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Sample records for kyu network yo

  1. Yo-yo Pull Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William

    2013-03-01

    A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in its lowest position.2,3 As well as pulling the yo-yo horizontally, often the string is lifted until the angle it makes with the table causes no motion. This occurs when the line extended from the string intersects the point of contact of the yo-yo with the table.4 This paper describes an apparatus that extends these demonstrations to the situation where the force pulling the yo-yo is still horizontal yet is below the level of the table.

  2. Yo-Yo Pull Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2013-01-01

    A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in…

  3. MuON: Epidemic Based Mutual Anonymity Neelesh Bansod Ashish Malgi Byung Kyu Choi

    E-print Network

    Choi, Byung K.

    MuON: Epidemic Based Mutual Anonymity Neelesh Bansod Ashish Malgi Byung Kyu Choi Jean Mayo Michigan investigation. This paper presents MuON, a protocol to achieve mu- tual anonymity in unstructured P2P networks. MuON lever- ages epidemic-style data dissemination to deal with the high churn (changes in system

  4. Exploring the Yo-Yo: Filipino Physics Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The yo-yo is a scientific toy that has fascinated young and old for thousands of years. According to yo-yo experts, the yo-yo is the second oldest toy in the world, after the doll. Yo-yo activities can be an excellent tool to help students explore many important physics concepts related to energy and motion. The rich history of the yo-yo offers…

  5. Mechanical Study of a Modern Yo-Yo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Izarra, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the study of a modern yo-yo having a centrifugal clutch allowing the free rolling. First, the mechanical parts of the yo-yo are measured, allowing us to determine analytically its velocity according to its height of fall. Then, we are more particularly interested in the centrifugal device constituted by springs and small…

  6. Cadets Marching yo Sbisa 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Copyright 2013 Roland John Fumasi PRICEP C A Disertaonrtb yRoOrL osiyoONRyitNDrJJaoHiRR RR eoyO oDOrtrDy tNRyNDRos D RRrtao Fitonrtb yoHiU toyio n tM Soito FF DyNL oHtieIDyoeNFF t syNryNisoyiou oNnHJ n sy emoodO o Hiy syNrJo FF DyRoiFoyO R oDOrtrDy t...NRyNDRoisoHtNnrtaohoR Disertaonrtb yoNsy trDyNisoNR M s trJJaosiyoDisRNe t emoodO oJrUoiFois oHtND oNRo fH Dy eoyioOiJeoNsoR Disertaonrtb yRmo caorHHJaNsMoyO oO eisNDoy DOsNGI oyioHtieID toyO itaSorseoNsy MtryNsMoyO oeItruNJNyaoiFo yO oHtieIDyoeNt DyJaoNsyioyO o...

  7. [A life of Ryu Sang-Kyu, a colonial modernized intellectual].

    PubMed

    Choi, Q Jin; Hwang, Sang Ik; Kim, Soo Youn

    2009-12-01

    Many of the Korean intellectuals resisted against suppression of Japanese Imperialism with the people during the Japanese occupation period. Ryu Sang-Kyu was also one of those intellectuals. Ryu Sang-Kyu was born in Gang-gye of North Pyongan-do on 10th November, 1897. He entered Keijo Medical College as one of the first entering students in 1916. However, at the end of his third year, he participated in the 3.1 Independence Movement of Korea and was suspended from the college which was run by the Japanese on account of his participation. Then moving to Shanghai, he joined Heung Sa Dan, an active patriotic group fighting for independence of Korea. He initiated the provisional government of Korea as a network investigator and he played second string to Ahn Chang-Ho, one of major Korean independence activists for four years. In 1923, following Ahn Chang-Ho's advice, he returned to Keijo Medical College to complete the course. Even in colonial Korea, he continued independence movement and was involved in Dong Woo Hoe, the branch of Heung Sa Dan in Korea. After the graduation of Keijo Medical College in 1927, he had served at the department of surgery in Keijo Medical College. In 1930, he participated in founding of the Korean Medical Association. He also raised public awareness by writing to many articles on hygiene and public health issues in public journals and newspapers. In short, he did his best as an intellectual, a medical doctor, an activist of independence movement until he died from streptococcal infection on 7th July, 1936. PMID:20098056

  8. Acute effects of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) on hemorheological parameters in female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Yapici, Ay?egül; Kilic-Erkek, Ozgen; Koklu, Yusuf; Tekin, Volkan; Alemdaroglu, Utku; Bor-Kucukatay, Melek

    2015-07-16

    In the present study, we investigated possible alterations in red blood cell (RBC) deformability, plasma and whole blood viscosities (WBV) and hematological parameters in response to Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) which is currently used to assess endurance performance, in female volleyball players. Eight volleyball player volunteers from Pamukkale University (mean age19,9 ± 2,2 years; mean body height 177.5 ± 1.99?cm; mean body mass index 21.66 ± 0.64?kg/m2) participated to the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after test. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined by ektacytometer, plasma and whole blood viscosities (WBV) by a cone-plate rotational viscometer. Hematological parameters were determined using an electronic hematology analyzer. The Yo-YoIR1 applied, induced acute increments in WBV at native hematocrit (Hct) measured at a shear rate of 150?s-1 and 375?s-1, RBC deformability and WBC count. The results of the current study indicate that, the Yo-Yo IR1 test used to determine physical capacity of the player, by resulting in increments in RBC deformability contributes blood flow and thus, athletic performance of the individual. PMID:24840339

  9. A Design Tradeoff Study with Monolithic 3D Integration Chang Liu and Sung Kyu Lim

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    A Design Tradeoff Study with Monolithic 3D Integration Chang Liu and Sung Kyu Lim Georgia Institute various design tradeoffs existing in the monolithic 3D integration technology. Different design styles in monolithic 3D ICs are studied, including transistor-level monolithic integration (MI- TR) and gate

  10. our answers t scuss with yo

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    you like to be tested for sexually transmitted infections today? yes no tell me more E BIRTH CONTROL METHOD Are you currently using birth control? yes no If no, skip to section F. Which birth control method DOB our answers t scuss with yo ame: _______ ate of birth: __ ho is your pri o you have an rson

  11. Thermally Stable Gel Polymer Electrolytes Min-Kyu Song,a

    E-print Network

    Popov, Branko N.

    Thermally Stable Gel Polymer Electrolytes Min-Kyu Song,a Young-Taek Kim,a Yong Tae Kim,b Byung Won/polyvinylidene fluoride PEGDA/PVdF blend gel polymer electrolytes, low molecular weight (M 742) liquid PEGDA oligomer to be comparable to that of PVdF-HFP gel polymer electrolytes, and they were electrochemically stable up to 4.6 V

  12. Relationships between the yo-yo intermittent recovery test and anaerobic performance tests in adolescent handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Aouadi, Ridha; Khalifa, Riadh; van den Tillaar, Roland; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2015-03-29

    The aim of the present study was to investigate relationships between a performance index derived from the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and other measures of physical performance and skill in handball players. The other measures considered included peak muscular power of the lower limbs (Wpeak), jumping ability (squat and counter-movement jumps (SJ, CMJ), a handball skill test and the average sprinting velocities over the first step (VS) and the first 5 m (V5m). Test scores for 25 male national-level adolescent players (age: 17.2 ± 0.7 years) averaged 4.83 ± 0.34 m·s(-1) (maximal velocity reached at the Yo-Yo IR1); 917 ± 105 Watt, 12.7 ± 3 W·kg(-1) (Wpeak); 3.41 ± 0.5 m·s(-1) and 6.03 ± 0.6 m·s(-1) (sprint velocities for Vs and V5m respectively) and 10.3 ± 1 s (handball skill test). Yo-Yo IR1 test scores showed statistically significant correlations with all of the variables examined: Wpeak (W and W·kg(-1)) r = 0.80 and 0.65, respectively, p?0.001); sprinting velocities (r = 0.73 and 0.71 for VS and V5m respectively; p?0.001); jumping performance (SJ: r = 0.60, p?0.001; CMJ: r= 0.66, p?0.001) and the handball skill test (r = 0.71; p?0.001). We concluded that the Yo-Yo test score showed a sufficient correlation with other potential means of assessing handball players, and that intra-individual changes of Yo-Yo IR1 score could provide a useful composite index of the response to training or rehabilitation, although correlations lack sufficient precision to help in players' selection. PMID:25964822

  13. Relationships Between the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and Anaerobic Performance Tests in Adolescent Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Hermassi, Souhail; Aouadi, Ridha; Khalifa, Riadh; van den Tillaar, Roland; Shephard, Roy J.; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate relationships between a performance index derived from the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and other measures of physical performance and skill in handball players. The other measures considered included peak muscular power of the lower limbs (Wpeak), jumping ability (squat and counter-movement jumps (SJ, CMJ), a handball skill test and the average sprinting velocities over the first step (VS) and the first 5 m (V5m). Test scores for 25 male national-level adolescent players (age: 17.2 ± 0.7 years) averaged 4.83 ± 0.34 m·s?1 (maximal velocity reached at the Yo-Yo IR1); 917 ± 105 Watt, 12.7 ± 3 W·kg?1 (Wpeak); 3.41 ± 0.5 m·s?1 and 6.03 ± 0.6 m·s?1 (sprint velocities for Vs and V5m respectively) and 10.3 ± 1 s (handball skill test). Yo-Yo IR1 test scores showed statistically significant correlations with all of the variables examined: Wpeak (W and W·kg?1) r = 0.80 and 0.65, respectively, p?0.001); sprinting velocities (r = 0.73 and 0.71 for VS and V5m respectively; p?0.001); jumping performance (SJ: r = 0.60, p?0.001; CMJ: r= 0.66, p?0.001) and the handball skill test (r = 0.71; p?0.001). We concluded that the Yo-Yo test score showed a sufficient correlation with other potential means of assessing handball players, and that intra-individual changes of Yo-Yo IR1 score could provide a useful composite index of the response to training or rehabilitation, although correlations lack sufficient precision to help in players’ selection. PMID:25964822

  14. Power Delivery System Architecture for Many-Tier 3D Systems Michael B. Healy and Sung Kyu Lim

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Power Delivery System Architecture for Many-Tier 3D Systems Michael B. Healy and Sung Kyu Lim}@ece.gatech.edu Abstract Many-tier systems are the future of 3D integration. In this work we explore power delivery system design for these large scale devices. We have developed a scalable many-tier design that contains one

  15. Wire-driven Microarchitectural Design Space Exploration Mongkol Ekpanyapong, Sung Kyu Lim, Chinnakrishnan Ballapuram, and Hsien-Hsin S. Lee

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    Wire-driven Microarchitectural Design Space Exploration Mongkol Ekpanyapong, Sung Kyu Lim propose an interconnect-driven framework that performs an efficient and effective design space exploration during design space exploration. By increasing the sizes of modules, we may improve the overall

  16. Optical Routing for 3D System-On-Package Jacob R. Minz, Somaskanda Thyagaraja, and Sung Kyu Lim

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Optical Routing for 3D System-On-Package Jacob R. Minz, Somaskanda Thyagaraja, and Sung Kyu Lim. In addition, wavelength division multiplexing allows a single waveguide to be shared among multiple-driven waveguides considering the optical resource constraints. We develop the first optical router for System

  17. On the second electronic state near the S1 state in dimethyldiazirine Taek-Soo Kim, Sang Kyu Kim, and Young S. Choia)

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    On the second electronic state near the S1 state in dimethyldiazirine Taek-Soo Kim, Sang Kyu Kim, and Young S. Choia) Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Republic of Korea Ilhwan Kwak

  18. Omni Graph Mining: Graph mining using RDBMS Jin Kyu Kim

    E-print Network

    and LinkedIn, internet search companies such Google and Yahoo, and mobile service companies have accumulated a framework for their daily graph data analysis job. Each company might have different size of graph data of these our daily behaviors are represented by graph. Social networking service companies such as Facebook

  19. Si, Yo Puedo Controlar M Diabetes! (Si, Yo Puedo) is an evidence-informed, culturally competent educational

    E-print Network

    ¡Si, Yo Puedo Controlar Mí Diabetes! (Si, Yo Puedo) is an evidence-informed, culturally competent educational program targeting low-literate Hispanic/Latinos with diabetes. The curriculum is predicated on the American Diabetes Association's national standards of care and employs the Social Cognitive and Self

  20. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes. PMID:24791220

  1. Evaluation of the Yo Puedo Summer Program--1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cognetta, Randall A.; Goodwine, Jean

    Designed for migrant students in grades 9 through 12, the Yo Puedo Program attempted to motivate students to remain in and graduate from high school and to continue their education at the university level. The 5-week summer program, conducted at the University of California at Santa Cruz, provided an academic setting and a positive learning…

  2. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721.10009 Section...Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3 ) (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721.10013 Section...Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2 YO5 ) (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10009 - Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). 721... Substances § 721.10009 Manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (MnYO3) (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10013 - Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). 721... Substances § 721.10013 Manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as manganese yttrium oxide (Mn2YO5) (PMN...

  2. The 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test versus the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1: relationship and sensitivity to training.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Rabbani, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between performance of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) and to compare the sensitivity of both tests to training. Fourteen young soccer players performed both tests before and after an 8-wk training intervention, which included 6 sessions/wk: 2 resistance training sessions, 2 high-intensity interval training sessions after technical training (4 sets of 3:30 min of generic running and small-sided games [4v4] during the first and second 4-wk periods, respectively [90-95% maximal HR], interspersed with 3 min at 60-70% maximal HR), and 2 tactical-only training sessions. There was a large correlation between 30-15IFT and Yo-YoIR1 (r = .75, 90% confidence limits [CL] 0.57;0.86). While within-test percentage changes suggested a greater sensitivity to training for the Yo-YoIR1 (+35%, 90%CL 24;45) than for the 30-15IFT (+7%; 4;10), these changes were similarly rated as almost certain (with chances for greater/similar/lower values after training of 100/0/0 for both tests) and moderate, ie, standardized difference, ES = +1.2 90%CL (0.9;1.5) for Yo-YoIR1 and ES = +1.1 (0.7;1.5) for 30-15IFT. The difference in the change between the 2 tests was clearly trivial (0/100/0, ES = -0.1, 90%CL -0.1;-0.1). Both tests might evaluate slightly different physical capacities, but their sensitivity to training is almost certainly similar. These results also highlight the importance of using standardized differences instead of percentage changes in performance to assess the actual training effect of an intervention. PMID:23475226

  3. Prospects for a narrow line MOT in YO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collopy, Alejandra L.; Hummon, Matthew T.; Yeo, Mark; Yan, Bo; Ye, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In addition to being suitable for laser cooling and trapping in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) using a relatively broad (? 5 MHz) transition, the molecule YO possesses a narrow-line transition. This forbidden transition between the {{X}2}? and A{{\\prime }2}{{? }3/2} states has linewidth ? 2? × 160 kHz. After cooling in a MOT on the 614 nm {{X}2}? to {{A}2}{{\\Pi }1/2} (orange) transition, the narrow 690 nm (red) transition can be used to further cool the sample, requiring only minimal additions to the first stage system. We estimate that the narrow line cooling stage will bring the temperature from ?1 mK to ?10 ?K, significantly advancing the frontier on direct cooling achievable for molecules.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, photodegradation kinetics and photocatalytic activity of novel photocatalyst ZnBiYO4.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanbing; Luan, Jingfei

    2015-03-01

    ZnBiYO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of ZnBiYO4 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance. ZnBiYO4 crystallized with a tetragonal spinel structure with space group I41/A. The lattice parameters for ZnBiYO4 were a=b=11.176479Å and c=10.014323Å. The band gap of ZnBiYO4 was estimated to be 1.58eV. The photocatalytic activity of ZnBiYO4 was assessed by photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. The results showed that ZnBiYO4 had higher catalytic activity compared with N-doped TiO2 under the same experimental conditions using visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with ZnBiYO4 or N-doped TiO2 as catalyst followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was 0.01575 and 0.00416 min(-1) for ZnBiYO4 and N-doped TiO2, respectively. After visible light irradiation for 220 min with ZnBiYO4 as catalyst, complete removal and mineralization of methyl orange were observed. The reduction of total organic carbon, formation of inorganic products, SO4(2-) and NO3-, and evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of methyl orange during the photocatalytic process. The intermediate products were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ZnBiYO4/(visible light) photocatalysis system was found to be suitable for textile industry wastewater treatment and could be used to solve other environmental chemical pollution problems. PMID:25766013

  5. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of new photocatalyst CdBiYO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Huiyang; Luan, Jingfei

    2012-09-01

    CdBiYO4 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method for the first time. The structural and photocatalytic properties of CdBiYO4 had been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry. CdBiYO4 crystallized with a tetragonal spinel structure by space group I41/amd. The lattice parameters for CdBiYO4 were a = b = 14.519 Å and c = 9.442 Å. The band gap of CdBiYO4 was estimated to be 2.41 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was realized under visible light irradiation with CdBiYO4 as catalyst. The results showed that CdBiYO4 owned higher photocatalytic activity compared with pure TiO2 or N-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB with CdBiYO4 or N-doped TiO2 as catalyst followed the first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was 0.0137 or 0.0033 min-1. After visible light irradiation for 225 min with CdBiYO4 as catalyst, complete removal and mineralization of MB were observed. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO42- and NO3-, and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of MB during the photocatalytic process. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of MB was obtained under visible light irradiation. CdBiYO4/(visible light) photocatalysis system was found to be suitable for textile industry wastewater treatment and could be utilized to resolve other environmental chemical pollution problems.

  6. 16?Y/O Female with “Watermelon Stomach”?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amandeep; Khan, Anwaar A.; Krall, Robert; Mirza, Zafar K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) also known as “watermelon stomach” (WS) is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss. It typically presents in middle aged females. We are presenting a case of GAVE at an unusually early age with atypical symptoms. Case. A previously healthy 16?y/o Caucasian female presented to the ER with a one-month history of upper abdominal pain. Physical examination was benign except tenderness in the epigastric region. There were no significant findings on laboratory data. Upper endoscopy showed incidental findings of linear striae in the antrum indicative of GAVE but histology was equivocal. Discussion. GAVE is a poorly understood but treatable entity and an increasingly identifiable cause of chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute or occult upper GI bleeding. The pathophysiology of GAVE remains unclear. It is an endoscopic finding characterized by longitudinal columns of tortuous red ectatic vessels (watermelon stripes), pathognomonic for WS. Treatment options include endoscopic, pharmacologic, and surgical approaches. Failure to recognize GAVE can result in delayed treatment for years. Our patient with GAVE was unusually young and was diagnosed incidentally. Due to lack of anemia on laboratory examination we elected to monitor her clinically for any future development of anemia. PMID:26265919

  7. 16?Y/O Female with "Watermelon Stomach"?

    PubMed

    Singh, Amandeep; Khan, Anwaar A; Krall, Robert; Mirza, Zafar K

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) also known as "watermelon stomach" (WS) is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss. It typically presents in middle aged females. We are presenting a case of GAVE at an unusually early age with atypical symptoms. Case. A previously healthy 16?y/o Caucasian female presented to the ER with a one-month history of upper abdominal pain. Physical examination was benign except tenderness in the epigastric region. There were no significant findings on laboratory data. Upper endoscopy showed incidental findings of linear striae in the antrum indicative of GAVE but histology was equivocal. Discussion. GAVE is a poorly understood but treatable entity and an increasingly identifiable cause of chronic iron deficiency anemia or acute or occult upper GI bleeding. The pathophysiology of GAVE remains unclear. It is an endoscopic finding characterized by longitudinal columns of tortuous red ectatic vessels (watermelon stripes), pathognomonic for WS. Treatment options include endoscopic, pharmacologic, and surgical approaches. Failure to recognize GAVE can result in delayed treatment for years. Our patient with GAVE was unusually young and was diagnosed incidentally. Due to lack of anemia on laboratory examination we elected to monitor her clinically for any future development of anemia. PMID:26265919

  8. Effect on swimming start performance of two types of activation protocols: lunge and YoYo squat.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Fernández, Francisco; López-Contreras, Gracia; Arellano, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 protocols of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on swimming start perfomance (SS). Fourteen trained swimmers (10 men and 4 women) volunteered for this study. An intragroup design of randomized repetitive measurements was applied. A previous SS trial, performed after a standard warm-up (SWU), served as a reference. Two methods of PAP, performed after 1 hour of rest, were randomly added to the SWU: (a) 3 lunges at 85% of 1 repetition maximum (LWU) and (b) 4 repetitions on the flywheel device YoYo squat (YWU). Swimmers were tested in an SS 8 minutes after the PAP warm-ups. Kinematic variables were collected using 3 underwater digital video cameras fixed poolside and operating at 25 Hz, and 1 high-speed camera focused on the block and operating at 300 Hz. Data obtained from the video analysis were processed using a repeated measures analysis of the variance. The mean horizontal velocity of the swimmer's flight improved after both PAP methods, with the greatest improvement after YWU (F2,12 = 47.042, p < 0.001; SWU = 3.63 ± 0.11; LWU = 4.15 ± 0.122; YWU = 4.89 ± 0.12 m·s). After YWU, it took the subjects less time to cover a distance of 5 m (F2,12 = 24.453, p < 0.001) and 15 m (F2,12 = 4.262, p < 0.04). Subjects also achieved a higher mean angular velocity of the knee extension (F2,12 = 23.286, p < 0.001) and a reduction of the time on the block (F2,12 = 6.595, p ? 0.05). These results demonstrate that muscle performance in the execution of an SS is enhanced after a warm-up with specific PAP protocols. YWU leads to the greatest improvement in the performance of the swimmer's start and, therefore, may be especially beneficial in short events. PMID:25226318

  9. Influence of Yo-Yo IR2 Scores on Internal and External Workloads and Fatigue Responses of Tag Football Players during Tournament Competition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) identify changes in jump height and perceived well-being as indirect markers of fatigue, b) determine the internal and external workloads performed by players, and c) examine the influence of Yo-Yo IR2 on changes in jump height, perceived well-being and internal and external workloads during a tag football tournament. Microtechnology devices combined with heart rate (HR) chest straps provided external and internal measures of match work-rate and workload for twelve male tag football players during the 2014 Australian National Championships. Jump height and perceived well-being were assessed prior to and during the tournament as indirect measures of fatigue. Changes in work-rate, workload and fatigue measures between high- and low-fitness groups were examined based on players’ Yo-Yo IR2 score using a median split technique. The low- and high-fitness groups reported similar mean HR, PlayerloadTM/min, and distance/min for matches, however the low-fitness group reported higher perceived match-intensities (ES = 0.90–1.35) for several matches. Further, the high-fitness group reported higher measures of tournament workload, including distance (ES = 0.71), PlayerloadTM (ES = 0.85) and Edwards’ training impulse (TRIMP) (ES = 1.23) than the low-fitness group. High- and low-fitness groups both showed large decreases (ES = 1.46–1.49) in perceived well-being during the tournament, although jump height did not decrease below pre-tournament values. Increased Yo-Yo IR2 appears to offer a protective effect against player fatigue despite increased workloads during a tag football tournament. It is vital that training programs adequately prepare tag football players for tournament competition to maximise performance and minimise player fatigue. PMID:26465599

  10. Yo Puedo - a conditional cash transfer and life skills intervention to promote adolescent sexual health: results of a randomized feasibility study in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, Alexandra M.; vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Luecke, Ellen; Dow, William; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Padian, Nancy S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We designed and evaluated for feasibility an intervention - Yo Puedo - that addresses social network influences and socioeconomic opportunities in a neighborhood with substantial gang exposure and early childbearing. Methods Yo Puedo combined conditional cash transfers for completion of educational and reproductive health wellness goals with life skills sessions, and targeted youth 16 to 21 years old and same-aged members of their social network. We conducted a 2-arm study with social networks randomized to the intervention or a standard services control arm. We evaluated intervention uptake, adherence and safety; and assessed evidence of effects on behavioral outcomes associated with unintended pregnancy and STI risk. Results Seventy-two social networks comprised of 162 youth enrolled, with 92% retention over six months. Seventy-two percent of youth randomized to the intervention participated in intervention activities: 53% received at least one CCT payment; and 66% came to at least one life skills session. We found no evidence that cash payments financed illicit or high-risk behavior. At six months, intervention participants, compared to controls, had a lower odds of hanging out on the street frequently (OR = 0.54, p = 0.10) and a lower odds of reporting their close friends had been incarcerated (OR = 0.6, p=0.12). They reported less regular alcohol use (OR = 0.54, p=0.04) and a lower odds of having sex (OR = 0.50, p = 0.04). Conclusions The feasibility evaluation of Yo Puedo demonstrated its promise; a larger evaluation of effects on pregnancy and sustained behavioral changes is warranted. PMID:24518532

  11. Establishing Safety Criteria for Artificial Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Tim

    Establishing Safety Criteria for Artificial Neural Networks Zeshan Kurd, Tim Kelly Department of Computer Science University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK. {zeshan.kurd, tim.kelly}@cs.york.ac.uk Abstract

  12. Enhanced optical cycling and slowing of YO through rotational state microwave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo; Hummon, Matthew; Yeo, Mark; Collopy, Alejandra; Hemmerling, Boerge; Chae, Eunmi; Anderegg, Loic; Ravi, Aakash; Doyle, John; Ye, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In order to address rotational dark states in the molecule yttrium (II) monoxide (YO) and to enhance optical cycling, we demonstrate the remixing of ground electronic state rotational levels using microwave radiation. This mixing technique, in conjunction with a broadband modulated and frequency chirped laser, is used to decelerate a beam of YO from a cryogenic buffer gas cell. The result is a population of molecules with velocities less than 10 m/s, which are sufficiently slow to be loaded into a magneto-optical trap. With two vibrational repump lasers, the cycling transition is closed to the 10-6 level. Additionally, we present progress towards a three dimensional implementation of a magneto-optical trap for YO. This work was supported in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF3852. We also acknowledge support from ARO, AFOSR (MURI), NIST, and NSF.

