Annamaria; Avanzi, Daniele; Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico

    2010-06-01

    It was suggested that oxidative stress has a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction, as well as microvascular structural alterations. Therefore, we have investigated 2 substances with antioxidant properties: melatonin and Pycnogenol. We treated 7 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with melatonin and 7 with Pycnogenol for 6 weeks. We compared results obtained with those observed in 7 SHRs and 7 Wistar-Kyoto normotensive control rats kept untreated. Mesenteric small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and a concentration-response curve to acetylcholine was performed. Aortic contents of metalloproteinase 2, Bax, inducible NO synthase, and cyclooxygenase 2 were evaluated, together with the aortic content of total collagen and collagen subtypes and apoptosis rate. A small reduction in systolic blood pressure was observed. A significant improvement in mesenteric small resistance artery structure and endothelial function was observed in rats treated with Pycnogenol and melatonin. Total aortic collagen content was significantly greater in untreated SHRs compared with Wistar-Kyoto control rats, whereas a full normalization was observed in treated rats. Apoptosis rate was increased in the aortas of untreated SHRs compared with Wistar-Kyoto control rats; an even more pronounced increase was observed in treated rats. Bax and metalloproteinase 2 expressions changed accordingly. Cyclooxygenase 2 and inducible NO synthase were more expressed in the aortas of untreated SHRs compared with Wistar-Kyoto control rats; this pattern was normalized by both treatments. In conclusion, our data suggest that treatment with Pycnogenol and melatonin may protect the vasculature, partly independent of blood pressure reduction, probably through their antioxidant effects. PMID:20421515

  16. Revised Dst and the epicycles of magnetic disturbance: 1958-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Gannon, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    A revised version of the storm-time disturbance index Dst is calculated using hourly-mean magnetic-observatory data from four standard observatories and collected over the years 1958-2007. The calculation algorithm is a revision of that established by Sugiura et al., and which is now used by the Kyoto World Data Center for routine production of Dst. The most important new development is for the removal of solar-quiet variation. This is done through time and frequency-domain band-stop filtering - selectively removing specific Fourier terms approximating stationary periodic variation driven by the Earth's rotation, the Moon's orbit, the Earth's orbit around the Sun, and their mutual coupling. The resulting non-stationary disturbance time series are weighted by observatory-site geomagnetic latitude and then averaged together across longitudes to give what we call Dst5807-4SH. Comparisons are made with the standard Kyoto D st. Various biases, especially for residual solar-quiet variation, are identified in the Kyoto Dst, and occasional storm-time errors in the Kyoto Dst are noted. Using Dst5807-4SH, storms are ranked for maximum storm-time intensity, and we show that storm-occurrence frequency follows a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. The epicycles of magnetic disturbance are explored: we (1) map low-latitude local-time disturbance asymmetry, (2) confirm the 27-day storm-recurrence phenomenon using autocorrelation, (3) investigate the coupled semi-annual-diurnal variation of magnetic activity and the proposed explanatory equinoctial and Russell-McPherron hypotheses, and (4) illustrate the well-known solar-cycle modulation of storm-occurrence likelihood. Since Dst5807-4SH is useful for a variety of space physics and solid-Earth applications, it is made freely available to the scientific community.

  17. Factory outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Y.; Ozasa, K.; Mermin, J. H.; Griffin, P. M.; Masuda, K.; Imashuku, S.; Sawada, T.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the cause of a July 1996 outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 among factory workers in Kyoto, Japan, we conducted cohort and case-control studies. Eating radish sprout salad during lunch at the factory cafeteria had been linked to illness. The sprouts were traced to four growers in Japan; one had been associated with an outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 among 6,000 schoolchildren in Sakai earlier in July. PMID:10341179

  18. Development of Measurement Methods for Detection of Special Nuclear Materials using D-D Pulsed Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Takahiro; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Kimura, Masaharu; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    For detection of hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs), we have developed an active neutron-based interrogation system combined with a D-D fusion pulsed neutron source and a neutron detection system. In the detection scheme, we have adopted new measurement techniques simultaneously; neutron noise analysis and neutron energy spectrum analysis. The validity of neutron noise analysis method has been experimentally studied in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), and was applied to a cargo container inspection system by simulation.

  19. Some electronics companies see business opportunities in cutting greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    During the doldrums of the Washington, D.C., summer in late July and early August, the debate about whether the United States should sign the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and what the price tag might be, continued unabated.The Clinton Administration and several private groups issued policy papers, and the U.S. House Committee on Small Business held its third oversight hearing on the issue.

  20. Group 9 Metal Complexes of meso-Aryl-Substituted Rubyrin.

    PubMed

    Soya, Takanori; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2015-07-20

    Invited for the cover of this issue are Takanori Soya and Atsuhiro Osuka at Kyoto University. The image depicts Group 9 metal (Co, Rh, and Ir) complexes of meso-aryl-substituted rubyrin and a meteorite approaching to the atmosphere. A large amount of Iridium is often contained in meteorites. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201501080. PMID:26042817

  1. Dirk Forrister -- Looking at U.S. climate change policy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This month, American Gas presents another in its series of interviews with influential policy-makers in Washington. This interview with Dirk Forrister, chairman of the White House Climate Change Task Force, focuses on the upcoming United Nations conference on global warming, being held December 1--10 in Kyoto, Japan, and on the Clinton administration`s position and policies on global climate change.

