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1

Swinging Yo-Yo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners build a pendulum from a yo-yo, and then design their own experiment to determine what affects the pendulum's period of swing. They can alter the mass of the yo-yo by adding play dough, the length of the yo-yo string, or some other variable of their own choosing. Learners collect data and graph their results. This activity starts on p.17 of the manual. This manual contains 4 activities related to the Spectra's Force comic book published by the American Physical Society.

Rebecca Thompson

2011-01-01

2

Bouncing Yo-Yo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build unique yo-yos, which spin round and round without moving up and down. Learners can construct their yo-yos out of wood using a saw and drill or more simply, out of a paper plate. Use this activity to explore angular motion, center of gravity, and energy. Note: a drill and saw may be used during this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

2011-01-01

3

The Yo-Yo Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and a graphing calculator. The lesson begins with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Then learners complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies. Algebra tiles are introduced next as learners practice solving linear equations. Finally, learners return to solving the yo-yo problem.

PBS

2012-01-01

4

Recycled Yo-Yo Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are challenged to build their own yo-yo toys using items found in their recycling bins. Learners search for materials to use for each part of the toy: two discs, an axle, and string. Learners then sketch their invention, assemble the parts, and test it out. Learners are encouraged to tweak their yo-yos and make improvements.

National Museum of American History

2012-06-26

5

Museum of Yo-Yo History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps no toy is as maligned as the yo-yo, despite its long and colorful history. The roots of the yo-yo can be traced back to antiquity, and there is even a Grecian urn in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art that depicts that most well-known of yo-yo maneuvers: walking the dog. Visitors with a penchant for the yo-yo will appreciate the wide range of materials that can be found on the site, particularly the rather compelling online exhibit of highly valuable yo-yos, such as the 1984 Olympics No Jive model. For those who want to continue their exploration of the yo-yo, there is the â??Profiles & Historyâ? area, which contains player and company profiles, along with historical photographs of yo-yos in action.

2004-01-01

6

Exploring the Yo-Yo: Filipino Physics Fun  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The yo-yo is a scientific toy that has fascinated young and old for thousands of years. According to yo-yo experts, the yo-yo is the second oldest toy in the world, after the doll. Yo-yo activities can be an excellent tool to help students explore many important physics concepts related to energy and motion. The rich history of the yo-yo offers…

Murfin, Brian

2012-01-01

7

Two-String Yo-Yo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners build a yo-yo using a piece of wood, PVC pipe, and string. In doing so, learners explore the force of gravity and angular momentum. This activity guide includes step-by-step instructions with images, a video, and focus questions. Drill, hacksaw or jigsaw, and hammer are required.

Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

2011-01-01

8

Mechanical Study of a Modern Yo-Yo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the study of a modern yo-yo having a centrifugal clutch allowing the free rolling. First, the mechanical parts of the yo-yo are measured, allowing us to determine analytically its velocity according to its height of fall. Then, we are more particularly interested in the centrifugal device constituted by springs and small…

de Izarra, Charles

2011-01-01

9

The Yo–Yo intermittent recovery test in basketball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological correlates of the Yo—Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo—Yo IR1) in basketball play- ers. Twenty-two male basketball players (means ± S.D., body mass 72.4 ± 11.4 kg, height 181.7 ± 6.9 cm, age 16.8 ± 2.0 years) were tested for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), ventilatory threshold (VT) and

Carlo Castagna; Franco M. Impellizzeri; Ermanno Rampinini; Stefano D’Ottavio; Vincenzo Manzi

2008-01-01

10

Social network recruitment for Yo Puedo: an innovative sexual health intervention in an underserved urban neighborhood—sample and design implications.  

PubMed

Most existing evidence-based sexual health interventions focus on individual-level behavior, even though there is substantial evidence that highlights the influential role of social environments in shaping adolescents' behaviors and reproductive health outcomes. We developed Yo Puedo, a combined conditional cash transfer and life skills intervention for youth to promote educational attainment, job training, and reproductive health wellness that we then evaluated for feasibility among 162 youth aged 16-21 years in a predominantly Latino community in San Francisco, CA. The intervention targeted youth's social networks and involved recruitment and randomization of small social network clusters. In this paper we describe the design of the feasibility study and report participants' baseline characteristics. Furthermore, we examined the sample and design implications of recruiting social network clusters as the unit of randomization. Baseline data provide evidence that we successfully enrolled high risk youth using a social network recruitment approach in community and school-based settings. Nearly all participants (95%) were high risk for adverse educational and reproductive health outcomes based on multiple measures of low socioeconomic status (81%) and/or reported high risk behaviors (e.g., gang affiliation, past pregnancy, recent unprotected sex, frequent substance use; 62%). We achieved variability in the study sample through heterogeneity in recruitment of the index participants, whereas the individuals within the small social networks of close friends demonstrated substantial homogeneity across sociodemographic and risk profile characteristics. Social networks recruitment was feasible and yielded a sample of high risk youth willing to enroll in a randomized study to evaluate a novel sexual health intervention. PMID:25358834

Minnis, Alexandra M; vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Luecke, Ellen; Cheng, Helen; Dow, William; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Padian, Nancy S

2015-02-01

11

The Yo-Yo Problem: Solving Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. The lesson starts with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Students then complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies that allows them to explore a linear pattern and express that pattern in symbolic form. Algebra tiles are introduced as the students practice solving linear equations. Working from the concrete to the abstract is especially important for students who have difficulty with mathematics, and algebra tiles help students make this transition. In addition to using algebra tiles, students also use symbolic manipulation and the graphing calculator. Finally, the students return to solve the yo-yo problem. A feature of this lesson is the effective use of peer tutors in this inclusion classroom. Student worksheets are included to print.

2010-06-30

12

New biocontrol method for parsley powdery mildew by the antifungal volatiles-producing fungus Kyu-W63  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocontrol of parsley powdery mildew, caused by Oidium sp., was examined for 3 years under greenhouse conditions using a filamentous fungus, strain Kyu-W63, which produces antifungal volatiles. Kyu-W63 was cultured on potato-dextrose agar in sterile polycarbonate pots and then placed at 30-cm intervals in the center of each ridge in 1998, 1999, and 2000. This Kyu-W63 treatment significantly inhibited disease

Motoo Koitabashi

2005-01-01

13

Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes!  

E-print Network

¡Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes! ¡Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mí Diabetes! (Si, Yo Puedo/Latinos with diabetes. The curriculum is predicated on the American Diabetes Association's national standards of care and lifestyle skills to better control their diabetes. Relevance · Diabetes costs Texas more than 12 billion

14

Layer Assignment for Reliable System-on-Package Jacob R. Minz and Sung Kyu Lim  

E-print Network

to system level. On the other hand, the systems integration community and electronics packaging design electronics packaging directly to product specification, early design, and ASIC design. The SOP paradigmLayer Assignment for Reliable System-on-Package Jacob R. Minz and Sung Kyu Lim School of Electrical

Lim, Sung Kyu

15

Enhanced Charge-Transfer Kinetics by Anion Surface Modi cation of Kyu-Sung Park,,  

E-print Network

Enhanced Charge-Transfer Kinetics by Anion Surface Modi cation of LiFePO4 Kyu-Sung Park,, Penghao on global warming and air pollution, alternative energy sources at an a ordable price are urgently needed acceptable, but also a relief from distributed sources of air pollution. LiFePO4 o ers a cathode alternative

Henkelman, Graeme

16

Kyu-Young Whang Speaks Out on Academia and Startups in Korea, Probabilistic Counting, Main-  

E-print Network

Kyu-Young Whang Speaks Out on Academia and Startups in Korea, Probabilistic Counting, Main- memory you to move from a research lab to academia? I truly enjoyed working at IBM and working academia to industrial labs, motivated by the urge to get access to real-world data. If you were a young

17

Physiological Determinant of Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test in Young Basketball Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Players VO2max, MAS, VT and Yo-yo performance values were 60.4±5.1 ml kg-1 min-1, 40.2±4.7 ml·kg-1·min-1 and 1678±397m respectively. Yo-yo performance resulted significantly correlated with VO2max (r=0.77, p<0.001) and MAS (r=0.71, p<0.001). During the first and the second half of the experimental-game, players attained 86.2±5.3 and 86.7±4.3% of the individual HRmax, respectively (p=0.42). The mean blood lactate concentration during the

Carlo Castagna; Franco M. Impellizzeri; Ermanno Rampinini; Maurizio Marini; Stefano D'Ottavio; Vincenzo Manzi

18

The YoYo: A Handheld Device Combining Elastic and Isotonic Input  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new input device for controlling three-dimensional graphics applications: the YoYo. The device consists of three elastically connected rings in a row, which can be moved relative to each other. The center ring holds a tracking sensor and a few application programmable buttons. The left and the right ring are elastic six degree of freedom controllers. The device

Andreas Simon; Bernd Froehlich

2003-01-01

19

Report of laparoscopic ureteropyelostomy for symptomatic “yo-yo” reflux in an adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptomatic presentation of partial duplication of the ureter in adults is rare. However, there are reports of such conditions being treated with surgical correction with varying degrees of success. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who underwent what is, to our knowledge, the first reported laparoscopic ureteropyelostomy for symptomatic “yo-yo” reflux.

B. Khoubehi; C. R. Woodhouse; E. Rowe; G. Boustead; D. Hrouda

2006-01-01

20

Thermally Stable Gel Polymer Electrolytes Min-Kyu Song,a  

E-print Network

Thermally Stable Gel Polymer Electrolytes Min-Kyu Song,a Young-Taek Kim,a Yong Tae Kim,b Byung Won/polyvinylidene fluoride PEGDA/PVdF blend gel polymer electrolytes, low molecular weight (M 742) liquid PEGDA oligomer to be comparable to that of PVdF-HFP gel polymer electrolytes, and they were electrochemically stable up to 4.6 V

Popov, Branko N.

21

our answers t scuss with yo  

E-print Network

you like to be tested for sexually transmitted infections today? yes no tell me more E BIRTH CONTROL METHOD Are you currently using birth control? yes no If no, skip to section F. Which birth control method DOB our answers t scuss with yo ame: _______ ate of birth: __ ho is your pri o you have an rson

Borenstein, Elhanan

22

The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) yo-yo despin and solar array deployment mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SAMPEX spacecraft, successfully launched in July 1992, carried a yo-yo despin system and deployable solar arrays. The despin and solar array mechanisms formed an integral system as the yo-yo cables held the solar array release mechanism in place. The SAMPEX design philosophy was to minimize size and weight through the use of a predominantly single string system. The design challenge was to build a system in a limited space, which was reliable with minimal redundancy. This paper covers the design and development of the SAMPEX yo-yo despin and solar array deployment mechanisms. The problems encountered during development and testing will also be discussed.

Kellogg, James W.

1993-01-01

23

Relative age effect and Yo-Yo IR1 in youth soccer.  

PubMed

The aims of the study were to investigate the presence of a relative age effect and the influence of birth quarter on anthropometric characteristics, an estimation of biological maturity and performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 in 606 elite, Flemish youth soccer players. The sample was divided into 5 chronological age groups (U10-U19), each subdivided into 4 birth quarters. Players had their APHV estimated and height, weight and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were assessed. Differences between quarters were investigated using uni- and multivariate analyses. Overall, significantly (P<0.001) more players were born in the first quarter (37.6%) compared to the last (13.2%). Further, no significant differences in anthropometric variables and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were found between the 4 birth quarters. However, there was a trend for players born in the first quarter being taller and heavier than players born in the fourth quarter. Players born in the last quarter tended to experience their peak in growth earlier, this may have enabled them to compete physically with their relatively older peers. Our results indicated selection procedures which are focused on the formation of strong physical and physiological homogeneous groups. Relative age and individual biological maturation should be considered when selecting adolescent soccer players. PMID:22791620

Deprez, D; Vaeyens, R; Coutts, A J; Lenoir, M; Philippaerts, R

2012-12-01

24

Wire-driven Microarchitectural Design Space Exploration Mongkol Ekpanyapong, Sung Kyu Lim, Chinnakrishnan Ballapuram, and Hsien-Hsin S. Lee  

E-print Network

Wire-driven Microarchitectural Design Space Exploration Mongkol Ekpanyapong, Sung Kyu Lim propose an interconnect-driven framework that performs an efficient and effective design space exploration during design space exploration. By increasing the sizes of modules, we may improve the overall

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

25

Exploiting Die-to-Die Thermal Coupling in 3D IC Placement Krit Athikulwongse, Mohit Pathak, and Sung Kyu Lim  

E-print Network

, and Sung Kyu Lim School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute from TSVs. TSVs are shown in white. The top die is closer to heatsink. The cold spot C is caused

Lim, Sung Kyu

26

TDDB Chip Reliability in Copper Interconnects Muhammad Bashir, Dae Hyun Kim, Sung Kyu Lim and Linda Milor  

E-print Network

AND MOTIVATION The performance advantage offered by Copper/low-k interconnects is accompanied by issues critical can have different vulnerable areas. This paper starts with a brief background on models for lowTDDB Chip Reliability in Copper Interconnects Muhammad Bashir, Dae Hyun Kim, Sung Kyu Lim and Linda

Lim, Sung Kyu

27

Sub-maximal and maximal Yo–Yo intermittent endurance test level 2: heart rate response, reproducibility and application to elite soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to (1) determine the reproducibility of sub-maximal and maximal versions of the Yo–Yo intermittent\\u000a endurance test level 2 (Yo–Yo IE2 test), (2) assess the relationship between the Yo–Yo IE2 test and match performance and\\u000a (3) quantify the sensitivity of the Yo–Yo IE2 test to detect test–retest changes and discriminate between performance for\\u000a different playing

Paul S. BradleyM; M. Mohr; M. Bendiksen; M. B. Randers; M. Flindt; C. Barnes; P. Hood; A. Gomez; Jesper L. Andersen; M. Di Mascio; J. Bangsbo; P. Krustrup

2011-01-01

28

Biochemical Responses to Level-1 Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test in Young Tunisian Football Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this work was to investigate the metabolic and muscle damage responses after the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in young football players. Methods Fifteen male football players (17.42 ± 0.2 yrs, 69.91 ± 4.4 kg, 178.64 ± 3.8 cm; mean ± SD) participated in this study. Fasting blood samples for various biochemical parameters (i.e. lactate (Lac), glucose (GLC), triglycerides (Tri), creatine kinase (CK), uric acid (UA)) collected from a forearm vein after 5-min of seated rest and 3-min after the test. Moreover, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and maximal heart rate during and after the YYIRT were recorded. Results Mean levels of the selected biochemical markers were raised after the YYIRT exercise (P<0.001 for the other markers). Moreover, lipid parameters increased significantly after the test (P<0.01 for Tri and P<0.001 for HDL). Conclusion These findings confirm the higher metabolic demand of aerobic as well as anaerobic metabolism and reflect a significant mobilization of purine cycle during the YYIRT. The increase of muscle damage markers also reflects the higher anaerobic solicitation. From these findings, we can conclude the importance of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during soccer-specific endurance performance (i.e. YYIRT, soccer match). PMID:23785572

Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Miled, Abdelhedi; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

2012-01-01

29

Yo-Yo Magic or a Teacher of the Visually Impaired Learns Another Lesson in Social Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher of young children with visual impairments in a resource room program recounts how yo-yos became a bridge to development of social skills and friendships both within the group and with other students in the school. (DB)

Barclay, Lizbeth

1999-01-01

30

The Relationship Between the Yo-Yo Tests, Anaerobic Performance and Aerobic Performance in Young Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship between performance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YIRT1), the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YIRT2) and the Yo-Yo endurance test (continuous) (YET) with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and Wingate anaerobic performance (WaNT) test results in young soccer players (age 15.00 ± 0.0 years, body height 176.3 ± 4.2 cm and body mass 68.1 ± 3.6 kg). An ergospirometry device was used during the treadmill test (TRT) to determine VO2max. At the end of the study, significant differences were found between the Yo-Yo tests and TRT in terms of HRmax (TRT = 195,92, YIRT1 = 197,83, YIRT2 = 198,5 YET = 198) (p > 0.05). While there were moderate correlations between VO2max and YIRT 1–2 performances (respectively, r = 0.56, r = 0.53), there was only a weak relationship between VO2max and YET performance (r = 0.43) (distance covered). There were also moderate significant negative correlations between performance in the YIRT2 and peak power measured in the WaNT (r = ?0.55), although there were no significant correlations between performance in the three tests and average power. A moderate negative correlation was found between performance in the YIRT2 and Fatigue index (FI) (r = ?0,66). In conclusion, the YIRT2 may be a more suitable field test for determining both aerobic and anaerobic performance in soccer players. PMID:23486008

Karakoç, Bar??; Akalan, Cengiz; Alemdaro?lu, Utku; Arslan, Er?an

2012-01-01

31

Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes. PMID:24791220

Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

2014-01-01

32

Aerobic fitness testing in 6- to 9-year-old children: reliability and validity of a modified Yo–Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analysed the reliability and validity of two intermittent running tests (the Yo–Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test)\\u000a as tools for estimating VO2max in children under the age of 10. Two groups, aged 6–7 years (grade 0, n = 18) and 8–9 years (grade 2, n = 16), carried out two repetitions of a modified Yo–Yo IR1 test (2 × 16 m) and the Andersen test, as

T. Ahler; M. Bendiksen; P. Krustrup; N. Wedderkopp

33

p-Type CuYO 2 as hydrogen photocathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new photochemical system based on a CuYO2 dispersion in aqueous S2? or SO32? solution as hole scavengers is proposed. The delafossite CuYO2, doped with calcium, is a low p-type semiconductor with a hole mobility of 7.3×10?7m2V?1s?1. The band gap is 3.50eV and the transition is directly allowed. The valence band edge, located at 5.23eV below vacuum, is made up

M. Trari; A. Bouguelia; Y. Bessekhouad

2006-01-01

34

Agent Program Planning Information S! Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes!  

E-print Network

Agent Program Planning Information Sí! ¡Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes! (A culturally appropriate type 2 diabetes self-management program for Hispanic/Latino, Spanish-speaking audiences) Relevance · Estimates from the Texas Health and Human Services Commission indicate that in 2011 diabetes cost Texas more

35

U.T. ARLINGTON POLICE yoUTotally Aware  

E-print Network

U.T. ARLINGTON POLICE DEPARTMENT yoUTotally Aware Identity Theft Defense To victims of identity: 817-272-5190 What Can I Do About Identity Theft And Fraud? U.T. ARLINGTON POLICE DEPARTMENT (817) 272 theft and fraud, the task of correcting incorrect infor- mation about their financial or per- sonal

Texas at Arlington, University of

36

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2011-07-01

37

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

2014-07-01

38

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2013-07-01

39

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

2010-07-01

40

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

2011-07-01

41

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

2013-07-01

42

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2010-07-01

43

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2014-07-01

44

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

2012-07-01

45

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2012-07-01

46

The 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test versus the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1: relationship and sensitivity to training.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between performance of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) and to compare the sensitivity of both tests to training. Fourteen young soccer players performed both tests before and after an 8-wk training intervention, which included 6 sessions/wk: 2 resistance training sessions, 2 high-intensity interval training sessions after technical training (4 sets of 3:30 min of generic running and small-sided games [4v4] during the first and second 4-wk periods, respectively [90-95% maximal HR], interspersed with 3 min at 60-70% maximal HR), and 2 tactical-only training sessions. There was a large correlation between 30-15IFT and Yo-YoIR1 (r = .75, 90% confidence limits [CL] 0.57;0.86). While within-test percentage changes suggested a greater sensitivity to training for the Yo-YoIR1 (+35%, 90%CL 24;45) than for the 30-15IFT (+7%; 4;10), these changes were similarly rated as almost certain (with chances for greater/similar/lower values after training of 100/0/0 for both tests) and moderate, ie, standardized difference, ES = +1.2 90%CL (0.9;1.5) for Yo-YoIR1 and ES = +1.1 (0.7;1.5) for 30-15IFT. The difference in the change between the 2 tests was clearly trivial (0/100/0, ES = -0.1, 90%CL -0.1;-0.1). Both tests might evaluate slightly different physical capacities, but their sensitivity to training is almost certainly similar. These results also highlight the importance of using standardized differences instead of percentage changes in performance to assess the actual training effect of an intervention. PMID:23475226

Buchheit, Martin; Rabbani, Alireza

2014-05-01

47

Effect on Swimming Start Performance of Two Types of Activation Protocols: Lunge and YoYo Squat.  

PubMed

Cuenca-Fernández, F, López-Contreras, G, and Arellano, R. Effect on swimming start performance of two types of activation protocols: Lunge and YoYo squat. J Strength Cond Res 29(3): 647-655, 2015-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 protocols of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on swimming start perfomance (SS). Fourteen trained swimmers (10 men and 4 women) volunteered for this study. An intragroup design of randomized repetitive measurements was applied. A previous SS trial, performed after a standard warm-up (SWU), served as a reference. Two methods of PAP, performed after 1 hour of rest, were randomly added to the SWU: (a) 3 lunges at 85% of 1 repetition maximum (LWU) and (b) 4 repetitions on the flywheel device YoYo squat (YWU). Swimmers were tested in an SS 8 minutes after the PAP warm-ups. Kinematic variables were collected using 3 underwater digital video cameras fixed poolside and operating at 25 Hz, and 1 high-speed camera focused on the block and operating at 300 Hz. Data obtained from the video analysis were processed using a repeated measures analysis of the variance. The mean horizontal velocity of the swimmer's flight improved after both PAP methods, with the greatest improvement after YWU (F2,12 = 47.042, p < 0.001; SWU = 3.63 ± 0.11; LWU = 4.15 ± 0.122; YWU = 4.89 ± 0.12 m·s). After YWU, it took the subjects less time to cover a distance of 5 m (F2,12 = 24.453, p < 0.001) and 15 m (F2,12 = 4.262, p < 0.04). Subjects also achieved a higher mean angular velocity of the knee extension (F2,12 = 23.286, p < 0.001) and a reduction of the time on the block (F2,12 = 6.595, p ? 0.05). These results demonstrate that muscle performance in the execution of an SS is enhanced after a warm-up with specific PAP protocols. YWU leads to the greatest improvement in the performance of the swimmer's start and, therefore, may be especially beneficial in short events. PMID:25226318

Cuenca-Fernández, Francisco; López-Contreras, Gracia; Arellano, Raúl

2015-03-01

48

Synthesis, crystal structure, photodegradation kinetics and photocatalytic activity of novel photocatalyst ZnBiYO4.  

PubMed

ZnBiYO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of ZnBiYO4 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance. ZnBiYO4 crystallized with a tetragonal spinel structure with space group I41/A. The lattice parameters for ZnBiYO4 were a=b=11.176479Å and c=10.014323Å. The band gap of ZnBiYO4 was estimated to be 1.58eV. The photocatalytic activity of ZnBiYO4 was assessed by photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. The results showed that ZnBiYO4 had higher catalytic activity compared with N-doped TiO2 under the same experimental conditions using visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with ZnBiYO4 or N-doped TiO2 as catalyst followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was 0.01575 and 0.00416min(-1) for ZnBiYO4 and N-doped TiO2, respectively. After visible light irradiation for 220min with ZnBiYO4 as catalyst, complete removal and mineralization of methyl orange were observed. The reduction of total organic carbon, formation of inorganic products, SO4(2-) and NO3(-), and evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of methyl orange during the photocatalytic process. The intermediate products were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ZnBiYO4/(visible light) photocatalysis system was found to be suitable for textile industry wastewater treatment and could be used to solve other environmental chemical pollution problems. PMID:25766013

Cui, Yanbing; Luan, Jingfei

2015-03-01

49

The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 is reliable in young high-level soccer players  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate test reliability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) in 36 high-level youth soccer players, aged between 13 and 18 years. Players were divided into three age groups (U15, U17 and U19) and completed three YYIR1 in three consecutive weeks. Pairwise comparisons were used to investigate test reliability (for distances and heart rate responses) using technical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV), intra-class correlation (ICC) and limits of agreement (LOA) with Bland-Altman plots. The mean YYIR1 distances for the U15, U17 and U19 groups were 2024 ± 470 m, 2404 ± 347 m and 2547 ± 337 m, respectively. The results revealed that the TEs varied between 74 and 172 m, CVs between 3.0 and 7.5%, and ICCs between 0.87 and 0.95 across all age groups for the YYIR1 distance. For heart rate responses, the TEs varied between 1 and 6 bpm, CVs between 0.7 and 4.8%, and ICCs between 0.73 and 0.97. The small ratio LOA revealed that any two YYIR1 performances in one week will not differ by more than 9 to 28% due to measurement error. In summary, the YYIR1 performance and the physiological responses have proven to be highly reliable in a sample of Belgian high-level youth soccer players, aged between 13 and 18 years. The demonstrated high level of intermittent endurance capacity in all age groups may be used for comparison of other prospective young soccer players. PMID:25729152

Fransen, J; Lenoir, M; Philippaerts, RM; Vaeyens, R

2014-01-01

50

The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 is reliable in young high-level soccer players.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate test reliability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) in 36 high-level youth soccer players, aged between 13 and 18 years. Players were divided into three age groups (U15, U17 and U19) and completed three YYIR1 in three consecutive weeks. Pairwise comparisons were used to investigate test reliability (for distances and heart rate responses) using technical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV), intra-class correlation (ICC) and limits of agreement (LOA) with Bland-Altman plots. The mean YYIR1 distances for the U15, U17 and U19 groups were 2024 ± 470 m, 2404 ± 347 m and 2547 ± 337 m, respectively. The results revealed that the TEs varied between 74 and 172 m, CVs between 3.0 and 7.5%, and ICCs between 0.87 and 0.95 across all age groups for the YYIR1 distance. For heart rate responses, the TEs varied between 1 and 6 bpm, CVs between 0.7 and 4.8%, and ICCs between 0.73 and 0.97. The small ratio LOA revealed that any two YYIR1 performances in one week will not differ by more than 9 to 28% due to measurement error. In summary, the YYIR1 performance and the physiological responses have proven to be highly reliable in a sample of Belgian high-level youth soccer players, aged between 13 and 18 years. The demonstrated high level of intermittent endurance capacity in all age groups may be used for comparison of other prospective young soccer players. PMID:25729152

Deprez, D; Fransen, J; Lenoir, M; Philippaerts, Rm; Vaeyens, R

2015-03-01

51

Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.

Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.

2012-03-01

52

Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of new photocatalyst CdBiYO4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdBiYO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of CdBiYO4 had been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry. CdBiYO4 crystallized with a tetragonal spinel structure by space group I41/amd. The lattice parameters for CdBiYO4 were a = b = 14.519 Å and c = 9.442 Å. The band gap of CdBiYO4 was estimated to be 2.41 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was realized under visible light irradiation with CdBiYO4 as catalyst. The results showed that CdBiYO4 owned higher photocatalytic activity compared with pure TiO2 or N-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB with CdBiYO4 or N-doped TiO2 as catalyst followed the first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was 0.0137 or 0.0033 min-1. After visible light irradiation for 225 min with CdBiYO4 as catalyst, complete removal and mineralization of MB were observed. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO42- and NO3-, and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of MB during the photocatalytic process. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of MB was obtained under visible light irradiation. CdBiYO4/(visible light) photocatalysis system was found to be suitable for textile industry wastewater treatment and could be utilized to resolve other environmental chemical pollution problems.

Du, Huiyang; Luan, Jingfei

2012-09-01

53

Single and double-strand photocleavage of DNA by YO, YOYO and TOTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photocleavage of dsDNA by the fluorescent DNA stains oxazole yellow (YO), its dimer (YOYO) and the dimer TOTO of thiazole orange (TO) has been investigated as a function of binding ratio. On visible illumination, both YO and YOYO cause single-strand cleavage, with an efficiency that varies with the dye\\/DNA binding ratio in a manner which can be rationalized in terms

Björn Åkerman; Eimer Tuite

54

Fluorescence Excitation Spectrum of OClO (A~ 2A2) Soon-Mi Lim, Taek-Soo Kim, Goo-Il Lim, Sang Kyu Kim, and Young S. Choi*  

E-print Network

Fluorescence Excitation Spectrum of OClO (A~ 2A2) Soon-Mi Lim, Taek-Soo Kim, Goo-Il Lim, Sang Kyu ReceiVed: December 18, 1998 The fluorescence excitation (FE) spectrum for the A~ 2A2 T X~ 2B1 transition emission is strong enough to give the FE spectrum with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The present FE

Kim, Sang Kyu

55

Thermodynamic Modeling of the YO(l.5)-ZrO2 System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The YO1.5-ZrO2 system consists of five solid solutions, one liquid solution, and one intermediate compound. A thermodynamic description of this system is developed, which allows calculation of the phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. Two different solution models are used-a neutral species model with YO1.5 and ZrO2 as the components and a charged species model with Y(+3), Zr(+4), O(-2), and vacancies as components. For each model, regular and sub-regular solution parameters are derived fiom selected equilibrium phase and thermodynamic data.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan

2003-01-01

56

Toward Autonomy in Love and Work: Situating the Film "Yo, tambien" within the Political Project of Disability Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay looks at the representation of disability in the recent Spanish film "Yo, tambien" through the lens of disability studies, understood as a political project. The film's portrayal of a character who is, like the actor who plays him, Europe's first university graduate with Down syndrome, is unique. Moreover, "Yo, tambien" provides the…

Fraser, Benjamin

2011-01-01

57

The Self Inside and Out: Authenticity and Disability in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spanish filmmakers Alejandro Amenabar, Antonio Naharro, and Alvaro Pastor have recently focused on disability and personal identity by presenting the disabled subject in the foreground and by posing an array of ethical questions. This essay explores representations of disability as they appear in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"…

Rivera-Cordero, Victoria

2013-01-01

58

Characterization of the binding of YO to [poly(dA-dT)]2 and [poly(dG-dC)]2, and of the fluorescent properties of YO and YOYO complexed with the polynucleotides and double-stranded DNA.  