  13. Thermodynamic Modeling of the YO(l.5)-ZrO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan

    2003-01-01

    The YO1.5-ZrO2 system consists of five solid solutions, one liquid solution, and one intermediate compound. A thermodynamic description of this system is developed, which allows calculation of the phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. Two different solution models are used-a neutral species model with YO1.5 and ZrO2 as the components and a charged species model with Y(+3), Zr(+4), O(-2), and vacancies as components. For each model, regular and sub-regular solution parameters are derived fiom selected equilibrium phase and thermodynamic data.

  14. Journul of Fusion Energy. Yo/. 5. No. 2. 1986 Introduction to Panel Discussions

    E-print Network

    Journul of Fusion Energy. Yo/. 5. No. 2. 1986 -- Introduction to Panel Discussions Whither Fusion Research? Robert L. Hirsch' . An unnamed former fusion program director retired and felt he needed some friend appeared before the major monk for his annual two words, which were, " Room cold." The monk nodded

  15. The Self Inside and Out: Authenticity and Disability in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Cordero, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Spanish filmmakers Alejandro Amenabar, Antonio Naharro, and Alvaro Pastor have recently focused on disability and personal identity by presenting the disabled subject in the foreground and by posing an array of ethical questions. This essay explores representations of disability as they appear in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"…

  16. Purification and characterization of ?-mannanase from Reinekea sp. KIT-YO10 with transglycosylation activity.

    PubMed

    Hakamada, Yoshihiro; Ohkubo, Yoshitaka; Ohashi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Marine bacterium Reinekea sp. KIT-YO10 was isolated from the seashore of Kanazawa Port in Japan as a seaweed-degrading bacterium. Homology between KIT-YO10 16S rDNA and the 16S rDNA of Reinekea blandensis and Reinekea marinisedimentorum was 96.4 and 95.4%, respectively. Endo-1,4-?-D-mannanase (?-mannanase, EC 3.2.1.78) from Reinekea sp. KIT-YO10 was purified 29.4-fold to a 21% yield using anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 44.3 kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Furthermore, the purified enzyme displayed high specificity for konjac glucomannan, with no secondary agarase and arginase activity detected. Hydrolysis of konjac glucomannan and locust bean gum yielded oligosaccharides, compatible with an endo mode of substrate depolymerization. The purified enzyme possessed transglycosylation activity when mannooligosaccharides (mannotriose or mannotetraose) were used as substrates. Optimal pH and temperature were determined to be 8.0 and 70 °C, respectively. It showed thermostability at temperatures from 20 to 50 °C and alkaline stability up to pH 10.0. The current enzyme was thermostable and thermophile compared to the ?-mannanase of other marine bacteria. PMID:25036974

  17. Yo, Hamlet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Debra Lau

    2007-01-01

    This article presents Alan Sitomer, an English teacher at Lynwood High School, and how he teaches his students classic literature through hip-hop. These at-risk students attend a severely overcrowded, low-performing school in East Los Angeles that's surrounded by what Sitomer describes as "gangs, guns, and drugs." Prostitutes work the streets just…

  18. Slew-Aware Clock Tree Design for Reliable Subthreshold Jeremy R. Tolbert, Xin Zhao, Sung Kyu Lim, and Saibal Mukhopadhyay

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    error [1]. In addressing the design of an optimal energy-delay subthreshold system, the clock network. In subthreshold, the signal slew also has capacity to affect system performance. Additionally, because the clock that the wire resistances have a negligible effect in subthreshold circuits, we show proper wire sizing

  19. Control of Y?O? phase and its nanostructure formation through a very high energy mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.K.; Park, E.K.; Park, J.J.; Rhee, C.K.

    2013-05-01

    The formation behavior of Y?O? ceramic particles was studied by employing a very high energy ball milling (milling energy: ~165 kJ/g·hit, milling speed: 1000 rpm). Both the XRD and HRTEM studies revealed that the high impact strain energy generated during the milling caused a drastic phase transition from the original C-type cubic (space group Ia3, a=10.58 Å) to the metastable B-type monoclinic (space group C2/m, a=13.89 Å), finally followed by a partial solid-state amorphization. The cubic phase was difficult to be reduced down to smaller than 10 nm, while the monoclinic phase was stabilized at sizes smaller than 10 nm with a mean crystallite size of 7.57 nm. Consequently, the existence of Y?O? at a nanoscale smaller than 10 nm is possible by forming metastable monoclinic crystals, which are strain-induced. - Graphical abstract: The fig shows the solid-state phase formation of Y?O? by very high energy input into the particles during milling: ordered body-centered cubic phase (space group Ia3, a=10.58 Å) nanocrystalline monoclinic phase (space group C2/m, a=13.89 Å) disordered monoclinic phase partial amorphous phase. The formation of Y?O? smaller than 10 nm was strongly dependent on whether the phase transition from cubic to monoclinic occurred. Highlights: • This paper analyses very high energy milling behavior of coarse Y?O? particles. • A drastic phase transition from cubic to monoclinic occurred with a partial amorphization. • An existence of Y?O? smaller than 10 nm is possible by forming strain-induced monoclinic crystals.

  20. Modeling preparation condition and composition-activity relationship of perovskite-type LaxSr1-xFeyCo1-yO3 nano catalyst.

    PubMed

    Oskoui, Samira Arefi; Niaei, Aligholi; Tseng, Hui-Hsin; Salari, Dariush; Izadkhah, Behrang; Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) is first applied to perovskite catalyst design. A series of perovskite-type oxides with the LaxSr1-xFeyCo1-yO3 general formula were prepared with a sol-gel autocombustion method under different preparation conditions. A three-layer perceptron neural network was used for modeling and optimization of the catalytic combustion of toluene. A high R2 value was obtained for training and test sets of data: 0.99 and 0.976, respectively. Due to the presence of full active catalysts, there was no necessity to use an optimizer algorithm. The optimum catalysts were La0.9Sr0.1Fe0.5Co0.5O3 (Tc=700 and 800 °C and [citric acid/nitrate]=0.750), La0.9Sr0.1Fe0.82Co0.18O3 (Tc=700 °C, [citric acid/nitrate]=0.750), and La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.66Co0.34O3 (Tc=650 °C, [citric acid/nitrate]=0.525) exhibiting 100% conversion for toluene. More evaluation of the obtained model revealed the relative importance and criticality of preparation parameters of optimum catalysts. The structure, morphology, reducibility, and specific surface area of catalysts were investigated with XRD, SEM, TPR, and BET, respectively. PMID:24102474

  1. Increasing High School Students' Interest in STEM Education through Collaborative Brainstorming with Yo-Yos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Brainstorming is a creativity technique in which a group of people (or an individual person) spontaneously generates a set of ideas to find the solution to a particular problem. This paper describes an innovative approach called "brainstorming with yo-yos," which was implemented in an outreach to high school event to increase high school…

  2. BULLETIN OF THE UUlTED LJTATES FlSH COMMISSION. 271 YO.-LAW8 OF INLAND WATER&

    E-print Network

    BULLETIN OF THE UUlTED LJTATES FlSH COMMISSION. 271 YO.-LAW8 OF INLAND WATER& B y How TIlEODOEZtE LYMAN. [Answur to qiiabtions of Monsieur (le Lomouiu.] In dealing with the laws of the United States' the passage of vessels. Purthen~tore,their ownership of the water, liiru tliat of the land, is subject

  3. Long-Term Follow-Up Post-Cryosurgery in a Sheep Breast Model1 Yoed Rabin,*,

    E-print Network

    Rabin, Yoed

    Long-Term Follow-Up Post-Cryosurgery in a Sheep Breast Model1 Yoed Rabin,*, ,2 Thomas B. Julian. The current study focuses on the long-term follow-up post-cryosurgery in a sheep breast model. Results of this study indicate that the cryotreatment site in a sheep breast model cannot be identified up to 5 months

  4. Physics and Physical Oceanography Data Report 2000-4 Physical and Biological Tow-Yo Data from

    E-print Network

    deYoung, Brad

    Physics and Physical Oceanography Data Report 2000-4 Physical and Biological Tow-Yo Data from vertical salinity profiles from the first transect line. The data collected on the down tow of the OPC body that collected CTD, fluorescence, and biomass data. We present the towed body data together

  5. Magnetic properties of mechanochemically prepared iron-wüstite (Fe-Fe yO) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, M.; Gheisari, M.; Niyaifar, M.; Amighian, J.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, iron-wüstite (Fe-Fe yO) nanocomposites have been prepared via high-energy ball milling (HEBM), using high-purity hematite (?-Fe 2O 3) and iron (Fe) powders as the raw materials with different Fe/Fe 2O 3 mole ratios (MR)=0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 2.3, 4.9 and 13.6. X-ray diffraction studies of the as-milled powders show that a single-phase wüstite was formed for the lowest mole ratio (MR=0.6) and mixtures with MRs higher than 0.6 result in iron-wüstite nanocomposites, except for MR=13.6 that is dominantly a pure iron phase. The mean crystallite sizes of the iron and wüstite in the nanocomposites have been calculated by Scherrer's formula, which were 9±1 and 7±1 nm, respectively. Using the formula a=3.856+0.478 y, for Fe yO, where " a" is the lattice parameter of wüstite, it is possible to estimate the value of " y" for different nanocomposites and a composition of Fe 0.93O was estimated for the wüstite single phase (MR=0.6). In addition, a gradual decrease in " y" from 0.87 to 0.83 was obtained by increasing MR values from 0.9 to 4.9, respectively. The room-temperature Mössbauer spectrum of the single-phase wüstite shows considerable asymmetry due to two overlapping quadrupole doublets. For higher MRs, room-temperature Mössbauer spectra exhibit sextets, which confirm the existence of iron in the samples. The Mössbauer spectrum of the sample with the highest mole ratio (MR=13.6) shows only a sextet related to ?-Fe without any detection of wüstite, which is in agreement with the XRD results. The nanosized prepared wüstite shows ferrimagnetic like behavior, which was interpreted according to spinel-like defect clusters. The Ms values obtained from VSM measurements and those calculated based on the Mössbauer data and chemical reaction are in good agreement. By increasing MR from 0.6 to 2.3, the coercivity ( Hc) increases sharply to its maximum value at about MR=2.3, for which the value of Fe content is 45% and then drops off. This behavior is discussed based on ?-Fe contents in the nanocomposites and percolation threshold.

  6. A comparison between a child-size PMHS and the Hybrid III 6 YO in a sled frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Forman, Jason; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2009-10-01

    As pediatric PMHS data are extremely limited, evidence of kinematic differences between pediatric ATDs and live humans comes from comparison of laboratory data to field crash data. Despite the existence of regulations intended to prevent head injuries, these remain the most common serious injuries sustained by children in crashes. In this study, nine frontal sled tests using a Hybrid III 6YO and three tests performed with a child-size adult PMHS were compared, with focus on the kinematic responses (especially of the head) and the seatbelt forces generated during the impact. Two different restraint systems (a pretensioning, force-limiting seatbelt, and a non pretensioning force-limiting standard belt) and two different impact speeds (29 km/h and 48 km/h) were compared. Data from the PMHS were scaled using the erect sitting height of a 50th percentile 6YO and both scaled and unscaled data are presented. The ATD predicted correctly the peak values of the scaled displacements of the PMHS, but differences in relevant parameters such as torso angle and resultant acceleration at different locations were found between the dummy and the PMHS. The ATD's stiffer thoracic spine is hypothesized as a major cause of these differences. PMID:20184847

  7. Minors Checklist (under 18 yo) *Please note that this list of safety training and resources can also be found on Blink. For more information on minors in

    E-print Network

    Hampton, Randy

    Minors Checklist (under 18 yo) *Please note that this list of safety training and resources can or legal guardian signature is required. o Form 1: Proposed Project Checklist for Minors Performing, review New Worker Checklist (sign upon completion) Ask your area safety coordinator to visit My Research

  8. "Yes, I Feel Stronger with More Confidence and Strength:" Examining the Experiences of Immigrant Latina Women (ILW) Participating in the Si, Yo Puedo Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrs Fuchsel, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011-2013, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted to examine the experiences of 36 immigrant Latina women who participated in a culturally specific 11-week curriculum--Sí Yo Puedo--in a psycho-educational group format. Using action research as a research design, four groups were conducted over a 2-year period at a community health clinic…

  9. UW MEDICINE | MEDICAL INforMAtIoN HoW to rEqUEst A Copy of yoUr

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    UW MEDICINE | MEDICAL INforMAtIoN 06.2013 HoW to rEqUEst A Copy of yoUr UW MEDICINE MEDICAL rECorDs of Washington Medical Center UW Neighborhood Clinics Hall Health Center Valley Medical Center MEDICAL rECorD CopyING AND CLErICAL CHArGEs Records requested for reasons other than follow-up medical care

  10. Compositional dependence of the crystal symmetry of Eu3+-doped (SrxBa1-x)2CaWyMo1-yO6 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletnes, M.; Valmalette, J. C.; Grande, T.; Einarsrud, M.-A.

    2016-01-01

    Two series of A-site and B-site Eu3+ doped (SrxBa1-x)2CaWyMo1-yO6 double perovskite phosphor materials were prepared via a modified Pechini sol-gel route; (SrxBa1-x)1.96Eu0.02K0.02CaWyMo1-yO6 and (SrxBa1-x)2Ca0.96Eu0.02Li0.02WyMo1-yO6 (x and y=0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1). The Sr/Ba ratio was the main determinant for the crystal symmetry of the series, while variation in the W/Mo ratio did influence the crystal symmetry significantly. The crystal structure evolved with Sr/Ba ratio from cubic Fm 3 bar m for x=0, via tetragonal I 4 / m for x=0.25, to monoclinic P 21 / n for x?0.5, as verified by Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffractograms as well as by Raman spectroscopy. The reported boundaries for the compositionally induced phase transitions are in very good agreement with reported optical properties.

  11. Network Management Network Management

    E-print Network

    Giaccone, Paolo

    ) ­ Performance monitoring and management ­ Security management ­ Accounting management (pricing) SafetyNetwork Management Pag. 1 Network Management Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea Bianco ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino Telecommunication

  12. Network Management Network Management

    E-print Network

    Giaccone, Paolo

    Network Management Pag. 1 Network Management Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea of this license visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- /3 0/ Network management and QoS provisioning ­ Chapter 9, Network Management, of the book Jim Kurose, Keith Ross, Computer Networking, A Top Down

  13. One dimensional Ba x Sr1 - xEr y Fe12 - yO19 fibers with magnetic crystalline nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xianfeng; Mi, Jianli; Li, Qiang; Bortolini, Christian; Dong, Mingdong

    2014-09-01

    Hexagonal ferrites, also known as hexaferrites, are a very interesting class of materials with peculiar magnetic and electrical properties. Recently, several applications, both commercial and technological, have been developed by employing such materials, such as in magnetic recording and separation, storage devices, and catalysts. In particular, one dimensional magnetic nanostructured materials are very promising since they exhibit physical properties that cannot be found in the bulk. In this work, nanocrystalline Sr1 - xBa x Er y Fe12 - yO19 (x = y ? 0.4) ferrite fibers are successfully fabricated by sol-gel spinning, followed by calcination. By varying the calcination temperature and content of substituted ions, different ferrite fibers have been obtained, which exhibit different magnetic properties and structural characteristics. Our capacity to effectively tune the magnetic properties of one dimensional hexagonal ferrite materials opens new scenarios towards the design and optimization of a multitude of devices that are based on the magnetic properties of hexaferrites.

  14. Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis and temperature dependent electrical study of Mg0.9Mn0.1GdyFe2-yO4 nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gagan; Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R. K.; Singh, Virender Pratap; Dhiman, Meenakshi; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Shahbuddin, M.; Batoo, Khalid M.; Singh, M.

    2015-09-01

    Mg-Gd-Mn nanoferrites with formulae Mg0.9Mn0.1GdyFe2-yO4, where y=0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, have been synthesized by solution combustion technique. The dc resistivity was observed to decrease with the increase in temperature. Dielectric constant (??) and loss tangent (tan ?) have been found to be increasing with an increase in temperature while with an increase in frequency both have been found to be decreasing. The ac electrical conductivity (?ac) has been studied as a function of temperature at different frequencies and has been observed to be increasing with the increase in temperature. The Mössbauer spectroscopy has been carried out so as to authenticate our previously reported results on the super-exchange interactions.

  15. SPECTRAL FILTERING FOR PLANT PRODUCTION http://ncr101.montana.edu/Light1994Conf/7_1_Young/Yo... 1 of 13 12/20/06 9:34 AM

    E-print Network

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    that controls many physiological and morphological responses of how a plant grows. Known photomorphogenicSPECTRAL FILTERING FOR PLANT PRODUCTION http://ncr101.montana.edu/Light1994Conf/7_1_Young/Yo... 1 of 13 12/20/06 9:34 AM International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop T.W.Tibbitts (editor

  16. Network Management Network Management

    E-print Network

    Giaccone, Paolo

    ­ TNG group - Politecnico di Torino g g ­ Security management ­ Accounting management (pricing) ­ SafetyNetwork Management Pag. 1 Network Management Network management and QoS provisioning - 1Andrea of this license visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- /3 0/ Network management and QoS provisioning

  17. Structure, band gap, and Mn-related mid-gap states in epitaxial single crystal (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Dapeng; Liu Guolei; Xiao Shuqin; Yan Shishen; He Shumin; Cai Li; Li Qinghao; Hu Shujun; Chen Yanxue; Kang Shishou; Mei Liangmo; Cao Qiang

    2013-05-07

    Epitaxial (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O thin films were grown on c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates by radio frequency oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Single crystal structure of the (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O films was revealed by reflection high energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The band gap of the films can be tuned dramatically with increasing the Mg concentration, while the onset energy of Mn-related mid-gap absorption band only shows a small blue shift. Photoconductivity measurements indicate the Mn-related mid-gap states in (Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}){sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O films can create free carriers and contribute to charge transfer transitions. The conduction band offset {Delta}E{sub C} = 0.13 eV and valence band offset {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.1 eV were obtained for ZnO/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O heterostructures, which increase to {Delta}E{sub C} = 0.21 eV and {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.14 eV for ZnO/Zn{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}O heterostructures.

  18. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  19. Network Programming 1 Computer Networks

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Network Programming 1 Computer Networks transmission media and network topologies client to Computer Science (MCS 260) network programming L-39 20 April 2015 1 / 29 #12;Network Programming 1 Computer. Intro to Computer Science (MCS 260) network programming L-39 20 April 2015 3 / 29 #12;Network Topologies

  20. Network Cosmology

    PubMed Central

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  1. Network cosmology.

    PubMed

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  2. Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietzke, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This special section explains the latest developments in networking technologies, profiles school districts benefiting from successful implementations, and reviews new products for building networks. Highlights include ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), cable modems, networking switches, Internet screening software, file servers, network management…

  3. Networking standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The enterprise network is currently a multivendor environment consisting of many defacto and proprietary standards. During the 1990s, these networks will evolve towards networks which are based on international standards in both Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) space. Also, you can expect to see the higher level functions and applications begin the same transition. Additional information is given in viewgraph form.

  4. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  5. Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Michael I.

    1996-03-13

    We present an overview of current research on artificial neural networks, emphasizing a statistical perspective. We view neural networks as parameterized graphs that make probabilistic assumptions about data, and view ...