  2. Effect of Radio Frequency Waves on Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of Radio Frequency waves on low frequency plasma instabilities and turbulence is studied. It is shown that the ponderomotive force can stabilize or destabilize instabilities depending on the power deposition profile and no RF induced flow generation hypothesis is required. Its possible consequence on space and fusion plasma will be discussed. Collaborations with George Vahala from William & Mary, Julio Martinell from UNAM and Atsushi Fukuyama from Kyoto University are acknowledged.

  3. Emissions trading - time to get serious

    SciTech Connect

    Vitelli, A.

    2007-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol's five year compliance period begins in 2008. Industrialized nations around the world have pledged to cut carbon emissions, but the job seems to get harder, not easier, as 2008 approaches. Can market mechanisms make the crucial difference? The article discloses recent initiatives and developments worldwide. It concludes that it is clear that the market is maintaining its central role in fighting climate change and that bringing emissions trading to developing countries and to the US can only reinforce that role.

  4. Emissions trading: principles and practice. 2nd

    SciTech Connect

    Tietenberg, T.H.

    2006-02-15

    The author demonstrates how emissions trading became an attractive alternative to command-and-control policies that would have required the EPA to disallow the opening of new plants in the middle of the recession-burdened 1970s. His examination of the evolution of this system includes, among other applications, the largest multinational trading system ever conceived, the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EUETG), and the use of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol.

  5. Enhanced Research to Create More Jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal, K.

    2004-03-01

    Mr. Doc Hastings, U.S. Congressman from the state of Washington is interviewed regarding various topics related to the nuclear energy picture in the US. Topics include the level of public support for nuclear energy, differences between the roles for state and federal governments, job creation, clean-up briefings, a Yucca Mountain status, a hydrogen-nuclear status, the role of nuclear energy in Kyoto protocol compliance, and the market for power plants.

  6. Hold Your Breath: The Economic Impactof Human Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Douglas S.

    2006-08-01

    The definition of anthropogenic emissionsin the Kyoto Protocol to the UnitedNations Framework Convention on ClimateChange contains a loophole that could beexploited to destabilize the ratification process.I point out this loophole here so thatothers may use it to prevent effective implementationof the Protocol, alongside argumentsof equal scientific weight and credibilitycurrently used by the administrationsof some western nations against the Protocol,in particular, and the need to reducecarbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, in general.

  7. Analysis of Three Real-Time Dst Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza-Fulmer, T. L.; Gannon, J. L.; Love, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Dst is commonly used to specify geomagnetic disturbance periods and characterize the resulting ring current enhancements from ground-based horizontal magnetic field intensity measurements. Real-time versions of the Dst index are produced for operational purposes, and are of interest to many users, including the US military, airline industry, and power companies. USGS Real time Dst, Kyoto Quicklook Dst, and Space Environment Corporation RDst use preliminary data and use a variety of contributing observatories and processing methods. Both USGS and RDst use a combined time-and-frequency domain method and Kyoto uses a time domain only method in creating the Dst index. We perform an analysis of these three real time Dst indices for the time period of October 1, 2009 to May 31, 2010. The USGS 3, using three observatories instead of the standard four, and the Kyoto Sym-H index, are introduced in the analysis for comparison of observatory location with the three main Dst indices. We present a statistical study of the differences due to algorithm, output time resolution, and location of contributing observatories. Higher time resolution shows higher frequency fluctuations during disturbances and more defined storm features. There were small differences in mid- to low-latitude observatories during quiet to moderate storm time periods. The average impact on the index due to the different algorithms used was approximately 9 nT, and greater for individual storms.

  8. Appetitive and consummative responding for liquid sucrose in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dommett, Eleanor J; Rostron, Claire L

    2013-02-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is one proposed animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) argued to show strong face validity on the basis of behavioural characteristics. However, SHR may have fundamental alterations to the sensitivity of fluid reward due to altered renal function that has the potential to affect performance in complex reinforced behavioural tests. This could particularly confound determination of operant motivational alterations in the SHR. We assessed baseline bodyweight, home cage lab chow and water intake in the SHR and their typical control strains: Wistar and Wistar Kyoto. We also assessed sucrose preference, and appetitive and consummative positive and negative contrast for sucrose (4% versus 20%) on a motivational runway. As expected, SHR showed enhanced water intake compared to Wistar and Wistar Kyotos but comparable lab chow intake at baseline. SHR exhibited sucrose preference for 4% and 20%, as did both control strains, but the preference for 4% was enhanced in the SHR. SHR showed significant negative and positive contrast in sucrose consumption on the runway, as did Wistar Kyotos. Wistars exhibited neither. Appetitive contrast was not measurable in the SHR due to a robust locomotor velocity increase at the age of testing. The enhanced fluid intake found in the SHR argues against using fluid reinforcers in behavioural tests. We suggest the presence of both forms of contrast in the SHR is unusual for rats tested in ad lib. food conditions while the contrast pattern in Wistars indicate abnormalities in reward sensitivity in this control strain. PMID:23117093