PubMed

The interaction between the fluorescent dye YO (oxazole yellow) and the alternating polynucleotides [poly(dA-dT)]2 [the duplex of alternating poly(dA-dT)] and [poly(dG-dC)]2 [the duplex of alternating poly(dG-dC)] has been studied with optical spectroscopic techniques including absorbance, flow linear dichroism, CD, and fluorescence measurements. The principal features of the spectra are very similar for the two polynucleotide solutions, showing that YO binds quite similarly to AT and GC base pairs. From a strongly negative reduced linear dichroism (LDr) in the dye absorption band, an induced negative CD, and transfer of energy from the bases to bound YO, we conclude that at low mixing ratios YO is intercalated in both [poly(dA-dT)]2 and [poly(dG-dC)]2. At higher mixing ratios an external binding mode starts to contribute, evidenced from the appearance of an exciton CD. The conclusion that YO binds in a similar way to AT and GC base pairs should be valid also for the dimer YOYO since its YO units have been found to bind to double-stranded (dsDNA) in the same way as the YO monomer. The fluorescence properties of YO and YOYO complexed with DNA or the polynucleotides have been characterized by studying the dependence of fluorescence intensity on temperature, mixing ratio, and ionic strength. The fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime of YO-DNA decrease strongly with increasing mixing ratio, whereas the fluorescence intensity of YOYO-DNA shows a weaker dependence, indicating that the quantum yield depends on the distance between the YO chromophores on the DNA chain. Further, the fluorescence intensity of YO depends on the base sequence; the quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime for YO complexed with [poly(dG-dC)]2 are about twice as large as for YO complexed with [poly(dA-dT)]2. Measurements of excitation spectra at different mixing ratios and different emission wavelengths indicate that the fluorescence of the externally bound chromophores is negligible compared to the intercalated ones. PMID:7492743

Larsson, A; Carlsson, C; Jonsson, M

1995-08-01

59

CORPORATE HEALTH COVER B R I N G I N G YO U  

E-print Network

A CORPORATE HEALTH COVER B R I N G I N G YO U CO R P O R AT E B E N E F I T S #12;B #12;1 We all Bupa? 6 We've made choosing simple 11 Hospital Cover 13 Extras Cover 23 Ultimate Corporate Health Cover,000 (for couples)?* This means you may have to pay extra tax ­ more than the cost of some of our hospital

Botea, Adi

60

Purification and characterization of ?-Mannanase from Reinekea sp. KIT-YO10 with transglycosylation activity.  

PubMed

Marine bacterium Reinekea sp. KIT-YO10 was isolated from the seashore of Kanazawa Port in Japan as a seaweed-degrading bacterium. Homology between KIT-YO10 16S rDNA and the 16S rDNA of Reinekea blandensis and Reinekea marinisedimentorum was 96.4 and 95.4%, respectively. Endo-1,4-?-D-mannanase (?-mannanase, EC 3.2.1.78) from Reinekea sp. KIT-YO10 was purified 29.4-fold to a 21% yield using anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 44.3 kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Furthermore, the purified enzyme displayed high specificity for konjac glucomannan, with no secondary agarase and arginase activity detected. Hydrolysis of konjac glucomannan and locust bean gum yielded oligosaccharides, compatible with an endo mode of substrate depolymerization. The purified enzyme possessed transglycosylation activity when mannooligosaccharides (mannotriose or mannotetraose) were used as substrates. Optimal pH and temperature were determined to be 8.0 and 70 °C, respectively. It showed thermostability at temperatures from 20 to 50 °C and alkaline stability up to pH 10.0. The current enzyme was thermostable and thermophile compared to the ?-mannanase of other marine bacteria. PMID:25036974

Hakamada, Yoshihiro; Ohkubo, Yoshitaka; Ohashi, Shinichi

2014-01-01

61

Yo, Hamlet!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents Alan Sitomer, an English teacher at Lynwood High School, and how he teaches his students classic literature through hip-hop. These at-risk students attend a severely overcrowded, low-performing school in East Los Angeles that's surrounded by what Sitomer describes as "gangs, guns, and drugs." Prostitutes work the streets just…

Whelan, Debra Lau

2007-01-01

62

Are the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 both useful? Reliability, responsiveness and interchangeability in young soccer players.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the reliability, internal responsiveness and interchangeability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YY1), level 2 (YY2) and submaximal YY1 (YY1-sub). Twenty-four young soccer players (age 17 ± 1 years; height 177 ± 7 cm; body mass 68 ± 6 kg) completed each test five times within pre- and in-season; distances covered and heart rates (HRs) were measured. Reliability was expressed as typical error of measurement (TEM) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Internal responsiveness was determined as effect size (ES) and signal-to-noise ratio (ESTEM). Interchangeability was determined with correlation between training-induced changes. The TEM and ICC for distances in the YY1 and YY2 and for HR in YY1-sub were 7.3% and 0.78, 7.1% and 0.93 and 2.2% and 0.78, respectively. The ESs and ESTEMs were 0.9 and 1.9 for YY1, 0.4 and 1.2 for YY2 and -0.3 and -0.3 for YY1-sub. Correlations between YY1 vs. YY2 and YY1-sub were 0.56 to 0.84 and -0.36 to -0.81, respectively. Correlations between change scores in YY1 vs. YY2 were 0.29 and -0.21 vs. YY1-sub. Peak HR was higher in YY1 vs. YY2. The YY1 and YY2 showed similar reliability; however, they were not interchangeable. The YY1 was more responsive to training compared to YY2 and YY1-sub. PMID:25333679

Fanchini, Maurizio; Castagna, Carlo; Coutts, Aaron J; Schena, Federico; McCall, Alan; Impellizzeri, Franco M

2014-12-01

63

The Yo-Yo Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. This lesson plan includes the objective, overview of the lesson, needed materials, procedures, assessment, extensions and adaptations, tips, resources, ideas for discussion, and the activity sheets and answer key.

PBS

2007-12-12

64

Thermodynamic Modeling of the ZrO2-YO1.5-TiO2 System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binary systems ZrO2-YO1.5, ZrO2-TiO2, and YO1.5-TiO2 are reassessed, and a set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters, which can be reliably extrapolated into the ZrO2-YO1.5-TiO2 ternary system, are obtained. The substitutional solution model and the stoichiometric compound model are applied to the phase description in the ternary system, and the thermodynamic database of this ternary system is derived by the CALPHAD approach. It is noted that, except for the liquid phase, no ternary interaction parameters are introduced. The present evaluation can better describe the experimental phase diagrams reported recently at 1573 K, 1773 K, and 1873 K (1300 °C, 1500 °C, and 1600 °C). Thus, the optimized thermodynamic parameters may be authentic and can be applied to optimizing the compositions of the novel materials based on this ternary system.

Wang, Kun; Li, Chonghe; Dong, Hequan; Ye, Xiaosu; Lu, Xionggang; Ding, Weizhong

2010-12-01

65

Goal-Based Safety Standards: Opportunities and Challenges Tim Kelly, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD UK  

E-print Network

Goal-Based Safety Standards: Opportunities and Challenges Tim Kelly, University of York, Heslington not be determined "up front". The paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of goal-based safety standards, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD UK Safety standards, goal-based standards, safety evidence

Kelly, Tim

66

Toward autonomy in love and work: situating the film "Yo, también" within the political project of disability studies.  

PubMed

This essay looks at the representation of disability in the recent Spanish film "Yo, también" through the lens of disability studies, understood as a political project. The film's portrayal of a character who is, like the actor who plays him, Europe's first university graduate with Down syndrome, is unique. Moreover, "Yo, también" provides the opportunity to assess the state of the struggle for rights for persons with disabilities both in the film's narrative arc and also in the wider Spanish (and global) society. Among other sources, specific articles of the United Nations's recent Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities are incorporated into the essay. Both essay and film coincide in emphasizing the need to grant disabled populations greater autonomy in the spheres of love and work. PMID:21898936

Fraser, Benjamin

2011-01-01

67

The Yo me cuido(®) Program: Addressing Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Among Hispanic Women.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is less likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage in Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) women compared to non-Hispanic White women, even after accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status, and method of detection. Moffitt Cancer Center created a comprehensive health education program called Yo me cuido (®) (YMC) to address and reduce breast cancer disparities among Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic women by providing breast cancer and healthy lifestyles awareness and education, and promoting breast cancer screenings, reminders, and referrals for women 40 years and older. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the innovative approaches and methods to cancer prevention and early detection of the YMC program, and to promote it as an effective tool for improving outcomes in community health education, outreach, and engagement activities with Hispanic populations. Key components of the program include educational workshops, mammogram referrals, and a multimedia campaign. The YMC program is unique because of its approaches in reaching the Hispanic population, such as delivering the program with compassionate services to empower participants to live a healthier lifestyle. Additionally, direct follow-up for mammography screenings is provided by program staff. From 2011 to 2013, YMC has educated 2,226 women and 165 men through 93 workshops. About 684 (52 %) women ages 40 and older have had a screening mammogram within their first year of participating in the program. The YMC program is an innovative cancer education and outreach program that has demonstrated a positive impact on the lives of the Hispanic community in the Tampa Bay region. PMID:25099235

Davis, Jenna L; Ramos, Roberto; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Escobar, Myriam; Palencia, Jeannette; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

2014-08-01

68

A comparison between a child-size PMHS and the Hybrid III 6 YO in a sled frontal impact.  

PubMed

As pediatric PMHS data are extremely limited, evidence of kinematic differences between pediatric ATDs and live humans comes from comparison of laboratory data to field crash data. Despite the existence of regulations intended to prevent head injuries, these remain the most common serious injuries sustained by children in crashes. In this study, nine frontal sled tests using a Hybrid III 6YO and three tests performed with a child-size adult PMHS were compared, with focus on the kinematic responses (especially of the head) and the seatbelt forces generated during the impact. Two different restraint systems (a pretensioning, force-limiting seatbelt, and a non pretensioning force-limiting standard belt) and two different impact speeds (29 km/h and 48 km/h) were compared. Data from the PMHS were scaled using the erect sitting height of a 50th percentile 6YO and both scaled and unscaled data are presented. The ATD predicted correctly the peak values of the scaled displacements of the PMHS, but differences in relevant parameters such as torso angle and resultant acceleration at different locations were found between the dummy and the PMHS. The ATD's stiffer thoracic spine is hypothesized as a major cause of these differences. PMID:20184847

Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Forman, Jason; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola; Segui-Gomez, Maria

2009-10-01

69

Safety Lifecycle for Developing Safety Critical Artificial Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Safety Lifecycle for Developing Safety Critical Artificial Neural Networks Zeshan Kurd, Tim Kelly Department of Computer Science University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK. {zeshan.kurd, tim of the ANN (within its weights, links and neurons). This has greater potential for `transparency' or white

Kelly, Tim

70

Name: Bordonaba Question: In a 45 y/o AA female with coagulation problems, will the monitoring of the IRN value before  

E-print Network

Name: Bordonaba Question: In a 45 y/o AA female with coagulation problems, will the monitoring Appraisal S. AlMubarak RCT This study compares if dental extractions may be safely performed before the procedure which is a `'problem'' for the dentist as he has to be aware if the patient did

Goldman, Steven A.

71

UW MEDICINE | MEDICAL INforMAtIoN HoW to rEqUEst A Copy of yoUr  

E-print Network

UW MEDICINE | MEDICAL INforMAtIoN 06.2013 HoW to rEqUEst A Copy of yoUr UW MEDICINE MEDICAL rECorDs of Washington Medical Center UW Neighborhood Clinics Hall Health Center Valley Medical Center MEDICAL rECorD CopyING AND CLErICAL CHArGEs Records requested for reasons other than follow-up medical care

Borenstein, Elhanan

72

The effect of transition metal ions distribution on magnetic properties of Lix(NiyMnyCo1-2y)O2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lix(NiyMnyCo1-2y)O2 compounds have layered O(3) structure with an occupancy disorder as Ni ions migrate to the lithium layer. Ni ions provide strong antiferromagnetic (AF) exchange between the transition metal (TM) layers; therefore the degree of disorder has a pronounced effect on the magnetic properties. Ni migration is reduced when the amount of Co or Li is increased. In this work

Natasha A. Chernova; Miaomiao Ma; Jie Xiao; M. Stanley Whittingham; Peter Y. Zavalij

2006-01-01

73

Thermodynamic Database for the NdO(1.5)-YO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A database for YO(1.5)-NdO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 for ThermoCalc (ThermoCalc AB, Stockholm, Sweden) has been developed. The basis of this work is the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 assessment by Y. Du, Z. Jin, and P. Huang, 'Thermodynamic Assessment of the ZrO2-YO(1.5) System'. Experimentally only the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 system has been well-studied. All other systems are only approximately known. The major simplification in this work is the treatment of each single cation unit as a component. The pure liquid oxides are taken as reference states and two term lattice stability descriptions are used for each of the components. The limited experimental phase diagrams are reproduced.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Copland, Evan H.; Kaufman, Larry

2001-01-01

74

Anti-Yo Antibody Uptake and Interaction with Its Intracellular Target Antigen Causes Purkinje Cell Death in Rat Cerebellar Slice Cultures: A Possible Mechanism for Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration in Humans with Gynecological or Breast Cancers  

PubMed Central

Anti-Yo antibodies are immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies reactive with a 62 kDa Purkinje cell cytoplasmic protein. These antibodies are closely associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in the setting of gynecological and breast malignancies. We have previously demonstrated that incubation of rat cerebellar slice cultures with patient sera and cerebrospinal fluid containing anti-Yo antibodies resulted in Purkinje cell death. The present study addressed three fundamental questions regarding the role of anti-Yo antibodies in disease pathogenesis: 1) Whether the Purkinje cell cytotoxicity required binding of anti-Yo antibody to its intraneuronal 62 kDa target antigen; 2) whether Purkinje cell death might be initiated by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity rather than intracellular antibody binding; and 3) whether Purkinje cell death might simply be a more general result of intracellular antibody accumulation, rather than of specific antibody-antigen interaction. In our study, incubation of rat cerebellar slice cultures with anti-Yo IgG resulted in intracellular antibody binding, and cell death. Infiltration of the Purkinje cell layer by cells of macrophage/microglia lineage was not observed until extensive cell death was already present. Adsorption of anti-Yo IgG with its 62 kDa target antigen abolished both antibody accumulation and cytotoxicity. Antibodies to other intracellular Purkinje cell proteins were also taken up by Purkinje cells and accumulated intracellularly; these included calbindin, calmodulin, PCP-2, and patient anti-Purkinje cell antibodies not reactive with the 62 kDa Yo antigen. However, intracellular accumulation of these antibodies did not affect Purkinje cell viability. The present study is the first to demonstrate that anti-Yo antibodies cause Purkinje cell death by binding to the intracellular 62 kDa Yo antigen. Anti-Yo antibody cytotoxicity did not involve other antibodies or factors present in patient serum and was not initiated by brain mononuclear cells. Purkinje cell death was not simply due to intraneuronal antibody accumulation. PMID:25885452

Greenlee, John E.; Clawson, Susan A.; Hill, Kenneth E.; Wood, Blair; Clardy, Stacey L.; Tsunoda, Ikuo; Carlson, Noel G.

2015-01-01

75

The effect of transition metal ions distribution on magnetic properties of Lix(NiyMnyCo1-2y)O2.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lix(NiyMnyCo1-2y)O2 compounds have layered O(3) structure with an occupancy disorder as Ni ions migrate to the lithium layer. Ni ions provide strong antiferromagnetic (AF) exchange between the transition metal (TM) layers; therefore the degree of disorder has a pronounced effect on the magnetic properties. Ni migration is reduced when the amount of Co or Li is increased. In this work we study temperature and magnetic field dependences of magnetization and the ac susceptibility of Lix(NiyMnyCo1-2y)O2 with various Li and Co contents. We have shown that in LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 compound large amount of Ni on Li sites facilitates AF order within the TM layer, while interlayer Ni ions contribute to the net magnetic moment. This is consistent with the ``flower'' order of the TMs proposed from the Monte-Carlo simulations. With increasing Co content, the ``flower'' structure is destroyed and a spin glass state is observed in Co-containing compounds. This work is financially supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, through the BATT program at LBNL.

Chernova, Natasha A.; Ma, Miaomiao; Xiao, Jie; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Zavalij, Peter Y.

2006-03-01

76

Wet precipitate method for mixing magnesium and uranium in preparation of Mg yU 1- yO 2+ x solid solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wet method was studied to mix magnesium and uranium finely for fabricating homogeneous solid solution Mg yU 1- yO 2+ x ( x?0 or x < 0). The method consists of precipitate formation of ammonium diuranate (ADU) from dilute HNO 3 solution containing calculated concentrations of uranyl nitrate, NH 4NO 3 and Mg(NO 3) 2 · 6H 2O. Since a small portion of the solution containing Mg is held in the cream-like precipitate of ADU, subsequent heating after careful drying of the precipitate leads to form homogeneous solid solutions. NH 4NO 3 prevents the solution from precipitating Mg(OH) 2 on ammonia addition. The concentration relation of the chemical species was examined for 10 ml of 0.21 M uranyl nitrate solution in 0.014 M HNO 3. It was found that Mg(OH) 2 did not precipitate with the addition of 2 g NH 4NO 3. The 5 ml addition of 25 wt% ammonia water was sufficient for ADU formation. The concentration of Mg in the solid was proportional to the amount of Mg(NO 3) 2 · 6H 2O under the relevant condition. From the vacuum dried ADU precipitate (method (4)), homogeneous Mg yU 1- yO 2+ x solid solutions were prepared.

Fujino, Takeo; Hoshi, Yoshihide; Sato, Nobuaki; Yamada, Kohta

1999-10-01

77

Surface properties and performance for VOCs combustion of LaFe 1-yNi yO 3 perovskite oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LaFeO 3, LaNiO 3 and substituted LaFe 1-yNi yO 3 ( y=0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) perovskites were synthesized by the citrate method and used in the catalytic combustion of ethanol and acetyl acetate. Chemical composition was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and specific areas from nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Structural details and surface properties were evaluated by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), temperature-programmed desorption of oxygen (O 2-TPD) and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Characterization data revealed that total insertion of nickel in the LaFeO 3 takes place for substitution y=0.1. However, NiO segregation occurs to some extent, specifically at higher substitutions ( y>0.1). The catalytic performance of these perovskites was evaluated in the combustion of acetyl acetate and ethanol. Among these molecules, ethanol exhibited the lowest ignition temperature, and the catalytic activity expressed as intrinsic activity (mol m -2 h -1) was found to increase substantially with the nickel substitution. These results can be explained in terms of the cooperative effect of a LaFe 1-yNi yO 3 and NiO phases, whose relative concentration determines the oxygen activation capability and hence their reactivity.

Pecchi, G.; Reyes, P.; Zamora, R.; Cadús, L. E.; Fierro, J. L. G.

2008-04-01

78

Second spin-density wave phase in metallic V2-yO3 close to the metal-insulator transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed two spin-density wave phases in hole-doped metallic V2-yO3, one evolves from the other as a function of doping, pressure, or temperature. They differ in their response to an external magnetic field, which can also induce a transition between them. The phase boundary between these two states in the temperature-, doping-, and pressure-dependent phase diagram has been determined by magnetization and magnetotransport measurements. One phase exists at high doping level and has already been described in the literature. The second phase is found in a small parameter range close to the boundary to the antiferromagnetic insulating phase. The quantum-phase transitions between these states as a function of pressure and doping and the respective metamagnetic behavior observed in these phases are discussed in the light of structurally induced changes of the band structure.

Klimm, S.; Herz, M.; Horny, R.; Obermeier, G.; Klemm, M.; Horn, S.

2001-11-01

79

The alpha-carbonic anhydrase from the thermophilic bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1 is highly susceptible to inhibition by sulfonamides.  

PubMed

The ?-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the newly discovered thermophilic bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1 (SspCA) was investigated for its inhibition with a large series of sulfonamides and a sulfamate, the classical inhibitors of these zinc enzymes. SspCA showed an inhibition profile with these compounds very similar to that of the predominant human cytosolic isoform hCA II, and not to that of the bacterial ?-CA from Helicobacter pylori. Some clinically used drugs such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dichlorophenamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, topiramate, celecoxib and sulthiame were low nanomolar SspCA/hCA II inhibitors (KIs in the range of 4.5-12.3nM) whereas simple aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides were less effective, micromolar inhibitors. As this highly catalytically active and thermostable enzyme may show biotechnological applications, its inhibition studies may be relevant for designing on/off systems to control its activity. PMID:22883029

Vullo, Daniela; Luca, Viviana De; Scozzafava, Andrea; Carginale, Vincenzo; Rossi, Mosè; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

2013-03-15

80

One dimensional Ba x Sr1 - xEr y Fe12 - yO19 fibers with magnetic crystalline nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal ferrites, also known as hexaferrites, are a very interesting class of materials with peculiar magnetic and electrical properties. Recently, several applications, both commercial and technological, have been developed by employing such materials, such as in magnetic recording and separation, storage devices, and catalysts. In particular, one dimensional magnetic nanostructured materials are very promising since they exhibit physical properties that cannot be found in the bulk. In this work, nanocrystalline Sr1 - xBa x Er y Fe12 - yO19 (x = y ? 0.4) ferrite fibers are successfully fabricated by sol-gel spinning, followed by calcination. By varying the calcination temperature and content of substituted ions, different ferrite fibers have been obtained, which exhibit different magnetic properties and structural characteristics. Our capacity to effectively tune the magnetic properties of one dimensional hexagonal ferrite materials opens new scenarios towards the design and optimization of a multitude of devices that are based on the magnetic properties of hexaferrites.

Meng, Xianfeng; Mi, Jianli; Li, Qiang; Bortolini, Christian; Dong, Mingdong

2014-09-01

81

Phase evaluation and optical studies of cubic MnxZr1-xO2 and CoyZr1-yO2 nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystallites of cubic phase MnxZr1-xO2(0?x?0.25) and CoyZr1-yO2(0?y?0.20) have been synthesized by co-precipitation technique. The role of dopant concentration and the heat-treatment conditions on the cubic phase stability, crystallite size and optical behavior of these compounds have been discussed. Analysis of the structural data reveals that the cubic-phase is stable up to a critical dopant concentration xc ? 0.25 and yc ? 0.20 beyond which monoclinic phase of ZrO2 emerges. The diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy of MnxZr1-xO2 exhibits a strong absorption peak at ? = 365 nm associated with ligand to metal charge-transfer transition 3P2(O)?1S0(Zr) representing the energy band-gap (Eg = 3.39 eV). In addition, a series of absorption bands are observed at 520, 654, and 712 nm associated with the crystal-field transitions of Mn4+ i.e. from 4A2g(F) state to 4T2g(F), 4T1g(P) and 2E states, respectively. However, in CoyZr1-yO2, the main absorption is centered at 211 nm due to the electronic transitions from valance band O2p to conduction band Zr4d together with inter-valence charge transfer transitions occurring at 242, 270, 358 and 757 nm.

Thota, S.; Ansari, A.; Singh, S. K.; Mallick, A.; Kumar, J.

2013-06-01

82

Synthesis of LiAl yCo 1- yO 2 using acrylic acid and its electrochemical properties for Li rechargeable batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and electrochemical properties of LiAl yCo 1- yO 2 cathodes for Li rechargeable batteries have been closely examined by neutron diffraction, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and electrochemical methods. Neutron diffraction patterns and Co K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of LiAl 0.25Co 0.75O 2 revealed that aluminum and cobalt ions were statistically distributed in octahedral 3b sites of the ordered ?-NaFeO 2 structure. The DSC scan of Li 0.5Al 0.25Co 0.75O 2 showed an increase in the peak temperature and reduction in the exothermic peak compared to those of Li 0.5CoO 2, and it indicates that Al-doped LiCoO 2 shows the good thermal stability of the cathode and reduction of the heat of reaction.

Yoon, Won-Sub; Lee, Kyung-Keun; Kim, Kwang-Bum

83

Effect of Mg doping on the local structure of LiMgyCo1-yO2 cathode material investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A higher capacity and better cyclability are apparent when magnesium is introduced into the structure of LiCoO2 (y = 0.15). XRD analysis of LiMgyCo1-yO2 (y = 0, 0.1, 0.15), synthesized at 800 °C using a microwave assisted method, shows that the material is in the R-3m space group and to have a slightly expanded unit cell that increases with greater magnesium doping. Structural analysis by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Co K-edge, L-edge and O K-edge shows that the magnesium is located in the transition metal layer rather than in the lithium layer and the charge balance results from the formation of oxygen vacancies rather than Co4+, while cobalt remains in the 3+ oxidation state. Interestingly, oxygen is found to participate in the charge compensation. Both magnesium, in the transition metal layer, and the Co-defect structure are attributed to the contribution towards structural stabilization of LiCoO2, thereby resulting in its enhanced electrochemical performance.

Cheng, J. H.; Pan, C. J.; Nithya, C.; Thirunakaran, R.; Gopukumar, S.; Chen, C. H.; Lee, J. F.; Chen, J. M.; Sivashanmugam, A.; Hwang, B. J.

2014-04-01

84

Tips To help ReDUCe YoUR soDiUM iNTAKe Read the nutrition facts label for sodium content and choose the product that is lower in  

E-print Network

Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 What Sodium doeS in the Body · Helps maintain water balance · RegulatesTips To help ReDUCe YoUR soDiUM iNTAKe 1 2 3 4 5 Read the nutrition facts label for sodium content at the table. Sodium: The Facts By Beth H. Olson, Ph.D., MSU Extension Nutrition Specialist, Department of Food

85

New ramsdellites LiTi{sub 2-y}V{sub y}O (0<=y<=1): Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and electrochemical performances as electrode materials for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new ramsdellite series LiTi{sub 2-y}V{sub y}O (0<=y<=1) has been prepared by conventional solid state chemistry techniques and was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and electron diffraction. To our knowledge, this is the first report on ramsdellites containing vanadium. The magnetic behaviour of these ramsdellites is strongly influenced by its vanadium content. In this sense, LiTiO (y=0) exhibits metallic-like temperature

Alois Kuhn; Maria Martin; Flaviano Garcia-Alvarado

2010-01-01

86

Structure, band gap, and Mn-related mid-gap states in epitaxial single crystal (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O thin films  

SciTech Connect

Epitaxial (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O thin films were grown on c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates by radio frequency oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Single crystal structure of the (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O films was revealed by reflection high energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The band gap of the films can be tuned dramatically with increasing the Mg concentration, while the onset energy of Mn-related mid-gap absorption band only shows a small blue shift. Photoconductivity measurements indicate the Mn-related mid-gap states in (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O films can create free carriers and contribute to charge transfer transitions. The conduction band offset {Delta}E{sub C} = 0.13 eV and valence band offset {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.1 eV were obtained for ZnO/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O heterostructures, which increase to {Delta}E{sub C} = 0.21 eV and {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.14 eV for ZnO/Zn{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}O heterostructures.

Zhu Dapeng; Liu Guolei; Xiao Shuqin; Yan Shishen; He Shumin; Cai Li; Li Qinghao; Hu Shujun; Chen Yanxue; Kang Shishou; Mei Liangmo [School of Physics, National Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Cao Qiang [School of Physics, National Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China)

2013-05-07

87

Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

Lazareff, Jorge

2014-01-01

88

Network Management Network Management  

E-print Network

Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea of this license visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- /3 0/ Network management and QoS provisioning ­ Chapter 9, Network Management, of the book Jim Kurose, Keith Ross, Computer Networking, A Top Down

89

New ramsdellites LiTi 2-yV yO 4 (0? y?1): Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and electrochemical performances as electrode materials for lithium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ramsdellite series LiTi 2-yV yO 4 (0? y?1) has been prepared by conventional solid state chemistry techniques and was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and electron diffraction. To our knowledge, this is the first report on ramsdellites containing vanadium. The magnetic behaviour of these ramsdellites is strongly influenced by its vanadium content. In this sense, LiTi 2O 4 ( y=0) exhibits metallic-like temperature independent paramagnetism, but d electrons tend to localize with increasing V content. LiTiVO 4, though also paramagnetic, follows then the Curie-Weiss law. The crossover from delocalized to localized electrons is observed between compositions y=0.6 and 0.8. For y?0.8 the magnetic results evidence an isovalent substitution mechanism of trivalent Ti by V. The electrochemical lithium intercalation and deintercalation chemistry of LiTi 2-yV yO 4 is grouped into two different operating voltage regions. Reversible lithium deintercalation of vanadium-substituted ramsdellite titanates LiTi 2-yV yO 4 in the high voltage range 2-3 V vs. Li occurs in two main steps, one at about 2 V and the other at about 3 V. The 3 V process capacity increases with the vanadium content, while the 2 V capacity decreases at the same time. The vanadium to titanium substitution rate in LiTi 2O 4 was found to be beneficial to the specific energy in as much as a 50% increase (1 V) of the working voltage is observed. On the other hand, reversible lithium intercalation in vanadium-substituted ramsdellite titanates LiTi 2-yV yO 4 in the low voltage range 1-2 V vs. Li occurs in one main single step, in which the capacity is not affected by the vanadium content, although vanadium-doping produces an improved capacity retention with an excellent cycling behaviour observed for y?0.6.