  6. Integrated Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinovitz, Stewart

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for integrated data and voice networks implemented at the University of Michigan is described. These networks often use multi-technologies, multi-vendors, and multi-transmission media that will be fused into a single integrated network. Transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optics, and microwave. (Author/MLW)

  7. On Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.

    This paper focuses on the theoretical and practical problems inherent in trying to build, create, develop, enhance, or strengthen networks among persons, groups, or organizations that would be useful in educational change efforts. The concepts of "social networks" and "networking" are defined, and background variables that might influence the…

  8. Sensor networks for social networks

    E-print Network

    Farry, Michael P. (Michael Patrick)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis outlines the development of software that makes use of Bayesian belief networks and signal processing techniques to make meaningful inferences about real-world phenomena using data obtained from sensor networks. ...

  9. Superelastic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Obukhov, S.P.; Rubinstein, M.; Colby, R.H.

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses the elastic modulus, swelling, and deswelling behavior of networks as a function of their concentration and the preparation state. Based on these results, the authors expect that networks prepared by crosslinking long chains at low concentration, followed by removal of solvent, will have superelastic properties - the deswollen networks will have low modulus and will be capable of stretching by enormous amounts without breaking. This is because deswelling introduces only temporary entanglements. These temporary entanglements change the static configuration of the network strands. The authors discuss the non-Gaussian nature of these strands and the linear viscoelastic response of the superelastic networks.

  10. Introduction to k'yu ts'udalaas aa

    E-print Network

    outside of the wood into the surrounding water. Water enters the worm through the siphons, travels through to a community of bacteria that live in bacteriocytes within the gill. ·What do these symbionts do? ­ Produce

  11. The Ubiquitous DBMS Kyu-Young Whang1

    E-print Network

    Song, Il-Yeol

    Advancement in mobile computing technologies has prompted strong needs for database systems that can be used in small devices such as sensors, cellular phones, PDAs, car navigators, and Ultra Mobile PCs (UMPCs). We term the database systems that are customizable for small computing devices as Ubiquitous Database

  12. Vulnerability of network of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  13. Spatial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  14. H+ diffusion and electrochemical stability of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 glass in aqueous Li/air battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-09-15

    It is well known that LATP (Li1+x+y AlxTi2?x SiyP3?yO12) glass is a good lithium ion conductor. However, the interaction between LATP glass and H+ ions (including its diffusion and surface adsorption) needs to be well understood before the long-term application of LATP glass in an aqueous electrolyte based Li-air batteries where H+ always present. In this work, we investigate the H+ ion diffusion properties in LATP glass and their surface interactions using both experimental and modeling approaches. Our analysis indicates that the apparent H+ related current observed in the initial cyclic voltammetry scan should be attributed to the adsorption of H+ ions on the LATP glass rather than the bulk diffusion of H+ ions in the glass. Furthermore, the density functional theory calculations indicate that the H+ ion diffusion energy barrier (3.21 eV) is much higher than that of Li+ ion (0.79 eV) and Na+ ion (0.79 eV) in NASICON type LiTi2(PO4)3 material. As a result, the H+ ion conductivity in LATP glass is negligible at room temperature. However, significant surface corrosion was found after the LATP glass was soaked in strong alkaline electrolyte for extended time. Therefore, appropriate electrolytes have to be developed to prevent the corrosion of LATP glass before its practical application for Li-air batteries using aqueous electrolyte.

  15. Temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered, but does not attempt to unify related terminology-rather, we want to make papers readable across disciplines.

  16. Routing in hybrid networks 

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Avinash

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid networks are networks that have wired as well as wireless components. Several routing protocols exist for traditional wired networks and mobile ad-hoc networks. However, there are very few routing protocols designed for hybrid networks...

  17. Sensor Networks Communication strategies

    E-print Network

    Chisci, Luigi

    Outline Sensor Networks Communication strategies Follow on Distributed estimation in sensor Distributed estimation 2 Communication strategies 3 Follow on A. Benavoli Fully Decentralized Networks #12;Outline Sensor Networks Communication strategies Follow on An introduction to Sensor Networks Network

  18. Technological Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Bivas

    The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an introduction to the Internet and different protocols related to it. This section also specifies the socio-technological properties of the Internet, like scale invariance, the small-world property, network resilience, etc. Section 3 describes the P2P networks, their categorization, and other related issues like search, stability, etc. Section 4 concludes the chapter.

  19. The competition of Y?O and X?N halogen bonds to enhance the group V ?-hole interaction in the NCY?O=PH3 ?NCX and O=PH3 ?NCX?NCY (X, Y=F, Cl, and Br) complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zeng, Yanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zheng; Meng, Lingpeng

    2015-07-01

    The positive electrostatic potentials (ESP) outside the ?-hole along the extension of O?P bond in O?PH3 and the negative ESP outside the nitrogen atom along the extension of the C?N bond in NCX could form the Group V ?-hole interaction O?PH3 ?NCX. In this work, the complexes NCY?O?PH3 ?NCX and O?PH3 ?NCX?NCY (X, Y?F, Cl, Br) were designed to investigate the enhancing effects of Y?O and X?N halogen bonds on the P?N Group V ?-hole interaction. With the addition of Y?O halogen bond, the VS, max values outside the ?-hole region of O?PH3 becomes increasingly positive resulting in a stronger and more polarizable P?N interaction. With the addition of X?N halogen bond, the VS, min values outside the nitrogen atom of NCX becomes increasingly negative, also resulting in a stronger and more polarizable P?N interaction. The Y?O halogen bonds affect the ?-hole region (decreased density region) outside the phosphorus atom more than the P?N internuclear region (increased density region outside the nitrogen atom), while it is contrary for the X?N halogen bonds. PMID:25916886

  20. Antisite-disorder, magnetic and thermoelectric properties of Mo-rich Sr2Fe1-yMo1+yO6 (0 ?y? 0.2) double perovskites.

    PubMed

    Popuri, Srinivasa R; Redpath, Debbie; Chan, Gavin; Smith, Ronald I; Cespedes, Oscar; Bos, Jan-Willem G

    2015-06-21

    Structure analysis using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction and elemental mapping has been used to demonstrate that nominal A-site deficient Sr(2-x)FeMoO(6-?) (0 ?x? 0.5) compositions form as Mo-rich Sr(2)Fe(1-y)Mo(1+y)O(6) (0 ?y? 0.2) perovskites at high temperatures and under reducing atmospheres. These materials show a gradual transition from the Fe and Mo rock salt ordered double perovskite structure to a B-site disordered arrangement. Analysis of the fractions of B-O-B' linkages revealed a gradual increase in the number of Mo-O-Mo linkages at the expense of the ferrimagnetic (FIM) Fe-O-Mo linkages that dominate the y = 0 material. All samples contain about 10-15% antiferromagnetic (AF) Fe-O-Fe linkages, independent of the degree of B-site ordering. The magnetic susceptibility of the y = 0.2 sample is characteristic of a small domain ferrimagnet (T(c)? 250 K), while room temperature neutron powder diffraction demonstrated the presence of G-type AF ordering linked to the Fe-O-Fe linkages (m(Fe) = 1.25(7)?(B)). The high temperature thermoelectric properties are characteristic of a metal with a linear temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, S (for all y) and electrical resistivity ? (y? 0.1). The largest thermoelectric power factor S(2)/? = 0.12 mW m(-1) K(-1) is observed for Sr(2)FeMoO(6) at 1000 K. PMID:25501989

  1. Social network.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The Better Care Exchange is a social network for health and social care professionals that enables information and knowledge sharing on good practice and better integrated care, and the implementation of Better Care Fund plans. PMID:26419571

  2. Sentinel Network

    Cancer.gov

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  3. Sentient networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.

    1998-03-01

    The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

  4. Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Patrick I.

    2003-09-23

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing information [2]. Each one of these cells acts as a simple processor. When individual cells interact with one another, the complex abilities of the brain are made possible. In neural networks, the input or data are processed by a propagation function that adds up the values of all the incoming data. The ending value is then compared with a threshold or specific value. The resulting value must exceed the activation function value in order to become output. The activation function is a mathematical function that a neuron uses to produce an output referring to its input value. [8] Figure 1 depicts this process. Neural networks usually have three components an input, a hidden, and an output. These layers create the end result of the neural network. A real world example is a child associating the word dog with a picture. The child says dog and simultaneously looks a picture of a dog. The input is the spoken word ''dog'', the hidden is the brain processing, and the output will be the category of the word dog based on the picture. This illustration describes how a neural network functions.

  5. A Probabilistic Selection Network with Butterfly Networks

    E-print Network

    Imai, Hiroshi

    A Probabilistic Selection Network with Butterfly Networks Takahiro Ikeda Department of Information the practical aspects of a butterfly network and shows some useful properties of a butterfly network, which of view that they have been concerned in the implementation of the network by using practical butterfly

  6. Communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Wagner, S. S.; Sia, E. B.

    1984-01-01

    A research program to determine and demonstrate the principles to be followed in the design of local communication networks as typified by local area networks, private branch exchanges and internetted collections of such structures is planned. Two fundamental assumptions distinguish the research from much of the ongoing work: (1) a single integrated system is to provide a set of highly diverse communication services such as interactive terminal service, data base access, file transfers, graphics, and voice and video; and (2) a single mode optical fiber links with very wide bandwidths is economical. These assumptions are not satisfied by the networks now being designed, but based upon the perceived trend toward such integrated diverse services and the declining cost of single mode fiber technology. It is planned for the research to involve theoretical, experimental, and design activities.

  7. Networking from a network coding perspective

    E-print Network

    Ho, Tracey, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Network coding generalizes network operation beyond traditional routing, or store-and-forward, approaches, allowing for mathematical operations across data streams within a network. This thesis considers a number of ...

  8. Probability Calculus Bayesian Networks

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jinbo

    Probability Calculus Bayesian Networks Logic and Bayesian Networks Part 1: Probability Calculus and Bayesian Networks Jinbo Huang Jinbo Huang Probability Calculus and Bayesian Networks 1/ 31 #12;Probability Calculus Bayesian Networks What This Course Is About Probabilistic reasoning with Bayesian networks

  9. Global Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Internet. Highlights include the magnitude of the infrastructure, costs, its increasing pace, constraints in international links, provision of network capacity to homes and small businesses, cable television modems, political and cultural problems, the digital library concept, search engines, the failure of personal…

  10. Network Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The world changed in 2008. The financial crisis brought with it a deepening sense of insecurity, and the desire to be connected to a network increased. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008, events were unfolding with alarming rapidity. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Alumni Association wanted to respond to this change in the…

  11. Modeling the Citation Network by Network Cosmology

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

    2015-01-01

    Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well. PMID:25807397

  12. Why Network? Theoretical Perspectives on Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muijs, Daniel; West, Mel; Ainscow, Mel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, networking and collaboration have become increasingly popular in education. However, there is at present a lack of attention to the theoretical basis of networking, which could illuminate when and when not to network and under what conditions networks are likely to be successful. In this paper, we will attempt to sketch the…

  13. Neural Networks Early Neural Network Modeling

    E-print Network

    Yuste, Rafael

    Appendix E Neural Networks Early Neural Network Modeling Neurons Are Computational Devices A Neuron? This is the central question moti- vating the study of neural networks. In this appendix we provide a brief historical review of the field, intro- duce some key concepts, and discuss two influential models of neural networks

  14. Network upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridgeway, Roland

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Project modernization plan covers both software and hardware upgrades. On the hardware side, replacing terminals with PC's will enhance office automation functions, provide mainframe and computer network systems access, and facilitate client/server functions. The modernization plan upgrades will involve commercial off-the-shelf software, user interface and client development tools, and the redesign and integration of application systems and software.

  15. Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Multi-Compatible Network Interface Unit (MCNIU) is intended to connect the space station's communications and tracking, guidance and navigation, life support, electric power, payload data, hand controls, display consoles and other systems, and also communicate with diverse processors. Honeywell is now marketing MCNIU commercially. It has applicability in certain military operations or civil control centers. It has nongovernment utility among large companies, universities and research organizations that transfer large amounts of data among workstations and computers. *This product is no longer commercially available.

  16. The Istria yo-yo - evidence for millennial seismic cycle in the northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Vrabec, Marko; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    The Istria Peninsula in the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia and Slovenia) is considered to be a nearly aseismic part of the Adriatic microplate, as opposed to the seismically active frontal ranges of the highly active Dinaric orogen. New archaeoseismological data from the Medieval Eufrasius cathedral in Pore? on the west coast of Istria demonstrate two, previously unknown major earthquakes, which occured approx. a millennium apart. Evidence for slow coastal uplift alternating with rapid subsidence allows to identify the seismic cycle. A marine notch, otherwise an excellent marker of sea level, extends along a 240 km segment of the northern Adriatic rocky coast, from Trieste to Zadar. We interpret the following history of vertical displacements: (1) Slow uplift, evidenced by the 1-2 m high, roofed marine notch oversized with respect to the microtidal regime of the Adriatic Sea. 0.5-1 m deep notches were etched into the coast between ~3000 BC until the 4-6th century AD (Faivre et al., 2010). (2) Rapid submergence of the notch to 1-2 m depth below sea level, dated by the construction of successive cathedrals of Pore? built on increasingly higher ground at the seaside (4-6th century AD); submergence of Cissa town on Pag island in 361 AD. (3) Slow uplift of less than 2 m between the construction of the last, Eufrasius cathedral in the 4-6th century AD and the ~1440 AD earthquake. No conspicuous notch were etched in the rocky shore during this period. (4) Rapid submergence of terrestrial sediments below sea level after 1400 AD (Faivre et al., 2011). Major earthquake damage in Pore? cathedral just before 1440 AD. (5) Slow uplift after 1440 AD, corroborated by three decades of high-precision levelling and recent GPS data (Rezo et al., 2010). No conspicuous notch etched in the rocky shore during this period. (6) Next major earthquake with subsidence on land and uplift in the sea with tsunami... when? In our interpretation of the seismic cycle, Istria is slowly raised, about 1-2 m in a millennium, during stress accumulation caused by a locked fault plane. Stress release produces sudden subsidence of the coast, which is recorded by subsided coastal features (marine notch, terrestrial sediments, cathedral of Pore?). We speculate that the thrust fault responsible for the earthquakes lies below the 2-5 km thick Triassic-Cretaceous carbonate platform sequence. The fault plane is assumed to be a gently sloping surface descending towards the east within the Permian-Lower Triassic clastic and evaporite beds. Over the centuries betweeen earthquakes the fault remained locked and the gradually increasing strain was manifested by the uplift (bulging) of the west coast of Istria, whereas the offshore portion of the hanging wall probably bowed downward above the fault. When rupture occurred, the bulge suddenly lowered back to the 'original' elevation. Meanwhile, the bowed, submarine portion of Istria relaxed and possibly triggered a tsunami. Continuing NNW-ward motion of the Adriatic microplate towards Eurasia, well-documented by GPS measurements, provides energy for stress accumulation of the next earthquake cycle. These observations challenge the current notion of Istria as the region of low seismic hazard and invite further paleoseismological research (M.K. OTKA K67.583; M.V. ARRS L1-5452 grant. B.S. contributed as Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow) References: Faivre et al. (2010): GeoActa, SP 3, 125-134; Faivre et al. (2011): Quat. Int. 232, 132-143; Rezo et al. (2010): EJGE 15, 1835-1847

  17. DNA Structure and Supercoiling: Ribbons and a Yo-Yo Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, J. David

    2011-01-01

    The double-helical structure of DNA is a pop cultural icon. Images of the DNA molecule appear in newspapers, popular journals, and advertisements. In addition to scientific instrument sales, the aura surrounding the central molecule of life has been used to sell everything from perfume to beverages and is the inspiration of items ranging from…

  18. Networks in immunology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Giorgio

    1989-12-01

    In this note we present a minireview of the idiotypic network in immunology and we study a very simple model for this network. We discuss some of the similarities of this model with spin glasses and neural networks.

  19. Animal transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  20. Correlation in business networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souma, Wataru; Aoyama, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Kaizoji, Taisei

    2006-10-01

    This paper considers business networks. Through empirical study, we show that business networks display characteristics of small-world networks and scale-free networks. In this paper, we characterize firms as sales and bankruptcy probabilities. A correlation between sales and a correlation between bankruptcy probabilities in business networks are also considered. The results reveal that the correlation between sales depends strongly on the type of network, whereas the correlation between bankruptcy probabilities does so only weakly.

  1. Grain boundary network design

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Oliver Kent

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundaries in polycrystals form a complex interconnected network of intercrystalline interfaces. The crystallographic character of individual grain boundaries and the network structure of the grain boundary ensemble ...

  2. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Presented is Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition (TDA) research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  3. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Summaries are given of Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  4. Computer Networks and Networking: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mauri P.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a basic introduction to computer networks and networking terminology. Topics addressed include modems; the Internet; TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol); transmission lines; Internet Protocol numbers; network traffic; Fidonet; file transfer protocol (FTP); TELNET; electronic mail; discussion groups; LISTSERV; USENET;…

  5. Interconnection networks

    DOEpatents

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

    1988-06-20

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  6. Network epidemiology and plant trade networks

    PubMed Central

    Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J.

    2014-01-01

    Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented—there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

  7. Network epidemiology and plant trade networks.

    PubMed

    Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented-there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

  8. Designing Secure Library Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on designing a library network to maximize security. Discusses UNIX and file servers; connectivity to campus, corporate networks and the Internet; separation of staff from public servers; controlling traffic; the threat of network sniffers; hubs that eliminate eavesdropping; dividing the network into subnets; Switched Ethernet;…

  9. Damselfly Network Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Damselfly is a model-based parallel network simulator. It can simulate communication patterns of High Performance Computing applications on different network topologies. It outputs steady-state network traffic for a communication pattern, which can help in studying network congestion and its impact on performance.

  10. Engineering technology for networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Arthur S.; Benjamin, Norman

    1991-01-01

    Space Network (SN) modeling and evaluation are presented. The following tasks are included: Network Modeling (developing measures and metrics for SN, modeling of the Network Control Center (NCC), using knowledge acquired from the NCC to model the SNC, and modeling the SN); and Space Network Resource scheduling.

  11. Networks in Cell Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  12. Electronic Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Anil

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.

  13. Improving network utilization over heterogeneous airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Peter H.; Rickenbach, Brent L.; Rush, Jason A.

    2011-06-01

    Existing and future military networks vary widely in bandwidth and other network characteristics, potentially challenging deployment of services and applications across heterogeneous data links. To address this challenge, General Dynamics and Naval Research Laboratory created network services to allow applications to use wireless data links more efficiently. The basis for the network services are hooks into the data links and transport protocols providing status about the airborne networking environment. The network service can monitor heterogeneous data links on a platform and report on link availability and parameters such as latency and bandwidth. The network service then presents the network characteristics to other services and applications. These services and applications are then able to tune parameters and content based on network parameters. The technology has been demonstrated in several live-flight experiments sponsored by the United States Air Force and United States Navy. The technology was housed on several aircraft with a variety of data links ranging from directional, high-bandwidth systems to omnidirectional, medium-bandwidth systems to stable but low-bandwidth satellite systems. In each of these experiments, image and video data was successfully delivered over tactical data links that varied greatly in bandwidth and delay.

  14. Satellite networks for education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite based educational networking is discussed with particular attention given to the potential uses of communications satellites to help meet educational needs in the United states. Four major subject areas were covered; (1) characteristics and structure of networks, (2) definition of pressures within educational establishment that provide motivation for various types of networks, (3) examination of current educational networking status for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intra-state educational communication networks, computer networks, and cable television for education, and (4) identification of possible satellite based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems.

  15. The International Trade Network

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, K; Manna, S S

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different network related quantities associated with the ITN. Our observation is that the ITN has also a scale invariant structure like many other real-world networks.

  16. The International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different network related quantities associated with the ITN. Our observation is that the ITN has also a scale invariant structure like many other real-world networks.

  17. Complex networks and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki

    2003-06-01

    As the first step toward a study of complex networks in economics, we consider business networks categorized into bipartite networks. Through empirical study we show the possibility that business networks will fall into the scale-free category. To have an idea about the clustering coefficient and the averaged path length for bipartite networks, we perform a one-mode reduction. We calculate the quantities for networks constructed by banks and companies before/after a merger among banks, and quantitatively show that the merger among banks increases the cliquishness of companies and decreases the typical separation between two companies.

  18. Vulnerability Analysis of Complex Networks from Transportation Networks to

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    infrastructure systems and emphasis on transportation, will be the focus of this talk. #12;Bus Network Rail Network System Nodes Links Flows Transportation Intersections, Homes, Workplaces, Airports, RailyardsVulnerability Analysis of Complex Networks from Transportation Networks to the Internet

  19. Identification of genetic networks.

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Momiao; Li, Jun; Fang, Xiangzhong

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we propose the use of structural equations as a tool for identifying and modeling genetic networks and genetic algorithms for searching the most likely genetic networks that best fit the data. After genetic networks are identified, it is fundamental to identify those networks influencing cell phenotypes. To accomplish this task we extend the concept of differential expression of the genes, widely used in gene expression data analysis, to genetic networks. We propose a definition for the differential expression of a genetic network and use the generalized T2 statistic to measure the ability of genetic networks to distinguish different phenotypes. However, describing the differential expression of genetic networks is not enough for understanding biological systems because differences in the expression of genetic networks do not directly reflect regulatory strength between gene activities. Therefore, in this report we also introduce the concept of differentially regulated genetic networks, which has the potential to assess changes of gene regulation in response to perturbation in the environment and may provide new insights into the mechanism of diseases and biological processes. We propose five novel statistics to measure the differences in regulation of genetic networks. To illustrate the concepts and methods for reconstruction of genetic networks and identification of association of genetic networks with function, we applied the proposed models and algorithms to three data sets. PMID:15020486

  20. Network protection with service guarantees

    E-print Network

    Kuperman, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing importance of communication networks comes an increasing need to protect against network failures. Traditional network protection has been an "all-or-nothing" approach: after any failure, all network ...

  1. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN PROTEIN

    E-print Network

    ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN PROTEIN SECONDARY STRUCTURE PREDICTION: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF PRESENT;Final Project/ BIOMEDIN 231: Computational Molecular Biology Artificial Neural Network in Protein regulatory network; and artificial neural networks (ANN) and protein secondary structure prediction. Due

  2. Machine Learning ! ! ! ! !Srihari Neural Networks!

    E-print Network

    Machine Learning ! ! ! ! !Srihari 1 Neural Networks! #12;Machine Learning ! ! ! ! !Srihari 2 Two ! ! ! ! !Srihari 3 Neural Computation! Biological Motivation for Artificial Neural Networks #12;Machine Learning Groups Of Researchers in Neural Networks! 1. Study and model biological learning! · Network of neurons

  3. The Networked Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Penuel, William R.; Abrahamson, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Classroom network requires every student to think actively, which enhances student participation in mathematics and science. Classroom-specific networks use software designed to enhance communication between teacher and students.