  9. Obituary: Chushiro Hayashi (1920-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu

    2011-12-01

    Chushiro Hayashi, the greatest Japanese theoretical astrophysicist, died of old age at a hospital in Kyoto on 28 February, 2010; he was 89 years old. C. Hayashi was born in Kyoto on July 25, 1920 as the fourth son of his parents Mume and Seijiro Hayashi. His father Seijiro managed a small finance company and the family "Hayashi" can trace its history back to honorable master carpenters who engaged in construction of the historic Kamigamo-shrine and Daitokuji-temple in Kyoto. In his high-school days in Kyoto, Hayashi enjoyed judo, and he was interested in philosophy and read a lot of philosophy books. Some of his schoolmates thought that Hayashi would become a philosopher. After graduating high school, he moved to Tokyo and entered the University of Tokyo, Department of physics in 1940, where he encountered astrophysics through a paper by G. Gamow and M. Schönberg on the URCA process (1941), A.S. Eddington's book "Internal Constitution of the Stars" (1926), etc. It was a difficult time of World War II. After a short time at university of two and half years, he graduated and was conscripted into the Navy. In 1945 the war was over he returned to his hometown Kyoto, where he joined a group of Professor Hideki Yukawa at Kyoto University, and studied elementary particle physics as well as astrophysics. In his early outstanding paper (1950), Hayashi pointed out an important effect of neutrinos in the expanding early hot universe, resulting in chemical equilibrium between neutrons and protons, while Gamow et al. (1948) did not notice the effect in their abg-theory, where they assumed a pure neutron state as an initial state. Also Hayashi investigated the structures of red giant stars; he showed how red giant stars kept such large radius structures, in terms of stellar models with energy source of nuclear shell-burning (1949, 1957). He received a DSc in 1954; the title of his thesis was "Hamiltonian Formalism in Non-local Field Theories." After that, Hayashi concentrated

  10. Examination of Science Achievement in the 8th Grade Level in Turkey in Terms of National and International Exams Depending upon Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalmis, Erkan H.; Avgin, Sakine S.; Demir, Papatya; Yildirim, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of demographic characteristics of students in Turkey upon their performance in TIMSS, an international assessment exam and Secondary Education Transition Examination which is a national exam (OGS). One of the fields of sciences, biology is taken into account as student performance. As a result…

  11. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Registration System, 76 FR 59114 (September 23, 2011), 1371 OG 168 (October 18, 2011). The USPTO received no... That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark Initial Capture Registration System AGENCY: United States... disposal would otherwise have occurred. The one-year retention period for papers scanned into TICRS...

  12. BRST invariance in Coulomb gauge QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraši, A.; Taylor, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the Coulomb gauge, the Hamiltonian of QCD contains terms of order ħ2, identified by Christ and Lee, which are non-local but instantaneous. The question is addressed how do these terms fit in with BRST invariance. Our discussion is confined to the simplest, O(g4) , example.

  13. Lipid bilayer elasticity measurements in giant liposomes in contact with a solubilizing surfactant.

    PubMed

    Ménager, Christine; Guemghar, Dihya; Perzynski, Régine; Lesieur, Sylviane; Cabuil, Valérie

    2008-05-01

    A new method to probe the modification of the elasticity of phospholipid bilayers is presented. The purpose here concerns the action of a solubilizing surfactant on a vesicle bilayer. This method is based on the measure of the under-field elongation of giant magnetic-fluid-loaded liposomes. The addition of the nonionic surfactant octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (OG) to vesicles at sublytic levels increases the elasticity of the membrane, as shown by the value of the bending modulus K(b), which decreases. K(b) measured around 20 kT for a pure 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer indeed reaches a few kT in the case of the mixed OG-DOPC bilayer. The purpose and interest of this study are to allow the determination of the membrane bending modulus before and after the addition of OG on the same magnetic liposome. Moreover, the experimental conditions used in this work allow the control of lipid and surfactant molar fractions in the mixed aggregates. Then, optical microscopy observation can be performed on samples in well-defined regions of the OG-phospholipid state diagram. PMID:18363418

  14. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. PMID:27233046

  15. Bioinformatics analysis of thousands of TCGA tumors to determine the involvement of epigenetic regulators in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cancer cells show distorted epigenetic landscapes. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project profiles thousands of tumors, allowing the discovery of somatic alterations in the epigenetic machinery and the identification of potential cancer drivers among members of epigenetic protein families. Methods We integrated mutation, expression, and copy number data from 5943 tumors from 13 cancer types to train a classification model that predicts the likelihood of being an oncogene (OG), tumor suppressor (TSG) or neutral gene (NG). We applied this predictor to epigenetic regulator genes (ERGs), and used differential expression and correlation network analysis to identify dysregulated ERGs along with co-expressed cancer genes. Furthermore, we quantified global proteomic changes by mass spectrometry after EZH2 inhibition. Results Mutation-based classifiers uncovered the OG-like profile of DNMT3A and TSG-like profiles for several ERGs. Differential gene expression and correlation network analyses revealed that EZH2 is the most significantly over-expressed ERG in cancer and is co-regulated with a cell cycle network. Proteomic analysis showed that EZH2 inhibition induced down-regulation of cell cycle regulators in lymphoma cells. Conclusions Using classical driver genes to train an OG/TSG predictor, we determined the most predictive features at the gene level. Our predictor uncovered one OG and several TSGs among ERGs. Expression analyses elucidated multiple dysregulated ERGs including EZH2 as member of a co-expressed cell cycle network. PMID:26110843

  16. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html). PMID:25814993

  17. PEE-PEO block copolymer exchange rate between micelles is detergent and temperature activated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schantz, Allen; Saboe, Patrick; Lee, Hee-Young; Sines, Ian; Butler, Paul; Bishop, Kyle; Maranas, Janna; Kumar, Manish