Kuhn, Alois; Martín, María; García-Alvarado, Flaviano

2010-01-01

90

Network Management Network Management  

E-print Network

Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino Telecommunication management and QoS provisioning - 2Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino Stanford, California

91

Network Chimera Network Chimera  

E-print Network

Network Chimera Network Chimera Objective Chimera aims to understand how the network properties enough with limited resources. The Chimera team is cross-disciplinary, and includes computer scientists Impact The original hypothesis of Chimera was that a physical network could be reduced to a graph

92

Introduction to k'yu ts'udalaas aa  

E-print Network

word for shell. Therefore, bivalve means that this organism has 2 shells, so is more similar to a clam than a worm. ­ A clam uses its shells for shelter, but the shipworm uses wood for shelter so its shells are much smaller than clam shells. ·There are over 100 different species of shipworms. ·These unique

93

Complex Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction; Part I. Random Network Models: 2. The Erdos-Renyi models; 3. Observations in real-world networks; 4. Models for complex networks; 5. Growing network models; Part II. Structure and Robustness of Complex Networks: 6. Distances in scale-free networks - the ultra small world; 7. Self-similarity in complex networks; 8. Distances in geographically embedded networks; 9. The network's structure - the generating function method; 10. Percolation on complex networks; 11. Structure of random directed networks - the bow tie; 12. Introducing weights - bandwidth allocation and multimedia broadcasting; Part III. Network Function - Dynamics and Applications: 13. Optimization of the network structure; 14. Epidemiological models; 15. Immunization; 16. Thermodynamic models on networks; 17. Spectral properties, transport, diffusion and dynamics; 18. Searching in networks; 19. Biological networks and network motifs; Part IV. Appendices; References; Index.

Cohen, Reuven; Havlin, Shlomo

2010-07-01

94

Social Networking? Secure Networking?  

E-print Network

of social networking in the workplace A nurse be able to show a patient the best consumer education videosSocial Networking? Secure Networking? Teaching & Learning Technology Roundtable February 2010 #12 profile for your personal friends vs. professional friends? · What kind of time management strategies do

Chapman, Michael S.

95

Network Externalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network externalities are defined as the increasing utility that a user derives from consumption of a product as the number of other users who consume the same product increases. Network externalities are the new drivers of the network economy. The exponential adoption of a network service, driven by network externalities, is evident in the rapid rise of peer-to-peer networks in

John McGee; Tanya Sammut-Bonnici

2015-01-01

96

Composition-property relationships in (Gd3-xLux)(GayAl5-y)O12:Ce (x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and y = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) multicomponent garnet scintillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The (LuxGd3-x)(GayAl5-y)O12:Ce (x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and y = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) scintillating polycrystalline powders were prepared by high temperature solid state reaction method. A pure cubic phase was confirmed in all samples by X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray excited luminescence (XEL), photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra were employed to study the influence of Gd3+-Ga3+ admixture on the luminescent mechanism of Ce3+ as well as the energy transfer from Gd3+ to Ce3+. The band-gap structures with varying Gd3+ and Ga3+ content were constructed to understand the luminescence behaviors. In addition, thermoluminescence spectra (TL) were utilized to identify the moving of conduction band (CB) by monitoring the shift of the corresponding TL peaks. Finally, it was found that incorporation of 40 mol% (y = 2) Ga3+ and 33.3-66.7 mol% (x = 1-2) Gd3+ could secure enough energy-separation between CB and 5d1 of Ce3+ avoiding thermal ionization effect at utmost, and bury the antisite defect traps into CB, and in turn achieving the optimum scintillation efficiency.

Luo, Jialiang; Wu, Yuntao; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhang, Huaijin; Ren, Guohao

2013-12-01

97

H+ diffusion and electrochemical stability of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 glass in aqueous Li/air battery electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that LATP (Li1+x+y AlxTi2?x SiyP3?yO12) glass is a good lithium ion conductor. However, the interaction between LATP glass and H+ ions (including its diffusion and surface adsorption) needs to be well understood before the long-term application of LATP glass in an aqueous electrolyte based Li-air batteries where H+ always present. In this work, we investigate the H+ ion diffusion properties in LATP glass and their surface interactions using both experimental and modeling approaches. Our analysis indicates that the apparent H+ related current observed in the initial cyclic voltammetry scan should be attributed to the adsorption of H+ ions on the LATP glass rather than the bulk diffusion of H+ ions in the glass. Furthermore, the density functional theory calculations indicate that the H+ ion diffusion energy barrier (3.21 eV) is much higher than that of Li+ ion (0.79 eV) and Na+ ion (0.79 eV) in NASICON type LiTi2(PO4)3 material. As a result, the H+ ion conductivity in LATP glass is negligible at room temperature. However, significant surface corrosion was found after the LATP glass was soaked in strong alkaline electrolyte for extended time. Therefore, appropriate electrolytes have to be developed to prevent the corrosion of LATP glass before its practical application for Li-air batteries using aqueous electrolyte.

Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-09-15

98

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks #12;Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2

Kjellström, Hedvig

99

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2 Single Layer

Kjellström, Hedvig

100

campus network home network  

E-print Network

VPN NTT VPN 1 OS IP VPN VPN VPN VPN VPN 1 VPN VPN 1 VPN VPN VPN VPN P2P VPN 1 VPN VPN 1 VPN IP VPN OS VPN VPN VPN VPN 1 VPN IP 2 VPN 3 4 5 6 ­1­ #12;7 2 2.1 VPN 1 VPN 1 IP VPN IP IP 1 VPN 1 VPN VPN IP OS OS 1 IP VPN 1 VPN 2 · VPN · VPN campus network my host home network corporate network

Chiba, Shigeru

101

Como Lo Hago Yo: Lipomas Medulares  

PubMed Central

Basados en la experiencia de 82 casos; en 5% se observaron anomalías pélvicas asociadas. En los menores de 3 años el motivo de consulta (85%) fue la tumoración. En los mayores de 3 años (42%) tenía problemas neurológicos. Solo el 24% preocupados por la tumoración. El objetivo de la cirugía es desanclar la médula y no remover la totalidad del lipoma. El lipoma de filum es el que es mas simple para operar. Aún cuando la escuela francesa propone operar solamente cuando hay síntomas favorezco cirugía preventiva. Favorezco una segunda cirugía si hay signos de anclaje postoperatorio, aún cuando observamos empeoramiento postoperatorio motor en 2.5% de los operados y urológico a largo plazo en 6% de los operados. PMID:24791218

Portillo, Santiago

2014-01-01

102

Network Cosmology  

PubMed Central

Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

2012-01-01

103

Emergency Network O, , , , ,  

E-print Network

. . emergency network delay-tolerant network (DTN) , emergency network DTN , infrastructure , . DTN Emergency network , , . emergency network , Destination Based Routing (DBR) Path and restorations. In the emergency network environments, delay-tolerant network (DTN) can play an important role

104

Networking standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The enterprise network is currently a multivendor environment consisting of many defacto and proprietary standards. During the 1990s, these networks will evolve towards networks which are based on international standards in both Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) space. Also, you can expect to see the higher level functions and applications begin the same transition. Additional information is given in viewgraph form.

Davies, Mark

1991-01-01

105

Computer Networks As Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer networks are inherently social networks, linking people, organizations, and knowledge. They are social institutions that should not be studied in isolation but as integrated into everyday lives. The proliferation of computer networks has facilitated a deemphasis on group solidarities at work and in the community and afforded a turn to networked societies that are loosely bounded and sparsely knit.

Barry Wellman

2001-01-01

106

Semantic Networks and Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

Downes, Stephen

2005-01-01

107

Networking Computers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides a basic overview of the type of networks a computer can be part of. Students will gain an understanding of the different types of computer networks. Flash is required to view this interactive lesson.

108

Bayesian Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bayesian networks are today one of the most promising approaches to Data Mining and knowledge discovery in databases. This chapter reviews the fundamental aspects of Bayesian networks and some of their technical aspects, with a particular emphasis on the methods to induce Bayesian networks from different types of data. Basic notions are illustrated through the detailed descriptions of two Bayesian network applications: one to survey data and one to marketing data.

Sebastiani, Paola; Abad, Maria M.; Ramoni, Marco F.

109

Computer Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 344. Computer Networks (3) Prerequisite: CSC 242. The theory and application of inter-computer communication. Local-area and wide-area networks; data transmission and error correction; OSI and TCP/IP layering protocols; ethernet, token ring, token bus and other network technologies; network topologies; the client-server model; bridges and multi-protocol routers; the Internet. Applications include electronic funds transfer and distributed databases.

Mr Thomas Hudson

110

Network science.  

PubMed

Professor Barabási's talk described how the tools of network science can help understand the Web's structure, development and weaknesses. The Web is an information network, in which the nodes are documents (at the time of writing over one trillion of them), connected by links. Other well-known network structures include the Internet, a physical network where the nodes are routers and the links are physical connections, and organizations, where the nodes are people and the links represent communications. PMID:23419844

Barabási, Albert-László

2013-03-28

111

Sensor networks for social networks  

E-print Network

This thesis outlines the development of software that makes use of Bayesian belief networks and signal processing techniques to make meaningful inferences about real-world phenomena using data obtained from sensor networks. ...

Farry, Michael P. (Michael Patrick)

2006-01-01

112

Managing networks.  

PubMed

An online toolkit to help network leaders and users manage networks effectively has been set up by NHS Improving Quality in partnership with the Centre for Innovation in Health Management. The learning resource provides: a diagnostic service for leaders to help identify a network's strengths and weaknesses and to shape action; an online community of practitioners to share leadership challenges; a knowledge bank with latest evidence and intelligence on leading effective networks; and the development of a 'health check', which allows leaders of established networks to report their purpose, performance, aims, operations and capacity. For more about the toolkit, go to www.networksdiagnostic.org.uk. PMID:25727435

2015-03-01

113

Vulnerability of network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

2014-10-01

114

DNA Structure and Supercoiling: Ribbons and a Yo-Yo Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The double-helical structure of DNA is a pop cultural icon. Images of the DNA molecule appear in newspapers, popular journals, and advertisements. In addition to scientific instrument sales, the aura surrounding the central molecule of life has been used to sell everything from perfume to beverages and is the inspiration of items ranging from…

Van Horn, J. David

2011-01-01

115

The Istria yo-yo - evidence for millennial seismic cycle in the northern Adriatic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Istria Peninsula in the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia and Slovenia) is considered to be a nearly aseismic part of the Adriatic microplate, as opposed to the seismically active frontal ranges of the highly active Dinaric orogen. New archaeoseismological data from the Medieval Eufrasius cathedral in Pore? on the west coast of Istria demonstrate two, previously unknown major earthquakes, which occured approx. a millennium apart. Evidence for slow coastal uplift alternating with rapid subsidence allows to identify the seismic cycle. A marine notch, otherwise an excellent marker of sea level, extends along a 240 km segment of the northern Adriatic rocky coast, from Trieste to Zadar. We interpret the following history of vertical displacements: (1) Slow uplift, evidenced by the 1-2 m high, roofed marine notch oversized with respect to the microtidal regime of the Adriatic Sea. 0.5-1 m deep notches were etched into the coast between ~3000 BC until the 4-6th century AD (Faivre et al., 2010). (2) Rapid submergence of the notch to 1-2 m depth below sea level, dated by the construction of successive cathedrals of Pore? built on increasingly higher ground at the seaside (4-6th century AD); submergence of Cissa town on Pag island in 361 AD. (3) Slow uplift of less than 2 m between the construction of the last, Eufrasius cathedral in the 4-6th century AD and the ~1440 AD earthquake. No conspicuous notch were etched in the rocky shore during this period. (4) Rapid submergence of terrestrial sediments below sea level after 1400 AD (Faivre et al., 2011). Major earthquake damage in Pore? cathedral just before 1440 AD. (5) Slow uplift after 1440 AD, corroborated by three decades of high-precision levelling and recent GPS data (Rezo et al., 2010). No conspicuous notch etched in the rocky shore during this period. (6) Next major earthquake with subsidence on land and uplift in the sea with tsunami... when? In our interpretation of the seismic cycle, Istria is slowly raised, about 1-2 m in a millennium, during stress accumulation caused by a locked fault plane. Stress release produces sudden subsidence of the coast, which is recorded by subsided coastal features (marine notch, terrestrial sediments, cathedral of Pore?). We speculate that the thrust fault responsible for the earthquakes lies below the 2-5 km thick Triassic-Cretaceous carbonate platform sequence. The fault plane is assumed to be a gently sloping surface descending towards the east within the Permian-Lower Triassic clastic and evaporite beds. Over the centuries betweeen earthquakes the fault remained locked and the gradually increasing strain was manifested by the uplift (bulging) of the west coast of Istria, whereas the offshore portion of the hanging wall probably bowed downward above the fault. When rupture occurred, the bulge suddenly lowered back to the 'original' elevation. Meanwhile, the bowed, submarine portion of Istria relaxed and possibly triggered a tsunami. Continuing NNW-ward motion of the Adriatic microplate towards Eurasia, well-documented by GPS measurements, provides energy for stress accumulation of the next earthquake cycle. These observations challenge the current notion of Istria as the region of low seismic hazard and invite further paleoseismological research (M.K. OTKA K67.583; M.V. ARRS L1-5452 grant. B.S. contributed as Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow) References: Faivre et al. (2010): GeoActa, SP 3, 125-134; Faivre et al. (2011): Quat. Int. 232, 132-143; Rezo et al. (2010): EJGE 15, 1835-1847

Kázmér, Miklós; Vrabec, Marko; Székely, Balázs

2014-05-01

116

network. To You will re  

E-print Network

ed on ___ ___ (month) uesting a Information me _________ Male . resident: ___________ Information r to technica return it to Con nt Management OIT services, yo _ / ___ ___ / ) (day) NEW OIT A __________ Female ___ ___ ___ (year) umber _____ W ( ) rate. st access to the w ernet or the wire t NetID and pas olicies/acceptab le

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

117

Routing in hybrid networks  

E-print Network

Hybrid networks are networks that have wired as well as wireless components. Several routing protocols exist for traditional wired networks and mobile ad-hoc networks. However, there are very few routing protocols designed for hybrid networks...

Gupta, Avinash

2001-01-01

118

Network morphospace  

PubMed Central

The structure of complex networks has attracted much attention in recent years. It has been noted that many real-world examples of networked systems share a set of common architectural features. This raises important questions about their origin, for example whether such network attributes reflect common design principles or constraints imposed by selectional forces that have shaped the evolution of network topology. Is it possible to place the many patterns and forms of complex networks into a common space that reveals their relations, and what are the main rules and driving forces that determine which positions in such a space are occupied by systems that have actually evolved? We suggest that these questions can be addressed by combining concepts from two currently relatively unconnected fields. One is theoretical morphology, which has conceptualized the relations between morphological traits defined by mathematical models of biological form. The second is network science, which provides numerous quantitative tools to measure and classify different patterns of local and global network architecture across disparate types of systems. Here, we explore a new theoretical concept that lies at the intersection between both fields, the ‘network morphospace’. Defined by axes that represent specific network traits, each point within such a space represents a location occupied by networks that share a set of common ‘morphological’ characteristics related to aspects of their connectivity. Mapping a network morphospace reveals the extent to which the space is filled by existing networks, thus allowing a distinction between actual and impossible designs and highlighting the generative potential of rules and constraints that pervade the evolution of complex systems. PMID:25540237

Avena-Koenigsberger, Andrea; Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard; Sporns, Olaf

2015-01-01

119

Network Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course on Network Security is provided by the Cyber Security Education Consortium (CSEC). The course requires students to perform laboratory assignments in securing networks and operating systems to learn about "network communications from a security standpoint" and "hardware and software security solutions." Links are provided to learn more about the Major Topics Covered, Course Learning Objectives, and Course Outline. The Course Outline includes a list of careers that require the knowledge from this course and related textbooks.

120

Start Networking!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To get a better understanding of complex networks, students create their own, real social network example by interacting with their peers in the classroom and documenting the interactions. They represent the interaction data as a graph, calculate two mathematical quantities associated with the graph—the degree of each node and the degree distribution of the graph—and analyze how these quantities can be used to infer properties of the social network at hand.

Complex Systems Science Laboratory,

121

Innovation Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea for this book started when we organized a topical workshop entitled "Innovation Networks - New Approaches in Modeling and Analyzing" (held in Augsburg, Germany in October 2005), under the auspices of Exystence, a network of excellence funded in the European Union's Fifth Framework Program. Unlike other conferences on innovation and networks, however, this workshop brought together scientists from economics, sociology, communication science, science and technology studies, and physics. With this book we aim to build further on a bridge connecting the bodies of knowledge on networks in economics, the social sciences and, more recently, statistical physics.

Pyka, Andreas; Scharnhorst, Andrea

122

Center for Networked Center for Networked Computing  

E-print Network

Center for Networked Computing Center for Networked Computing Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling.wu}@temple.edu Presenter: Pouya Ostovari #12;Center for Networked Computing Center for Networked Computing Motivation for Networked Computing Center for Networked Computing Problem What is a good voltage threshold to trigger

Wu, Jie

123

NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES FOR NEURAL CHIP APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

For the analysis of cultured neural networks and cells in on-chip biosensors, microelectrodes must be optimizedNANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES FOR NEURAL CHIP APPLICATIONS Karen Cheung, Yang-Kyu Choi, Tim Kubow-line lithography and a two-step anisotropic plasma etch (Lam Research 9400 TCP): a breakthrough step removes

Cheung, Karen C.

124

RDP Neural Network RDP Neural Network Construction Principle  

E-print Network

RDP Neural Network RDP Neural Network Construction Principle Linear Separability Methods for building RDP Neural Networks Geometrical Approaches for Artificial Neural Networks David Elizondo Centre Elizondo Geometrical Approaches for Artificial Neural Networks #12;RDP Neural Network RDP Neural Network

Gorban, Alexander N.

125

Traveling Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this geometry activity, learners explore networks painted on playgrounds, such as a four square court, and draw their own. Learners walk on every edge until they return to the starting point without walking on any edge more than once. In doing so, learners explore odd and even points (also called nodes), edges, and possible and impossible networks.

2012-06-08

126

Wavelet networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wavelet network concept, which is based on wavelet transform theory, is proposed as an alternative to feedforward neural networks for approximating arbitrary nonlinear functions. The basic idea is to replace the neurons by `wavelons', i.e., computing units obtained by cascading an affine transform and a multidimensional wavelet. Then these affine transforms and the synaptic weights must be identified from

Q. Zhang; A. Benveniste

1992-01-01

127

Temporal networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered, but does not attempt to unify related terminology-rather, we want to make papers readable across disciplines.

Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

2012-10-01

128

Technological Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an introduction to the Internet and different protocols related to it. This section also specifies the socio-technological properties of the Internet, like scale invariance, the small-world property, network resilience, etc. Section 3 describes the P2P networks, their categorization, and other related issues like search, stability, etc. Section 4 concludes the chapter.

Mitra, Bivas

129

Network Topologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Network topology is the physical arrangement of the switching devices of a network connecting a group of computers or buildings. This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, explains how and why these connections are made. It showcases common topologies including mesh, bus, star, and ring topologies. Users can click through these various categories at their own speed, replaying animations and rereading explanations as many times as the individual needs. This is a great resource for students and teachers alike to familiarize themselves with network topologies. [ES

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

130

A Probabilistic Selection Network with Butterfly Networks  

E-print Network

A Probabilistic Selection Network with Butterfly Networks Takahiro Ikeda Department of Information the practical aspects of a butterfly network and shows some useful properties of a butterfly network, which of view that they have been concerned in the implementation of the network by using practical butterfly

Imai, Hiroshi

131

Why network? Theoretical perspectives on networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, networking and collaboration have become increasingly popular in education. However, there is at present a lack of attention to the theoretical basis of networking, which could illuminate when and when not to network and under what conditions networks are likely to be successful. In this paper, we will attempt to sketch the theoretical background to networking drawing

Daniel Muijs; Mel West; Mel Ainscow

2010-01-01

132

Network specialist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can direct students to this material to help them investigate a career as a network specialist. Having students review this page can be an excellent precursor to a job-shadowing activity. This set of questions and answers can be a helpful resource for an activity in which students produce a number of pertinent questions that should be asked of a network specialist when investigating this field of work.

Iowa Public Television. School to Careers Project

2002-01-01

133

Sentient networks  

SciTech Connect

The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

Chapline, G.

1998-03-01

134

Network Physiology: Mapping Interactions Between Networks of Physiologic Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human organism is an integrated network of interconnected and interacting organ systems, each representing a separate regulatory network. The behavior of one physiological system (network) may affect the dynamics of all other systems in the network of physiologic networks. Due to these interactions, failure of one system can trigger a cascade of failures throughout the entire network. We introduce a systematic method to identify a network of interactions between diverse physiologic organ systems, to quantify the hierarchical structure and dynamics of this network, and to track its evolution under different physiologic states. We find a robust relation between network structure and physiologic states: every state is characterized by specific network topology, node connectivity and links strength. Further, we find that transitions from one physiologic state to another trigger a markedly fast reorganization in the network of physiologic interactions on time scales of just a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. This reorganization in network topology occurs simultaneously and globally in the entire network as well as at the level of individual physiological systems, while preserving a hierarchical order in the strength of network links. Our findings highlight the need of an integrated network approach to understand physiologic function, since the framework we develop provides new information which can not be obtained by studying individual systems. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

135

Probability Calculus Bayesian Networks  

E-print Network

Probability Calculus Bayesian Networks Logic and Bayesian Networks Part 1: Probability Calculus and Bayesian Networks Jinbo Huang Jinbo Huang Probability Calculus and Bayesian Networks 1/ 31 #12;Probability Calculus Bayesian Networks What This Course Is About Probabilistic reasoning with Bayesian networks

Huang, Jinbo

136

Sensor Networks Communication strategies  

E-print Network

Outline Sensor Networks Communication strategies Follow on Distributed estimation in sensor@dsi.unifi.it February 1, 2007 A. Benavoli Fully Decentralized Networks #12;Outline Sensor Networks Communication strategies Follow on Outline 1 Sensor Networks An introduction to Sensor Networks Network architectures

Chisci, Luigi

137

Securing Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. The military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are still the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to

Lidong Zhou; Zygmunt J. Haas

1999-01-01

138

Neural Networks  

SciTech Connect

Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing information [2]. Each one of these cells acts as a simple processor. When individual cells interact with one another, the complex abilities of the brain are made possible. In neural networks, the input or data are processed by a propagation function that adds up the values of all the incoming data. The ending value is then compared with a threshold or specific value. The resulting value must exceed the activation function value in order to become output. The activation function is a mathematical function that a neuron uses to produce an output referring to its input value. [8] Figure 1 depicts this process. Neural networks usually have three components an input, a hidden, and an output. These layers create the end result of the neural network. A real world example is a child associating the word dog with a picture. The child says dog and simultaneously looks a picture of a dog. The input is the spoken word ''dog'', the hidden is the brain processing, and the output will be the category of the word dog based on the picture. This illustration describes how a neural network functions.

Smith, Patrick I.

2003-09-23

139

Modeling the Citation Network by Network Cosmology  

PubMed Central

Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well. PMID:25807397

Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

2015-01-01

140

Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.  

PubMed

Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well. PMID:25807397

Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

2015-01-01

141

Progress in supervised neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical results concerning the capabilities and limitations of various neural network models are summarized, and some of their extensions are discussed. The network models considered are divided into two basic categories: static networks and dynamic networks. Unlike static networks, dynamic networks have memory. They fall into three groups: networks with feedforward dynamics, networks with output feedback, and networks with state

D. R. Hush; B. G. Horne

1993-01-01

142

Network security.  

PubMed

As you can see, there are a number of different ways to protect your network with different protocols, all of which can be very confusing to people whose core business process is not technology. This article is only a brief synopsis of the dangers that lurk in the corners of the technology world. Therefore, the best course of action is to do as much research as possible rather than falling into a situation of risk and vulnerability by implementing a system or network that does not work with your business. Remember, the technology is there to support your business; the business should not have to work around the technology. PMID:16579273

Chang, Kyle

2006-01-01

143

Why Network? Theoretical Perspectives on Networking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, networking and collaboration have become increasingly popular in education. However, there is at present a lack of attention to the theoretical basis of networking, which could illuminate when and when not to network and under what conditions networks are likely to be successful. In this paper, we will attempt to sketch the…

Muijs, Daniel; West, Mel; Ainscow, Mel

2010-01-01

144

Geography Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geography Network bills itself as "a global network . . . [that] provides the infrastructure needed to facilitate the sharing of geographic information between data providers, service providers, and users around the world." With a roster of some two dozen participating members that includes both private firms and government agencies, the site allows access to a wide variety of geographic materials, including basic maps as well as more sophisticated map data intended for use with GIS software. A tool called the Geography Network Explorer allows users to browse the maps and data by publisher or content, or to search the collection by location, type of content, and/or data theme. Some of the maps are designed for dynamic viewing online, with zoom-in capabilities and other features, while other static map images are available for download. The site also offers a discussion forum and a map exchange service, as well as instructions for providers who wish to include their own geographic information in the network. Both serious users of GIS information and more casual map buffs are likely to find this site interesting and useful.

145

Network coding  

E-print Network

In the network coding problem, there are k commodities each with an associated message Mi, a set of sources that know Mi and a set of sinks that request Mi. Each edge in the graph may transmit any function of the messages. ...

Lehman, April Rasala, 1977-

2005-01-01

146

Network synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion, with numerous examples, on the application of state variable methods to network analysis and synthesis is reported. The state variable point of view is useful in the design of control circuits for regulators because, unlike frequency domain methods, it is applicable to linear and nonlinear problems. The reported are intended as an introduction to this theory.

Brockett, R. W.

1975-01-01

147

Knowledge Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The blogosphere and the Internet are both examples of complex, self-organizing networks. So too is the world of academic publishing. Some faculty members are prolific article and book writers. Their publications often are hubs, or even superhubs, in the scholarly literature, cited regularly by others. Some scholars might just be nodes, with…

McLeod, Scott

2008-01-01

148

Network opportunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our developing scientific understanding of complex networks is being usefully applied in a wide set of financial systems. What we've learned from the 2008 crisis could be the basis of better management of the economy -- and a means to avert future disaster.

Catanzaro, Michele; Buchanan, Mark

2013-03-01

149

Network Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world changed in 2008. The financial crisis brought with it a deepening sense of insecurity, and the desire to be connected to a network increased. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008, events were unfolding with alarming rapidity. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Alumni Association wanted to respond to this change in the…

Alexander, Louis

2010-01-01

150

TELECOM 1 multiservices network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of the TELECOM 1 French domestic satellite project are to set up a business communication network which is to carry a wide range of digital services including data, voice, and pictures between a number of small earth stations located on the subscribers' premises. The parallel development of terrestrial specialized services networks has enabled the fitting of the TELECOM 1 network with high interworking capabilities with these networks. It has also allowed TELECOM 1 to be designed as the basis of the Future Integrated Services Digital Network. The TELECOM 1 network consists of the terrestrial network, the satellite network, and the maintenance network. Various elements which include the terrestrial network; the satellite network, and its modulation, TDMA frame and terminals; the System Management Center; the signalling system; and the demand assignment operation which are involved in the operation of the multiservices network are presented. The TELECOM 1 network evolution until 1990 through the rapid development of the ISDN is discussed.

Lombard, D.; Ramat, P.; Rancy, F.

151

Probability Calculus Bayesian Networks  

E-print Network

Probability Calculus Bayesian Networks Logic and Bayesian Networks Part 1: Probability Calculus and Bayesian Networks Jinbo Huang NICTA and ANU Jinbo Huang Probability Calculus and Bayesian Networks 1/ 31 #12;Probability Calculus Bayesian Networks What This Course Is About Probabilistic reasoning

Huang, Jinbo

152

Nested Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents analysis of nested neural networks, consisting of interconnected subnetworks. Analysis based on simplified mathematical models more appropriate for artificial electronic neural networks, partly applicable to biological neural networks. Nested structure allows for retrieval of individual subpatterns. Requires fewer wires and connection devices than fully connected networks, and allows for local reconstruction of damaged subnetworks without rewiring entire network.

Baram, Yoram

1992-01-01

153

By JinKyu Lee, Shambhu J. Upadhyaya, H. Raghav Rao, and Raj Sharman  

E-print Network

as an essential prerequisite for quality decision making [9]. An individual's knowledge can be transferred, to businesses today. A number of different protocols currently available offer an array of benefits and limitations. SECURE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND THE SEMANTIC WEB #12;COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM December 2005/Vol

Upadhyaya, Shambhu

154

Network Externality: An Uncommon Tragedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economists have defined 'network externality' and have examined putative inframarginal market failures associated with it. This paper distinguishes between network effects and network externalities, where the latter are market failures. The authors argue that while network effects are important, network externalities are theoretically fragile and empirically undocumented. Some network externalities are merely pecuniary. Network ownership or transactions among network participants

S. J. Liebowitz; Stephen E Margolis

1994-01-01

155

Air Traffic Network Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high level requirement of the Air Traffic Network (ATN) project is to provide a mechanism for evaluating the impact of router scheduling modifications on a networks efficiency, without implementing the modifications in the live network.

1997-01-01

156

Advanced Computer Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this class will be to focus on advanced topics in computer networking. The goal of this class is to prepare students to do research in networking or cluster computing, including employment in leading edge networking positions.

Amy Apon

157

Animal transportation networks.  