  4. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are considered. Progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported.

  5. Networking and Institutional Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Donald E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the impact of networks and shared library resources on the library planning process. Environmental scanning techniques, the need for cooperative planning, and the formulation of strategies to achieve networking goals are discussed. (CLB)

  6. Network coded wireless architecture

    E-print Network

    Katti, Sachin Rajsekhar

    2008-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks promise cheap Internet access, easy deployment, and extended range. In their current form, however, these networks suffer from both limited throughput and low reliability; hence they cannot meet the ...

  7. Recommendation in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Ester, Martin

    : Recommendation in Social Networks, Tutorial at RecSys 2013 4 Introduction Departed Star Wars Matrix Hurt Locker] · The formation and evolution of social networks is affected by many effects, including ­Self-interest, ­Social

  8. Using Neural Networks 

    E-print Network

    Gabel, S.

    2003-01-01

    A neural network approach is employed for estimating key efficiency parameters in a gas turbine engine. The concept is demonstrated within a limited operating region for a given engine. The neural network is developed to estimate certain...

  9. Piecewise truckload network procurement

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jefferson

    2011-01-01

    Faced with procuring transportation over its freight network, a shipper can either bid out all of its lanes at once, or somehow divide up the network and bid it out in pieces. For large shippers, practical concerns such ...

  10. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Deep Space Network progress report is presented dealing with in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  11. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A report is given of the Deep Space Networks progress in (1) flight project support, (2) tracking and data acquisition research and technology, (3) network engineering, (4) hardware and software implementation, and (5) operations.

  12. Ramification of stream networks

    E-print Network

    Devauchelle, Olivier

    The geometric complexity of stream networks has been a source of fascination for centuries. However, a comprehensive understanding of ramification—the mechanism of branching by which such networks grow—remains elusive. ...

  13. Connectibles : tangible social networking

    E-print Network

    Kalanithi, Jeevan James

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents "Connectibles," an instantiation of a tangible social network, a new type of social network application rooted in physical objects and real world social behavior. This research is inspired by social ...

  14. Infinite dynamic bayesian networks

    E-print Network

    Doshi-Velez, Finale P.

    We present the infinite dynamic Bayesian network model (iDBN), a nonparametric, factored state-space model that generalizes dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The iDBN can infer every aspect of a DBN: the number of hidden ...

  15. OncoArray Network

    Cancer.gov

    The overall goal of the OncoArray Network is to gain new insight into the genetic architecture and mechanisms underlying breast, ovarian, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers. The Network's major aim is to discover new cancer susceptibility variants.

  16. Time and Citation Networks

    E-print Network

    Clough, James R

    2015-01-01

    Citation networks emerge from a number of different social systems, such as academia (from published papers), business (through patents) and law (through legal judgements). A citation represents a transfer of information, and so studying the structure of the citation network will help us understand how knowledge is passed on. What distinguishes citation networks from other networks is time; documents can only cite older documents. We propose that existing network measures do not take account of the strong constraint imposed by time. We will illustrate our approach with two types of causally aware analysis. We apply our methods to the citation networks formed by academic papers on the arXiv, to US patents and to US Supreme Court judgements. We show that our tools can reveal that citation networks which appear to have very similar structure by standard network measures turn out to have significantly different properties. We interpret our results as indicating that many papers in a bibliography were not directly...

  17. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. The functions and facilities of the Deep Space Network are emphasized.

  18. Congenital Heart Information Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  19. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan (Princeton, NJ); Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  20. Local area networking: Ames centerwide network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Edwin

    1988-01-01

    A computer network can benefit the user by making his/her work quicker and easier. A computer network is made up of seven different layers with the lowest being the hardware, the top being the user, and the middle being the software. These layers are discussed.

  1. Center for Networked Center for Networked Computing

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    - spatiotemporal properties - can be learned over time Adaptive battery charge schedule - task failure ratio vs on an empirical battery model obtained from experiments. Our solution - achieves a 68.26% lower task failure ratioCenter for Networked Computing Center for Networked Computing Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling

  2. Network fingerprint: a knowledge-based characterization of biomedical networks

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiuliang; He, Haochen; He, Fuchu; Wang, Shengqi; Li, Fei; Bo, Xiaochen

    2015-01-01

    It can be difficult for biomedical researchers to understand complex molecular networks due to their unfamiliarity with the mathematical concepts employed. To represent molecular networks with clear meanings and familiar forms for biomedical researchers, we introduce a knowledge-based computational framework to decipher biomedical networks by making systematic comparisons to well-studied “basic networks”. A biomedical network is characterized as a spectrum-like vector called “network fingerprint”, which contains similarities to basic networks. This knowledge-based multidimensional characterization provides a more intuitive way to decipher molecular networks, especially for large-scale network comparisons and clustering analyses. As an example, we extracted network fingerprints of 44 disease networks in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The comparisons among the network fingerprints of disease networks revealed informative disease-disease and disease-signaling pathway associations, illustrating that the network fingerprinting framework will lead to new approaches for better understanding of biomedical networks. PMID:26307246

  3. Quantum network coding for general repeater networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Tao; Li, Jiao; Pei, Zhuang; Liu, Jian-wei

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a quantum network coding scheme for general repeater networks so as to support long-distance quantum communication over quantum repeater networks with complex topology. The scheme includes three core parts: graph transformation, quantum channel generation, quantum information transmission. Concretely, the degree-3 graph transformation scheme is introduced, the quantum channel generation schemes for the cases of one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many are given, and quantum information is transmitted by means of quantum teleportation. Without limitation of preparation, entangled states with arbitrary entanglement degree can be consumed as a resource of quantum communication. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed quantum network coding scheme can realize high-rate and long-distance transmission of quantum information in general networks.

  4. Network Economics Anna Nagurney

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    the circular flow of financial funds in an economy as a network and this work can be identified as the first in an economy (see Cohen (1987) and Hughes and Nagurney (1992)). The concept of a network in economics was alsoNetwork Economics Anna Nagurney John F. Smith Memorial Professor Department of Finance

  5. Financial Networks Anna Nagurney

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    for banks' rollover decisions using game theory. The final two papers expand upon the financial networks financial networks and insolvency risk under varying economic factors. Both models in these final two papersFinancial Networks Anna Nagurney Department of Operations and Information Management Isenberg

  6. Equilibrium games in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng; Peng, Pan

    2014-12-01

    It seems a universal phenomenon of networks that the attacks on a small number of nodes by an adversary player Alice may generate a global cascading failure of the networks. It has been shown (Li et al., 2013) that classic scale-free networks (Barabási and Albert, 1999, Barabási, 2009) are insecure against attacks of as small as O(logn) many nodes. This poses a natural and fundamental question: Can we introduce a second player Bob to prevent Alice from global cascading failure of the networks? We proposed a game in networks. We say that a network has an equilibrium game if the second player Bob has a strategy to balance the cascading influence of attacks by the adversary player Alice. It was shown that networks of the preferential attachment model (Barabási and Albert, 1999) fail to have equilibrium games, that random graphs of the Erdös-Rényi model (Erdös and Rényi, 1959, Erdös and Rényi, 1960) have, for which randomness is the mechanism, and that homophyly networks (Li et al., 2013) have equilibrium games, for which homophyly and preferential attachment are the underlying mechanisms. We found that some real networks have equilibrium games, but most real networks fail to have. We anticipate that our results lead to an interesting new direction of network theory, that is, equilibrium games in networks.

  7. OSI Network Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ethan

    1990-01-01

    Management of heterogeneous networks is complicated by the persistence of proprietary management schemes. The need for integration of network management capabilities is pressing. The International Organization for Standardization is developing standards for managing networks as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) effort. OSI management…

  8. Metallic nanowire networks

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  9. Emergent Network Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Earl Newell

    2013-01-01

    The research problem that inspired this effort is the challenge of managing the security of systems in large-scale heterogeneous networked environments. Human intervention is slow and limited: humans operate at much slower speeds than networked computer communications and there are few humans associated with each network. Enabling each node in the…

  10. Foundations of neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, P.K.

    1994-12-31

    Building intelligent systems that can model human behavior has captured the attention of the world for years. So, it is not surprising that a technology such as neural networks has generated great interest. This paper will provide an evolutionary introduction to neural networks by beginning with the key elements and terminology of neural networks, and developing the topologies, learning laws, and recall dynamics from this infrastructure. The perspective taken in this paper is largely that of an engineer, emphasizing the application potential of neural networks and drawing comparisons with other techniques that have similar motivations. As such, mathematics will be relied upon in many of the discussions to make points as precise as possible. The paper begins with a review of what neural networks are and why they are so appealing. A typical neural network is immediately introduced to illustrate several of the key features. With this network as a reference, the evolutionary introduction to neural networks is then pursued. The fundamental elements of a neural network, such as input and output patterns, processing element, connections, and threshold operations, are described, followed by descriptions of neural network topologies, learning algorithms, and recall dynamics. A taxonomy of neural networks is presented that uses two of the key characteristics of learning and recall. Finally, a comparison of neural networks and similar nonneural information processing methods is presented.

  11. Multimedia Networks: Mission Impossible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Andrew M.

    1996-01-01

    Running multimedia on a network, often difficult because of the memory and processing power required, is becoming easier thanks to new protocols and products. Those developing network design criteria may wish to consider making use of Fast Ethernet, Asynchronous Transfer Method (ATM), switches, "fat pipes", additional network segmentation, and…

  12. Calorimetry Network Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-01-30

    This is a Windows NT based program to run the SRTC designed calorimeters. The network version can communicate near real time data and final data values over the network. This version, due to network specifics, can function in a stand-alone operation also.

  13. Spanish Museum Libraries Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez de Prado, Rosario

    This paper describes the creation of an automated network of museum libraries in Spain. The only way in which the specialized libraries in the world today can continue to be active and to offer valid information is to automate the service they offer, and create network libraries with cooperative plans. The network can be configured with different…

  14. Interplanetary Network Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Interplanetary Network Directorate at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The attributes of the interplanetary network are reviewed, and the expansion of the current Deep Space Network for future mission support is described. Points of interest to the industry are emphasized.

  15. CD-ROM Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akeroyd, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides an overview of CD-ROM networking technology in libraries. Six systems currently in operation are evaluated; operational experiences in libraries are discussed, including the need for user education; networking between CD-ROM networks and integrated library systems is described; and future possibilities are suggested. (14 references) (LRW)

  16. Network Economics Anna Nagurney

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Network Satellite and Undersea Cable Networks Duke Energy Gas Pipeline Network Transportation, Gas, Oil, Electricity #12;Interstate Highway System #12;US Railroad Freight Flows #12;Natural Gas in decision-making; · constraints on resources: natural, human, financial, time, etc.; · global reach of many

  17. Early Warning of Network Catastrophes

    E-print Network

    System in 17 States affected by Outage Disaster On the Net: Internet Outages Caused by Taiwan Earthquakes of Network Catastrophes 6 Commercial US Internet Service Provider Network Global Internet Autonomous System Network US Internet2 Academic Network 11,174 nodes 218 nodes 2D Lattice Network 64 nodes Network mod

  18. Sensor networks Opportunities for theory

    E-print Network

    Feigenbaum, Joan

    Sensor networks Opportunities for theory The future Sensor Networks and the Future of Networked Computation James Aspnes Yale University February 16th, 2006 ToNC workshop, February 16th, 2006 Sensor Networks and the Future of Networked Computation #12;Sensor networks Opportunities for theory The future

  19. NASA's unique networking environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  20. Networks Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tasaki, Keiji K. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    The papers included in these proceedings represent the most interesting and current topics being pursued by personnel at GSFC's Networks Division and supporting contractors involved in Space, Ground, and Deep Space Network (DSN) technical work. Although 29 papers are represented in the proceedings, only 12 were presented at the conference because of space and time limitations. The proceedings are organized according to five principal technical areas of interest to the Networks Division: Project Management; Network Operations; Network Control, Scheduling, and Monitoring; Modeling and Simulation; and Telecommunications Engineering.

  1. Network Characterization Service (NCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun; Yang, George; Crowley, Brian; Agarwal, Deborah

    2001-06-06

    Distributed applications require information to effectively utilize the network. Some of the information they require is the current and maximum bandwidth, current and minimum latency, bottlenecks, burst frequency, and congestion extent. This type of information allows applications to determine parameters like optimal TCP buffer size. In this paper, we present a cooperative information-gathering tool called the network characterization service (NCS). NCS runs in user space and is used to acquire network information. Its protocol is designed for scalable and distributed deployment, similar to DNS. Its algorithms provide efficient, speedy and accurate detection of bottlenecks, especially dynamic bottlenecks. On current and future networks, dynamic bottlenecks do and will affect network performance dramatically.

  2. Network structure of production

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Enghin; Hortaçsu, Ali; Roberts, James; Syverson, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Complex social networks have received increasing attention from researchers. Recent work has focused on mechanisms that produce scale-free networks. We theoretically and empirically characterize the buyer–supplier network of the US economy and find that purely scale-free models have trouble matching key attributes of the network. We construct an alternative model that incorporates realistic features of firms’ buyer–supplier relationships and estimate the model’s parameters using microdata on firms’ self-reported customers. This alternative framework is better able to match the attributes of the actual economic network and aids in further understanding several important economic phenomena. PMID:21402924

  3. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280

  4. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-05-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems.

  5. Satellite networks for education.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of satellite-based educational networking. The characteristics and structure of networks are reviewed, and pressures within the educational establishment that are providing motivation for various types of networks are discussed. A number of studies are cited in which networking needs for educational sectors and services are defined. The current status of educational networking for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intrastate educational communication networks, computer networks, cable television for education, and continuing and proposed educational experiments using NASA's Applications Technology Satellites is reviewed. Possible satellite-based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems are described. Some remarks are made concerning public policy aspects of future educational satellite system development.

  6. Network topology analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, Jeffrey L.; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging high-bandwidth, low-latency network technology has made network-based architectures both feasible and potentially desirable for use in satellite payload architectures. The selection of network topology is a critical component when developing these multi-node or multi-point architectures. This study examines network topologies and their effect on overall network performance. Numerous topologies were reviewed against a number of performance, reliability, and cost metrics. This document identifies a handful of good network topologies for satellite applications and the metrics used to justify them as such. Since often multiple topologies will meet the requirements of the satellite payload architecture under development, the choice of network topology is not easy, and in the end the choice of topology is influenced by both the design characteristics and requirements of the overall system and the experience of the developer.

  7. Percolation on Sparse Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrer, Brian; Newman, M. E. J.; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2014-11-01

    We study percolation on networks, which is used as a model of the resilience of networked systems such as the Internet to attack or failure and as a simple model of the spread of disease over human contact networks. We reformulate percolation as a message passing process and demonstrate how the resulting equations can be used to calculate, among other things, the size of the percolating cluster and the average cluster size. The calculations are exact for sparse networks when the number of short loops in the network is small, but even on networks with many short loops we find them to be highly accurate when compared with direct numerical simulations. By considering the fixed points of the message passing process, we also show that the percolation threshold on a network with few loops is given by the inverse of the leading eigenvalue of the so-called nonbacktracking matrix.

  8. Percolation on sparse networks.

    PubMed

    Karrer, Brian; Newman, M E J; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2014-11-14

    We study percolation on networks, which is used as a model of the resilience of networked systems such as the Internet to attack or failure and as a simple model of the spread of disease over human contact networks. We reformulate percolation as a message passing process and demonstrate how the resulting equations can be used to calculate, among other things, the size of the percolating cluster and the average cluster size. The calculations are exact for sparse networks when the number of short loops in the network is small, but even on networks with many short loops we find them to be highly accurate when compared with direct numerical simulations. By considering the fixed points of the message passing process, we also show that the percolation threshold on a network with few loops is given by the inverse of the leading eigenvalue of the so-called nonbacktracking matrix. PMID:25432059

  9. Improving Electric Load Forecasts Using Network Committees

    E-print Network

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    demanding ever-increasing accuracies. Machine learning techniques including neural and abductive networks. Keywords: Machine learning, Neural networks, Abductive networks, GMDH, Network Committee, Network ensemble corresponding to new cases. Neural networks of various architectures and learning paradigms have been widely

  10. THE UK'S INNOVATION NETWORK KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER NETWORK

    E-print Network

    to make it easier to assemble multi- disciplinary teams so that we can do more, and do it well. The "half-life Networks #12;PAGE10 Example of KTN Event o Materials for Personal Protection against Impact in Sport

  11. Collaborative learning in networks

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Winter; Watts, Duncan J.

    2012-01-01

    Complex problems in science, business, and engineering typically require some tradeoff between exploitation of known solutions and exploration for novel ones, where, in many cases, information about known solutions can also disseminate among individual problem solvers through formal or informal networks. Prior research on complex problem solving by collectives has found the counterintuitive result that inefficient networks, meaning networks that disseminate information relatively slowly, can perform better than efficient networks for problems that require extended exploration. In this paper, we report on a series of 256 Web-based experiments in which groups of 16 individuals collectively solved a complex problem and shared information through different communication networks. As expected, we found that collective exploration improved average success over independent exploration because good solutions could diffuse through the network. In contrast to prior work, however, we found that efficient networks outperformed inefficient networks, even in a problem space with qualitative properties thought to favor inefficient networks. We explain this result in terms of individual-level explore-exploit decisions, which we find were influenced by the network structure as well as by strategic considerations and the relative payoff between maxima. We conclude by discussing implications for real-world problem solving and possible extensions. PMID:22184216

  12. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  13. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  14. A network security monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, L.T.; Dias, G.V.; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B.; Wood, J.; Wolber, D. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1989-11-01

    The study of security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because of the proliferation of networks and the paucity of security measures in most current networks. Since most networks consist of a collection of inter-connected local area networks (LANs), this paper concentrates on the security-related issues in a single broadcast LAN such as Ethernet. Specifically, we formalize various possible network attacks and outline methods of detecting them. Our basic strategy is to develop profiles of usage of network resources and then compare current usage patterns with the historical profile to determine possible security violations. Thus, our work is similar to the host-based intrusion-detection systems such as SRI's IDES. Different from such systems, however, is our use of a hierarchical model to refine the focus of the intrusion-detection mechanism. We also report on the development of our experimental LAN monitor currently under implementation. Several network attacks have been simulated and results on how the monitor has been able to detect these attacks are also analyzed. Initial results demonstrate that many network attacks are detectable with our monitor, although it can surely be defeated. Current work is focusing on the integration of network monitoring with host-based techniques. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  15. A Network Synthesis Model for Generating Protein Interaction Network Families

    E-print Network

    Yoon, Byung-Jun

    1 A Network Synthesis Model for Generating Protein Interaction Network Families Sayed Mohammad introduce a novel network synthesis model that can generate families of evolutionar- ily related synthetic protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Given an ancestral network, the pro- posed model generates

  16. Compressive Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoye; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Han; Guibas, Leonidas

    2014-01-01

    Modern data acquisition routinely produces massive amounts of network data. Though many methods and models have been proposed to analyze such data, the research of network data is largely disconnected with the classical theory of statistical learning and signal processing. In this paper, we present a new framework for modeling network data, which connects two seemingly different areas: network data analysis and compressed sensing. From a nonparametric perspective, we model an observed network using a large dictionary. In particular, we consider the network clique detection problem and show connections between our formulation with a new algebraic tool, namely Randon basis pursuit in homogeneous spaces. Such a connection allows us to identify rigorous recovery conditions for clique detection problems. Though this paper is mainly conceptual, we also develop practical approximation algorithms for solving empirical problems and demonstrate their usefulness on real-world datasets. PMID:25620806

  17. Reconfigureable network node

    DOEpatents

    Vanderveen, Keith B. (Tracy, CA); Talbot, Edward B. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Laurence E. (Davis, CA)

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  18. Reconstructing Regulatory Network Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Petricka, Jalean J.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular responses often involve a transition of cells from one state to another. A transition from a stem cell to differentiated cell state, for example, may occur in response to gene expression changes induced by a transcription factor, or signaling cascades triggered by a hormone or pathogen. Regulatory networks are thought to control such cellular transitions. Thus, many researchers are interested in reconstructing regulatory networks, not only to gain a deeper understanding of cellular transitions, but also with the aim of using networks to predict and potentially manipulate cellular transitions and outcomes. In this review, we highlight approaches to the reconstruction of regulatory networks underlying cellular transitions, with special attention to transcriptional regulatory networks. We describe recent regulatory network reconstructions in a variety of organisms and discuss the success they share in identifying new regulatory components as well as shared relationships and phenotypic outcomes. PMID:21632251

  19. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Borkin, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  20. Stiffest Elastic Networks

    E-print Network

    Gérald Gurtner; Marc Durand

    2013-02-28

    The rigidity of a network of elastic beams crucially depends on the specific details of its structure. We show both numerically and theoretically that there is a class of isotropic networks which are stiffer than any other isotropic network with same density. The elastic moduli of these \\textit{stiffest elastic networks} are explicitly given. They constitute upper-bounds which compete or improve the well-known Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. We provide a convenient set of criteria (necessary and sufficient conditions) to identify these networks, and show that their displacement field under uniform loading conditions is affine down to the microscopic scale. Finally, examples of such networks with periodic arrangement are presented, in both two and three dimensions.

