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1

Yo-yo Pull Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in its lowest position.2,3 As well as pulling the yo-yo horizontally, often the string is lifted until the angle it makes with the table causes no motion. This occurs when the line extended from the string intersects the point of contact of the yo-yo with the table.4 This paper describes an apparatus that extends these demonstrations to the situation where the force pulling the yo-yo is still horizontal yet is below the level of the table.

Layton, William

2013-03-01

2

Yo-Yo Pull Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in…

Layton, William

2013-01-01

3

The Yo-Yo Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and a graphing calculator. The lesson begins with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Then learners complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies. Algebra tiles are introduced next as learners practice solving linear equations. Finally, learners return to solving the yo-yo problem.

Pbs

2012-01-01

4

Recycled Yo-Yo Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are challenged to build their own yo-yo toys using items found in their recycling bins. Learners search for materials to use for each part of the toy: two discs, an axle, and string. Learners then sketch their invention, assemble the parts, and test it out. Learners are encouraged to tweak their yo-yos and make improvements.

History, National M.

2012-06-26

5

Museum of Yo-Yo History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps no toy is as maligned as the yo-yo, despite its long and colorful history. The roots of the yo-yo can be traced back to antiquity, and there is even a Grecian urn in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art that depicts that most well-known of yo-yo maneuvers: walking the dog. Visitors with a penchant for the yo-yo will appreciate the wide range of materials that can be found on the site, particularly the rather compelling online exhibit of highly valuable yo-yos, such as the 1984 Olympics No Jive model. For those who want to continue their exploration of the yo-yo, there is the âÂÂProfiles & Historyâ area, which contains player and company profiles, along with historical photographs of yo-yos in action.

2004-01-01

6

Exploring the Yo-Yo: Filipino Physics Fun  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The yo-yo is a scientific toy that has fascinated young and old for thousands of years. According to yo-yo experts, the yo-yo is the second oldest toy in the world, after the doll. Yo-yo activities can be an excellent tool to help students explore many important physics concepts related to energy and motion. The rich history of the yo-yo offers…

Murfin, Brian

2012-01-01

7

Two-String Yo-Yo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners build a yo-yo using a piece of wood, PVC pipe, and string. In doing so, learners explore the force of gravity and angular momentum. This activity guide includes step-by-step instructions with images, a video, and focus questions. Drill, hacksaw or jigsaw, and hammer are required.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

8

Enhanced Charge-Transfer Kinetics by Anion Surface Modi cation of Kyu-Sung Park,,  

E-print Network

cation improves greatly the charge transfer kinetics and the charge/discharge performance of a LiFePO4 for a Li-ion battery (LIB) that contains low-cost, environmentally benign materials, is safe, and hasEnhanced Charge-Transfer Kinetics by Anion Surface Modi cation of LiFePO4 Kyu-Sung Park,, Penghao

Henkelman, Graeme

9

Reliability and Performance-aware 3D SRAM Design Mohit Pathak and Sung Kyu Lim  

E-print Network

Reliability and Performance-aware 3D SRAM Design Mohit Pathak and Sung Kyu Lim School of Electrical the yield of the chip. In this paper, we discuss how to perform physical design of bank-level 3D SRAM. We show that a tradeoff exists in terms of reliability and performance for 3D SRAMs. We also show

Lim, Sung Kyu

10

Thermally Stable Gel Polymer Electrolytes Min-Kyu Song,a  

E-print Network

Thermally Stable Gel Polymer Electrolytes Min-Kyu Song,a Young-Taek Kim,a Yong Tae Kim,b Byung Won/polyvinylidene fluoride PEGDA/PVdF blend gel polymer electrolytes, low molecular weight (M 742) liquid PEGDA oligomer was mixed with PVdF-HFP dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate/LiPF6 liquid electrolytes

Popov, Branko N.

11

Mechanical Study of a Modern Yo-Yo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the study of a modern yo-yo having a centrifugal clutch allowing the free rolling. First, the mechanical parts of the yo-yo are measured, allowing us to determine analytically its velocity according to its height of fall. Then, we are more particularly interested in the centrifugal device constituted by springs and small…

de Izarra, Charles

2011-01-01

12

Mechanical study of a modern yo-yo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the study of a modern yo-yo having a centrifugal clutch allowing the free rolling. First, the mechanical parts of the yo-yo are measured, allowing us to determine analytically its velocity according to its height of fall. Then, we are more particularly interested in the centrifugal device constituted by springs and small masses. The physics of this toy is suitable for undergraduate students, illustrating the concepts of dynamics of rigid bodies and of potential energy.

de Izarra, Charles

2011-07-01

13

Embedded Solenoid Inductors for RF CMOS Power Amplifiers Yong-Kyu Yoon, Emery Chen, Mark G. Allen, and Joy Laskar  

E-print Network

for integrated RF inductors on silicon is minimization of parasitic effects, e.g., coupling capacitance betweenEmbedded Solenoid Inductors for RF CMOS Power Amplifiers Yong-Kyu Yoon, Emery Chen, Mark G. Allen- embedded, high-Q electroplated inductor, and the simultaneous integration of four of these devices

14

Area-Mura Detection in TFT-LCD Panel* Kyu N. Choi, Jae Y. Lee, and Suk I. Yoo  

E-print Network

Area-Mura Detection in TFT-LCD Panel* Kyu N. Choi, Jae Y. Lee, and Suk I. Yoo School of Computer has been evaluated on those TFT-LCD panel samples provided by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Keywords : Segmentation, Regression Diagnostics, Mura, TFT-LCD, SEMU-Index. 1 INTRODUCTION TFT-LCD panel is a display

Yoo, SukIn

15

?-alanine supplementation improves YoYo intermittent recovery test performance  

PubMed Central

Background ?-alanine supplementation has been shown to improve high-intensity exercise performance and capacity. However, the effects on intermittent exercise are less clear, with no effect shown on repeated sprint activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ?-alanine supplementation on YoYo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YoYo IR2) performance. Methods Seventeen amateur footballers were allocated to either a placebo (PLA; N = 8) or ?-alanine (BA; N = 9) supplementation group, and performed the YoYo IR2 on two separate occasions, pre and post 12 weeks of supplementation during a competitive season. Specifically, players were supplemented from early to mid-season (PLA: N = 5; BA: N = 6) or mid- to the end of the season (PLA: N = 3; BA: N = 3). Data were analysed using a two factor ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc analyses. Results Pre supplementation scores were 1185 ± 216 and 1093 ± 148 m for PLA and BA, with no differences between groups (P = 0.41). YoYo performance was significantly improved for BA (+34.3%, P ? 0.001) but not PLA (?7.3%, P = 0.24) following supplementation. 2 of 8 (Early – Mid: 2 of 5; Mid – End: 0 of 3) players improved their YoYo scores in PLA (Range: -37.5 to + 14.7%) and 8 of 9 (Early – Mid: 6 of 6; Mid – End: 2 of 3) improved for BA (Range: +0.0 to +72.7%). Conclusions 12 weeks of ?-alanine supplementation improved YoYo IR2 performance, likely due to an increased muscle buffering capacity resulting in an attenuation of the reduction in intracellular pH during high-intensity intermittent exercise. PMID:22928989

2012-01-01

16

A YO-YO low level atmospheric sounding instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A YO-YO Sounder capable of making repeated low-level soundings of the atmosphere is presented. The YO-YO sounder under consideration uses a 30- or 100-g balloon attached to the sounder and inflated in such a manner as to provide a negative free lift so that it descends at a certain rate. Several field tests in the real atmosphere over an open field showed that the sounder worked well in light wind conditions and to heights of 100-m tether length.

Meyer, J. H.; Rowland, J. R.; Grubelich, M. C.; Miller, R. E.; Allison, J. B.

17

Ecological validity of the Yo-Yo SFIE2 test.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the movement pattern of Portuguese top-level futsal referees (n=16) during competitive games and the ecological validity of the new Yo-Yo Sideways-Forwards Intermittent Endurance level 2 test (Yo-Yo SFIE2). Total distance covered (TD), high-intensity running (HIR), sprinting (SPR), and sideways running (Sw) during matches were 5.78±0.24 (±SEM), 0.77±0.08, 0.17±0.02 and 1.61±0.28 km, respectively, with peak 5-min values of 0.50±0.02, 0.12±0.01, 0.05±0.01 and 0.20±0.02 km, respectively. TD, HIR and Sw decreased by 30% (p<0.001), 43% and 60% (p<0.01), respectively from the first to the last 10-min period. Yo-Yo SFIE2 performance was 1205±107 (625-2015) m and showed large correlations with match-values and peak 5-min values for HIR (r=0.58 and 0.68, p<0.01) and SPR (r=0.56 and 0.57, p<0.05). Yo-Yo SFIE2 HR after 4 min [95±1 (87-99) % HRpeak] showed a nearly perfect inverse correlation with Yo-Yo SFIE2 performance (r= -0.90, p<0.001) and large inverse correlations (p<0.05) with match-values and peak 5-min values for HIR (r= -0.55 and -0.71) and SPR (r= -0.57 and -0.55). In conclusion, the Yo-Yo SFIE2 test is movement-specific for top-level futsal referees as high-intensity running and sideways running are important parts of their match activity profile, and maximal and sub-maximal versions of the Yo-Yo SFIE2 test correlates with certain aspects of the physical match performance of top-level futsal referees. PMID:22422308

Krustrup, P; Randers, M; Horton, J; Brito, J; Rebelo, A

2012-06-01

18

The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in basketball players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological correlates of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) in basketball players. Twenty-two male basketball players (means+/-S.D., body mass 72.4+/-11.4kg, height 181.7+/-6.9cm, age 16.8+/-2.0 years) were tested for maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), ventilatory threshold (VT) and running economy (RE) on a motorized treadmill. Lower limb explosive strength and anaerobic-capacity was assessed using vertical jumps (CMJ), 15m shuttle running sprint (15mSR) and line drill (LD), respectively. The same test battery was replicated after an experimental basketball game in order to assess selective effect of fatigue on physical performance. Pre to post-game CMJ (40.3+/-5.7 versus 39.9+/-5.9cm) and 15mSR (5.80+/-0.25 versus 5.77+/-0.22s) performances were not significantly different (p>0.05). LD performance decreased significantly post-game (from 26.7+/-1.3 to 27.7+/-2.7s, p<0.001). Yo-Yo IR1 performances (m) were significantly related to VO(2max) (r=0.77, p=0.0001), speed at VO(2max) (r=0.71, p=0.0001) and %VO(2max) at VT (r=-0.60, p=0.04). Yo-Yo IR1 performance was significantly correlated to post-game LD decrements (r=-0.52, p=0.02). These findings show that Yo-Yo IR1 may be considered as a valid basketball-specific test for the assessment of aerobic fitness and game-related endurance. PMID:17574917

Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Rampinini, Ermanno; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Manzi, Vincenzo

2008-04-01

19

The Yo-Yo Problem: Solving Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. The lesson starts with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Students then complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies that allows them to explore a linear pattern and express that pattern in symbolic form. Algebra tiles are introduced as the students practice solving linear equations. Working from the concrete to the abstract is especially important for students who have difficulty with mathematics, and algebra tiles help students make this transition. In addition to using algebra tiles, students also use symbolic manipulation and the graphing calculator. Finally, the students return to solve the yo-yo problem. A feature of this lesson is the effective use of peer tutors in this inclusion classroom. Student worksheets are included to print.

2007-12-12

20

Physiological determinants of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery tests in male soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological determinants of performance in two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery tests (Yo-YoIR1 and Yo-YoIR2) were examined\\u000a in 25 professional (n = 13) and amateur (n = 12) soccer players. The aims of the study were (1) to examine the differences in physiological responses to Yo-YoIR1 and\\u000a Yo-YoIR2, (2) to determine the relationship between the aerobic and physiological responses to standardized high-intensity\\u000a intermittent exercise (HIT)

Ermanno Rampinini; Aldo Sassi; Andrea Azzalin; Carlo Castagna; Paolo Menaspà; Domenico Carlomagno; Franco M. Impellizzeri

2010-01-01

21

Physiological determinants of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery tests in male soccer players.  

PubMed

The physiological determinants of performance in two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery tests (Yo-YoIR1 and Yo-YoIR2) were examined in 25 professional (n = 13) and amateur (n = 12) soccer players. The aims of the study were (1) to examine the differences in physiological responses to Yo-YoIR1 and Yo-YoIR2, (2) to determine the relationship between the aerobic and physiological responses to standardized high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIT) and Yo-Yo performance, and (3) to investigate the differences between professional and amateur players in performance and responses to these tests. All players performed six tests: two versions of the Yo-Yo tests, a test for the determination of maximum oxygen uptake (V(O)(2)(max)), a double test to determine V(O)(2) kinetics and a HIT evaluation during which several physiological responses were measured. The anaerobic contribution was greatest during Yo-YoIR2. V(O)(2)(max) was strongly correlated with Yo-YoIR1 (r = 0.74) but only moderately related to Yo-YoIR2 (r = 0.47). The time constant (tau) of V(O)(2) kinetics was largely related to both Yo-Yo tests (Yo-YoIR1: r = 0.60 and Yo-YoIR2: r = 0.65). The relationships between physiological variables measured during HIT (blood La(-), H(+), HCO(3) (-) and the rate of La(-) accumulation) and Yo-Yo performance (in both versions) were very large (r > 0.70). The physiological responses to HIT and the tau of the V(O)(2) kinetics were significantly different between professional and amateur soccer players, whilst V(O)(2)(max) was not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, V(O)(2)(max) is more important for Yo-YoIR1 performance, whilst tau of the V(O)(2) kinetics and the ability to maintain acid-base balance are important physiological factors for both Yo-Yo tests. PMID:19821121

Rampinini, Ermanno; Sassi, Aldo; Azzalin, Andrea; Castagna, Carlo; Menaspà, Paolo; Carlomagno, Domenico; Impellizzeri, Franco M

2010-01-01

22

Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes!  

E-print Network

¡Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes! ¡Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mí Diabetes! (Si, Yo Puedo/Latinos with diabetes. The curriculum is predicated on the American Diabetes Association's national standards of care and lifestyle skills to better control their diabetes. Relevance · Diabetes costs Texas more than 12 billion

23

Placement and Routing of RF Embedded Passive Designs In LCP Substrate Mohit Pathak, Souvik Mukherjee, Madhavan Swaminathan, Ege Engin, and Sung Kyu Lim  

E-print Network

cost and low temperature [2]. Thus, LCP-based embedded passives promise high quality passives Mukherjee, Madhavan Swaminathan, Ege Engin, and Sung Kyu Lim School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology mohitp@ece.gatech.edu Abstract Physical layout generation of RF embedded

Lim, Sung Kyu

24

Direct validity of the yo-yo intermittent recovery test in young team handball players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 performance (distance covered, Yo-Yo IR1) and match activities (direct validity) in young male team handball players. Eighteen young male players (age 14.3 +/- 0.5 years, body mass 64 +/- 28.7 kg, height 174 +/- 6 cm, body fat 11.2 +/- 3.9%) took part in this study. Players' match activities were videotaped during an experimental tournament (6 games/player) and analyzed using a computerized system. Games and Yo-Yo IR1 heart rates (HRs) (short-range telemetry, HR) and blood lactate concentrations ([la]b) were assessed throughout and at selected times of the games, respectively. Peak Yo-Yo IR1 HR was assumed as representative of individual maximal HR (HRmax). Mean and peak game HRs were 174 +/- 3 and 198 +/- 2 b.min, which corresponded to 87 and 99% of HRmax, respectively. Yo-Yo IR1 performance (1,831 +/- 373 m) was significantly related (r = 0.88, p < 0.01) to total game distance (1,921 +/- 325 m). Post-game (9.2 +/- 2.3 mmol.L) and Yo-Yo IR1 (8.8 +/- 1.6 mmol.L) [la]b were significantly related (r = 0.51, p < 0.05). These findings demonstrated the direct validity of Yo-Yo IR1. Consequently, Yo-Yo IR1 test may be considered as a team handball test relevant for the assessment of intermittent high-intensity endurance in young male team handball players. PMID:20072052

Souhail, Hermassi; Castagna, Carlo; Mohamed, Haj Yahmed; Younes, Hachana; Chamari, Karim

2010-02-01

25

LPE growth of silicon by yo-yo solute feeding method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stripe lines were observed on stained cross-sections of epitaxial layers of silicon grown by yo-yo solute feeding method using indium solvent. These stripe lines were found to be flat and parallel to the interface between the epitaxial layer and the substrate. The origin of these lines is discussed and it is made clear that the growth occurs in each cycle of yo-yo temperature repetitions.

Sukegawa, Tokuzo; Kimura, Masakazu; Tanaka, Akira

1991-02-01

26

Growth of GeSi thick alloy layers by the yo-yo solute feeding method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ternary phase diagrams of the Sn-Ge-Si system at 900 and 950°C have been made clear theoretically and experimentally. The growth technique of thick layers of Ge xSi 1- x alloy on Si(111) substrates using Sn solvent has been developed. Thick layers of about 800 ?m with 0.24 Ge mole fraction were successfully obtained by the yo-yo solute feeding method with 88 yo-yo repetition times between 980 and 960°C.

Sukegawa, Tokuzo; Izawa, Makoto; Katsuno, Hironobu; Tanaka, Akira; Kimura, Masakazu

1990-01-01

27

Relationship between Aerobic Capacity and Yo-Yo IR1 Performance in Brazilian Professional Futsal Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the relationship between aerobic and intermittent capacities in a team of professional futsal players. Methods Fifteen futsal players from Brazilian first division (age: 25.9±5.1 yrs; height: 1.77±0.04 m, body mass: 74.37±6.02 kg) performed in random order a ramp test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) at the start of the season for determination of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak running speed (Speak), and intermittent running ability. Results Mean VO2max was of 57.25±6.35 ml·kg-1min-1 with a Speak of 17.69±1.88 km·h-1. Yo-Yo IR1 performance was of 1,226±282 m. There was no correlation between VO2max and Yo-Yo performance while Speak and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were correlated (r=0.641; P=0.007). Conclusion From the current results, it may be suggested that both continuous and intermittent physical evaluations are necessary for obtaining a complete fitness profile of futsal players. The low Yo-Yo IR1 performance of Brazilian futsal players when compared to other elite team sport athletes warrants further investigation. PMID:24427483

Boullosa, Daniel A.; Tonello, Lais; Ramos, Isabela; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Simoes, Herbert G.; Nakamura, Fabio Y.

2013-01-01

28

The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test : a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports.  

PubMed

The two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (IR) tests evaluate an individual's ability to repeatedly perform intense exercise. The Yo-Yo IR level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test focuses on the capacity to carry out intermittent exercise leading to a maximal activation of the aerobic system, whereas Yo-Yo IR level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) determines an individual's ability to recover from repeated exercise with a high contribution from the anaerobic system. Evaluations of elite athletes in various sports involving intermittent exercise showed that the higher the level of competition the better an athlete performs in the Yo-Yo IR tests. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR tests for young athletes increases with rising age. The Yo-Yo IR tests have shown to be a more sensitive measure of changes in performance than maximum oxygen uptake. The Yo-Yo IR tests provide a simple and valid way to obtain important information of an individual's capacity to perform repeated intense exercise and to examine changes in performance. PMID:18081366

Bangsbo, Jens; Iaia, F Marcello; Krustrup, Peter

2008-01-01

29

LPE growth of GaAs by yo-yo solute feeding method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of gravity on both dissolution and growth of GaAs in the Ga?As system has been investigated using a horizontal "sandwich" system consisting of a substrate-solution-substrate configuration. Remarkable differences were observed in growth and dissolution between upper and lower substrates. These phenomena were attributed to the solutal convection driven by a concentration gradient. Based on these facts, a layer with a thickness of about 80 ?m was successively grown by the yo-yo solute feeding method with 8 yo-yo repetition times between 700 and 650°C.

Kanai, Hiroshi; Kimura, Masakazu; Tanaka, Akira; Sukegawa, Tokuzo

1996-03-01

30

The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) to discriminate elite junior Australian football players.  

PubMed

The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (IR) Test is currently used to assess endurance performance in team sport athletes. However, to date, no data has been presented on its application to an elite junior Australian football (AF) playing group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (IR1) ability to discriminate between junior AF players at two different playing standards and a group of non-athletic healthy males. Sixty age matched participants (16.6+/-0.5 years) spread over three groups (20 per group): elite junior footballers; sub-elite junior footballers; and non-athletic healthy males participated in this study. Participants undertook a single Yo-Yo test performance on an indoor basketball court for each group. A one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc analysis revealed the elite junior footballers covered a significantly greater total distance (p<0.001) and completed a significantly greater number of high-intensity efforts (p<0.001) in comparison to their sub-elite counterparts, whilst both AF groups performed significantly better (p<0.001) than the non-athletic healthy males. This study demonstrates the ability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to discriminate endurance performance between elite and sub-elite AF players, whilst further distinguishing AF players from a non-athletic healthy control group. PMID:19451033

Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J; Carlson, John S

2010-05-01

31

The Diagnosis of Yo-Yo Reflux with Dynamic Renal Scintigraphy in a Patient with Incomplete Ureteral Duplication  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of yo-yo reflux in patients with incomplete upper collecting system duplications is difficult. We report a case with recurrent urinary tract infections and ultrasonographically detected duplication in the left collecting system in which the presence of yo-yo reflux is demonstrated with dynamic renal scintigraphy. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23486254

Ozdogan, Ozhan; Ates, Oguz; Kart, Yeliz; Aras, Feray; Olguner, Mustafa; Akgur, Feza; Durak, Hatice

2012-01-01

32

Discriminative ability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) in prospective young soccer players.  

PubMed

We evaluated the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test-level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) when discriminating among players in varying playing positions and different age categories in youth soccer. One-hundred and six prospective young soccer players, grouped on the basis of chronological age (under-13, under-14, under-15, under-16, under-17, under-18, and under-19) and playing position (center-backs, fullbacks, center midfielders, wide midfielders, and forwards), participated in the study. The players were administered a single Yo-Yo IR1 test at the beginning of the spring season. Analysis of variance revealed significant (F = 25.3; p < 0.001) group differences in Yo-Yo IR1 test performance scores among the observed age categories, and a systematic age-related increase in the Yo-Yo IR1 test performance was evident. Subsequent post hoc comparisons identified a number of significant differences among the selected age categories in Yo-Yo IR1 test performance. Analysis of covariance identified significant differences among playing positions (F = 3.1; p < 0.019) in the Yo-Yo IR1 test performance after controlling for age (F = 135.1; p < 0.001). Subsequent pairwise comparisons of the adjusted Yo-Yo IR1 test performance identified that center-backs had achieved significantly lower (all p < 0.01) performance scores than center midfielders, wide midfielders, and forwards, but not fullbacks. These results could be of practical value to coaches and scientists for further development of talent selection and profiling procedures in soccer, particularly because (a) the endurance performance represents a very important fitness component in selection and profiling of young soccer players and (b) the Yo-Yo IR1 test proved to be valid, reliable, and easily available measurement tool of a player's soccer-specific endurance capacity. PMID:21804423

Markovic, Goran; Mikulic, Pavle

2011-10-01

33

The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n?=?92), youth (n?=?42), domestic (n?=?46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n?=?19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P?Yo-Yo IE2 test performance (P?Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and the total and high-intensity distance covered (r?=?0.55; P?Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and (r?=?0.68; P?Yo-Yo IE2 test were greater (P?Yo-Yo IE2 test performance increased by 14% (P?Yo-Yo IE2 test is reproducible and is an indicator of the match-specific physical capacity of female soccer players. Furthermore, the Yo-Yo IE2 test illustrates sensitivity by differentiating intermittent exercise performance of female players in various competitive levels, stages of the season and playing positions. PMID:22712498

Bradley, P S; Bendiksen, M; Dellal, A; Mohr, M; Wilkie, A; Datson, N; Orntoft, C; Zebis, M; Gomez-Diaz, A; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

2014-02-01

34

The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) yo-yo despin and solar array deployment mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAMPEX spacecraft, successfully launched in July 1992, carried a yo-yo despin system and deployable solar arrays. The despin and solar array mechanisms formed an integral system as the yo-yo cables held the solar array release mechanism in place. The SAMPEX design philosophy was to minimize size and weight through the use of a predominantly single string system. The design challenge was to build a system in a limited space, which was reliable with minimal redundancy. This paper covers the design and development of the SAMPEX yo-yo despin and solar array deployment mechanisms. The problems encountered during development and testing will also be discussed.

Kellogg, James W.

1993-05-01

35

The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) yo-yo despin and solar array deployment mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SAMPEX spacecraft, successfully launched in July 1992, carried a yo-yo despin system and deployable solar arrays. The despin and solar array mechanisms formed an integral system as the yo-yo cables held the solar array release mechanism in place. The SAMPEX design philosophy was to minimize size and weight through the use of a predominantly single string system. The design challenge was to build a system in a limited space, which was reliable with minimal redundancy. This paper covers the design and development of the SAMPEX yo-yo despin and solar array deployment mechanisms. The problems encountered during development and testing will also be discussed.

Kellogg, James W.

1993-01-01

36

Relative age effect and Yo-Yo IR1 in youth soccer.  

PubMed

The aims of the study were to investigate the presence of a relative age effect and the influence of birth quarter on anthropometric characteristics, an estimation of biological maturity and performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 in 606 elite, Flemish youth soccer players. The sample was divided into 5 chronological age groups (U10-U19), each subdivided into 4 birth quarters. Players had their APHV estimated and height, weight and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were assessed. Differences between quarters were investigated using uni- and multivariate analyses. Overall, significantly (P<0.001) more players were born in the first quarter (37.6%) compared to the last (13.2%). Further, no significant differences in anthropometric variables and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were found between the 4 birth quarters. However, there was a trend for players born in the first quarter being taller and heavier than players born in the fourth quarter. Players born in the last quarter tended to experience their peak in growth earlier, this may have enabled them to compete physically with their relatively older peers. Our results indicated selection procedures which are focused on the formation of strong physical and physiological homogeneous groups. Relative age and individual biological maturation should be considered when selecting adolescent soccer players. PMID:22791620

Deprez, D; Vaeyens, R; Coutts, A J; Lenoir, M; Philippaerts, R

2012-12-01

37

Competitive-level differences in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery and twelve minute run test performance in soccer referees.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine yo-yo intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo test) and 12-minute run test (12MRT) performances in experienced soccer referees of different competitive levels. Three groups (n = 14 each) of experienced Italian soccer referees officiating in the first (series AB, top-level), third (series C, medium-level), and fourth (series D, low-level) division, were randomly submitted to the 12MRT and the Yo-Yo test during 2 testing sessions, 48-hours apart. 12MRT performances were 3,000 +/- 112 m; 2,894 +/- 99 m; and 2,896 +/- 171 m for top-level, medium-level and low-level referees, respectively (p > 0.05). In the Yo-Yo test, the top-level, medium-level, and low-level referees covered 1,874 +/- 431 m; 1,360 +/- 172 m; and 1,272 +/- 215 m, respectively. The test performances of top-level referees in the Yo-Yo test was significantly different from those scored by medium-level and low-level referees (p < 0.05). After the Yo-Yo test, blood lactate concentrations (BLC) were higher in the medium-level and low-level referees compared with the top-level referees (p < 0.05). The results of the present study show that the Yo-Yo test and not the 12MRT can discriminate endurance performance in experienced elite level soccer referees. With respect to its discriminative and match performance validity, the Yo-Yo test may be considered a relevant field test to assess endurance preparedness for experienced soccer referees and a useful tool in talent selection. PMID:16287348

Castagna, Carlo; Abt, Grant; D'Ottavio, Stefano

2005-11-01

38

TSV Array Utilization in Low-Power 3D Clock Network Design Xin Zhao and Sung Kyu Lim  

E-print Network

for both gate-level chip-scale 3D clock designs and block-level global clock designs. Experimental results for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed permission and/or a fee. ISLPED'12, July 30­August 1, 2012, Redondo Beach, CA, USA. Copyright 2012 ACM 978

Lim, Sung Kyu

39

Endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric lesions using the "yo-yo technique".  

PubMed

One of the main difficulties during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the mobilization of the partially resected lesion in order to improve access to the lesion edges and the dissection plane. In the current study, the feasibility and safety of a new "yo-yo technique" to facilitate ESD procedures were evaluated. A total of 17 consecutive patients with gastric lesions were included. A standard hemoclip and snare were used to pull and push the lesion margins in order to increase the access to the lesion edges and to the submucosal space. All lesions were resected en bloc, without perforation or significant bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and all patients were discharged within 7 days. Resected specimens and lesions were 24 - 58 mm (mean 36 mm) and 18 - 45 mm (mean 25 mm) in size, respectively. The "yo-yo technique" is feasible, easy, and safe, and allows the lesion to be pulled and pushed during the ESD procedure. Further use of this technique may lead to the expansion of its indications to other gastrointestinal regions. PMID:23212725

Baldaque-Silva, F; Vilas-Boas, F; Velosa, M; Macedo, G

2013-01-01

40

Yo-Yo IR2 testing of elite and sub-elite soccer players: performance, heart rate response and correlations to other interval tests.  

PubMed

We examined performance, heart rate response and construct validity of the Yo-Yo IR2 test by testing 111 elite and 92 sub-elite soccer players from Norway and Denmark. VO?max, Yo-Yo IR1 and repeated sprint tests (RSA) (n = 51) and match-analyses (n = 39) were also performed. Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance was 41 and 25% better (P < 0.01) for elite than sub-elite players, respectively, and heart rate after 2 and 4 min of the Yo-Yo IR2 test was 20 and 15 bpm (9 and 6% HRmax), respectively, lower (P < 0.01) for elite players. RSA performance and VO?max was not different between competitive levels (P > 0.05). For top-teams, Yo-Yo IR2 performance (28%) and sprinting distance (25%) during match were greater (P < 0.05) than for bottom-teams. For elite and sub-elite players, Yo-Yo IR2 performance was correlated (P < 0.05) with Yo-Yo IR1 performance (r = 0.74 and 0.76) and mean RSA time (r = -0.74 and -0.34). We conclude that the Yo-Yo IR2 test has a high discriminant and concurrent validity, as it discriminates between players of different within- and between-league competitive levels and is correlated to other frequently used intermittent elite soccer tests. PMID:22867048

Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Bendiksen, Mads; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Castagna, Carlo; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

2012-01-01

41

Sub-maximal and maximal Yo–Yo intermittent endurance test level 2: heart rate response, reproducibility and application to elite soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to (1) determine the reproducibility of sub-maximal and maximal versions of the Yo–Yo intermittent\\u000a endurance test level 2 (Yo–Yo IE2 test), (2) assess the relationship between the Yo–Yo IE2 test and match performance and\\u000a (3) quantify the sensitivity of the Yo–Yo IE2 test to detect test–retest changes and discriminate between performance for\\u000a different playing

Paul S. BradleyM; M. Mohr; M. Bendiksen; M. B. Randers; M. Flindt; C. Barnes; P. Hood; A. Gomez; Jesper L. Andersen; M. Di Mascio; J. Bangsbo; P. Krustrup

2011-01-01

42

Yo-Yo IR2 testing of elite and sub-elite soccer players: Performance, heart rate response and correlations to other interval tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined performance, heart rate response and construct validity of the Yo-Yo IR2 test by testing 111 elite and 92 sub-elite soccer players from Norway and Denmark. VO2max, Yo-Yo IR1 and repeated sprint tests (RSA) (n = 51) and match-analyses (n = 39) were also performed. Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance was 41 and 25% better (P < 0.01) for elite than sub-elite players, respectively,

Jørgen Ingebrigtsen; Mads Bendiksen; Morten Bredsgaard Randers; Carlo Castagna; Peter Krustrup; Andreas Holtermann

2012-01-01

43

The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age. PMID:22076093

Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

2012-09-01

44

Risk of dementia after fluctuating mild cognitive impairment: when the yo-yoing stops.  