PubMed

Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

2014-11-01

158

National Lymphedema Network  

MedlinePLUS

... and article archives // Knowledge and support National Lymphedema Network NLN Position Papers The NLN Position Papers reflect ... list. twitter Facebook LinkedIn Copyright 2015 National Lymphedema Network © 2013 National Lymphedema Network 225 Bush Street, Suite ...

159

Animal transportation networks  

PubMed Central

Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

2014-01-01

160

Bayesian Network Computations in BN  

E-print Network

Bayesian Network Computations in BN Applications Probabilistic computations in Bayesian Networks computations in Bayesian Networks #12;Bayesian Network Computations in BN Applications Outline 1 Bayesian Network Introduction Evidence Junction Tree 2 Computations in BN Potentials Inward/Outward Conditional

Nuel, Gregory

161

News Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A free service of American Lawyer Media, Law News Network is an Internet-only current awareness resource for legal professionals, journalists, policy makers, or anyone else interested in breaking legal news. Updated daily (weekdays), the site culls stories from American Lawyer Media's own publications (The American Lawyer and The National Law Journal) and eighteen other daily and weekly newspapers and journals. Conveniently, Law News Network places the full text of all of its feature stories on its own site, instead of merely linking to them. As with most professional news services, a free daily email digest is also available. Additional free resources on-site include an Op-Ed section, discussion groups, legal classifieds, links to regional online law journals, and a collection of law firm-sponsored briefing papers (memos) sorted by subject.

162

Complex Networks and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about complex networks and how to represent them using graphs. They also learn that graph theory is a useful mathematical tool for studying complex networks in diverse applications of science and engineering, such as neural networks in the brain, biochemical reaction networks in cells, communication networks, such as the internet, and social networks. Topics covered include set theory, defining a graph, as well as defining the degree of a node and the degree distribution of a graph.

2014-09-18

163

NASA Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Network includes nine NASA operated and partner operated stations covering North America, the west coast of South America, the Pacific, and Western Australia . A new station is presently being setup in South Africa and discussions are underway to add another station in Argentina. NASA SLR operations are supported by Honeywell Technical Solutions, Inc (HTSI), formally AlliedSignal Technical Services, The University of Texas, the University of Hawaii and Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.

Carter, David; Wetzel, Scott

2000-01-01

164

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition (TDA) research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

1977-01-01

165

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summaries are given of Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

1975-01-01

166

Optimization in gradient networks.  

PubMed

Gradient networks can be used to model the dominant structure of complex networks. Previous work has focused on random gradient networks. Here we study gradient networks that minimize jamming on substrate networks with scale-free and Erdos-Renyi structure. We introduce structural correlations and strongly reduce congestion occurring on the network by using a Monte Carlo optimization scheme. This optimization alters the degree distribution and other structural properties of the resulting gradient networks. These results are expected to be relevant for transport and other dynamical processes in real network systems. PMID:17614692

Gulbahce, Natali

2007-06-01

167

Energy aware network coding in wireless networks  

E-print Network

Energy is one of the most important considerations in designing reliable low-power wireless communication networks. We focus on the problem of energy aware network coding. In particular, we investigate practical energy ...

Shi, Xiaomeng, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

168

Network Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks  

E-print Network

Network Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks Hacking into WPA Stephen G. Calvert (sgcalver hacking tools Wireless home networks are a growing trend in today's world 802.11 a/b/g/n has been used mechanisms. Open Authentication WEP: Wireless Equivalent Privacy. WPA/WPA2: Wi-fi Protected Access. 802

Zhang, Junshan

169

Woodland Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Woodland Network is "an interactive environmental project for both primary and secondary schools."Available in a variety of different languages, this Web site includes the main project for secondary students, Woodland Research, along with two smaller activities for younger students. The projects are designed to allow students to collect real woodland sample data and make comparisons with data collected from other students around the world. The site includes adequate instructions and reporting forms, as well as a searchable database of submitted results.

Willstedt, Hans.

170

Coupled adaptive complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive networks, which combine topological evolution of the network with dynamics on the network, are ubiquitous across disciplines. Examples include technical distribution networks such as road networks and the internet, natural and biological networks, and social science networks. These networks often interact with or depend upon other networks, resulting in coupled adaptive networks. In this paper we study susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic dynamics on coupled adaptive networks, where susceptible nodes are able to avoid contact with infected nodes by rewiring their intranetwork connections. However, infected nodes can pass the disease through internetwork connections, which do not change with time: The dependencies between the coupled networks remain constant. We develop an analytical formalism for these systems and validate it using extensive numerical simulation. We find that stability is increased by increasing the number of internetwork links, in the sense that the range of parameters over which both endemic and healthy states coexist (both states are reachable depending on the initial conditions) becomes smaller. Finally, we find a new stable state that does not appear in the case of a single adaptive network but only in the case of weakly coupled networks, in which the infection is endemic in one network but neither becomes endemic nor dies out in the other. Instead, it persists only at the nodes that are coupled to nodes in the other network through internetwork links. We speculate on the implications of these findings.

Shai, S.; Dobson, S.

2013-04-01

171

Engineering technology for networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Network (SN) modeling and evaluation are presented. The following tasks are included: Network Modeling (developing measures and metrics for SN, modeling of the Network Control Center (NCC), using knowledge acquired from the NCC to model the SNC, and modeling the SN); and Space Network Resource scheduling.

Paul, Arthur S.; Benjamin, Norman

1991-01-01

172

MONET: multiwavelength optical networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the multiwavelength optical networking (MONET) program and summarizes its vision. The program objective is to advance, demonstrate, and integrate network architecture and economics, advanced multiwavelength technology, and network management and control to achieve high capacity, reconfigurable, high performance, reliable multiwavelength optical networks, with scalability to national scale, for both commercial and specialized government applications.

Richard E. Wagner; Rod C. Alferness; A. A. M. Saleh; Matthew S. Goodman

1996-01-01

173

GPON in Telecommunication Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper GPON in Telecommunication Network, will present GPON in a relation to NG Network, and try to show that Gigabit Passive Optical Networks are very economical, effective, and reliable solution for triple play service. Also, the paper shows GPON as technically and economical sound solution for Next Generation Network. It will present details about GPON applications such as: GPON

Faruk Selmanovic; Edvin Skaljo

2010-01-01

174

Seven Questions of Networking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do leaders mean when they talk about networks and whether leadership networks have the power to transform the profession? When it comes to educational leadership networks, there certainly are more than seven important questions. This article focuses on seven key questions about networking in the superintendent ranks by the coordinator of one…

Livingston, David

2007-01-01

175

Network Telescopes: Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network telescope is a portion of routed IP address space in which little or no legitimate traffic exists. Monitoring unexpected traffic arriving at a network telescope provides the opportunity to view remote network security events such as various forms of flooding denial-of-service attacks, infection of hosts by Internet worms, and network scanning. In this paper, we examine the effects

David Moore; Colleen Shannon; Geoffrey M. Voelkery; Stefan Savagey

176

Management of Active Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active networks provide the possibility to perform com- putations within the network. This feature introduces greater flexibility, but more complexity as well. There- fore, a sound management of active networks is a prereq- uisite to the acceptance of such networks. Management of large complex systems can be improved with the intro- duction of further abstraction levels and with moving the

Marcus BRUNNER; Bernhard PLATTNER

1998-01-01

177

FES Science Network Requirements  

E-print Network

FES Science Network Requirements Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008 #12;FES Science Network Requirements Workshop Fusion Energy Sciences Program Office, DOE Office of Science Energy Sciences Network Gaithersburg, MD ­ March 13 and 14, 2008 ESnet

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

178

Designing Secure Library Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on designing a library network to maximize security. Discusses UNIX and file servers; connectivity to campus, corporate networks and the Internet; separation of staff from public servers; controlling traffic; the threat of network sniffers; hubs that eliminate eavesdropping; dividing the network into subnets; Switched Ethernet;…

Breeding, Michael

1997-01-01

179

Economics of Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nicholas Economides of the Stern Business School at New York University has assembled a "collection of information on economic issues of networks, such as the internet, telephone and fax communications networks, the railroad network, the airline network, and financial exchange and credit card networks." The site contains a large collection of research papers on networks, compatibility, and related issues; and on financial networks and electronic trading written by Economides in collaboration with other researchers. Visitors to the site can choose to read the abstracts online or download papers (in Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] or Postscript format). In addition, there is also an extensive bibliography.

Economides, Nicholas.

180

with(StringTools): convert("Yo! Whazzup? hi", bytes);  

E-print Network

s a r ( " V e n i , V i d i , V i c i " , 3 ) ; "Yhql/#Ylgl/#Ylfl" Caesar(%,-3); "Veni, Vidi, Vici" Caesar(Prufrock,27); "d;#|1 ;# |- ;/# ;( -(|$ .;.$)"$)"G; |~#;/*; |~#:d; *;)*/;/#$)&;/# 4;2$'';.$)";/*;( " Caesar(%,-27); "I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each I do not think they will sing to me

Sutherland, Scott

181

Como Lo Hago Yo: Tratamiento Quirurgico Del Mielomeningocele  

PubMed Central

En Argentina hay plan de fortificación con ácido fólico. Diagnostico prenatal no siempre es correcto. Cierre según técnica. Cerramos músculo. No favorecemos corpectomía temprana en casos de cifosis. Suturamos la plaqueta. Cerramos el plano muscular. Hidrocefalia: Válvula de derivación, generalmente dentro de los dos primeros meses. Ventriculostomía no está indicada. Chiari II. Laminectomia cervical alta. Siringomielia: Derivación desde la cavidad al peritoneo. PMID:24791219

Portillo, Santiago

2014-01-01

182

yoU Totally Aware Phone:...............817-272-3381  

E-print Network

from hyper-thermia. GHB, Super-G, Liquid-G, Liquid Ecstasy--was originally thought to be a human growth mixed with alcohol, GHB produces a stupor, vomit- ing, and comma. It is frequently abused at clubs for possession of GHB due to drug rapes. Rohypnol--produced overseas, it is a designer analog of valium but ten

Texas at Arlington, University of

183

Network epidemiology and plant trade networks.  

PubMed

Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented-there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J

2014-01-01

184

Network epidemiology and plant trade networks  

PubMed Central

Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented—there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J.

2014-01-01

185

Advanced Networking Renato Lo Cigno  

E-print Network

· Skype function analysis · Lesson learned · Skype security analysis ­ Binary ­ Network protocol ­ Skype overlay network (I) · Skype network relies on distributed nodes: ­ Skype Clients (SCs) ­ Supernodes (SNs

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

186

Electronic Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.

Thakoor, Anil

1990-01-01

187

Assortative Mixing in Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network is said to show assortative mixing if the nodes in the network that\\u000ahave many connections tend to be connected to other nodes with many\\u000aconnections. We define a measure of assortative mixing for networks and use it\\u000ato show that social networks are often assortatively mixed, but that\\u000atechnological and biological networks tend to be disassortative. We

M. E. J. Newman

2002-01-01

188

Topological network synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider several families of deterministic network optimization problems (NOPs) of particular importance for the design\\u000a (synthesis) of real-life transportation, communication, and distribution networks. These families of NOPs include determination\\u000a of optimal spanning and Steiner trees, multiconnected networks, distance bounded networks. and capacitated networks. Problems\\u000a belonging to these families are formulated in an unified manner, and exact algorithms, heuristics, as

Pawel Winter

189

Automatic Object Recognition Using Combinational Neural Networks in Surveillance Networks  

E-print Network

Automatic Object Recognition Using Combinational Neural Networks in Surveillance Networks Priyanka, size, translation and rotation. In this paper, a new scheme called combination neural networks of back propagation. Keywords-Combinational Neural Networks; Feature Extraction; Back Propagation

Fan, Jeffrey

190

Electro-Magnetic Earthquake Bursts and Critical Rupture of Peroxy Bond Networks in Rocks  

E-print Network

We propose a mechanism for the low frequency electromagnetic emissions and other electromagnetic phenomena which have been associated with earthquakes. The mechanism combines the critical earthquake concept and the concept of crust acting as a charging electric battery under increasing stress. The electric charges are released by activation of dormant charge carriers in the oxygen anion sublattice, called peroxy bonds or positive hole pairs (PHP), where a PHP represents an $O_3X/^{OO}\\backslash YO_3$ with $X,Y = Si^{4+}, Al^{3+}...$, i.e. an $O^-$ in a matrix of $O^{2-}$ of silicates. We propose that PHP are activated by plastic deformations during the slow cooperative build-up of stress and the increasingly correlated damage culminating in a large ``critical'' earthquake. Recent laboratory experiments indeed show that stressed rocks form electric batteries which can release their charge when a conducting path closes the equivalent electric circuit. We conjecture that the intermittent and erratic occurrences of EM signals are a consequence of the progressive build-up of the battery charges in the Earth crust and their erratic release when crack networks are percolating throughout the stressed rock volumes, providing a conductive pathway for the battery currents to discharge. EM signals are thus expected close to the rupture, either slightly before or after, that is, when percolation is most favored.

F. Freund; D. Sornette

2006-05-07

191

Psychotherapy Networker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Psychotherapy Networker website is the online presence of the print magazine, which covers "the everyday challenges of clinical practice, while also offering perspective on the social issues, critical ideas, and therapeutic innovations shaping the direction of the [psychotherapy] profession." Visitors to the site will find the full text of the "Current Issue" and the full text of "Recent Issues". Subscribers to the bimonthly magazine have full access to the "Archives". On the left side of any page is a "Popular Topics" link that has over a dozen topics, including "The Business of Therapy", "Challenging Cases", "Ethics", and "Trauma". Visitors should check out the "CE Courses" link at the top of any page as it has many types of continuing education course offerings, such as "Telecourses", "Audio Courses" and "Online Courses". There is even a "Magazine Quiz" to take that will yield two CE credits if 12 questions about designated articles are answered correctly.

192

Native Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, Native Americans have made significant contributions in a host of different media, including television, radio, and film. Involved in all aspects of this type of artistic and cultural expression, many Native Americans have also looked for a way to disseminate their substantial efforts in this arena. Fortunately, there is the Native Networks website (first launched in 2001), designed to provide information about such creations. The website was created by the Film and Video Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, and contains information about upcoming Native American film festivals and â??close-upâ? profiles of people actively working in the field. Some of these features include material on the indigenous video makers in Mexico and an in-depth look at the film â??House Made of Dawnâ?, which deals with a young Pueblo man in crisis. The site is available in both Spanish and English versions. [KMG

193

Interconnection networks  

DOEpatents

A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

1988-06-20

194

Knitted Complex Networks  

E-print Network

To a considerable extent, the continuing importance and popularity of complex networks as models of real-world structures has been motivated by scale free degree distributions as well as the respectively implied hubs. Being related to sequential connections of edges in networks, paths represent another important, dual pattern of connectivity (or motif) in complex networks (e.g., paths are related to important concepts such as betweeness centrality). The present work proposes a new supercategory of complex networks which are organized and/or constructed in terms of paths. Two specific network classes are proposed and characterized: (i) PA networks, obtained by star-path transforming Barabasi-Albert networks; and (ii) PN networks, built by performing progressive paths involving all nodes without repetition. Such new networks are important not only from their potential to provide theoretical insights, but also as putative models of real-world structures. The connectivity structure of these two models is investig...

Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

2007-01-01

195

Wayfinding in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recent explosion of popularity of commercial social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace, the size of social networks that can be studied scientifically has passed from the scale traditionally studied by sociologists and anthropologists to the scale of networks more typically studied by computer scientists. In this chapter, I will highlight a recent line of computational research into the modeling and analysis of the small-world phenomenon - the observation that typical pairs of people in a social network are connected by very short chains of intermediate friends - and the ability of members of a large social network to collectively find efficient routes to reach individuals in the network. I will survey several recent mathematical models of social networks that account for these phenomena, with an emphasis on both the provable properties of these social-network models and the empirical validation of the models against real large-scale social-network data.

Liben-Nowell, David

196

Parallel Consensual Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new neural network architecture is proposed and applied in classification of remote sensing/geographic data from multiple sources. The new architecture is called the parallel consensual neural network and its relation to hierarchical and ensemble neural networks is discussed. The parallel consensual neural network architecture is based on statistical consensus theory. The input data are transformed several times and the different transformed data are applied as if they were independent inputs and are classified using stage neural networks. Finally, the outputs from the stage networks are then weighted and combined to make a decision. Experimental results based on remote sensing data and geographic data are given. The performance of the consensual neural network architecture is compared to that of a two-layer (one hidden layer) conjugate-gradient backpropagation neural network. The results with the proposed neural network architecture compare favorably in terms of classification accuracy to the backpropagation method.

Benediktsson, J. A.; Sveinsson, J. R.; Ersoy, O. K.; Swain, P. H.

1993-01-01

197

Comparison between Traditional Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks  

E-print Network

Comparison between Traditional Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Tiantian Xie, Hao networks: traditional neural networks and radial basis function (RBF) networks, both of which of neural network architectures are analyzed and compared based on four different examples. The comparison

Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

198

The International Trade Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different network related quantities associated with the ITN. Our observation is that the ITN has also a scale invariant structure like many other real-world networks.

Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

199

India Network Gopher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The India Network Gopher: The network of the Asian Indian Community, the India Network of mailing lists and gopher and Web sites was established to discuss and provide information about issues related to India facing Indians living abroad. The India Network and Research Foundation was established in 1993 to provide stable network resources and to fund a graduate assistantship to work on network related chores. The 'welcome' file includes detailed information about joining their mailing lists, such as the India News Digest and the list for faculty of Indian origin.

200

Network Management of Predictive Mobile Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a trend toward the use of predictive systems in communications\\u000anetworks. At the systems and network management level predictive capabilities\\u000aare focused on anticipating network faults and performance degradation.\\u000aSimultaneously, mobile communication networks are being developed with\\u000apredictive location and tracking mechanisms. The interactions and synergies\\u000abetween these systems present a new set of problems. A new predictive

Stephen F. Bush; Victor S. Frost; Joseph B. Evans

1999-01-01

201

Sensor networks Opportunities for theory  

E-print Network

Sensor networks Opportunities for theory The future Sensor Networks and the Future of Networked Computation James Aspnes Yale University February 16th, 2006 ToNC workshop, February 16th, 2006 Sensor Networks and the Future of Networked Computation #12;Sensor networks Opportunities for theory The future

Feigenbaum, Joan

202

Identification of genetic networks.  

PubMed Central

In this report, we propose the use of structural equations as a tool for identifying and modeling genetic networks and genetic algorithms for searching the most likely genetic networks that best fit the data. After genetic networks are identified, it is fundamental to identify those networks influencing cell phenotypes. To accomplish this task we extend the concept of differential expression of the genes, widely used in gene expression data analysis, to genetic networks. We propose a definition for the differential expression of a genetic network and use the generalized T2 statistic to measure the ability of genetic networks to distinguish different phenotypes. However, describing the differential expression of genetic networks is not enough for understanding biological systems because differences in the expression of genetic networks do not directly reflect regulatory strength between gene activities. Therefore, in this report we also introduce the concept of differentially regulated genetic networks, which has the potential to assess changes of gene regulation in response to perturbation in the environment and may provide new insights into the mechanism of diseases and biological processes. We propose five novel statistics to measure the differences in regulation of genetic networks. To illustrate the concepts and methods for reconstruction of genetic networks and identification of association of genetic networks with function, we applied the proposed models and algorithms to three data sets. PMID:15020486

Xiong, Momiao; Li, Jun; Fang, Xiangzhong

2004-01-01

203

Networking and Institutional Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the impact of networks and shared library resources on the library planning process. Environmental scanning techniques, the need for cooperative planning, and the formulation of strategies to achieve networking goals are discussed. (CLB)

Riggs, Donald E.

1987-01-01

204

Flexible memory networks.  

PubMed

Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H (1)(X;?)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context. PMID:21826564

Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir

2012-03-01

205

Piecewise truckload network procurement  

E-print Network

Faced with procuring transportation over its freight network, a shipper can either bid out all of its lanes at once, or somehow divide up the network and bid it out in pieces. For large shippers, practical concerns such ...

Huang, Jefferson

2011-01-01

206

Advanced Review Attractor networks  

E-print Network

, the external input ei is applied, and produces output firing, operating through the nonlin- ear activation or autoassociation network is shown in Figure 1. External inputs ei activate the neurons in the network, and produce

Rolls, Edmund T.

207

Using Neural Networks  

E-print Network

A neural network approach is employed for estimating key efficiency parameters in a gas turbine engine. The concept is demonstrated within a limited operating region for a given engine. The neural network is developed to estimate certain...

Gabel, S.

208

Infinite dynamic bayesian networks  

E-print Network

We present the infinite dynamic Bayesian network model (iDBN), a nonparametric, factored state-space model that generalizes dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The iDBN can infer every aspect of a DBN: the number of hidden ...

Doshi-Velez, Finale P.

209

Ramification of stream networks  

E-print Network

The geometric complexity of stream networks has been a source of fascination for centuries. However, a comprehensive understanding of ramification—the mechanism of branching by which such networks grow—remains elusive. ...

Devauchelle, Olivier

210

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are emphasized.

1979-01-01

211

OncoArray Network  

Cancer.gov

The overall goal of the OncoArray Network is to gain new insight into the genetic architecture and mechanisms underlying breast, ovarian, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers. The Network's major aim is to discover new cancer susceptibility variants.

212

Concurrency and network disassortativity.  

PubMed

The relationship between a network's degree-degree correlation and a loose version of graph coloring is studied on networks with broad degree distributions. We find that, given similar conditions on the number of nodes, number of links, and clustering levels, fewer colors are needed to color disassortative than assortative networks. Since fewer colors create fewer independent sets, our finding implies that disassortative networks may have higher concurrency potential than assortative networks. This in turn suggests another reason for the disassortative mixing pattern observed in biological networks such as those of protein-protein interaction and gene regulation. In addition to the functional specificity and stability suggested by Maslov and Sneppen, a disassortative network topology may also enhance the ability of cells to perform crucial tasks concurrently. Hence, increased concurrency may also be a driving force in the evolution of biological networks. PMID:20586579

Khor, Susan

2010-01-01

213

Congenital Heart Information Network  

MedlinePLUS

... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

214

Juvenile Scleroderma Network  

MedlinePLUS

... your family can help. What if Juvenile Scleroderma Network earned a penny every time you searched the ... com and be sure to enter Juvenile Scleroderma Network as the charity you want to support. Just ...

215

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are considered. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported.

1980-01-01

216

Connectibles : tangible social networking  

E-print Network

This thesis presents "Connectibles," an instantiation of a tangible social network, a new type of social network application rooted in physical objects and real world social behavior. This research is inspired by social ...

Kalanithi, Jeevan James

2007-01-01

217

Fiber wireless networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband wireless networks based on a number of new frequency windows at higher microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies have been actively pursued to provide ultra-high bandwidth services over a wireless networks. These networks will have a large number of antenna base-stations with high throughput. Significant reductions in antenna base-station complexity can be achieved if most of the signal routing and switching functions centralized at a central office in the network. In such a network, fiber feed networks can be effectively deployed to provide high bandwidth interconnections between multiple antenna base-stations and the central office. With wavelength division multiplexing, efficient optical fiber feed network architectures could be realised to provide interconnection to a large number of antenna base-stations. In this paper, we present an over view of our recent research into system technologies for fiber wireless networks.

Nirmalathas, A.; Bakaul, M.; Lim, C.; Novak, D.; Waterhouse, R.

2005-11-01

218

Network Security and Contagion  

E-print Network

We develop a theoretical model of security investments in a network of interconnected agents. Network connections introduce the possibility of cascading failures due to an exogenous or endogenous attack depending on the ...

Acemoglu, Daron

2013-06-28

219

Least Common Ancestor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Least Common Ancestor Networks (LCANs) are introducedand shown to be a class of networks that includefat-trees, baseline networks, SW-banyans and therouter networks of the TRAC 1.1 and 2.0, and theCM-5. Some LCAN properties are stated and the permutationrouting capabilities of an important subclassare analyzed. Simulation results for three permutationclasses verify the accuracy of an iterative solution fora randomized routing strategy.1

Isaac D. Scherson; Chi-kai Chien

1993-01-01

220

Spline interpolation on networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, spatial data analysis methods have been designed and developed mainly for manifold-like spaces such as the Euclidean\\u000a plane. Recently, spatial data analysis methods for networks, called network spatial methods, have been gaining attentions\\u000a since they are convenient for micro-scale analysis. In this paper, interpolation methods over networks are explored. Shiode\\u000a extended the inverse distance-weighted method to networks, compared

Hisamoto Hiyoshi

2010-01-01

221

Belief Networks for Bioinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent publications illustrate successful applications of belief networks1 (BNs) and related probabilistic networks in the domain of bioinformatics. Examples are the modeling of gene regulation networks\\u000a [6,14,26], the discovering of metabolic [40,83] and signalling pathways [94], sequence analysis [9, 10], protein structure\\u000a [16, 28, 76], and linkage analysis [55]. Belief networks are applied broadly in health care and medicine for

H. H. L. M. Donkers; Karl Tuyls

2008-01-01

222

An algebraic approach to network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a new look at the issue of network capacity. It is shown that network coding is an essential ingredient in achieving the capacity of a network. Building on recent work by Li et al., who examined the network capacity of multicast networks, we extend the network coding framework to arbitrary networks and robust networking. For networks which are

Ralf Koetter; Muriel Médard

2003-01-01

223

Metallic nanowire networks  

DOEpatents

A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

2012-11-06

224

Network survivability modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical services in a telecommunication network should be continuously provided even when undesirable events like sabotage, natural disasters, or network failures happen. It is essential to provide virtual connections between peering nodes with certain performance guarantees such as minimum throughput, maximum delay or loss. The design, construction and management of virtual connections, network infrastructures and service platforms aim at meeting

Poul E. Heegaard; Kishor S. Trivedi

2009-01-01

225

Querying Network Directories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchically structured directories have recently proliferatedwith the growth of the Internet, and are being usedto store not only address books and contact information forpeople, but also personal profiles, network resource information,and network and service policies. These systems providea means for managing scale and heterogeneity, whileallowing for conceptual unity and autonomy across multipledirectory servers in the network, in a way far

H. V. Jagadish; Laks V. S. Lakshmanan; Tova Milo; Divesh Srivastava; Dimitra Vista

1999-01-01

226

Internet2 Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Internet2 provides the U.S. research and education community with a dynamic, innovative and cost-effective hybrid optical and packet network. The network was designed to provide next-generation production services as well as a platform for the development of new networking ideas and protocols.

227

Bayesian Networks without Tears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, a method of reasoning using probabilities, vari- ously called belief networks, Bayesian networks, knowl- edge maps, proba- bilistic causal networks, and so on, has become popular within the AI proba- bility and uncertain- ty community. This method is best sum- marized in Judea Pearl's (1988) book, but the ideas are a product of many hands.

Eugene Charniak

1991-01-01

228

Towards global network positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach to predict Internet network distance called Global Network Positioning (GNP). This approach models the Internet as a geometric space and distributedly computes geometric coordinates to characterize the positions of hosts in the Internet. By conducting Internet experiments, we show that the geometric distances implied by the GNP hosts coordinates can accurately predict the Internet network

T. S. Eugene Ng; Hui Zhang

2001-01-01

229

Neural Network Ensembles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several means for improving the performance and training of neural networks for classification are proposed. Crossvalidation is used as a tool for optimizing network parameters and architecture. It is shown that the remaining residual generalization error can be reduced by invoking ensembles of similar networks

Lars Kai Hansen; Peter Salamon

1990-01-01

230

Resourcesharing computer communications networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of resource-sharing networks can facilitate the provision of a wide range of economic and reliable computer services. Computer-communication networks allow the sharing of specialized computer resources such as data bases, programs, and hardware. Such a network consists of both the computer resources and a communications system interconnecting them and allowing their full utilization to be achieved. In addition,

ROBERT E. KAHN

1972-01-01

231

Computational Verb Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

When any attribute value in a conventional neural network is verbified, the result is a computational verb neural network(VNN). We can verbify inputs, outputs, biases, weights and many other attributes of conventional neural networks. In this paper, we reported two types of VNNs. The first one consists of computational verb inputs and numerical output. The second one consists of computational

Tao Yang

2007-01-01

232

Telecommunications network management laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses network management laboratory design and implementation at the University of Wollongong in the School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering in years of 2002 and 2003 for a final year specialisation subject called telecommunication network management for telecommunications engineering students. The design and implementation included that of a network management GUI incorporating the fundamental aspects and functionality

I. Raad; P. Vial

2004-01-01

233

Emergent Network Defense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research problem that inspired this effort is the challenge of managing the security of systems in large-scale heterogeneous networked environments. Human intervention is slow and limited: humans operate at much slower speeds than networked computer communications and there are few humans associated with each network. Enabling each node in the…

Crane, Earl Newell

2013-01-01

234

Network information flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new class of problems called network information flow which is inspired by computer network applica- tions. Consider a point-to-point communication network on which a number of information sources are to be mulitcast to certain sets of destinations. We assume that the information sources are mu- tually independent. The problem is to characterize the admissible coding rate region.

Rudolf Ahlswede; Ning Cai; Shuo-yen Robert Li; Raymond W. Yeung

2000-01-01

235

Networks: 4.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These five activities give students practice in interpreting and creating network representations that organize information and relate connectedness and other metrics such as time and distance. Among the types of networks studied are transport distances, family trees, events tree diagrams, and factor networks. Teaching suggestions, links to materials, and progress indicators are included.