  1. Professional social networking.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options. PMID:25308391

  2. Gateways among Academic Computer Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCredie, John W.

    National intercampus computer networks are discussed, along with six illustrative networks. Attention is focused on computer networks with significant academic usage through which special software is available to manage resources in the network. It is noted that computer networks have widespread use among academics for communication in the form of…

  3. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  4. Educational Computer Networks: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crume, Charles E.; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growth of educational computer networks in three main categories: (1) networks for sharing peripheral equipment; (2) networks for exchanging information; and (3) networks for addressing instructional needs. The use of microcomputers and mainframe computers is examined, networks in public schools and universities are described, and…

  5. Internationalisation Network: A Finnish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantola, Mauri; Hautala, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    One of the main issues of internationalisation is networking. The network way of action within higher education institutions (HEIs) represents new modes of the information work. Networks are worth evaluating more precisely in the future, and social network analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for this evaluation. This article describes the network of…

  6. Chapters 6 & 8 Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Lu, Enyue "Annie"

    : Wireless and Mobile Networks Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phoneChapters 6 & 8 Wireless Networks and Security Computer Networking:ATop Down Approach 6th edition.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-1 #12;Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-2 Ch. 6

  7. Machine Learning Srihari Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Machine Learning Srihari Neural Networks Introduction Sargur Srihari #12;Machine Learning in Neural Networks 6. Mixture Density Networks 7. Bayesian Neural Networks 2 #12;Machine Learning xi + w j 0 (1) + wk0 (2) #12;Machine Learning Srihari SVM versus Neural Networks

  8. NASA Integrated Network COOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Michael L.; Wright, Nathaniel; Tai, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, civil unrest, and other events have the potential of disrupting mission-essential operations in any space communications network. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) is in the process of studying options for integrating the three existing NASA network elements, the Deep Space Network, the Near Earth Network, and the Space Network, into a single integrated network with common services and interfaces. The need to maintain Continuity of Operations (COOP) after a disastrous event has a direct impact on the future network design and operations concepts. The SCaN Integrated Network will provide support to a variety of user missions. The missions have diverse requirements and include anything from earth based platforms to planetary missions and rovers. It is presumed that an integrated network, with common interfaces and processes, provides an inherent advantage to COOP in that multiple elements and networks can provide cross-support in a seamless manner. The results of trade studies support this assumption but also show that centralization as a means of achieving integration can result in single points of failure that must be mitigated. The cost to provide this mitigation can be substantial. In support of this effort, the team evaluated the current approaches to COOP, developed multiple potential approaches to COOP in a future integrated network, evaluated the interdependencies of the various approaches to the various network control and operations options, and did a best value assessment of the options. The paper will describe the trade space, the study methods, and results of the study.

  9. Network problem threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra, R.

    1992-01-01

    Network transmission errors such as collisions, CRC errors, misalignment, etc. are statistical in nature. Although errors can vary randomly, a high level of errors does indicate specific network problems, e.g. equipment failure. In this project, we have studied the random nature of collisions theoretically as well as by gathering statistics, and established a numerical threshold above which a network problem is indicated with high probability.

  10. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  11. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization, of the Deep Space Network are summarized. Deep Space stations, ground communications, and network operations control capabilities are described. The network is designed for two-way communications with unmanned spacecraft traveling approximately 1600 km from earth to the farthest planets in the solar system. It has provided tracking and data acquisition support for the following projects: Ranger, Surveyor, Mariner, Pioneer, Apollo, Helios, Viking, and the Lunar Orbiter.

  12. Mission Critical Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-06-01

    Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

  13. Heterogeneous Economic Networks

    E-print Network

    Souma, W; Aoyama, H; Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    The Japanese shareholding network at the end of March 2002 is studied. To understand the characteristics of this network intuitively, we visualize it as a directed graph and an adjacency matrix. Especially detailed features of networks concerned with the automobile industry sector are discussed by using the visualized networks. The shareholding network is also considered as an undirected graph, because many quantities characterizing networks are defined for undirected cases. For this undirected shareholding network, we show that a degree distribution is well fitted by a power law function with an exponential tail. The exponent in the power law range is gamma=1.8. We also show that the spectrum of this network follows asymptotically the power law distribution with the exponent delta=2.6. By comparison with gamma and delta, we find a scaling relation delta=2gamma-1. The reason why this relation holds is attributed to the local tree-like structure of networks. To clarify this structure, the correlation between d...

  14. Communicability in temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2013-10-01

    A first-principles approach to quantify the communicability between pairs of nodes in temporal networks is proposed. It corresponds to the imaginary-time propagator of a quantum random walk in the temporal network, which accounts for unique structural and temporal characteristics of both streaming and nonstreaming temporal networks. The influence of the system's temperature on the perdurability of information and how the communicability identifies patterns of communication hidden in the temporal and topological structure of the networks are also studied for synthetic and real-world systems.

  15. Celestial data routing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordetsky, Alex

    2000-11-01

    Imagine that information processing human-machine network is threatened in a particular part of the world. Suppose that an anticipated threat of physical attacks could lead to disruption of telecommunications network management infrastructure and access capabilities for small geographically distributed groups engaged in collaborative operations. Suppose that small group of astronauts are exploring the solar planet and need to quickly configure orbital information network to support their collaborative work and local communications. The critical need in both scenarios would be a set of low-cost means of small team celestial networking. To the geographically distributed mobile collaborating groups such means would allow to maintain collaborative multipoint work, set up orbital local area network, and provide orbital intranet communications. This would be accomplished by dynamically assembling the network enabling infrastructure of the small satellite based router, satellite based Codec, and set of satellite based intelligent management agents. Cooperating single function pico satellites, acting as agents and personal switching devices together would represent self-organizing intelligent orbital network of cooperating mobile management nodes. Cooperative behavior of the pico satellite based agents would be achieved by comprising a small orbital artificial neural network capable of learning and restructing the networking resources in response to the anticipated threat.

  16. Network discovery with DCM

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Li, Baojuan; Daunizeau, Jean; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about inferring or discovering the functional architecture of distributed systems using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM). We describe a scheme that recovers the (dynamic) Bayesian dependency graph (connections in a network) using observed network activity. This network discovery uses Bayesian model selection to identify the sparsity structure (absence of edges or connections) in a graph that best explains observed time-series. The implicit adjacency matrix specifies the form of the network (e.g., cyclic or acyclic) and its graph-theoretical attributes (e.g., degree distribution). The scheme is illustrated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series to discover functional brain networks. Crucially, it can be applied to experimentally evoked responses (activation studies) or endogenous activity in task-free (resting state) fMRI studies. Unlike conventional approaches to network discovery, DCM permits the analysis of directed and cyclic graphs. Furthermore, it eschews (implausible) Markovian assumptions about the serial independence of random fluctuations. The scheme furnishes a network description of distributed activity in the brain that is optimal in the sense of having the greatest conditional probability, relative to other networks. The networks are characterised in terms of their connectivity or adjacency matrices and conditional distributions over the directed (and reciprocal) effective connectivity between connected nodes or regions. We envisage that this approach will provide a useful complement to current analyses of functional connectivity for both activation and resting-state studies. PMID:21182971

  17. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  18. Generalized Communities in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E. J.; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2015-08-01

    A substantial volume of research is devoted to studies of community structure in networks, but communities are not the only possible form of large-scale network structure. Here, we describe a broad extension of community structure that encompasses traditional communities but includes a wide range of generalized structural patterns as well. We describe a principled method for detecting this generalized structure in empirical network data and demonstrate with real-world examples how it can be used to learn new things about the shape and meaning of networks.

  19. Advanced Network Database Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Search Online Microblog Data Aggregation Web Personalization Service Personalization in Mobile Computing algorithms in the cloud environment ­ Androidbased frontend · Lightweight Queries on the ROAD networks (NSC

  20. Letters and networks : analysing Olive Schreiner's epistolary networks

    E-print Network

    Poustie, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    This thesis analyses letters and other archival material associated with Olive Schreiner (1855-1920) and her network(s) to conceptualise and theorise aspects of "letterness" and networks. Its premise is that such qualitative ...

  1. INTERACTING WITH SOCIAL NETWORKS TO IMPROVE HEALTHCARE BODY SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    ElAarag, Hala

    INTERACTING WITH SOCIAL NETWORKS TO IMPROVE HEALTHCARE BODY SENSOR NETWORKS by DAVID BAUSCHLICHER ................................................. 19 Figure 4: Methods of Social Interaction interaction. In this paper, we propose to integrate social networks and BSNs to establish a community

  2. Electro-Magnetic Earthquake Bursts and Critical Rupture of Peroxy Bond Networks in Rocks

    E-print Network

    F. Freund; D. Sornette

    2006-05-07

    We propose a mechanism for the low frequency electromagnetic emissions and other electromagnetic phenomena which have been associated with earthquakes. The mechanism combines the critical earthquake concept and the concept of crust acting as a charging electric battery under increasing stress. The electric charges are released by activation of dormant charge carriers in the oxygen anion sublattice, called peroxy bonds or positive hole pairs (PHP), where a PHP represents an $O_3X/^{OO}\\backslash YO_3$ with $X,Y = Si^{4+}, Al^{3+}...$, i.e. an $O^-$ in a matrix of $O^{2-}$ of silicates. We propose that PHP are activated by plastic deformations during the slow cooperative build-up of stress and the increasingly correlated damage culminating in a large ``critical'' earthquake. Recent laboratory experiments indeed show that stressed rocks form electric batteries which can release their charge when a conducting path closes the equivalent electric circuit. We conjecture that the intermittent and erratic occurrences of EM signals are a consequence of the progressive build-up of the battery charges in the Earth crust and their erratic release when crack networks are percolating throughout the stressed rock volumes, providing a conductive pathway for the battery currents to discharge. EM signals are thus expected close to the rupture, either slightly before or after, that is, when percolation is most favored.

  3. Better sales networks.

    PubMed

    Ustüner, Tuba; Godes, David

    2006-01-01

    Anyone in sales will tell you that social networks are critical. The more contacts you have, the more leads you'll generate, and, ultimately, the more sales you'll make. But that's a vast oversimplification. Different configurations of networks produce different results, and the salesperson who develops a nuanced understanding of social networks will outshine competitors. The salesperson's job changes over the course of the selling process. Different abilities are required in each stage of the sale: identifying prospects, gaining buy-in from potential customers, creating solutions, and closing the deal. Success in the first stage, for instance, depends on the salesperson acquiring precise and timely information about opportunities from contacts in the marketplace. Closing the deal requires the salesperson to mobilize contacts from prior sales to act as references. Managers often view sales networks only in terms of direct contacts. But someone who knows lots of people doesn't necessarily have an effective network because networks often pay off most handsomely through indirect contacts. Moreover, the density of the connections in a network is important. Do a salesperson's contacts know all the same people, or are their associates widely dispersed? Sparse networks are better, for example, at generating unique information. Managers can use three levers--sales force structure, compensation, and skills development--to encourage salespeople to adopt a network-based view and make the best possible use of social webs. For example, the sales force can be restructured to decouple lead generation from other tasks because some people are very good at building diverse ties but not so good at maintaining other kinds of networks. Companies that take steps of this kind to help their sales teams build better networks will reap tremendous advantages. PMID:16846193

  4. Networks and epidemic models

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Matt J; Eames, Ken T.D

    2005-01-01

    Networks and the epidemiology of directly transmitted infectious diseases are fundamentally linked. The foundations of epidemiology and early epidemiological models were based on population wide random-mixing, but in practice each individual has a finite set of contacts to whom they can pass infection; the ensemble of all such contacts forms a ‘mixing network’. Knowledge of the structure of the network allows models to compute the epidemic dynamics at the population scale from the individual-level behaviour of infections. Therefore, characteristics of mixing networks—and how these deviate from the random-mixing norm—have become important applied concerns that may enhance the understanding and prediction of epidemic patterns and intervention measures. Here, we review the basis of epidemiological theory (based on random-mixing models) and network theory (based on work from the social sciences and graph theory). We then describe a variety of methods that allow the mixing network, or an approximation to the network, to be ascertained. It is often the case that time and resources limit our ability to accurately find all connections within a network, and hence a generic understanding of the relationship between network structure and disease dynamics is needed. Therefore, we review some of the variety of idealized network types and approximation techniques that have been utilized to elucidate this link. Finally, we look to the future to suggest how the two fields of network theory and epidemiological modelling can deliver an improved understanding of disease dynamics and better public health through effective disease control. PMID:16849187

  5. Applying network coding to TCP

    E-print Network

    Urbina Tovar, Leonardo Andrés

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I contribute to the design and implemention of a new TCP-like protocol, CTCP, that uses network coding to provide better network use of the network bandwidth in a wireless environment. CTCP provides the ...

  6. Entangled networks, synchronization, and optimal network topology.

    PubMed

    Donetti, Luca; Hurtado, Pablo I; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2005-10-28

    A new family of graphs, entangled networks, with optimal properties in many respects, is introduced. By definition, their topology is such that it optimizes synchronizability for many dynamical processes. These networks are shown to have an extremely homogeneous structure: degree, node distance, betweenness, and loop distributions are all very narrow. Also, they are characterized by a very interwoven (entangled) structure with short average distances, large loops, and no well-defined community structure. This family of nets exhibits an excellent performance with respect to other flow properties such as robustness against errors and attacks, minimal first-passage time of random walks, efficient communication, etc. These remarkable features convert entangled networks in a useful concept, optimal or almost optimal in many senses, and with plenty of potential applications in computer science or neuroscience. PMID:16383953

  7. Security: outline networking security

    E-print Network

    Biagioni, Edoardo S.

    the data: ssh/scp, https, secure POP/IMAP, PGP most protocols are not secure against traffic analysis host or circumvented security can lock out people who should have access data requiring security should not be sentSecurity: outline networking security security principles encryption authentication #12;networking

  8. The Community Networking Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajjaly, Stephen T.

    This publication outlines the complete community networking process: planning, developing partnerships, funding, marketing, content, public access, and evaluation, and discusses the variety of roles that the local public library can play in this process. Chapter One, "The Importance of Community Networking," describes the importance of community…

  9. Information Networks in Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, William L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes current biomedical information networks, focusing on those with an educational function, and elaborates on the problems encountered in planning, implementing, utilizing and evaluating such networks. Journal of Biocommunication, T. Banks, Educ. TV-431N, U. of Calif., San Francisco 94143. Subscription Rates: individuals and libraries,…

  10. Wireless Sensor Networks Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on hardware and software configurations for a network architecture for sensors. The hardware configuration uses a central station and remote stations. The software configuration uses the 'lost station' software algorithm. The presentation profiles a couple current examples of this network architecture in use.

  11. Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

  12. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition, research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is cited. Topics covered include: tracking and ground based navigation; spacecraft/ground communication; station control and operations technology; ground communications; and deep space stations.

  13. TOXNET (TOXICOLOGY DATA NETWORK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) is a computerized system of files oriented to toxicology and related areas. It is managed by the National Library of Medicines Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) and runs on a series of microcomputers in a networked cl...

  14. A balanced memory network.

    PubMed

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-09-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

  15. Applications to aging networks.

    PubMed

    Wimble, Christopher; Witten, Tarynn M

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will introduce a few additional network concepts, and then it will focus on the application of the material in the previous chapter to the study of systems biology of aging. In particular, we will examine how the material can be used to study aging networks in two sample species: Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:25341510

  16. BAYESIAN NETWORKS Judea Pearl

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    ), whether it's raining (X2), whether the sprinkler is on (X3), whether the pavement is wet (X4), and whether on Bayesian networks by propagat- ing information in any direction. For example, if the sprinkler is on #12;;; @@R X1 SEASON @@R X3SPRINKLER ;; X2 RAIN X4 WET ? X5 SLIPPERY Figure 1: A Bayesian network

  17. Community Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Harold

    2005-01-01

    With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…

  18. GENE EXPRESSION NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Gene expression network" is the term used to describe the interplay, simple or complex, between two or more gene products in performing a specific cellular function. Although the delineation of such networks is complicated by the existence of multiple and subtle types of intera...

  19. The protein folding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Francesco; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2004-03-01

    Networks are everywhere. The conformation space of a 20-residue antiparallel beta-sheet peptide [1], sampled by molecular dynamics simulations, is mapped to a network. Conformations are nodes of the network, and the transitions between them are links. As previously found for the World-Wide Web as well as for social and biological networks , the conformation space contains highly connected hubs like the native state which is the most populated free energy basin. Furthermore, the network shows a hierarchical modularity [2] which is consistent with the funnel mechanism of folding [3] and is not observed for a random heteropolymer lacking a native state. Here we show that the conformation space network describes the free energy landscape without requiring projections into arbitrarily chosen reaction coordinates. The network analysis provides a basis for understanding the heterogeneity of the folding transition state and the existence of multiple pathways. [1] P. Ferrara and A. Caflisch, Folding simulations of a three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet peptide, PNAS 97, 10780-10785 (2000). [2] Ravasz, E. and Barabási, A. L. Hierarchical organization in complex networks. Phys. Rev. E 67, 026112 (2003). [3] Dill, K. and Chan, H From Levinthal to pathways to funnels. Nature Struct. Biol. 4, 10-19 (1997)

  20. Optimal Phase Oscillatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follmann, Rosangela

    2013-03-01

    Important topics as preventive detection of epidemics, collective self-organization, information flow and systemic robustness in clusters are typical examples of processes that can be studied in the context of the theory of complex networks. It is an emerging theory in a field, which has recently attracted much interest, involving the synchronization of dynamical systems associated to nodes, or vertices, of the network. Studies have shown that synchronization in oscillatory networks depends not only on the individual dynamics of each element, but also on the combination of the topology of the connections as well as on the properties of the interactions of these elements. Moreover, the response of the network to small damages, caused at strategic points, can enhance the global performance of the whole network. In this presentation we explore an optimal phase oscillatory network altered by an additional term in the coupling function. The application to associative-memory network shows improvement on the correct information retrieval as well as increase of the storage capacity. The inclusion of some small deviations on the nodes, when solutions are attracted to a false state, results in additional enhancement of the performance of the associative-memory network. Supported by FAPESP - Sao Paulo Research Foundation, grant number 2012/12555-4

  1. Teacher Networks Companion Piece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Ami Patel; Rulli, Carolyn; Schiff, Daniel; Fradera, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Network building vitally impacts career development, but in few professions does it impact daily practice more than in teaching. Teacher networks, known as professional learning communities, communities of practice, peer learning circles, virtual professional communities, as well as other names, play a unique and powerful role in education. In…

  2. A Distributed Magnetometer Network

    E-print Network

    Scoville, John; Freund, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Various possiblities for a distributed magnetometer network are considered. We discuss strategies such as croudsourcing smartphone magnetometer data, the use of trees as magnetometers, and performing interferometry using magnetometer arrays to synthesize the magnetometers into the world's largest telescope. Geophysical and other applications of such a network are discussed.

  3. Networked Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Chris, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This theme issue on networked teaching and learning contains 11 articles written by teachers of English and language arts in Bread Loaf's primarily rural, teacher networks. Most of these narratives describe how teachers have taught writing and literature using online exchanges or teleconferencing involving students in different locations and grade…

  4. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The progress is reported of Deep Space Network (DSN) research in the following areas: (1) flight project support, (2) spacecraft/ground communications, (3) station control and operations technology, (4) network control and processing, and (5) deep space stations. A description of the DSN functions and facilities is included.

  5. Lobby index in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, A.; Schubert, A.; Telcs, A.

    2009-06-01

    We propose a new node centrality measure in networks, the lobby index, which is inspired by Hirsch’s h-index. It is shown that in scale-free networks with exponent ? the distribution of the l-index has power tail with exponent ?(?+1). Properties of the l-index and extensions are discussed.

  6. Deep Lambertian Networks Introduction

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Deep Lambertian Networks Introduction Learns distributions over 3D object shapes from sets of 2D-shot recognition possible Uses multiplicative interactions to approximate the Lambertian reflectance model Deep 30 50 Experiments Deep Lambertian Networks Inference Samples from albedo DBN Face Relighting Simple

  7. CAISSON: Interconnect Network Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Cray response to HPCS initiative. Model future petaflop computer interconnect. Parallel discrete event simulation techniques for large scale network simulation. Built on WarpIV engine. Run on laptop and Altix 3000. Can be sized up to 1000 simulated nodes per host node. Good parallel scaling characteristics. Flexible: multiple injectors, arbitration strategies, queue iterators, network topologies.

  8. Hanford Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Hartshorn, D.C.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the Hanford Seismic Network. The network consists of two instrument arrays: seismometers and strong motion accelerometers. The seismometers determine the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the strong motion accelerometers determine ground motion. Together these instruments arrays comply with the intent of DOE Order 5480.20, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation.

  9. Networking: OFFLU example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for the United Nations Influenza Network (OFFLU) is the joint OIE-FAO global network of expertise on animal influenzas: equine, swine, poultry and wild birds. OFFLU aims to reduce negative impacts of animal influ...

  10. Correlation dimension of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Lacasa, Lucas; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2013-04-19

    We propose a new measure to characterize the dimension of complex networks based on the ergodic theory of dynamical systems. This measure is derived from the correlation sum of a trajectory generated by a random walker navigating the network, and extends the classical Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm to the context of complex networks. The method is validated with reliable results for both synthetic networks and real-world networks such as the world air-transportation network or urban networks, and provides a computationally fast way for estimating the dimensionality of networks which only relies on the local information provided by the walkers. PMID:23679650

  11. Fault localization in backbone networks

    E-print Network

    Kompella, Ramana Rao

    2007-01-01

    B. Gruschke. Integrated event management: Event correlationnetwork event correlation. In Integrated Network Managementevent correlation. In Fourth International Symposium on Integrated Network Management,

  12. Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation Multiperiod Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Competitive Supply Chain Networks with Inventorying and A Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulation

  13. Concordant Chemical Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shinar, Guy; Feinberg, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We describe a large class of chemical reaction networks, those endowed with a subtle structural property called concordance. We show that the class of concordant networks coincides precisely with the class of networks which, when taken with any weakly monotonic kinetics, invariably give rise to kinetic systems that are injective — a quality that, among other things, precludes the possibility of switch-like transitions between distinct positive steady states. We also provide persistence characteristics of concordant networks, instability implications of discordance, and consequences of stronger variants of concordance. Some of our results are in the spirit of recent ones by Banaji and Craciun, but here we do not require that every species suffer a degradation reaction. This is especially important in studying biochemical networks, for which it is rare to have all species degrade. PMID:22659063

  14. Online social support networks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish

    2015-04-01

    Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care. PMID:25800079

  15. Modeling semiflexible polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedersz, C. P.; MacKintosh, F. C.

    2014-07-01

    This is an overview of theoretical approaches to semiflexible polymers and their networks. Such semiflexible polymers have large bending rigidities that can compete with the entropic tendency of a chain to crumple up into a random coil. Many studies on semiflexible polymers and their assemblies have been motivated by their importance in biology. Indeed, cross-linked networks of semiflexible polymers form a major structural component of tissue and living cells. Reconstituted networks of such biopolymers have emerged as a new class of biological soft matter systems with remarkable material properties, which have spurred many of the theoretical developments discussed here. Starting from the mechanics and dynamics of individual semiflexible polymers, the physics of semiflexible bundles, entangled solutions, and disordered cross-linked networks are reviewed. Finally, recent developments on marginally stable fibrous networks, which exhibit critical behavior similar to other marginal systems such as jammed soft matter, are discussed.

  16. Organization of modular networks

    E-print Network

    S. N. Dorogovtsev; J. F. F. Mendes; A. N. Samukhin; A. Y. Zyuzin

    2008-03-24

    We examine the global organization of heterogeneous equilibrium networks consisting of a number of well distinguished interconnected parts--``communities'' or modules. We develop an analytical approach allowing us to obtain the statistics of connected components and an intervertex distance distribution in these modular networks, and to describe their global organization and structure. In particular, we study the evolution of the intervertex distance distribution with an increasing number of interlinks connecting two infinitely large uncorrelated networks. We demonstrate that even a relatively small number of shortcuts unite the networks into one. In more precise terms, if the number of the interlinks is any finite fraction of the total number of connections, then the intervertex distance distribution approaches a delta-function peaked form, and so the network is united.