    We examine the kinetics of polymer chain exchange between polymer/detergent micelles, a system relevant to the synthesis of protein-containing biomimetic membranes. Although chain exchange between polymer aggregates in water is too slow to observe, adding detergent allows us to determine chain exchange rates using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). We examine a membrane-protein-relevant, vesicle-forming ultra-short polymer, Poly(ethyl ethylene)20-Poly(ethylene oxide)18 (PEE20-PEO18). PEE20-PEO18 is solubilized in mixed micelles with the membrane-protein-compatible non-ionic detergent octyl- β -D-glucoside (OG). We show that OG activates block copolymer exchange, and obtain rate constants at two detergent concentrations above the CMC (critical micellar concentration) of OG. We find that chain exchange increases two orders of magnitude when temperature increases from 308 to 338 K, and that even a 1 mg/mL increase in OG concentration leads to a noticeable increase in exchange rate. We also calculate the activation energy for chain exchange and find that it is much higher than for lipid exchange. These findings explain the need for high detergent concentration and/or temperature to synthesize densely packed polymer/protein membranes.

  18. Orchardgrass ley for improved manure management in Wisconsin: II. Nutritive value and voluntary intake by dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confinement dairy feeding operations in the Upper Midwest could benefit from utilizing a wider range of forages than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn silage (Zea mays L.). A short cycle, frequently manured, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) ley (OG) was compared with corn silage (CS) in a 2 ...

  19. Effect of Oral Glucose Administration on Rebound Growth Hormone Release in Normal and Obese Women: The Role of Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity and Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Garcia-Buela, Jesus; Tovar, Sulay; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Dieguez, Carlos; Cordido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Context Metabolic substrates and nutritional status play a major role in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms involved in GH secretion following oral glucose (OG) administration in normal and obese patients is a pending issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate GH after OG in relation with adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, to further elucidate the mechanism of GH secretion after OG and the altered GH secretion in obesity. Participants and Methods We included 64 healthy and obese women. After an overnight fast, 75 g of OG were administered; GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin were obtained during 300 minutes. Insulin secretion and action indices and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were employed. Results The AUC of GH (μg/L•min) was lower in obese (249.8±41.8) than in healthy women (490.4±74.6), P=0.001. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/mL•min) was lower in obese (240995.5±11094.2) than in healthy women (340797.5±37757.5), P=0.042. There were significant correlations between GH secretion and the different adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion indices. After multivariate analysis only ghrelin AUC remained a significant predictor for fasting and peak GH. PMID:25782001

  20. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-11-18

    Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14μM. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-κB p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions. PMID:22037580

  1. A novel detection of radon based on its decay product inducing conformational changes of an aptamer probe.

    PubMed

    Long, Minzhi; Deng, Han; Tian, Gang; Song, Chunli; Liu, Hongwen; Shen, Yi; Lv, Changyin

    2016-09-14

    This study proposes a novel method for the detection of inert gas radon using a label-free, specific, fluorescence-sensing aptamer in the context of PW17-OG system. This method utilizes the cyanine dye OliGreen (OG) as a signal reactor and the aptamer PW17 as a fluorescent identification probe. When OG integrates into the free curling PW17, a strong fluorescence signal is generated. After radon decays, the long lived naturally occurring radon progeny Pb being disposed and introduced to the system. Lead ions induce PW17 to form a stable G-quadruplex, thereby inhibiting the interaction between OG and PW17 and resulting in a reduction of the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity show a good linear relationship with lead ion and the radon concentration (D), thereinto, We fitted linear regression of radon concentration in the range of 0.92-4.22 (×10(4) Bqhm(-3)) to receive a good relationship between ΔF and the concentration of radon with the detection limit of 1963 Bqhm(-3). This method has been successfully applied for detecting standard cumulative concentration of radon and the detection limit reached the national standard of China. This sensitive method can exclude radiation damage in field testing, furthermore, it explores a new field in biological analysis using an aptamer to detected inorganic, gaseous, and radioactive materials. PMID:27566356

  2. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-04-28

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP-PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense. PMID:25870275

  3. Maturation and experience in action representation: Bilateral deficits in unilateral congenital amelia.

    PubMed

    Philip, B A; Buckon, C; Sienko, S; Aiona, M; Ross, S; Frey, S H

    2015-08-01

    Congenital unilateral absence of the hand (amelia) completely deprives individuals of sensorimotor experiences with their absent effector. The consequences of such deprivation on motor planning abilities are poorly understood. Fourteen patients and matched controls performed two grip selection tasks: 1) overt grip selection (OGS), in which they used their intact hand to grasp a three-dimensional object that appeared in different orientations using the most natural (under-or over-hand) precision grip, and 2) prospective grip selection (PGS), in which they selected the most natural grip for either the intact or absent hand without moving. For the intact hand, we evaluated planning accuracy by comparing concordance between grip preferences expressed in PGS vs. OGS. For the absent hand, we compared PGS responses with OGS responses for the intact hand that had been phase shifted by 180°, thereby accounting for mirror symmetrical biomechanical constraints of the two limbs. Like controls, amelic individuals displayed a consistent preference for less awkward grips in both OGS and PGS. Unexpectedly, however, they were slower and less accurate for PGS based on either the intact or the absent hand. We conclude that direct sensorimotor experience with both hands may be important for the typical development or refinement of effector-specific internal representations of either limb. PMID:26092768