2010-07-29

236

Equilibrium games in networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems a universal phenomenon of networks that the attacks on a small number of nodes by an adversary player Alice may generate a global cascading failure of the networks. It has been shown (Li et al., 2013) that classic scale-free networks (Barabási and Albert, 1999, Barabási, 2009) are insecure against attacks of as small as O(logn) many nodes. This poses a natural and fundamental question: Can we introduce a second player Bob to prevent Alice from global cascading failure of the networks? We proposed a game in networks. We say that a network has an equilibrium game if the second player Bob has a strategy to balance the cascading influence of attacks by the adversary player Alice. It was shown that networks of the preferential attachment model (Barabási and Albert, 1999) fail to have equilibrium games, that random graphs of the Erdös-Rényi model (Erdös and Rényi, 1959, Erdös and Rényi, 1960) have, for which randomness is the mechanism, and that homophyly networks (Li et al., 2013) have equilibrium games, for which homophyly and preferential attachment are the underlying mechanisms. We found that some real networks have equilibrium games, but most real networks fail to have. We anticipate that our results lead to an interesting new direction of network theory, that is, equilibrium games in networks.

Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng; Peng, Pan

2014-12-01

237

UMTS network architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a Functional Architecture and a corresponding Network Architecture for the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). Procedures like call handling, location management, and handover are considered. The architecture covers the domestic, business, and public environments. Integration with existing and forthcoming networks for fixed communications is anticipated and the Intelligent Network (IN) philosophy is applied.

Katoen, J. P.; Saiedi, A.; Baccaro, I.

1994-05-01

238

Network discovery with DCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about inferring or discovering the functional architecture of distributed systems using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM). We describe a scheme that recovers the (dynamic) Bayesian dependency graph (connections in a network) using observed network activity. This network discovery uses Bayesian model selection to identify the sparsity structure (absence of edges or connections) in a graph that best explains

Karl J. Friston; Baojuan Li; Jean Daunizeau; Klaas E. Stephan

2011-01-01

239

Aeronautical ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an enormous growth in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in land based small to medium size networks with relatively strict power and resources. In this paper the concept of ad hoc networking between aircraft is introduced, which can be considered as a novel approach in increasing the data rate and practicality of future in-flight broadband Internet access.

Ehssan Sakhaee; Abbas Jamalipour; Nei Kato

2006-01-01

240

Noncoherent multisource network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the problem of multiple sources transmitting information to one or more receivers that require the information from all the sources, over a network where the network nodes perform randomized network coding. We consider the noncoherent case, where neither the sources nor the receivers have any knowledge of the intermediate nodes operations. We formulate a model for this problem,

Mahdi Jafari Siavoshani; Christina Fragouli; Suhas Diggavi

2008-01-01

241

Introduction to Telecommunications Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Delmar Learning provides more information about the book "Introduction To Telecommunications Networks" by Gordon F. Snyder of the ICT Center. The book includes information on the history of the public switched telephone network, electronics, public and private telecommunications networks and other related information. Users may order the book via this website. A link is also provided to request a review copy.

Snyder, Gordon F.

242

Networking Brown University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses BRUNET, a campuswide network that links more than 100 academic and administrative buildings and 40 dormitories. Notes a key element is hierarchical network management and support. Discusses the deployment, security, and use of four networking spheres in the system. (MVL)

Beckham, Bonnie

1989-01-01

243

Network Layer 4-1 Network Layer  

E-print Network

for mobile users who want to join network (more shortly) DHCP overview: host broadcasts "_________" msg [optional] DHCP server responds with "__________" msg [optional] host requests IP address: "___________" msg DHCP server sends address: "___________" msg #12;Network Layer 4-12 DHCP client-server scenario

Xing, Guoliang

244

Networks Technology Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers included in these proceedings represent the most interesting and current topics being pursued by personnel at GSFC's Networks Division and supporting contractors involved in Space, Ground, and Deep Space Network (DSN) technical work. Although 29 papers are represented in the proceedings, only 12 were presented at the conference because of space and time limitations. The proceedings are organized according to five principal technical areas of interest to the Networks Division: Project Management; Network Operations; Network Control, Scheduling, and Monitoring; Modeling and Simulation; and Telecommunications Engineering.

Tasaki, Keiji K. (editor)

1993-01-01

245

Analysis of feedforward networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedforward networks are used extensively in practice to learn static mappings between related sets of variables. These networks are difficult to analyze, however, both because of their nonlinearity and their complex interconnection structure. In the absence of the nonlinearity, linear algebra could provide considerable insight into the behavior of these networks, significantly beyond that possible from a detailed analysis of individual neurons. Such insights would be extremely valuable since the power of neural networks arises from their large-scale connectivity, rather than the inherent computational capacity of the individual neurons. This paper proposes algebraic category theory as the basis for obtaining such global insights for feedforward networks in spite of their nonlinearity.

Pearson, Ronald K.

1992-12-01

246

Neural-Network Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

F77NNS (FORTRAN 77 Neural Network Simulator) computer program simulates popular back-error-propagation neural network. Designed to take advantage of vectorization when used on computers having this capability, also used on any computer equipped with ANSI-77 FORTRAN Compiler. Problems involving matching of patterns or mathematical modeling of systems fit class of problems F77NNS designed to solve. Program has restart capability so neural network solved in stages suitable to user's resources and desires. Enables user to customize patterns of connections between layers of network. Size of neural network F77NNS applied to limited only by amount of random-access memory available to user.

Mitchell, Paul H.

1991-01-01

247

Network pharmacology of glioblastoma.  

PubMed

With increasing knowledge of cellular networks of gene and molecular interactions, and their alterations in GBM (glioblastoma multiforme), it is now possible to apply methods of Network Pharmacology (NP) to predict candidate drug targets for this malignant brain tumor. NP requires the development of mathematical methods for network stability and perturbation analysis to identify sensitive and druggable network components, as well as computational platforms to carry out in silico simulations of therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the three most frequently deregulated GBM pathways involving membrane receptor tyrosine kinases, p53, and Rb. Structural features of these networks that may confound targeted therapies are discussed. PMID:23237675

Aguda, Baltazar D

2013-06-01

248

Cheaters in mutualism networks  

PubMed Central

Mutualism-network studies assume that all interacting species are mutualistic partners and consider that all links are of one kind. However, the influence of different types of links, such as cheating links, on network organization remains unexplored. We studied two flower-visitation networks (Malpighiaceae and Bignoniaceae and their flower visitors), and divide the types of link into cheaters (i.e. robbers and thieves of flower rewards) and effective pollinators. We investigated if there were topological differences among networks with and without cheaters, especially with respect to nestedness and modularity. The Malpighiaceae network was nested, but not modular, and it was dominated by pollinators and had much fewer cheater species than Bignoniaceae network (28% versus 75%). The Bignoniaceae network was mainly a plant–cheater network, being modular because of the presence of pollen robbers and showing no nestedness. In the Malpighiaceae network, removal of cheaters had no major consequences for topology. In contrast, removal of cheaters broke down the modularity of the Bignoniaceae network. As cheaters are ubiquitous in all mutualisms, the results presented here show that they have a strong impact upon network topology. PMID:20089538

Genini, Julieta; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.

2010-01-01

249

Percolation on sparse networks.  

PubMed

We study percolation on networks, which is used as a model of the resilience of networked systems such as the Internet to attack or failure and as a simple model of the spread of disease over human contact networks. We reformulate percolation as a message passing process and demonstrate how the resulting equations can be used to calculate, among other things, the size of the percolating cluster and the average cluster size. The calculations are exact for sparse networks when the number of short loops in the network is small, but even on networks with many short loops we find them to be highly accurate when compared with direct numerical simulations. By considering the fixed points of the message passing process, we also show that the percolation threshold on a network with few loops is given by the inverse of the leading eigenvalue of the so-called nonbacktracking matrix. PMID:25432059

Karrer, Brian; Newman, M E J; Zdeborová, Lenka

2014-11-14

250

High-performance networking.  

SciTech Connect

Our research in high-performance networking addresses the communication needs of Grand Challenge applications over a wide range of environments - wide-area network (WAN) in support of grids and local-area network (LAN) and system-area network (SAN) in support of network of workstations and clusters. While the high-performance computing (HPC) community generally groups clusters and grids together as commodity supercomputing infrastructures, the networking aspects of clusters and grids are fundamentally different. In networks of workstations and clusters, the primary communication bottleneck is the host-interface bottleneck whereas in grids, the bottlenecks are adaptation bottlenecks in particular, flow control and congestion control. To address these problems, we offer a set of solutions specifically tailored to each of the aforementioned environments.

Feng, W. C. (Wu-Chun)

2001-01-01

251

Network topology analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Emerging high-bandwidth, low-latency network technology has made network-based architectures both feasible and potentially desirable for use in satellite payload architectures. The selection of network topology is a critical component when developing these multi-node or multi-point architectures. This study examines network topologies and their effect on overall network performance. Numerous topologies were reviewed against a number of performance, reliability, and cost metrics. This document identifies a handful of good network topologies for satellite applications and the metrics used to justify them as such. Since often multiple topologies will meet the requirements of the satellite payload architecture under development, the choice of network topology is not easy, and in the end the choice of topology is influenced by both the design characteristics and requirements of the overall system and the experience of the developer.

Kalb, Jeffrey L.; Lee, David S.

2008-01-01

252

Percolation on Sparse Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study percolation on networks, which is used as a model of the resilience of networked systems such as the Internet to attack or failure and as a simple model of the spread of disease over human contact networks. We reformulate percolation as a message passing process and demonstrate how the resulting equations can be used to calculate, among other things, the size of the percolating cluster and the average cluster size. The calculations are exact for sparse networks when the number of short loops in the network is small, but even on networks with many short loops we find them to be highly accurate when compared with direct numerical simulations. By considering the fixed points of the message passing process, we also show that the percolation threshold on a network with few loops is given by the inverse of the leading eigenvalue of the so-called nonbacktracking matrix.

Karrer, Brian; Newman, M. E. J.; Zdeborová, Lenka

2014-11-01

253

Network Motifs: Simple Building Blocks of Complex Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex networks are studied across many fields of science. To uncover their structural design principles, we defined ``network motifs,'' patterns of interconnections occurring in complex networks at numbers that are significantly higher than those in randomized networks. We found such motifs in networks from biochemistry, neurobiology, ecology, and engineering. The motifs shared by ecological food webs were distinct from the

R. Milo; S. Shen-Orr; S. Itzkovitz; N. Kashtan; D. Chklovskii; U. Alon

2002-01-01

254

Visualizing Evolving Networks: Minimum Spanning Trees versus Pathfinder Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network evolution is a ubiquitous phenomenon in a wide variety of complex systems. In fields such as statistical mechanics, there has been increasingly widespread interest in modeling the growth of complex networks. In this article, we compare two network visualization techniques, minimum spanning trees (MSTs) and Pathfinder networks (PFNETs), and their visualizations of co - citation networks of scientific publications.

Chaomei Chen; Steven Morris

2003-01-01

255

Network Dynamics of City Sizes, Trade Networks, and Conflict  

E-print Network

Network Dynamics of City Sizes, Trade Networks, and Conflict Doug White In collaboration: city size hierarchies and how they are likely to be driven by trade networks Network realism- City growth & sizes :: trade networks :: conflicts/wars, disruptive and peacemaking :: innovation

White, Douglas R.

256

Social network analysis of an online dating network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online social networks can be found everywhere from chatting websites like MSN, blogs such as MySpace to social media such as YouTube and second life. Among them, there is one interesting type of online social networks, online dating network that is growing fast. This paper analyzes an online dating network from social network analysis point of view. Observations are made

Lin Chen; Richi Nayak

2011-01-01

257

Network planning under uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main focuses for network planning is on the optimization of network resources required to build a network under certain traffic demand projection. Traditionally, the inputs to this type of network planning problems are treated as deterministic. In reality, the varying traffic requirements and fluctuations in network resources can cause uncertainties in the decision models. The failure to include the uncertainties in the network design process can severely affect the feasibility and economics of the network. Therefore, it is essential to find a solution that can be insensitive to the uncertain conditions during the network planning process. As early as in the 1960's, a network planning problem with varying traffic requirements over time had been studied. Up to now, this kind of network planning problems is still being active researched, especially for the VPN network design. Another kind of network planning problems under uncertainties that has been studied actively in the past decade addresses the fluctuations in network resources. One such hotly pursued research topic is survivable network planning. It considers the design of a network under uncertainties brought by the fluctuations in topology to meet the requirement that the network remains intact up to a certain number of faults occurring anywhere in the network. Recently, the authors proposed a new planning methodology called Generalized Survivable Network that tackles the network design problem under both varying traffic requirements and fluctuations of topology. Although all the above network planning problems handle various kinds of uncertainties, it is hard to find a generic framework under more general uncertainty conditions that allows a more systematic way to solve the problems. With a unified framework, the seemingly diverse models and algorithms can be intimately related and possibly more insights and improvements can be brought out for solving the problem. This motivates us to seek a generic framework for solving the network planning problem under uncertainties. In addition to reviewing the various network planning problems involving uncertainties, we also propose that a unified framework based on robust optimization can be used to solve a rather large segment of network planning problem under uncertainties. Robust optimization is first introduced in the operations research literature and is a framework that incorporates information about the uncertainty sets for the parameters in the optimization model. Even though robust optimization is originated from tackling the uncertainty in the optimization process, it can serve as a comprehensive and suitable framework for tackling generic network planning problems under uncertainties. In this paper, we begin by explaining the main ideas behind the robust optimization approach. Then we demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed framework by giving out some examples of how the robust optimization framework can be applied to the current common network planning problems under uncertain environments. Next, we list some practical considerations for solving the network planning problem under uncertainties with the proposed framework. Finally, we conclude this article with some thoughts on the future directions for applying this framework to solve other network planning problems.

Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai

2008-11-01

258

Chaotic Neural Networks and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chaotic neuron model which is closely related to deterministic chaos observed experimentally with squid giant axons is explained, and used to construct a chaotic neural network model. Further, such a chaotic neural network is extended to different chaotic models such as a largescale memory relation network, a locally connected network, a vector-valued network, and a quaternionic-valued neuron.

Aihara, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Taiji; Oku, Makito

2013-01-01

259

Modeling of Network Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network situation awareness (NSA) is a new idea of network security, it is different from normal network security technique for its visualization and high-level data management, transform the abstract data to knowledge that human can understand, help network manager to make decision. Present NSA model have some weakness donpsilat fit to network security. This paper promote a improve model of

Juan Wang; Zhi-Guang Qin; Li Ye; Jing Jin

2008-01-01

260

Cultural survey of network vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network is a platform of society and life in today. People use more and more network vocabularies with the relation of network and people's life becoming closer and closer. Whether young or old, as long as people going online, they will not be unfamiliar with the network vocabulary. One will be thought be timeout if he doesn't know the network

Zhijiang Yang

2011-01-01

261

ENABLING MULTICASTING FOR ACCESS NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on establishment of multicast mechanisms in Access Networks (AN). Multicast is deemed to be an ap- propriate instrument to relieve communication networks, to save resources and, therefore, to improve global network performance. Multicast mechanisms are analysed and evalu- ated for their usage in Access Networks. The general structure of an Access Network and necessary measures to design

Daniel Duchow; Thomas Bahls; Dirk Timmermann I

262

The Benefits of Grid Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

Tennant, Roy

2005-01-01

263

Does Selection Mold Molecular Networks?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dissection of molecular networks vital to cellular life can provide important hints about optimal network design principles. However, these hints can become conclusive only if one can determine that natural selection has molded a network's structure. I illustrate the importance of thorough studies of network evolution with two recent examples, one from genome-scale networks, the other from small transcriptional regulation circuits.

Andreas Wagner (University of New Mexico; Department of Biology REV)

2003-09-30

264

Neural Networks Perceptrons and Backpropagation  

E-print Network

Neural Networks Perceptrons and Backpropagation Silke Bussen-Heyen Universit¨at Bremen Fachbereich 3 5th of Novemeber 2012 Neural Networks 1 / 17 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 2 Units 3 Network structure 4 Singlelayer feed-forward neural network 5 Multilayer feed-forward neural network 6

Bremen, Universität

265

Set separation Neural Network paradigms  

E-print Network

Neural Net The inputs Set separation Neural Network paradigms Designing a neural network for forecasting financial time series 29 f´evrier 2008 Designing a neural network for forecasting financial time series #12;Neural Net The inputs Set separation Neural Network paradigms What a Neural Network is ? Each

Chen, Yiling

266

An approach for modeling vulnerability of the network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a framework is given to model the network of networks and to investigate the vulnerability of the network of networks subjected to failures. Because there are several redundant systems in infrastructure systems, the dependent intensity between two networks is introduced and adopted to discuss the vulnerability of the interdependent infrastructure networks subjected to failures. Shanghai electrified rail transit network is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed framework. Because the rail network is dependent on the power grid and communication network, the corresponding power grid and communication network are also included in this system. Meanwhile the failures to the power grid and communication network are utilized to investigate the vulnerability of the rail network. The results show that the rail network strongly depends on the power grid and weakly depends on the communication network, and the transport functionality loss of the rail network increases with the increase of dependent intensity. Meanwhile the highest betweenness node-based attack to the power grid and the largest degree node-based attack to the communication network can result in the most functionality losses to the rail network. Moreover, the functionality loss of the rail network has the smallest value when the tolerance parameter of the power grid equals 0.75 and the critical nodes of the power grid and communication network can be obtained by simulations.

Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Bo; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Haikuan

2014-10-01

267

Optical Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-05-01

268

Optical Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-06-01

269

Optical Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

2005-04-01

270

A network security monitor  

SciTech Connect

The study of security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because of the proliferation of networks and the paucity of security measures in most current networks. Since most networks consist of a collection of inter-connected local area networks (LANs), this paper concentrates on the security-related issues in a single broadcast LAN such as Ethernet. Specifically, we formalize various possible network attacks and outline methods of detecting them. Our basic strategy is to develop profiles of usage of network resources and then compare current usage patterns with the historical profile to determine possible security violations. Thus, our work is similar to the host-based intrusion-detection systems such as SRI's IDES. Different from such systems, however, is our use of a hierarchical model to refine the focus of the intrusion-detection mechanism. We also report on the development of our experimental LAN monitor currently under implementation. Several network attacks have been simulated and results on how the monitor has been able to detect these attacks are also analyzed. Initial results demonstrate that many network attacks are detectable with our monitor, although it can surely be defeated. Current work is focusing on the integration of network monitoring with host-based techniques. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Heberlein, L.T.; Dias, G.V.; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B.; Wood, J.; Wolber, D. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

1989-11-01

271

Weighted Multiplex Networks  

PubMed Central

One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

2014-01-01

272

COMPRESSIVE LINEAR NETWORK CODING FOR EFFICIENT DATA COLLECTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

COMPRESSIVE LINEAR NETWORK CODING FOR EFFICIENT DATA COLLECTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS fields, Wireless Sensor Networks Index Terms-- Belief Propagation, Network Coding, Fi- nite fields, Wireless Sensor Networks 1. INTRODUCTION A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of spatially dis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks  

E-print Network

Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation

Nagurney, Anna

274

Investigating the validity of current network analysis on static conglomerate networks by protein network stratification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A molecular network perspective forms the foundation of systems biology. A common practice in analyzing protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is to perform network analysis on a conglomerate network that is an assembly of all available binary interactions in a given organism from diverse data sources. Recent studies on network dynamics suggested that this approach might have ignored the dynamic

Minlu Zhang; Long J. Lu

2010-01-01

275

Pseudo-Network Drivers and Virtual Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many operating systems have long had pseudo-teletypes, inter-process communication channels that provide terminal semantics on one end, and a smart server program on the other. We describe an analogous concept, pseudo-network drivers. One end of the driver appears to be a real network device, with the appropriate interface and semantics; data written to it goes to a program, however, rather

S. M. Bellovin

1990-01-01

276

Applying network coding to TCP  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I contribute to the design and implemention of a new TCP-like protocol, CTCP, that uses network coding to provide better network use of the network bandwidth in a wireless environment. CTCP provides the ...

Urbina Tovar, Leonardo Andrés

2012-01-01

277

Factors influencing bus network design  

E-print Network

Bus network design and frequency setting, the highest level subproblems in the bus planning process, have long-term impacts on bus network performance. Improving network performance not only improves the attractiveness of ...

Loh, Zhen Xiang Kenneth

2014-01-01

278

Closeness Possible through Computer Networking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the benefits of computer networking for scholastic journalism. Discusses three systems currently offering networking possibilities for publications: the Student Press Information Network; the Youth Communication Service; and the Dow Jones Newspaper Fund's electronic mail system. (MS)

Dodd, Julie E.

1989-01-01

279

Control in Probabilistic Boolean Networks  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Boolean Networks (PBN's) have been recently introduced as a rule-based paradigm for modeling gene regulatory networks. Such networks provide a convenient tool for studying interactions between different genes while allowing...

Choudhary, Ashish

2003-01-01

280

63 FR 70089 - Intelligent Networks  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...91-346; FCC 98-322] Intelligent Networks AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...local exchange carriers' intelligent networks. Since we conclude that most of the...Commission's current review of its Open Network Architecture (ONA) and Computer...

1998-12-18

281

Reconstructing Regulatory Network Transitions  

PubMed Central

Cellular responses often involve a transition of cells from one state to another. A transition from a stem cell to differentiated cell state, for example, may occur in response to gene expression changes induced by a transcription factor, or signaling cascades triggered by a hormone or pathogen. Regulatory networks are thought to control such cellular transitions. Thus, many researchers are interested in reconstructing regulatory networks, not only to gain a deeper understanding of cellular transitions, but also with the aim of using networks to predict and potentially manipulate cellular transitions and outcomes. In this review, we highlight approaches to the reconstruction of regulatory networks underlying cellular transitions, with special attention to transcriptional regulatory networks. We describe recent regulatory network reconstructions in a variety of organisms and discuss the success they share in identifying new regulatory components as well as shared relationships and phenotypic outcomes. PMID:21632251

Petricka, Jalean J.; Benfey, Philip N.

2011-01-01

282

Compressive Network Analysis  

PubMed Central

Modern data acquisition routinely produces massive amounts of network data. Though many methods and models have been proposed to analyze such data, the research of network data is largely disconnected with the classical theory of statistical learning and signal processing. In this paper, we present a new framework for modeling network data, which connects two seemingly different areas: network data analysis and compressed sensing. From a nonparametric perspective, we model an observed network using a large dictionary. In particular, we consider the network clique detection problem and show connections between our formulation with a new algebraic tool, namely Randon basis pursuit in homogeneous spaces. Such a connection allows us to identify rigorous recovery conditions for clique detection problems. Though this paper is mainly conceptual, we also develop practical approximation algorithms for solving empirical problems and demonstrate their usefulness on real-world datasets. PMID:25620806

Jiang, Xiaoye; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Han; Guibas, Leonidas

2014-01-01

283

Computer networking at FERMILAB  

SciTech Connect

Management aspects of data communications facilities at Fermilab are described. Local area networks include Ferminet, a broadband CATV system which serves as a backbone-type carrier for high-speed data traffic between major network nodes; micom network, four Micom Micro-600/2A port selectors via private twisted pair cables, dedicated telephone circuits, or Micom 800/2 statistical multiplexors; and Decnet/Ethernet, several small local area networks which provide host-to-host communications for about 35 VAX computers systems. Wide area (off site) computer networking includes an off site Micom network which provides access to all of Fermilab's computer systems for 10 universities via leased lines or modem; Tymnet, used by many European and Japanese collaborations: Physnet, used for shared data processing task communications by large collaborations of universities; Bitnet, used for file transfer, electronic mail, and communications with CERN; and Mfenet, for access to supercomputers. Plans to participate in Hepnet are also addressed. 3 figs. (DWL)

Chartrand, G.

1986-05-01

284

Reconfigureable network node  

DOEpatents

Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

Vanderveen, Keith B. (Tracy, CA); Talbot, Edward B. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Laurence E. (Davis, CA)

2008-04-08

285

Professional social networking.  

PubMed

We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options. PMID:25308391

Rowley, Robert D

2014-12-01

286

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF TRANSPORTATION AND NETWORKS  

E-print Network

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF TRANSPORTATION AND NETWORKS Anna Nagurney John F. Smith Memorial Professor-Bin Zhang, Editor Key Words: transportation, user-optimization, system-optimization, network equilibrium and distribution networks, financial networks, network metrics and impor- tance identification, transportation

Nagurney, Anna

287

FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS ZHIHUA HU, BAOCHUN LI Abstract. Understanding the fundamental performance limits of wireless sensor networks is critical towards. Key words. Wireless sensor networks, network capacity, network lifetime. 1. Introduction. When

Li, Baochun

288

Communication in Neuronal Networks  

PubMed Central

Brains perform with remarkable efficiency, are capable of prodigious computation, and are marvels of communication. We are beginning to understand some of the geometric, biophysical, and energy constraints that have governed the evolution of cortical networks. To operate efficiently within these constraints, nature has optimized the structure and function of cortical networks with design principles similar to those used in electronic networks. The brain also exploits the adaptability of biological systems to reconfigure in response to changing needs. PMID:14512617

Laughlin, Simon B.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

2010-01-01

289

Processes on Complex Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on their understanding of graphs, students are introduced to random processes on networks. They walk through an illustrative example to see how a random process can be used to represent the spread of an infectious disease, such as the flu, on a social network of students. This demonstrates how scientists and engineers use mathematics to model and simulate random processes on complex networks. Topics covered include random processes and modeling disease spread, specifically the SIR (susceptible, infectious, resistant) model.

2014-09-18

290

Affinity driven social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

2007-04-01

291

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized along with deep space station, ground communication, and network operations control capabilities. Mission support of ongoing planetary/interplanetary flight projects is discussed with emphasis on Viking orbiter radio frequency compatibility tests, the Pioneer Venus orbiter mission, and Helios-1 mission status and operations. Progress is also reported in tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

1975-01-01

292

The Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives, functions, and organization, of the Deep Space Network are summarized. Deep Space stations, ground communications, and network operations control capabilities are described. The network is designed for two-way communications with unmanned spacecraft traveling approximately 1600 km from earth to the farthest planets in the solar system. It has provided tracking and data acquisition support for the following projects: Ranger, Surveyor, Mariner, Pioneer, Apollo, Helios, Viking, and the Lunar Orbiter.

1974-01-01

293

Qudit communication network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherent states can be interpreted as d-dimensional quantum systems, or qudits of even superposition of pseudo-number states. Cross-Kerr nonlinear interaction can generate the maximal entanglements of pseudo- phase and pseudo-number states from two opticl coherent states. Extended network of these entangled coherent states is a qudit cluster state and can be used as qudit communication network for d-dimensional teleportation or multi-user quantum cryptographic network.

Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Juhui; Ji, Sewan; Nha, Hyunchul; Anisimov, Petr M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

2012-10-01

294

Albuquerque Basin seismic network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

1977-01-01

295

Economics Research Network (ERN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Social Sciences Research Network (for more information, see the November 29, 1999 Scout Report), the Economics Research Network offers abstracts and full-text papers and articles from over 25 economics journals. The journals are searchable through the Social Sciences Research Network's electronic library. ERN lists the economic journals offered in the electronic library, complete with a pithy description of the journal and advisory board members. The site also includes job listings and announcements.

296

NASA Integrated Network COOP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, civil unrest, and other events have the potential of disrupting mission-essential operations in any space communications network. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) is in the process of studying options for integrating the three existing NASA network elements, the Deep Space Network, the Near Earth Network, and the Space Network, into a single integrated network with common services and interfaces. The need to maintain Continuity of Operations (COOP) after a disastrous event has a direct impact on the future network design and operations concepts. The SCaN Integrated Network will provide support to a variety of user missions. The missions have diverse requirements and include anything from earth based platforms to planetary missions and rovers. It is presumed that an integrated network, with common interfaces and processes, provides an inherent advantage to COOP in that multiple elements and networks can provide cross-support in a seamless manner. The results of trade studies support this assumption but also show that centralization as a means of achieving integration can result in single points of failure that must be mitigated. The cost to provide this mitigation can be substantial. In support of this effort, the team evaluated the current approaches to COOP, developed multiple potential approaches to COOP in a future integrated network, evaluated the interdependencies of the various approaches to the various network control and operations options, and did a best value assessment of the options. The paper will describe the trade space, the study methods, and results of the study.

Anderson, Michael L.; Wright, Nathaniel; Tai, Wallace

2012-01-01

297

Luneburg lens waveguide networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate certain configurations of Luneburg lenses that form light propagating and guiding networks. We study single Luneburg lens dynamics and apply the single lens ray tracing solution to various arrangements of multiple lenses. The wave propagating features of the Luneburg lens networks are also verified through direct numerical solutions of Maxwell’s equations. We find that Luneburg lenses may form efficient waveguides for light propagation and guiding. The additional presence of nonlinearity improves the focusing characteristics of the networks.

Mattheakis, M. M.; Tsironis, G. P.; Kovanis, V. I.