  17. Reworking the language network.

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-03-01

    Prior investigations of functional specialization have focused on the response profiles of particular brain regions. Given the growing emphasis on regional covariation, we propose to reframe these questions in terms of brain 'networks' (collections of regions jointly engaged by some mental process). Despite the challenges that investigations of the language network face, a network approach may prove useful in understanding the cognitive architecture of language. We propose that a language network plausibly includes a functionally specialized 'core' (brain regions that coactivate with each other during language processing) and a domain-general 'periphery' (a set of brain regions that may coactivate with the language core regions at some times but with other specialized systems at other times, depending on task demands). Framing the debate around network properties such as this may prove to be a more fruitful way to advance our understanding of the neurobiology of language. PMID:24440115

  18. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  19. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks.

    Scope of Contributions

    This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to:
    • Optical access network architectures and protocols
    • Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.)
    • Active optical networks
    • Multiple access control
    • Multiservices and QoS provisioning
    • Network survivability
    • Field trials and standards
    • Performance modeling and analysis

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

  20. Modular Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Sporns, Olaf; Betzel, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    The development of new technologies for mapping structural and functional brain connectivity has led to the creation of comprehensive network maps of neuronal circuits and systems. The architecture of these brain networks can be examined and analyzed with a large variety of graph theory tools. Methods for detecting modules, or network communities, are of particular interest because they uncover major building blocks or subnetworks that are particularly densely connected, often corresponding to specialized functional components. A large number of methods for community detection have become available and are now widely applied in network neuroscience. This article first surveys a number of these methods, with an emphasis on their advantages and shortcomings; then it summarizes major findings on the existence of modules in both structural and functional brain networks and briefly considers their potential functional roles in brain evolution, wiring minimization, and the emergence of functional specialization and complex dynamics. PMID:26393868

  1. Visualization of Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

    With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

  2. Improved Autoassociative Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Improved autoassociative neural networks, denoted nexi, have been proposed for use in controlling autonomous robots, including mobile exploratory robots of the biomorphic type. In comparison with conventional autoassociative neural networks, nexi would be more complex but more capable in that they could be trained to do more complex tasks. A nexus would use bit weights and simple arithmetic in a manner that would enable training and operation without a central processing unit, programs, weight registers, or large amounts of memory. Only a relatively small amount of memory (to hold the bit weights) and a simple logic application- specific integrated circuit would be needed. A description of autoassociative neural networks is prerequisite to a meaningful description of a nexus. An autoassociative network is a set of neurons that are completely connected in the sense that each neuron receives input from, and sends output to, all the other neurons. (In some instantiations, a neuron could also send output back to its own input terminal.) The state of a neuron is completely determined by the inner product of its inputs with weights associated with its input channel. Setting the weights sets the behavior of the network. The neurons of an autoassociative network are usually regarded as comprising a row or vector. Time is a quantized phenomenon for most autoassociative networks in the sense that time proceeds in discrete steps. At each time step, the row of neurons forms a pattern: some neurons are firing, some are not. Hence, the current state of an autoassociative network can be described with a single binary vector. As time goes by, the network changes the vector. Autoassociative networks move vectors over hyperspace landscapes of possibilities.

  3. 78 FR 12359 - Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...Training Administration [TA-W-81,846] Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering...applicable to workers and former workers of Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network Engineering...investigation, I determine that workers of Goodman Networks, Inc., Core Network...

  4. Comparative analysis of collaboration networks

    SciTech Connect

    Progulova, Tatiana; Gadjiev, Bahruz

    2011-03-14

    In this paper we carry out a comparative analysis of the word network as the collaboration network based on the novel by M. Bulgakov 'Master and Margarita', the synonym network of the Russian language as well as the Russian movie actor network. We have constructed one-mode projections of these networks, defined degree distributions for them and have calculated main characteristics. In the paper a generation algorithm of collaboration networks has been offered which allows one to generate networks statistically equivalent to the studied ones. It lets us reveal a structural correlation between word network, synonym network and movie actor network. We show that the degree distributions of all analyzable networks are described by the distribution of q-type.

  5. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks—the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain—and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs. PMID:26482121

  6. Comparative analysis of collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progulova, Tatiana; Gadjiev, Bahruz

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we carry out a comparative analysis of the word network as the collaboration network based on the novel by M. Bulgakov "Master and Margarita", the synonym network of the Russian language as well as the Russian movie actor network. We have constructed one-mode projections of these networks, defined degree distributions for them and have calculated main characteristics. In the paper a generation algorithm of collaboration networks has been offered which allows one to generate networks statistically equivalent to the studied ones. It lets us reveal a structural correlation between word network, synonym network and movie actor network. We show that the degree distributions of all analyzable networks are described by the distribution of q-type.

  7. Quantifying randomness in real networks.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks-the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain-and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs. PMID:26482121

  8. How random are complex networks

    E-print Network

    Orsini, Chiara; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the $dk$-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks---the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain---and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by $dk$-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations, and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness.

  9. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-10-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks--the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain--and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs.

  10. Tinnitus: network pathophysiology-network pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Elgoyhen, Ana B.; Langguth, Berthold; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for one in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in CNS pathologies is changing from that of “magic bullets” that target individual chemoreceptors or “disease-causing genes” into that of “magic shotguns,” “promiscuous” or “dirty drugs” that target “disease-causing networks,” also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy. PMID:22291622

  11. By JinKyu Lee, Shambhu J. Upadhyaya, H. Raghav Rao, and Raj Sharman

    E-print Network

    Upadhyaya, Shambhu

    organizations manage their knowledge by sup- porting those KM processes [1]. Is it possible to capture tacit knowledge to other members who may be separated by time and space? If so, how? While some deep tacit on a continuum of tacitness, and transformation of implicit knowledge to explicit knowledge is, in many cases

  12. Dynamic response of an array of flexural plates in acoustic Kwan Kyu Parka)

    E-print Network

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

    , such as piezoelectric microma- chined ultrasound transducers (PMUTs), and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic is validated by both finite element analysis and measurement results of a fabricated capacitive micromachined) The dynamic response of a transducer array made up of circular flexural plates in immersion is ana- lytically

  13. Enhanced Charge-Transfer Kinetics by Anion Surface Modi cation of Kyu-Sung Park,,

    E-print Network

    Henkelman, Graeme

    /discharge rates desired for powering an electric vehicle. A LiFePO4 cathode has a theoretical capacity of 170 m barrier for charge transfer, but it can be stabilized by nitrogen or sulfur adsorption. The surface modi of the electrical energy generated from wind and radiant solar power. Moreover, rechargeable batteries that power

  14. Bus-Aware Microarchitectural Floorplanning Dae Hyun Kim Sung Kyu Lim

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    to ensure routability while optimizing other conflicting objectives. Our related experiments performed, the architectural simulation results can be exploited during the floorplanning stage for more effective optimization, routability becomes an important factor to consider. Even a floorplan optimized for other objectives may

  15. Layer Assignment for Reliable System-on-Package Jacob R. Minz and Sung Kyu Lim

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    at an increasingly lower cost per transistor has resulted in System- On-Chip (SOC) paradigm. ASIC foundries and EDA such as digital IC, analog ICs, memory modules, MEMS, and opto-electronic modules, and passive components

  16. Introduction to Network Science 1 Introduction to Network Science

    E-print Network

    Safro, Ilya

    Introduction to Network Science 1 Introduction to Network Science Instructor: Ilya Safro, 228 McAdams Hall Course: Introduction to Network Science, CP SC 481/681/881 Time: 9:30-10:45 TTh Place: 211 Daniel A 80 B 60 C 0 F #12;Introduction to Network Science 2 Recommended Books (optional) #12;Introduction

  17. Deep Belief Networks The New Generation of Neural Networks1

    E-print Network

    Hernández Lobato, José Miguel

    Deep Belief Networks The New Generation of Neural Networks1 Jos´e Miguel Hern´andez Lobato This presentation is mainly based on the work by Geoffrey E. Hinton. 1 / 28 #12;Deep Belief Networks Outline 1 Boltzmann Machines 2 Restricted Boltzmann Machines 3 Deep Belief Networks 4 Applications of Deep Belief

  18. Efficient Error Recovery Using Network Coding in Underwater Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Cui, Jun-Hong

    an efficient error-recovery scheme that carefully couples network coding and multipath routing. Through network coding and multipath routing and provides much better error recovery than using multipath routingEfficient Error Recovery Using Network Coding in Underwater Sensor Networks Zheng Guo, Bing Wang

  19. Influence of the divalent and trivalent ions substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of Mg0.5-xCdxCo0.5Cr0.04TbyFe1.96-yO4 ferrites prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Islam, M. U.; Zhang, Wenli; Anwar, Abdul Waheed; Jamil, Yasir; Murtaza, Ghulam; Ali, Ihsan; Hussain, Mudassar; Ali, Akbar; Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2015-08-01

    A series of the divalent and trivalent co-substituted Mg0.5-xCdxCo0.5Cr0.04TbyFe1.96-yO4 spinel ferrite systems (where x=0-0.5 in steps of 0.1 and y=0.00-0.10 in steps 0.02) are synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion method. The product materials were characterized by the thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm spinel nanocrystalline phase. The crystallite size is determined by Scherer's formula from 36.6 to 69.4 nm. The X-ray density is found in the range of 5.09-6.43 (g/cm3). The morphological features are studied using scanning electron microscope and AFM. Saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanence (Mr) magnetization extracted from M-H loops exhibit the decreasing trends 21.4-16 emu/g and 9.1-6.3 emu/g, respectively. A significant decrease in the intrinsic parameters is observed in the prepared samples due to the weakening of the A-B interaction as iron enters into the tetrahedral A-site. The coercivity lies in the range of 300-869 Oe as a function of co-substitution contents. The coercivity of the sample with x=0.1, y=0.02 was found maximum i.e. 869 Oe. The obtained results suggest that the investigated materials may be potential candidates for high density recording media applications.

  20. 'Medusa head ataxia': the expanding spectrum of Purkinje cell antibodies in autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. Part 3: Anti-Yo/CDR2, anti-Nb/AP3B2, PCA-2, anti-Tr/DNER, other antibodies, diagnostic pitfalls, summary and outlook.

    PubMed

    Jarius, S; Wildemann, B

    2015-01-01

    Serological testing for anti-neural autoantibodies is important in patients presenting with idiopathic cerebellar ataxia, since these autoantibodies may indicate cancer, determine treatment and predict prognosis. While some of them target nuclear antigens present in all or most CNS neurons (e.g. anti-Hu, anti-Ri), others more specifically target antigens present in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of Purkinje cells (PC). In this series of articles, we provide a detailed review of the clinical and paraclinical features, oncological, therapeutic and prognostic implications, pathogenetic relevance, and differential laboratory diagnosis of the 12 most common PC autoantibodies (often referred to as 'Medusa head antibodies' due to their characteristic somatodendritic binding pattern when tested by immunohistochemistry). To assist immunologists and neurologists in diagnosing these disorders, typical high-resolution immunohistochemical images of all 12 reactivities are presented, diagnostic pitfalls discussed and all currently available assays reviewed. Of note, most of these antibodies target antigens involved in the mGluR1/calcium pathway essential for PC function and survival. Many of the antigens also play a role in spinocerebellar ataxia. Part 1 focuses on anti-metabotropic glutamate receptor 1-, anti-Homer protein homolog 3-, anti-Sj/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor- and anti-carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII-associated autoimmune cerebellar ataxia (ACA); part 2 covers anti-protein kinase C gamma-, anti-glutamate receptor delta-2-, anti-Ca/RhoGTPase-activating protein 26- and anti-voltage-gated calcium channel-associated ACA; and part 3 reviews the current knowledge on anti-Tr/delta notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor-, anti-Nb/AP3B2-, anti-Yo/cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2- and Purkinje cell antibody 2-associated ACA, discusses differential diagnostic aspects and provides a summary and outlook. PMID:26377319

  1. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Mambretti

    2007-06-01

    This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking technologies. Several years ago, when many of these optical networking research topics were first being investigated, they were the subject of controversial debate. The new techniques challenged many long-held concepts related to architecture and technology. However, today all major networking organizations are transitioning toward infrastructure that incorporates these new concepts. This progress has been assisted through the series of Optical Networking Testbed Workshops (ONT). The first (ONT1) outlined a general framework of key issues and topics and developed a series of recommendations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop7). The second (ONT2) developed a common vision of optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop8). Processes that allow for a common vision encourage widespread deployment of these types of resources among advanced networking communities. Also, such a shared vision enables key concepts and technologies to migrate from basic research testbeds to wider networking communities. The ONT-3 workshop built on these earlier activities by expanding discussion to include additional considerations of the international interoperability and of greater impact of optical networking technology on networking in general. In accordance with this recognition, the workshop confirmed that future-oriented research and development is indispensable to fundamentally change the current Internet architecture to create a global network incorporating completely new concepts. The workshop also recognized that the first priority to allow for this progress is basic research and development, including international collaborative activities, which are important for the global realization of interoperability of a new generation architecture.

  2. A quantum access network.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Bernd; Dynes, James F; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionize the way in which information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, until now no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate the concept of a 'quantum access network': based on simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies, the scheme can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We show that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at a network node can be shared between up to 64 users for exchanging secret keys with the node, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This point-to-multipoint architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application of QKD. It presents a viable method for realizing multi-user QKD networks with efficient use of resources, and brings QKD closer to becoming a widespread technology. PMID:24005413

  3. Wireless mesh networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinheng

    2008-01-01

    Wireless telemedicine using GSM and GPRS technologies can only provide low bandwidth connections, which makes it difficult to transmit images and video. Satellite or 3G wireless transmission provides greater bandwidth, but the running costs are high. Wireless networks (WLANs) appear promising, since they can supply high bandwidth at low cost. However, the WLAN technology has limitations, such as coverage. A new wireless networking technology named the wireless mesh network (WMN) overcomes some of the limitations of the WLAN. A WMN combines the characteristics of both a WLAN and ad hoc networks, thus forming an intelligent, large scale and broadband wireless network. These features are attractive for telemedicine and telecare because of the ability to provide data, voice and video communications over a large area. One successful wireless telemedicine project which uses wireless mesh technology is the Emergency Room Link (ER-LINK) in Tucson, Arizona, USA. There are three key characteristics of a WMN: self-organization, including self-management and self-healing; dynamic changes in network topology; and scalability. What we may now see is a shift from mobile communication and satellite systems for wireless telemedicine to the use of wireless networks based on mesh technology, since the latter are very attractive in terms of cost, reliability and speed. PMID:19047448

  4. Optical storage networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Ulrich

    2001-11-01

    For efficient business continuance and backup of mission- critical data an inter-site storage network is required. Where traditional telecommunications costs are prohibitive for all but the largest organizations, there is an opportunity for regional carries to deliver an innovative storage service. This session reveals how a combination of optical networking and protocol-aware SAN gateways can provide an extended storage networking platform with the lowest cost of ownership and the highest possible degree of reliability, security and availability. Companies of every size, with mainframe and open-systems environments, can afford to use this integrated service. Three mayor applications are explained; channel extension, Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and how optical networks address the specific requirements. One advantage of DWDM is the ability for protocols such as ESCON, Fibre Channel, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet, to be transported natively and simultaneously across a single fiber pair, and the ability to multiplex many individual fiber pairs over a single pair, thereby reducing fiber cost and recovering fiber pairs already in use. An optical storage network enables a new class of service providers, Storage Service Providers (SSP) aiming to deliver value to the enterprise by managing storage, backup, replication and restoration as an outsourced service.

  5. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  6. Maximum entropy networks are more controllable than preferential attachment networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lvlin; Small, Michael; Lao, Songyang

    2014-10-01

    A maximum entropy (ME) method to generate typical scale-free networks has been recently introduced. We investigate the controllability of ME networks and Barabási-Albert preferential attachment networks. Our experimental results show that ME networks are significantly more easily controlled than BA networks of the same size and the same degree distribution. Moreover, the control profiles are used to provide insight into control properties of both classes of network. We identify and classify the driver nodes and analyze the connectivity of their neighbors. We find that driver nodes in ME networks have fewer mutual neighbors and that their neighbors have lower average degree. We conclude that the properties of the neighbors of driver node sensitively affect the network controllability. Hence, subtle and important structural differences exist between BA networks and typical scale-free networks of the same degree distribution.

  7. Ecological Multilayer Networks: A New Frontier for Network Ecology

    E-print Network

    Pilosof, Shai; Kéfi, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Networks provide a powerful approach to address myriad phenomena across ecology. Ecological systems are inherently 'multilayered'. For instance, species interact with one another in different ways and those interactions vary spatiotemporally. However, ecological networks are typically studied as ordinary (i.e., monolayer) networks. 'Multilayer networks' are currently at the forefront of network science, but ecological multilayer network studies have been sporadic and have not taken advantage of rapidly developing theory. Here we present the latest concepts and tools of multilayer network theory and discuss their application to ecology. This novel framework for the study of ecological multilayer networks encourages ecologists to move beyond monolayer network studies and facilitates ways for doing so. It thereby paves the way for novel, exciting research directions in network ecology.

  8. Protein structure networks.

    PubMed

    Greene, Lesley H

    2012-11-01

    The application of the field of network science to the scientific disciplines of structural biology and biochemistry, have yielded important new insights into the nature and determinants of protein structures, function, dynamics and the folding process. Advancements in further understanding protein relationships through network science have also reshaped the way we view the connectivity of proteins in the protein universe. The canonical hierarchical classification can now be visualized for example, as a protein fold continuum. This review will survey several key advances in the expanding area of research being conducted to study protein structures and folding using network approaches. PMID:23042823

  9. Learning In networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.

    1995-01-01

    Intelligent systems require software incorporating probabilistic reasoning, and often times learning. Networks provide a framework and methodology for creating this kind of software. This paper introduces network models based on chain graphs with deterministic nodes. Chain graphs are defined as a hierarchical combination of Bayesian and Markov networks. To model learning, plates on chain graphs are introduced to model independent samples. The paper concludes by discussing various operations that can be performed on chain graphs with plates as a simplification process or to generate learning algorithms.

  10. Broadband network selection issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leimer, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the best network for a given cable or telephone company provider is not as obvious as it appears. The cost and performance trades between Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC), Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line networks lead to very different choices based on the existing plant and the expected interactive subscriber usage model. This paper presents some of the issues and trades that drive network selection. The majority of the Interactive Television trials currently underway or planned are based on HFC networks. As a throw away market trial or a short term strategic incursion into a cable market, HFC may make sense. In the long run, if interactive services see high demand, HFC costs per node and an ever shrinking neighborhood node size to service large numbers of subscribers make FTTC appear attractive. For example, thirty-three 64-QAM modulators are required to fill the 550 MHz to 750 MHz spectrum with compressed video streams in 6 MHz channels. This large amount of hardware at each node drives not only initial build-out costs, but operations and maintenance costs as well. FTTC, with its potential for digitally switching large amounts of bandwidth to an given home, offers the potential to grow with the interactive subscriber base with less downstream cost. Integrated telephony on these networks is an issue that appears to be an afterthought for most of the networks being selected at the present time. The major players seem to be videocentric and include telephony as a simple add-on later. This may be a reasonable view point for the telephone companies that plan to leave their existing phone networks untouched. However, a phone company planning a network upgrade or a cable company jumping into the telephony business needs to carefully weigh the cost and performance issues of the various network choices. Each network type provides varying capability in both upstream and downstream bandwidth for voice channels. The noise characteristics vary as well. Cellular quality will not be tolerated by the home or business consumer. The network choices are not simple or obvious. Careful consideration of the cost and performance trades along with cable or telephone company strategic plans is required to ensure selecting the best network.

  11. NIRVANA network requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.J.

    1990-08-01

    NIRVANA is an effort to standardize electrical computer-aided design workstations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The early effect of this project will be the introduction of at least 60 new engineering workstations at Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, and at Allied Signal, Kansas City Division. These workstations are expected to begin arriving in September 1990. This paper proposes a design and outlines the requirements for a network to support the NIRVANA project. The author proposes a near-term network design, describes the security profile and caveats of this design, and proposes a long-term networking strategy for NIRVANA. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Local area gigabit networking

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Computer networks must become faster as the equipment that is being interconnected increases in power and performance. Ethemet, with a 10 Mbit/s speed, seemed awesome a few years ago, but is beginning to show its age as more machines are tied together, and workstations attain the power of yesterdays mainframes. Networks using gigabit speeds are just starting to become available and offer a whole new set of problems and potential. This paper addresses what the higher speeds are being used for, the ''standards'' efforts specifying the higher speed channels, the network architectures being proposed, and some of the open problems requiring extensive further work. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  13. BES Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  14. Detecting Communities in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Tsuyoshi

    There are many practical examples of social networks such as friendship networks or co-authorship networks. Detecting dense subnetworks from such networks are important for finding similar people and understanding the structure of factions. This chapter explains the definitions of communities, criteria for evaluating detected communities, methods for community detection, and actual tools for community detection.

  15. Campus Networking Strategies: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael M.

    1988-01-01

    This article is adapted from the introduction to EDUCOM's forthcoming book, Campus Networking Strategies, which includes 10 case study chapters detailing academic experiences with computer networking. Topics discussed in the introduction include network issues for management, networking economics, engineering and telecommunications issues, and…

  16. Network Leadership: An Emerging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Network leadership is an emerging approach that can have an impact on change in education and in society. According to Merriam-Webster (2011), a network is "an interconnected or interrelated chain, group, or system." Intentional interconnectedness is what separates network leadership from other leadership theories. Network leadership has the…

  17. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.; Parent, Jack M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Zochowski, Michal R.; Sander, Leonard M.

    2010-12-01

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells.

  18. Neural networks in seismic discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F.U.

    1995-01-01

    Neural networks are powerful and elegant computational tools that can be used in the analysis of geophysical signals. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have developed neural networks to solve problems in seismic discrimination, event classification, and seismic and hydrodynamic yield estimation. Other researchers have used neural networks for seismic phase identification. We are currently developing neural networks to estimate depths of seismic events using regional seismograms. In this paper different types of network architecture and representation techniques are discussed. We address the important problem of designing neural networks with good generalization capabilities. Examples of neural networks for treaty verification applications are also described.