PubMed

Friends, family members, and medical caretakers notice that sometimes we have good days and sometimes we have bad days. If we are older, the bad days may involve making poor judgments, acting impulsively, forgetting information we just heard, or repeating ourselves in conversations. If these oscillations persist, then someone we know well may suggest consulting a physician because our bad days are interfering with our daily activities. Presented with variable symptoms on different occasions, physicians legitimately may diagnose us with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on one occasion and then equally legitimately retract the diagnosis on another occasion. Many in the field have observed that patients and study participants may yo-yo between normal cognitive performance and MCI, but until now, the import of these diagnostic fluctuations was unclear. PMID:24353338

Zonderman, Alan B; Dore, Gregory A

2014-01-28

45

Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test versus the Université de Montréal Track Test: relation with a high-intensity intermittent exercise.  

PubMed

The first purpose of this study was to determine whether the peak velocity (V(Yo-Yo)) achieved during the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo) and the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) determined from the Université de Montréal Track Test (UMTT) could be used interchangeably. The second purpose was to check that the V(Yo-Yo) is related to the intermittent exercise performance, which consisted of repeated 90 m distance runs in 15s performed until exhaustion, alternated with 15s of passive recovery (15/15). Fourteen amateur soccer players performed, in a random order, the 15/15 and two incremental field-tests: the Yo-Yo and the UMTT. The results of this study showed that MAV was significantly correlated to the V(Yo-Yo) (r=0.79, p<0.01). However, the error was not constant, when the V(Yo-Yo) and the MAV values were higher than 16.3 km h(-1), the MAV values tends to be higher than the V(Yo-Yo), while when the V(Yo-Yo) and the MAV values were lower than 16.3 km h(-1), the MAV values tends to be lower than the V(Yo-Yo). MAV and V(Yo-Yo) were significantly correlated to the time to exhaustion of the 15/15 (r=0.74 and r=0.72, respectively) and show that both tests are similarly related to the high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. PMID:19121978

Dupont, Gregory; Defontaine, Mathieu; Bosquet, Laurent; Blondel, Nicolas; Moalla, Wassim; Berthoin, Serge

2010-01-01

46

Reliability and validity of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 in young soccer players.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the test-retest reliability from the Yo-Yo IR1 (distance and heart rate responses), and the ability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to differentiate between elite and non-elite youth soccer players. A total of 228 youth soccer players (11-17 years) participated: 78 non-elite players to examine the test-retest reliability within 1 week, added with 150 elite players to investigate the construct validity. The main finding was that the distance covered was adequately reproducible in the youngest age groups (U13 and U15) and highly reproducible in the oldest age group (U17). Also, the physiological responses were highly reproducible in all age groups. Moreover, the Yo-Yo IR1 test had a high-discriminative ability to distinguish between elite and non-elite young soccer players. Furthermore, age-related standards for the Yo-Yo IR1 established for elite and non-elite groups in this study may be used for comparison of other young soccer players. PMID:24479712

Deprez, Dieter; Coutts, Aaron James; Lenoir, Matthieu; Fransen, Job; Pion, Johan; Philippaerts, Renaat; Vaeyens, Roel

2014-01-01

47

Biochemical Responses to Level-1 Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test in Young Tunisian Football Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this work was to investigate the metabolic and muscle damage responses after the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in young football players. Methods Fifteen male football players (17.42 ± 0.2 yrs, 69.91 ± 4.4 kg, 178.64 ± 3.8 cm; mean ± SD) participated in this study. Fasting blood samples for various biochemical parameters (i.e. lactate (Lac), glucose (GLC), triglycerides (Tri), creatine kinase (CK), uric acid (UA)) collected from a forearm vein after 5-min of seated rest and 3-min after the test. Moreover, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and maximal heart rate during and after the YYIRT were recorded. Results Mean levels of the selected biochemical markers were raised after the YYIRT exercise (P<0.001 for the other markers). Moreover, lipid parameters increased significantly after the test (P<0.01 for Tri and P<0.001 for HDL). Conclusion These findings confirm the higher metabolic demand of aerobic as well as anaerobic metabolism and reflect a significant mobilization of purine cycle during the YYIRT. The increase of muscle damage markers also reflects the higher anaerobic solicitation. From these findings, we can conclude the importance of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during soccer-specific endurance performance (i.e. YYIRT, soccer match). PMID:23785572

Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Miled, Abdelhedi; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

2012-01-01

48

Cardiorespiratory responses to Yo-yo Intermittent Endurance Test in nonelite youth soccer players.  

PubMed

This study examined the validity of the Yo-yo Intermittent Endurance Test (Level 1; YYIET) as indicator of aerobic power in youth soccer players. Cardiorespiratory responses were determined in 18 moderately trained nonelite youth soccer players (age, 16.6 +/- 0.8 years; height, 178.7 +/- 6.2 cm; body mass, 69.8 +/- 6.0 kg; VO2peak, 52.8 +/- 7.4 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) while performing the YYIET and an incremental treadmill test. Maximal heart rate (HRmax), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), O2 pulse, VO2peak, and maximal ventilation (VEmax) were measured. Group YYIET VO2peak, HRmax, RER, and O2 pulse were not significantly different from treadmill responses (p > 0.05). VEmax was significantly lower (p < 0.05) during the YYIET compared to the treadmill condition. No significant correlation was found between treadmill VO2peak and YYIET performance (p > 0.05). This study showed that the YYIET elicits peak VO2 and HR responses. However, YYIET performance results were not related to VO2peak measured in laboratory. Furthermore, the individual VO2peak reached during the TM did not reflect the VO2peak obtained during the YYIET, as shown by the large limits of agreement. As a consequence, compared to other shuttle run field tests, YYIET seems to be a weak indicator of aerobic power in youth moderately trained youth soccer player. PMID:16689622

Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Belardinelli, Romualdo; Abt, Grant; Coutts, Aaron; Chamari, Karim; D'Ottavio, Stefano

2006-05-01

49

Yo-yo subduction recorded by accessory minerals in the Italian Western Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure metamorphic rocks form during subduction of Earth's crust to mantle depths at convergent plate margins. Their exposure at the surface of Earth today provides a record of the subduction zone process. In general, such metamorphic rocks record only a single cycle of subduction and exhumation, yet tectonic models suggest that individual rock units should undergo multiple subduction-exhumation cycles. Here we investigate the microstructure and chemical composition of metamorphic minerals in high-pressure rocks exposed in the Sesia zone in the Italian Western Alps. We find that the minerals white mica, garnet, allanite and zircon each exhibit multiple generations of mineral overgrowths. In particular, two generations of white mica with high-silicon content, indicative of formation at high pressure, are separated by an overgrowth with low-silicon content that formed during exhumation at low pressures. Furthermore, the trace-element signatures of distinct zones within zircon and allanite also reveal two episodes of high-pressure metamorphism, separated by a period of rapid exhumation. We use uranium-lead dating of zircon and allanite overgrowths to constrain the timing of this subduction-exhumation-subduction cycle to 79-65Myr ago. We conclude that slices of the Sesia zone crust experienced two cycles of burial to mantle depths in less than 20million years. The yo-yo subduction occurred during oblique convergence between the African and European plates, which involved a continental margin.

Rubatto, Daniela; Regis, Daniele; Hermann, Jörg; Boston, Katherine; Engi, Martin; Beltrando, Marco; McAlpine, Sarlae R. B.

2011-05-01

50

Yo-Yo Magic or a Teacher of the Visually Impaired Learns Another Lesson in Social Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher of young children with visual impairments in a resource room program recounts how yo-yos became a bridge to development of social skills and friendships both within the group and with other students in the school. (DB)

Barclay, Lizbeth

1999-01-01

51

Sub-maximal and maximal Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2: heart rate response, reproducibility and application to elite soccer.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to (1) determine the reproducibility of sub-maximal and maximal versions of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2 test), (2) assess the relationship between the Yo-Yo IE2 test and match performance and (3) quantify the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo IE2 test to detect test-retest changes and discriminate between performance for different playing standards and positions in elite soccer. Elite (n = 148) and sub-elite male (n = 14) soccer players carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on several occasions over consecutive seasons. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and heart rate after 6 min were 3.9% (n = 37) and 1.4% (n = 32), respectively. Elite male senior and youth U19 players Yo-Yo IE2 performances were better (P < 0.01) than elite youth U16s and sub-elite players (2,603 ± 451 and 2,534 ± 549 vs. 1,855 ± 535 vs. 1,749 ± 382 m). The intra- and inter-season CV for Yo-Yo IE2 test performance were 4.2 and 5.6%, respectively. A correlation was observed (P < 0.05) between Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and the total (r = 0.74) and high-intensity (r = 0.58) running distance covered in a match. A correlation was also evident (P < 0.01) between Yo-Yo IE2 test heart rate after 6 min expressed in percentage of maximal heart rate and the peak values for high-intensity running performed by midfielders in 5-min (r = -0.71), 15-min (r = -0.75) and 45-min periods (r = -0.77). The present data demonstrate that the Yo-Yo IE2 test is reproducible and can be used to determine the capacity of elite soccer players to perform intense intermittent exercise. Furthermore, the Yo-Yo IE2 test was shown to be a sensitive tool that not only relates to match performance but can also differentiate between intermittent exercise performance of players in various standards, stages of the season and playing positions. PMID:21082197

Bradley, Paul S; Mohr, M; Bendiksen, M; Randers, M B; Flindt, M; Barnes, C; Hood, P; Gomez, A; Andersen, Jesper L; Di Mascio, M; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

2011-06-01

52

Aerobic fitness and yo-yo continuous and intermittent tests performances in soccer players: a correlation study.  

PubMed

Yo-yo tests are very popular in soccer; however, no study has addressed details of their relation to canonical aspects of aerobic fitness. Furthermore, no information is available on the effect of the individual levels of lower limbs' explosive strength on yo-yo tests in soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological determinants of Yo-yo Endurance Test Level 2 (YYETL2) and Yo-yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIRTL1) in soccer players. Twenty-four soccer players (body mass, 74.6 +/- 8.5 kg; height, 178.1 +/- 4.5 cm; age, 25.6 +/- 5.1 years) were tested for VO2max and ventilatory threshold (VT) on a motorized treadmill. Lower-limb explosive strength was assessed using vertical countermovement jumps (CMJ) performed on a force platform. Results showed that YYETL2 and YYIRTL1 performances (m) were significantly related (r = 0.75, p = 0.00002). YYETL2 results were significantly related to VO2max, VTVO2, and speed at VT (r = 0.75, 0.76, and 0.83, respectively; p < 0.00002). Peak treadmill speed results were significantly related to YYETL2 and YYIRTL1 (r = 0.87 and 0.71, respectively; p < 0.0003). YYIRTL1 was related to CMJ peak power (r = 0.57; p = 0.003). These findings show that YYETL2 and YYIRTL1, although adopting similar starting and progression speeds, are influenced by different physiological variables. From these results, YYETL2 can be considered an aerobic fitness-related field test, whereas YYIRTL1 can be regarded as an aerobic-anaerobic, soccer-specific field test. PMID:16689621

Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chamari, Karim; Carlomagno, Domenico; Rampinini, Ermanno

2006-05-01

53

The Relationship Between the Yo-Yo Tests, Anaerobic Performance and Aerobic Performance in Young Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship between performance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YIRT1), the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YIRT2) and the Yo-Yo endurance test (continuous) (YET) with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and Wingate anaerobic performance (WaNT) test results in young soccer players (age 15.00 ± 0.0 years, body height 176.3 ± 4.2 cm and body mass 68.1 ± 3.6 kg). An ergospirometry device was used during the treadmill test (TRT) to determine VO2max. At the end of the study, significant differences were found between the Yo-Yo tests and TRT in terms of HRmax (TRT = 195,92, YIRT1 = 197,83, YIRT2 = 198,5 YET = 198) (p > 0.05). While there were moderate correlations between VO2max and YIRT 1–2 performances (respectively, r = 0.56, r = 0.53), there was only a weak relationship between VO2max and YET performance (r = 0.43) (distance covered). There were also moderate significant negative correlations between performance in the YIRT2 and peak power measured in the WaNT (r = ?0.55), although there were no significant correlations between performance in the three tests and average power. A moderate negative correlation was found between performance in the YIRT2 and Fatigue index (FI) (r = ?0,66). In conclusion, the YIRT2 may be a more suitable field test for determining both aerobic and anaerobic performance in soccer players. PMID:23486008

Karakoc, Bar?s; Akalan, Cengiz; Alemdaroglu, Utku; Arslan, Ersan

2012-01-01

54

The relationship between the yo-yo tests, anaerobic performance and aerobic performance in young soccer players.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship between performance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YIRT1), the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YIRT2) and the Yo-Yo endurance test (continuous) (YET) with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and Wingate anaerobic performance (WaNT) test results in young soccer players (age 15.00 ± 0.0 years, body height 176.3 ± 4.2 cm and body mass 68.1 ± 3.6 kg). An ergospirometry device was used during the treadmill test (TRT) to determine VO2max. At the end of the study, significant differences were found between the Yo-Yo tests and TRT in terms of HRmax (TRT = 195,92, YIRT1 = 197,83, YIRT2 = 198,5 YET = 198) (p > 0.05). While there were moderate correlations between VO2max and YIRT 1-2 performances (respectively, r = 0.56, r = 0.53), there was only a weak relationship between VO2max and YET performance (r = 0.43) (distance covered). There were also moderate significant negative correlations between performance in the YIRT2 and peak power measured in the WaNT (r = -0.55), although there were no significant correlations between performance in the three tests and average power. A moderate negative correlation was found between performance in the YIRT2 and Fatigue index (FI) (r = -0,66). In conclusion, the YIRT2 may be a more suitable field test for determining both aerobic and anaerobic performance in soccer players. PMID:23486008

Karakoç, Bar??; Akalan, Cengiz; Alemdaro?lu, Utku; Arslan, Er?an

2012-12-01

55

Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performances within an entire football league during a full season.  

PubMed

The study examined Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YYIR2) and submaximal YYIR1 test performances in 172 male semi-professional football players (age; 25.8 ± 4.1 years) representing all teams in a top league at pre-season, start-season, mid-season and end-season. YYIR2 performance was 847 ± 227 m (±SD) at pre-season and rose (P < 0.05) by 128 ± 113 m to 975 ± 205 m at start of season and further (P < 0.05) by 59 ± 102 m to 1034 ± 211 m at mid-season. Submaximal YYIR1 HR was 90.9 ± 4.2% HR(max) at pre-season, which was higher (P < 0.05) than at start, mid and end of season (87.0 ± 3.9, 85.9 ± 4.1 and 87.0 ± 3.7% HR(max), respectively). Peak YYIR2 performance and minimum YYIR1 HR were 1068 ± 193 m and 85.1 ± 3.8% HR(max), respectively, with ~50% of the players peaking at mid-season. Top-teams and middle-teams had higher (P < 0.05) peak YYIR2 scores (1094 ± 205 and 1121 ± 152 m, respectively) than bottom-teams (992 ± 185 m). YYIR2 performance was 16% higher (P < 0.05) and YYIR1 HR was 1.4% HR(max) lower (P < 0.05) for regular players than non-regular players at pre-season and remained lower (P < 0.05) throughout the season. Central defenders had poorer (P < 0.05) YYIR performances compared to other positional roles. In conclusion, YYIR performances are highly variable within a football league over a season and are influenced by league ranking, regularity of competitive play and playing position. PMID:23980570

Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

2014-01-01

56

Aerobic fitness testing in 6- to 9-year-old children: reliability and validity of a modified Yo-Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test.  

PubMed

This study analysed the reliability and validity of two intermittent running tests (the Yo-Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test) as tools for estimating VO(2max) in children under the age of 10. Two groups, aged 6-7 years (grade 0, n = 18) and 8-9 years (grade 2, n = 16), carried out two repetitions of a modified Yo-Yo IR1 test (2 × 16 m) and the Andersen test, as well as an incremental treadmill test, to directly determine the VO(2max). No significant differences were observed in test-retest performance of the Yo-Yo IR1 test [693 ± 418 (±SD) and 670 ± 328 m, r (2) = 0.79, CV = 19%, p > 0.05, n = 32) and the Andersen test (988 ± 77 and 989 ± 87 m, r (2) = 0.86, CV = 3%, p > 0.05, n = 31). The Yo-Yo IR1 (r (2) = 0.47, n = 31, p < 0.002) and Andersen test performance (r (2) = 0.53, n = 32, p < 0.001) correlated with the VO(2max). Yo-Yo IR1 performance correlated with Andersen test performance (r (2) = 0.74, n = 32, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the Yo-Yo IR1 and the Andersen tests are reproducible and can be used as an indicator of aerobic fitness for 6- to 9-year-old children. PMID:21687996

Ahler, T; Bendiksen, M; Krustrup, P; Wedderkopp, N

2012-03-01

57

YO-3A acoustics research aircraft systems manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight testing techniques, equipment, and procedures employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters using the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft are discussed. The research aircraft instrumentation system is described as well as hardware installation on the test aircraft and techniques used during the tests. Emphasis is placed on formation flying, position locations, test matrices, and test procedures.

Cross, J. L.

1984-01-01

58

U.T. ARLINGTON POLICE yoUTotally Aware  

E-print Network

U.T. ARLINGTON POLICE DEPARTMENT yoUTotally Aware Identity Theft Defense To victims of identity: 817-272-5190 What Can I Do About Identity Theft And Fraud? U.T. ARLINGTON POLICE DEPARTMENT (817) 272 your personal information to others unless you have a reason to trust them, regardless of where you are

Texas at Arlington, University of

59

Agent Program Planning Information S! Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes!  

E-print Network

Agent Program Planning Information Sí! ¡Yo Puedo Controlar Mi Diabetes! (A culturally appropriate type 2 diabetes self-management program for Hispanic/Latino, Spanish-speaking audiences) Relevance · Estimates from the Texas Health and Human Services Commission indicate that in 2011 diabetes cost Texas more

60

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013...Chemical Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ). ...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 )...

2013-07-01

61

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009...Chemical Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2010-07-01

62

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009...Chemical Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ). (a...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2013-07-01

63

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013...Chemical Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ). ...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 )...

2012-07-01

64

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009...Chemical Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ). (a...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2014-07-01

65

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009...Chemical Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2011-07-01

66

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013...Chemical Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ). ...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 )...

2014-07-01

67

40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009...Chemical Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ). (a...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

2012-07-01

68

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013...Chemical Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 )...

2010-07-01

69

40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013...Chemical Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a...The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 )...

2011-07-01

70

Growth of GaInP thick layers by the modified yo-yo solute feeding method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new process for the yo-yo solute feeding method has been developed to grow a thick Ga xIn 1-xP alloy layer. In this process, we lowered the temperature of every cycle by 5°C. Only after three cycles was a Ga 0.69In 0.31P layer of about 70 ?m in thickness epitaxially grown on a GaAsP(100) substrate. The thick layer shows the FWHM of PL (photoluminescence) peaks of 37.2 meV at 300 K and 13.7 meV at 4 K, which indicates high quality comparable with normal LPE-grown thin layers.

Watabe, S.; Tadatomo, K.; Sukegawa, T.; Tanaka, A.

1993-03-01

71

Of Yo-Yos, the PIG and Tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid melting of the Pine Island Glacier (PIG) has been attributed to ocean melting. Specifically, this ocean melting is attributed to currents and tides pumping Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) into the ice shelf cavity. To illuminate the role of tides in the melting of the PIG and the circulation and mixing at the ice shelf front, a time series of yo-yo CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) data collected in the PIG outflow region was analyzed. The water column in the region consisted of two primary layers, a meltwater layer exiting the ice shelf cavity over a layer of CDW. Semidiurnal tides were present in both layers, with both the strength and direction of the tides differing between the two layers. The upper layer tides were stronger and directed in and out of the cavity, while the lower layer tides were primarily directed along the front of the cavity. The upper layer consisted of two meltwater layers. In the uppermost of these layers, waves with a semidiurnal frequency were propagating downward at a speed consistent with the M2 tide with the stratification. Energy was found to be transferred from the semidiurnal tide to other frequencies and to be reflected from the ice shelf front. These mechanisms were most prominent at the interfaces between layers and indicate potential mixing between the layers. In conclusion, tides were found to contribute to the circulation into the ice shelf cavity and also to mixing of the exiting water, which influences pumping of the CDW into the ice shelf cavity and melting of the PIG.

Robertson, R.

2009-12-01

72

The effect of indium-bismuth solvent on the composition of InGaP grown by the ``yo-yo'' solute feeding method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the "yo-yo" solute feeding method, growth is promoted by the difference between the specific gravities of the solute and the solvent. An indium-bismuth mixture was used as solvent in this study because the density of bismuth is about 1.3 times higher than that of indium. The GaP substrate and the InP source were placed above and below the melt, respectively. As a result, an InGaP epitaxial layer in which InP increases along with its thickness was grown on the GaP substrate. The thickness and the rate of increase of the InP in the growth layer obtained from one "yo-yo" cycle with In-Bi solvent exceeded that with In solvent only. These results suggest that the difference between the specific gravities of the solute greatly affects not only the extent of the grown but also the alloy composition.

Watabe, Shin-ichi; Tadatomo, Kuzuyuki; Sukegawa, Tokuzo; Tanaka, Akira

1994-03-01

73

Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.

Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.

2012-03-01

74

Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of new photocatalyst CdBiYO4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdBiYO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of CdBiYO4 had been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry. CdBiYO4 crystallized with a tetragonal spinel structure by space group I41/amd. The lattice parameters for CdBiYO4 were a = b = 14.519 Å and c = 9.442 Å. The band gap of CdBiYO4 was estimated to be 2.41 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was realized under visible light irradiation with CdBiYO4 as catalyst. The results showed that CdBiYO4 owned higher photocatalytic activity compared with pure TiO2 or N-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB with CdBiYO4 or N-doped TiO2 as catalyst followed the first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was 0.0137 or 0.0033 min-1. After visible light irradiation for 225 min with CdBiYO4 as catalyst, complete removal and mineralization of MB were observed. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO42- and NO3-, and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of MB during the photocatalytic process. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of MB was obtained under visible light irradiation. CdBiYO4/(visible light) photocatalysis system was found to be suitable for textile industry wastewater treatment and could be utilized to resolve other environmental chemical pollution problems.

Du, Huiyang; Luan, Jingfei

2012-09-01

75

Synthesis and characterization of LiAl yCo 1- yO 2 and LiAl yNi 1- yO 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum is of interest as a constituent in Li secondary battery cathodes due to its low cost and low mass. Increased intercalation potential for certain Al-doped intercalation oxides has also been predicted by ab initio calculations. We have synthesized single phase LiAl yCo 1- yO 2 and LiAl yNi 1- yO 2 solid solutions from homogeneous hydroxide precursors. In LiAl yNi 1- yO 2, it was found that the addition of LiAlO 2 helps to stabilize LiNiO 2 in the ?-NaFeO 2 structure during air firing, facilitating preparation of the ordered phase. A systematic increase in the open circuit voltage is observed with Al content in both LiAl yCo 1- yO 2 and LiAl yNi 1- yO 2 solid solution, providing additional support for the ab initio calculations.

Jang, Young-Il; Huang, Biying; Wang, Haifeng; Maskaly, Garry R.; Ceder, Gerbrand; Sadoway, Donald R.; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Liu, Hui; Tamura, Hirokazu

76

Predicting a vehicle's attitude response to a single yo despin. [for sounding rocket launch application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method developed for analysis of single yo despin systems is a two step process. The first step utilizes the despin equations for a yo or yo-yo system to compute the cable tension force and its point of application on the body throughout the despin process. The second step considers the actual body configuration and treats the force just discussed as a prescribed external force acting on the surface of the body at the physical location of the despin system. The resulting vehicle coning angle is first computed using a digital computer program for a body with no initial coning prior to despin. Closed form solutions which utilize the previous results are then used to treat the effects of initial conditions.

Bensimon, M.

1976-01-01

77

Reliability, sensitivity and validity of the assistant referee intermittent endurance test (ARIET) - a modified Yo-Yo IE2 test for elite soccer assistant referees.  

PubMed

We examined the reliability and validity of the assistant referee intermittent endurance test (ARIET), a modified Yo-Yo IE2 test including shuttles of sideways running. The ARIET was carried out on 198 Italian (Serie A-B, Lega-Pro and National Level) and 47 Danish elite soccer assistant referees. Reproducibility was tested for 41 assistant referees on four occasions each separated by one week. The ARIET intraclass correlation coefficients and typical error of measurement ranged from 0.96 to 0.99 and 3.1 to 5.7%, respectively. ARIET performance for Serie A and B was 23 and 25% greater than in Lega-Pro (P < 0.001). The lowest cut-off value derived from receiving operator characteristic discriminating Serie A-B from Lega-Pro was 1300 m. The ARIET performance was significantly correlated with VO(2max) (r = 0.78, P < 0.001), %HR(max) after 4 min of ARIET (r = - 0.81, P < 0.001) and Yo-Yo IR1 performance (r = 0.95, P < 0.001), but not sprint performance (r = -0.15; P = 0.58). The results showed that ARIET is a reproducible and valid test that is able to discriminate between assistant referees of different competitive levels. The lack of correlation with sprinting ability and close correlations with aerobic power, intermittent shuttle running and sub-maximal ARIET heart rate loading provide evidence that ARIET is a relevant test for assessment of intermittent endurance capacity of soccer assistant referees. PMID:22435456

Castagna, Carlo; Bendiksen, Mads; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Krustrup, Peter

2012-01-01

78

La función de la intermediaria en Yo también hablo de la rosa  

E-print Network

, Mayala.13 Aquí, Leonora, de acuerdo con las normas de Artaud, ha devuelto "the spirit of profound anarchy which is at the root of all poetry"14 al teatro. Hay un reflejo de cada una de estas figuras en la Intermediaria de Yo también hablo de la rosa...FALL 1978 51 La función de la Intermediaria en Yo también hablo de la rosa R. A. KERR // literary wor\\ of art is not a simple object but rather a highly complex organization of a stratified character with multiple mean ings and relationships...

Kerr, R. A.

1978-10-01

79

Thermal studies on fluorite type Zr yU 1-yO 2 solid solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state reactions of UO 2 and ZrO 2 in mild oxidizing condition followed by reduction at 1673 K showed enhanced solubility up to 35 mol% of zirconium in UO 2 forming cubic fluorite type Zr yU 1-yO 2 solid solution. The lattice parameters and O/M (M = U + Zr) ratios of the solid solutions, Zr yU 1-yO 2+x, prepared in different gas streams were investigated. The lattice parameters of these solid solutions were expressed as a linear equation of x and y: a0 (nm) = 0.54704 - 0.021 x - 0.030 y. The oxidation of these solid solutions for 0.1 ? y ? 0.2 resulted in cubic phase MO 2+x up to700 K and single orthorhombic zirconium substituted ?-U 3O 8 phase at 1000 K. The kinetics of oxidation of Zr yU 1-yO 2 in air for y = 0-0.35 were also studied using thermogravimetry. The specific heat capacities of Zr yU 1-yO 2 ( y = 0-0.35) were measured using heat flux differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range of 334-860 K.

Kulkarni, N. K.; Krishnan, K.; Kasar, U. M.; Rakshit, S. K.; Sali, S. K.; Aggarwal, S. K.

2009-02-01

80

Development, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activities of BiYO3 Nanoparticles under Visible Light Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BiYO3 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized as nanoparticles by sol-gel technique. The powder obtained after the calcination of the polymeric precursor at 600 °C was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD analysis revealed that the synthesized material has a cubic perovskite (ABO3) structure. The particle size calculated from FWHM was ˜13 nm. TEM analysis confirmed the nanoscale (10-20 nm) nature of the powder. FT-IR and EDX analyses have shown that the calcined powder is phase pure. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy revealed that the crystalline BiYO3 had a band gap of 2.95 eV. This indicated that BiYO3 might perform well as a photocatalyst in the visible light region. Photocatalytic activity of BiYO3 nanoparticles was investigated for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation.

Kumar, V. Ratheesh; Wariar, P. R. S.; Prasad, V. S.; Koshy, J.

2011-10-01

81

Build Brand yoU SM Strategies for Personal Brand Development  

E-print Network

Build Brand yoU SM Strategies for Personal Brand Development for the First Year College Student #12 college students This can be achieved by building your personal brand #12;ONTARGET What is a brand spend a significant amount of time developing their respective brands As your personal Brand Manager you

Lin, Xiaodong

82

Journul of Fusion Energy. Yo/. 5. No. 2. 1986 Introduction to Panel Discussions  

E-print Network

Journul of Fusion Energy. Yo/. 5. No. 2. 1986 -- Introduction to Panel Discussions Whither Fusion Research? Robert L. Hirsch' . An unnamed former fusion program director retired and felt he needed some friend appeared before the major monk for his annual two words, which were, " Room cold." The monk nodded

83

Toward Autonomy in Love and Work: Situating the Film "Yo, tambien" within the Political Project of Disability Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay looks at the representation of disability in the recent Spanish film "Yo, tambien" through the lens of disability studies, understood as a political project. The film's portrayal of a character who is, like the actor who plays him, Europe's first university graduate with Down syndrome, is unique. Moreover, "Yo, tambien" provides the…

Fraser, Benjamin

2011-01-01

84

The molecular yo-yo method: live jump detection improves throughput of single-molecule force spectroscopy for out-of-equilibrium transitions.  

PubMed

By monitoring multiple molecular transitions, force-clamp, and trap-position-clamp methods have led to precise determinations of the free energies and free energy landscapes for molecular states populated in equilibrium at the same or similar forces. Here, we present a powerful new elaboration of the force-clamp and force-jump methods, applicable to transitions far from equilibrium. Specifically, we have implemented a live jump detection and force-clamp algorithm that intelligently adjusts and maintains the force on a single molecule in response to the measured state of that molecule. We are able to collect hundreds of individual molecular transitions at different forces, many times faster than previously, permitting us to accurately determine force-dependent lifetime distributions and reaction rates. Application of our method to unwinding and rewinding the nucleosome inner turn, using optical tweezers reveals experimental lifetime distributions that comprise a statistically meaningful number of transitions, and that are accurately single exponential. These measurements significantly reduce the error in the previously measured rates, and demonstrate the existence of a single, dominant free energy barrier at each force studied. A key benefit of the molecular yo-yo method for nucleosomes is that it reduces as far as possible the time spent in the tangentially bound state, which minimizes the loss of nucleosomes by dissociation. PMID:24007119

Mack, A H; Schlingman, D J; Kamenetska, M; Collins, R; Regan, L; Mochrie, S G J

2013-08-01

85

Development, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activities of BiYO3 Nanoparticles under Visible Light Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BiYO3 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized as nanoparticles by sol-gel technique. The powder obtained after the calcination of the polymeric precursor at 600 °C was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD analysis revealed that the synthesized

V. Ratheesh Kumar; P. R. S. Wariar; V. S. Prasad; J. Koshy

2011-01-01

86

Purification and characterization of ?-Mannanase from Reinekea sp. KIT-YO10 with transglycosylation activity.  

PubMed

Marine bacterium Reinekea sp. KIT-YO10 was isolated from the seashore of Kanazawa Port in Japan as a seaweed-degrading bacterium. Homology between KIT-YO10 16S rDNA and the 16S rDNA of Reinekea blandensis and Reinekea marinisedimentorum was 96.4 and 95.4%, respectively. Endo-1,4-?-D-mannanase (?-mannanase, EC 3.2.1.78) from Reinekea sp. KIT-YO10 was purified 29.4-fold to a 21% yield using anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 44.3 kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Furthermore, the purified enzyme displayed high specificity for konjac glucomannan, with no secondary agarase and arginase activity detected. Hydrolysis of konjac glucomannan and locust bean gum yielded oligosaccharides, compatible with an endo mode of substrate depolymerization. The purified enzyme possessed transglycosylation activity when mannooligosaccharides (mannotriose or mannotetraose) were used as substrates. Optimal pH and temperature were determined to be 8.0 and 70 °C, respectively. It showed thermostability at temperatures from 20 to 50 °C and alkaline stability up to pH 10.0. The current enzyme was thermostable and thermophile compared to the ?-mannanase of other marine bacteria. PMID:25036974

Hakamada, Yoshihiro; Ohkubo, Yoshitaka; Ohashi, Shinichi

2014-01-01

87

Yo, Hamlet!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents Alan Sitomer, an English teacher at Lynwood High School, and how he teaches his students classic literature through hip-hop. These at-risk students attend a severely overcrowded, low-performing school in East Los Angeles that's surrounded by what Sitomer describes as "gangs, guns, and drugs." Prostitutes work the streets just…

Whelan, Debra Lau

2007-01-01

88

The Yo-Yo Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. This lesson plan includes the objective, overview of the lesson, needed materials, procedures, assessment, extensions and adaptations, tips, resources, ideas for discussion, and the activity sheets and answer key.