  4. The Effect of Vision on Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Grugni, Graziano; Priano, Lorenzo; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the role of visual contribution in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on balance maintenance using a force platform. We enrolled 14 individuals with PWS free from conditions associated with impaired balance, 44 obese (OG) and 20 healthy controls (CG). Postural sway was measured for 60 s while standing…

  5. Studies on pulsed optogalvanic effect in Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K; Kumar, P; Dixit, S K; Nakhe, S V

    2014-07-01

    The optogalvanic (OG) effect has been observed in a Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge lamp using pulsed laser irradiation. An OG spectrum is recorded in dye laser wavelength region 574–602 nm using a boxcar-averager. In total 41 atomic lines are observed. Of these, 38 lines are assigned to neon transitions. Two lines observed corresponding to wavelengths 576.519 and 601.815 nm are assigned to europium transitions; (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 6 7/2 ) and (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 8 9/2 ), respectively, and the remaining line at 582.475 nm could not be assigned. The effect of the discharge current on europium as well as neon OG signals is also studied. At moderate discharge current values, an extra positive peak is observed in neon OG signal for the transition (1s 5 →2p 2 ) at 588.189 nm, which is explained by Penning-ionization process using the quasi-resonant energy transfer interactions between excited neon and europium atoms lying in 2p 2 and D 10 9/2 states, respectively. PMID:25089996

  6. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  7. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  8. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  9. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  10. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the value obtained by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (c) The term ammonia-N (or ammonia-nitrogen) means...

  11. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  12. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP–PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense. PMID:25870275

  13. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM)) for solving multifield problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience and hydrology. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid-eighties; meanwhile we are working on its 6th version. We provide a short historical note about the continuous process of concept and software development having evolved through Fortran, C, and C++ implementations. The idea behind OGS is to provide an open platform to the community, outfitted with professional software-engineering tools such as platform-independent compiling and automated benchmarking. A comprehensive benchmarking book has been prepared for publication. Benchmarking has been proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams, for example, for code comparison and validation purposes (DEVOVALEX, CO2BENCH and SSBENCH projects). On one hand, object-orientation (OO) provides a suitable framework for distributed code development; however, the parallelization of OO codes still lacks efficiency. High-performance-computing efficiency of OO codes is subject to future research (accompanying poster).

  14. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner . E-mail: niemann@tzv.fal.de

    2007-07-06

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2{sup mat}/-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2{sup pat}/-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos.

  15. The use of local concentrated heat versus topical acyclovir for a herpes labialis outbreak: results of a pilot study under real life conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wohlrab, Johannes; Voß, Franziska; Müller, Christian; Brenn, Lars C

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent outbreak of herpes labialis can affect quality of life by prodromes like burning, itching, and swelling. Topical applied preparations aim to shorten the duration of symptoms, inhibit the virus replication and/or accelerate the healing process. Local concentrated heat (LCH) can reduce burning, itching, or swelling of the skin by influence of mechano-heat sensitive afferent neurons. Patients and methods To examine the effectiveness of two different topical applications (LCH versus topical acyclovir [TACV]) under real life conditions, we conducted a prospective, observational, reference-controlled cohort pilot study with 103 patients. Occurrence of prodromal burning, itching, swelling, and quality of life were assessed. Results The LCH observation group (OG) showed a significantly faster improvement in all symptoms after 1-day of application than the TACV OG. The burden and duration of disease was lower and shorter in the LCH OG than in the TACV OG. Conclusions The prodromal symptoms in recurrent herpes labialis were attenuated more effectively by LCH than by TACV. PMID:24231728

  16. Synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside catalyzed by Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying Pichia pastoris in an aqueous/organic two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Guo, DongHeng; Xu, YanShan; Kang, YaJun; Han, ShuangYan; Zheng, SuiPing

    2016-04-01

    We explored the ability of a Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying P. pastoris whole-cell biocatalyst (Pp-DCBGL) system to synthesize alkyl β-D-glucosides. The primary investigation centered on the synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (octyl-glu, OG). OG could be synthesized through reverse hydrolysis reaction with very low efficiency. Then, OG was synthesized between BG and octanol by a transglycosylation reaction. In a 2-ml reaction system, OG was synthesized with a conversion rate of 51.1% in 3h when 5 mg/ml BG was utilized as the glucosyl donor under optimized conditions. And, even after being reused four times, the Pp-DCBGL was relatively stable. Additionally, a 500-ml-scale reaction system was conducted in a 2-L stirred reactor with a conversion rate of 47.5% in 1.5 h. Moreover, the conversion rate did not decrease after the whole-cell catalyst was reused two times. In conclusion, Pp-DCBGL has high reaction efficiency and operational stability, which is a powerful biocatalyst available for industrial synthesis. PMID:26920486

  17. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  18. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  19. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  20. 40 CFR 432.17 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G, and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.12....

  1. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.82... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(a). (b) Facilities that generate more than 50 million pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5,...

  2. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  3. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1...

  4. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  5. 40 CFR 432.27 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.22....

  6. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.82... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(a). (b) Facilities that generate more than 50 million pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5,...

  7. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1 4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1...

  8. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  9. 40 CFR 432.17 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G, and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.12....

  10. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  11. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1...

  12. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  13. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  14. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  15. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432.82... standards for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(a). (b) Facilities that generate more than 50 million pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5,...

  16. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  17. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  18. 40 CFR 432.27 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.22....