  19. Yo no soy Gayina 9 de junio de 2008

    E-print Network

    Giménez de Castro, Guillermo Carlos

    tener mucho aguante para soportar aquella presi´on en la escuela. Y River hab´ia dado aquella pl tren por la noche, al d´ia siguiente temprano a la escuela. Despu´es vinieron muchos otros campeonatos mi familia. Gayinas son los que se ol- vidan de la historia y viven un presente que siempre es ef

  20. U.T. ARLINGTON POLICE yoUTotally Aware

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haiying

    theft and fraud, the task of correcting incorrect infor- mation about their financial or per- sonal- tunately, the damage that criminals do in stealing another person's iden- tity and using it to commit fraud: 817-272-5190 What Can I Do About Identity Theft And Fraud? U.T. ARLINGTON POLICE DEPARTMENT (817) 272

  1. yoU Totally Aware Phone:...............817-272-3381

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haiying

    , what makes you think they won't cheat you? #12;Double Stack--or PMA is a designer analog of meth lasts only an hour. Ice--A smokable form of recrystallized meth- amphetamine with a similar effect hours. Cat--is a designer analog of meth- amphetamine which has been brought into the country from

  2. Prime Decompositions of Regular Languages Yo-Sub Han1

    E-print Network

    Han, Yo-Sub

    @cs.queensu.ca 3 Department of Computer Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water consisting of the empty word. A prime decomposition of a language is a factorization where all the components commutativity. Recent work in this direction and more references can be found e.g. in [10]. Generally

  3. Como Lo Hago Yo: Tratamiento Quirurgico Del Mielomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    En Argentina hay plan de fortificación con ácido fólico. Diagnostico prenatal no siempre es correcto. Cierre según técnica. Cerramos músculo. No favorecemos corpectomía temprana en casos de cifosis. Suturamos la plaqueta. Cerramos el plano muscular. Hidrocefalia: Válvula de derivación, generalmente dentro de los dos primeros meses. Ventriculostomía no está indicada. Chiari II. Laminectomia cervical alta. Siringomielia: Derivación desde la cavidad al peritoneo. PMID:24791219

  4. Network science: Destruction perfected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, István A.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-08-01

    Pinpointing the nodes whose removal most effectively disrupts a network has become a lot easier with the development of an efficient algorithm. Potential applications might include cybersecurity and disease control. See Letter p.65

  5. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The various systems and subsystems are discussed for the Deep Space Network (DSN). A description of the DSN is presented along with mission support, program planning, facility engineering, implementation and operations.

  6. Networking on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Russell; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five articles provide overviews of information networking activities at the University of California at Los Angeles, the University of Kentucky, the University of Maryland at Baltimore Health Sciences Library, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Carnegie Mellon University. (MES)

  7. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress on the Deep Space Network (DSN) supporting research and technology, advanced development, engineering and implementation, and DSN operations is presented. The functions and facilities of the DSN are described.

  8. Wireless Network Esercitazioni

    E-print Network

    Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

    Wireless Network Esercitazioni Alessandro Villani avillani@science.unitn.it #12;WEP Cracking #12 counter azzerano l'IV ogni volta che sono inizializzate e poi incrementano il counter di 1 aumentano la

  9. Wireless Network Esercitazioni

    E-print Network

    Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

    Wireless Network Esercitazioni Alessandro Villani avillani@science.unitn.it #12;Reti Ad Hoc #12 periodicamente se non sentono a loro volta un beacon da un'altra stazione dopo un ritardo casuale molto breve da

  10. Embedded Network Gateway Survivability

    E-print Network

    Koopman, Philip

    Koopman Embedded systems are increasingly connected to the Internet. Usually there is a compelling need gateway Timeline: ? May 2010 ­ koopman@cmu.edu ­ http://www.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman GATEWAY COMMODITY NETWORK

  11. The expandable network disk

    E-print Network

    Muthitacharoen, Athicha, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a virtual disk cluster called END, the Expandable Network Disk. END aggregates storage on a cluster of servers into a single virtual disk. END's main goals are to offer good performance during normal ...

  12. Precision Irrigators Network 

    E-print Network

    Bynum, J.; Cothren, T.; Marek, T.; Piccinni, G.

    2007-01-01

    conservation including an "Agricultural Irrigation Water Use Management" BMPs section. The full TWDB Report 362 can be found at: http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/assistance/conservation/consindex.asp. DSS include the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network...

  13. Netiquettes for Networkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Presents 20 networking etiquette guidelines taken from electronic and print sources. Highlights include focusing on one subject, condensing messages, editing quotes, spelling and grammar, typography, mistakes, acronyms, humor, researching discussion groups, intellectual property and copyright, manners, ethics, and damage. (AEF)

  14. Theory of nematic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, M.; Gelling, K. P.; Vilgis, T. A.

    1988-03-01

    Using classical elasticity theory, the rise in free energy upon crosslinking nematogenic polymers into a network is calculated for the isotropic and nematic phases. Spontaneous strains are allowed for in the network. The consequence of network formation upon nematic-isotropic equilibria is calculated by adding these elastic contributions to a conventional Landau theory. Memory of the crosslinking conditions yields quartic and quadratic additions to the standard Landau theory. We find that crosslinking in the isotropic state lowers the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature compared with the unlinked case and the application of suitable stress raises it again. Crosslinking in the nematic state raises the transition temperature. We recover the mechanical critical point proposed long ago by de Gennes. Our Gaussian theory encompasses both main- and side-chain polymers. The hairpin limit for main chain networks yields a modulus varying exponentially with temperature. The Landau-de Gennes free energy for comb polymers is presented for the first time.

  15. NP Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Rotman, Lauren; Tierney, Brian

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  16. Spectral Alignment of Networks

    E-print Network

    Feizi, Soheil

    2015-02-18

    Network alignment refers to the problem of finding a bijective mapping across vertices of two or more graphs to maximize the number of overlapping edges and/or to minimize the number of mismatched interactions across ...

  17. Divers Alert Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Network, the diving industry’s largest association dedicated to scuba diving safety. Serving scuba divers for more than 30 ... to help cover the cost of treatment for scuba diving injuries. DAN fulfilled that need by developing diving’s ...

  18. Multitasking associative networks.

    PubMed

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Moauro, Francesco

    2012-12-28

    We introduce a bipartite, diluted and frustrated, network as a sparse restricted Boltzmann machine and we show its thermodynamical equivalence to an associative working memory able to retrieve several patterns in parallel without falling into spurious states typical of classical neural networks. We focus on systems processing in parallel a finite (up to logarithmic growth in the volume) amount of patterns, mirroring the low-level storage of standard Amit-Gutfreund-Sompolinsky theory. Results obtained through statistical mechanics, the signal-to-noise technique, and Monte Carlo simulations are overall in perfect agreement and carry interesting biological insights. Indeed, these associative networks pave new perspectives in the understanding of multitasking features expressed by complex systems, e.g., neural and immune networks. PMID:23368622

  19. International Cancer Screening Network

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Working Together to Evaluate Cancer Screening and Improve Outcomes Internationally About the ICSN Overview Participating Countries Contact

  20. Compressive sensing over networks

    E-print Network

    Medard, Muriel

    In this paper, we demonstrate some applications of compressive sensing over networks. We make a connection between compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic techniques in source coding and channel coding. ...

  1. BER Science Network Requirements

    E-print Network

    Dart, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Cloud properties: microphysics (phases of water), optical properties, and patternsof future climate patterns. Parameters for cloud formation,cloud computing becomes a critical component of the analysis infrastructure for JGI then the network patterns

  2. Basic Network Creation Games

    E-print Network

    Alon, Noga

    We study a natural network creation game, in which each node locally tries to minimize its local diameter or its local average distance to other nodes, by swapping one incident edge at a time. The central question is what ...

  3. Architecting space communication networks

    E-print Network

    Sanchez Net, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Reliable communication and navigation services are critical to robotic and human space missions. NASA currently provides them through three independent and uncoordinated network that consist of both Earth-based and space-based ...

  4. Systematic wireless network coding

    E-print Network

    Shrader, Brooke E.

    We present a systematic network coding strategy for cooperative communication, in which some nodes may replicate-and-forward packets in addition to sending random linear combinations of the packets. We argue that if this ...

  5. Network Coding Made Practical

    E-print Network

    Katti, Sachin

    2006-02-16

    We propose a new architecture for wireless mesh networks. In addition to forwarding packets, routers mix (i.e., code) packets from different sources to increase the information content of each transmission. We show that ...

  6. Network Maximal Correlation

    E-print Network

    Feizi, Soheil

    2015-09-21

    Identifying nonlinear relationships in large datasets is a daunting task particularly when the form of the nonlinearity is unknown. Here, we introduce Network Maximal Correlation (NMC) as a fundamental measure to capture ...

  7. Quantitative Imaging Network

    Cancer.gov

    The QIN Imaging Network is designed to promote research and development of quantitative imaging methods for the measurement of tumor response to therapies in clinical trial settings, with the overall goal of facilitating clinical decision-making. The

  8. National Outreach Network (NON)

    Cancer.gov

    Build and sustain a network that connects NCI-supported outreach, community education, and dissemination efforts with community-based cancer health disparities research and training programs in at-risk and underrepresented communities.

  9. The Colombia Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage of the RSNC network is presented along with the improvement in earthquake location and the quality of the data. New tools to calculate moment magnitude and focal mechanism are implemented as a result of the network expansion. The principal seismic sources in Colombia and the challenges for the future of the network are discussed.

  10. Global Oscillation Network Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is an international, community-based project, operated by the NATIONAL SOLAR OBSERVATORY for the US National Science Foundation, to conduct a detailed study of the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun over an 11 year solar cycle using helioseismology. 10 242 velocity images are obtained by a six-station network located at Big Bear Solar Observato...

  11. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  12. Neural network applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Mary L.; Desai, Utpal; Roppel, T.A.; White, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    A design procedure is suggested for neural networks which accommodates the inclusion of such knowledge-based systems techniques as fuzzy logic and pairwise comparisons. The use of these procedures in the design of applications combines qualitative and quantitative factors with empirical data to yield a model with justifiable design and parameter selection procedures. The procedure is especially relevant to areas of back-propagation neural network design which are highly responsive to the use of precisely recorded expert knowledge.

  13. Artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vemuri, V.

    1988-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to the exciting field of artificial neural networks and their potential role in the emerging field of neurocomputing. Although the genesis of this subject can be traced back to the 1940s, the present interest is largely due to the recent developments in theoretical models, technologies, and algorithms. This volume is devoted to introductory and theoretical concepts, and the emphasis is on network architectures, learning, associative memories, with a glimpse of the application areas and implementation experiences.

  14. Trust Maximization in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Justin; Fang, Xing

    Trust is a human-related phenomenon in social networks. Trust research on social networks has gained much attention on its usefulness, and on modeling propagations. There is little focus on finding maximum trust in social networks which is particularly important when a social network is oriented by certain tasks. In this paper, we propose a trust maximization algorithm based on the task-oriented social networks.

  15. Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Network

    E-print Network

    Hooper, Scott

    Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus in the lobster (Panulirus interrup- tus) pyloric network. J Neurophysiol 90: 2378­2386, 2003. First published June 11, 2003; 10.1152/jn.00705.2002. The lobster pyloric network has a densely interconnected synaptic

  16. Controllability of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2011-03-01

    The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. While control theory offers mathematical tools to steer engineered systems towards a desired state, we lack a general framework to control complex self-organized systems, like the regulatory network of a cell or the Internet. Here we develop analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network, identifying the set of driver nodes whose time-dependent control can guide the system's dynamics. We apply these tools to real and model networks, finding that sparse inhomogeneous networks, which emerge in many real complex systems, are the most difficult to control. In contrast, dense and homogeneous networks can be controlled via a few driver nodes. Counterintuitively, we find that in both model and real systems the driver nodes tend to avoid the hubs. We show that the robustness of control to link failure is determined by a core percolation problem, helping us understand why many complex systems are relatively insensitive to link deletion. The developed approach offers a framework to address the controllability of an arbitrary network, representing a key step towards the eventual control of complex systems.

  17. Coupled biopolymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J. M.; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton provides the cell with structural integrity and allows it to change shape to crawl along a surface, for example. The actin cytoskeleton can be modeled as a semiflexible biopolymer network that modifies its morphology in response to both external and internal stimuli. Just inside the inner nuclear membrane of a cell exists a network of filamentous lamin that presumably protects the heart of the cell nucleus--the DNA. Lamins are intermediate filaments that can also be modeled as semiflexible biopolymers. It turns out that the actin cytoskeletal biopolymer network and the lamin biopolymer network are coupled via a sequence of proteins that bridge the outer and inner nuclear membranes. We, therefore, probe the consequences of such a coupling via numerical simulations to understand the resulting deformations in the lamin network in response to perturbations in the cytoskeletal network. Such study could have implications for mechanical mechanisms of the regulation of transcription, since DNA--yet another semiflexible polymer--contains lamin-binding domains, and, thus, widen the field of epigenetics.

  18. Networks of strong ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolin; Adamic, Lada A.; Strauss, Martin J.

    2007-05-01

    Social networks transmitting covert or sensitive information cannot use all ties for this purpose. Rather, they can only use a subset of ties that are strong enough to be “trusted”. This paper addresses whether it is still possible, under this restriction, for information to be transmitted widely and rapidly in social networks. We use transitivity as evidence of strong ties, requiring one or more shared contacts in order to count an edge as strong. We examine the effect of removing all non-transitive ties in two real social network data sets, imposing varying thresholds in the number of shared contacts. We observe that transitive ties occupy a large portion of the network and that removing all other ties, while causing some individuals to become disconnected, preserves the majority of the giant connected component. Furthermore, the average shortest path, important for the rapid diffusion of information, increases only slightly relative to the original network. We also evaluate the cost of forming transitive ties by modeling a random graph composed entirely of closed triads and comparing its connectivity and average shortest path with the equivalent Erdös-Renyi random graph. Both the empirical study and random model point to a robustness of strong ties with respect to the connectivity and small world property of social networks.

  19. Scaling in transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about 140 subway systems and more than 50 railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

  20. Scaling in Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about subway systems and more than railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

  1. Global Supply Chain Networks Electric Power Networks

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    of Manufacturer i in country l Maximize Profit Maximize JX j=1 HX h=1 (il 1jh Ã? eh)qil jh - JX j=1 HX h=1 cil jh(qil jh) - fil (Q1 ) Dmytro Matsypura Dissertation #12;Outline Global Supply Chain Networks Electric Power Determine Q1 RIJHL + satisfying IX i=1 LX l=1 JX j=1 HX h=1 " fil (Q1 ) qil jh + cil jh(qil jh ) qil jh

  2. Network vulnerability assessment using Bayesian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Man, Hong

    2005-03-01

    While computer vulnerabilities have been continually reported in laundry-list format by most commercial scanners, a comprehensive network vulnerability assessment has been an increasing challenge to security analysts. Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to build attack trees with chains of exploits, based on which post-graph vulnerability analysis can be performed. The most recent approaches attempt to build attack trees by enumerating all potential attack paths, which are space consuming and result in poor scalability. This paper presents an approach to use Bayesian network to model potential attack paths. We call such graph as "Bayesian attack graph". It provides a more compact representation of attack paths than conventional methods. Bayesian inference methods can be conveniently used for probabilistic analysis. In particular, we use the Bucket Elimination algorithm for belief updating, and we use Maximum Probability Explanation algorithm to compute an optimal subset of attack paths relative to prior knowledge on attackers and attack mechanisms. We tested our model on an experimental network. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  3. LINCS: Livermore's network architecture. [Octopus computing network

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Octopus, a local computing network that has been evolving at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for over fifteen years, is currently undergoing a major revision. The primary purpose of the revision is to consolidate and redefine the variety of conventions and formats, which have grown up over the years, into a single standard family of protocols, the Livermore Interactive Network Communication Standard (LINCS). This standard treats the entire network as a single distributed operating system such that access to a computing resource is obtained in a single way, whether that resource is local (on the same computer as the accessing process) or remote (on another computer). LINCS encompasses not only communication but also such issues as the relationship of customer to server processes and the structure, naming, and protection of resources. The discussion includes: an overview of the Livermore user community and computing hardware, the functions and structure of each of the seven layers of LINCS protocol, the reasons why we have designed our own protocols and why we are dissatisfied by the directions that current protocol standards are taking.

  4. Network Motifs: Simple Building Blocks of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milo, R.; Shen-Orr, S.; Itzkovitz, S.; Kashtan, N.; Chklovskii, D.; Alon, U.

    2002-10-01

    Complex networks are studied across many fields of science. To uncover their structural design principles, we defined ``network motifs,'' patterns of interconnections occurring in complex networks at numbers that are significantly higher than those in randomized networks. We found such motifs in networks from biochemistry, neurobiology, ecology, and engineering. The motifs shared by ecological food webs were distinct from the motifs shared by the genetic networks of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae or from those found in the World Wide Web. Similar motifs were found in networks that perform information processing, even though they describe elements as different as biomolecules within a cell and synaptic connections between neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Motifs may thus define universal classes of networks. This approach may uncover the basic building blocks of most networks.

  5. Survivability of public transit network based on network structure entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bai-Bai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Shu-Bin; Li, Yun-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have collected 195 bus routes and 1433 bus stations of Jinan city as sample date to build up the public transit geospatial network model by applying space L method, until May 2014. Then, by analyzing the topological properties of public transit geospatial network model, which include degree and degree distribution, average shortest path length, clustering coefficient and betweenness, we get the conclusion that public transit network is a typical complex network with scale-free and small-world characteristics. Furthermore, in order to analyze the survivability of public transit network, we define new network structure entropy based on betweenness importance, and prove its correctness by giving that the new network structure entropy has the same statistical characteristics with network efficiency. Finally, the "inflexion zone" is discovered, which can be taken as the momentous indicator to determine the public transit network failure.

  6. Similar sequence matching supporting variable-length and variable-tolerance continuous queries on time-series

    E-print Network

    Whang, Kyu-Young

    on time-series data stream Hyo-Sang Lim a , Kyu-Young Whang a,*, Yang-Sae Moon b a Department of Computer,8,17,18,21,27]. Recently, the data stream has become of growing importance with new requirements due to advances in network.-S. Lim), kywhang@mozart.kaist.ac.kr (K.-Y. Whang), ysmoon@kangwon.ac.kr (Y.-S. Moon). Available online

  7. Mobile infostation network technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajappan, Gowri; Acharya, Joydeep; Liu, Hongbo; Mandayam, Narayan; Seskar, Ivan; Yates, Roy

    2006-05-01

    Inefficient use of network resources on the battlefield is a serious liability: if an asset communicates with the network command for data-a terrain map, for instance-it ties up the end-to-end network resources. When many such assets contend for data simultaneously, traffic is limited by the slowest link along the path from the network command to the asset. A better approach is for a local server, known as an infostation, to download data on an anticipated-need basis when the network load is low. The infostation can then dump data when needed to the assets over a high-speed wireless connection. The infostation serves the local assets over an OFDM-based wireless data link that has MIMO enhancements for high data rate and robustness. We aim for data rate in excess of 100 Mbps, spectral efficiency in excess of 5 bits/sec/Hz, and robustness to poor channel conditions and jammers. We propose an adaptive physical layer that determines power levels, modulation schemes, and the MIMO enhancements to use based on the channel state and the level of interference in the system. We also incorporate the idea of superuser: a user who is allowed preferential use of the high data rate link. We propose a MAC that allows for this priority-based bandwidth allocation scheme. The proposed infostation MAC is integrated tightly with the physical layer through a cross-layer design. We call the proposed infostation PHY, MAC, and network technology, collectively, as the Mobile Infostation Network Technology (MINT).

  8. Applications of Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagam, P. Santhi

    A social network [2] is a description of the social structure between actors, mostly persons, groups or organizations. It indicates the ways in which they are connected with each other by some relationship such as friendship, kinship, finance exchange etc. In a nutshell, when the person uses already known/unknown people to create new contacts, it forms social networking. The social network is not a new concept rather it can be formed when similar people interact with each other directly or indirectly to perform particular task. Examples of social networks include a friendship networks, collaboration networks, co-authorship networks, and co-employees networks which depict the direct interaction among the people. There are also other forms of social networks, such as entertainment networks, business Networks, citation networks, and hyperlink networks, in which interaction among the people is indirect. Generally, social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations and assists in improving interactive knowledge sharing, interoperability and collaboration.

  9. Network design tool for EHF satellite communications networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvell, S.; Brown, G. J.

    1983-06-01

    This document describes the design concept of the network design tool. The network design tool (NDT) is a collection of analytical techniques, algorithms and simulation methods that may be used to characterize the performance of a computer communication network. Much work has been done over the past several years in network performance analysis and many techniques have been developed or proposed. Each of these methods applies to a particular aspect of the network design and is based on a particular modeling point of view. We define the computer communication network and then describe the different ways the network may be modeled. Each network model is related to the particular design problem being addressed. The various analytical approaches are briefly described and their relationship to the network models discussed. Chapter 2 is a survey of the major approaches to specific network design problems while chapters 3 and 4 discuss two fairly well defined areas of network analysis: topological design/optimization and protocol validation. Chapter 5 is a survey of network design tools presently available locally or on the advanced research projects agency network (ARPANET). Finally, chapter 6 presents an outline of the NDT specification.

  10. Social Network Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, Philip

    2008-05-01

    Social networks are websites (or software that distributes media online) where users can distribute content to either a list of friends on that site or to anyone who surfs onto their page, and where those friends can interact and discuss the content. By linking to friends online, the users’ personal content (pictures, songs, favorite movies, diaries, websites, and so on) is dynamically distributed, and can "become viral", that is, get spread rapidly as more people see it and spread it themselves. Social networks are immensely popular around the planet, especially with younger users. The biggest social networks are Facebook and MySpace; an IYA2009 user already exists on Facebook, and one will be created for MySpace (in fact, several NASA satellites such as GLAST and Swift already have successful MySpace pages). Twitter is another network where data distribution is more limited; it is more like a mini-blog, but is very popular. IYA2009 already has a Twitter page, and will be updated more often with relevant information. In this talk I will review the existing social networks, show people how and why they are useful, and give them the tools they need to contribute meaningfully to IYA's online reach.

  11. Analysis of space network loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Mark; Larrson, Gus

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) consists of several geosynchronous communications satellites, in addition to ground support facilities. Space Network management must predict years in advance what network resources are necessary to adequately satisfy all SN users. Similarly, users of the Space Network must know throughout all stages of mission planning and operations to what extent their communication support requirements can be met. NASA, at the Goddard Space Flight Center, performs Space Network and Mission Modeling using The Network Planning and Analysis System (NPAS), to determine the answers to these questions.