Pbs; Math, Pbs T.

2007-12-12

89

In-flight acoustic testing techniques using the YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses the flight testing techniques and equipment employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters at Ames Research Center. The in flight measurement technique used enables acoustic data to be obtained without the limitations of anechoic chambers or the multitude of variables encountered in ground based flyover testing. The air-to-air testing is made possible by the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft. This "Quiet Aircraft' is an acoustically instrumented version of a quiet observation aircraft manufactured for the military. To date, tests with the following aircraft have been conducted: YO-3A background noise; Hughes 500D; Hughes AH-64; Bell AH-1S; Bell AH-1G. Several system upgrades are being designed and implemented to improve the quality of data. This report will discuss not only the equipment involved and aircraft tested, but also the techniques used in these tests. In particular, formation flying position locations, and the test matrices will be discussed. Examples of data taken will also be presented.

Cross, J. L.; Watts, M. E.

1984-01-01

90

In-flight acoustic testing techniques using the YO-3A acoustic research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses the flight testing techniques and equipment employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters at Ames Research Center. The in-flight measurement technique used enables acoustic data to be obtained without the limitations of anechoic chambers or the multitude of variables encountered in ground based flyover testing. The air-to-air testing is made possible by the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft. This 'Quiet Aircraft' is an acoustically instrumented version of a quiet observation aircraft manufactured for the military. To date, tests with the following aircraft have been conducted: YO-3A background noise; Hughes 500D; Hughes AH-64; Bell AH-1S; Bell AH-1G. Several system upgrades are being designed and implemented to improve the quality of data. This report will discuss not only the equipment involved and aircraft tested, but also the techniques used in these tests. In particular, formation flying, position locations, and the test matrices will be discussed. Examples of data taken will also be presented.

Cross, J. L.; Watts, M. E.

1983-01-01

91

Modeling preparation condition and composition-activity relationship of perovskite-type LaxSr1-xFeyCo1-yO3 nano catalyst.  

PubMed

In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) is first applied to perovskite catalyst design. A series of perovskite-type oxides with the LaxSr1-xFeyCo1-yO3 general formula were prepared with a sol-gel autocombustion method under different preparation conditions. A three-layer perceptron neural network was used for modeling and optimization of the catalytic combustion of toluene. A high R2 value was obtained for training and test sets of data: 0.99 and 0.976, respectively. Due to the presence of full active catalysts, there was no necessity to use an optimizer algorithm. The optimum catalysts were La0.9Sr0.1Fe0.5Co0.5O3 (Tc=700 and 800 °C and [citric acid/nitrate]=0.750), La0.9Sr0.1Fe0.82Co0.18O3 (Tc=700 °C, [citric acid/nitrate]=0.750), and La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.66Co0.34O3 (Tc=650 °C, [citric acid/nitrate]=0.525) exhibiting 100% conversion for toluene. More evaluation of the obtained model revealed the relative importance and criticality of preparation parameters of optimum catalysts. The structure, morphology, reducibility, and specific surface area of catalysts were investigated with XRD, SEM, TPR, and BET, respectively. PMID:24102474

Oskoui, Samira Arefi; Niaei, Aligholi; Tseng, Hui-Hsin; Salari, Dariush; Izadkhah, Behrang; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

2013-12-01

92

Interfacial reaction induced phase separation in La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films containing La at concentrations (x) of 50 and 20% were prepared by atomic layer deposition on ultrathin SiO{sub 2} films (1 nm). We examined the electronic structures and microstructures of the La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Phase separation into La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} was observed in the La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films subjected to annealing temperatures over 900 deg. C, although the mixture of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} is thermodynamically stable. The structural changes that occurred as the result of phase separation were dependent on the concentrations of La and Hf in the films. During the annealing treatment, silicate was produced due to interfacial reactions and the interfacial reactions were found to be dependent on the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the La{sub x}Hf{sub y}O films, which has a significant influence on the phase separation process and resulting film structure.

Ma, J. W.; Lee, W. J.; Cho, M.-H. [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. M.; Sohn, H. C. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. S. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, H. J. [Process Development Team, Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., LTD, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15

93

Characteristics of Gd xM yO z (M = Ti, Zr or Al) as a burnable absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heterogeneous type burnable absorber needs a diluent material to adjust its gadolinium concentration. TiO 2, ZrO 2 or Al 2O 3 was added to Gd 2O 3, separately and Gd xM yO z (M = Ti, Zr or Al) pellets were fabricated by a powder process. Pellets with a single Gd 2TiO 5 or Gd 2Ti 2O 7 were fabricated and their phases were confirmed by XRD. Thermal properties of the Gd xM yO z were measured and their thermal conductivities were determined. The thermal expansion was largest in Gd 2Ti 2O 7, and it decreased with a gadolinium concentration increase. GdAlO 3 had the highest thermal conductivity, next were the Gd xTi yO z phases in a reverse order of the gadolinium concentration increase. The selected candidate pellets of Gd xTi yO z were irradiated in the HANARO reactor, and post-irradiation examinations of the pellets were carried out in a hot cell. The examination results indicate that the thermal properties of the BP pellets should be considered to ensure an in-reactor integrity.

Kim, Han Soo; Joung, Chang Yong; Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Si Hyung; Sohn, Dong Seong

2008-01-01

94

Increasing High School Students' Interest in STEM Education through Collaborative Brainstorming with Yo-Yos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brainstorming is a creativity technique in which a group of people (or an individual person) spontaneously generates a set of ideas to find the solution to a particular problem. This paper describes an innovative approach called "brainstorming with yo-yos," which was implemented in an outreach to high school event to increase high school…

Fang, Ning

2013-01-01

95

Cryosurgery planning using bubble packing in 3D DAIGO TANAKA, KENJI SHIMADA, MICHAEL R. ROSSI and YOED RABIN*  

E-print Network

and YOED RABIN* Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes. Introduction Cryosurgery is the destruction of undesired biological tissues by freezing; it has been used

Rabin, Yoed

96

CuSe-based layered compound Bi2YO4Cu2Se2 as a quasi-two-dimensional metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the physical properties of a new layered oxyselenide Bi2YO4Cu2Se2, which crystallizes in an unusual intergrowth structure with Cu2Se2 and Bi2YO4 layers. Electric transport measurement indicates that Bi2YO4Cu2Se2 behaves metallic. Thermal transport and Hall measurements show that the type of the carriers is holelike and it may be a potential thermoelectric material at high temperatures. First-principles calculations are in agreement with experimental results and show that Bi2YO4Cu2Se2 is a quasi-two-dimensional metal. Further theoretical investigation suggests the ground states of the Bi2YO4Cu2Se2 type can be tuned by designing the blocking layers, which will enrich the physical properties of these compounds.

Tan, S. G.; Shao, D. F.; Lu, W. J.; Yuan, B.; Liu, Y.; Yang, J.; Song, W. H.; Lei, Hechang; Sun, Y. P.

2014-08-01

97

The microwave absorption properties of La 0.8Sr 0.2Mn 1-yFe yO 3 nanocrystalline powders in the frequency range 2-18 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La 1-xSr xMn 1-yFe yO 3 nanocrystalline powders were prepared by the sol-gel method as a microwave absorption material. The reflectance, the dielectric loss tan ?e and the magnetic loss tan ?m of the samples were calculated according to the data of electromagnetism parameters measured by a microwave vector network analyzer in the frequency range 2-18 GHz. The dielectric loss tan ?e and the magnetic loss tan ?m had a step-change at a certain frequency so that the superiority of dielectric loss change into the superiority of magnetic loss, which indicated that anti-ferromagnetic clusters in the material change into ferromagnetic clusters by absorbing quantum of microwave electromagnetic field when the frequency of incident microwave reaches a certain value. The effective absorption bandwidth higher than 10 dB reached 6.2 GHz. As a result, the La 0.8Sr 0.2Mn 1-yFe yO 3 has shown useful applications as a microwave absorption material.

Zhou, K.-S.; Xia, H.; Huang, K.-L.; Deng, L.-W.; Wang, D.; Zhou, Y.-P.; Gao, S.-H.

2009-02-01

98

Stratified Median Housing Prices (quarterly) Houses Mar-11 Dec-10 Sep-10 Mar-10 QoQ % YoY %  

E-print Network

Stratified Median Housing Prices (quarterly) Houses Mar-11 Dec-10 Sep-10 Mar-10 QoQ % Yo.5% National $406,279 $411,422 $409,140 $404,559 -1.2% 0.4% #12;Capital City Results Sydney · House prices fell by -0.7% over the quarter following a flat result in December · Sydney's median house price is now

Peters, Richard

99

The use of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6- to 10-year-old school children.  

PubMed

We evaluated a submaximal and maximal version of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's (YYIR1C) test and the Andersen test for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of children aged 6-10 years. Two repetitions of the YYIR1C and Andersen tests were carried out within 1 week by 6- to 7-year-olds and 8- to 9-year-olds (grade 0, n = 17; grade 2, n = 16) and 6 weeks apart by 9- to 10-year-olds (grade 3, n = 49). Grade 0-2 pupils also performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT). Grade 2 pupils had a better (p < 0.05) YYIR1C (84%; 994 ± 399 m (±SD) vs. 536 ± 218 m) and Andersen test performance (10%; 1,050 ± 71 m vs. 955 ± 56 m) than grade 0 pupils. For grade 0-2 pupils, YYIR1C, Andersen, and ITT peak heart rates were 205 ± 11, 207 ± 9, and 203 ± 7 b·min(-1), respectively (Andersen > ITT, p < 0.05), and for grade 3 pupils, YYIR1C and Andersen peak heart rates were 208 ± 9 and 204 ± 9 b·min(-1), respectively (YYIR1C > Andersen, p < 0.05). Submaximal YYIR1C heart rate (HR) was inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with YYIR1C test performance (r = -0.54 to -0.67) and VO2peak (r = -0.42). The 6-week change in submaximal HR correlated with the change in YYIR1C test performance (r = -0.42 to -0.53, p < 0.05). In conclusion, YYIR1C and Andersen tests are simple and inexpensive intermittent field tests that can detect differences in fitness levels and determine maximal HR of 6- to 10-year-old children. Additionally, submaximal YYIR1C testing can be used for frequent nonexhaustive fitness assessments. PMID:22964860

Bendiksen, Mads; Ahler, Thomas; Clausen, Helle; Wedderkopp, Niels; Krustrup, Peter

2013-06-01

100

Network Management Network Management  

E-print Network

Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group Network Network Group firstname.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ Copyright and acknowledgments://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, S f d C lif i 94305 USA Network

101

Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children a t3yo f age1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vitamin D deficiency and asthma are common at higher latitudes. Although vitamin D has important immunologic effects, its relation with asthma is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that a higher maternal intake of vita- min D during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of recurrent wheeze in children a t3yo fage. Design: The participants were 1194 mother-child pairs in

Carlos A Camargo Jr; Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman; Augusto A Litonjua; Janet W Rich-Edwards; Scott T Weiss; Diane R Gold; Ken Kleinman; Matthew W Gillman

102

Introduction to k'yu ts'udalaas aa  

E-print Network

animals burrow into wood, using it for food and shelter. www.bumblebee.org D. Distel 2 Shipworm: k'yúu ts of ways. One such way is with a salinity refractometer, a second way is through using water chemistry test in the environment and begin to create a home within the wood. Shipworms do not depend solely on wood for food

103

Network Management Network Management  

E-print Network

Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group firstname of this license visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- /3 0/ Network management and QoS provisioning

104

Anion inhibition studies of an ?-carbonic anhydrase from the thermophilic bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1.  

PubMed

The newly discovered thermophilic bacterium Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1 encodes an ?-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) which is highly catalytically active and thermostable. Here we report the inhibition of this enzyme, denominated SspCA, with inorganic and complex anions and other molecules interacting with zinc proteins. SspCA was inhibited in the micromolar range by diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamide, sulfamic acid, phenylboronic and phenylarsonic acid, trithiocarbonate and selenocyanide (K(I)s of 4-70 ?M) and in the submillimolar one by iodide, cyanide, (thio)cyanate, hydrogen sulfide, azide, nitrate, nitrite, many complex anions incorporating heavy metal ions and iminodisulfonate (K(I)s of 0.48-0.86 mM). SspCA was not substantially inhibited by bicarbonate and carbonate, hydrogensulfite and peroxidisulfate (K(I)s in the range of 21.1-84.6mM). The exceptional thermostability and lack of strong affinity for hydrogensulfide, bicarbonate, and carbonate make this enzyme an interesting candidate for biotechnological applications of enzymatic CO(2) fixation. PMID:22835873

De Luca, Viviana; Vullo, Daniela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Carginale, Vincenzo; Rossi, Mosè; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

2012-09-01

105

Response to abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in postmenopausal woman with anti-yo antibody mediated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration  

PubMed Central

Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by a widespread loss of Purkinje cells associated with a progressive pancerebellar dysfunction. PCD often precedes the cancer diagnosis by months to years. Here, we report a case of 44-year old postmenopausal woman who presented with PCD symptoms and high levels of anti-Yo antibodies titer since 8 months. We failed to conclude any neoplastic focus after thorough laboratory and imaging study. She minimally responded to methylprednisolone and immunoglobulin therapies. Despite therapy she was severely disabled. Planned abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (AHBSO) was done, histology revealed grade IIA borderline serous papillary carcinoma of ovary. Her neurological deficit responded dramatically to AHBSO. It is first case report who emphasize the response of AHBSO with presentation of anti-Yo antibody-mediated PCD and hidden nidus in post menopausal women.

Bhargava, Amita; Bhushan, Bharat; Kasundra, Gaurav M; Shubhakaran, Khichar; Pujar, Guruprasad S; Banakar, Basavaraj

2014-01-01

106

Positive electrode materials with high operating voltage for lithium batteries: LiCr yMn 2 ? yO 4 (0 ? y ? 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible lithium deintercalation of chromium-substituted spinel manganese oxides LiCryMn2 ? yO4 (0 ? y ? 1) in the voltage range 3.4–5.4 V versus Li, occurs in two main steps for 0 < y < 1: one at about 4.9 V and the other at about 4 V. The 4.9 V process capacity increases with the chromium content while the 4

C. Sigala; D. Guyomard; A. Verbaere; Y. Piffard; M. Tournoux

1995-01-01

107

Microstructures and Properties of Laser-Glazed Plasma-Sprayed ZrO 2 YO 1.5 \\/Ni22Cr10AI1Y Thermal Barrier Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) consisting of two layers with various yttria contents (ZrO\\u000a 2- YO1.5\\/Ni-22Cr-10Al- lY) were plasma sprayed, and parts of the various specimens were glazed by using a pulsed CO2 laser. All the specimens were then subjected to furnace thermal cycling tests at 1100 °C; the effect of laser glazing on\\u000a the durability and failure mechanism of the

H. L. Tsai; P. C Tsai

1995-01-01

108

Microstructures and properties of laser-glazed plasma-sprayed ZrOâ-YO{sub 1.5}\\/Ni22Cr10Al1Y thermal barrier coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) consisting of two layers with various yttria contents (ZrOâ-YO{sub 1.5}\\/Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y) were plasma sprayed, and parts of the various specimens were glazed by using a pulsed COâ laser. All the specimens were then subjected to furnace thermal cycling tests at 1,100 C; the effect of laser glazing on the durability and failure mechanism of the TBCs was

H. L. Tsai; P. C. Tsai

1995-01-01

109

Microstructures and Properties of Laser-Glazed Plasma-Sprayed ZrO2YO1.5\\/Ni22Cr10AI1Y Thermal Barrier Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) consisting of two layers with various yttria contents (ZrO 2- YO1.5\\/Ni-22Cr-10Al- lY) were plasma sprayed, and parts of the various specimens were glazed by using a pulsed CO2 laser. All the specimens were then subjected to furnace thermal cycling tests at 1100 °C; the effect of laser glazing on the durability and failure mechanism of the

H. L. Tsai; P. C. Tsai

1995-01-01

110

Social Networking? Secure Networking?  

E-print Network

Social Networking? Secure Networking? Teaching & Learning Technology Roundtable February 2010 #12;Intended Outcomes 1. A shared understanding of: ­ What it means to socialize in a professional environment ­ The intent behind the current security measures in place at OHSU ­ The OHSU Social Networking Guidelines 2

Chapman, Michael S.

111

Surface properties and performance for VOCs combustion of LaFe 1-yNi yO 3 perovskite oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LaFeO 3, LaNiO 3 and substituted LaFe 1-yNi yO 3 ( y=0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) perovskites were synthesized by the citrate method and used in the catalytic combustion of ethanol and acetyl acetate. Chemical composition was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and specific areas from nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Structural details and surface properties were evaluated by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), temperature-programmed desorption of oxygen (O 2-TPD) and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Characterization data revealed that total insertion of nickel in the LaFeO 3 takes place for substitution y=0.1. However, NiO segregation occurs to some extent, specifically at higher substitutions ( y>0.1). The catalytic performance of these perovskites was evaluated in the combustion of acetyl acetate and ethanol. Among these molecules, ethanol exhibited the lowest ignition temperature, and the catalytic activity expressed as intrinsic activity (mol m -2 h -1) was found to increase substantially with the nickel substitution. These results can be explained in terms of the cooperative effect of a LaFe 1-yNi yO 3 and NiO phases, whose relative concentration determines the oxygen activation capability and hence their reactivity.

Pecchi, G.; Reyes, P.; Zamora, R.; Cadús, L. E.; Fierro, J. L. G.

2008-04-01

112

Wet precipitate method for mixing magnesium and uranium in preparation of Mg yU 1- yO 2+ x solid solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wet method was studied to mix magnesium and uranium finely for fabricating homogeneous solid solution Mg yU 1- yO 2+ x ( x?0 or x < 0). The method consists of precipitate formation of ammonium diuranate (ADU) from dilute HNO 3 solution containing calculated concentrations of uranyl nitrate, NH 4NO 3 and Mg(NO 3) 2 · 6H 2O. Since a small portion of the solution containing Mg is held in the cream-like precipitate of ADU, subsequent heating after careful drying of the precipitate leads to form homogeneous solid solutions. NH 4NO 3 prevents the solution from precipitating Mg(OH) 2 on ammonia addition. The concentration relation of the chemical species was examined for 10 ml of 0.21 M uranyl nitrate solution in 0.014 M HNO 3. It was found that Mg(OH) 2 did not precipitate with the addition of 2 g NH 4NO 3. The 5 ml addition of 25 wt% ammonia water was sufficient for ADU formation. The concentration of Mg in the solid was proportional to the amount of Mg(NO 3) 2 · 6H 2O under the relevant condition. From the vacuum dried ADU precipitate (method (4)), homogeneous Mg yU 1- yO 2+ x solid solutions were prepared.

Fujino, Takeo; Hoshi, Yoshihide; Sato, Nobuaki; Yamada, Kohta

1999-10-01

113

The effect of transition metal ions distribution on magnetic properties of Lix(NiyMnyCo1-2y)O2.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lix(NiyMnyCo1-2y)O2 compounds have layered O(3) structure with an occupancy disorder as Ni ions migrate to the lithium layer. Ni ions provide strong antiferromagnetic (AF) exchange between the transition metal (TM) layers; therefore the degree of disorder has a pronounced effect on the magnetic properties. Ni migration is reduced when the amount of Co or Li is increased. In this work we study temperature and magnetic field dependences of magnetization and the ac susceptibility of Lix(NiyMnyCo1-2y)O2 with various Li and Co contents. We have shown that in LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 compound large amount of Ni on Li sites facilitates AF order within the TM layer, while interlayer Ni ions contribute to the net magnetic moment. This is consistent with the ``flower'' order of the TMs proposed from the Monte-Carlo simulations. With increasing Co content, the ``flower'' structure is destroyed and a spin glass state is observed in Co-containing compounds. This work is financially supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, through the BATT program at LBNL.

Chernova, Natasha A.; Ma, Miaomiao; Xiao, Jie; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Zavalij, Peter Y.

2006-03-01

114

Thermal stability and oxidation resistance of TiCrAlYO coatings on SS430 for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications  

SciTech Connect

Chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels are being considered for interconnects applications in planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks because of their low cost and physical properties. At high temperatures, ferritic steels lack environmental stability in the SOFC operating environment, and gradually degrade the cell performance. In this study, an effective, dense and well adherent TiCrAlYO coating was deposited on an SS430 alloy using the filtered arc deposition technique. High-energy ion backscattering was used to characterize the composition and the thermal stability of the coatings. The chromium volatility of the coated steel plates at 800 oC was also measured using ion beam analysis. Significant reductions in oxidation rates as well as reduced Cr volatility were observed for the coated alloys.

Chen, Hui; Lucas, J. A.; Priyantha, Weerasinghe A.; Kopczyk, M.; Smith, Richard J.; Lund, Kasey R.; Key, Camas; Finsterbusch, M.; Gannon, Paul E.; Deibert, Max; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy

2008-06-25

115

One dimensional Ba x Sr1 ? xEr y Fe12 ? yO19 fibers with magnetic crystalline nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal ferrites, also known as hexaferrites, are a very interesting class of materials with peculiar magnetic and electrical properties. Recently, several applications, both commercial and technological, have been developed by employing such materials, such as in magnetic recording and separation, storage devices, and catalysts. In particular, one dimensional magnetic nanostructured materials are very promising since they exhibit physical properties that cannot be found in the bulk. In this work, nanocrystalline Sr1 ? xBa x Er y Fe12 ? yO19 (x = y ? 0.4) ferrite fibers are successfully fabricated by sol-gel spinning, followed by calcination. By varying the calcination temperature and content of substituted ions, different ferrite fibers have been obtained, which exhibit different magnetic properties and structural characteristics. Our capacity to effectively tune the magnetic properties of one dimensional hexagonal ferrite materials opens new scenarios towards the design and optimization of a multitude of devices that are based on the magnetic properties of hexaferrites.

Meng, Xianfeng; Mi, Jianli; Li, Qiang; Bortolini, Christian; Dong, Mingdong

2014-09-01

116

Theoretical study on the reaction of the 1?+ ground state of YS + with oxygen-transfer reagent: YS + + CO 2 ? YO + + COS in the gas phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction mechanisms of the 1?+ ground state of YS + with oxygen-transfer reagent: YS + + CO 2 ? YO + + COS in the gas phase has been studied by using density functional theory (DFT). It is found that the reaction proceeds via two four-center transition states (TS1 and TS2) with a cyclic complex ( b) locating between them on the reaction potential surface. The activation barriers of the two transition state are -8.3 and 2.1 kcal/mol, respectively, at B3LYP/6-31+G* level plus ZPE relative to the reactants. The second reaction step via transition state TS2 should be the rate-determining reaction step. The similarities and differences between YS + and ScS + for this type reaction were also discussed.

Xie, Xiao-Guang

2004-03-01

117

Synthesis and luminescence properties of Sm3+-doped La2WyMo2-yO9 orange-red phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La2WyMo2-yO9 phosphors activated with the trivalent rare-earth Sm3+ were synthesized via a traditional solid-state reaction, their structure and luminescence properties were investigated by using X-ray diffractometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer. There were three emission peaks centered at 563, 599, and 646 nm corresponding to the 4G5/2?6H5/2, 4G5/2?6H7/2, 4G5/2?6H9/2 transitions of Sm3+ under the 402 nm ultraviolet excitation. Investigation on Sm3+ concentration-dependent emission spectra indicated that La1.97WMoO9:3% Sm3+ phosphor exhibited the strongest orange-red emission with a CIE value of (0.5425, 0.4541). Therefore, it is considered to be a new promising orange-red emitting phosphor for white light emitting diode (LED) application.

Deng, Yaomin; Yi, Shuangping; Huang, Jun; Zhao, Weiren; Xian, Jieqiang

2014-01-01

118

Second spin-density wave phase in metallic V2-yO3 close to the metal-insulator transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed two spin-density wave phases in hole-doped metallic V2-yO3, one evolves from the other as a function of doping, pressure, or temperature. They differ in their response to an external magnetic field, which can also induce a transition between them. The phase boundary between these two states in the temperature-, doping-, and pressure-dependent phase diagram has been determined by magnetization and magnetotransport measurements. One phase exists at high doping level and has already been described in the literature. The second phase is found in a small parameter range close to the boundary to the antiferromagnetic insulating phase. The quantum-phase transitions between these states as a function of pressure and doping and the respective metamagnetic behavior observed in these phases are discussed in the light of structurally induced changes of the band structure.

Klimm, S.; Herz, M.; Horny, R.; Obermeier, G.; Klemm, M.; Horn, S.

2001-11-01

119

Computer Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CS4403 is an introduction to computer communications, network architectures, protocol hierarchies, and the open systems interconnection model. Topics covered include modeling, analysis, and specification of protocols, wide area networks, local area networks, and client/server architectures.

Apon, Amy

120

Impaired default network functional connectivity in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in a large cross-sectional cohort of subjects from families harboring pathogenic presenilin-1 (PSEN1), presenilin-2 (PSEN2), and amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations participating in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network. Methods: Eighty-three mutation carriers and 37 asymptomatic noncarriers from the same families underwent fMRI during resting state at 8 centers in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Using group-independent component analysis, fcMRI was compared using mutation status and Clinical Dementia Rating to stratify groups, and related to each participant's estimated years from expected symptom onset (eYO). Results: We observed significantly decreased DMN fcMRI in mutation carriers with increasing Clinical Dementia Rating, most evident in the precuneus/posterior cingulate and parietal cortices (p < 0.001). Comparison of asymptomatic mutation carriers with noncarriers demonstrated decreased fcMRI in the precuneus/posterior cingulate (p = 0.014) and right parietal cortex (p = 0.0016). We observed a significant interaction between mutation carrier status and eYO, with decreases in DMN fcMRI observed as mutation carriers approached and surpassed their eYO. Conclusion: Functional disruption of the DMN occurs early in the course of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease, beginning before clinically evident symptoms, and worsening with increased impairment. These findings suggest that DMN fcMRI may prove useful as a biomarker across a wide spectrum of disease, and support the feasibility of DMN fcMRI as a secondary endpoint in upcoming multicenter clinical trials in Alzheimer disease. PMID:23884042

Chhatwal, Jasmeer P.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Johnson, Keith; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Jack, Clifford; Ances, Beau M.; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Ringman, John M.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Thompson, Paul; Saykin, Andrew J.; Correia, Stephen; Schofield, Peter R.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Fox, Nick C.; Brickman, Adam M.; Mayeux, Richard; McDade, Eric; Bateman, Randall; Fagan, Anne M.; Goate, Allison M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Buckles, Virginia D.; Morris, John C.

2013-01-01

121

Network Cosmology  

PubMed Central

Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguna, Marian

2012-01-01

122

Optical Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a compilation of the fundamentals of optical communication networks the chapter continues with technical arguments in favour of optical networks. Specific attention is given to financial barriers, which have to be overcome for the introduction of all-optical networks, in particular in the access area. Different options for optical access networks are explained, including the pros and cons for their implementation. Examples are point-to-point fibre solutions and various kinds of passive optical networks (PONs). The rest of the chapter covers metro and core networks and ends with an outlook on expected future developments.

Payne, David B.

123

Neural Networks  

E-print Network

We present an overview of current research on artificial neural networks, emphasizing a statistical perspective. We view neural networks as parameterized graphs that make probabilistic assumptions about data, and view ...

Jordan, Michael I.

1996-03-13

124

On Networks: Network Therapy, Network Intervention and Networking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theories, techniques, and applications of interventions in social networks have multiplied in recent years. This paper traces significant clinical literature on networks, at the same time pointing out similarities with tribal healing in "primitive" societies. (Author)

Speck, Ross V.; Speck, Joan L.

1979-01-01

125

Integrated Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A strategy for integrated data and voice networks implemented at the University of Michigan is described. These networks often use multi-technologies, multi-vendors, and multi-transmission media that will be fused into a single integrated network. Transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optics, and microwave. (Author/MLW)

Robinovitz, Stewart

1987-01-01

126

Cosmological networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networks often represent systems that do not have a long history of study in traditional fields of physics; albeit, there are some notable exceptions, such as energy landscapes and quantum gravity. Here, we consider networks that naturally arise in cosmology. Nodes in these networks are stationary observers uniformly distributed in an expanding open Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker universe with any scale factor and two observers are connected if one can causally influence the other. We show that these networks are growing Lorentz-invariant graphs with power-law distributions of node degrees. These networks encode maximum information about the observable universe available to a given observer.

Boguñá, Marián; Kitsak, Maksim; Krioukov, Dmitri

2014-09-01

127

TÜRK?YE'N?N YA?I? TOPLAMI VE YO?UNLU?U D?Z?LER?NDEK? DE????KL?KLER?N VE E??L?MLER?N ZAMANSAL VE ALANSAL ÇÖZÜMLEMES? Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Changes and Trends in Precipitation Total and Intensity Series of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet: Çali?mada, Türkiye'deki 111 istasyonun yillik ve mevsimlik ya?i? toplami ve ya?i? yo?unlu?u dizilerindeki uzun süreli de?i?iklikler ve e?ilimler, zaman ve alandaki özellikleri dikkate alinarak çözümlendi. Ya?i? verilerinin homojenli?i Kruskal-Wallis türde?lik sinamasi, ya?i? toplami ve yo?unlu?u dizilerindeki e?ilimler ise, Mann-Kendall sira ili?ki katsayisi sinamasi yöntemleri ile incelendi. Makalenin ba?lica bulgulari ?öyle özetlenebilir: (1) Yillik toplam ya?i?larda ve ya?i? yo?unlu?u tutarlarinda

Telat KOÇ

128

Spatial networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

Barthélemy, Marc

2011-02-01

129

Vulnerability of network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

2014-10-01

130

Youth Offender Care Needs Assessment Tool (YO-CNAT): an actuarial risk assessment tool for predicting problematic child-rearing situations in juvenile offenders on the basis of police records.  

PubMed

In the juvenile justice system, much attention is paid to estimating the risk for recidivism among juvenile offenders. However, it is also important to estimate the risk for problematic child-rearing situations (care needs) in juvenile offenders, because these problems are not always related to recidivism. In the present study, an actuarial care needs assessment tool for juvenile offenders, the Youth Offender Care Needs Assessment Tool (YO-CNAT), was developed to predict the probability of (a) a future supervision order imposed by the child welfare agency, (b) a future entitlement to care indicated by the youth care agency, and (c) future incidents involving child abuse, domestic violence, and/or sexual norm trespassing behavior at the juvenile's address. The YO-CNAT has been developed for use by the police and is based solely on information available in police registration systems. It is designed to assist a police officer without clinical expertise in making a quick assessment of the risk for problematic child-rearing situations. The YO-CNAT was developed on a sample of 1,955 juvenile offenders and was validated on another sample of 2,045 juvenile offenders. The predictive validity (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve) scores ranged between .70 (for predicting future entitlement to care) and .75 (for predicting future worrisome incidents at the juvenile's address); therefore, the predictive accuracy of the test scores of the YO-CNAT was sufficient to justify its use as a screening instrument for the police in deciding to refer a juvenile offender to the youth care agency for further assessment into care needs. PMID:23815118

van der Put, Claudia E; Stams, Geert Jan J M

2013-12-01

131

Tips To help ReDUCe YoUR soDiUM iNTAKe Read the nutrition facts label for sodium content and choose the product that is lower in  

E-print Network

Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 What Sodium doeS in the Body · Helps maintain water balance · RegulatesTips To help ReDUCe YoUR soDiUM iNTAKe 1 2 3 4 5 Read the nutrition facts label for sodium content at the table. Sodium: The Facts By Beth H. Olson, Ph.D., MSU Extension Nutrition Specialist, Department of Food

132

Structure, band gap, and Mn-related mid-gap states in epitaxial single crystal (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O thin films  

SciTech Connect

Epitaxial (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O thin films were grown on c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates by radio frequency oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Single crystal structure of the (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O films was revealed by reflection high energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The band gap of the films can be tuned dramatically with increasing the Mg concentration, while the onset energy of Mn-related mid-gap absorption band only shows a small blue shift. Photoconductivity measurements indicate the Mn-related mid-gap states in (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O films can create free carriers and contribute to charge transfer transitions. The conduction band offset {Delta}E{sub C} = 0.13 eV and valence band offset {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.1 eV were obtained for ZnO/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O heterostructures, which increase to {Delta}E{sub C} = 0.21 eV and {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.14 eV for ZnO/Zn{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}O heterostructures.