  19. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  20. 40 CFR 432.27 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, fecal coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.22....

  1. 40 CFR 432.17 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... BOD5, TSS, O&G, and fecal coliform are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.12....

  2. Propagation experiments in the near infrared along a 150-km path and from stars in the Canarian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeron, Adolfo; Rubio, Juan A.; Belmonte, Aniceto M.; Garcia, Enrique; Prud'homme, Tony; Sodnik, Zoran; Connor, Chris

    2002-03-01

    Within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX project, aimed at experimentally demonstrating the feasibility of inter-satellite optical communications links, an Optical Ground Station (OGS) has been built by ESA in the premises of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC, Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands) Observatory of Teide, in the Tenerife island. The OGS is designed to test the optical communications payload on board the ESA's Artemis satellite and to perform ground-satellite optical communications experiments. As part of the OGS design study, an assessment of the impact of the atmosphere on the ground- satellite links was carried out. This assessment included experimental characterizations of the atmospheric effects through both measurements from stars in positions close to the Artemis one in bands comprising the SILEX wavelengths, using the IAC's Mons telescope in the Observatory of Teide, and measurements on a horizontal link with a transmitter near the IAC's Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma island, based on a laser diode similar to those to be used in SILEX, and a receiver in the Teide Observatory, almost 150 km apart, in the Tenerife island. The 830-nm wavelength horizontal measurements allowed checking the variations in the behavior of the atmospheric turbulence through the diurnal cycle. Besides the information relevant to assess the OGS performance, the horizontal-propagation experiments allowed to gather a considerable amount of propagation data on a very long path, most of it 2400 m above the sea.

  3. Ocimum gratissimum Aqueous Extract Induces Apoptotic Signalling in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell A549

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han-Min; Lee, Mu-Jang; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Tsai, Pei-Lin; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Ocimum gratissimum (OG) is widely used as a traditional herb for its antibacterial activity in Taiwan. Recently, antitumor effect of OG on breast cancer cell is also reported; however, the effects of OG on human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell A549 remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether aqueous OG extract (OGE) affects viability of A549 cells and the signals induced by OGE in A549 cells. Cell viability assays revealed that OGE significantly and dose-dependently decreased the viability of A549 cell but not that of BEAS-2B cell. Morphological examination and DAPI staining indicated that OGE induced cell shrinkage and DNA condensation for A549 cells. Further investigation showed that OGE enhanced activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8 and increased protein level of Apaf-1 and Bak, but diminished the level of Bcl-2. Additionally, OGE inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) yet enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase (p38). In conclusion, our findings indicate that OGE suppressed the cell viability of A549 cells, which may result from the activation of apoptotic signaling and the inhibition of anti-apoptotic signaling, suggesting that OGE might be beneficial to lung carcinoma treatment. PMID:20953389

  4. Structure and Mechanism of a Viral Collagen Prolyl Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent dioxygenases comprise a large and diverse enzyme superfamily the members of which have multiple physiological roles. Despite this diversity, these enzymes share a common chemical mechanism and a core structural fold, a double-stranded β-helix (DSBH), as well as conserved active site residues. The prolyl hydroxylases are members of this large superfamily. Prolyl hydroxylases are involved in collagen biosynthesis and oxygen sensing in mammalian cells. Structural–mechanistic studies with prolyl hydroxylases have broader implications for understanding mechanisms in the Fe(II)- and 2-OG-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. Here, we describe crystal structures of an N-terminally truncated viral collagen prolyl hydroxylase (vCPH). The crystal structure shows that vCPH contains the conserved DSBH motif and iron binding active site residues of 2-OG oxygenases. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to delineate structural changes in vCPH upon binding its substrate. Kinetic investigations are used to report on reaction cycle intermediates and compare them to the closest homologues of vCPH. The study highlights the utility of vCPH as a model enzyme for broader mechanistic analysis of Fe(II)- and 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases, including those of biomedical interest. PMID:26368022

  5. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  6. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  7. Desiccation tolerance during different desiccation strategies in A. angustifolia embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. The mature seeds are recalcitrant and have large embryos (about 2.5 cm in length) that contain more than 1 g H2O.g dry mass (dm)-1. Successful cryopreservation requires reduction of ...

  8. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health. PMID:21242603

  9. 75 FR 62414 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: October 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  10. 75 FR 4836 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: January 29, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  11. 75 FR 47616 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: August 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  12. 75 FR 44975 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: July 30, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD publishes...

  13. Improvement in nutrient handling in STZ induced diabetic rats treated with Ocimum gratissimum

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Davies, Koofreh Godwin; Olubobokun, Titilope Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alteration in digestive and absorptive enzymatic activities has been reported in diabetes mellitus (DM), but not with Ocimum gratissimum (OG) treatment. This study was, therefore, designed to indirectly assess the effect of DM and treatment with OG on nutrient digestion and absorption, through estimation of their fecal excretion. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of six per group for control, DM and diabetic mellitus treated (DMT). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in the test groups. OG was administered to the DMT group at dose of 1500 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. Fecal glucose, protein and cholesterol were determined. Results: Fecal glucose was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group compared to the control and DMT groups, with the DMT groups significantly (P < 0.001) lower than the control. Fecal protein was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group than the control whereas it was significantly lower in the DMT groups than the DM. Fecal cholesterol was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the DM than the DMT and control groups with DMT significantly (P < 0.01) higher than the control. Conclusion: This result indicates the propensity of OG to reverse impairment of nutrient digestion and absorption in DM. PMID:25664269