2012-11-01

298

Tomography using neural networks  

SciTech Connect

We have utilized neural networks for fast evaluation of tomographic data on the MT-1M tokamak. The networks have proven useful in providing the parameters of a nonlinear fit to experimental data, producing results in a fraction of the time required for performing the nonlinear fit. Time required for training the networks makes the method worth applying only if a substantial amount of data are to be evaluated. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Demeter, G. [Department of Plasma Physics, Research Institute for Particle Nuclear Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, XII. Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)] [Department of Plasma Physics, Research Institute for Particle Nuclear Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, XII. Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

1997-03-01

299

Quantum neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the neural network theory content-addressable memories are defined by patterns that are attractors of the dynamical rule\\u000a of the system. This paper develops a quantum neural network starting from a classical neural network Hamiltonian and using\\u000a a Schrödinger-like equation. It then shows that such a system exhibits probabilistic memory storage characteristics analogous\\u000a to those of the dynamical attractors of

G. Bonnell; G. Papini

1997-01-01

300

Molecular ecological network analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16?S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open-accessible now (http://ieg2.ou.edu/MENA). Conclusions The RMT-based molecular ecological network analysis provides powerful tools to elucidate network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes, which are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology and environmental microbiology. PMID:22646978

2012-01-01

301

Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC) and PSGnet with partial funding from the National Science Foundation have established a Web server offering a database of information about international networking developments and connectivity providers, with its major emphasis on countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Oceania, and Latin America. Topics include: networking in the developing world, low cost networking tools, general computer networking info, and networking tips and frequently asked questions.

302

Neural networks for aircraft control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

Linse, Dennis

1990-01-01

303

Mobile Computing/ Mobile Networks  

E-print Network

research to improve radar signals and communications ARPANet (Advanced Research Projects Agency network comments on Internet polices, politics, and oversee other boards such as IETF The Internet Assigned

Yu, Chansu

304

Learn More About Networking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are some interesting sites that will help you to understand networking and how it can benefit you. These sites contain sound so you may want to wear headphones if you are in a classroom. Learn how the internet began and the basics of the www. Learn why a network is useful. Jans network contains the important concepts of networking, Work through section 7 to learn about different types of connections, transmissions, media, and configurations. Then take the quiz at the end to see how ...

Mrs. Watts

2007-10-12

305

Mission Critical Networking  

SciTech Connect

Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

2010-06-01

306

Mobile Virtual Private Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

307

Mixing navigation on networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we propose a mixing navigation mechanism, which interpolates between random-walk and shortest-path protocol. The navigation efficiency can be remarkably enhanced via a few routers. Some advanced strategies are also designed: For non-geographical scale-free networks, the targeted strategy with a tiny fraction of routers can guarantee an efficient navigation with low and stable delivery time almost independent of network size. For geographical localized networks, the clustering strategy can simultaneously increase efficiency and reduce the communication cost. The present mixing navigation mechanism is of significance especially for information organization of wireless sensor networks and distributed autonomous robotic systems.

Zhou, Tao

2008-05-01

308

Evolving mortal networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a class of models for the evolution of tree networks in which new nodes are recruited into the network at random times, and nodes already in the network may die at random times. Stochastic mechanisms for growth and death of the network that are either sensitive or insensitive to the coordination number or degree of nodes are studied using simulations and mean-field approximations. Critical behavior is observed in the long-time coordination number distribution of the system; associated exponents are universal in one part of parameter space, but depend on the ratio of birth and death parameters elsewhere.

Slater, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Barry D.; Landman, Kerry A.

2006-06-01

309

Evolving mortal networks.  

PubMed

We discuss a class of models for the evolution of tree networks in which new nodes are recruited into the network at random times, and nodes already in the network may die at random times. Stochastic mechanisms for growth and death of the network that are either sensitive or insensitive to the coordination number or degree of nodes are studied using simulations and mean-field approximations. Critical behavior is observed in the long-time coordination number distribution of the system; associated exponents are universal in one part of parameter space, but depend on the ratio of birth and death parameters elsewhere. PMID:16906918

Slater, Jennifer L; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

2006-06-01

310

Manageable translucent optical network technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key technologies for manageable and controllable translucent optical networks are reviewed. The overall demonstrations on PCE-based and fully distributed translucent optical network are also presented.

Takehiro Tsuritani; Lei Liu; Itsuro Morita

2010-01-01

311

ENABLING MULTICASTING FOR ACCESS NETWORKS  

E-print Network

This paper focuses on establishment of multicast mechanisms in Access Networks (AN). Multicast is deemed to be an appropriate instrument to relieve communication networks, to save resources and, therefore, to improve global network performance. Multicast mechanisms are analysed and evaluated for their usage in Access Networks. The general structure of an Access Network and necessary measures to design multicast-capable Access Networks are described. In addition, the complexity of new embedded multicast functions is discussed, and effects by unicast and multicast connections on Access Network are exemplified. As a result, a design suggestion of a multicast-capable Access Network is given. 1

Daniel Duchow I; Thomas Bahls Ii; Dirk Timmermann I

312

Comparative analysis of collaboration networks  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we carry out a comparative analysis of the word network as the collaboration network based on the novel by M. Bulgakov 'Master and Margarita', the synonym network of the Russian language as well as the Russian movie actor network. We have constructed one-mode projections of these networks, defined degree distributions for them and have calculated main characteristics. In the paper a generation algorithm of collaboration networks has been offered which allows one to generate networks statistically equivalent to the studied ones. It lets us reveal a structural correlation between word network, synonym network and movie actor network. We show that the degree distributions of all analyzable networks are described by the distribution of q-type.

Progulova, Tatiana; Gadjiev, Bahruz [International University for Nature, Society and Man, 19 Universitetskaya Street, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation)

2011-03-14

313

Network of Networks and the Climate System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network of networks is a new direction in complex systems science. One can find such networks in various fields, such as infrastructure (power grids etc.), human brain or Earth system. Basic properties and new characteristics, such as cross-degree, or cross-betweenness will be discussed. This allows us to quantify the structural role of single vertices or whole sub-networks with respect to the interaction of a pair of subnetworks on local, mesoscopic, and global topological scales. Next, we consider an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This technique is then applied to 3-dimensional data of the climate system. We interpret different heights in the atmosphere as different networks and the whole as a network of networks. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. This concept is applied to Indian Monsoon data in order to characterize the regional occurrence of strong rain events and its impact on predictability. References: Arenas, A., A. Diaz-Guilera, J. Kurths, Y. Moreno, and C. Zhou, Phys. Reports 2008, 469, 93. Donges, J., Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Europhys. Lett. 2009, 87, 48007. Donner, R., Y. Zou, J. Donges, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 2010, 81, 015101(R ). Mokhov, I. I., D. A. Smirnov, P. I. Nakonechny, S. S. Kozlenko, E. P. Seleznev, and J. Kurths, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L00F04. Malik, N., B. Bookhagen, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Climate Dynamics, 2012, 39, 971. Donges, J., H. Schultz, N. Marwan, Y. Zou, J. Kurths, Eur. J. Phys. B 2011, 84, 635-651. Donges, J., R. Donner, M. Trauth, N. Marwan, H.J. Schellnhuber, and J. Kurths, PNAS 2011, 108, 20422-20427. Runge, J. , J. Heitzig, V. Petoukhov, J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2012, 108, 258701.

Kurths, Jürgen; Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Donges, Jonathan; Donner, Reik; Malik, Nishant; Marwan, Norbert; Stolbova, Veronika

2013-04-01

314

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress is reported of Deep Space Network (DSN) research in the following areas: (1) flight project support, (2) spacecraft/ground communications, (3) station control and operations technology, (4) network control and processing, and (5) deep space stations. A description of the DSN functions and facilities is included.

1974-01-01

315

Environmental Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor networks for the natural environment require an understanding of earth science, combined with sensor, communications and computer technology. We discuss the evolution from data logging to sensor networks, describe our research from a glacial environment and highlight future challenges in this field.

Kirk Martinez; Jane K. Hart; Royan Ong

2004-01-01

316

TOXNET (TOXICOLOGY DATA NETWORK)  

EPA Science Inventory

TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) is a computerized system of files oriented to toxicology and related areas. It is managed by the National Library of Medicines Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) and runs on a series of microcomputers in a networked cl...

317

PESTICIDE INFORMATION NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pesticide Information Network (PIN) is an interactive database containing information about pesticides. PIN is a free service offered by the USEPAs Office of Pesticide Programs which provides contacts on pesticide issues, has a bulletin board network for public and private us...

318

The Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition, research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is cited. Topics covered include: tracking and ground based navigation; spacecraft/ground communication; station control and operations technology; ground communications; and deep space stations.

1979-01-01

319

Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

Perotti, J.

2003-01-01

320

Wireless sensor network survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wireless sensor network (WSN) has important applications such as remote environmental monitoring and target tracking. This has been enabled by the availability, particularly in recent years, of sensors that are smaller, cheaper, and intelligent. These sensors are equipped with wireless interfaces with which they can communicate with one another to form a network. The design of a WSN depends

Jennifer Yick; Biswanath Mukherjee; Dipak Ghosal

2008-01-01

321

Early Detection Research Network  

Cancer.gov

This initiative supports the creation of a national Network for early cancer detection with resources for translational research that will include laboratory science, clinical science, public health, biostatistics, informatics, and computer science. The goals of the Network are to discover and coordinate the evaluation of biomarkers and reagents for the earlier detection of cancer and for the assessment of risk.

322

GENE EXPRESSION NETWORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

"Gene expression network" is the term used to describe the interplay, simple or complex, between two or more gene products in performing a specific cellular function. Although the delineation of such networks is complicated by the existence of multiple and subtle types of intera...

323

Advertising via wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subscriber growth of wireless networks has created an increasing demand for wireless (mobile) advertising. However, at this point there are no standard industry practices to deal with some of the key mobile advertising issues. This research analyses the business model of a mobile advertising firm and highlights some of the key issues for modelling ad deliveries via wireless networks.

Ram D. Gopal; Arvind K. Tripathi

2006-01-01

324

The Community Networking Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication outlines the complete community networking process: planning, developing partnerships, funding, marketing, content, public access, and evaluation, and discusses the variety of roles that the local public library can play in this process. Chapter One, "The Importance of Community Networking," describes the importance of community…

Bajjaly, Stephen T.

325

Networked Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on networked teaching and learning contains 11 articles written by teachers of English and language arts in Bread Loaf's primarily rural, teacher networks. Most of these narratives describe how teachers have taught writing and literature using online exchanges or teleconferencing involving students in different locations and grade…

Benson, Chris, Ed.

2002-01-01

326

CAISSON: Interconnect Network Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cray response to HPCS initiative. Model future petaflop computer interconnect. Parallel discrete event simulation techniques for large scale network simulation. Built on WarpIV engine. Run on laptop and Altix 3000. Can be sized up to 1000 simulated nodes per host node. Good parallel scaling characteristics. Flexible: multiple injectors, arbitration strategies, queue iterators, network topologies.

Springer, Paul L.

2006-01-01

327

Social Insect Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social insect colonies have many of the properties of adaptive networks. The simple rules governing how local interactions among individuals translate into group behaviors are found across social groups, giving social insects the potential to have a profound impact on our understanding of the interplay between network dynamics and social evolution.

Jennifer Fewell (Arizona State University; School of Life Sciences)

2003-09-26

328

Variant Bayesian Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bayesian networks can express the joint probabilistic distribution compactly between variables and can express the conditionally independence conveniently. The joint probabilistic influence from the parents to their child can be got from the Bayesian network structure however parents are not necessarily have common influence to their child, which are called by the name of causal influence independence other than

Peng Qingsong; Zhang Ming; Wu Weimin; Wang Ronggui

2006-01-01

329

Quantum Computational Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of quantum computational networks is the quantum generalization of the theory of logic circuits used in classical computing machines. Quantum gates are the generalization of classical logic gates. A single type of gate, the univeral quantum gate, together with quantum 'unit wires', is adequate for constructing networks with any possible quantum computational property.

D. Deutsch

1989-01-01

330

Essays on Network Formation  

E-print Network

that may depend on the network of connections among the individuals that make up each group. I assume the existence of a single divisible good, such as a monetary prize, which will be divided amongst the members of the winning network. The probability...

Mueller, William Graham

2012-10-19

331

Shallow water acoustic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater acoustic networks are generally formed by acoustically connected ocean bottom sensor nodes, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), and surface stations that serve as gateways and provide radio communication links to on-shore stations. The quality of service of such networks is limited by the low bandwidth of acoustic transmission channels, high latency resulting from the slow propagation of sound, and elevated

John G. Proakis; Ethem M. Sozer; Joseph A. Rice; M. Stojanovic

2001-01-01

332

K-12 Computer Networking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "ERIC Review" is published three times a year and announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This issue explores computer networking in elementary and secondary schools via two principal articles: "Plugging into the 'Net'" (Michael B. Eisenberg and Donald P. Ely); and "Computer Networks for…

ERIC Review, 1993

1993-01-01

333

Electrical Networks: An Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A world without electricity is beyond our imagination. Starting from the prehistoric times, man has made much progress in every walk of life. We have become accustomed to getting everything at the flick of a switch, touch of a button, or turn of a knob. While we have become so used to enjoying the benefits of electricity, it is not easy to imagine how electricity travels from its source to our homes and offices. It sometimes has to cover large distances through a complex network of transmission lines and power substations to provide us the facilities and entertainment that we take for granted. This network which transports electricity from the source to the consumers is called the electrical network. The electrical network is a collective term for different components such as transformers, transmission lines, substations, and different stages and sub-networks devoted to generation, transmission, and distribution. Sometimes, there may be sub-transmission and secondary distribution networks too. A simple schematic of an electric network is shown in Fig. 8.1. In the past decade, analysis of the electrical power system as a complex network has been an evolving and challenging topic of research.

Pahwa, S.; Youssef, M.; Scoglio, C.

334

Enabling the SOS network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work introduces the concept of self-organizing security (SOS) network as a resilient architectural foundation on which the operational mechanism for deploying dynamic, short living emergency response organizations capable to react quickly to emerging crisis situations can be evolved. A simulation testbed for SOS networks is presented that balances micromanagement of subordinates with the excessive independence of commanders based on

Mihaela Ulieru

2008-01-01

335

Network Collaboration with UNIX.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses networking as a collaboration tool in the teaching of technical writing. Argues that some degree of collaboration is innate to all writing, that word processing already facilitates that collaboration, and that networking is the next enhancement to the collaborative process. (RS)

Horn, Wm. Dennis

1993-01-01

336

Student Observation Network DVD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This DVD is meant to be given to educators after the 16 hour training on the Tracking a Solar Storm Module of NASA's Student Observation Network. It was created to be used as a resource for content about solar storms and a quick refresher of the modules available through the Student Observation Network.

2004-01-01

337

Academe's New Girl Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)

Stent, Angela

1978-01-01

338

Evolving neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks are parallel processing structures that provide the capability to perform various pattern recognition tasks. A network is typically trained over a set of exemplars by adjusting the weights of the interconnections using a back propagation algorithm. This gradient search converges to locally optimal solutions which may be far removed from the global optimum. In this paper, evolutionary programming

D. B. Fogel; L. J. Fogel; V. W. Porto

1990-01-01

339

Networking with the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A strategic networking plan can mobilize the resources needed to accomplish the seemingly impossible. The key to successful networking is building of regular, long-term, sustainable relationships with the community, including governmental, charitable, and other organizations. Striving for educational excellence as a first priority has beneficial…

Brown, L. Joan

2001-01-01

340

Receding Horizon Networked Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design of control systems over lossy networks. A network is assumed to exist between the sensor and the controller and between the latter and the actuator. Packets are dropped according to a Bernoulli independent process, with ? and \\

Vijay Gupta; Bruno Sinopoli; Sachin Adlakha; Andrea Goldsmith; Richard Murray

2006-01-01

341

Typologies of attentional networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is a central theme in cognitive science — it exemplifies the links between the brain and behaviour, and binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience. A visionary model suggested by Michael Posner described attention as a set of independent control networks. This challenged the previously held view of attention as a uniform concept. The idea that disparate attentional networks

Jason Buhle; Amir Raz

2006-01-01

342

Stop Social Network Pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ask a group of teenagers how they spend their spare time and most will mention Facebook, YouTube, World of Warcraft, or Second Life – ‘virtual’ social networks that bring millions of people together online. The benefits of social networks have been touted but what about the pitfalls? Some teens will share everything about themselves to hundreds of online friends, most

K. Michael

2010-01-01

343

Evolution of optical networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic growth for Internet applications will likely dominate long-distance networks in the foreseeable future, which presents opportunities for new optical layer approaches that are tailored to Internet traffic characteristics. One important difference between the traffic patterns generated by internet applications is that the Internet connections on average are significantly longer than the conventional voice connections, which allows for network cost

R. E. Wagner

2000-01-01

344

Managed reach optical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic growth for Internet applications will likely dominate long-distance networks in the foreseeable future, which presents opportunities for new optical layer approaches that are tailored to Internet traffic characteristics. One important difference between the traffic patterns generated by Internet applications is that the Internet connections on average are significantly longer than the conventional voice connections, which allows for network cost

R. E. Wagner

2000-01-01

345

Smart networked cities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to critically assess the lack of a global inter-urban perspective in the smart city policy framework from a conceptual standpoint. We argue here that the smart city policy agenda should be informed by and address the structure of transnational urban networks as this can affect the efficiency of such local policies. The significance of this global network

Emmanouil Tranos; Drew Gertner

2012-01-01

346

Programmability of nanowire networks.  

PubMed

Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON/OFF current ratios (>10(5)). However, large networks of nanowires distribute an applied bias across a large number of junctions, and thus respond not by switching but instead by evolving connectivity. We demonstrate that these emergent properties lead to fault-tolerant materials whose resistance may be tuned, and which are capable of adaptively reconfiguring under stress. By combining these two behavioural regimes, we demonstrate that the same nanowire network may be programmed to act both as a metallic interconnect, and a resistive switch device with high ON/OFF ratio. These results enable the fabrication of programmable, multi-functional materials from random nanowire networks. PMID:24990707

Bellew, A T; Bell, A P; McCarthy, E K; Fairfield, J A; Boland, J J

2014-08-21

347

Supervised Learning in Neural Networks without Feedback Networks  

E-print Network

Supervised Learning in Neural Networks without Feedback Networks Robert D. Brandt and Feng Lin Abstract In this paper, we study the supervised learning in neural networks. Unlike the com- mon practice (hardware) implementation of arti cial neural networks. This research is supported in part by the National

Lin, Feng

348

IEEE Network Special Issue on Online Social Networks  

E-print Network

IEEE Network Special Issue on Online Social Networks Call for papers The popularity and complexity of online social networks continues to grow triggering intense research interest in the analysis of the structure and properties of online communities. Today, online social network applications range from social

Moon, Sue B.

349

How to Network in Online Social Networks Giovanni Neglia  

E-print Network

How to Network in Online Social Networks Giovanni Neglia Inria Sophia-Antipolis M--In this paper, we consider how to maximize users' influence in Online Social Networks (OSNs) by exploiting wants to spread information). However, the recruitment process in Online Social Networks (OSNs) is much

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

May 2012 Sorting Networks Slide 1 Sorting Networks  

E-print Network

2012 #12;May 2012 Sorting Networks Slide 3 Railroad Tracks and Switches #12;May 2012 Sorting Networks;May 2012 Sorting Networks Slide 5 Railroad Yards Have Many Tracks and Switches #12;May 2012 Sorting Station and Its Siding #12;May 2012 Sorting Networks Slide 8 Model Railroad YardModel Railroad Yard

Liebling, Michael

351

Networks, Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management: NHS Cancer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increased interest in the UK in network-based modes of organizing in the public services, as opposed to markets or hierarchies. One supposed advantage of the network form is a greater capacity for the transfer of evidence-based or ‘best’ practices across the network and accelerated organizational learning. Such networks may have a knowledge management role and stimulate the

Rachael Addicott; Gerry McGivern; Ewan Ferlie

2006-01-01

352

CONTROLLING ACROSS COMPLEX NETWORKS: EMERGING LINKS BETWEEN NETWORKS AND CONTROL  

E-print Network

, computer science, physics, and social science. In control systems, communication networks are becoming. 0447898 4 Supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500 Consider, a network model such as a graph is used to enable control, while, in network theory, mod- els of network

353

Application of Radial Function Neural Network in Network Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread application of large and complicated network, network safety has become an important issue. In this paper, a security operation center (SOC) concept based on multi-sensor data fusion technology is presented from the viewpoint of the network security. A structure of a SOC system based on radial basis function neural (RBFN) network is proposed, and the detailed method

Yi Niu; Yi Chun Peng

2008-01-01

354

Enhancing Discrete Event Network Simulators with Analytical Network Cloud Models  

E-print Network

Enhancing Discrete Event Network Simulators with Analytical Network Cloud Models Florian models for network clouds, which are much more efficient, if less accurate, than node- by-node models of suitable analytical network cloud models and also de- scribe how these models can be implemented in the ns

Braun, Torsten

355

Optical Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

Background

With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks.

Scope of Contributions

This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to:
  • Optical access network architectures and protocols
  • Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.)
  • Active optical networks
  • Multiple access control
  • Multiservices and QoS provisioning
  • Network survivability
  • Field trials and standards
  • Performance modeling and analysis

Manuscript Submission

To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-01-01

356

Mixing navigation on networks  

E-print Network

In many real communication networks, to navigate the message along with the shortest path costs too much. Motivated by the coherence motion in biological swarm induced by a few effective leaders, in this Letter, we proposed a mixing navigation mechanism. With a few routers added, the navigation efficiency can be remarkably enhanced. Some advanced strategies are also designed: For non-geographical scale-free networks, the targeted strategy with a tiny fraction of routers, can guarantee an efficient navigation with low and stable delivery time almost independent of network size. For geographical networks, the clustering strategy can simultaneously increase the efficiency and reduce the cost. This mixing navigation mechanism is of significant importance especially for information organization of wireless sensor networks and distributed autonomous robotic systems.

Zhou, Tao

2007-01-01

357

Modeling semiflexible polymer networks  

E-print Network

Here, we provide an overview of theoretical approaches to semiflexible polymers and their networks. Such semiflexible polymers have large bending rigidities that can compete with the entropic tendency of a chain to crumple up into a random coil. Many studies on semiflexible polymers and their assemblies have been motivated by their importance in biology. Indeed, crosslinked networks of semiflexible polymers form a major structural component of tissue and living cells. Reconstituted networks of such biopolymers have emerged as a new class of biological soft matter systems with remarkable material properties, which have spurred many of the theoretical developments discussed here. Starting from the mechanics and dynamics of individual semiflexible polymers, we review the physics of semiflexible bundles, entangled solutions and disordered cross-linked networks. Finally, we discuss recent developments on marginally stable fibrous networks, which exhibit critical behavior similar to other marginal systems such as jammed soft matter.

Chase P. Broedersz; Fred. C. MacKintosh

2014-04-16

358

Collective network routing  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

Hoenicke, Dirk

2014-12-02

359

An algebraic approach to network coding  

E-print Network

Abstract—We take a new look at the issue of network capacity. It is shown that network coding is an essential ingredient in achieving the capacity of a network. Building on recent work by Li et al., who examined the network capacity of multicast networks, we extend the network coding framework to arbitrary networks and robust networking. For networks which are restricted to using linear network codes, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the feasibility of any given set of connections over a given network. We also consider the problem of network recovery for nonergodic link failures. For the multicast setup we prove that there exist coding strategies that provide maximally robust networks and that do not require adaptation of the network interior to the failure pattern in question. The results are derived for both delay-free networks and networks with delays. Index Terms—Algebraic coding, network information theory, network robustness. I.

Ralf Koetter; Muriel Médard; Senior Member

2003-01-01

360

Improved Autoassociative Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved autoassociative neural networks, denoted nexi, have been proposed for use in controlling autonomous robots, including mobile exploratory robots of the biomorphic type. In comparison with conventional autoassociative neural networks, nexi would be more complex but more capable in that they could be trained to do more complex tasks. A nexus would use bit weights and simple arithmetic in a manner that would enable training and operation without a central processing unit, programs, weight registers, or large amounts of memory. Only a relatively small amount of memory (to hold the bit weights) and a simple logic application- specific integrated circuit would be needed. A description of autoassociative neural networks is prerequisite to a meaningful description of a nexus. An autoassociative network is a set of neurons that are completely connected in the sense that each neuron receives input from, and sends output to, all the other neurons. (In some instantiations, a neuron could also send output back to its own input terminal.) The state of a neuron is completely determined by the inner product of its inputs with weights associated with its input channel. Setting the weights sets the behavior of the network. The neurons of an autoassociative network are usually regarded as comprising a row or vector. Time is a quantized phenomenon for most autoassociative networks in the sense that time proceeds in discrete steps. At each time step, the row of neurons forms a pattern: some neurons are firing, some are not. Hence, the current state of an autoassociative network can be described with a single binary vector. As time goes by, the network changes the vector. Autoassociative networks move vectors over hyperspace landscapes of possibilities.

Hand, Charles

2003-01-01

361

Network Class Superposition Analyses  

PubMed Central

Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., for the yeast cell cycle process [1]), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix , which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for derived from Boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with . We show how to generate Derrida plots based on . We show that -based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on . We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology Boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for , for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

Pearson, Carl A. B.; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

2013-01-01

362

Institutionalizing College Networks for Student Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores concepts of college "networking" in the context of improving student retention and success, including student-to-student networks, faculty-to-faculty networks, faculty-to-student networks, institution-to-student networks, institution-to-faculty/staff networks, and institution-to-local community networks. Considers the need to address…

Calder, William B.; Gordon, William

1999-01-01

363

Wireless sensor networks: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the concept of sensor networks which has been made viable by the convergence of micro- electro-mechanical systems technology, wireless communications and digital electronics. First, the sensing tasks and the potential sensor networks applications are explored, and a review of factors influencing the design of sensor networks is provided. Then, the communication architecture for sensor networks is outlined,

Ian F. Akyildiz; Weilian Su; Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam; Erdal Cayirci

2002-01-01

364

Online social networks in economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how economists study social networks. While economists borrow from other fields like sociology or computer science, their approach of modeling of social networks is distinguished by the emphasis on the role of choices under constraints. Economists investigate how socioeconomic background and economic incentives affect the structure and composition of social networks. The characteristics of social networks are

Adalbert Mayer

2009-01-01

365

Operational principles of neurocognitive networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale neural networks are thought to be an essential substrate for the implementation of cognitive function by the brain. If so, then a thorough understanding of cognition is not possible without knowledge of how the large-scale neural networks of cognition (neurocognitive networks) operate. Of necessity, such understanding requires insight into structural, functional, and dynamical aspects of network operation, the intimate

Steven L. Bressler; Emmanuelle Tognoli

2006-01-01

366

Neural Network Control Daniel Eggert  

E-print Network

two neural network based control systems. The first is a neural network based predictive controller. System identification and controller design are discussed. The second is a direct neural network con explicitly by using a neural network model of the plant. System identification is discussed. Two control

367

Mixed deterministic and probabilistic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces mixed networks, a new graphical model framework for ex- pressing and reasoning with probabilistic and deterministic information. The motivation to develop mixed networks stems from the desire to fully exploit the deterministic informa- tion (constraints) that is often present in graphical model s. Several concepts and algorithms specific to belief networks and constraint networks are comb ined,

Robert Mateescu; Rina Dechter

2008-01-01

368

Topological Fidelity in Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor Networks are inherently complex networks, and many of their associated problems require analysis of some of their global characteristics. These are primarily affected by the topology of the network. We present in this paper, a general framework for a topological analysis of a network, and develop distributed algorithms in a generalized combinatorial setting in order to solve two seemingly

Harish Chintakunta; Hamid Krim

2011-01-01

369

Infrastructure tradeoffs for sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sensor network, the infrastructure (in terms of the sensor capabilities, number of sensors, and deployment strategy) plays a significant role in determining the performance of the network. In this paper, we study the effect of infrastructure decisions on the performance of a sensor network. We study the effect of the infrastructure for two types of network delivery models

Sameer Tilak; Nael B. Abu-Ghazaleh; Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman

2002-01-01

370

Network Leadership: An Emerging Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Network leadership is an emerging approach that can have an impact on change in education and in society. According to Merriam-Webster (2011), a network is "an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, or system." Intentional interconnectedness is what separates network leadership from other leadership theories. Network leadership has the…

Tremblay, Christopher W.

2012-01-01

371

Security issues in SCADA networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing interconnectivity of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) networks has exposed them to a wide range of network security problems. This paper provides an overview of all the crucial research issues that are involved in strengthening the cyber security of SCADA networks. The paper describes the general architecture of SCADA networks and the properties of some of the

Vinay M. Igure; Sean A. Laughter; Ronald D. Williams

2006-01-01

372

Neural Network Development Tool (NETS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial neural networks formed from hundreds or thousands of simulated neurons, connected in manner similar to that in human brain. Such network models learning behavior. Using NETS involves translating problem to be solved into input/output pairs, designing network configuration, and training network. Written in C.

Baffes, Paul T.

1990-01-01

373

On network coding for security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of network coding in military networks opens many interesting issues for security. The mixing of data inherent to network coding may at first appear to pose challenges, but it also enables new security approaches. In this paper, we overview the recent current theoretical understanding and application areas for network-coding based security in the areas of robustness to Byzantine

Keesook Han; Tracey Ho; Ralf Koetter; Muriel M

374

Statistical physics of complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We live in a connected world. It is of great practical importance and intellectual appeal to understand the networks surrounding us. In this work we study ranking of the nodes in complex networks. In large networks such as World Wide Web (WWW) and citation networks of scientific literature, searching by keywords is a common practice to retrieve useful information. On

Huafeng Xie

2008-01-01

375

Interconnection Networks Prof. Fred Chong  

E-print Network

/O Controller Graphics Network interrupts ideal: high bandwidth, low latency FTC.W99 5 Networks · Goal ­ switching (aka multiplexing) ­ wiring (e.g., choice of media, copper, coax, fiber) · What really matters.k.a. end systems, hosts Interconnection Network FTC.W99 9 More Network Background · Connection of 2 or more

California at Davis, University of

376

Program Helps Simulate Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural Network Environment on Transputer System (NNETS) computer program provides users high degree of flexibility in creating and manipulating wide variety of neural-network topologies at processing speeds not found in conventional computing environments. Supports back-propagation and back-propagation-related algorithms. Back-propagation algorithm used is implementation of Rumelhart's generalized delta rule. NNETS developed on INMOS Transputer(R). Predefines back-propagation network, Jordan network, and reinforcement network to assist users in learning and defining own networks. Also enables users to configure other neural-network paradigms from NNETS basic architecture. Small portion of software written in OCCAM(R) language.