Zhu Dapeng; Liu Guolei; Xiao Shuqin; Yan Shishen; He Shumin; Cai Li; Li Qinghao; Hu Shujun; Chen Yanxue; Kang Shishou; Mei Liangmo [School of Physics, National Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Cao Qiang [School of Physics, National Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China)

2013-05-07

133

Synthesis and charge-discharge properties of Li 1+ xNi 1- x- yCo yO 2- zF z  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiNiO 2 is one of the best cathode active materials for applying to lithium rechargeable batteries because of large capacity. However, its unsatisfactory cycling properties and difficulties in handling are not yet to be improved. It was found by some groups [M.G.S.R. Thomas, W.I.F. David, J.B. Goodenough, P. Groves, Mater. Res. Bull. 20 (1985) 1137; J.R. Dahn, U. von Sacken, C.A. Michal, Solid State Ionics 44 (1990) 87] that cation substitution reduces the lattice deformation during charging or discharging and improves the cycling properties. On the other hand, we reported [T. Ohzuku, A. Ueda, M. Kouguchi, J. Electrochem. Soc. 12 (1995) 4033] that addition of LiF to the starting materials, causing fluorine substitution for the anion, is also effective to obtain a better cycling life for LiNiO 2, though the problem of the lattice deformation is not alleviated. Thus, it was expected that simultaneous substitution of cation- and anion sites might be useful. We synthesized Li 1+ xNi 1- x- yCo yO 2- zF z by an ordinary solid state reaction and evaluated the charge-discharge properties of this series of samples. The initial discharge capacity of Li 1.075Ni 0.755Co 0.17O 1.9F 0.1 was 182 mAh/g.The capacity decrease rate was only 2.8% in the first 100 cycles, and became even smaller as the cycle number increased. The result suggests that each of the Co- and F substitution independently contributes to the improvement of cycling properties of LiNiO 2.

Kubo, K.; Arai, S.; Yamada, S.; Kanda, M.

134

Photoelectrical properties of sprayed In2-2xAl2xS3- 3yO3y alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In2-2xAl2xS3-3yO3y alloys have been prepared on Pyrextrademark glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique. The shape of the photoconductivity spectrums Iph (hnu) and the variations Iph (f ) and Iph (V) allow us to understand the conduction mechanism and the photocarriers' recombination. For low compositions (xless-than-or-equal0.2), Iph)(V parabolic variation shows that this conduction is limited by the space charge zone in accordance with Child's law (Iph[is proportional to]V2) [N. F. Mott and R. W. Gurney, Electronics Processes in Ionic Crystals (Oxford, New York, 1940), p. 463]. The exploitation of such variation shows that the density of the trap centers increases with the composition. For x[greater-than-or-equal, slanted]0.4, the electrical conduction instead follows Ohm's law. In the same way, the analysis of an extension of Devore's model [Phys. Rev. 102, 86 (1956)] as (Iph)hnu2 versus photon energy hnu shows an increase of the band gap energy Eg according to a parabolic profile. On the other hand, for low compositions (x=0,0.05,0.1,0.2), the conductivity study as a function of the temperature presents a deviation to Arrhenius's law in the intermediate temperature domain ranging from 80 to 330 K. Moreover, in this domain, the study of the activation energy Ea)(T according to Werner's model [Solid State Phenom. 37, 214 (1994)] supposing potential fluctuations at the grain boundaries yields the values of the barrier high phib and the standard deviation sigma][phi. From these results, we see that Eg increased versus x and that the electrical properties are essentially preserved for low aluminum concentration films. This may be due to a minor presence of an Al2O3 phase for such deposits.

Bhira, L.; Belgacem, S.; Bernede, J. C.

2002-11-01

135

Financial Networks Anna Nagurney  

E-print Network

, Gas, Oil, Electricity Anna Nagurney Financial Networks #12;Interstate Highway System Freight Network. Anna Nagurney Financial Networks #12;Outline Background and Motivation Brief Early History Nagurney Financial Networks #12;Brief History of the Science of Networks Anna Nagurney Financial Networks

Nagurney, Anna

136

Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

Lazareff, Jorge

2014-01-01

137

Start Networking!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To get a better understanding of complex networks, students create their own, real social network example by interacting with their peers in the classroom and documenting the interactions. They represent the interaction data as a graph, calculate two mathematical quantities associated with the graphâthe degree of each node and the degree distribution of the graphâand analyze how these quantities can be used to infer properties of the social network at hand.

Complex Systems Science Laboratory

138

Network reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Network control (or network management) functions are essential for efficient and reliable operation of a network. Some control functions are currently included as part of the Open System Interconnection model. For local area networks, it is widely recognized that there is a need for additional control functions, including fault isolation functions, monitoring functions, and configuration functions. These functions can be implemented in either a central or distributed manner. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface Medium Access Control and Station Management protocols provide an example of distributed implementation. Relative information is presented here in outline form.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1985-01-01

139

On network coding capacity : matroidal networks and network capacity regions  

E-print Network

One fundamental problem in the field of network coding is to determine the network coding capacity of networks under various network coding schemes. In this thesis, we address the problem with two approaches: matroidal ...

Kim, Anthony Eli

2010-01-01

140

Friendship Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building upon a long tradition in sociology, economists have recently turned their attention to the analysis of social networks. The present paper adds to this emerging literature by proposing a different approach to social-network formation. As in the model of Jackson and Wolinsky (1996), formation of a link between two individuals requires two-sided investments in the present framework. But in

Jan K. Brueckner

2004-01-01

141

Neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of current research on artificial neural networks, emphasizing a statistical perspective.We view neural networks as parameterized graphs that make probabilistic assumptions aboutdata, and view learning algorithms as methods for finding parameter values that look probable in the lightof the data. We discuss basic issues in representation and learning, and treat some of the practical issuesthat arise

Michael I. Jordan; Christopher M. Bishop

1996-01-01

142

Temporal networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered, but does not attempt to unify related terminology-rather, we want to make papers readable across disciplines.

Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

2012-10-01

143

Technological Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an introduction to the Internet and different protocols related to it. This section also specifies the socio-technological properties of the Internet, like scale invariance, the small-world property, network resilience, etc. Section 3 describes the P2P networks, their categorization, and other related issues like search, stability, etc. Section 4 concludes the chapter.

Mitra, Bivas

144

Network design for information networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a new class of network design problems motivated by designing information networks. In our model, the cost of transporting flow for a set of users (or servicing them by a facility) depends on the amount of information requested by the set of users. We assume that the aggregation cost follows economies of scale, that is, the incremental cost

Ara Hayrapetyan; Chaitanya Swamy; Éva Tardos

2005-01-01

145

Center for Networked Center for Networked Computing  

E-print Network

Center for Networked Computing Center for Networked Computing Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling.wu}@temple.edu Presenter: Pouya Ostovari #12;Center for Networked Computing Center for Networked Computing Motivation for Networked Computing Center for Networked Computing Problem What is a good voltage threshold to trigger

Wu, Jie

146

Network Engineering for Complex Belief Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a large belief network, like any large system, requires systems engineering to manage the design and construction process. We propose that network engineering follow a rapid prototyping approach to network construction. We describe criteria for identifying network modules and the use of 'stubs' within a belief network. We propose an object oriented representation for belief networks which captures the

Suzanne M. Mahoney; Kathryn B. Laskey

1996-01-01

147

Research Network E-Mobility Research Network  

E-print Network

1 E-Mobility Research Network E-Mobility Research Network Technische Universität Berlin Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dietmar Göhlich Coordinator Research Network #12;2 E-Mobility Research Network E-Mobility Research Network and Environmen #12;3 E-Mobility Research Network Research Areas Energy Storage and Conversion Integration

Berlin,Technische Universität

148

Network Terminology TCP/IP Network Layers  

E-print Network

Network Terminology TCP/IP Network Layers Socket Programming Data Communication and Computer;Network Terminology TCP/IP Network Layers Socket Programming 1 Network Terminology 2 TCP/IP Network Layers TCP/IP vs OSI 3 Socket Programming Opening a Socket Bind, Listen, Accept Connect, Send, Recv

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

149

Wavelength Routing Networks Wavelength Routing Networks -1  

E-print Network

Pag. 1 Wavelength Routing Networks Wavelength Routing Networks - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching Wavelength-Routing Networks Fabio Neri and Marco Mellia TLC Networks Group.neri@polito.it ­ tel. 011 564 4076 marco.mellia@polito.it ­ tel. 011 564 4173 Wavelength Routing Networks - 2

Mellia, Marco

150

Network Topologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Network topology is the physical arrangement of the switching devices of a network connecting a group of computers or buildings. This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, explains how and why these connections are made. It showcases common topologies including mesh, bus, star, and ring topologies. Users can click through these various categories at their own speed, replaying animations and rereading explanations as many times as the individual needs. This is a great resource for students and teachers alike to familiarize themselves with network topologies. [ES

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-30

151

Routing in hybrid networks  

E-print Network

Hybrid networks are networks that have wired as well as wireless components. Several routing protocols exist for traditional wired networks and mobile ad-hoc networks. However, there are very few routing protocols designed for hybrid networks...

Gupta, Avinash

2012-06-07

152

Research Networks  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

153

Social Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major social networking tools like MySpace and Facebook give people an online identity-and an online space to call their own. Other social networking tools are more nuanced than sharing whole personalities like on MySpace. Tools like Library Thing, Flickr, and del. icio.us that focus on connecting people through certain media and interests offer specialized value to users. This paper

Melissa L. Rethlefsen

2007-01-01

154

Sentient networks  

SciTech Connect

The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

Chapline, G.

1998-03-01

155

Autonomic Networking in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we address autonomic networking in termsof wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a typical example of wirelessnetworks\\u000a in pervasive computing. In order to investigate the stateof the art of autonomic networking in sensor networks and its futureprospects,\\u000a we start with a short summary of autonomic networking andSensor networks. It follows the discussion of the appliance ofautonomic\\u000a networking in WSNs

Mengjie Yu; Hala Mokhtar; Madjid Merabti

156

Structure-composition-luminescence correlations in Sr 2.5-3 x/2 Ba 0.5Sm xAl 1- yIn yO 4F (0.001? x, y?0.1) oxyfluorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescent materials composed of Sr 2.5-3 x/2 Ba 0.5Sm xAl 1- yIn yO 4F (0.001? x, y?0.1) were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. After the replacement of Sr 2+ and Al 3+ ions by Sm 3+ and In 3+ ions in Sr 2.5Ba 0.5AlO 4F host structure, a novel charge-transfer band centered around 304 nm shifted from 240 nm is monitored; moreover, sharp and well-resolved emission peaks in the 4G 5/2? 6H J transitions of the Sm 3+ activator are observed. The diverse excitation and emission photoluminescence spectra of Sr 2.5-3 x/2 Ba 0.5Sm xAl 1- yIn yO 4- ?F 1- ? (0.001? x, y?0.1) phosphors originated by the charge-transfer of the host to the Sm 3+ activator, the f- f transitions in the Sm 3+ ions, and the defect-induced self-activation are also introduced.

Park, Sangmoon

2012-02-01

157

Control of Asymmetric Magnetic Perturbations in Tokamaks Jong-kyu Park,1  

E-print Network

, as well as for finding ways to achieve these tolerances. Mode locking occurs when the externally produced be sustained against resis- tivity by removing energy from plasma rotation when the driven ~b ^nmn is less than a critical magnitude. When the shielding current is sustained, the plasma response remains

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

158

Wavelength Routing Networks -1 Optical Networks  

E-print Network

Wavelength Routing Networks - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching Wavelength-Routing Networks Fabio Neri and Marco Mellia TLC Networks Group ­ Electronics Department e.mellia@polito.it ­ tel. 011 564 4173 #12;Wavelength Routing Networks - 3 Course program outline · Introduction

Mellia, Marco

159

Network Physiology: Mapping Interactions Between Networks of Physiologic Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human organism is an integrated network of interconnected and interacting organ systems, each representing a separate regulatory network. The behavior of one physiological system (network) may affect the dynamics of all other systems in the network of physiologic networks. Due to these interactions, failure of one system can trigger a cascade of failures throughout the entire network. We introduce a systematic method to identify a network of interactions between diverse physiologic organ systems, to quantify the hierarchical structure and dynamics of this network, and to track its evolution under different physiologic states. We find a robust relation between network structure and physiologic states: every state is characterized by specific network topology, node connectivity and links strength. Further, we find that transitions from one physiologic state to another trigger a markedly fast reorganization in the network of physiologic interactions on time scales of just a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. This reorganization in network topology occurs simultaneously and globally in the entire network as well as at the level of individual physiological systems, while preserving a hierarchical order in the strength of network links. Our findings highlight the need of an integrated network approach to understand physiologic function, since the framework we develop provides new information which can not be obtained by studying individual systems. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

160

Principal Networks  

PubMed Central

Graph representations of brain connectivity have attracted a lot of recent interest, but existing methods for dividing such graphs into connected subnetworks have a number of limitations in the context of neuroimaging. This is an important problem because most cognitive functions would be expected to involve some but not all brain regions. In this paper we outline a simple approach for decomposing graphs, which may be based on any measure of interregional association, into coherent “principal networks”. The technique is based on an eigendecomposition of the association matrix, and is closely related to principal components analysis. We demonstrate the technique using cortical thickness and diffusion tractography data, showing that the subnetworks which emerge are stable, meaningful and reproducible. Graph-theoretic measures of network cost and efficiency may be calculated separately for each principal network. Unlike some other approaches, all available connectivity information is taken into account, and vertices may appear in none or several of the subnetworks. Subject-by-subject “scores” for each principal network may also be obtained, under certain circumstances, and related to demographic or cognitive variables of interest. PMID:23630578

Clayden, Jonathan D.; Dayan, Michael; Clark, Chris A.

2013-01-01

161

Networking scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades there has been an enormous growth of scientific collaboration across national borders. The number of internationally coauthored scientific articles has grown at an average of 14% per year. Networking is now an important means of enhancing scientific quality. In an econometric study of the patterns of interaction the paper shows that scientific interaction follows the gravity model

Åke E. Andersson; Olle Persson

1993-01-01

162

Network opportunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our developing scientific understanding of complex networks is being usefully applied in a wide set of financial systems. What we've learned from the 2008 crisis could be the basis of better management of the economy -- and a means to avert future disaster.

Catanzaro, Michele; Buchanan, Mark

2013-03-01

163

Knowledge Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The blogosphere and the Internet are both examples of complex, self-organizing networks. So too is the world of academic publishing. Some faculty members are prolific article and book writers. Their publications often are hubs, or even superhubs, in the scholarly literature, cited regularly by others. Some scholars might just be nodes, with…

McLeod, Scott

2008-01-01

164

Working with neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As explanation of how neural networks operate is given. Programming of neural networks and regular computers is compared. Matching a neural network to an application is discussed. Designing and training a neural network is examined

D. Hammerstrom

1993-01-01

165

Network gossip algorithms  

E-print Network

Unlike the telephone network or the Internet, many of the next generation networks are not engineered for the purpose of providing efficient communication between various networked entities. Examples abound: sensor networks, ...

Shah, Devavrat

166

Securing Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. The military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are still the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to

Lidong Zhou; Zygmunt J. Haas

1999-01-01

167

Sensor Networks Communication strategies  

E-print Network

Outline Sensor Networks Communication strategies Follow on Distributed estimation in sensor@dsi.unifi.it February 1, 2007 A. Benavoli Fully Decentralized Networks #12;Outline Sensor Networks Communication strategies Follow on Outline 1 Sensor Networks An introduction to Sensor Networks Network architectures

Chisci, Luigi

168

Knowledge Discovery from Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, network becomes the engine of scientific research activities in 21st century. For example, a Web search engine is something to do with networked data mining and knowledge discovery from networks in deed. Networks interact with one another and are recursive. We have come to grasp the important knowledge of networks. Network is the key to representing the complex world

Deyi Li

2008-01-01

169

Network Management Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of management practices in different computer networks. The five networks were chosen as typical of different approaches to network implementation and management: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Network, MERIT Network, Triangle Universities Computation Center (TUCC), Oregon State Regional Network, and Tymnet (a…

Cotton, Ira W.

170

ARPA network current network protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This notebook is a collection of documents that describe or specify the various protocols of the ARPA Computer Network as of December 1974. Protocols are the rules of communication between processes. The protocols defined here form a tree structure. The basic protocol described here is the IMP to Host Protocol. Built on that is the Host to Host Protocol. Then

J. B. Postel; E. J. Feinler

1974-01-01

171

Studies on La 2- xPr xCa yBa 2Cu 4+ yO z ( x=0.1-0.5, y=2 x) type mixed oxide superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The La 2- xPr xCa yBa 2Cu 4+ yO z (LaPrCaBCO) mixed oxides have been studied for their structural and superconducting properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), d.c. resistivity, d.c. susceptibility and iodometric double titration techniques. The Rietveld analysis of the XRD data of all the LaPrCaBCO samples ( x=0.1-0.5) exhibits that all the compounds crystallize in tetragonal R-123 type structure (space group P4/ mmm). With the increase in x, Tc increases up to a maximum value of 58 K ( x=0.5, La-2125 stoichiometry), which is interesting for Pr substituted high Tc oxides. The results of structural studies and superconducting property measurements are presented in light of increase in Tc in LaPrCaBCO system with increasing Pr concentration.

Rayaprol, S.; Mavani, K. R.; Rana, D. S.; Thaker, C. M.; Dixit, Manglesh; Bhattacharya, Shovit; Kuberkar, D. G.

2003-10-01

172

Connections Between Network Topology and Network Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the project proposal for a Ph.D thesis at Gjvik Universtity College. Based on the resent advanced in graph theory and stud- ies of complex networks we want to emphasise the connection between network topology and risks in the network. Today network security focuses on single machine single session security. We hope to show that this approach is

Nils Kalstad Svendsen

173

Global Supply Chain Networks Electric Power Networks  

E-print Network

Global Supply Chain Network Model under Risk and Uncertainty Euler Method Numerical Example Motivation Research Global Supply Chain Network Model under Risk and Uncertainty Euler Method Numerical Example Global Power Networks Future Research Global Supply Chain Network Model under Risk and Uncertainty Euler Method

Nagurney, Anna

174

[Networks in cognitive research].  

PubMed

This review paper starts from discussing two models of network research: one starting from general networks, the other starting from the Ego. Ego based researches are characterized starting form the model of Dunbar as presenting networks of different size and intimacy, both in real and virtual networks. Researches into the personality determinants of networks mainly shows the effects of extroversion. The future of network research indicates a trend towards relating personal, conceptual, and neural networks. PMID:22781539

Pléh, Csaba

2012-01-01

175

Progress in supervised neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical results concerning the capabilities and limitations of various neural network models are summarized, and some of their extensions are discussed. The network models considered are divided into two basic categories: static networks and dynamic networks. Unlike static networks, dynamic networks have memory. They fall into three groups: networks with feedforward dynamics, networks with output feedback, and networks with state

D. R. Hush; B. G. Horne

1993-01-01

176

Recommendation in Social Networks  

E-print Network

in Social Networks, Tutorial at RecSys 2013 7 Social Networks · Different types of social relationships 8 Social Networks · Explicit social network relationships provided by users · Implicit social] · The formation and evolution of social networks is affected by many effects, including ­Self-interest, ­Social

Ester, Martin

177

Nested Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents analysis of nested neural networks, consisting of interconnected subnetworks. Analysis based on simplified mathematical models more appropriate for artificial electronic neural networks, partly applicable to biological neural networks. Nested structure allows for retrieval of individual subpatterns. Requires fewer wires and connection devices than fully connected networks, and allows for local reconstruction of damaged subnetworks without rewiring entire network.

Baram, Yoram

1992-01-01

178

Introduction Computer Networking  

E-print Network

network edge; hosts, access net, physical media v network core: packet/circuit switching, Internet Introduction 1-2 Chapter 1: roadmap 1.1 What is the Internet? 1.2 Network edge v end systems, access networks events network protocols: v machines rather than humans v all communication activity in Internet governed

Cheng, Xiuzhen "Susan"

179

Network Laboratories  

E-print Network

Abstract. Car-to-car communication by means of wireless technology shows a strong potential to enhance both safety and comfort of road users. The necessity to reach cars beyond the transmission range of the own radio creates the challenge to find algorithms to efficiently forward packets. In these so-called vehicular ad hoc networks, position information has been identified as a crucial component that alleviates some of the limitations of existing topology-based protocols. Thus, we see the use of positional information at the core of a car-to-car communication system that provides advanced applications for active safety, distributed floating car data, as well as user communication and information. A major thrust to leverage a car-to-car communication platform was provided by the FleetNet project, partly funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research BMB+F † and led by DaimlerChrysler AG. Based on ad-hoc networking principles and the availability of position information, the project developed suitable communication concepts. In addition to simulation studies, a prototype communication and application system was implemented and deployed, embedding safety and convenience applications. With car-based real world field trials successfully conducted, first results and experiences look promising.

Andreas Festag; Holger Füßler; Hannes Hartenstein; Amardeo Sarma; Ralf Schmitz

180

Financial Networks Anna Nagurney  

E-print Network

, Transmission Lines Water, Gas, Oil, Electricity Anna Nagurney Financial Networks #12;Interstate Highway System Organizational Theory Anna Nagurney Financial Networks #12;Brief Early History of the Science of Networks · 1736

Nagurney, Anna

181

Multilayer networks: Dangerous liaisons?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many networks interact with one another by forming multilayer networks, but these structures can lead to large cascading failures. The secret that guarantees the robustness of multilayer networks seems to be in their correlations.

Bianconi, Ginestra

2014-10-01

182

Stochastic Geometry Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

on the network considered, nodes may be mobile users, base stations in a cellular network, access points of a WiFi and analyzing it in a probabilistic way. In particular the locations of the network elements are seen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

Animal transportation networks  

PubMed Central

Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

2014-01-01

184

Advanced Computer Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this class will be to focus on advanced topics in computer networking. The goal of this class is to prepare students to do research in networking or cluster computing, including employment in leading edge networking positions.

Apon, Amy

185

Network Security Guideline.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Network Security Guideline was prepared to assist in understanding how the Command will implement the guidance from numerous security regulations and instructions for a network environment, and to establish network security policies and guidelines at...

1993-01-01

186

Animal transportation networks.  

PubMed

Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

2014-11-01

187

Computer Networking at FERMILAB.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Management aspects of data communications facilities at Fermilab are described. Local area networks include Ferminet, a broadband CATV system which serves as a backbone-type carrier for high-speed data traffic between major network nodes; micom network, f...

G. Chartrand

1986-01-01

188

Correlation in business networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers business networks. Through empirical study, we show that business networks display characteristics of small-world networks and scale-free networks. In this paper, we characterize firms as sales and bankruptcy probabilities. A correlation between sales and a correlation between bankruptcy probabilities in business networks are also considered. The results reveal that the correlation between sales depends strongly on the type of network, whereas the correlation between bankruptcy probabilities does so only weakly.

Souma, Wataru; Aoyama, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Kaizoji, Taisei

2006-10-01

189

Social Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Social networks have long been central to some of the most influential theories in criminology. For researchers interested\\u000a in exploring social networks (or personal networks) and their relationship to crime, network analysis provides the leverage\\u000a to answer questions in a more refined way than do nonrelational analyses. Network approaches are gaining popularity in criminology,\\u000a but the formal use of network

Jean Marie McGloin; David S. Kirk

190

Complex Networks and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about complex networks and how to represent them using graphs. They also learn that graph theory is a useful mathematical tool for studying complex networks in diverse applications of science and engineering, such as neural networks in the brain, biochemical reaction networks in cells, communication networks, such as the internet, and social networks. Topics covered include set theory, defining a graph, as well as defining the degree of a node and the degree distribution of a graph.

Complex Systems Science Laboratory

191

Combinatorial networks.  

PubMed

A novel approach for the analysis and virtual screening of large combinatorial libraries is presented. The method attempts to relieve the computational burden by computing the properties of the products in a way that does not require their explicit enumeration. In particular, a small subset of compounds from the virtual library is identified and their descriptors are calculated in a conventional manner. The resulting data is used as input to a multilayer perceptron, which is trained to predict the descriptors of the products from the descriptors of their respective building blocks. Once trained, the neural network is able to estimate the descriptors of the remaining members of the virtual library with remarkable accuracy, without ever, generating their connection tables. This method eliminates the two most time-consuming steps in virtual screening and allows the processing of very large combinatorial libraries that are intractable with conventional techniques. PMID:11552686

Lobanov, V S; Agrafiotis, D K

2001-01-01

192

Native Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, Native Americans have made significant contributions in a host of different media, including television, radio, and film. Involved in all aspects of this type of artistic and cultural expression, many Native Americans have also looked for a way to disseminate their substantial efforts in this arena. Fortunately, there is the Native Networks website (first launched in 2001), designed to provide information about such creations. The website was created by the Film and Video Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, and contains information about upcoming Native American film festivals and âÂÂclose-upâ profiles of people actively working in the field. Some of these features include material on the indigenous video makers in Mexico and an in-depth look at the film âÂÂHouse Made of DawnâÂÂ, which deals with a young Pueblo man in crisis. The site is available in both Spanish and English versions. [KMG

193

Network coding for robust wireless networks  

E-print Network

Wireless networks and communications promise to allow improved access to services and information, ubiquitous connectivity, and mobility. However, current wireless networks are not well-equipped to meet the high bandwidth ...

Kim, MinJi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

194

Energy aware network coding in wireless networks  

E-print Network

Energy is one of the most important considerations in designing reliable low-power wireless communication networks. We focus on the problem of energy aware network coding. In particular, we investigate practical energy ...

Shi, Xiaomeng, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

195

Interconnection networks  

DOEpatents

A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

1988-06-20

196

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition (TDA) research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

1977-01-01

197

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summaries are given of Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

1975-01-01

198

Network Engineering for Agile Belief Network Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of a large, complex belief network model, like any major system development effort, requires a structured process to manage system design and development. This paper describes a belief network engineering process based on the spiral system lifecycle model. The problem of specifying numerical probability distributions for random variables in a belief network is best treated not in isolation,

Kathryn Blackmond Laskey; Suzanne M. Mahoney

2000-01-01

199

Network Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks  

E-print Network

hacking tools Wireless home networks are a growing trend in today's world 802.11 a/b/g/n has been usedNetwork Setup Vulnerability of Wireless Home Networks Hacking into WPA Stephen G. Calvert (sgcalver tools can capture the authentication requests and use a dictionary attack to find the passphrase

Zhang, Junshan

200

Computer Networks and Networking: A Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a basic introduction to computer networks and networking terminology. Topics addressed include modems; the Internet; TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol); transmission lines; Internet Protocol numbers; network traffic; Fidonet; file transfer protocol (FTP); TELNET; electronic mail; discussion groups; LISTSERV; USENET;…

Collins, Mauri P.

1993-01-01

201

Efficient network camouflaging in wireless networks  

E-print Network

FIGURE Page 1 Traffic padding encryption device [83] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 An illustration of sensor network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3 An illustration of MANET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6 A random AFN network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7 Comparing the two approaches under different loads (N = 50) . . . . 35 8 Comparing the two approaches under different network sizes (M = 20...

Jiang, Shu

2006-04-12

202

Access network delay in networked games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end-to-end delay (also referred to as latency) experienced by gaming users has a significant impact on the quality of online games. In this paper we concentrate on the delay introduced in access networks. This access network delay depends on the access technology used, the network load, the link rate configured on the access links (also referred to as the

Tom Jehaes; Danny De Vleeschauwer; Toon Coppens; Bart Van Doorselaer; Eva Deckers; W. Naudts; K. Spruyt; R. Smets

2003-01-01

203

Bayesian Network Computations in BN  

E-print Network

Bayesian Network Computations in BN Applications Probabilistic computations in Bayesian Networks computations in Bayesian Networks #12;Bayesian Network Computations in BN Applications Outline 1 Bayesian Network Introduction Evidence Junction Tree 2 Computations in BN Potentials Inward/Outward Conditional

Nuel, Gregory

204

Synchronization on complex networks of networks.  

PubMed

In this paper, pinning synchronization on complex networks of networks is investigated, where there are many subnetworks with the interactions among them. The subnetworks and their connections can be regarded as the nodes and interactions of the networks, respectively, which form the networks of networks. In this new setting, the aim is to design pinning controllers on the chosen nodes of each subnetwork so as to reach synchronization behavior. Some synchronization criteria are established for reaching pinning control on networks of networks. Furthermore, the pinning scheme is designed, which shows that the nodes with very low degrees and large degrees are good candidates for applying pinning controllers. Then, the attack and robustness of the pinning scheme are discussed. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the theoretical analysis in this paper. PMID:25330433

Lu, Renquan; Yu, Wenwu; Lu, Jinhu; Xue, Anke

2014-11-01

205

Teachers Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York, the Teachers Network is an alliance of education professionals dedicated to disseminating best-practices throughout the world of public school education. On the homepage, visitors can click through a selection of lesson plans, essays by current teachers on their own experiences, and also read a list of grants available to those working in a number of disciplines, including social studies, language arts, and the sciences. The âÂÂHow Toâ area is one that will be most helpful to new teachers, as it provides resources on managing a classroom, working with studentsâ families, and teaching literacy. The lesson plans area includes a nice search feature which allows users to search by subject and grade level, along with offering them the option to view the most popular teacher-created lesson plans. Some of these favorites include âÂÂWhat Makes a Good Friend?â and âÂÂBreads Around the WorldâÂÂ. For educators and those with an interest in researching the realm of curriculum and instruction, this website is a real find.

206

Network Plus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several years, the Electronic Publishing Group at the MIT Media Laboratory has been conducting a family of media experiments which explore a new kind of broadcast: the distribution of data and computer programs rather than pre-packaged material. This broadcast is not directed to a human recipient, but to a local computational agent acting on his behalf. In response to instructions from both the broadcaster and the reader, this agent selects from the incoming data and presents it in a manner suggestive of traditional media. The embodiment of these media experiments is a news retrieval system where the news editor has been replaced by the personal computer. A variety of both local and remote databases which operate passively as well as interac-tively are accessed by "reporters." These "reporters" are actually software interfaces, which are programmed to gather news. Ideally, they are "broadcatching" that is to say, watching all broadcast television channels, listening to all radio transmissions, and reading all newspapers, magazines, and journals. 1 A possible consequence of the synthesis of media through active processing is the merger of newspapers and television (figure 1). The result is either a newspaper with illustrations which move 2 or, conversely, print as television output. The latter is the theme of Network Plus.

Bender, Walter; Chesnais, Pascal

1988-05-01

207

H+ diffusion and electrochemical stability of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 glass in aqueous Li/air battery electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that LATP (Li1+x+y AlxTi2?x SiyP3?yO12) glass is a good lithium ion conductor. However, the interaction between LATP glass and H+ ions (including its diffusion and surface adsorption) needs to be well understood before the long-term application of LATP glass in an aqueous electrolyte based Li-air batteries where H+ always present. In this work, we investigate the H+ ion diffusion properties in LATP glass and their surface interactions using both experimental and modeling approaches. Our analysis indicates that the apparent H+ related current observed in the initial cyclic voltammetry scan should be attributed to the adsorption of H+ ions on the LATP glass rather than the bulk diffusion of H+ ions in the glass. Furthermore, the density functional theory calculations indicate that the H+ ion diffusion energy barrier (3.21 eV) is much higher than that of Li+ ion (0.79 eV) and Na+ ion (0.79 eV) in NASICON type LiTi2(PO4)3 material. As a result, the H+ ion conductivity in LATP glass is negligible at room temperature. However, significant surface corrosion was found after the LATP glass was soaked in strong alkaline electrolyte for extended time. Therefore, appropriate electrolytes have to be developed to prevent the corrosion of LATP glass before its practical application for Li-air batteries using aqueous electrolyte.

Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-09-15

208

Network Analysis Seokhee Hong  

E-print Network

and Complex Networks Scale-free Networks Albert Barabasi http://www.nd.edu/~networks/ A Few Good Man Robert Glory Monsieur Verdoux Kevin Bacon Number Society Nodes: individuals Links: social relationship (family -TV cables -EM waves Communication networks: Many non-identical components with diverse connections

Hong,Seokhee

209

Modeling Network Forensics Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is a new approach to network security. However, this field is not very clear to new researchers and practitioners. In this paper, we discuss network forensics behavior systematically from both the technical view and legal view. The goal of this discussion is to outline the formalization and standardization of network forensics behavior. To our knowledge, this is the

Wei Ren

2006-01-01

210

Coupled adaptive complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive networks, which combine topological evolution of the network with dynamics on the network, are ubiquitous across disciplines. Examples include technical distribution networks such as road networks and the internet, natural and biological networks, and social science networks. These networks often interact with or depend upon other networks, resulting in coupled adaptive networks. In this paper we study susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic dynamics on coupled adaptive networks, where susceptible nodes are able to avoid contact with infected nodes by rewiring their intranetwork connections. However, infected nodes can pass the disease through internetwork connections, which do not change with time: The dependencies between the coupled networks remain constant. We develop an analytical formalism for these systems and validate it using extensive numerical simulation. We find that stability is increased by increasing the number of internetwork links, in the sense that the range of parameters over which both endemic and healthy states coexist (both states are reachable depending on the initial conditions) becomes smaller. Finally, we find a new stable state that does not appear in the case of a single adaptive network but only in the case of weakly coupled networks, in which the infection is endemic in one network but neither becomes endemic nor dies out in the other. Instead, it persists only at the nodes that are coupled to nodes in the other network through internetwork links. We speculate on the implications of these findings.

Shai, S.; Dobson, S.

2013-04-01

211

Towards knowledge networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we describe an integrated view on knowledge management and networking being a very powerful combination for the future of knowledge management. We start by giving an overview of the increasing importance of networks in the modern economy. Subsequently, we conceptualize a network perspective on knowledge management. Therefore we first give a theoretical foundation on networks, and secondly

Andreas Seufert; Georg von Krogh; Andrea Bach

1999-01-01

212

Open Extensible Network Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network control is decomposed in six parts: switch control, resource partitioning, virtual network building, virtual network control, generic services, and data-path components. Each of these parts can benefit from support for dynamically loadable code, which allows users to extend and customize the basic functionality. This is related to active networks, exept that dynamic code exercises control at the granularity of

Herbert Bos

2000-01-01

213

Access Network Target Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access networks have always been a very significant part of public network operator investments and operating costs. They have, however, not been a very dynamic part of telecom networks, planned, as they were, for the long-term and usually with limited technological innovation. These changing and access networks are increasingly coming into focus for technological innovation and as platforms for the

Milan Jankovic; Zoran R. Petrovic

1997-01-01

214

Guest Editorial Overlay networks  

E-print Network

(VM) to apply to communica- tion systems. They go by many names, including virtual private networksGuest Editorial Overlay networks Virtual networks (VNs) extend the abstraction of virtual memory avoiding recoding a real im- plementation into a simulation system. Virtualizing a network raises issues

Touch, Joe

215

Research Network Product Development  

E-print Network

E-Mobility Research Network Product Development Methods and Mechatronics Prof. Dr.-Ing Dietmar Göhlich Dipl.-Ing Felix Spangenberg 1 E-Mobility Research Network Technische Universität Berlin Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dietmar Göhlich Coordinator Research Network #12;E-Mobility Research Network Product Development Methods

Berlin,Technische Universität

216

Expand Your Wildcat Network  

E-print Network

Expand Your Wildcat Network Presented by: Aspasia Sia Apostolakis Miller #12;Learn how to: ­ build a series of win/win relationships ­ make a strong introduction ­ build and maintain your network ­ avoid some common networking mistakes ­ discover what it means to be a part of a 200,000+ alumni network #12

Shull, Kenneth R.

217

FES Science Network Requirements  

E-print Network

FES Science Network Requirements Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008 #12;FES Science Network Requirements Workshop Fusion Energy Sciences Program Office, DOE Office of Science Energy Sciences Network Gaithersburg, MD ­ March 13 and 14, 2008 ESnet

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

218

MONET: multiwavelength optical networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the multiwavelength optical networking (MONET) program and summarizes its vision. The program objective is to advance, demonstrate, and integrate network architecture and economics, advanced multiwavelength technology, and network management and control to achieve high capacity, reconfigurable, high performance, reliable multiwavelength optical networks, with scalability to national scale, for both commercial and specialized government applications.

Richard E. Wagner; Rod C. Alferness; A. A. M. Saleh; Matthew S. Goodman

1996-01-01

219

Designing Secure Library Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on designing a library network to maximize security. Discusses UNIX and file servers; connectivity to campus, corporate networks and the Internet; separation of staff from public servers; controlling traffic; the threat of network sniffers; hubs that eliminate eavesdropping; dividing the network into subnets; Switched Ethernet;…

Breeding, Michael

1997-01-01

220

Hybrid convolutional neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convolutional neural networks are known to outperform all other neural network models when classifying a wide variety of 2D-shapes. This type of networks supports a massively parallel extraction of low-level features in the processed images. Especially this characteristic is assumed to impact the performance of convolutional networks in character recognition tasks - and in particular when considering scaled, rotated, translated

I. Mrazova; M. Kukacka

2008-01-01

221

Economics of Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nicholas Economides of the Stern Business School at New York University has assembled a "collection of information on economic issues of networks, such as the internet, telephone and fax communications networks, the railroad network, the airline network, and financial exchange and credit card networks." The site contains a large collection of research papers on networks, compatibility, and related issues; and on financial networks and electronic trading written by Economides in collaboration with other researchers. Visitors to the site can choose to read the abstracts online or download papers (in Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] or Postscript format). In addition, there is also an extensive bibliography.

Economides, Nicholas.

1997-01-01

222

Networks consolidation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the networks consolidations program (NCP) to combine the resources of the two NASA ground spacecraft tracking networks (the Deep Space Network, operated by JPL, and the ground spaceflight tracking and data network, operated by Goddard) into one consolidated network is reported. Management, design, and implementation activities occurring between August 1981 and April 1982 are addressed, with special emphasis on planning and budgeting activities.

Yeater, M. L.; Herman, D. T.; Luers, E. B.

1982-01-01

223

Knowledge-based networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge#Based Networking, which is built on#top o f Content#based Networking (CBN), involves the forwarding of events across a network of brokers based on subscription filters applied to some semantics of the data and associated metadata of the events contents. Knowledge#based Networks (KBN) therefore support the efficient filtered dissemination of semantically enriched knowledge over a large, loosely coupled network of distributed

Dominic Jones; John Keeney; David Lewis; Declan O'sullivan

2008-01-01

224

Network management on Hughes Aircraft's engineering design network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the network management on the Ethernet-based engineering design network (EDEN). Past experiences and current network management techniques are presented for the various areas of network management such as protocol-level management, network monitoring, network database, problem reporting, problem diagnosis, and fault isolation. Near-term expectations in network management for EDEN are discussed

P. Ho

1989-01-01

225

Network sampling and classification: An investigation of network model representations  

E-print Network

Network sampling and classification: An investigation of network model representations Edoardo M: Connectivity pattern Network type Network metrics Network sampling Network classification Methods for generating a random sample of networks with desired properties are important tools for the analysis of social

Needleman, Daniel

226

Percolation of a general network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Percolation theory is an approach to study the vulnerability of a system. We develop an analytical framework and analyze the percolation properties of a network composed of interdependent networks (NetONet). Typically, percolation of a single network shows that the damage in the network due to a failure is a continuous function of the size of the failure, i.e., the fraction of failed nodes. In sharp contrast, in NetONet, due to the cascading failures, the percolation transition may be discontinuous and even a single node failure may lead to an abrupt collapse of the system. We demonstrate our general framework for a NetONet composed of n classic Erd?s-Rényi (ER) networks, where each network depends on the same number m of other networks, i.e., for a random regular network (RR) formed of interdependent ER networks. The dependency between nodes of different networks is taken as one-to-one correspondence, i.e., a node in one network can depend only on one node in the other network (no-feedback condition). In contrast to a treelike NetONet in which the size of the largest connected cluster (mutual component) depends on n, the loops in the RR NetONet cause the largest connected cluster to depend only on m and the topology of each network but not on n. We also analyzed the extremely vulnerable feedback condition of coupling, where the coupling between nodes of different networks is not one-to-one correspondence. In the case of NetONet formed of ER networks, percolation only exhibits two phases, a second order phase transition and collapse, and no first order percolation transition regime is found in the case of the no-feedback condition. In the case of NetONet composed of RR networks, there exists a first order phase transition when the coupling strength q (fraction of interdependency links) is large and a second order phase transition when q is small. Our insight on the resilience of coupled networks might help in designing robust interdependent systems.

Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Xu, Xiaoming; Havlin, Shlomo

2013-12-01

227

78 FR 775 - Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Alpharetta, GA...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering...Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering...Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment...

2013-01-04

228

Managing Distributed Networked Appliances in Home Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen an exponential growth in the use of home networks, from the Internet-enabled PC to network-enabled home appliances. Ordinary and everyday appliances used in the home will increasingly become integral components of these networks. They are required to join, leave, and self-configure in accordance with their dynamic environment. New platforms and applications are needed to mediate interactions

Madjid Merabti; Paul Fergus; Omar Abuelma'atti; Heather Yu; Charlie Judice

2008-01-01

229

Parallel Consensual Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new neural network architecture is proposed and applied in classification of remote sensing/geographic data from multiple sources. The new architecture is called the parallel consensual neural network and its relation to hierarchical and ensemble neural networks is discussed. The parallel consensual neural network architecture is based on statistical consensus theory. The input data are transformed several times and the different transformed data are applied as if they were independent inputs and are classified using stage neural networks. Finally, the outputs from the stage networks are then weighted and combined to make a decision. Experimental results based on remote sensing data and geographic data are given. The performance of the consensual neural network architecture is compared to that of a two-layer (one hidden layer) conjugate-gradient backpropagation neural network. The results with the proposed neural network architecture compare favorably in terms of classification accuracy to the backpropagation method.

Benediktsson, J. A.; Sveinsson, J. R.; Ersoy, O. K.; Swain, P. H.

1993-01-01

230

Wayfinding in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recent explosion of popularity of commercial social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace, the size of social networks that can be studied scientifically has passed from the scale traditionally studied by sociologists and anthropologists to the scale of networks more typically studied by computer scientists. In this chapter, I will highlight a recent line of computational research into the modeling and analysis of the small-world phenomenon - the observation that typical pairs of people in a social network are connected by very short chains of intermediate friends - and the ability of members of a large social network to collectively find efficient routes to reach individuals in the network. I will survey several recent mathematical models of social networks that account for these phenomena, with an emphasis on both the provable properties of these social-network models and the empirical validation of the models against real large-scale social-network data.

Liben-Nowell, David

231

Knitted Complex Networks  

E-print Network

To a considerable extent, the continuing importance and popularity of complex networks as models of real-world structures has been motivated by scale free degree distributions as well as the respectively implied hubs. Being related to sequential connections of edges in networks, paths represent another important, dual pattern of connectivity (or motif) in complex networks (e.g., paths are related to important concepts such as betweeness centrality). The present work proposes a new supercategory of complex networks which are organized and/or constructed in terms of paths. Two specific network classes are proposed and characterized: (i) PA networks, obtained by star-path transforming Barabasi-Albert networks; and (ii) PN networks, built by performing progressive paths involving all nodes without repetition. Such new networks are important not only from their potential to provide theoretical insights, but also as putative models of real-world structures. The connectivity structure of these two models is investig...

Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

2007-01-01

232

Network Traffic Management  

E-print Network

The purposes of this paper have to discuss issues related to Network Traffic Management. A relatively new category of network management is fast becoming a necessity in converged business Networks. Mid-sized and large organizations are finding they must control network traffic behavior to assure that their strategic applications always get the resources they need to perform optimally. Controlling network traffic requires limiting bandwidth to certain applications, guaranteeing minimum bandwidth to others, and marking traffic with high or low priorities. This exercise is called Network Traffic Management.

Kalyankar, Namdeo V

2009-01-01

233

When Network Coding improves the Performances of Clustered Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

When Network Coding improves the Performances of Clustered Wireless Networks, Roussel}@univ-mlv.fr Abstract This paper introduces a network coding scheme that significantly increases the performances of clustering algorithms in wireless multi-hop networks

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Towards Stable Network Performance in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

sensor networks re- quire communication performance that is both consistent and high quality performance consistently. In wireless sensor networks, current network protocols estimate link quality based. Furthermore, the network may experience cascading route changes: newly selected routes introduce interference

Whitehouse, Kamin

235

Incorporating Existing Network Information into Gene Network Inference  

E-print Network

network. Black edges indicate the inferred network predictedBlack edges indicate the inferred interaction matches the experimental network,Black edges indicate the inferred interaction matches the experimental network,

Christley, Scott; Nie, Qing; Xie, Xiaohui

2009-01-01

236

CONSTRUCTING DEAL NETWORKS: BROKERS AS NETWORK \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept of the network architect to extend theory explaining how brokers create and manage structural holes in mediated markets. We argue that a broker's social resources and dependence on the market, along with exogenous deal conditions, influence the broker's motivations and willingness to make tradeoffs between long-term and short-term considerations when constructing deal networks. We develop our

TIMOTHY G. POLLOCK

237

Networking Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of sensor networks as one of the dominant technology trends in the com- ing decades (1) has posed numerous unique challenges to researchers. These networks are likely to be composed of hundreds, and potentially thousands of tiny sensor nodes, func- tioning autonomously, and in many cases, without access to renewable energy resources. Cost constraints and the need for

Deepak Ganesan; Alberto Cerpa; Yan Yu; Deborah Estrin; Wei Ye; Jerry Zhao

2003-01-01

238

Networking issues in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of sensor networks as one of the dominant technology trends in the com- ing decades (1) has posed numerous unique challenges to researchers. These networks are likely to be composed of hundreds, and potentially thousands of tiny sensor nodes, func- tioning autonomously, and in many cases, without access to renewable energy resources. Cost constraints and the need for

Deepak Ganesan; Alberto Cerpa; Deborah Estrin; Yan Yu; Jerry Zhao

2004-01-01

239

Applying Static Network Protocols to Dynamic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of how to adapt an algorithm designed for fixed topology networks to produce the intended results, when run in a network whose topology changes dynamically, in spite of encountering topological changes during its execution. We present a simple and unified procedure, called a reset procedure, which, when combined with the static algorithm, achieves this adaptation.

Yehuda Afek; Baruch Awerbuch; Eli Gafni

1987-01-01

240

Local area networking: Ames centerwide network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer network can benefit the user by making his/her work quicker and easier. A computer network is made up of seven different layers with the lowest being the hardware, the top being the user, and the middle being the software. These layers are discussed.

Price, Edwin

1988-01-01

241

Network Nation Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Network Nation Revisited" is an analysis of the predictions made by Hiltz and Turoff in _The Network Nation_, one of the seminal texts (published in 1978) in the field of Computer Mediated Communications.

242

Network coded wireless architecture  

E-print Network

Wireless mesh networks promise cheap Internet access, easy deployment, and extended range. In their current form, however, these networks suffer from both limited throughput and low reliability; hence they cannot meet the ...

Katti, Sachin Rajsekhar

2008-01-01

243

Network Economics Anna Nagurney  

E-print Network

, Gas, Oil, Electricity #12;Interstate Highway System #12;US Railroad Freight Flows #12;Natural Gas · Brief History of the Science of Networks · Interdisciplinary Impact of Networks · User-Optimization vs

Nagurney, Anna

244

Infinite dynamic bayesian networks  

E-print Network

We present the infinite dynamic Bayesian network model (iDBN), a nonparametric, factored state-space model that generalizes dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The iDBN can infer every aspect of a DBN: the number of hidden ...

Doshi-Velez, Finale P.

245

Flexible Memory Networks  

E-print Network

Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H_1(X;Z)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context.

Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir

2010-01-01

246

SCN: Seattle Community Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SCN, SEATTLE COMMUNITY NETWORK opened a web site. SCN is a free, public computer network founded by the Seattle chapter of Computer Professionals. Contains information about SCN and links to other freenest and community resources.

247

Intelligent metro network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metro networks have evolved dynamically since its position in the network infrastructure. To gain competitive advantage in this attractive market, carriers should emphasize not only just the power of their networks in terms of the speed, number of channels, distance covered, but also the network's versatility in supporting variety of access interfaces, flexibility in bandwidth provisioning, ability of differentiated service offering, and capability of network management. Based on an overview of four emerging metro network technologies, an intelligent metro network control platform is introduced. The intelligent control platform is necessary for carriers to meet the new metro requirements. Intelligent control and management functions of the platform are proposed respectively. Intelligent metro network will bridge the metro gap and open up a whole new set of services and applications.

Luo, Zhongsheng; Kan, Yulun; Wang, Licun

2001-10-01

248

Connectibles : tangible social networking  

E-print Network

This thesis presents "Connectibles," an instantiation of a tangible social network, a new type of social network application rooted in physical objects and real world social behavior. This research is inspired by social ...

Kalanithi, Jeevan James

2007-01-01

249

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report is given of the Deep Space Networks progress in (1) flight project support, (2) tracking and data acquisition research and technology, (3) network engineering, (4) hardware and software implementation, and (5) operations.

1979-01-01

250

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are considered. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported.

1980-01-01

251

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are emphasized.

1979-01-01

252

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Deep Space Network progress report is presented dealing with in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

1977-01-01

253

Ramification of stream networks  

E-print Network

The geometric complexity of stream networks has been a source of fascination for centuries. However, a comprehensive understanding of ramification—the mechanism of branching by which such networks grow—remains elusive. ...

Devauchelle, Olivier

254

Juvenile Scleroderma Network  

MedlinePLUS

... your family can help. What if Juvenile Scleroderma Network earned a penny every time you searched the ... com and be sure to enter Juvenile Scleroderma Network as the charity you want to support. Just ...

255

Congenital Heart Information Network  

MedlinePLUS

... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

256

Beyond Network Equivalence  

E-print Network

In earlier work, we described an equivalence result for network capacity. Roughly, that result is as follows. Given a network of noisy, memoryless, point-to-point channels, replace each channel by a noiseless, memoryless ...

Koetter, Ralf

257

Derek Wilson & Networking  

E-print Network

Research Computing Support Network & Telecom Colin Randall (S) - Steve Wittstruck Jeff Culligan (S) - RobCIO Derek Wilson Provost Computing & Networking Infrastructure Phil Romig Director &CISO Client & Web Services & Support Gina Boice Director Enterprise Systems David Lee Director HPC & Research

258

OncoArray Network  

Cancer.gov

The overall goal of the OncoArray Network is to gain new insight into the genetic architecture and mechanisms underlying breast, ovarian, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers. The Network's major aim is to discover new cancer susceptibility variants.

259

Networking and Institutional Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the impact of networks and shared library resources on the library planning process. Environmental scanning techniques, the need for cooperative planning, and the formulation of strategies to achieve networking goals are discussed. (CLB)

Riggs, Donald E.

1987-01-01

260

Learning to Generate Networks  

E-print Network

The recent explosion in social network data has stimulated interest in probabilistic models of networks. Such models are appealing because they are empirically grounded; in contrast to more traditional network models, their parameters are estimated from data, and the models are evaluated on how well they represent the data. The exponential random graph model (ERGM, or, alternatively $p^*$) is currently the dominant framework for probabilistic network modeling. Despite their popularity, ERGMs suffer from a very serious flaw: near degeneracy. Briefly, an ERGM fit to a network or set of networks often ends up generating networks that look nothing at all like the training data. It is deeply troubling that the most likely model will generate instances that look nothing like data, and this calls the validity of models into question. In this work, we seek to address the general problem of learning to generate networks that do look like data. This is a large, challenging problem. To gain an understanding, we decompos...

Atwood, James

2014-01-01

261

our answers t scuss with yo  

E-print Network

betwe B ge you stopp yes, what ty ow long have C bnormal Pap S bnormal Ute acterial Vagi hlamydia? bleed? (Ex. mild m een periods? ped having p pe? _______ e you been u Smear rine Bleedin inosis / Vagi Gonorrhea Hepatitis B Herpes Human Pap Incontinenc ___________ Harborview Medi Northwest Hospit Seattle

Borenstein, Elhanan

262

Bwa-Yo: Important Trees of Haiti.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trees and their forest habitats have played a major role in creating a fertile environment in Haiti. There is a collection of native and exotic species that plays an essential role in the agricultural landscape. Several of the more important ones are incl...

J. Timyan

1996-01-01

263

Dynamic Network Models  

E-print Network

We analyze random networks that change over time. First we analyze a dynamic Erdos-Renyi model, whose edges change over time. We describe its stationary distribution, its convergence thereto, and the SI contact process on the network, which has relevance for connectivity and the spread of infections. Second, we analyze the effect of node turnover, when nodes enter and leave the network, which has relevance for network models incorporating births, deaths, aging, and other demographic factors.

Armbruster, Benjamin

2011-01-01

264

Computer networking at FERMILAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management aspects of data communications facilities at Fermilab are described. Local area networks include Ferminet, a broadband CATV system which serves as a backbone-type carrier for high-speed data traffic between major network nodes; micom network, four Micom Micro-600\\/2A port selectors via private twisted pair cables, dedicated telephone circuits, or Micom 800\\/2 statistical multiplexors; and Decnet\\/Ethernet, several small local area networks

Chartrand

1986-01-01

265

Applications of Bayesian Belief Networks in Social Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian belief networks as a tool for enhancing social network analysis. Traditional social network analysis (SNA) primarily uses graph-theoretic algorithms to compute properties of nodes in a network. However, these algorithms assume a degree of completeness and reliability of the social network data, which cannot always be assured. Applying Bayesian belief networks

David Koelle; Jonathan Pfautz; Michael Farry; Zach Cox; Geoffrey Catto; Joseph Campolongo

266

N/2 Input Benes Network N/2 Input Benes Network  

E-print Network

(Top) N/2 Input Benes Network (Bottom) Figure 1: Structure of an N input Benes Network CS 606 Oine Network A Benes Network is simply a Butter y network on N inputs (denoted BN) connected \\in series" following a reverse butter y network on N inputs (denoted BH N). In particular, the node in row i column n

Ranade, Abhiram G.

267

Introduction to Computer Networks Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach  

E-print Network

??? · Network edge · Network core · Network access and physical media · Internet structure and ISPs · Delay · Network core · Network access and physical media · Internet structure and ISPs · Delay & loss in packet the Internet, 4th edition. Jim Kurose, Keith Ross, Addison-Wesley, July 2007 ­ The best intro-level network

Dong, Yingfei

268

Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Networks from Transportation Networks to  

E-print Network

Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Networks from Transportation Networks to the Internet or as equilibrium problems and even dynamic network problems. Complex network problems, with a focus on critical-scale nature and complexity of network topology; · congestion; · the interactions among networks themselves

Nagurney, Anna

269

Managing Knowledge Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a multitheoretical, multilevel (MTML) model to study the management of knowledge networks. Considers theoretical mechanisms for emergence of knowledge networks and presents empirical findings about the emergence of knowledge networks. Concludes that it is necessary to utilize MTML models to integrate multiple social and communication…

Contractor, Noshir S.; Monge, Peter R.

2002-01-01

270

Networks: 4.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These five activities give students practice in interpreting and creating network representations that organize information and relate connectedness and other metrics such as time and distance. Among the types of networks studied are transport distances, family trees, events tree diagrams, and factor networks. Teaching suggestions, links to materials, and progress indicators are included.

2010-07-29

271

Appalachia Community Cancer Network  

Cancer.gov

A multidisciplinary team of collaborators from academic institutions and communities in Appalachian regions of Kentucky, West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, and Virginia are proposing to build on a strong foundation of previous activity of the Appalachia Cancer Network (ACN), an NCI-funded Special Populations Network, and develop the Appalachia Community Cancer Network (ACCN).

272

Logic and semantic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extended form of semantic network is defined, which can be regarded as a syntactic variant of the clausal form of logic. By virtue of its relationship with logic, the extended semantic network is provided with a precise semantics, inference rules, and a procedural interpretation. On the other hand, by regarding semantic networks as an abstract data structure for the

Amaryllis Deliyanni; Robert A. Kowalski

1979-01-01

273

Resourcesharing computer communications networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of resource-sharing networks can facilitate the provision of a wide range of economic and reliable computer services. Computer-communication networks allow the sharing of specialized computer resources such as data bases, programs, and hardware. Such a network consists of both the computer resources and a communications system interconnecting them and allowing their full utilization to be achieved. In addition,

ROBERT E. KAHN

1972-01-01

274

Serverless Network File Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new paradigm for network file system design, serverless network file systems. While traditional network file systems rely on a central server machine, a serverless system utilizes workstations cooperating as peers to provide all file system services. Any machine in the system can store, cache, or control any block of data. Our approach uses this

Thomas E. Anderson; Michael Dahlin; Jeanna M. Neefe; David A. Patterson; Drew S. Roselli; Randolph Y. Wang

1995-01-01

275

Money with Bank Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We allow banks to choose between two networks in a simple version of the Cavalcanti and Wallace (1999) model of inside money. Members of a network have access to credit but must redeem banknotes issued by other members in random meetings. We find equilibria in which members of a particular network issue more valuable notes, but face the same ex-ante

Ricardo de Oliveira Cavalcanti; Henrique Dezemone Forno

2004-01-01

276

Computational Verb Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

When any attribute value in a conventional neural network is verbified, the result is a computational verb neural network(VNN). We can verbify inputs, outputs, biases, weights and many other attributes of conventional neural networks. In this paper, we reported two types of VNNs. The first one consists of computational verb inputs and numerical output. The second one consists of computational

Tao Yang

2007-01-01

277

Social Network Leverage Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networks are at an all time high, nowadays. They make the world a smaller place to live in. People can stay in touch with friends and can make new friends on these social networks which traditionally were not possible without internet service. The possibilities provided by social networks enable vast and immediate contact. People tend to spend lot of

Payal Gupta

2011-01-01

278

Twitter: Network properties analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online Social Networks have had a fast growing since the popularization of Web 2.0. This kind of networks provides the basis to find and maintain social relationships with users having diverse interests as well as a current picture of things happening around them. The analysis of the graph structure is necessary to understand the impact of online social networks among

Abraham Ronel Martínez Teutle

2010-01-01

279

Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks are gaining popularity and are star- ting to be used in actual projects and commercial scale. Wi- reless sensor networks face dierent challenges than regular distributed systems, which have to be reflected in system and middleware design. Dierent middleware approaches are presented, along with implementing systems. The versatility of wireless sensor networks is underlined with examples of

Florian Schaub

280

TKN Telecommunication Networks Group  

E-print Network

switching (OBS/OPS) paradigm with a higher performance­in terms of packet loss rate and network throughput are needed in packet switched networks for two purposes. First, they are used to keep the packets in nodes Virtual Optical Bus: A Novel Packet-Based Architecture for Optical Transport Networks Ahmad Rostami ahmad

Wichmann, Felix

281

Parallel Consensual Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimized combination, regularization, and pruning is proposed for the Parallel Consensual Neural Networks (PC- NNs) which is a neural network architecture based on the consensus of a collection of stage neural networks trained on the same input data with dieren t representations. Here, a regularization scheme is presented for the PCNN and in training a regularized cost function is minimized.

J. A. Benediktsson; J. Larsen; J. R. Sveinsson; L. K. Hansen

282

The Network Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the role of new computer communications technologies in education focuses on modern networking systems, including fiber distributed data interface and Integrated Services Digital Network; strategies for implementing networked-based communication; and public online information resources for the classroom, including Bitnet, Internet,…

Maule, R. William

1993-01-01

283

Serverless network file systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new paradigm for network file system design: serverless network file systems. While traditional network file systems rely on a central server machine, a serverless system utilizes workstations cooperating as peers to provide all file system services. Any machine in the system can store, cache, or control any block of data. Our approach uses this location independence, in

Thomas E. Anderson; Michael D. Dahlin; Jeanna M. Neefe; David A. Patterson; Drew S. Roselli; Randolph Y. Wang

1996-01-01

284

NEST: NEtwork Server Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

NEST (network server tool) can be used to automatically generate code infrastructure for TCP-based network servers. It uses a specification language to describe client-server interaction and state transitions within the server. This specification language has some similarities to the compiler tools Lex and Yacc, and its design makes network server specification straightforward. One of the main features of NEST is

Kelly Wilson; John Aycock

2005-01-01

285

Towards global network positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new approach to predict Internet network distance called Global Network Positioning (GNP). This approach models the Internet as a geometric space and distributedly computes geometric coordinates to characterize the positions of hosts in the Internet. By conducting Internet experiments, we show that the geometric distances implied by the GNP hosts coordinates can accurately predict the Internet network

T. S. Eugene Ng; Hui Zhang

2001-01-01

286

Bayesian Networks without Tears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, a method of reasoning using probabilities, vari- ously called belief networks, Bayesian networks, knowl- edge maps, proba- bilistic causal networks, and so on, has become popular within the AI proba- bility and uncertain- ty community. This method is best sum- marized in Judea Pearl's (1988) book, but the ideas are a product of many hands.

Eugene Charniak

1991-01-01

287

Detecting Attacks on Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Internet based and intranet based network systems have evolved, they have become invaluable tools that businesses can use to share information and conduct business with online partners. However, hackers have also learned to use these systems to access private networks and their resources. Studies have shown that many organizations have suffered external and internal network intrusions. Internet systems are

Chris Herringshaw

1997-01-01

288

Dynamic Virtual Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend traditional Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) with fault-tolerance and dynamicmembership properties, defining a Dynamic Virtual Private Network (DVPN). We require nonew hardware and make no special assumptions about line security. An implementation exhibitslow overheard, provides guarantees of authenticity and confidentiality to any IP applicationrunning over the virtual network. Our system is lightweight, allowing the use of multiple finegrainedVPNs. Instead

Ohad Rodeh; Ken Birman; Mark Hayden; Danny Dolev

1998-01-01

289

Network Layer; Location Management;  

E-print Network

on network topology A CB F network topology · Identifiers (ID) ­ independent of network topology 6 ED #12 the destination which is the color printer on the 4th floor of AKW ­ Internet domain name: lw4c; floor=4; entity = printer; quality = color] 10 #12;Addressing Scheme: IP IP address: 32-bit identifier

Gao, Jie

290

Honors Faculty Mentor Network  

E-print Network

Honors Faculty Mentor Network Providing Students with Friends on the Faculty Mentor Handbook 2006@uga.edu ELIZABETH MANLEY, Administrative Assistant eym@uga.edu KAREN NEWCOMB, Network Administrator knewcomb@uga.edu SMITH WYCKOFF, Graduate Assistant sw@uga.edu Faculty & Staff #12;Honors Faculty Mentor Network Table

Arnold, Jonathan

291

Equilibrium games in networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems a universal phenomenon of networks that the attacks on a small number of nodes by an adversary player Alice may generate a global cascading failure of the networks. It has been shown (Li et al., 2013) that classic scale-free networks (Barabási and Albert, 1999, Barabási, 2009) are insecure against attacks of as small as O(logn) many nodes. This poses a natural and fundamental question: Can we introduce a second player Bob to prevent Alice from global cascading failure of the networks? We proposed a game in networks. We say that a network has an equilibrium game if the second player Bob has a strategy to balance the cascading influence of attacks by the adversary player Alice. It was shown that networks of the preferential attachment model (Barabási and Albert, 1999) fail to have equilibrium games, that random graphs of the Erdös-Rényi model (Erdös and Rényi, 1959, Erdös and Rényi, 1960) have, for which randomness is the mechanism, and that homophyly networks (Li et al., 2013) have equilibrium games, for which homophyly and preferential attachment are the underlying mechanisms. We found that some real networks have equilibrium games, but most real networks fail to have. We anticipate that our results lead to an interesting new direction of network theory, that is, equilibrium games in networks.

Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng; Peng, Pan

2014-12-01

292

Networks and Economic Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent analyses of social networks, both empirical and theoretical, are discussed, with a focus on how social networks influence economic behavior, as well as how social networks form. Some challenges of such research are discussed as are some of the important considerations for the future.