  14. Preliminary results of the in-orbit test of ARTEMIS with the Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Sodnik, Zoran; Lopez, Pablo; Alonso, Angel; Viera, Teodora; Oppenhauser, Gotthard

    2002-04-01

    ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreemenet for building the Optical Ground Station (OGS), in the IAC Teide Observatory, in order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of Optical Data Relay payloads onboard communication satellites, the first being ARTEMIS. During its recent launch, ARTEMIS was put into a degraded orbit due to a malfunction on the launcher's upper stage. ESA rapidly adopted a recovery strategy aimed to take the satellite to its nominal geostationary position. After completion of the first manoeuvres, ARTEMIS was successfully positioned in a circular parking orbit, at about 31,000 kilometers, and turned into full operation. In this orbit, its optical payload has been tested with the OGS, before establishing the link with SPOT IV. New tracking algorithms were developed at OGS control system in order to correct for ARTEMIS new orbit. The OGS has established a bi-directional link to ARTEMIS, behaving, seen from ARTEMIS, as a LEO terminal. Preliminary results are presented on the space-to- ground bi-directional link, including pointing acquisition and tracking (PAT) performance, received beam characterization and BER measurements.

  15. 78 FR 5171 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... (NGA), DoD. ACTION: Notice. In compliance with Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Online GEOINT Services (OGS) directorate of NGA announces a proposed public information... NGA seeks ways to deliver geospatial information more rapidly and more efficiently. By...

  16. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  17. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  18. 5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the Handel og Sofartsmuseet pea Kronborg Trade and Seafaring Museum, Helsingor, Denmark) H. P. Thorsoe, painter, c. 1825 VIEW OF CHRISTIANSTED HARBOR FROM SEA, SHIPS IN FOREGROUND, HARBOR IN BACKGROUND - City of Christiansted (General Views), Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  19. 78 FR 759 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615... reinstatement from Meagher O&G Properties, Inc., for competitive oil and gas lease WYW145615 for land in...

  20. Sprog, kultur, intersprog (Language, Culture, Interlanguage). ROLIG-Papir 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risager, Karen, Ed.

    Four articles on language, culture, and interlanguage are included in this volume. The first by Karen Risager, "Sprog, kultur, og internationalisering" ("Language, Culture, and Internationalization") takes issue with the very broad perception that foreign language and culture cannot be separated in instruction. The second article,…

  1. Oxygen amendment on growth and nitrogen-use efficiency of flooded Italian Basil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding is a frequent and often unavoidable cause of stress, in vegetable production in Florida. Flooding results in hypoxia i.e., oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with traditional Italian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cv. Genovese OG, treated with either a fast- or slow-release solid oxy...

  2. CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE TERATOGENESIS: EVIDENCE FOR COMPENSATORY RESPONSES TO INDUCED CELLULAR TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) administered ip to pregnant mice on day 10 og gestation causes severe malformations at 20 mg/kg and is embryolethal at higher doses. n the present study, CP was administered at 1, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg. mbryos were removed at 8 and 28 hrs post dosing for immedia...

  3. Computerized occlusal analysis: correlation with occlusal indexes to assess the outcome of orthodontic treatment or the severity of malocculusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of our study were to verify the validity of the T-Scan III system (Tekscan) as an objective occlusal evaluation tool, and to assess the differences between two occlusal indexes-the peer assessment rating (PAR) index and the American Board of Orthodontics objective grading system (OGS)-by comparing the scores derived from the T-Scan III system with the two occlusal indexes and analyzing the correlations between them. Methods The final study sample included 48 adult volunteers (39 men and 9 women, mean age 24.14 ± 3.16 years), after excluding 29 volunteers whose occlusion could not be evaluated by the T-Scan III system due to severe skeletal or occlusal problems. PAR index and OGS scores were assessed using dental study models, and measurements of centric occlusion, protrusive movement, and lateral excursion movement were obtained via the T-Scan III system. The results were analyzed to determine correlations. Results Occlusal analysis by the T-Scan III system was clinically reliable (p < 0.05), and the PAR index and OGS scores were significantly correlated with several measurements obtained with the T-Scan III system (p < 0.05). Conclusions The T-Scan III system is a quantitative and reliable method for occlusal evaluation, and represents a potential substitute for occlusal indexes. Compared to the PAR index, the OGS scores of more variables were significantly correlated with the T-Scan measurements. PMID:26877980

  4. Comparison of Oogenesis and Sex Steroid Profiles between Twice and Once Annually Spawning of Rainbow Trout Females (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Estay, Francisco; Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2. PMID:23213308

  5. Sequential capillary electrophoresis analysis using optically gated sample injection and UV/vis detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Tian, Miaomiao; Camara, Mohamed Amara; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2015-10-01

    We present sequential CE analysis of amino acids and L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction, by combing the on-line derivatization, optically gated (OG) injection and commercial-available UV-Vis detection. Various experimental conditions for sequential OG-UV/vis CE analysis were investigated and optimized by analyzing a standard mixture of amino acids. High reproducibility of the sequential CE analysis was demonstrated with RSD values (n = 20) of 2.23, 2.57, and 0.70% for peak heights, peak areas, and migration times, respectively, and the LOD of 5.0 μM (for asparagine) and 2.0 μM (for aspartic acid) were obtained. With the application of the OG-UV/vis CE analysis, sequential online CE enzyme assay of L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction was carried out by automatically and continuously monitoring the substrate consumption and the product formation every 12 s from the beginning to the end of the reaction. The Michaelis constants for the reaction were obtained and were found to be in good agreement with the results of traditional off-line enzyme assays. The study demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of integrating the OG injection with UV/vis detection for sequential online CE analysis, which could be of potential value for online monitoring various chemical reaction and bioprocesses. PMID:26040711