Villarreal, James; Mcintire, Gary

1993-01-01

377

Network Probe 0.5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Network Probe 0.5 is a free network monitor and protocol analyzer that offers users an immediate picture of the current traffic situation on their network. Network Probe 0.5 also gives users the option to identify and isolate traffic problems and congestion throughout their entire network. Adding breadth and depth to the available features is the fact that users may also filter out selected protocols and hosts, along with sorting out network traffic by the amount of bytes sent or received. Network Probe 0.5 is compatible with all systems running Windows NT and higher.

378

From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells.

Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.; Parent, Jack M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Zochowski, Michal R.; Sander, Leonard M.

2010-12-01

379

Network connectivity entropy and its application on network connectivity reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network structure entropy has served as one of the index measuring network heterogeneity, but it gives no considerations to the impact of isolated nodes on the network structure. In addition, the all-terminal reliability is zero and is unable to compare it between disconnected networks. Therefore, the concept of network connectivity entropy is suggested to remove the current bottleneck and helps facilitate new index in terms of network connectivity reliability. This study fully proves the rules as follows: when the edges of network are diminishing, the newly-established network connectivity reliability will remain unchanged or become weaker; conversely, when the edges of network are increasing, the network connectivity reliability will remain unchanged or become stronger. Thus, the proposed index of network connectivity reliability is proved reasonable. Furthermore, the impaired metro network of Nanjing city is exemplified to demonstrate the validity and practicability of network connectivity reliability. The result shows that this new approach is in good position to compute network connectivity reliability quickly and effectively, and also to compare it between different networks.

Wu, Liusan; Tan, Qingmei; Zhang, Yuehui

2013-11-01

380

Controllability of deterministic complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the controllability of complex networks has attracted wide attention of researchers. The main contribution comes from Liu et al. who proposed the structural controllability as an analytical framework for making predictions regarding the control of directed networks in Nature. Since then, the controllability of many model and real networks has been deeply investigated except deterministic complex networks. In this paper, we focus on studying the controllability of deterministic complex networks. We examine six typical deterministic networks, the simulation results show that the minimum number of driver nodes grows linearly with network size. When the network size is large enough, the controllability approximates to a constant not more than 0.4, indicating that the deterministic networks are relatively easy to control. Furthermore, we investigate the characteristics of driver nodes in deterministic complex networks, finding that the driver nodes tend to avoid high degree nodes but to have high clustering coefficients.

Li, Xin-Feng; Lu, Zhe-Ming; Li, Hui

2015-07-01

381

Programmability of nanowire networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON/OFF current ratios (>105). However, large networks of nanowires distribute an applied bias across a large number of junctions, and thus respond not by switching but instead by evolving connectivity. We demonstrate that these emergent properties lead to fault-tolerant materials whose resistance may be tuned, and which are capable of adaptively reconfiguring under stress. By combining these two behavioural regimes, we demonstrate that the same nanowire network may be programmed to act both as a metallic interconnect, and a resistive switch device with high ON/OFF ratio. These results enable the fabrication of programmable, multi-functional materials from random nanowire networks.Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON/OFF current ratios (>105). However, large networks of nanowires distribute an applied bias across a large number of junctions, and thus respond not by switching but instead by evolving connectivity. We demonstrate that these emergent properties lead to fault-tolerant materials whose resistance may be tuned, and which are capable of adaptively reconfiguring under stress. By combining these two behavioural regimes, we demonstrate that the same nanowire network may be programmed to act both as a metallic interconnect, and a resistive switch device with high ON/OFF ratio. These results enable the fabrication of programmable, multi-functional materials from random nanowire networks. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Nanowire statistics (length, diameter statistics, and oxide thickness) are provided. Forming curves for single junctions and networks. Passive voltage contrast image demonstrating selectivity of conductive pathways in 100 ?m network. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02338b

Bellew, A. T.; Bell, A. P.; McCarthy, E. K.; Fairfield, J. A.; Boland, J. J.

2014-07-01

382

Optical Network Testbeds Workshop  

SciTech Connect

This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking technologies. Several years ago, when many of these optical networking research topics were first being investigated, they were the subject of controversial debate. The new techniques challenged many long-held concepts related to architecture and technology. However, today all major networking organizations are transitioning toward infrastructure that incorporates these new concepts. This progress has been assisted through the series of Optical Networking Testbed Workshops (ONT). The first (ONT1) outlined a general framework of key issues and topics and developed a series of recommendations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop7). The second (ONT2) developed a common vision of optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop8). Processes that allow for a common vision encourage widespread deployment of these types of resources among advanced networking communities. Also, such a shared vision enables key concepts and technologies to migrate from basic research testbeds to wider networking communities. The ONT-3 workshop built on these earlier activities by expanding discussion to include additional considerations of the international interoperability and of greater impact of optical networking technology on networking in general. In accordance with this recognition, the workshop confirmed that future-oriented research and development is indispensable to fundamentally change the current Internet architecture to create a global network incorporating completely new concepts. The workshop also recognized that the first priority to allow for this progress is basic research and development, including international collaborative activities, which are important for the global realization of interoperability of a new generation architecture.

Joe Mambretti

2007-06-01

383

Local-Area-Network Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) computer program provides method for simulating performance of high-speed local-area-network (LAN) technology. Developed as design and analysis software tool for networking computers on board proposed Space Station. Load, network, link, and physical layers of layered network architecture all modeled. Mathematically models according to different lower-layer protocols: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Star*Bus. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Gibson, Jim; Jordan, Joe; Grant, Terry

1990-01-01

384

Optimal transport on complex networks.  

PubMed

We present a heuristic algorithm for the optimization of transport on complex networks. Previously proposed network transport optimization algorithms aim at avoiding or reducing link overload. Our algorithm balances traffic on a network by minimizing the maximum node betweenness with as little path lengthening as possible, thus being useful in cases when networks are jamming due to node congestion. By using the resulting routing, a network can sustain significantly higher traffic without jamming than in the case of shortest path routing. PMID:17155132

Danila, Bogdan; Yu, Yong; Marsh, John A; Bassler, Kevin E

2006-10-01

385

The J-Machine Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The J-Machine network is a 3-D mesh employing worm- hole routing and virtual channels to provide two network priorities. Each network channel is 9 bits wide and oper- ates at 32MHz. Each J-Machine node contains network routers that guide messages between the six bidirectional channels incident on each node, and a network interface that handles messages originating or terminating at

Peter R. Nuth; William J. Dally

1992-01-01

386

Traffic Engineering Using Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to integrated high-speed networks accommo- dating various types of services and applications, the quality of service (QoS) requirements for those networks have also become diverse. The network resources are shared by the individual service traffic in the integrated network. Thus, the QoS of all the services may be degraded indiscriminately when the network becomes congested due to a sudden

Ryoichi Kawahara; Shigeaki Harada; Noriaki Kamiyama; Tatsuya Mori; Haruhisa Hasegawa; Akihiro Nakao

2011-01-01

387

Stochastically evolving networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a class of models for the evolution of networks in which new nodes are recruited into the network at random times, and links between existing nodes that are not yet directly connected may also form at random times. The class contains both models that produce “small-world” networks and less tightly linked models. We produce both trees, appropriate in certain biological applications, and networks in which closed loops can appear, which model communication networks and networks of human sexual interactions. One of our models is closely related to random recursive trees, and some exact results known in that context can be exploited. The other models are more subtle and difficult to analyze. Our analysis includes a number of exact results for moments, correlations, and distributions of coordination number and network size. We report simulations and also discuss some mean-field approximations. If the system has evolved for a long time and the state of a random node (which thus has a random age) is observed, power-law distributions for properties of the system arise in some of these models.

Chan, Derek Y.; Hughes, Barry D.; Leong, Alex S.; Reed, William J.

2003-12-01

388

Markets on Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of human, and most biological populations is characterized by competition for resources. By its own nature, this dynamics creates the group of "elites", formed by those agents who have strategies that are the most successful in the given situation, and therefore the rest of the agents will tend to follow, imitate, or interact with them, creating a social structure of leadership in the agent society. These inter-agent communications generate a complex social network with small-world character which itself forms the substrate for a second network, the action network. The latter is a highly dynamic, adaptive, directed network, defined by those inter-agent communication links on the substrate along which the passed information /prediction is acted upon by the other agents. By using the minority game for competition dynamics, here we show that when the substrate network is highly connected, the action network spontaneously develops hubs with a broad distribution of out-degrees, defining a robust leadership structure that is scale-free. Furthermore, in certain, realistic parameter ranges, facilitated by information passing on the action network, agents can spontaneously generate a high degree of cooperation making the collective almost maximally efficient.

Toroczkai, Zoltan; Anghel, Marian; Bassler, Kevin; Korniss, Gyorgy

2003-03-01

389

Oscillations of simple networks  

E-print Network

To describe the flow of a miscible quantity on a network, we introduce the graph wave equation where the standard continuous Laplacian is replaced by the graph Laplacian. This is a natural description of an array of inductances and capacities, of fluid flow in a network of ducts and of a system of masses and springs. The structure of the graph influences strongly the dynamics which is naturally described using the basis of the eigenvectors. In particular, we show that if two outer nodes are connected to a common third node with the same coupling, then this coupling is an eigenvalue of the Laplacian. Assuming the graph is forced and damped at specific nodes, we derive the amplitude equations. These are analyzed for two simple non trivial networks: a tree and a graph with a cycle. Forcing the network at a resonant frequency reveals that damping can be ineffective if applied to the wrong node, leading to a disastrous resonance and destruction of the network. These results could be useful for complex physical networks and engineering networks like power grids.

Jean-Guy Caputo; Arnaud Knippel; Elie Simo

2012-10-24

390

Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Network  

E-print Network

Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus in the lobster (Panulirus interrup- tus) pyloric network. J Neurophysiol 90: 2378­2386, 2003. First published June 11, 2003; 10.1152/jn.00705.2002. The lobster pyloric network has a densely interconnected synaptic

Hooper, Scott

391

Automatic Layout Generation of RF Embedded Passive Designs Mohit Pathak, Satya Vadlamudi, Josh Beaver, and Sung Kyu Lim  

E-print Network

Automatic Layout Generation of RF Embedded Passive Designs Mohit Pathak, Satya Vadlamudi, Josh of embedded passive RF circuits. Physical layout generation of such designs is challenging since the response multiple layers. However, the design of circuits with embedded passives is non-trivial due

Lim, Sung Kyu

392

Extremely Scaled Silicon Nano-CMOS Devices LELAND CHANG, STUDENT MEMBER, IEEE, YANG-KYU CHOI, DAEWON HA,  

E-print Network

gate, molybdenum, MOSFET, nanotechnology, scaling, ultrathin body (UTB). I. INTRODUCTION Rapid advances. Integrated circuits (ICs) based upon silicon MOSFETs can perform functions such as computing, signal new generation of manufacturing technology, steady improvements in circuit performance (speed

Bokor, Jeffrey

393

Pt Heater/Sensor Microarray for Distributed Fluidic Cooling Assessment Yong-Kyu Yoon and Mark G. Allen  

E-print Network

of this microfluidic cooling testbed are: (1) ability to simultaneously locally heat and locally sense temperature; (2) is subsequently deposited using E-beam evaporation before removing the photoresist used as the SiO2 etch mask

394

RF MEMS BASED ON EPOXY-CORE CONDUCTORS Yong-Kyu Yoon, Jin-Woo Park, and Mark G. Allen  

E-print Network

, such as transformers, switches and antennas. FABRICATION The fabrication process is described in Figur from magnetic flux leakage between relatively wide conductor line spaces, which can result in Q

395

GaN light-emitting triodes for high-efficiency hole injection and light Jong Kyu Kima,*  

E-print Network

region. LETs were fabricated using a ultraviolet LED structure that has an AlGaN/GaN superlattice-emitting triodes 1. Introduction AlGaN-based ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are attracting much efficiency. In AlGaN-based UV LEDs, an electron-blocking layer (EBL) is frequently inserted between the p

Jiang, Hongxing

396

Attractor Metabolic Networks  

PubMed Central

Background The experimental observations and numerical studies with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that cellular enzymatic activity self-organizes spontaneously leading to the emergence of a Systemic Metabolic Structure in the cell, characterized by a set of different enzymatic reactions always locked into active states (metabolic core) while the rest of the catalytic processes are only intermittently active. This global metabolic structure was verified for Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it seems to be a common key feature to all cellular organisms. In concordance with these observations, the cell can be considered a complex metabolic network which mainly integrates a large ensemble of self-organized multienzymatic complexes interconnected by substrate fluxes and regulatory signals, where multiple autonomous oscillatory and quasi-stationary catalytic patterns simultaneously emerge. The network adjusts the internal metabolic activities to the external change by means of flux plasticity and structural plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to research the systemic mechanisms involved in the regulation of the cellular enzymatic activity we have studied different catalytic activities of a dissipative metabolic network under different external stimuli. The emergent biochemical data have been analysed using statistical mechanic tools, studying some macroscopic properties such as the global information and the energy of the system. We have also obtained an equivalent Hopfield network using a Boltzmann machine. Our main result shows that the dissipative metabolic network can behave as an attractor metabolic network. Conclusions/Significance We have found that the systemic enzymatic activities are governed by attractors with capacity to store functional metabolic patterns which can be correctly recovered from specific input stimuli. The network attractors regulate the catalytic patterns, modify the efficiency in the connection between the multienzymatic complexes, and stably retain these modifications. Here for the first time, we have introduced the general concept of attractor metabolic network, in which this dynamic behavior is observed. PMID:23554883

De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortes, Jesus M.; Pelta, David A.; Veguillas, Juan

2013-01-01

397

Scalable network-on-chip architecture for configurable neural networks Dmitri Vainbrand  

E-print Network

Scalable network-on-chip architecture for configurable neural networks Dmitri Vainbrand , Ran: Available online 13 August 2010 Keywords: Networks on Chip Reconfigurable neural networks Hardware architectural challenge for hardware implementation of reconfigurable neural networks. We perform an analytical

Ginosar, Ran

398

Knowledge management and innovation: networks and networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Begins with a critical review of the literature on knowledge management, arguing that its focus on IT to create a network structure may limit its potential for encouraging knowledge sharing across social communities. Two cases of interactive innovation are contrasted. One focused almost entirely on using IT (intranet) for knowledge sharing, resulting in a plethora of independent intranets which reinforced

Jacky Swan; Sue Newell; Harry Scarbrough; Donald Hislop

1999-01-01

399

Global Supply Chain Networks Electric Power Networks  

E-print Network

Risk and Uncertainty Euler Method Numerical Example Characteristics of the Model E-commerce Risk Time Challenging intellectual questions Importance of supply chain decision-making Increasing globalization E-commerce Supply Chain and Electric Power Networks: Models, Pricing Analysis, and Computations A Dissertation

Nagurney, Anna

400

Tinnitus: network pathophysiology-network pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for one in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in CNS pathologies is changing from that of “magic bullets” that target individual chemoreceptors or “disease-causing genes” into that of “magic shotguns,” “promiscuous” or “dirty drugs” that target “disease-causing networks,” also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy. PMID:22291622

Elgoyhen, Ana B.; Langguth, Berthold; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

2012-01-01

401

NIRVANA network requirements  

SciTech Connect

NIRVANA is an effort to standardize electrical computer-aided design workstations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The early effect of this project will be the introduction of at least 60 new engineering workstations at Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, and at Allied Signal, Kansas City Division. These workstations are expected to begin arriving in September 1990. This paper proposes a design and outlines the requirements for a network to support the NIRVANA project. The author proposes a near-term network design, describes the security profile and caveats of this design, and proposes a long-term networking strategy for NIRVANA. 6 refs., 7 figs.

Wood, B.J.

1990-08-01

402

Network Security: Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prepared and presented by Professor Raj Jain at Washington University in St. Louis, this series of presentations is designed to introduce computer science students to the fundamentals of network security. Visitors have the option of choosing to download or view the presentations with audio, as individual slides only, or as a single PDF document. Topics here include: security requirements, public key encryption, digital signatures, and confidentiality. This is an excellent site for educators to use in the classroom or as a supplementary resource to introduce students to computer network security. Students may also wish to view or download the presentations to learn the basic concepts of network security.

Jain, Raj

403

BES Science Network Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

2011-02-01

404

Network Centric Core Avionics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current space craft data handling systems are primary computer-oriented building computer-centric systems. In this model the central computer has to provide high computing power, large memory, high dependability, fault tolerance management, and too many input/output connections. This makes the central computer development, very difficult. In our approach we aim to build a network centric system, where the central element is not a computer but a powerful space craft area network (SCAN). The network is built using dependable intelligent switches. These switches will be designed and manufactured as ASICs using the IHP technology.

Montenegro, S.; Schoof, G.; Haririan, E.

2009-05-01

405

The Gay Financial Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his mission statement, Walter B. Schubert, CEO and president of the Gay Financial Network (GFN), explains the driving force behind GFN's creation: "To build the first all encompassing financial services Web site to empower the American gay and lesbian community..." The Gay Financial Network is a financial news portal that targets the gay community. The articles are divided into several "channels" including Gay Financial News, Financial Planning, Home and Office, and Women's Channel. Financial services include information on online trading, banking, mortgages, and annuities. GFN also provides professional tools such as a gay and gay-friendly professionals directory and articles and information for career networking.

406

Local area gigabit networking  

SciTech Connect

Computer networks must become faster as the equipment that is being interconnected increases in power and performance. Ethemet, with a 10 Mbit/s speed, seemed awesome a few years ago, but is beginning to show its age as more machines are tied together, and workstations attain the power of yesterdays mainframes. Networks using gigabit speeds are just starting to become available and offer a whole new set of problems and potential. This paper addresses what the higher speeds are being used for, the ''standards'' efforts specifying the higher speed channels, the network architectures being proposed, and some of the open problems requiring extensive further work. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Tolmie, D.E.

1991-01-01

407

Identification of influential nodes in network of networks  

E-print Network

The network of networks(NON) research is focused on studying the properties of n interdependent networks which is ubiquitous in the real world. Identifying the influential nodes in the network of networks is theoretical and practical significance. However, it is hard to describe the structure property of the NON based on traditional methods. In this paper, a new method is proposed to identify the influential nodes in the network of networks base on the evidence theory. The proposed method can fuse different kinds of relationship between the network components to constructed a comprehensive similarity network. The nodes which have a big value of similarity are the influential nodes in the NON. The experiment results illustrate that the proposed method is reasonable and significant

Li, Meizhu; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong

2015-01-01

408

Fluvial network organization imprints on microbial co-occurrence networks.  

PubMed

Recent studies highlight linkages among the architecture of ecological networks, their persistence facing environmental disturbance, and the related patterns of biodiversity. A hitherto unresolved question is whether the structure of the landscape inhabited by organisms leaves an imprint on their ecological networks. We analyzed, based on pyrosequencing profiling of the biofilm communities in 114 streams, how features inherent to fluvial networks affect the co-occurrence networks that the microorganisms form in these biofilms. Our findings suggest that hydrology and metacommunity dynamics, both changing predictably across fluvial networks, affect the fragmentation of the microbial co-occurrence networks throughout the fluvial network. The loss of taxa from co-occurrence networks demonstrates that the removal of gatekeepers disproportionately contributed to network fragmentation, which has potential implications for the functions biofilms fulfill in stream ecosystems. Our findings are critical because of increased anthropogenic pressures deteriorating stream ecosystem integrity and biodiversity. PMID:25136087

Widder, Stefanie; Besemer, Katharina; Singer, Gabriel A; Ceola, Serena; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Quince, Christopher; Sloan, William T; Rinaldo, Andrea; Battin, Tom J

2014-09-01

409

Fluvial network organization imprints on microbial co-occurrence networks  

PubMed Central

Recent studies highlight linkages among the architecture of ecological networks, their persistence facing environmental disturbance, and the related patterns of biodiversity. A hitherto unresolved question is whether the structure of the landscape inhabited by organisms leaves an imprint on their ecological networks. We analyzed, based on pyrosequencing profiling of the biofilm communities in 114 streams, how features inherent to fluvial networks affect the co-occurrence networks that the microorganisms form in these biofilms. Our findings suggest that hydrology and metacommunity dynamics, both changing predictably across fluvial networks, affect the fragmentation of the microbial co-occurrence networks throughout the fluvial network. The loss of taxa from co-occurrence networks demonstrates that the removal of gatekeepers disproportionately contributed to network fragmentation, which has potential implications for the functions biofilms fulfill in stream ecosystems. Our findings are critical because of increased anthropogenic pressures deteriorating stream ecosystem integrity and biodiversity. PMID:25136087

Widder, Stefanie; Besemer, Katharina; Singer, Gabriel A.; Ceola, Serena; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Quince, Christopher; Sloan, William T.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Battin, Tom J.

2014-01-01

410

Compressive sensing over networks  

E-print Network

In this paper, we demonstrate some applications of compressive sensing over networks. We make a connection between compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic techniques in source coding and channel coding. ...

Medard, Muriel

411

Yeast Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yeast Education Network provides a variety of resources to facilitate use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in undergraduate science curricula. Laboratory, classroom, and computer-based activities can be used with college and advanced high school students.

412

Caregiver Action Network  

MedlinePLUS

... Are Education, peer support, and resources for family caregivers. The Caregiver Action Network serves a broad spectrum ... parents with Alzheimer’s disease. What We Do Connect Caregivers Valuable resources Advice from Caregiver Voices Peer Support ...

413

Architecting space communication networks  

E-print Network

Reliable communication and navigation services are critical to robotic and human space missions. NASA currently provides them through three independent and uncoordinated network that consist of both Earth-based and space-based ...

Sanchez Net, Marc

2014-01-01

414

Precision Irrigators Network  

E-print Network

conservation including an "Agricultural Irrigation Water Use Management" BMPs section. The full TWDB Report 362 can be found at: http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/assistance/conservation/consindex.asp. DSS include the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network...

Bynum, J.; Cothren, T.; Marek, T.; Piccinni, G.

415

Search using social networks  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we present an approach to the problem of personalized web search which makes use of the searcher's social network, in addition to the hyper-link based score used in most search engines. This combination of ...

Ammar, Ammar (Ammar T.)

2010-01-01

416

Survivability in layered networks  

E-print Network

In layered networks, a single failure at the lower (physical) layer may cause multiple failures at the upper (logical) layer. As a result, traditional schemes that protect against single failures may not be effective in ...

Lee, Kayi (Edmund Kayi), 1977-

2011-01-01

417

Netiquettes for Networkers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents 20 networking etiquette guidelines taken from electronic and print sources. Highlights include focusing on one subject, condensing messages, editing quotes, spelling and grammar, typography, mistakes, acronyms, humor, researching discussion groups, intellectual property and copyright, manners, ethics, and damage. (AEF)

McMurdo, George

1995-01-01

418

The MAD Scientist Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mad Scientist Network, provided by Washington University at St. Louis Medical School, is a Web based "ask a scientist" forum. You ask a question, and a scientist answers it. Answers are usually concise. The expert scientists include high school teachers, university faculty, and others. Both questions and answers are submitted via Web forms. A browsable and searchable question and answer archive is maintained. Scientists interested in joining the Mad Scientist Network will find information at the site. The Mad Scientist Network is part of the St. Louis Science Education Network. http://medinfo.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/ Scientists interested in participating: http://medicine.wustl.edu/~ysp/MSN/join/ List of "Mad Scientists": http://medicine.wustl.edu/cgi/cgiwrap.cgi/~ysp/mad/mad.scilist

419

Growing networks with superjoiners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the Krapivsky-Redner (KR) network growth model, but where new nodes can connect to any number of existing nodes, m , picked from a power-law distribution p (m ) ˜m-? . Each of the m new connections is still carried out as in the KR model with probability redirection r (corresponding to degree exponent ?KR=1 +1 /r in the original KR model). The possibility to connect to any number of nodes resembles a more realistic type of growth in several settings, such as social networks, routers networks, and networks of citations. Here we focus on the in-, out-, and total-degree distributions and on the potential tension between the degree exponent ? , characterizing new connections (outgoing links), and the degree exponent ?KR(r ) dictated by the redirection mechanism.

Jabr-Hamdan, Ameerah; Sun, Jie; ben-Avraham, Daniel

2014-11-01

420

Introduction to Network Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Internet Security Company Interhack, and written by Matt Curtin, this sixteen-page document is available in HTML, PDF, and Postscript formats. The document includes some history of networking, as well as an introduction to TCP/IP and internetworking. The document then goes on to consider risk management, network threats, firewalls, and more special-purpose secure networking devices. According to the abstract, the author hopes that â??the reader will have a wider perspective on security in general, and better understand how to reduce and manage risk personally, at home, and in the workplace.â? This is a great resource for students and teachers of introductory computer network security and cyber security courses.

Curtin, Matt

421

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW NETWORK  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW NETWORK INTERNATIONAL R�SEAU INTERNATIONAL DE DROIT DE L´ENVIRONNEMENT INTERNATIONALES NETZWERK UMWELTRECHT EU Enforcement Policy of Community Environmental law as presented in the Commission Communication on implementing European Community Environmental law Marta Ballesteros The direct

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

International Cancer Screening Network  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Working Together to Evaluate Cancer Screening and Improve Outcomes Internationally About the ICSN Overview Participating Countries Contact

423

Network Queueing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program directs traffic in UNIX-based network. NQS provides facilities for remote queueing, request routing, remote status, queue-access controls, batch-request resource-quota limits, and remote output return. Written in C.

Kingsbury, Brent

1988-01-01

424

The Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various systems and subsystems are discussed for the Deep Space Network (DSN). A description of the DSN is presented along with mission support, program planning, facility engineering, implementation and operations.

1977-01-01

425

Dynamic Transportation Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter, another application, a new moving objects database system, moving objects on dynamic transportation networks (MODTN), is proposed. In the MODTN system, moving objects are modeled as moving graph points that move only within predefined transportation networks. To express general events of the system, such as traffic jams, temporary constructions, insertion and deletion of junctions or routes, the underlying transportation networks are modeled as dynamic graphs so that the state and the topology of the graph system at any time instant can be tracked and queried. Besides, to track the location of network constrained moving objects, a location update mechanism is provided, and the corresponding uncertainty management issues are analyzed. The content of this chapter is mainly from the work of Ding in [1].

Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

426

The Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress on the Deep Space Network (DSN) supporting research and technology, advanced development, engineering and implementation, and DSN operations is presented. The functions and facilities of the DSN are described.

1979-01-01

427

Actively stressed marginal networks.  

PubMed

We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three-dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field theory, scaling analysis, and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of nonaffine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress. PMID:23368268

Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

2012-12-01

428

Chief Information & Networking  

E-print Network

Operations / Data Center Systems Server Admin Web Services Building Management Helpdesk Desktop Services Director HPC & Research Computing Tim Kaiser Director Networking Telecommunications Information Security Databases Enterprise Applications Administrative Applications Academic Applications HPC Operations HPC

429

Derek Wilson & Networking  

E-print Network

Computing Tim Kaiser Director Networking Telecommunications Information Security Facilities & Operations Enterprise Applications Administrative Applications Academic Applications HPC Operations HPC Administration (A/V) Customer Service Center Frank Robertson (S) - Students Department Support Ed Zucker (S) - Chris

430

Network Reconfiguration and Neuronal Plasticity in Rhythm-Generating Networks  

PubMed Central

Neuronal networks are highly plastic and reconfigure in a state-dependent manner. The plasticity at the network level emerges through multiple intrinsic and synaptic membrane properties that imbue neurons and their interactions with numerous nonlinear properties. These properties are continuously regulated by neuromodulators and homeostatic mechanisms that are critical to maintain not only network stability and also adapt networks in a short- and long-term manner to changes in behavioral, developmental, metabolic, and environmental conditions. This review provides concrete examples from neuronal networks in invertebrates and vertebrates, and illustrates that the concepts and rules that govern neuronal networks and behaviors are universal. PMID:21856733

Koch, Henner; Garcia, Alfredo J.; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

2011-01-01

431

The Colombia Seismological Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage of the RSNC network is presented along with the improvement in earthquake location and the quality of the data. New tools to calculate moment magnitude and focal mechanism are implemented as a result of the network expansion. The principal seismic sources in Colombia and the challenges for the future of the network are discussed.

Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

2013-05-01

432

Management of coalition sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management of sensor networks in coalition settings has been treated in a piecemeal fashion in the current literature without taking a comprehensive look at the complete life cycle of coalition networks, and determining the different aspects of network management that need to be taken into account for the management of sensor networks in those contexts. In this paper, we provide a holistic approach towards managing sensor networks encountered in the context of coalition operations. We describe how the sensor networks in a coalition ought to be managed at various stages of the life cycle, and the different operations that need to be taken into account for managing various aspects of the networks. In particular, we look at the FCAPS model for network management, and assess the applicability of the FCAPS model to the different aspects of sensor network management in a coalition setting.