Matthew O. Jackson

2009-01-01

293

Computer Networking for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to introduce the basic concepts of connecting computers together and to equip individuals with the technical background necessary to begin constructing small networks. For those already experienced with creating and maintaining computer networks, the book can help in considering the creation of a schoolwide network. The book…

McCain, Ted D. E.; Ekelund, Mark

294

Learning Dynamic Bayesian Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Bayesian networks are directed acyclic graphs that represent dependencies between variables in a probabilistic model. Many time series models, including the hidden Markov models (HMMs) used in speech recognition and Kalman filter models used in filtering and control applications, can be viewed as examples of dynamic Bayesian networks. We first provide a brief tutorial on learning and Bayesian networks.

Zoubin Ghahramani

1997-01-01

295

Network information flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new class of problems called network information flow which is inspired by computer network applica- tions. Consider a point-to-point communication network on which a number of information sources are to be mulitcast to certain sets of destinations. We assume that the information sources are mu- tually independent. The problem is to characterize the admissible coding rate region.

Rudolf Ahlswede; Ning Cai; Shuo-yen Robert Li; Raymond W. Yeung

2000-01-01

296

Linguistic and Cognitive Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The type of network treated in this paper is a network of relationships. The author shows how linguistic data and cognitional data can be accounted for by means of such networks. He begins by looking at some linguistic data, with particular concern for identifying the relationships which they exhibit. That is, the emphasis is on their…

Lamb, Sydney M.

297

OSI Network Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Management of heterogeneous networks is complicated by the persistence of proprietary management schemes. The need for integration of network management capabilities is pressing. The International Organization for Standardization is developing standards for managing networks as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) effort. OSI management…

Harris, Ethan

1990-01-01

298

Aeronautical ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an enormous growth in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in land based small to medium size networks with relatively strict power and resources. In this paper the concept of ad hoc networking between aircraft is introduced, which can be considered as a novel approach in increasing the data rate and practicality of future in-flight broadband Internet access.

Ehssan Sakhaee; Abbas Jamalipour; Nei Kato

2006-01-01

299

Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confluence of inexpensive wireless communication, computation, and sensing has created a new generation of smart devices. Using tens to thousands of these devices in self-organizing networks has created a new technology referred to as wireless sensor networks. This article gives an overview of the wireless sensor networks.

John A. Stankovic

2008-01-01

300

Complexity of network synchronization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of simulating a synchronous network by an asynchronous network is investigated. A new simulation technique, referred to as a synchronizer, which is a new, simple methodology for designing efficient distributed algorithms in asynchronous networks, is proposed. The synchronizer exhibits a trade-off between its communication and time complexities, which is proved to be within a constant factor of the

Baruch Awerbuch

1985-01-01

301

ad hoc networks.\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Mobile ad hoc networks rely on cooperation to perform essential network mechanisms such as routing. Therefore, network performance depends to a great extent on giving participating nodes an incentive for cooperation. The level of trust among nodes is the most frequently used parameter for promoting cooperation in distributed systems. There are different models for representing trust, each of

Marcela Mejia; Néstor M. Peña; Jose L. Muñoz; Oscar Esparza

2009-01-01

302

Sensor networks Opportunities for theory  

E-print Network

Sensor networks Opportunities for theory The future Sensor Networks and the Future of Networked Computation James Aspnes Yale University February 16th, 2006 ToNC workshop, February 16th, 2006 Sensor Networks and the Future of Networked Computation #12;Sensor networks Opportunities for theory The future

Feigenbaum, Joan

303

NASA's unique networking environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1988-01-01

304

Network Characterization Service (NCS)  

SciTech Connect

Distributed applications require information to effectively utilize the network. Some of the information they require is the current and maximum bandwidth, current and minimum latency, bottlenecks, burst frequency, and congestion extent. This type of information allows applications to determine parameters like optimal TCP buffer size. In this paper, we present a cooperative information-gathering tool called the network characterization service (NCS). NCS runs in user space and is used to acquire network information. Its protocol is designed for scalable and distributed deployment, similar to DNS. Its algorithms provide efficient, speedy and accurate detection of bottlenecks, especially dynamic bottlenecks. On current and future networks, dynamic bottlenecks do and will affect network performance dramatically.

Jin, Guojun; Yang, George; Crowley, Brian; Agarwal, Deborah

2001-06-06

305

High-performance networking.  

SciTech Connect

Our research in high-performance networking addresses the communication needs of Grand Challenge applications over a wide range of environments - wide-area network (WAN) in support of grids and local-area network (LAN) and system-area network (SAN) in support of network of workstations and clusters. While the high-performance computing (HPC) community generally groups clusters and grids together as commodity supercomputing infrastructures, the networking aspects of clusters and grids are fundamentally different. In networks of workstations and clusters, the primary communication bottleneck is the host-interface bottleneck whereas in grids, the bottlenecks are adaptation bottlenecks in particular, flow control and congestion control. To address these problems, we offer a set of solutions specifically tailored to each of the aforementioned environments.

Feng, W. C. (Wu-Chun)

2001-01-01

306

Percolation on sparse networks  

E-print Network

We study percolation on networks, which is widely used as a model of the resilience of networked systems such as the Internet to attack or failure and as a simple model of the spread of disease over human contact networks. We reformulate percolation as a message passing process and use the resulting equations to show, among other things, that for sparse networks, which includes most networks observed in the real world, the percolation threshold is given by the inverse of the leading eigenvalue of the so-called non-backtracking matrix. Like most message passing calculations, our results are exact on networks that have few small loops but, as we show, they also provide bounds on the percolation behavior of networks that do contain loops.

Karrer, Brian; Zdeborová, Lenka

2014-01-01

307

Network topology analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Emerging high-bandwidth, low-latency network technology has made network-based architectures both feasible and potentially desirable for use in satellite payload architectures. The selection of network topology is a critical component when developing these multi-node or multi-point architectures. This study examines network topologies and their effect on overall network performance. Numerous topologies were reviewed against a number of performance, reliability, and cost metrics. This document identifies a handful of good network topologies for satellite applications and the metrics used to justify them as such. Since often multiple topologies will meet the requirements of the satellite payload architecture under development, the choice of network topology is not easy, and in the end the choice of topology is influenced by both the design characteristics and requirements of the overall system and the experience of the developer.

Kalb, Jeffrey L.; Lee, David S.

2008-01-01

308

Satellite networks for education.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration of satellite-based educational networking. The characteristics and structure of networks are reviewed, and pressures within the educational establishment that are providing motivation for various types of networks are discussed. A number of studies are cited in which networking needs for educational sectors and services are defined. The current status of educational networking for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intrastate educational communication networks, computer networks, cable television for education, and continuing and proposed educational experiments using NASA's Applications Technology Satellites is reviewed. Possible satellite-based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems are described. Some remarks are made concerning public policy aspects of future educational satellite system development.

Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

1972-01-01

309

Organization of complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many large complex systems can be successfully analyzed using the language of graphs and networks. Interactions between the objects in a network are treated as links connecting nodes. This approach to understanding the structure of networks is an important step toward understanding the way corresponding complex systems function. Using the tools of statistical physics, we analyze the structure of networks as they are found in complex systems such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and numerous industrial and social networks. In the first chapter we apply the concept of self-similarity to the study of transport properties in complex networks. Self-similar or fractal networks, unlike non-fractal networks, exhibit similarity on a range of scales. We find that these fractal networks have transport properties that differ from those of non-fractal networks. In non-fractal networks, transport flows primarily through the hubs. In fractal networks, the self-similar structure requires any transport to also flow through nodes that have only a few connections. We also study, in models and in real networks, the crossover from fractal to non-fractal networks that occurs when a small number of random interactions are added by means of scaling techniques. In the second chapter we use k-core techniques to study dynamic processes in networks. The k-core of a network is the network's largest component that, within itself, exhibits all nodes with at least k connections. We use this k-core analysis to estimate the relative leadership positions of firms in the Life Science (LS) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors of industry. We study the differences in the k-core structure between the LS and the ICT sectors. We find that the lead segment (highest k-core) of the LS sector, unlike that of the ICT sector, is remarkably stable over time: once a particular firm enters the lead segment, it is likely to remain there for many years. In the third chapter we study how epidemics spread though networks. Our results indicate that a virus is more likely to infect a large area of a network if it originates at a node contained within k-core of high index k.

Kitsak, Maksim

310

78 FR 12359 - Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Including...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering...Including Workers in the Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering...Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment...

2013-02-22

311

A network security monitor  

SciTech Connect

The study of security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because of the proliferation of networks and the paucity of security measures in most current networks. Since most networks consist of a collection of inter-connected local area networks (LANs), this paper concentrates on the security-related issues in a single broadcast LAN such as Ethernet. Specifically, we formalize various possible network attacks and outline methods of detecting them. Our basic strategy is to develop profiles of usage of network resources and then compare current usage patterns with the historical profile to determine possible security violations. Thus, our work is similar to the host-based intrusion-detection systems such as SRI's IDES. Different from such systems, however, is our use of a hierarchical model to refine the focus of the intrusion-detection mechanism. We also report on the development of our experimental LAN monitor currently under implementation. Several network attacks have been simulated and results on how the monitor has been able to detect these attacks are also analyzed. Initial results demonstrate that many network attacks are detectable with our monitor, although it can surely be defeated. Current work is focusing on the integration of network monitoring with host-based techniques. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Heberlein, L.T.; Dias, G.V.; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B.; Wood, J.; Wolber, D. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

1989-11-01

312

Computer network programming  

SciTech Connect

The programs running on a computer network can be divided into two parts, the Network Operating System and the user applications. Any high level language translator, such as C, JAVA, BASIC, FORTRAN, or COBOL, runs under NOS as a programming tool to produce network application programs or software. Each application program while running on the network provides the human user with network application services, such as remote data base search, retrieval, etc. The Network Operating System should provide a simple and elegant system interface to all the network application programs. This programming interface may request the Transport layer services on behalf of a network application program. The primary goals are to achieve programming convenience, and to avoid complexity. In a 5-layer network model, the system interface is comprised of a group of system calls which are collectively known as the session layer with its own Session Protocol Data Units. This is a position paper discussing the basic system primitives which reside between a network application program and the Transport layer, and a programming example of using such primitives.

Hsu, J.Y. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

313

Weighted Multiplex Networks  

PubMed Central

One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragon, Raul J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

2014-01-01

314

Weighted multiplex networks.  

PubMed

One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

2014-01-01

315

Automatic Layout Generation of RF Embedded Passive Designs Mohit Pathak, Satya Vadlamudi, Josh Beaver, and Sung Kyu Lim  

E-print Network

of a given layout is tightly coupled with the response of the individual components and the effect generation for such designs is not an easy task. The desired response of a given layout is tightly coupled, resistor and inductor. But, they did not discuss how to use them to construct an entire circuit. Mukherjee

Lim, Sung Kyu

316

Structural and magnetic properties of Ge0.7Mn0.3 thin films Sung-Kyu Kim a  

E-print Network

fabricated on Al2O3 (0001) and glass substrates at growth temperatures ranging from room temperature to 500: Semiconductors Deposition process Sputtering Magnetic properties and measurements Ge0.7Mn0.3 thin films were °C by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering. We found that the Ge0.7Mn0.3 thin films showed

Jo, Moon-Ho

317

GaN light-emitting triodes for high-efficiency hole injection and light Jong Kyu Kima,*  

E-print Network

region. LETs were fabricated using a ultraviolet LED structure that has an AlGaN/GaN superlattice-emitting triodes 1. Introduction AlGaN-based ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are attracting much efficiency. In AlGaN-based UV LEDs, an electron-blocking layer (EBL) is frequently inserted between the p

Jiang, Hongxing

318

Social Network Analysis Plugin (SNAP) for Mesh Networks  

E-print Network

Social Network Analysis Plugin (SNAP) for Mesh Networks Soumendra Nanda BAE Systems Burlington, MA on the Social Network Analysis (SNA) metric "betweenness centrality". We now introduce a new SNA metric are the most and least "important" in my network? Centrality is a concept often used in social network analysis

Kotz, David

319

Network Topological Analysis Utilizing Significant Profiles for Sensor Network Applications  

E-print Network

Network Topological Analysis Utilizing Significant Profiles for Sensor Network Applications Lun and Clustering Coefficient are used to analyse different generated network topologies. We further introduce Significance Profiles (SP) to analyse the networks in search for the network motifs, which are the dominant

Haddadi, Hamed

320

Network Capacity with Local Network Views Salman Avestimehr  

E-print Network

Network Capacity with Local Network Views Salman Avestimehr Cornell University Joint work with challenge in wireless network information theory: capacity of wireless networks S2 D2 D3 D1 S1 S3 #12;Overview ! A grand challenge in wireless network information theory: ! Recent progress in the last couple

Manning, Sturt

321

Social network analysis of an online dating network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online social networks can be found everywhere from chatting websites like MSN, blogs such as MySpace to social media such as YouTube and second life. Among them, there is one interesting type of online social networks, online dating network that is growing fast. This paper analyzes an online dating network from social network analysis point of view. Observations are made

Lin Chen; Richi Nayak

2011-01-01

322

Complex Networks and Social Networks Anthony Bonato and Amanda Tian  

E-print Network

Complex Networks and Social Networks Anthony Bonato and Amanda Tian 1 Introduction Complex networks theoretical understanding of random graphs. Models for complex networks also give insight into the underlying generative prop- erties of complex networks, and can serve as a predictive tool in their evolution

Bonato, Anthony

323

Network Motifs: Simple Building Blocks of Complex Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex networks are studied across many fields of science. To uncover their structural design principles, we defined ``network motifs,'' patterns of interconnections occurring in complex networks at numbers that are significantly higher than those in randomized networks. We found such motifs in networks from biochemistry, neurobiology, ecology, and engineering. The motifs shared by ecological food webs were distinct from the

R. Milo; S. Shen-Orr; S. Itzkovitz; N. Kashtan; D. Chklovskii; U. Alon

2002-01-01

324

Communication network survivability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A communication network is composed of communication links and processing nodes. The effective design of a survivable communication network requires a means of determining the structural connectivity of the network both as a whole and with respect to individual resources: links and nodes. In this thesis we represent the connectivity evaluation from two perspectives. The first pertains to considerations applicable to the design schema of the network, and the second deals with an improvement of connectivity in an existing network. We then present and analyze a practical synthetic approach to a communications network's survivability profile by using the example of SACS (the Saudi Arabian Communication System). Finally, we evaluate the difference between the theoretical and practical approaches to survivability.

Soliman, Al-Amro

1991-03-01

325

Reconfigureable network node  

DOEpatents

Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

Vanderveen, Keith B. (Tracy, CA); Talbot, Edward B. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Laurence E. (Davis, CA)

2008-04-08

326

Visualizing Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With today‘s ubiquity and popularity of social network applications, the ability to analyze and understand large networks in an efficient manner becomes critically important. However, as networks become larger and more complex, reasoning about social dynamics via simple statistics is not a feasible option. To overcome these limitations, we can rely on visual metaphors. Visualization nowadays is no longer a passive process that produces images from a set of numbers. Recent years have witnessed a convergence of social network analytics and visualization, coupled with interaction, that is changing the way analysts understand and characterize social networks. In this chapter, we discuss the main goal of visualization and how different metaphors are aimed towards elucidating different aspects of social networks, such as structure and semantics. We also describe a number of methods where analytics and visualization are interwoven towards providing a better comprehension of social structure and dynamics.

Correa, Carlos D.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

327

Computer networking at FERMILAB  

SciTech Connect

Management aspects of data communications facilities at Fermilab are described. Local area networks include Ferminet, a broadband CATV system which serves as a backbone-type carrier for high-speed data traffic between major network nodes; micom network, four Micom Micro-600/2A port selectors via private twisted pair cables, dedicated telephone circuits, or Micom 800/2 statistical multiplexors; and Decnet/Ethernet, several small local area networks which provide host-to-host communications for about 35 VAX computers systems. Wide area (off site) computer networking includes an off site Micom network which provides access to all of Fermilab's computer systems for 10 universities via leased lines or modem; Tymnet, used by many European and Japanese collaborations: Physnet, used for shared data processing task communications by large collaborations of universities; Bitnet, used for file transfer, electronic mail, and communications with CERN; and Mfenet, for access to supercomputers. Plans to participate in Hepnet are also addressed. 3 figs. (DWL)

Chartrand, G.

1986-05-01

328

Molecular ecological network analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16?S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open-accessible now (http://ieg2.ou.edu/MENA). Conclusions The RMT-based molecular ecological network analysis provides powerful tools to elucidate network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes, which are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology and environmental microbiology. PMID:22646978

2012-01-01

329

The Cartoon Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently seen in 70 million U.S. homes and 145 countries around the world, Cartoon Network is Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.'s 24-hour, ad-supported cable service offering animated entertainment. Since its launch in 1992, Cartoon Network has remained one of cable's highest-rated offerings. Drawing from the world's largest cartoon library, Cartoon Network also showcases a number of unique and award-winning original ventures.

Alan D. Fletcher

2002-01-01

330

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives, functions, and organization of the Deep Space Network are summarized along with deep space station, ground communication, and network operations control capabilities. Mission support of ongoing planetary/interplanetary flight projects is discussed with emphasis on Viking orbiter radio frequency compatibility tests, the Pioneer Venus orbiter mission, and Helios-1 mission status and operations. Progress is also reported in tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

1975-01-01

331

Solving Playground Network Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use cooperation and logical thinking to find solutions to network problems on the playground. Learners act both as computer routers, figuring out with each other how to effectively get data to the place it's being sent, and as the actual data, because the learners travel various edges of a network to get to their destination or "home" point. Learners use geometry skills to determine the most efficient routes in the network.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

332

NASA Integrated Network COOP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, civil unrest, and other events have the potential of disrupting mission-essential operations in any space communications network. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) is in the process of studying options for integrating the three existing NASA network elements, the Deep Space Network, the Near Earth Network, and the Space Network, into a single integrated network with common services and interfaces. The need to maintain Continuity of Operations (COOP) after a disastrous event has a direct impact on the future network design and operations concepts. The SCaN Integrated Network will provide support to a variety of user missions. The missions have diverse requirements and include anything from earth based platforms to planetary missions and rovers. It is presumed that an integrated network, with common interfaces and processes, provides an inherent advantage to COOP in that multiple elements and networks can provide cross-support in a seamless manner. The results of trade studies support this assumption but also show that centralization as a means of achieving integration can result in single points of failure that must be mitigated. The cost to provide this mitigation can be substantial. In support of this effort, the team evaluated the current approaches to COOP, developed multiple potential approaches to COOP in a future integrated network, evaluated the interdependencies of the various approaches to the various network control and operations options, and did a best value assessment of the options. The paper will describe the trade space, the study methods, and results of the study.

Anderson, Michael L.; Wright, Nathaniel; Tai, Wallace

2012-01-01

333

Synchronization in Complex Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of complex systems pervades all of science, from cell biology to ecology, from computer science to meteorology.\\u000a A paradigm of a complex system is a network [1] where complexity may come from di.erent sources: topological structure, network\\u000a evolution, connection and node diversity, and\\/or dynamical evolution. Examples of networks include food webs [2, 3], electrical\\u000a power grids, cellular and

Ljupco Kocarev; Gábor Vattay

334

Survivable WDM Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, In a wavelength-division-muliplexing (WDM) optical network, the failure of network elements (e. g., fiber links and cross connects) may cause the failure of several optical channels, thereby leading to large data losses. This study examines different approaches to protect a mesh-based WDM optical network from such failures. These approaches are based on two survivability paradigms: 1) path protection\\/restoration and

S. Ramamurthy; Laxman Sahasrabuddhe; Biswanath Mukherjee

2003-01-01

335

A dynamic network architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network software is a critical component of any distributed system. Because of its complexity, network software is commonly layered into a hierarchy of protocols, or more generally, into a protocol graph. Typical protocol graphs—including those standardized in the ISO and TCP\\/IP network architectures—share three important properties; the protocol graph is simple, the nodes of the graph (protocols) encapsulate complex functionality,

Sean W. O'Malley; Larry L. Peterson

1992-01-01

336

Tomography using neural networks  

SciTech Connect

We have utilized neural networks for fast evaluation of tomographic data on the MT-1M tokamak. The networks have proven useful in providing the parameters of a nonlinear fit to experimental data, producing results in a fraction of the time required for performing the nonlinear fit. Time required for training the networks makes the method worth applying only if a substantial amount of data are to be evaluated. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Demeter, G. [Department of Plasma Physics, Research Institute for Particle Nuclear Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, XII. Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)] [Department of Plasma Physics, Research Institute for Particle Nuclear Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, XII. Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

1997-03-01

337

Processes on Complex Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on their understanding of graphs, students are introduced to random processes on networks. They walk through an illustrative example to see how a random process can be used to represent the spread of an infectious disease, such as the flu, on a social network of students. This demonstrates how scientists and engineers use mathematics to model and simulate random processes on complex networks. Topics covered include random processes and modeling disease spread, specifically the SIR (susceptible, infectious, resistant) model.

Complex Systems Science Laboratory

338

Learn More About Networking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are some interesting sites that will help you to understand networking and how it can benefit you. These sites contain sound so you may want to wear headphones if you are in a classroom. Learn how the internet began and the basics of the www. Learn why a network is useful. Jans network contains the important concepts of networking, Work through section 7 to learn about different types of connections, transmissions, media, and configurations. Then take the quiz at the end to see how ...

Watts, Mrs.

2007-10-12

339

Competing edge networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails.

Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter

2012-06-01

340

Mission Critical Networking  

SciTech Connect

Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

2010-06-01

341

Directed network modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos Rényi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs.

Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illés J.; Pollner, Péter; Derényi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamás

2007-06-01

342

Network discovery with DCM  

PubMed Central

This paper is about inferring or discovering the functional architecture of distributed systems using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM). We describe a scheme that recovers the (dynamic) Bayesian dependency graph (connections in a network) using observed network activity. This network discovery uses Bayesian model selection to identify the sparsity structure (absence of edges or connections) in a graph that best explains observed time-series. The implicit adjacency matrix specifies the form of the network (e.g., cyclic or acyclic) and its graph-theoretical attributes (e.g., degree distribution). The scheme is illustrated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series to discover functional brain networks. Crucially, it can be applied to experimentally evoked responses (activation studies) or endogenous activity in task-free (resting state) fMRI studies. Unlike conventional approaches to network discovery, DCM permits the analysis of directed and cyclic graphs. Furthermore, it eschews (implausible) Markovian assumptions about the serial independence of random fluctuations. The scheme furnishes a network description of distributed activity in the brain that is optimal in the sense of having the greatest conditional probability, relative to other networks. The networks are characterised in terms of their connectivity or adjacency matrices and conditional distributions over the directed (and reciprocal) effective connectivity between connected nodes or regions. We envisage that this approach will provide a useful complement to current analyses of functional connectivity for both activation and resting-state studies. PMID:21182971

Friston, Karl J.; Li, Baojuan; Daunizeau, Jean; Stephan, Klaas E.

2011-01-01

343

Topics in neural networks  

SciTech Connect

Some aspects of the behavior of several neural networks are considered. The original Hopfield Associative Memory (HAM) is examined, and a lower bound on the number of spurious minima is derived when the stored memories are orthogonal. Two locally interconnected variations of the basic HAM network are proposed in which the maximum distance between two neurons that can be connected is upper bounded by B. It is shown that for such locally interconnected networks containing N neurons, if B/N {yields} 0 as N {yields} {infinity} then the capacity of the network is determined by B and is independent of N. A macroscopic-analysis technique first proposed by Amari for networks with random, nonsymmetric connection weights is modified to show that HAMs must have either one or two macroscopic stable states. The analysis and simulations show that the macroscopic behavior of networks with symmetric and nonsymmetric connections are qualitatively similar. A new class of neural networks derived from the trellis-graph representation of a convolutional code is proposed. Such a network can be viewed as a collection of winner-take-all networks interconnected to reflect the structure of the trellis graph.

Petsche, T.

1988-01-01

344

Mobile Virtual Private Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

345

An algebraic approach to network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a new look at the issue of network capacity. It is shown that network coding is an essential ingredient in achieving the capacity of a network. Building on recent work by Li et al., who examined the network capacity of multicast networks, we extend the network coding framework to arbitrary networks and robust networking. For networks which are

Ralf Koetter; Muriel Médard

2003-01-01

346

High Performance Network Connections - 2003 (HPNC)  

NSF Publications Database

... through commodity network service providers. Such advanced network connections will be at or above ... connect their local network infrastructure to the national research network infrastructure by any ...

347

Adaptive Routing in Dynamic Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic ad hoc networks are mobile ad hoc net- works (MANETs) where network characteristics, such as network density and node mobility, change significantly over time and space. Sometimes, dynamic ad hoc networks resemble a dense ad hoc network. At other times, they resemble a delay tolerant network. Many real networks follow the paradigm of dynamic ad hoc networks. Military networks,

Cong Liu; Jie Wu

2008-01-01

348

Sensor Networks Prof. Amol Deshpande  

E-print Network

Sensor Networks Prof. Amol Deshpande #12;Outline Brief description of sensor networks Applications Sensor Networks: Details Sensor Networks: Challenges #12;Sensors A device that can "sense" things sense units Sensors sensing environmental properties e.g. temperature, humidity, light etc #12;Sensor Networks

Deshpande, Amol

349

A survey of programmable networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a programmable networking model that provides a common framework for understanding the state-of-the-art in programmable networks. A number of projects are reviewed and discussed against a set of programmable network characteristics. We believe that a number of important innovations are creating a paradigm shift in networking leading to higher levels of network programmability. These innovations

Andrew T. Campbell; Herman G. De Meer; Michael E. Kounavis; Kazuho Miki; John B. Vicente; Daniel A. Villela

1999-01-01

350

Managing in complex business networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, research and management thinking has focused on understanding business relationships and networks. Now, the focus is shifting to managing business relationships and networks. This new approach focus poses two questions. Since networks are loosely coupled systems, to what extent are business networks manageable? Furthermore, how can a firm's ability to manage a network be characterized and measured?

Thomas Ritter; Ian F. Wilkinson; Wesley J. Johnston

2004-01-01

351

Internationalisation Network: A Finnish Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the main issues of internationalisation is networking. The network way of action within higher education institutions (HEIs) represents new modes of the information work. Networks are worth evaluating more precisely in the future, and social network analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for this evaluation. This article describes the network of…

Kantola, Mauri; Hautala, Jouni

2008-01-01

352

An approach for modeling vulnerability of the network of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a framework is given to model the network of networks and to investigate the vulnerability of the network of networks subjected to failures. Because there are several redundant systems in infrastructure systems, the dependent intensity between two networks is introduced and adopted to discuss the vulnerability of the interdependent infrastructure networks subjected to failures. Shanghai electrified rail transit network is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed framework. Because the rail network is dependent on the power grid and communication network, the corresponding power grid and communication network are also included in this system. Meanwhile the failures to the power grid and communication network are utilized to investigate the vulnerability of the rail network. The results show that the rail network strongly depends on the power grid and weakly depends on the communication network, and the transport functionality loss of the rail network increases with the increase of dependent intensity. Meanwhile the highest betweenness node-based attack to the power grid and the largest degree node-based attack to the communication network can result in the most functionality losses to the rail network. Moreover, the functionality loss of the rail network has the smallest value when the tolerance parameter of the power grid equals 0.75 and the critical nodes of the power grid and communication network can be obtained by simulations.

Zhang, Jianhua; Song, Bo; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Haikuan

2014-10-01

353

A transport network layer based on optical network elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to the realization of a broadband, flexible, multiwavelength transport network employing an optical network layer. The design methodology for a network demonstrator is presented, and the transmission, switching, line, and management\\/supervisory subsystems and components are described

G. R. Hill; P. J. Chidgey; Frank Kaufhold; Thomas Lynch; Olof Sahlen; Mattias Gustavsson; M. Janson; B. Lagerstrom; G. Grasso; F. Meli; Sonny Johansson; Joakim Ingers; Lars Fernandez; Salvatore Rotolo; Andrea Antonielli; Sergio Tebaldini; Emilio Vezzoni; R. Caddedu; N. Caponio; F. Testa; A. Scavennec; M. J. O'Mahony; J. Zhou; A. Yu; W. Sohler; U. Rust; H. Herrmann

1993-01-01

354

Faster information dissemination in dynamic networks via network coding  

E-print Network

We use network coding to improve the speed of distributed computation in the dynamic network model of Kuhn, Lynch and Oshman [STOC '10]. In this model an adversary adaptively chooses a new network topology in every round, ...

Haeupler, Bernhard

355

Networks and epidemic models  

PubMed Central

Networks and the epidemiology of directly transmitted infectious diseases are fundamentally linked. The foundations of epidemiology and early epidemiological models were based on population wide random-mixing, but in practice each individual has a finite set of contacts to whom they can pass infection; the ensemble of all such contacts forms a ‘mixing network’. Knowledge of the structure of the network allows models to compute the epidemic dynamics at the population scale from the individual-level behaviour of infections. Therefore, characteristics of mixing networks—and how these deviate from the random-mixing norm—have become important applied concerns that may enhance the understanding and prediction of epidemic patterns and intervention measures. Here, we review the basis of epidemiological theory (based on random-mixing models) and network theory (based on work from the social sciences and graph theory). We then describe a variety of methods that allow the mixing network, or an approximation to the network, to be ascertained. It is often the case that time and resources limit our ability to accurately find all connections within a network, and hence a generic understanding of the relationship between network structure and disease dynamics is needed. Therefore, we review some of the variety of idealized network types and approximation techniques that have been utilized to elucidate this link. Finally, we look to the future to suggest how the two fields of network theory and epidemiological modelling can deliver an improved understanding of disease dynamics and better public health through effective disease control. PMID:16849187

Keeling, Matt J; Eames, Ken T.D

2005-01-01

356

Handbook of Network Analysis [KONECT -- the Koblenz Network Collection  

E-print Network

This is the Handbook of Network Analysis, the companion article to the KONECT (Koblenz Network Collection) project. This project is intended to collect network datasets, analyse them systematically, and provide both datasets and the underlying network analysis code to researchers. This article outlines the project, gives all definitions used within the project, reviews all network statistics used, reviews all network plots used, and gives a brief overview of the API used by KONECT.

Kunegis, Jérôme

2014-01-01

357

Networked Innovation in Innovation Networks: A Home Appliances Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst different types of Collaborative Networked Organizations it is possible to highlight those created to develop and market product, process or business model innovation. In this type of innovation network, which has special characteristics, the challenge is to introduce effective networked innovation in the very same innovation network. This paper presents the main features of TALAI-SAREA © methodology that includes a reference model, a set of analysis tools and a method for implementing networked innovation in innovation networks.

Berasategi, Luis; Arana, Joseba; Castellano, Eduardo

358

How to Network in Online Social Networks  

E-print Network

In this paper, we consider how to maximize users' influence in Online Social Networks (OSNs) by exploiting social relationships only. Our first contribution is to extend to OSNs the model of Kempe et al. [1] on the propagation of information in a social network and to show that a greedy algorithm is a good approximation of the optimal algorithm that is NP-hard. However, the greedy algorithm requires global knowledge, which is hardly practical. Our second contribution is to show on simulations on the full Twitter social graph that simple and practical strategies perform close to the greedy algorithm.

Neglia, Giovanni; Gabielkov, Maksym; Legout, Arnaud

2014-01-01

359

Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Network  

E-print Network

Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Network Adam L. Weaver and Scott L. Hooper Neuroscience Program, Department of Biological Sciences 2003 Weaver, Adam L. and Scott L. Hooper. Relating network synaptic connectivity and network activity

Hooper, Scott

360

A Distributed Magnetometer Network  

E-print Network

Various possiblities for a distributed magnetometer network are considered. We discuss strategies such as croudsourcing smartphone magnetometer data, the use of trees as magnetometers, and performing interferometry using magnetometer arrays to synthesize the magnetometers into the world's largest telescope. Geophysical and other applications of such a network are discussed.

Scoville, John; Freund, Friedemann

2014-01-01

361

CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL  

E-print Network

i CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL TELEMEDICINE Margunn Aanestad THE INTERVENTIONAL OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF OSLO #12;ii CULTIVATING NETWORKS: IMPLEMENTING SURGICAL.2.1 Technology as an actor? 14 3.2.2 Information infrastructures 15 3.2.3 Cultivating, not designing information

Sahay, Sundeep

362

Neural networks at work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of neural networks and the types of application for which they are suited are outlined. Four representative applications are described in enough detail to show how they work. They are character recognition, function estimation, financial forecasting, and process control. Factors that have slowed the acceptance of neural networks are discussed. Hardware is briefly considered

D. Hammerstrom

1993-01-01

363

Arkansas Cancer Community Network  

Cancer.gov

The Arkansas Cancer Community Network (AR-CCN) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences1 seeks to build upon the accomplishments of the Arkansas Special Populations Access Network (ASPAN) for the continued development and implementation of community-based participatory research and training programs.