  6. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  7. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html). PMID:25814993

  8. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  9. 5-Carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline is a Broad Spectrum 2-Oxoglutarate Oxygenase Inhibitor which Causes Iron Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Aik, WeiShen; Che, Ka Hing; Li, Xuan Shirley; Kristensen, Jan B. L.; King, Oliver N. F.; Chan, Mun Chiang; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Choi, Hwanho; Walport, Louise J.; Thinnes, Cyrille C.; Bush, Jacob T.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Rydzik, Anna M.; Rose, Nathan R.; Bagg, Eleanor A.; McDonough, Michael A.; Krojer, Tobias; Yue, Wyatt W.; Ng, Stanley S.; Olsen, Lars; Brennan, Paul E.; Oppermann, Udo; Muller-Knapp, Susanne; Klose, Robert J.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Kawamura, Akane

    2015-01-01

    2-Oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenases are therapeutic targets for human diseases. Using a representative 2OG oxygenase panel, we compare the inhibitory activities of 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) and 4-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (4C8HQ) with that of two other commonly used 2OG oxygenase inhibitors, N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA). The results reveal that IOX1 has a broad spectrum of activity, as demonstrated by the inhibition of transcription factor hydroxylases, representatives of all 2OG dependent histone demethylase subfamilies, nucleic acid demethylases and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. Cellular assays show that, unlike NOG and 2,4-PDCA, IOX1 is active against both cytosolic and nuclear 2OG oxygenases without ester derivatisation. Unexpectedly, crystallographic studies on these oxygenases demonstrate that IOX1, but not 4C8HQ, can cause translocation of the active site metal, revealing a rare example of protein ligand-induced metal movement PMID:26682036

  10. Iron supplementation: oral tablets versus intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Blee, Tanya; Claydon, Gary; Peeling, Peter; Beilby, John; Prins, Alex

    2006-04-01

    Non-anemic, iron depleted women were randomly assigned to an injection group (IG) or oral group (OG) to assess which method is more efficient for increasing iron stores over a short time period. IG received a course of 5 x 2 mL intramuscular injections over 10 d, and OG received one tablet daily for 30 d. Fourteen, 21 and 28 d after commencing supplementation, ferritin concentration in OG significantly increased from baseline (means +/- standard error: 27 +/- 3 to 40 +/- 5 to 41 +/- 5 to 41 +/- 5 microg/L; P < 0.01). Similarly, on days 15, 20, and 28 post the first injection, ferritin concentration in IG significantly increased from baseline (means +/- standard error: 20 +/- 2 to 71 +/- 17 to 63 +/- 11 to 63 +/- 7 microg/L; P < 0.01), and was also significantly greater than OG at day 15 and 28 (P < 0.05). Iron injections are significantly more effective (both in time and degree of increase) in improving ferritin levels over 30 d than oral tablets. PMID:16779924

  11. "[We're on the Right Track, Baby], We Were Born This Way!" Exploring Sports Participation in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of "Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter," this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club…

  12. Evaluation of the bone healing process in an experimental tibial bone defect model in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Bossini, Paulo Sérgio; Tim, Carla Roberta; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antônio; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Malavazi, Iran; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of postmenopausal bone loss (induced by ovariectomy) in the process of bone healing in a tibial bone defect model in rats by means of histological evaluation of bone defects and the analysis of the expression of genes and proteins involved in bone consolidation. Twenty female Wistar rats (12 weeks old, weighing ±250 g) were randomly divided into two groups: control group (CG) and ovariectomized group (OG). Rats of OG were submitted to ovariectomy and after 8 weeks post-surgery, all animals were submitted to the tibial bone defect model. The main histological finding analysis revealed that ovariectomized animals showed a higher amount of granulation tissue and immature newly formed bone compared to CG. Furthermore, quantitative histological analysis showed that OG presented a significant decrease in the amount of newly formed bone (p = 0.0351). RT-PCR analysis showed no difference in Runx2, ALP, RANK, RANKL and Osterix gene expression 14-day post-surgery. Interestingly, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that Runx2 was down expressed (p = 0.0001) and RANKL was up expressed (p = 0.0022) in the OG. In conclusion, these data highlight that bone loss induced by ovariectomy causes an impairment in the capacity of bone to heal mainly probably because of alterations in the imbalance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts activities. PMID:24532218

  13. The Synchrony and Diachrony of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian Adjectival Long-Form Allomorphy (ALFA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, James Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), the gentive (G) and dative/locative (DL) cases exhibit adjectival long-form allomorphy (ALFA). The genitive -"og" -"oga" and the DL -"om" -"ome" -"omu" stand in free variation, inasmuch as when one form is substituted for another the truth value of an utterance remains unchanged. Some sociolinguists (particularly…

  14. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  15. 40 CFR 432.102 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.20 0.10 TSS 0.42...

  16. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that further... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  17. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§ 432... Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1 Pounds per 1000...

  18. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  19. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that slaughters... avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1...

  20. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that slaughters... avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1...