Verma, Dinesh Chandra; Brown, Theodore; Ortega, Carolyn

2010-04-01

433

Applications of Social Network Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A social network [2] is a description of the social structure between actors, mostly persons, groups or organizations. It indicates the ways in which they are connected with each other by some relationship such as friendship, kinship, finance exchange etc. In a nutshell, when the person uses already known/unknown people to create new contacts, it forms social networking. The social network is not a new concept rather it can be formed when similar people interact with each other directly or indirectly to perform particular task. Examples of social networks include a friendship networks, collaboration networks, co-authorship networks, and co-employees networks which depict the direct interaction among the people. There are also other forms of social networks, such as entertainment networks, business Networks, citation networks, and hyperlink networks, in which interaction among the people is indirect. Generally, social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations and assists in improving interactive knowledge sharing, interoperability and collaboration.

Thilagam, P. Santhi

434

Causal networks in EIA  

SciTech Connect

Causal networks have been used in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since its early days, but they appear to have a minimal use in modern practice. This article reviews the typology of causal networks in EIA as well as in other academic and professional fields, verifies their contribution to EIA against the principles and requirements of the process, and discusses alternative scenarios for their future in EIA.

Perdicoulis, Anastassios [Departamento de Engenharia Biologica e Ambiental, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)]. E-mail: tasso@utad.pt; Glasson, John [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development, School of the Built Environment, Headington Campus, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jglasson@brookes.ac.uk

2006-08-15

435

Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The emergence of low-cost and mature technologies in wireless communication, visual sensor devices, and digital signal processing\\u000a facilitate of wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSN). Like sensor networks which respond to sensory information such as\\u000a temperature and humidity, WMSN interconnects autonomous devices for capturing and processing video and audio sensory information.\\u000a This survey highlights the following topics (1) a summary of

Ivan Lee; William Shaw; Xiaoming Fan

436

Competitive Contagion in Networks  

E-print Network

[? ] and Foster and Rosenzweig [? ] on farmers’ decisions on crop and input choice, and Feick and Price [? ], Reingen et al. [? ], and Godes and Mayzlin [? ] on brand choice by consumers. 2The popularity of terms such as word of mouth marketing, viral marketing... that imbalances in player budgets can be amplified at equilibrium. Keywords: D00, D83, D85 Competition, network multipliers, Tullock contests, viral marketing 1. Introduction The role of social networks in shaping individual choices has been brought out in a num...

Goyal, Sanjeev; Heidari, Hoda; Kearns, Michael

2014-10-05

437

Wireless Network Information Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an achievable rate for general deterministic relay networks, with broadcasting at the transmitters and interference at the receivers. In partic- ular we show that if the optimizing distribution for the information-theoretic cut-set bound is a product distri- bution, then we have a complete characterization of the achievable rates for such networks. For linear determinis- tic finite-field models discussed

Amir Salman Avestimehr; Suhas N. Diggavi; David N. C. Tse

2007-01-01

438

Telecommunications Network Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) must, among other things, be equipped to readily produce, file, store, access, retrieve, and transfer a wide variety of technical and institutional data and information. The data and information regularly produced by members of the OCRWM Program supports, and will continue to support, a wide range of program activities. Some of the more important of these information communication-related activities include: supporting the preparation, submittal, and review of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to authorize the construction of a geologic repository; responding to requests for information from parties affected by and/or interested in the program; and providing evidence of compliance with all relevant Federal, State, local, and Indian Tribe regulations, statutes, and/or treaties. The OCRWM Telecommunications Network Plan (TNP) is intended to identify, as well as to present the current strategy for satisfying, the telecommunications requirements of the civilian radioactive waste management program. The TNP will set forth the plan for integrating OCRWM`s information resources among major program sites. Specifically, this plan will introduce a telecommunications network designed to establish communication linkages across the program`s Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois; and Las Vegas, Nevada, sites. The linkages across these and associated sites will comprise Phase I of the proposed OCRWM telecommunications network. The second phase will focus on the modification and expansion of the Phase I network to fully accommodate access to the OCRWM Licensing Support System (LSS). The primary components of the proposed OCRWM telecommunications network include local area networks; extended local area networks; and remote extended (wide) area networks. 10 refs., 6 figs.

NONE

1989-05-01

439

Underwater acoustic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advances in acoustic modem technology that enabled high-rate reliable communications, current research focuses on communication between various remote instruments within a network environment. Underwater acoustic (UWA) networks are generally formed by acoustically connected ocean-bottom sensors, autonomous underwater vehicles, and a surface station, which provides a link to an on-shore control center. While many applications require long-term monitoring of

Ethem M. Sozer; Milica Stojanovic; John G. Proakis

2000-01-01

440

Multicast Bitonic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new multicasting network constructed with a bit-level cost complexity of O(N log2N) and a bit-level time complexity of O(log2 N) using comparators with bit-level I(1) time and cost complexities. The requested addresses for connection are sorted in a pipeline fashion (worm-hole routed) bit-serially most-significant-bit first through the network Bitonic sorter. The sorted addresses and the source

Majed Z. Al-hajery; Kenneth E. Batcher

1993-01-01

441

OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.

Yuen, J. H.

1994-01-01

442

Neural-network superresolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design options of superresolution using a neural network are discussed. Four specific neural-network architectures using different preprocessors are described, and their performances are compared. The correlation transformer is found to be the preprocessor that provides the best performance and the simplest implementation. The correlation transformer converts N complex inputs derived from a phased-array antenna into N(N+1)\\/2 complex outputs that

Don Torrieri; Kesh Bakhru

1997-01-01

443

VOIP over Space Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) over a space networking environment. The topics include: 1) Drivers for VOIP in Space; 2) Challenges in the Space Networking Environment: Long Latencies, Path errors, Simplex paths, Asymmetric paths, QoS requirements, Team-based operations, and Overhead concerns; 3) Possible VOIPOSN approaches; 4) Study of BER, code type and voice frame length on PESQ-MOS; 5) Codec Latency Trade Space; and 6) Testbed.

Okino, C.; Kwong, W.; Pang, Jackson; Gao, Jerry; Clare, L.

2006-01-01

444

Evolution of networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the recent fast progress in statistical physics of evolving\\u000anetworks. Interest has focused mainly on the structural properties of random\\u000acomplex networks in communications, biology, social sciences and economics. A\\u000anumber of giant artificial networks of such a kind came into existence\\u000arecently. This opens a wide field for the study of their topology, evolution,\\u000aand complex processes

S. N. Dorogovtsev; J. F. F. Mendes

2002-01-01

445

Leaf Pack Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Leaf Pack Network (LPN) is a network of teachers and students investigating their local stream ecosystems by participating in the leaf pack experiment, which involves creating an artificial leaf pack (dry leaves in a mesh bag), immersing it in a stream for 3-4 weeks, and examining it for signs of aquatic insects as indicators of stream health. Participating classrooms share their data through the internet. This activity highlights the connection between streamside forests and the ecology of rivers and streams.

446

Wireless sensor networks for measuring traffic  

E-print Network

Wireless sensor networks for measuring traffic University of California, Berkeley Sing Yiu Cheung, Sinem Coleri, and Pravin Varaiya 2 Outline · Traffic measurement · Wireless Sensor Networks · Vehicle wireless sensor networks compete? 7 Outline · Traffic measurement · Wireless Sensor Networks · Vehicle

Varaiya, Pravin

447

Distributed Control Approaches to Network Optimization  

E-print Network

The objective of this research is to develop distributed approaches to optimizing network traffic. Two problems are studied, which include exploiting social networks in routing packets (coupons) to desired network nodes (users in the social network...

Sah, Sankalp

2010-07-14

448

Partially Connected Locally Recurrent Probabilistic Neural Networks  

E-print Network

18 Partially Connected Locally Recurrent Probabilistic Neural Networks Todor D. Ganchev. Introduction In this chapter, we review existing locally recurrent neural networks and introduce a novel artificial neural network architecture that merges the locally recurrent probabilistic neural networks (LRPNN

Parsopoulos, Konstantinos

449

Multiple network interface core apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

Underwood, Keith D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hemmert, Karl Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-04-26

450

Recursive quantum repeater networks  

E-print Network

Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layering, and virtualizes the addresses of resources to improve information hiding and resource management. Our architecture is useful for building arbitrary distributed states, including fundamental distributed states such as Bell pairs and GHZ, W, and cluster states.

Rodney Van Meter; Joe Touch; Clare Horsman

2011-05-06

451

Scaling in transportation networks.  

PubMed

Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about 140 subway systems and more than 50 railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

2014-01-01

452

Scaling in Transportation Networks  

PubMed Central

Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about subway systems and more than railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

2014-01-01

453

Analysis of space network loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Network (SN) consists of several geosynchronous communications satellites, in addition to ground support facilities. Space Network management must predict years in advance what network resources are necessary to adequately satisfy all SN users. Similarly, users of the Space Network must know throughout all stages of mission planning and operations to what extent their communication support requirements can be met. NASA, at the Goddard Space Flight Center, performs Space Network and Mission Modeling using The Network Planning and Analysis System (NPAS), to determine the answers to these questions.

Simons, Mark; Larrson, Gus

1994-01-01

454

Theorizing Network-Centric Activity in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Networks and network-centric activity are increasingly prevalent in schools and school districts. In addition to ubiquitous social network tools like Facebook and Twitter, educational leaders deal with a wide variety of network organizational forms that include professional development, advocacy, informational networks and network-centric reforms.…

HaLevi, Andrew

2011-01-01

455

Interconnection of heterogeneous defense data networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss fundamental issues of interconnection of heterogeneous data networks where users access to long-haul networks, as well as to local-premises networks. Methods of interconnecting data networks are introduced, and their performance results are studied in detail. For each of the interconnection methods, various aspects of network performance and their implications for network planning are studied. The three major

K. Y. Jo

1989-01-01

456

From current to future wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless networking opens up the capabilities of portable devices. Wireless networks are diverse, but the most popular wireless network standards belong to either a group of public land mobile networks or the IEEE 802 family. While the core network needs to converge, the access networks will continue to be diverse. The devices need to be mobile, low-cost, and capable of

H. Anthony Chan

2008-01-01

457

An Algorithm for Minimal TANT Network Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for constructing minimal TANT networks is presented. Using the upper prime permissible implicants as candidates, two particular networks, A and B, are constructed. Network A has the minimum number of third level gates among all networks that have the minimum number of second level gates. Network B has the minimum number of second level gates among all networks

Hsiao-peng Sherman Lee

1978-01-01

458

Model of Multimodal Composite Transportation Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzed the logic structure of composite transportation system which was composed of car network, bus network and urban rail network, and represented the logical relation between each modal-sub-network by building 3D model. By analyzing the constituent structure of composite network, choosing attributes and analyzing travel impedances, the composite traffic system network was established, and the traffic assignment law

Xiaohua Yu; Kefei Yan

2010-01-01

459

Dynamic NetworksDynamic Networks ApplicationsApplications  

E-print Network

Memorial Professor University of Massachusetts - Amherst Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study November 9 look: in business, science, social systems, technology, and education, networks provide of today. #12;The study of the efficient operation on transportation networks dates to ancient Rome

Nagurney, Anna

460

Network Adaptive Deadband: NCS Data Flow Control for Shared Networks  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a new middleware solution called Network Adaptive Deadband (NAD) for long time operation of Networked Control Systems (NCS) through the Internet or any shared network based on IP technology. The proposed middleware takes into account the network status and the NCS status, to improve the global system performance and to share more effectively the network by several NCS and sensor/actuator data flows. Relationship between network status and NCS status is solved with a TCP-friendly transport flow control protocol and the deadband concept, relating deadband value and transmission throughput. This creates a deadband-based flow control solution. Simulation and experiments in shared networks show that the implemented network adaptive deadband has better performance than an optimal constant deadband solution in the same circumstances. PMID:23208556

Díaz-Cacho, Miguel; Delgado, Emma; Prieto, José A. G.; López, Joaquín

2012-01-01

461

Flexible application driven network striping over Wireless Wide Area Networks  

E-print Network

Inverse multiplexing, or network striping, allows the construction of a high-bandwidth virtual channel from a collection of multiple low-bandwidth network channels. Striping systems usually employ a packet scheduling policy ...

Qureshi, Asfandyar

2005-01-01

462

Logistical networking: a global storage network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absence of an adequate distributed storage infrastructure for data buffering has become a significant impediment to the flow of work in the wide area, data intensive collaborations that are increasingly characteristic of leading edge research in several fields. One solution to this problem, pioneered under DOE's SciDAC program, is Logistical Networking, which provides a framework for a globally scalable, maximally interoperable storage network based on the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP). This paper provides a brief overview of the Logistical Networking (LN) architecture, the middleware developed to exploit its value, and a few of the applications that some of research communities have made of it. This work is supported by the Department of Energy SciDAC Program (esp. Terascale Supernova Initiative) under grant #DE-FC02-01ER25465 and by the Center for Gyokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas, under award #DE-FG02-04ER25651. Additional support was provided by the Center for Information Technology Research (CITR) of the University of Tennessee. The infrastructure used in this work was supported by the NSF CISE Research Infrastructure program, EIA-9972889 and Research Resources program EIA-022444.

Beck, Micah; Moore, Terry

2005-01-01

463

Thermodynamics of Random Reaction Networks  

PubMed Central

Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erd?s-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha) and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa ?1.5 for linear and ?1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks. PMID:25723751

Fischer, Jakob; Kleidon, Axel; Dittrich, Peter

2015-01-01

464

Generative model for feedback networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a model for network formation and study some of its statistical properties. The motivation for the model comes from the growth of several kinds of real networks (i.e., kinship and trading networks, networks of corporate alliances, networks of autocatalytic chemical reactions). These networks grow either by establishing closer connections by adding links in the existing network or by adding new nodes. A node in these networks lacks the information of the entire network. In order to establish a closer connection to other nodes it starts a search in the neighboring part of the network and waits for a possible feedback from a distant node that received the “searching signal.” Our model imitates this behavior by growing the network via the addition of a link that creates a cycle in the network or via the addition of a new node with a link to the network. The forming of a cycle creates feedback between the two ending nodes. After choosing a starting node, a search is made for another node at a suitable distance; if such a node is found, a link is established between this and the starting node, otherwise (such a node cannot be found) a new node is added and is linked to the starting node. We simulate this algorithm and find that we cannot reject the hypothesis that the empirical degree distribution is a q -exponential function, which has been used to model long-range processes in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.

White, Douglas R.; Kejžar, Nataša; Tsallis, Constantino; Farmer, Doyne; White, Scott

2006-01-01

465

Network survivability performance evaluation:: a quantitative approach with applications in wireless ad-hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network survivability reflects the ability of a network to continue to function during and after failures. Our purpose in this paper is to propose a quantitative approach to evaluate network survivability. We perceive the network survivability as a composite measure consisting of both network failure duration and failure impact on the network. A wireless ad-hoc network is analyzed as an

Dongyan Chen; Sachin Garg; Kishor S. Trivedi

2002-01-01

466

Bayesian Network Analysis of Signaling Networks: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High-throughput proteomic data can be used to reveal the connectivity of signaling networks and the influences between signaling molecules. We present a primer on the use of Bayesian networks for this task. Bayesian networks have been successfully used to derive causal influences among biological signaling molecules (for example, in the analysis of intracellular multicolor flow cytometry). We discuss ways to automatically derive a Bayesian network model from proteomic data and to interpret the resulting model.

Dana Pe'er (Harvard Medical School; Department of Genetics REV)

2005-04-26

467

Passive Network-Awareness for Dynamic Resource-Constrained Networks  

E-print Network

Passive Network-Awareness for Dynamic Resource-Constrained Networks Agoston Petz1 , Taesoo Jun2 the possibility of col- lecting reasonably accurate context information passively. This paper introduces a framework for defining passively sensed context through network overhearing, defining context metrics

Julien, Christine

468

Networked infomechanical systems: a mobile embedded networked sensor platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) introduces a new actuation capability for embedded networked sensing. By exploiting a constrained actuation method based on rapidly deployable infrastructure, NIMS suspends a network of wireless mobile and fixed sensor nodes in three-dimensional space. This permits run-time adaptation with variable sensing location, perspective, and even sensor type. Discoveries in NIMS environmental investigations have raised requirements for

Richard Pon; Maxim A. Batalin; Jason Gordon; Aman Kansal; Duo Liu; Mohammad H. Rahimi; Lisa Shirachi; Yan Yu; Mark M. Hansen; William J. Kaiser; Mani B. Srivastava; Gaurav S. Sukhatme; Deborah Estrin

2005-01-01

469

Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Networks from Transportation Networks to  

E-print Network

and realizing a fast and sound response to evolving events. #12;Network problems are their own class of problems operation on transportation networks dates to ancient Rome with a classical example being the publicly provided Roman road network and the time of day chariot policy, whereby chariots were banned from

Nagurney, Anna

470

Tidal networks 2. Watershed delineation and comparative network morphology  

E-print Network

of three, we quantify various tidal network properties including common power law relationships which have common power law relationships quantified for terrestrial systems to tidal systems and use these analysesTidal networks 2. Watershed delineation and comparative network morphology Andrea Rinaldo,1 Sergio

Fagherazzi, Sergio

471

Robustness of a partially interdependent network formed of clustered networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clustering, or transitivity, a behavior observed in real-world networks, affects network structure and function. This property has been studied extensively, but most of this research has been limited to clustering in single networks. The effect of clustering on the robustness of coupled networks, on the other hand, has received much less attention. Only the case of a pair of fully coupled networks with clustering has recently received study. Here we generalize the study of clustering of a fully coupled pair of networks and apply it to a partially interdependent network of networks with clustering within the network components. We show, both analytically and numerically, how clustering within networks affects the percolation properties of interdependent networks, including the percolation threshold, the size of the giant component, and the critical coupling point at which the first-order phase transition changes to a second-order phase transition as the coupling between the networks is reduced. We study two types of clustering, one proposed by Newman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 058701 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.058701] in which the average degree is kept constant while the clustering is changed, and the other by Hackett et al. [Phys. Rev. E 83, 056107 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.056107] in which the degree distribution is kept constant. The first type of clustering is studied both analytically and numerically, and the second is studied numerically.

Shao, Shuai; Huang, Xuqing; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

2014-03-01

472

Scientific collaboration networks. II. Shortest paths, weighted networks, and centrality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using computer databases of scientific papers in physics, biomedical research, and computer science, we have constructed networks of collaboration between scientists in each of these disciplines. In these networks two scientists are considered connected if they have coauthored one or more papers together. Here we study a variety of nonlocal statistics for these networks, such as typical distances between scientists

M. E. J. Newman

2001-01-01

473

Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

Wu, Leting

2013-01-01

474

Depth Partitions, Hierarchical Network Structure, and Networks-Affect-Pricing  

E-print Network

Depth Partitions, Hierarchical Network Structure, and Networks-Affect-Pricing Theory in a Tokyo-Free? · Directed acyclic graph (DAG)? · How are pricing structures affected by: ­ Network macro-hub-and-spoke) Note.--Graph produced from data in Ohta-ku Akusesu Deta 1 & 2 (Ohta-ku Sangyo Shinko Kyokai 1997a; 1997

White, Douglas R.

475

Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of emerging online social networks of K-12 educators (and students). We base our argument on conceptual and methodological obstacles inherent in existing research approaches that severely limit theory building and empirical exploration of learning in online social networks. We present preliminary data exploring bridges—network

Mark S. Schlager; Umer Farooq; Judith Fusco; Patricia Schank; Nathan Dwyer

2008-01-01

476

Using Hybrid Bayesian Networks to Model Dependent Project Scheduling Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the use of exact inference in hybrid Bayesian networks to compute the exact marginal distribution of project completion time. Activities durations can have any distribution, and may not be all independent. We model dependence between activities using a Bayesian network, approximate non-Gaussian conditional distributions by mixtures of Gaussians, and reduce the resulting hybrid Bayesian network

Junwen Mo; Zhe Zhao

2008-01-01

477

Network Capacity with Local Network Views Salman Avestimehr  

E-print Network

of learning (nodes know very little) How much can we go beyond interference avoidance? ! First look at single networks key assumptions: nodes have full network knowledge (channel statistics, topology are obtained by coordination protocols ! We parameterize network knowledge by number of rounds of coordination

Manning, Sturt

478

Active Information Networks and XML Active Information Networks and XML  

E-print Network

are identified; rapid introduction of new services, dynamic customisation of services by clients, and minimal realisable active network proposal, is a potential solution to all three. Combining eXtensible Markup Language and Application Layer Active Networking yields strong benefits for networked services. A Wide

Marshall, Ian W.

479

Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

2010-01-01

480

CONTROLLING ACROSS COMPLEX NETWORKS: EMERGING LINKS BETWEEN NETWORKS AND CONTROL  

E-print Network

, computer science, physics, and social science. In control systems, communication networks are becoming. 0447898 4 Supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500 Consider such as a graph is used to enable control, while, in network theory, mod- els of network dynamics and growth

Tanner, Herbert G.

481

Do You Lock Your Network Doors? Some Network Management Precautions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses security problems and solutions for networked organizations with Internet connections. Topics include access to private networks from electronic mail information; computer viruses; computer software; corporate espionage; firewalls, that is computers that stand between a local network and the Internet; passwords; and physical security.…

Neray, Phil

1997-01-01

482

Networking for the Future of Science Network Architecture and  

E-print Network

Watersheds Surface Water Subsurface Water Geomorphology Biogeophysics Energy Water Aero- dynamics1 Networking for the Future of Science Network Architecture and Services to Support Large@es.net, www.es.net This talk is available at www.es.net/ESnet4 Energy Sciences Network Lawrence Berkeley

483

Validating Large Scale Networks Using Temporary Local Scale Networks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA NRCS Soil Climate Analysis Network and NOAA Climate Reference Networks are nationwide meteorological and land surface data networks with soil moisture measurements in the top layers of soil. There is considerable interest in scaling these point measurements to larger scales for validating ...

484

Computer Systems and Network Manager  

E-print Network

Computer Systems and Network Manager Fort Collins, Colorado POSITION A Computers Systems activities. RESPONSIBILITIES The successful candidate will perform computer systems and network administration, including computer hardware, systems software, applications software, and all configurations

485

AIDS Clinical Trials Group Network  

MedlinePLUS

... About Our Mission History of the ACTG Network Leadership Organizational Matrix State of the ACTG ACTG Operational ... and Forms Annual Progress Reports Performance Evaluation Program Leadership and Operations Center Network Coordinating Center Statistical and ...

486

Online Advertising in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

487

Onion structure and network robustness  

E-print Network

In a recent work [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], Schneider et al. proposed a new measure for network robustness and investigated optimal networks with respect to this quantity. For networks with a power-law degree distribution, the optimized networks have an onion structure-high-degree vertices forming a core with radially decreasing degrees and an over-representation of edges within the same radial layer. In this paper we relate the onion structure to graphs with good expander properties (another characterization of robust network) and argue that networks of skewed degree distributions with large spectral gaps (and thus good expander properties) are typically onion structured. Furthermore, we propose a generative algorithm producing synthetic scale-free networks with onion structure, circumventing the optimization procedure of Schneider et al. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks and random removals.

Wu, Zhi-Xi; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.026106

2011-01-01

488

Delay estimation in computer networks   

E-print Network

Computer networks are becoming increasingly large and complex; more so with the recent penetration of the internet into all walks of life. It is essential to be able to monitor and to analyse networks in a timely and ...

Johnson, Nicholas Alexander

2010-01-01

489

Characteristics of Small Social Networks  

E-print Network

Two dozen networks are analyzed using three parameters that attempt to capture important properties of social networks: leadership L, member bonding B, and diversity of expertise D. The first two of these parameters have ...

Richards, Whitman

2010-07-27

490

Virtual urban traffic network simulator  

E-print Network

In this project, I designed and implemented a virtual urban traffic network simulator. The simulator serves as a testbed for human-subject experiments to determine driver behavior in road networks and also as a platform ...

Uh, Jason (Jason J.)

2011-01-01

491

Meteorological applications surface network of  

E-print Network

Meteorological applications of a surface network of Global Positioning System receivers Siebren de network of Global Positioning System receivers Meteorologische toepassingen van een grondnetwerk van Global Positioning System ontvangers Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad doctor op gezag van de

Stoffelen, Ad

492

Overview of a minicomputer network  

SciTech Connect

A computer network was developed to support minicomputers used at a number of locations within Sandia National Laboratories. This report describes the control strategies, capabilities, and design philosophies of the minicomputer network. 2 figures.

Vahle, M. O.; Tolendino, L. F.

1980-08-01

493

Distributed computation in dynamic networks  

E-print Network

In this paper we investigate distributed computation in dynamic networks in which the network topology changes from round to round. We consider a worst-case model in which the communication links for each round are chosen ...

Kuhn, Fabian

2010-01-01

494

Distributed Computation in Dynamic Networks  

E-print Network

In this report we investigate distributed computation in dynamic networks in which the network topology changes from round to round. We consider a worst-case model in which the communication links for each round are chosen ...

Oshman, Rotem

2009-11-10

495

Automating Network and Systems Diagnostics  

E-print Network

misconfiguration (Usenix Security 2010) #12;Typical Home Network User Applications: · IM, VoIP, Games · Email ·FilePrints = Network Problem Fingerprinting Automate problem diagnosis using "shared knowledge" NetPrints Cloud Service

Rajamani, Sriram K.

496

Network-Friendly Gossiping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of large-scale distributed applications based on many-to-many communication models, e.g., broadcast and decentralized group communication, has an important impact on the underlying layers, notably the Internet routing infrastructure. To make an effective use of network resources, protocols should both limit the stress (amount of messages) on each infrastructure entity like routers and links, and balance as much as possible the load in the network. Most protocols use application-level metrics such as delays to improve efficiency of content dissemination or routing, but the extend to which such application-centric optimizations help reduce and balance the load imposed to the infrastructure is unclear. In this paper, we elaborate on the design of such network-friendly protocols and associated metrics. More specifically, we investigate random-based gossip dissemination. We propose and evaluate different ways of making this representative protocol network-friendly while keeping its desirable properties (robustness and low delays). Simulations of the proposed methods using synthetic and real network topologies convey and compare their abilities to reduce and balance the load while keeping good performance.

Serbu, Sabina; Rivière, Étienne; Felber, Pascal

497

Yugoslav strong motion network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning ground motion and the response of structures during strong earthquakes are necessary for seismic hazard evaluation and the definition of design criteria for structures to be constructed in seismically active zones. The only way to obtain such data is the installation of a strong-motion instrument network. The Yugoslav strong-motion programme was created in 1972 to recover strong-motion response data used by the structural engineering community in developing earthquake resistant design. Instruments, accelerographs SMA-1 and seismoscopes WM-1, were installed in free-field stations and on structures (high-rise buildings, dams, bridges, etc.). A total number of 176 accelerographs and 137 seismoscopes have been installed and are operating in Yugoslavia. The strong-motion programme in Yugoslavia consists of five subactivities: network design, network operation, data processing, network management and research as well as application. All these activities are under the responsibility of IZIIS in cooperation with the Yugoslav Association of Seismology. By 1975 in the realisation of this project participated the CALTECH as cooperative institution in the joint American-Yugoslav cooperative project. The results obtained which are presented in this paper, and their application in the aseismic design justify the necessity for the existence of such a network in Yugoslavia.

Mihailov, Vladimir

1985-04-01

498

Quantifying Loopy Network Architectures  

PubMed Central

Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes) from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs. PMID:22701593

Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

2012-01-01

499

Trees, networks, and hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews theoretical and observational material on form and function of natural networks appeared in somewhat disparate contexts from physics to biology, whose study is related to hydrologic research. Moving from the exact result that drainage network configurations minimizing total energy dissipation are stationary solutions of the general equation describing landscape evolution, we discuss the properties and the dynamic origin of the scale-invariant structure of river patterns and its relation to optimal selection. We argue that at least in the fluvial landscape, nature works through imperfect searches for dynamically accessible optimal configurations and that purely random or deterministic constructs are clearly unsuitable to properly describe natural network forms. We also show that optimal networks are spanning loopless configurations only under precise physical requirements that arise under the constraints imposed by continuity. In the case of rivers, every spanning tree proves a local minimum of total energy dissipation. This is stated in a theorem form applicable to generic networks, suggesting that other branching structures occurring in nature (e.g., scale-free and looping) may possibly arise through optimality to different selective pressures. We thus conclude that one recurrent self-organized mechanism for the dynamic origin of fractal forms is the robust strive for imperfect optimality that we see embedded in many natural patterns, chief and foremost hydrologic ones.

Rinaldo, Andrea; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos

2006-06-01

500

Trees, networks and optimality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and observational material on form and function of natural networks appeared in somewhat disparate contexts from physics to biology is critically reviewed. Moving from the exact result that drainage network configurations minimizing total energy dissipation are stationary solutions of the general equation describing landscape evolution, the properties and the dynamic origin of the scale-invariant structure of river patterns are discussed in relation to optimal selection. It is argued that at least in the fluvial landscape Nature works through imperfect searches for dynamically accessible optimal configurations and that purely random or deterministic constructs are clearly unsuitable to properly describe natural network forms. We also show that optimal networks are spanning loopless configurations only under precise physical requirements that arise under the constraints imposed by continuity. In the case of rivers, every spanning tree proves a local minimum of total energy dissipation. This is stated in a theorem form applicable to generic networks, suggesting that other branching structures occurring in nature (e.g., scale-free and looping) may possibly arise through optimality to different selective pressures. It is thus suggested that one recurrent self- organized mechanism for the dynamic origin of fractal forms is the robust strive for imperfect optimality that it is observed in many natural patterns, chief and foremost hydrologic ones.

Rinaldo, A.

2008-12-01