364

Personalization for network marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalized network marketing refers to the technique that allows network?marketing decisions to be made based on the results of the collection and analysis of user profiles. In this paper, we propose an interactive questionnaire mechanism whose design objective is to produce timely and reliable user profile attributes in an incremental fashion through an intelligent interface accessible from web environment. Subsequently,

2004-01-01

365

On Heterogeneous Covert Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Covert organizations are constantly faced with a tradeoff between secrecy and operational efficiency. Lindelauf, Borm and Hamers [13] developed a theoretical framework to determine optimal homogeneous networks taking the above mentioned considerations explicitly into account. In this paper this framework is put to the test by applying it to the 2002 Jemaah Islamiyah Bali bombing. It is found that most aspects of this covert network can be explained by the theoretical framework. Some interactions however provide a higher risk to the network than others. The theoretical framework on covert networks is extended to accommodate for such heterogeneous interactions. Given a network structure the optimal location of one risky interaction is established. It is shown that the pair of individuals in the organization that should conduct the interaction that presents the highest risk to the organization, is the pair that is the least connected to the remainder of the network. Furthermore, optimal networks given a single risky interaction are approximated and compared. When choosing among a path, star and ring graph it is found that for low order graphs the path graph is best. When increasing the order of graphs under consideration a transition occurs such that the star graph becomes best. It is found that the higher the risk a single interaction presents to the covert network the later this transition from path to star graph occurs.

Lindelauf, Roy; Borm, Peter; Hamers, Herbert

366

Lobby index in networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new node centrality measure in networks, the lobby index, which is inspired by Hirsch’s h-index. It is shown that in scale-free networks with exponent ? the distribution of the l-index has power tail with exponent ?(?+1). Properties of the l-index and extensions are discussed.

Korn, A.; Schubert, A.; Telcs, A.

2009-06-01

367

A Community Information Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possibility of creating in Canada a non-profit community information network (a set of linked data banks containing information for use by the general public) should be explored. A network to link together a set of data banks containing information for general public use would have the following merits: (1) By its effect on household…

Consumers' Association of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

368

Evolving neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks are parallel processing structures that provide the capability to perform various pattern recognition tasks. A network is typically trained over a set of exemplars by adjusting the weights of the interconnections using a back propagation algorithm. This gradient search converges to locally optimal solutions which may be far removed from the global optimum. In this paper, evolutionary programming

D. B. Fogel; L. J. Fogel; V. W. Porto

1990-01-01

369

Student Observation Network DVD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This DVD is meant to be given to educators after the 16 hour training on the Tracking a Solar Storm Module of NASA's Student Observation Network. It was created to be used as a resource for content about solar storms and a quick refresher of the modules available through the Student Observation Network.

2004-01-01

370

Multifunctional Mesoscale Observing Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 120 scientists, engineers, administrators, and users met on 8 10 December 2003 in a workshop format to discuss the needs for enhanced three-dimensional mesoscale observing networks. Improved networks are seen as being critical to advancing numerical and empirical modeling for a variety of mesoscale applications, including severe weather warnings and forecasts, hydrology, air-quality forecasting, chemical emergency response, transportation

Walter F. Dabberdt; Thomas W. Schlatter; Frederick H. Carr; Elbert W. Joe Friday; David Jorgensen; Steven Koch; Maria Pirone; F. Martin Ralph; Juanzhen Sun; Patrick Welsh; James W. Wilson; Xiaolei Zou

2005-01-01

371

Securing wireless mesh networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using wireless mesh networks to offer Internet connectivity is becoming a popular choice for wireless Internet service providers as it allows fast, easy, and inexpensive network deployment. However, security in WMNs is still in its infancy as very little attention has been devoted thus far to this topic by the research community. In this article we describe the specifics of

Naouel Ben Salem; Jean-Pierre Hubaux

2006-01-01

372

The Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition, research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is cited. Topics covered include: tracking and ground based navigation; spacecraft/ground communication; station control and operations technology; ground communications; and deep space stations.

1979-01-01

373

Hanford Seismic Network  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Hanford Seismic Network. The network consists of two instrument arrays: seismometers and strong motion accelerometers. The seismometers determine the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the strong motion accelerometers determine ground motion. Together these instruments arrays comply with the intent of DOE Order 5480.20, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation.

Reidel, S.P.; Hartshorn, D.C.

1997-05-01

374

Rural Information Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the National Public Telecomputing Network's (NPTN) development of free, public-access, community computer systems throughout the United States. It also provides information on how to initiate a "Free-Net" through the Rural Information Network. Free-Nets are multi-user systems with some of the power and sophistication of…

National Public Telecomputing Network, Cleveland, OH.

375

Network-Related Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informal social networks are patterns of relationship and interaction among persons or collectives. This paper (1) outlines a typology of informal networks, conceived from the point of view of their importance to qoals of social policy; (2) describes strategies of intervention which may be directed to the creation or enhancement of one or another…

Schon, Donald A.

376

IP Virtual Private Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing technologies, including frame relay and ATM, can be used to create virtual private networks (VPNs) over a shared infrastructure. However, two new technologies, tag switching and IP security, may be used to create IP VPNs that are independent of the access network and the core technology. This paper examines these technologies, compares them to each other and to existing

S Hills; D McGlaughlin; N Hanafi

2000-01-01

377

Virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual private network (VPN) can help resolve many of the issues associated with today's private networks. A VPN facilitates an agile IT infrastructure. Global VPNs enable connectivity to all locations anywhere in the world at a fraction of the cost of dedicated links. VPN services enable remote access to the intranet at significantly lower cost, thus enabling support for

R. Venkateswaran

2001-01-01

378

Network Layer; Location Management;  

E-print Network

locations on network topology · Identifiers (ID) ­ independent of network topology 6 A ED CB F #12 is the color printer on the 4th floor of AKW ­ Internet domain name: lw4c.cs.yale.edu ­ Internet protocol (IP) address: 128.36.231.8 ­ [building = AKW; floor=4; entity = printer; quality = color] 10 #12;11 Addressing

Gao, Jie

379

Cellular neural networks: theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel class of information-processing systems called cellular neural networks is proposed. Like neural networks, they are large-scale nonlinear analog circuits that process signals in real time. Like cellular automata, they consist of a massive aggregate of regularly spaced circuit clones, called cells, which communicate with each other directly only through their nearest neighbors. Each cell is made of a

L. O. Chua; L. Yang

1988-01-01

380

The Community Networking Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication outlines the complete community networking process: planning, developing partnerships, funding, marketing, content, public access, and evaluation, and discusses the variety of roles that the local public library can play in this process. Chapter One, "The Importance of Community Networking," describes the importance of community…

Bajjaly, Stephen T.

381

Networks; Who, Why, How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The May-June, 1975, issue of Wisconsin Library Bulletin contains articles about library cooperative programs and networks. Subjects covered include: library network planning and definitions of terms; views on the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science program by school, public, academic, and state librarians; the Midwest Library…

Wisconsin Library Bulletin, 1975

1975-01-01

382

Hubless satellite communications networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frequency Comb Multiple Access (FCMA) is a new combined modulation and multiple access method which will allow cheap hubless Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) networks to be constructed. Theoretical results show bandwidth efficiency and power efficiency improvements over other modulation and multiple access methods. Costs of the VSAT network are reduced dramatically since a hub station is not required.

Robinson, Peter Alan

1994-01-01

383

Dynamics of fractal networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random structures often exhibit fractal geometry, defined in terms of the mass scaling exponent, D, the fractal dimension. The vibrational dynamics of fractal networks are expressed in terms of the exponent d double bar, the fracton dimensionality. The eigenstates on a fractal network are spatially localized for d double bar less than or equal to 2. The implications of fractal

R. Orbach

1986-01-01

384

From Networks to Therapies  

E-print Network

Stem cell biology, therapeutic stem cell applications Tim O'Brien Gene and stem cell therapy Hans stem cells (MSCs): controlling MSC differentiation, improving MSC migration and targeting; developingFrom Networks to Therapies Deciphering the Language of Life The communication networks inside

385

Linear network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a communication network in which certain source nodes multicast information to other nodes on the network in the multihop fashion where every node can pass on any of its received data to others. We are interested in how fast each node can receive the complete information, or equivalently, what the information rate arriving at each node is. Allowing a

Shuo-yen Robert Li; Raymond W. Yeung; Ning Cai

2003-01-01

386

Professional Networking Michelle Burdick  

E-print Network

Personal Brand � LinkedIn: what, why, & how � Build your Profile � Research & Explore � Connect with Alumni Personal Brand #12;� Leading professional network on the web � Great way to connect with and stay in touch was through �Their personal network (17%), �An online job posting including eRecruiter (20%), �Previous work

Awtar, Shorya

387

Applications to aging networks.  

PubMed

This chapter will introduce a few additional network concepts, and then it will focus on the application of the material in the previous chapter to the study of systems biology of aging. In particular, we will examine how the material can be used to study aging networks in two sample species: Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25341510

Wimble, Christopher; Witten, Tarynn M

2015-01-01

388

Experiments with network formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how groups of agents form trading networks in the presence of idiosyncratic risk and the possibility of contagion. Specifically, four agents play a two-stage finite repeated game. In the first stage, the network structure is endogenously determined through a non-cooperative proposal game. In the second stage, agents play multiple rounds of a coordination game against all of their

Dean Corbae; John Duffy

2008-01-01

389

The deep space network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress is reported of Deep Space Network (DSN) research in the following areas: (1) flight project support, (2) spacecraft/ground communications, (3) station control and operations technology, (4) network control and processing, and (5) deep space stations. A description of the DSN functions and facilities is included.

1974-01-01

390

Network Collaboration with UNIX.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses networking as a collaboration tool in the teaching of technical writing. Argues that some degree of collaboration is innate to all writing, that word processing already facilitates that collaboration, and that networking is the next enhancement to the collaborative process. (RS)

Horn, Wm. Dennis

1993-01-01

391

The Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Deep Space Network (DSN) is the largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network in the world. Its principal responsibilities are to support unmanned interplanetary spacecraft missions and to support radio and radar astronomy observations in the exploration of the solar system and the universe. The DSN facilities and capabilities as of January 1988 are described.

1988-01-01

392

Exploring complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of networks pervades all of science, from neurobiology to statistical physics. The most basic issues are structural: how does one characterize the wiring diagram of a food web or the Internet or the metabolic network of the bacterium Escherichia coli? Are there any unifying principles underlying their topology? From the perspective of nonlinear dynamics, we would also like

Steven H. Strogatz

2001-01-01

393

Immunization of complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex networks such as the sexual partnership web or the Internet often show a high degree of redundancy and heterogeneity in their connectivity properties. This peculiar connectivity provides an ideal environment for the spreading of infective agents. Here we show that the random uniform immunization of individuals does not lead to the eradication of infections in all complex networks. Namely,

Romualdo Pastor-Satorras; Alessandro Vespignani

2002-01-01

394

GENE EXPRESSION NETWORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

"Gene expression network" is the term used to describe the interplay, simple or complex, between two or more gene products in performing a specific cellular function. Although the delineation of such networks is complicated by the existence of multiple and subtle types of intera...

395

Smart networked cities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to critically assess the lack of a global inter-urban perspective in the smart city policy framework from a conceptual standpoint. We argue here that the smart city policy agenda should be informed by and address the structure of transnational urban networks as this can affect the efficiency of such local policies. The significance of this global network

Emmanouil Tranos; Drew Gertner

2012-01-01

396

Networked Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on networked teaching and learning contains 11 articles written by teachers of English and language arts in Bread Loaf's primarily rural, teacher networks. Most of these narratives describe how teachers have taught writing and literature using online exchanges or teleconferencing involving students in different locations and grade…

Benson, Chris, Ed.

2002-01-01

397

UNESCO as a Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to draw attention to the hitherto neglected, but important, subject of how the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), as a network and promoter of other networks, has sought to foster the spirit of cooperation, understanding and partnership among its various Member States through…

Omolewa, Michael

2007-01-01

398

Early Detection Research Network  

Cancer.gov

This initiative supports the creation of a national Network for early cancer detection with resources for translational research that will include laboratory science, clinical science, public health, biostatistics, informatics, and computer science. The goals of the Network are to discover and coordinate the evaluation of biomarkers and reagents for the earlier detection of cancer and for the assessment of risk.

399

Factors influencing bus network design  

E-print Network

Bus network design and frequency setting, the highest level subproblems in the bus planning process, have long-term impacts on bus network performance. Improving network performance not only improves the attractiveness of ...

Loh, Zhen Xiang Kenneth

2014-01-01

400

Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network  

MedlinePLUS

... implementation. View all news articles Organ Procurement & Transplantation Network U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health ... Request Order Publications Privacy Policy Questions? Contact United Network for Organ Sharing Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network ...

401

Scaling in transportation networks  

E-print Network

Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about $140$ subway systems and more than $50$ railway networks in the ...

Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc

2014-01-01

402

Dynamic Network Delay Cartography  

E-print Network

Path delays in IP networks are important metrics, required by network operators for assessment, planning, and fault diagnosis. Monitoring delays of all source-destination pairs in a large network is however challenging and wasteful of resources. The present paper advocates a spatio-temporal Kalman filtering approach to construct network-wide delay maps using measurements on only a few paths. The proposed network cartography framework allows efficient tracking and prediction of delays by relying on both topological as well as historical data. Optimal paths for delay measurement are selected in an online fashion by leveraging the notion of submodularity. The resulting predictor is optimal in the class of linear predictors, and outperforms competing alternatives on real-world datasets.

Rajawat, Ketan; Giannakis, Georgios B

2012-01-01

403

Strongly Fault Secure Logic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strongly fault secure logic networks are defined and are shown to include totally self-checking networks as a special case. Strongly fault secure networks provide the same protection against assumed faults as totally self-checking networks, and it is shown that when stuck-at faults are assumed a strongly fault secure network can be easily modified to form a totally self-checking network. A

James E. Smith; Gernot Metze

1978-01-01

404

Neural networks for aircraft control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

Linse, Dennis

1990-01-01

405

Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC) and PSGnet with partial funding from the National Science Foundation have established a Web server offering a database of information about international networking developments and connectivity providers, with its major emphasis on countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Oceania, and Latin America. Topics include: networking in the developing world, low cost networking tools, general computer networking info, and networking tips and frequently asked questions.

1997-01-01

406

Improved Autoassociative Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved autoassociative neural networks, denoted nexi, have been proposed for use in controlling autonomous robots, including mobile exploratory robots of the biomorphic type. In comparison with conventional autoassociative neural networks, nexi would be more complex but more capable in that they could be trained to do more complex tasks. A nexus would use bit weights and simple arithmetic in a manner that would enable training and operation without a central processing unit, programs, weight registers, or large amounts of memory. Only a relatively small amount of memory (to hold the bit weights) and a simple logic application- specific integrated circuit would be needed. A description of autoassociative neural networks is prerequisite to a meaningful description of a nexus. An autoassociative network is a set of neurons that are completely connected in the sense that each neuron receives input from, and sends output to, all the other neurons. (In some instantiations, a neuron could also send output back to its own input terminal.) The state of a neuron is completely determined by the inner product of its inputs with weights associated with its input channel. Setting the weights sets the behavior of the network. The neurons of an autoassociative network are usually regarded as comprising a row or vector. Time is a quantized phenomenon for most autoassociative networks in the sense that time proceeds in discrete steps. At each time step, the row of neurons forms a pattern: some neurons are firing, some are not. Hence, the current state of an autoassociative network can be described with a single binary vector. As time goes by, the network changes the vector. Autoassociative networks move vectors over hyperspace landscapes of possibilities.

Hand, Charles

2003-01-01

407

Avoiding catastrophic failure in correlated networks of networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networks in nature do not act in isolation, but instead exchange information and depend on one another to function properly. Theory has shown that connecting random networks may very easily result in abrupt failures. This finding reveals an intriguing paradox: if natural systems organize in interconnected networks, how can they be so stable? Here we provide a solution to this conundrum, showing that the stability of a system of networks relies on the relation between the internal structure of a network and its pattern of connections to other networks. Specifically, we demonstrate that if interconnections are provided by network hubs, and the connections between networks are moderately convergent, the system of networks is stable and robust to failure. We test this theoretical prediction on two independent experiments of functional brain networks (in task and resting states), which show that brain networks are connected with a topology that maximizes stability according to the theory.

Reis, Saulo D. S.; Hu, Yanqing; Babino, Andrés; Andrade, José S., Jr.; Canals, Santiago; Sigman, Mariano; Makse, Hernán A.

2014-10-01

408

Knowledge management and innovation: networks and networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Begins with a critical review of the literature on knowledge management, arguing that its focus on IT to create a network structure may limit its potential for encouraging knowledge sharing across social communities. Two cases of interactive innovation are contrasted. One focused almost entirely on using IT (intranet) for knowledge sharing, resulting in a plethora of independent intranets which reinforced

Jacky Swan; Sue Newell; Harry Scarbrough; Donald Hislop

1999-01-01

409

Introduction to optical networks -1 Optical Networks  

E-print Network

scattering UV absorption Optical fiber First window 850 nm a=1.2 dB/km Second window 1310 nm a=0.4 d ­ I · First experimental systems using optical fibers ­ Wideband optical source (LED) ­ Multi (1970) Rx 50 - 100 Mbit/s 10 km MMF Regenerator LED Tx #12;Introduction to optical networks - 10 Second

Mellia, Marco

410

Introduction to optical networks -1 Optical Networks  

E-print Network

1200 1400 1600 Attenuation(dB/km) 0.01 0.1 1.0 10 Infrared absorption 1800 Rayleigh scattering UV experimental systems using optical fibers ­ Wideband optical source (LED) ­ Multi-mode fiber ­ Opto km MMF Regenerator LED Tx #12;Introduction to optical networks - 9 Second generation (1980) 50 km

Mellia, Marco

411

Optical Network Testbeds Workshop  

SciTech Connect

This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking technologies. Several years ago, when many of these optical networking research topics were first being investigated, they were the subject of controversial debate. The new techniques challenged many long-held concepts related to architecture and technology. However, today all major networking organizations are transitioning toward infrastructure that incorporates these new concepts. This progress has been assisted through the series of Optical Networking Testbed Workshops (ONT). The first (ONT1) outlined a general framework of key issues and topics and developed a series of recommendations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop7). The second (ONT2) developed a common vision of optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop8). Processes that allow for a common vision encourage widespread deployment of these types of resources among advanced networking communities. Also, such a shared vision enables key concepts and technologies to migrate from basic research testbeds to wider networking communities. The ONT-3 workshop built on these earlier activities by expanding discussion to include additional considerations of the international interoperability and of greater impact of optical networking technology on networking in general. In accordance with this recognition, the workshop confirmed that future-oriented research and development is indispensable to fundamentally change the current Internet architecture to create a global network incorporating completely new concepts. The workshop also recognized that the first priority to allow for this progress is basic research and development, including international collaborative activities, which are important for the global realization of interoperability of a new generation architecture.

Joe Mambretti

2007-06-01

412

Toward Optimal Transport Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

2008-01-01

413

Network aware distributed applications  

SciTech Connect

Most distributed applications today manage to utilize only a small percentage of the needed and available network bandwidth. Often application developers are not aware of the potential bandwidth of the network, and therefore do not know what to expect. Even when application developers are aware of the specifications of the machines and network links, they have few resources that can help determine why the expected performance was not achieved. What is needed is a ubiquitous and easy-to-use service that provides reliable, accurate, secure, and timely estimates of dynamic network properties. This service will help advise applications on how to make use of the network's increasing bandwidth and capabilities for traffic shaping and engineering. When fully implemented, this service will make building currently unrealizable levels of network awareness into distributed applications a relatively mundane task. For example, a remote data visualization application could choose between sending a wireframe, a pre-rendered image, or a 3-D representation, based on forecasts of CPU availability and power, compression options, and available bandwidth. The same service will provide on-demand performance information so that applications can compare predicted with actual results, and allow detailed queries about the end-to-end path for application and network tuning and debugging.

Agarwal, Deborah; Tierney, Brian L.; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Johnston, William

2001-02-04

414

Coloring Large Complex Networks  

E-print Network

Given a large social or information network, how can we partition the vertices into sets (i.e., colors) such that no two vertices linked by an edge are in the same set while minimizing the number of sets used. Despite the obvious practical importance of graph coloring (e.g., network analysis, machine learning, etc), existing work has not systematically investigated or designed methods for large complex networks. In this work, we develop a framework for coloring large complex networks that is (a) accurate with solutions close to optimal, and (b) fast and scalable for large networks with millions of vertices, (c) flexible for use in a variety of applications. Using this framework as a basis, we propose coloring methods designed for the scale and structure of complex networks. In particular, the classes of methods use triangles, triangle-cores, and other egonet properties as a basis. We systematically compare the proposed methods across a wide range of networks and find a significant improvement over traditional...

Rossi, Ryan A

2014-01-01

415

Markets on Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of human, and most biological populations is characterized by competition for resources. By its own nature, this dynamics creates the group of "elites", formed by those agents who have strategies that are the most successful in the given situation, and therefore the rest of the agents will tend to follow, imitate, or interact with them, creating a social structure of leadership in the agent society. These inter-agent communications generate a complex social network with small-world character which itself forms the substrate for a second network, the action network. The latter is a highly dynamic, adaptive, directed network, defined by those inter-agent communication links on the substrate along which the passed information /prediction is acted upon by the other agents. By using the minority game for competition dynamics, here we show that when the substrate network is highly connected, the action network spontaneously develops hubs with a broad distribution of out-degrees, defining a robust leadership structure that is scale-free. Furthermore, in certain, realistic parameter ranges, facilitated by information passing on the action network, agents can spontaneously generate a high degree of cooperation making the collective almost maximally efficient.

Toroczkai, Zoltan; Anghel, Marian; Bassler, Kevin; Korniss, Gyorgy

2003-03-01

416

Crossover networks and their optical implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossover networks are introduced as a new type of interconnection network for applications in optical computing, optical switching, and signal processing. Crossover networks belong to the class of multistage interconnection network. Two variations are presented, the half-crossover network and the full crossover network. An optical system which implements both networks is proposed and demonstrated. Crossover networks can be implemented using

Jürgen Jahns; Miles J. Murdocca

1988-01-01

417

Functional Molecular Ecological Networks  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity and its responses to environmental changes are central issues in ecology and for society. Almost all microbial biodiversity research focuses on “species” richness and abundance but not on their interactions. Although a network approach is powerful in describing ecological interactions among species, defining the network structure in a microbial community is a great challenge. Also, although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity are well established, its influences on belowground microbial communities, especially microbial interactions, are poorly understood. Here, a random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework for identifying functional molecular ecological networks was developed with the high-throughput functional gene array hybridization data of soil microbial communities in a long-term grassland FACE (free air, CO2 enrichment) experiment. Our results indicate that RMT is powerful in identifying functional molecular ecological networks in microbial communities. Both functional molecular ecological networks under eCO2 and ambient CO2 (aCO2) possessed the general characteristics of complex systems such as scale free, small world, modular, and hierarchical. However, the topological structures of the functional molecular ecological networks are distinctly different between eCO2 and aCO2, at the levels of the entire communities, individual functional gene categories/groups, and functional genes/sequences, suggesting that eCO2 dramatically altered the network interactions among different microbial functional genes/populations. Such a shift in network structure is also significantly correlated with soil geochemical variables. In short, elucidating network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes is fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology, systems microbiology, and global change. PMID:20941329

Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Luo, Feng; He, Zhili; Tu, Qichao; Zhi, Xiaoyang

2010-01-01

418

The Yo-Yo IR2 test: physiological response, reliability, and application to elite soccer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training performed on either a stable or unstable surface on performance tests in female soccer players. Nineteen National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II female soccer players were assigned to either an unstable training group (UST: 19.0 ± 0.47 years; 1.69 ± 6.4 m; 67.8 ± 7.7 kg) or a stable training group (ST: 19.6 ± 0.49 years; 1.64 ± 3.2 m; 62.7 ± 6.27 kg). Player positions were distributed evenly between the groups. Both the groups followed a 5-week periodized resistance training program designed to develop maximum muscular strength. The groups performed the same exercises during each workout, with the UST performing 2 of the exercises in each session on an unstable surface. Pretraining and posttraining measures of straight-line sprint speed, planned and reactive agility, aerobic capacity, and countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) were taken. Significant main effects for time were reported for straight-line sprint speed, planned agility, and reactive agility with both groups demonstrating improvements during the posttraining testing session. The ST demonstrated a significant increase in CMJ during the posttraining session (change in mean: 0.04 m) in contrast to the decline demonstrated by the UST (change in mean: -0.01 m). Performing resistance training exercises on an unstable surface confers no advantage over traditional resistance training exercises for improving the speed, agility, and aerobic capacity of female soccer players. Furthermore, the use of an unstable surface may inhibit the effects of resistance training on vertical jump height, an important variable in soccer performance. PMID:22130388

Oberacker, Lisa M; Davis, Shala E; Haff, G Gregory; Witmer, Chad A; Moir, Gavin L

2012-10-01

419

thank YoUfor believing in my potential. thank YoUfor believing in my potential.  

E-print Network

an IMPaCt DonoRS: USF Students The USF Scholarship A culture of philanthropy is thriving at the University of San Francisco. During the 2011-2012 academic year, student donations increased an unprecedented 40 an inspiring philanthropic example that will benefit future Dons for generations to come. One student currently

Galles, David

420

NIRVANA network requirements  

SciTech Connect

NIRVANA is an effort to standardize electrical computer-aided design workstations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The early effect of this project will be the introduction of at least 60 new engineering workstations at Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, and at Allied Signal, Kansas City Division. These workstations are expected to begin arriving in September 1990. This paper proposes a design and outlines the requirements for a network to support the NIRVANA project. The author proposes a near-term network design, describes the security profile and caveats of this design, and proposes a long-term networking strategy for NIRVANA. 6 refs., 7 figs.

Wood, B.J.

1990-08-01

421

BES Science Network Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

2011-02-01

422

Learning In networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent systems require software incorporating probabilistic reasoning, and often times learning. Networks provide a framework and methodology for creating this kind of software. This paper introduces network models based on chain graphs with deterministic nodes. Chain graphs are defined as a hierarchical combination of Bayesian and Markov networks. To model learning, plates on chain graphs are introduced to model independent samples. The paper concludes by discussing various operations that can be performed on chain graphs with plates as a simplification process or to generate learning algorithms.

Buntine, Wray L.

1995-01-01

423

The Gay Financial Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his mission statement, Walter B. Schubert, CEO and president of the Gay Financial Network (GFN), explains the driving force behind GFN's creation: "To build the first all encompassing financial services Web site to empower the American gay and lesbian community..." The Gay Financial Network is a financial news portal that targets the gay community. The articles are divided into several "channels" including Gay Financial News, Financial Planning, Home and Office, and Women's Channel. Financial services include information on online trading, banking, mortgages, and annuities. GFN also provides professional tools such as a gay and gay-friendly professionals directory and articles and information for career networking.

424

Network and Seiberg Duality  

E-print Network

We define and study a new class of 4d N=1 superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with a planar bipartite network. While UV description is not unique due to Seiberg duality, we can classify the IR fixed points of the theory by a permutation, or equivalently a cell of the totally non-negative Grassmannian. The story is similar to a bipartite network on the torus classified by a Newton polygon. We then generalize the network to a general bordered Riemann surface and define IR SCFT from the geometric data of a Riemann surface. We also comment on IR R-charges and superconformal indices of our theories.

Dan Xie; Masahito Yamazaki

2012-07-03

425

Network Security: Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prepared and presented by Professor Raj Jain at Washington University in St. Louis, this series of presentations is designed to introduce computer science students to the fundamentals of network security. Visitors have the option of choosing to download or view the presentations with audio, as individual slides only, or as a single PDF document. Topics here include: security requirements, public key encryption, digital signatures, and confidentiality. This is an excellent site for educators to use in the classroom or as a supplementary resource to introduce students to computer network security. Students may also wish to view or download the presentations to learn the basic concepts of network security.

Jain, Raj

2008-01-30

426

Modeling worldwide highway networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter addresses the problem of modeling the highway systems of different countries by using complex networks formalism. More specifically, we compare two traditional geographical models with a modified geometrical network model where paths, rather than edges, are incorporated at each step between the origin and the destination vertices. Optimal configurations of parameters are obtained for each model and used for the comparison. The highway networks of Australia, Brazil, India, and Romania are considered and shown to be properly modeled by the modified geographical model.

Villas Boas, Paulino R.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; da F. Costa, Luciano

2009-12-01

427

Quantum complex networks  

E-print Network

In recent years, new algorithms and cryptographic protocols based on the laws of quantum physics have been designed to outperform classical communication and computation. We show that the quantum world also opens up new perspectives in the field of complex networks. Already the simplest model of a classical random network changes dramatically when extended to the quantum case, as we obtain a completely distinct behavior of the critical probabilities at which different subgraphs appear. In particular, in a network of N nodes, any quantum subgraph can be generated by local operations and classical communication if the entanglement between pairs of nodes scales as 1/N^2.

S. Perseguers; M. Lewenstein; A. Acín; J. I. Cirac

2009-07-19

428

Enhancing business networks using social network based virtual communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To enhance an entrepreneur's business network through the integration of the social network concepts and design principles of virtual communities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study documents the design and initial deployment of a virtual community case, Innovation Information Infrastructure, based on social network concepts. Findings – Basic design principles, deployment strategy, and future directions for social network-based virtual communities

Bih-ru Lea; Wen-bin Yu; Nisha Maguluru; Michael Nichols

2006-01-01

429

Maximizing Static Network Lifetime of Wireless Broadcast Adhoc Networks  

E-print Network

Maximizing Static Network Lifetime of Wireless Broadcast Adhoc Networks Intae Kang and Radha- cast routing over wireless static adhoc network where host mobility is not involved. We define of the important applications of wireless static adhoc net- works includes wireless sensor networks. The technology

Poovendran, Radha

430

Toward Secure Network Coding in Wireless Networks: Threats and Challenges  

E-print Network

forwarding them. Recently, several real-world systems have been proposed to leverage network coding foundations of network coding are well understood, real- world systems need to solve a plethora of practical in wireless networks. Although the theoretical foundations of network coding are well understood, a real-world

Curtmola, Reza

431

An active network approach to virtual private networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual private networks (VPN) represent, in today's Internet, one of the most interesting applications. This is due both to their usefulness in corporate network scenarios and to the high revenues they guarantee to network providers. We propose an innovative approach to VPN implementation, exploiting the capabilities of active networks. We present a model aiming at building and dynamically configuring VPNs

R. Maresca; Maurizio D'arienzo; Marcello Esposito; Simon Pietro Romano; Giorgio Ventre

2002-01-01

432

The Missing Link: Putting the Network in Networked Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

with private IP networks linking virtual machines allocated at multiple sites (RENCI, Duke, and UNC virtual servers at multiple points in the network, together with bandwidth-provisioned network pipes with radically different forms of networking by running experimental systems within private isolated slices

Chase, Jeffrey S.

433

Network on a Chip: Modeling Wireless Networks with Asynchronous VLSI  

E-print Network

Network on a Chip: Modeling Wireless Networks with Asynchronous VLSI Rajit Manohar and Clinton, Ithaca NY 14853 Abstract We introduce the notion of a network-on-a-chip: a programmable, asynchronous VLSI archi- tecture for fast and efficient simulation of wireless networks. The approach is inspired

Manohar, Rajit

434

Towards Stable Network Performance in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

sensor networks re- quire communication performance that is both consistent and high quality. In wireless sensor networks, current network protocols estimate link quality based on recent probe packets. Furthermore, the network may experience cascading route changes: newly selected routes introduce interference

Stankovic, John A.

435

Applications of Bayesian Belief Networks in Social Network Analysis David Koelle, Jonathan Pfautz, Michael Farry,  

E-print Network

Applications of Bayesian Belief Networks in Social Network Analysis David Koelle, Jonathan Pfautz as a tool for enhancing social network analysis. Traditional social network analysis (SNA) primarily uses. Applying Bayesian belief networks to social network analysis provides additional capabilities

Valtorta, Marco

436

Maximum entropy networks are more controllable than preferential attachment networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A maximum entropy (ME) method to generate typical scale-free networks has been recently introduced. We investigate the controllability of ME networks and Barabási-Albert preferential attachment networks. Our experimental results show that ME networks are significantly more easily controlled than BA networks of the same size and the same degree distribution. Moreover, the control profiles are used to provide insight into control properties of both classes of network. We identify and classify the driver nodes and analyze the connectivity of their neighbors. We find that driver nodes in ME networks have fewer mutual neighbors and that their neighbors have lower average degree. We conclude that the properties of the neighbors of driver node sensitively affect the network controllability. Hence, subtle and important structural differences exist between BA networks and typical scale-free networks of the same degree distribution.

Hou, Lvlin; Small, Michael; Lao, Songyang

2014-10-01

437

Robustness of a network formed of spatially embedded networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analytic and numeric results for percolation in a network formed of interdependent spatially embedded networks. We show results for a treelike and a random regular network of networks each with (i) unconstrained dependency links and (ii) dependency links restricted to a maximum Euclidean length r. Analytic results are given for each network of networks with spatially unconstrained dependency links and compared to simulations. For the case of two fully interdependent spatially embedded networks it was found [Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 228702 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.228702] that the system undergoes a first-order phase transition only for r >rc?8. We find here that for treelike networks of networks (composed of n networks) rc significantly decreases as n increases and rapidly (n ?11) reaches its limiting value of 1. For cases where the dependencies form loops, such as in random regular networks, we show analytically and confirm through simulations that there is a certain fraction of dependent nodes, qmax, above which the entire network structure collapses even if a single node is removed. The value of qmax decreases quickly with m, the degree of the random regular network of networks. Our results show the extreme sensitivity of coupled spatial networks and emphasize the susceptibility of these networks to sudden collapse. The theory proposed here requires only numerical knowledge about the percolation behavior of a single network and therefore can be used to find the robustness of any network of networks where the profile of percolation of a singe network is known numerically.

Shekhtman, Louis M.; Berezin, Yehiel; Danziger, Michael M.; Havlin, Shlomo

2014-07-01

438

Collecting Network Status Information for Network-Aware Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network-aware applications, i.e., applications that adapt to network con- ditions in an application specific way, need both static and d ynamic informa- tion about the network to be able to adapt intelligently to network conditions. The CMU Remos interface gives applications access to a wide range of in- formation in a network-independent fashion. Remos uses a logical topology to capture

Nancy Miller; Peter Steenkiste

2000-01-01

439

ATM Networks:ATM Networks: An OverviewAn Overview  

E-print Network

Transfer Mode Phone networks use circuit switching. ATM networks use "Packet" Switching In phone networks used in UNI but not in NNI) VPI/VCI = 0/0 Idle cell; 0/n Signaling HEC: 1 + x + x2 + x8 VCI PTI: http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~jain/cis788-99/ #12;Raj Jain 2 ATM vs Phone Networks and Data Networks

Jain, Raj

440

Whether Information Network Supplements Friendship Network  

E-print Network

Homophily is a significant mechanism for link prediction in complex network, of which principle describes that people with similar profiles or experiences tend to tie with each other. In a multi-relationship network, friendship among people has been utilized to reinforce similarity of taste for recommendation system whose basic idea is similar to homophily, yet how the taste inversely affects friendship prediction is little discussed. This paper contributes to address the issue by analyzing two benchmark datasets both including user's behavioral information of taste and friendship based on the principle of homophily. It can be found that the creation of friendship tightly associates with personal taste. Especially, the behavioral information of taste involving with popular objects is much more effective to improve the performance of friendship prediction. However, this result seems to be contradictory to the finding in [Q.M. Zhang, et al., PLoS ONE 8(2013)e62624] that the behavior information of taste involvi...

Miao, Lili; Nie, Da-Chen; Cai, Shi-Min

2014-01-01

441

Quantitative Imaging Network  

Cancer.gov

The QIN Imaging Network is designed to promote research and development of quantitative imaging methods for the measurement of tumor response to therapies in clinical trial settings, with the overall goal of facilitating clinical decision-making. The

442

International Cancer Screening Network  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Working Together to Evaluate Cancer Screening and Improve Outcomes Internationally About the ICSN Overview Participating Countries Contact

443

Autocatalysis in reaction networks.  

PubMed

The persistence conjecture is a long-standing open problem in chemical reaction network theory. It concerns the behavior of solutions to coupled ODE systems that arise from applying mass-action kinetics to a network of chemical reactions. The idea is that if all reactions are reversible in a weak sense, then no species can go extinct. A notion that has been found useful in thinking about persistence is that of "critical siphon." We explore the combinatorics of critical siphons, with a view toward the persistence conjecture. We introduce the notions of "drainable" and "self-replicable" (or autocatalytic) siphons. We show that: Every minimal critical siphon is either drainable or self-replicable; reaction networks without drainable siphons are persistent; and nonautocatalytic weakly reversible networks are persistent. Our results clarify that the difficulties in proving the persistence conjecture are essentially due to competition between drainable and self-replicable siphons. PMID:25245394

Deshpande, Abhishek; Gopalkrishnan, Manoj

2014-10-01

444

Spectrum and Network Analyzers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectrum and network analyzers (SPAs and NWAs) are found in every microwave laboratory. This report describes the basic principles of operation of a SPA and NWA and also describes several simple example measurements using each of these instruments.

J. M. BYRD; Friedhelm Caspers

1999-01-01

445

The Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress on the Deep Space Network (DSN) supporting research and technology, advanced development, engineering and implementation, and DSN operations is presented. The functions and facilities of the DSN are described.

1979-01-01

446

The expandable network disk  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a virtual disk cluster called END, the Expandable Network Disk. END aggregates storage on a cluster of servers into a single virtual disk. END's main goals are to offer good performance during normal ...

Muthitacharoen, Athicha, 1976-

2008-01-01

447

Structuring Unreliable Radio Networks  

E-print Network

In this paper we study the problem of building a connected dominating set with constant degree (CCDS) in the dual graph radio network model [4,9,10]. This model includes two types of links: reliable, which always deliver ...

Censor-Hillel, Keren

2011-01-01

448

Structuring Unreliable Radio Networks  

E-print Network

In this paper we study the problem of building a connected dominating set with constant degree (CCDS) in the dual graph radio network model. This model includes two types of links: reliable links, which

Censor-Hillel, Keren

2011-12-22

449

The Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various systems and subsystems are discussed for the Deep Space Network (DSN). A description of the DSN is presented along with mission support, program planning, facility engineering, implementation and operations.

1977-01-01

450

Survivability in layered networks  

E-print Network

In layered networks, a single failure at the lower (physical) layer may cause multiple failures at the upper (logical) layer. As a result, traditional schemes that protect against single failures may not be effective in ...

Lee, Kayi (Edmund Kayi), 1977-

2011-01-01

451

Essays on Network Formation  

E-print Network

This dissertation contains two essays which examine the roles that individual incentives, competition, and information play in network formation. In the first essay, I examine a model in which two competing groups offer different allocation rules...

Mueller, William Graham

2012-10-19

452

Network Coding Made Practical  

E-print Network

We propose a new architecture for wireless mesh networks. In addition to forwarding packets, routers mix (i.e., code) packets from different sources to increase the information content of each transmission. We show that ...

Katti, Sachin

2006-02-16

453

Search using social networks  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we present an approach to the problem of personalized web search which makes use of the searcher's social network, in addition to the hyper-link based score used in most search engines. This combination of ...

Ammar, Ammar (Ammar T.)

2010-01-01

454

Compressively sensed complex networks.  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to develop low dimension parametric (deterministic) models of complex networks, to use compressive sensing (CS) and multiscale analysis to do so and to exploit the structure of complex networks (some are self-similar under coarsening). CS provides a new way of sampling and reconstructing networks. The approach is based on multiresolution decomposition of the adjacency matrix and its efficient sampling. It requires preprocessing of the adjacency matrix to make it 'blocky' which is the biggest (combinatorial) algorithm challenge. Current CS reconstruction algorithm makes no use of the structure of a graph, its very general (and so not very efficient/customized). Other model-based CS techniques exist, but not yet adapted to networks. Obvious starting point for future work is to increase the efficiency of reconstruction.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Ray, Jaideep; Pinar, Ali

2010-07-01

455

Invariant Scattering Convolution Networks.  

PubMed

A wavelet scattering network computes a translation invariant image representation, which is stable to deformations and preserves high frequency information for classification. It cascades wavelet transform convolutions with non-linear modulus and averaging operators. The first network layer outputs SIFT-type descriptors whereas the next layers provide complementary invariant information which improves classification. The mathematical analysis of wavelet scattering networks explain important properties of deep convolution networks for classification. A scattering representation of stationary processes incorporates higher order moments and can thus discriminate textures having same Fourier power spectrum. State of the art classification results are obtained for handwritten digits and texture discrimination, with a Gaussian kernel SVM and a generative PCA classifier. PMID:23070037

Bruna, Joan; Mallat, Stephane

2012-10-12

456

Invariant scattering convolution networks.  

PubMed

A wavelet scattering network computes a translation invariant image representation which is stable to deformations and preserves high-frequency information for classification. It cascades wavelet transform convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators. The first network layer outputs SIFT-type descriptors, whereas the next layers provide complementary invariant information that improves classification. The mathematical analysis of wavelet scattering networks explains important properties of deep convolution networks for classification. A scattering representation of stationary processes incorporates higher order moments and can thus discriminate textures having the same Fourier power spectrum. State-of-the-art classification results are obtained for handwritten digits and texture discrimination, with a Gaussian kernel SVM and a generative PCA classifier. PMID:23787341

Bruna, Joan; Mallat, Stéphane

2013-08-01

457

Precision Irrigators Network  

E-print Network

conservation including an "Agricultural Irrigation Water Use Management" BMPs section. The full TWDB Report 362 can be found at: http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/assistance/conservation/consindex.asp. DSS include the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network...

Bynum, J.; Cothren, T.; Marek, T.; Piccinni, G.

458

Architecting space communication networks  

E-print Network

Reliable communication and navigation services are critical to robotic and human space missions. NASA currently provides them through three independent and uncoordinated network that consist of both Earth-based and space-based ...

Sanchez Net, Marc

2014-01-01

459

The Colombia Seismological Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage of the RSNC network is presented along with the improvement in earthquake location and the quality of the data. New tools to calculate moment magnitude and focal mechanism are implemented as a result of the network expansion. The principal seismic sources in Colombia and the challenges for the future of the network are discussed.

Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

2013-05-01

460

Modeling the network forensics behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is a new coming approach to the network security. However, this field is not very clear to the new researchers. In this paper, we discuss the network forensics behaviors systematically from both the technical view and legal view. The goal of discussion is to outline the formalization and standardization of the network forensics behaviors. To our knowledge, this

Wei Ren; Hai Jin

2005-01-01

461

Models of social network intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social network analysis is a concept leading to a description of the social relations that obtain between people. The personal or egocentric social network is the focus of this analysis. Features of a social network include both structural and interactional variables. The clinical significance of social networks may be supportive or destructive. A typological model is presented as a heuristic

Gary S. Hurd; E. Mansell Pattison; Robert Llamas

1981-01-01

462

Economic design of reliable networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a general approach to the optimal design of communications networks when considering both economics and reliability. The approach uses a genetic algorithm to identify the best topology of network arcs to collectively meet cost and network reliability considerations. This approach is distinct because it is highly flexible and can readily solve many versions of the network design

Darren L. Deeter; Alice E. Smith

1998-01-01

463

UBC Geography's Professionals Leadership Network  

E-print Network

UBC Geography's Professionals Leadership Network Bulletin Autumn 2012 Message from the Head, Dr Marwan Hassan Welcome to the Network! UBC Geography's Professionals Leadership Network (PLN On September 19th , faculty, PLN members, profs and grads to launch the Professionals Leadership Network! Page

Handy, Todd C.

464

Spatiotemporal network analysis and visualization  

E-print Network

Mellon University, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Spatiotemporal social network analysis shows relationships among intervals, may be visualized by third-party social network analysis software in the form of standard network analysis, social network analysis, data mining, text mining knowledge discovery, visualization INTRODUCTION

Shamos, Michael I.

465

Connecting with the Wildcat Network  

E-print Network

Connecting with the Wildcat Network Matthew Herek #12;Learn how to: ­ build a series of win/win relationships ­ make a strong introduction ­ build and maintain your network ­ hear about some common mistakes to avoid ­ discover what it means to be a part of a 200,000+ alumni network #12;What is networking

Shull, Kenneth R.

466

Rural health networks in Florida.  

PubMed

This article describes the development of rural health networks in Florida, which has adopted formal policies to support these networks. First, the history and content of the relevant legislation are described. The current networks are identified and their development to date summarized. Finally, a detailed case study is employed to outline the steps taken to establish one network. PMID:10141278

Duncan, R P; Klepper, B R; Krumerman, C J; Kuhn, S L

1995-01-01

467

Infrastructure tradeoffs for sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sensor network, the infrastructure (in terms of the sensor capabilities, number of sensors, and deployment strategy) plays a significant role in determining the performance of the network. In this paper, we study the effect of infrastructure decisions on the performance of a sensor network. We study the effect of the infrastructure for two types of network delivery models

Sameer Tilak; Nael B. Abu-Ghazaleh; Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman

2002-01-01

468

Networking know-how [online networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the latest trend in online job hunting and hiring, i.e. tapping social and professional networking sites. These sites typically allow you to post a profile, listing information about yourself as well as services and skills you have to offer. Reciprocal connections can also be made between the profiles of different users, allowing for friend-of-a-friend style introductions. These

S. Karlin

2005-01-01

469

Broadband Access Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging broadband services are driving a new generation of metro access and backhaul networks. Residential bandwidths of\\u000a up to 100?Mb\\/s and business services up to 10?Gb\\/s have to be supported on a broad scale. In order to reduce network operators\\u000a cost, unified access\\/backhaul architectures which support all services, applications, and bit rates and replace application-specific\\u000a and legacy solutions have to

Klaus Grobe; Jörg-Peter Elbers; Stephan Neidlinger

470

Leaf Pack Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Leaf Pack Network (LPN) is a network of teachers and students investigating their local stream ecosystems by participating in the leaf pack experiment, which involves creating an artificial leaf pack (dry leaves in a mesh bag), immersing it in a stream for 3-4 weeks, and examining it for signs of aquatic insects as indicators of stream health. Participating classrooms share their data through the internet. This activity highlights the connection between streamside forests and the ecology of rivers and streams.

471

OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.

Yuen, J. H.

1994-01-01

472

Global Telescope Network Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains information for both partners (those with their own telescopes) and associates (those who wish to use a network telescope.) The purpose of the Global Telescope Network (GTN) is to use small telescopes to obtain ground-based observations of high-energy objects of interest to Swift, GLAST (renamed Fermi in 2008) and XMM-Newton missions. It is used both by formal educators working with students and by amateur astronomers.

2005-06-14

473

Using Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Twenty-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 13-16, 2003 presence of faults. Other, more sophisticated algo rithms may be applied to determine whether the measured data indicate a fault condition. Parameter estimation methods are analytical... are composed of many simple elements (neurons) operating in parallel. The network function is determined by the connections between elements. A neural network performs the computation by mapping input values to output values (4). The particular mapping...

Gabel, S.

474

Drug—target network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global set of relationships between protein targets of all drugs and all disease-gene products in the human protein–protein interaction or 'interactome' network remains uncharacterized. We built a bipartite graph composed of US Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs and proteins linked by drug–target binary associations. The resulting network connects most drugs into a highly interlinked giant component, with strong local

Muhammed A Y?ld?r?m; Kwang-Il Goh; Michael E Cusick; Albert-László Barabási; Marc Vidal

2007-01-01

475

Networks versus Economic Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The article supplements,the traditional economic,line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment,to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent

Christian Albrekt Larsen

2008-01-01

476

Knitted Complex Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a considerable extent, the continuing importance and popularity of complex\\u000anetworks as models of real-world structures has been motivated by scale free\\u000adegree distributions as well as the respectively implied hubs. Being related to\\u000asequential connections of edges in networks, paths represent another important,\\u000adual pattern of connectivity (or motif) in complex networks (e.g., paths are\\u000arelated to important

Luciano da Fontoura Costa

2007-01-01

477

Artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides an introduction to the exciting field of artificial neural networks and their potential role in the emerging field of neurocomputing. Although the genesis of this subject can be traced back to the 1940s, the present interest is largely due to the recent developments in theoretical models, technologies, and algorithms. This volume is devoted to introductory and theoretical concepts, and the emphasis is on network architectures, learning, associative memories, with a glimpse of the application areas and implementation experiences.

Vemuri, V.

1988-01-01

478

Networks, Information and Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We focus on information sharing in collaboration networks and discuss a feedback model for situational awareness, that combines\\u000a exogenously given characteristics of nodes with their positioning within the network topology. Here, situational awareness\\u000a is generally understood to mean “knowing what is going on”, implying the possession of knowledge and understanding to achieve\\u000a a certain goal. Using this feedback model, we

René Janssen; Herman Monsuur

2010-01-01

479

Majority Gate Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents methods for realizing simple threshold functions of n arguments by networks of k-input majority gates, where k?n. An optimal network realization of the 5-argument majority function using 3-input majority gates is given, and it is then generalized by steps with realizations for the (2n-l)-argument majority function (where n = 3, 4, ...) using (2n-3)-input majority gates, and

S. Amarel; G. Cooke; R. O. Winder

1964-01-01

480

Neural networks in seismic discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Neural networks are powerful and elegant computational tools that can be used in the analysis of geophysical signals. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have developed neural networks to solve problems in seismic discrimination, event classification, and seismic and hydrodynamic yield estimation. Other researchers have used neural networks for seismic phase identification. We are currently developing neural networks to estimate depths of seismic events using regional seismograms. In this paper different types of network architecture and representation techniques are discussed. We address the important problem of designing neural networks with good generalization capabilities. Examples of neural networks for treaty verification applications are also described.

Dowla, F.U.

1995-01-01

481

Persistent Homology of Complex Networks  

E-print Network

Long lived topological features are distinguished from short lived ones (considered as topological noise) in simplicial complexes constructed from complex networks. A new topological invariant, persistent homology, is determined and presented as a parametrized version of a Betti number. Complex networks with distinct degree distributions exhibit distinct persistent topological features. Persistent toplogical attributes, shown to be related to robust quality of networks, also reflect defficiency in certain connectivity properites of networks. Random networks, networks with exponential conectivity distribution and scale-free networks were considered for homological persistency analysis.

Danijela Horak; Slobodan Maletic; Milan Rajkovic

2008-11-13

482

Controllability of Complex Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. While control theory offers mathematical tools to steer engineered systems towards a desired state, we lack a general framework to control complex self-organized systems, like the regulatory network of a cell or the Internet. Here we develop analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network, identifying the set of driver nodes whose time-dependent control can guide the system's dynamics. We apply these tools to real and model networks, finding that sparse inhomogeneous networks, which emerge in many real complex systems, are the most difficult to control. In contrast, dense and homogeneous networks can be controlled via a few driver nodes. Counterintuitively, we find that in both model and real systems the driver nodes tend to avoid the hubs. We show that the robustness of control to link failure is determined by a core percolation problem, helping us understand why many complex systems are relatively insensitive to link deletion. The developed approach offers a framework to address the controllability of an arbitrary network, representing a key step towards the eventual control of complex systems.

Liu, Yang; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

2011-03-01

483

Stochastic pooling networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce and define the concept of a stochastic pooling network (SPN), as a model for sensor systems where redundancy and two forms of 'noise'—lossy compression and randomness—interact in surprising ways. Our approach to analysing SPNs is information theoretic. We define an SPN as a network with multiple nodes that each produce noisy and compressed measurements of the same information. An SPN must combine all these measurements into a single further compressed network output, in a way dictated solely by naturally occurring physical properties—i.e. pooling—and yet cause no (or negligible) reduction in mutual information. This means that SPNs exhibit redundancy reduction as an emergent property of pooling. The SPN concept is applicable to examples in biological neural coding, nanoelectronics, distributed sensor networks, digital beamforming arrays, image processing, multiaccess communication networks and social networks. In most cases the randomness is assumed to be unavoidably present rather than deliberately introduced. We illustrate the central properties of SPNs for several case studies, where pooling occurs by summation, including nodes that are noisy scalar quantizers, and nodes with conditionally Poisson statistics. Other emergent properties of SPNs and some unsolved problems are also briefly discussed.

McDonnell, Mark D.; Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Stocks, Nigel G.

2009-01-01

484

Network basics for telemedicine.  

PubMed

Early telemedicine networks employed dedicated telecommunications circuits (e.g. leased digital lines) in which the sender and receiver were connected by a private circuit. More recently, the Internet has become widely available for general use, including telemedicine. The Internet was engineered to permit network paths to be shared by all users, so data transmission is fundamentally different from traditional, circuit-switched networks. Early telemedicine applications demonstrated the feasibility of Internet Protocol transmission. The basic performance criteria to use in evaluating newer digital communications technologies that carry both voice and data are: (1) bandwidth; (2) packet loss; (3) end-to-end delay; (4) jitter; (5) privacy and security. Network engineering involves performance trade-offs between the hardware, architecture, security and the budget available. A telemedicine application may be running over a network whose design is entirely under the user's control, or the application may employ some part of the Internet whose design is unknown to the user. If an application is not running to satisfaction, then a network engineer should be consulted. PMID:15829050

Gemmill, Jill

2005-01-01

485

Scaling in transportation networks.  

PubMed

Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about 140 subway systems and more than 50 railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

2014-01-01

486

Scaling in Transportation Networks  

PubMed Central

Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about subway systems and more than railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

Louf, Remi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

2014-01-01

487

Optimal transport on complex networks.  

PubMed

We present a heuristic algorithm for the optimization of transport on complex networks. Previously proposed network transport optimization algorithms aim at avoiding or reducing link overload. Our algorithm balances traffic on a network by minimizing the maximum node betweenness with as little path lengthening as possible, thus being useful in cases when networks are jamming due to node congestion. By using the resulting routing, a network can sustain significantly higher traffic without jamming than in the case of shortest path routing. PMID:17155132

Danila, Bogdan; Yu, Yong; Marsh, John A; Bassler, Kevin E

2006-10-01

488

Fermionic Networks: Modeling Adaptive Complex Networks with Fermionic Gases  

E-print Network

We study the structure of Fermionic networks, i.e., a model of networks based on the behavior of fermionic gases, and we analyze dynamical processes over them. In this model, particle dynamics have been mapped to the domain of networks, hence a parameter representing the temperature controls the evolution of the system. In doing so, it is possible to generate adaptive networks, i.e., networks whose structure varies over time. As shown in previous works, networks generated by quantum statistics can undergo critical phenomena as phase transitions and, moreover, they can be considered as thermodynamic systems. In this study, we analyze Fermionic networks and opinion dynamics processes over them, framing this network model as a computational model useful to represent complex and adaptive systems. Results highlight that a strong relation holds between the gas temperature and the structure of the achieved networks. Notably, both the degree distribution and the assortativity vary as the temperature varies, hence we ...

Javarone, Marco Alberto

2014-01-01

489

Computer and information networks.  

PubMed

The most basic conclusion coming out of the EDUCOM seminars is that computer networking must be acknowledged as an important new mode for obtaining information and computation (15). It is a real alternative that needs to be given serious attention in current planning and decision-making. Yet the fact is that many institutions are not taking account of networks when they confer on whether or how to replace their main computer. Articulation of the possibilities of computer networks goes back to the early 1960's and before, and working networks have been in evidence for several years now, both commercially and in universities. What is new, however, is the unmistakable recognition-bordering on a sense of the inevitable-that networks are finally practical and here to stay. The visionary and promotional phases of computer networks are over. It is time for hard-nosed comparative analysis (16). Another conclusion of the seminars has to do with the factors that hinder the fuller development of networking. The major problems to be overcome in applying networks to research and education are political, organizational, and economic in nature rather than technological. This is not to say that the hardware and software problems of linking computers and information systems are completely solved, but they are not the big bottlenecks at present. Research and educational institutions must find ways to organize themselves as well as their computers to work together for greater resource sharing. The coming of age of networks takes on special significance as a result of widespread dissatisfactions expressed with the present computing situation. There is a feeling that the current mode of autonomous, self-sufficient operation in the provision of computing and information services is frequently wasteful, deficient, and unresponsive to users' needs because of duplication of effort from one installation to another, incompatibilities, and inadequate documentation, program support, and user assistance. Complaints about the relative lack of uniform standards and the paucity of information on what programs and data are available and how to get and use them are commonplace. The human tendency, when beset by problems such as these, is to seek a savior in the next new technology-networks in this case. But networking does not in and of itself offer a solution to current deficiencies. What it does offer is a promising vehicle with which to bring about important changes in user practices, institutional procedures, and government policy that can lead to effective solutions. Thus more critical than whether networking is developed and applied is how it is developed and applied. For example, networking emphasizes the need for standards and good documentation. Unless effective mechanisms are developed and strong measures taken in networking to ensure that suitable standards and documentation are developed, present inadequacies could get worse, not better. PMID:4730053

Greenberger, M; Aronofsky, J; McKenney, J L; Massy, W F

1973-10-01

490

Avoiding catastrophic failure in correlated networks of networks  

E-print Network

Networks in nature do not act in isolation but instead exchange information, and depend on each other to function properly. An incipient theory of Networks of Networks have shown that connected random networks may very easily result in abrupt failures. This theoretical finding bares an intrinsic paradox: If natural systems organize in interconnected networks, how can they be so stable? Here we provide a solution to this conundrum, showing that the stability of a system of networks relies on the relation between the internal structure of a network and its pattern of connections to other networks. Specifically, we demonstrate that if network inter-connections are provided by hubs of the network and if there is a moderate degree of convergence of inter-network connection the systems of network are stable and robust to failure. We test this theoretical prediction in two independent experiments of functional brain networks (in task- and resting states) which show that brain networks are connected with a topology t...

Reis, Saulo D S; Babino, Andrés; Andrade, José S; Canals, Santiago; Sigman, Mariano; Makse, Herná A

2014-01-01

491

Network Reconfiguration and Neuronal Plasticity in Rhythm-Generating Networks  

PubMed Central

Neuronal networks are highly plastic and reconfigure in a state-dependent manner. The plasticity at the network level emerges through multiple intrinsic and synaptic membrane properties that imbue neurons and their interactions with numerous nonlinear properties. These properties are continuously regulated by neuromodulators and homeostatic mechanisms that are critical to maintain not only network stability and also adapt networks in a short- and long-term manner to changes in behavioral, developmental, metabolic, and environmental conditions. This review provides concrete examples from neuronal networks in invertebrates and vertebrates, and illustrates that the concepts and rules that govern neuronal networks and behaviors are universal. PMID:21856733

Koch, Henner; Garcia, Alfredo J.; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

2011-01-01

492

Social Network Visualization in Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical analyses and allow the identification of groups of people for targeting, the identification of central and peripheral individuals, and the clarification of the macro-structure of the network in a way that should affect public health interventions. People are inter-connected and so their health is inter-connected. Inter-personal health effects in social networks provide a new foundation for public health. PMID:22544996

Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

2010-01-01

493

Social Network Visualization in Epidemiology.  

PubMed

Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical analyses and allow the identification of groups of people for targeting, the identification of central and peripheral individuals, and the clarification of the macro-structure of the network in a way that should affect public health interventions. People are inter-connected and so their health is inter-connected. Inter-personal health effects in social networks provide a new foundation for public health. PMID:22544996

Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

2009-01-01

494

Complex aperture networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex network approach is proposed for studying the shear behavior of a rough rock joint. Similarities between aperture profiles are established, and a functional complex network-in each shear displacement-is constructed in two directions: parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction. We find that the growth of the clustering coefficient and that of the number of edges are approximately scaled with the development of shear strength and hydraulic conductivity, which could possibly be utilized to estimate and formulate a friction law and the evolution of shear distribution over asperities. Moreover, the frictional interface is mapped in the global-local parameter space of the corresponding functional friction network, showing the evolution path and, eventually, the residual stage. Furthermore, we show that with respect to shear direction, parallel aperture patches are more adaptable to environmental stimuli than perpendicular profiles. We characterize the pure-contact profiles using the same approach. Unlike the first case, the later networks show a growing trend while in the residual stage; a saturation of links is encoded in contact networks.

Ghaffari, H. O.; Sharifzadeh, M.; Young, R. Paul

2013-02-01

495

Networks of Emotion Concepts  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/). PMID:22276099

Toivonen, Riitta; Kivela, Mikko; Saramaki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

496

Viscoelastic Properties of Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network was characterized by its viscoelastic properties. The viscoelastic property indicates the deformations or changes in the shape and in the internal structure during the evolution of a network. The change in the direction of motion was taken as elastic deformation and the change in the vertical direction as viscous deformation. These deformations were related to the change of geometry of internal structure and of shape. Thus it was possible to characterize a network by its storage and loss moduli. The change of the structure of a network during its evolution changes also its entropy. However entropy depends on the number of microstates of an already existing framework. As examples, two different systems (i) New York Stock Exchange and (ii) a melody were studied for their viscoelastic properties. The change of viscous property was compared with the change of different types of entropies such as configurational entropy, crossing entropy, and topological entropy. This last entropy was introduced and explained in the text. It was found out that there is no direct correspondence between the increase of entropy and the increase of viscous property of a network although they sometimes correlate with each other.

Gündüz, Güngör

497

Social Network Infiltration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social networks are websites (or software that distributes media online) where users can distribute content to either a list of friends on that site or to anyone who surfs onto their page, and where those friends can interact and discuss the content. By linking to friends online, the users’ personal content (pictures, songs, favorite movies, diaries, websites, and so on) is dynamically distributed, and can "become viral", that is, get spread rapidly as more people see it and spread it themselves. Social networks are immensely popular around the planet, especially with younger users. The biggest social networks are Facebook and MySpace; an IYA2009 user already exists on Facebook, and one will be created for MySpace (in fact, several NASA satellites such as GLAST and Swift already have successful MySpace pages). Twitter is another network where data distribution is more limited; it is more like a mini-blog, but is very popular. IYA2009 already has a Twitter page, and will be updated more often with relevant information. In this talk I will review the existing social networks, show people how and why they are useful, and give them the tools they need to contribute meaningfully to IYA's online reach.

Plait, Philip

2008-05-01

498

Virtual Network Mapping with Traffic Matrices.  

E-print Network

??Nowadays Network Virtualization provides a new perspective for running multiple, relatively independent applications on same physical network (the substrate network) within shared substrate resources. This… (more)

Wang, Cong

2011-01-01

499

Network topology mapper  

DOEpatents

A method enables the topology of an acyclic fully propagated network to be discovered. A list of switches that comprise the network is formed and the MAC address cache for each one of the switches is determined. For each pair of switches, from the MAC address caches the remaining switches that see the pair of switches are located. For each pair of switches the remaining switches are determined that see one of the pair of switches on a first port and the second one of the pair of switches on a second port. A list of insiders is formed for every pair of switches. It is determined whether the insider for each pair of switches is a graph edge and adjacent ones of the graph edges are determined. A symmetric adjacency matrix is formed from the graph edges to represent the topology of the data link network.

Quist, Daniel A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gavrilov, Eugene M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fisk, Michael E. (Jemez, NM)

2008-01-15

500

Graphing Your Social Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze their social networks using graph theory. They gather data on their own social relationships, either from Facebook interactions or the interactions they have throughout the course of a day, recording it in Microsoft Excel and using Cytoscape (a free, downloadable application) to generate social network graphs that visually illustrate the key persons (nodes) and connections between them (edges). The nodes in the Cytoscape graphs are color-coded and sized according to the importance of the node (in this activity, nodes are people in students' social networks). After the analysis, the graphs are further examined to see what can be learned from the visual representation. Students gain practice with graph theory vocabulary, including node, edge, betweeness centrality and degree on interaction, and learn about a range of engineering applications of graph theory.

IMPART RET Program, College of Information Science & Technology,