  12. Functions of neuronal network motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunguang

    2008-09-01

    It was recently found that neuronal (and many other) networks contain some significantly recurring wiring patterns, termed “network motifs,” which are believed to be basic building blocks of these networks and to perform important functional roles in them. We study the functions of neuronal network motifs by computational modeling. We use both the firing-rate and integrate-and-fire models to model the neuronal network motifs. Several interesting functions and dynamics are found in the neuronal network motifs, such as the acceleration and delay of response and long- and short-term memory.

  13. Scalable network-on-chip architecture for configurable neural networks Dmitri Vainbrand

    E-print Network

    Ginosar, Ran

    Scalable network-on-chip architecture for configurable neural networks Dmitri Vainbrand , Ran: Available online 13 August 2010 Keywords: Networks on Chip Reconfigurable neural networks Hardware architectural challenge for hardware implementation of reconfigurable neural networks. We perform an analytical

  14. A Network Primer: Full-Fledged Educational Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Ariella

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some of the factors included in choosing appropriate computer networks for the classroom. Describes such networks as those produced by Apple Computer, Corvus Systems, Velan, Berkeley Softworks, Tandy, LAN-TECH, Unisys, and International Business Machines (IBM). (TW)

  15. Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulations Electric Power Supply Chain Networks

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Transportation Network Equilibrium Reformulations of Electric Power Supply Chain Networks Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 and Department of Finance and Operations Management Isenberg School of Management University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 and Zugang Liu Department of Finance

  16. SECURITY AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Security Comm. Networks. (2010)

    E-print Network

    Aloul, Fadi

    2010-01-01

    and wireless networks are being attacked and hacked on continuous basis. One of the critical pieces the functionality of port scanning detection. Experiments are carried out in both wired and wireless networks

  17. Characterization of network traffic on a local area network 

    E-print Network

    Suravarapu, Prasad Devi

    1995-01-01

    and digital filtering in the Fourier domain. A network traffic characterization tool is developed based on the above methodology. Index Items: Local-area networks, trace analysis, characterization, simulation, modeling, TCP/IP internetworks...

  18. Flexible application driven network striping over Wireless Wide Area Networks

    E-print Network

    Qureshi, Asfandyar

    2005-01-01

    Inverse multiplexing, or network striping, allows the construction of a high-bandwidth virtual channel from a collection of multiple low-bandwidth network channels. Striping systems usually employ a packet scheduling policy ...

  19. Thermodynamics of random reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jakob; Kleidon, Axel; Dittrich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erd?s-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha) and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa -1.5 for linear and -1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks. PMID:25723751

  20. Network topology mapper

    DOEpatents

    Quist, Daniel A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gavrilov, Eugene M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fisk, Michael E. (Jemez, NM)

    2008-01-15

    A method enables the topology of an acyclic fully propagated network to be discovered. A list of switches that comprise the network is formed and the MAC address cache for each one of the switches is determined. For each pair of switches, from the MAC address caches the remaining switches that see the pair of switches are located. For each pair of switches the remaining switches are determined that see one of the pair of switches on a first port and the second one of the pair of switches on a second port. A list of insiders is formed for every pair of switches. It is determined whether the insider for each pair of switches is a graph edge and adjacent ones of the graph edges are determined. A symmetric adjacency matrix is formed from the graph edges to represent the topology of the data link network.

  1. Network acceleration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  2. Controllability analysis of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Anna; Hörnquist, Michael

    2007-05-01

    The concept of controllability of linear systems from control theory is applied to networks inspired by biology. A node is in this context controllable if an external signal can be applied which can adjust the level (e.g., protein concentration) of the node in a finite time to an arbitrary value, regardless of the levels of the other nodes. The property of being downstream of the node to which the input is applied turns out to be a necessary but not a sufficient condition for being controllable. An interpretation of the controllability matrix, when applied to networks, is also given. Finally, two case studies are provided in order to better explain the concepts, as well as some results for a gene regulatory network of fission yeast.

  3. Practical emotional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ehsan; Akbarzadeh-T, M-R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a limbic-based artificial emotional neural network (LiAENN) for a pattern recognition problem. LiAENN is a novel computational neural model of the emotional brain that models emotional situations such as anxiety and confidence in the learning process, the short paths, the forgetting processes, and inhibitory mechanisms of the emotional brain. In the model, the learning weights are adjusted by the proposed anxious confident decayed brain emotional learning rules (ACDBEL). In engineering applications, LiAENN is utilized in facial detection, and emotion recognition. According to the comparative results on ORL and Yale datasets, LiAENN shows a higher accuracy than other applied emotional networks such as brain emotional learning (BEL) and emotional back propagation (EmBP) based networks. PMID:25078111

  4. Synchronization in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  5. Fuzzy Multiresolution Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Li; Qigang, Shang; Na, Lei

    A fuzzy multi-resolution neural network (FMRANN) based on particle swarm algorithm is proposed to approximate arbitrary nonlinear function. The active function of the FMRANN consists of not only the wavelet functions, but also the scaling functions, whose translation parameters and dilation parameters are adjustable. A set of fuzzy rules are involved in the FMRANN. Each rule either corresponding to a subset consists of scaling functions, or corresponding to a sub-wavelet neural network consists of wavelets with same dilation parameters. Incorporating the time-frequency localization and multi-resolution properties of wavelets with the ability of self-learning of fuzzy neural network, the approximation ability of FMRANN can be remarkable improved. A particle swarm algorithm is adopted to learn the translation and dilation parameters of the wavelets and adjusting the shape of membership functions. Simulation examples are presented to validate the effectiveness of FMRANN.

  6. The LCOGT Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shporer, Avi; Brown, Tim; Lister, Tim; Street, Rachel; Tsapras, Yiannis; Bianco, Federica; Fulton, Benjamin; Howell, Andy

    2011-11-01

    Motivated by the increasing need for observational resources for the study of time varying astronomy, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a private foundation, whose goal is to build a global network of robotic telescopes for scientific research and education. Once completed, the network will become a unique tool, capable of continuous monitoring from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The network currently includes 2 × 2.0 m telescopes, already making an impact in the field of exoplanet research. In the next few years they will be joined by at least 12 × 1.0 m and 20 × 0.4 m telescopes. The increasing amount of LCOGT observational resources in the coming years will be of great service to the astronomical community in general, and the exoplanet community in particular.

  7. Shareholding Networks in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki

    2005-06-01

    The Japanese shareholding network existing at the end of March 2002 is studied empirically. The network is constructed from 2,303 listed companies and 53 non-listed financial institutions. We consider this network as a directed graph by drawing edges from shareholders to stock corporations. The lengths of the shareholder lists vary with the companies, and the most comprehensive lists contain the top 30 shareholders. Consequently, the distribution of incoming edges has an upper bound, while that of outgoing edges has no bound. The distribution of outgoing degrees is well explained by the power law function with an exponential tail. The exponent in the power law range is ? = 1.7. To understand these features from the viewpoint of a company's growth, we consider the correlations between the outgoing degree and the company's age, profit, and total assets.

  8. Social Networks and Health.

    PubMed

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe. PMID:26153011

  9. Network systems security analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail

    2015-05-01

    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  10. LCOGT network observatory operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Andrew; Hjelstrom, Annie; Boroson, Todd; Burleson, Ben; Conway, Patrick; De Vera, Jon; Elphick, Mark; Haworth, Brian; Rosing, Wayne; Saunders, Eric; Thomas, Doug; White, Gary; Willis, Mark; Walker, Zach

    2014-08-01

    We describe the operational capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We summarize our hardware and software for maintaining and monitoring network health. We focus on methodologies to utilize the automated system to monitor availability of sites, instruments and telescopes, to monitor performance, permit automatic recovery, and provide automatic error reporting. The same jTCS control system is used on telescopes of apertures 0.4m, 0.8m, 1m and 2m, and for multiple instruments on each. We describe our network operational model, including workloads, and illustrate our current tools, and operational performance indicators, including telemetry and metrics reporting from on-site reductions. The system was conceived and designed to establish effective, reliable autonomous operations, with automatic monitoring and recovery - minimizing human intervention while maintaining quality. We illustrate how far we have been able to achieve that.

  11. Hyperswitch Communication Network Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John C.; Chow, Edward T.; Priel, Moshe; Upchurch, Edwin T.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperswitch Communications Network (HCN) computer is prototype multiple-processor computer being developed. Incorporates improved version of hyperswitch communication network described in "Hyperswitch Network For Hypercube Computer" (NPO-16905). Designed to support high-level software and expansion of itself. HCN computer is message-passing, multiple-instruction/multiple-data computer offering significant advantages over older single-processor and bus-based multiple-processor computers, with respect to price/performance ratio, reliability, availability, and manufacturing. Design of HCN operating-system software provides flexible computing environment accommodating both parallel and distributed processing. Also achieves balance among following competing factors; performance in processing and communications, ease of use, and tolerance of (and recovery from) faults.

  12. Neural network technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.

    1991-01-01

    A whole new arena of computer technologies is now beginning to form. Still in its infancy, neural network technology is a biologically inspired methodology which draws on nature's own cognitive processes. The Software Technology Branch has provided a software tool, Neural Execution and Training System (NETS), to industry, government, and academia to facilitate and expedite the use of this technology. NETS is written in the C programming language and can be executed on a variety of machines. Once a network has been debugged, NETS can produce a C source code which implements the network. This code can then be incorporated into other software systems. Described here are various software projects currently under development with NETS and the anticipated future enhancements to NETS and the technology.

  13. The Social Network Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunus, Peter

    Online social networking is an important part in the everyday life of college students. Despite the increasing popularity of online social networking among students and faculty members, its educational benefits are largely untested. This paper presents our experience in using social networking applications and video content distribution websites as a complement of traditional classroom education. In particular, the solution has been based on effective adaptation, extension and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material to students on mobile platforms like iPods and 3 rd generation mobile phones. The goals of the proposed educational platform, described in this paper, are to make the learning experience more engaging, to encourage collaborative work and knowledge sharing among students, and to provide an interactive platform for the educators to reach students and deliver lecture material in a totally new way.

  14. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.

    2011-12-01

    The CSN is a network of low-cost accelerometers deployed in the Pasadena, CA region. It is a prototype network with the goal of demonstrating the importance of dense measurements in determining the rapid lateral variations in ground motion due to earthquakes. The main product of the CSN is a map of peak ground produced within seconds of significant local earthquakes that can be used as a proxy for damage. Examples of this are shown using data from a temporary network in Long Beach, CA. Dense measurements in buildings are also being used to determine the state of health of structures. In addition to fixed sensors, portable sensors such as smart phones are also used in the network. The CSN has necessitated several changes in the standard design of a seismic network. The first is that the data collection and processing is done in the "cloud" (Google cloud in this case) for robustness and the ability to handle large impulsive loads (earthquakes). Second, the database is highly de-normalized (i.e. station locations are part of waveform and event-detection meta data) because of the mobile nature of the sensors. Third, since the sensors are hosted and/or owned by individuals, the privacy of the data is very important. The location of fixed sensors is displayed on maps as sensor counts in block-wide cells, and mobile sensors are shown in a similar way, with the additional requirement to inhibit tracking that at least two must be present in a particular cell before any are shown. The raw waveform data are only released to users outside of the network after a felt earthquake.

  15. Hyporheic network (Hyporheisches Netzwerk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Fleckenstein, J.; Hoehn, E.; Nützmann, G.; Radke, M.; Saenger, N.; Schmidt, C.

    2009-04-01

    The transition zone between surface waters like streams and rivers and the adjacent aquifers is a zone of paramount ecological importance. Due to the complexity of exchange processes, their temporal variability, and the spatial heterogeneity of the ecotone, the understanding and ability to modell the hydrodynamic, hydrochemical, and (micro-)biological processes is still limited. Therefore, a network of scientists and practitioners involved in research and management of hyporheic zones in German-speaking countries (Germany, Switzerland, Austria) is propsed in analogy to the hyporheic network (www.hyporheic.net) in the UK. The initiators of the network anticipate that an intense scientific exchange of knowledge and methods will improve our understanding of hyporheic processes and in turn our ability to manage them. The network will facilitate the formation of research groups to identify and understand key processes and their interactions. Research will be focused at a few major study sites, to bring together different expertise to allow more detailed, interdisciplinary investigations. Those sites can serve as crystallisation points for new research projects. Exchange within the network will be organized via an internet platform (www.hyporheisches-netzwerk.de), regular workshops, and several working groups dealing with different topics. A fast knowledge transfer is a further aim of the collaboration in order to shorten the time-lag between scientific findings and their implementation into management practice. Water resources management authorities should also be involved in the network to address urgent problems and direct some capacities to answer those questions. For instance, changes in geomorphology, water and temperature regimes as well as other anthropogenic impacts might increase the need for cold water refugia and altered flow regimes to maintain biodiversity. Additional qualitative improvements are required by the EU water framework directive.

  16. Introduction to Network Science 1 Percolation and Network Resilience

    E-print Network

    Safro, Ilya

    Introduction to Network Science 1 Percolation and Network Resilience Percolation is a process Science 2 Percolation and Configuration Model gc G i generating function for the degree distribution #12;Introduction to Network Science 3 j is on and its k neighbors are not in gc Reminder: excess degree

  17. Validating Large Scale Networks Using Temporary Local Scale Networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA NRCS Soil Climate Analysis Network and NOAA Climate Reference Networks are nationwide meteorological and land surface data networks with soil moisture measurements in the top layers of soil. There is considerable interest in scaling these point measurements to larger scales for validating ...

  18. Spectral Networks and Deep Locally Connected Networks on Graphs

    E-print Network

    LeCun, Yann

    Convolutional Neural Networks are extremely efficient architectures in image and audio recognition tasks, thanks Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been extremely succesful in machine learning prob- lems where is the intermediate representation arising from deep neural networks. Although the spatial convolutional structure can

  19. Spectral Networks and Deep Locally Connected Networks on Graphs

    E-print Network

    LeCun, Yann

    Convolutional Neural Networks are extremely efficient architectures in image and audio recognition tasks, thanks Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been extremely succesful in machine learning prob­ lems where is the intermediate representation arising from deep neural networks. Although the spatial convolutional structure can

  20. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  1. NETWORK PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION USING A QUEUEING NETWORK MODEL

    E-print Network

    Bierlaire, Michel

    NETWORK PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION USING A QUEUEING NETWORK MODEL Carolina Osorio and Michel. Our an- alytic queueing network model captures this correlation and can therefore explicitly model a detailed description of congestion and analytical tractability. The model is derived from the queueing

  2. Wavelength Assignment in Optical Networks with Imprecise Network State Information

    E-print Network

    Ramasubramanian, Srinivasan

    Wavelength Assignment in Optical Networks with Imprecise Network State Information Satyajeet Ahuja assignment (RWA) in wavelength-routed all-optical networks is critical for achieving high efficiency over advertisement and the estimated average traffic over the link. The estimated probabilities are then used to find

  3. Tidal networks 2. Watershed delineation and comparative network morphology

    E-print Network

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    of three, we quantify various tidal network properties including common power law relationships which have common power law relationships quantified for terrestrial systems to tidal systems and use these analysesTidal networks 2. Watershed delineation and comparative network morphology Andrea Rinaldo,1 Sergio

  4. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Leting

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  5. The Community Science Workshop Network Story: Becoming a Networked Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Community Science Workshops (CSWs)--with funding from the S.D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation--created a network among the CSW sites in California. The goals of the CSW Network project have been to improve programs, build capacity throughout the Network, and establish new sites. Inverness Research has been…

  6. MMS: An Autonomic Network-Layer Foundation for Network Management

    E-print Network

    Ng, T. S. Eugene

    1 MMS: An Autonomic Network-Layer Foundation for Network Management Hemant Gogineni, Albert-Management System (MMS), a network-layer subsystem that provides robust autonomic support for management plane communications. We demonstrate the practicality of the MMS via a fully functional implementation that runs

  7. Cognitive Radio Network as Wireless Sensor Network (II): Security Consideration

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    the convergence of radar and communication systems into a unified cognitive network. This paper studiesCognitive Radio Network as Wireless Sensor Network (II): Security Consideration Feng Lin, Zhen Hu, Shujie Hou, Jingzhi Yu, Changchun Zhang, Nan Guo, Michael Wicks, Robert C. Qiu, Kenneth Currie Cognitive

  8. Gene Regulatory Networks and Causality Causal Gaussian Bayesian Networks

    E-print Network

    Nuel, Gregory

    Gene Regulatory Networks and Causality Causal Gaussian Bayesian Networks Applications Estimation of causal effects from observational and intervention gene expression data A. RAU1, F. JAFFRÃ?ZIC1 and G and G. NUEL Causal effects from observational and intervention experiments #12;Gene Regulatory Networks

  9. Minimizing Computation in Convolutional Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    Minimizing Computation in Convolutional Neural Networks Jason Cong and Bingjun Xiao Computer. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been successfully used for many computer vision applications. It would Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were extended from artificial neural networks (ANNs) and customized

  10. Scalable information-sharing network management

    E-print Network

    Guo, Nina X. (Nina Xiaoyu)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyzes scalable information-sharing network management. It looks into one of the large problems in network management today: finding information across different network domains. Information-sharing network ...

  11. Scalable Information-Sharing Network Management

    E-print Network

    Guo, Nina X.

    2011-06-07

    This thesis analyzes scalable information-sharing network management. It looks into one of the large problems in network management today: finding information across different network domains. Information-sharing network ...

  12. Searching for 2D Spatial Network Holes 

    E-print Network

    Reitsma, Femke; Engel, Shane

    2004-01-01

    Research involving different forms of networks, such as internet networks, social networks, and cellular networks, has increasingly become an important field of study. From this work, a variety of different scaling laws ...

  13. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith D.; Hemmert, Karl Scott

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  14. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  15. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites. PMID:19492691

  16. Nested neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram

    1988-01-01

    Nested neural networks, consisting of small interconnected subnetworks, allow for the storage and retrieval of neural state patterns of different sizes. The subnetworks are naturally categorized by layers of corresponding to spatial frequencies in the pattern field. The storage capacity and the error correction capability of the subnetworks generally increase with the degree of connectivity between layers (the nesting degree). Storage of only few subpatterns in each subnetworks results in a vast storage capacity of patterns and subpatterns in the nested network, maintaining high stability and error correction capability.

  17. ASP Networking Sessions Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolone, L. M.

    2008-06-01

    In response to evaluation conducted during the Annual Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 2006, ``Engaging the EPO Community: Best Practices, New Approaches,'' loosely structured networking sessions were added by the program committee in an effort to assist conference attendees in achieving their stated conference goals. The co-chairs of the 2007 conference invited registrants to serve as facilitators for twelve networking sessions. This work aims to summarize the conversations that took place during those sessions, based upon notes and artifacts provided to the author by the session facilitators.

  18. Hybrid network intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    We report on a machine learning classifier that can be used to discover the patterns hidden within large networking data flows. It utilizes an existing intrusion detection system (IDS) as an oracle to learn a faster, less resource intensive normalcy classifier as a front-end to a hybrid network IDS. This system has the capability to recognize new attacks that are similar to known attack signatures. It is also more highly scalable and distributable than the signature-based IDS. The new hybrid design also allows distributed updates and retraining of the normalcy classifier to stay up-to-date with current threats.

  19. The Ribonucleoprotein Csr Network

    PubMed Central

    Seyll, Ethel; Van Melderen, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleoprotein complexes are essential regulatory components in bacteria. In this review, we focus on the carbon storage regulator (Csr) network, which is well conserved in the bacterial world. This regulatory network is composed of the CsrA master regulator, its targets and regulators. CsrA binds to mRNA targets and regulates translation either negatively or positively. Binding to small non-coding RNAs controls activity of this protein. Expression of these regulators is tightly regulated at the level of transcription and stability by various global regulators (RNAses, two-component systems, alarmone). We discuss the implications of these complex regulations in bacterial adaptation. PMID:24217225

  20. US EPA Regional Laboratory Network

    E-print Network

    Environmental Protection Agency EPA 910-R-13-005 #12;i ANNUAL REPORT 2012US EPA REGIONAL LABORATORY NETWORK ............Environmental Response Laboratory Network EPA...............US Environmental Protection Agency GAO

  1. Video transmission over wireless networks 

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Shengjie

    2005-08-29

    Compressed video bitstream transmissions over wireless networks are addressed in this work. We first consider error control and power allocation for transmitting wireless video over CDMA networks in conjunction with multiuser detection. We map a...

  2. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  3. Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Explosive Percolation in Directed Networks Diego Alcala and Katherine Sytwu With Shane Squires ­ Directed and undirected networks ­ Percolation ­ Explosive percolation · Methodology · Results · Conclusion, infrastructure, etc. · Grow by the addition of links · New class of transitions: "explosive percolation" Taken

  4. Teletraffic Research Centre TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK

    E-print Network

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    Teletraffic Research Centre TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK ADVICE, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INDEPENDENT academia's longest-lived telecommunications research concentrations, focused on industrial and applied and analysis of telecommunications systems and networks. We bring state of the art research skills

  5. Congestion management in electricity networks

    E-print Network

    Holmberg, Pärr; Lazarczyk, Ewa

    2012-04-25

    Wholesale electricity markets use different market designs to handle congestion in the transmission network. We compare nodal, zonal and discriminatory pricing in general networks with transmission constraints and loop flows. We conclude...

  6. Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is the RDCRN? Aims of the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Contact Us RDCRN Members Login Accessibility Disclaimer The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network is an initiative of the Office ...

  7. Finding communities in sparse networks

    E-print Network

    Singh, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Spectral algorithms based on matrix representations of networks are often used to detect communities but classic spectral methods based on the adjacency matrix and its variants fail to detect communities in sparse networks. New spectral methods based on non-backtracking random walks have recently been introduced that successfully detect communities in many sparse networks. However, the spectrum of non-backtracking random walks ignores hanging trees in networks that can contain information about the community structure of networks. We introduce the reluctant backtracking operators that explicitly account for hanging trees as they admit a small probability of returning to the immediately previous node unlike the non-backtracking operators that forbid an immediate return. We show that the reluctant backtracking operators can detect communities in certain sparse networks where the non-backtracking operators cannot while performing comparably on benchmark stochastic block model networks and real world networks. We...

  8. Characteristics of Small Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Richards, Whitman

    2010-07-27

    Two dozen networks are analyzed using three parameters that attempt to capture important properties of social networks: leadership L, member bonding B, and diversity of expertise D. The first two of these parameters have ...

  9. The dynamics of genetic networks

    E-print Network

    Thattai, Mukund, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Living cells are made up of networks of interacting genes, proteins and biochemicals. Simple interactions between network components can lead to complex collective dynamics. Cells use these emergent dynamical properties ...

  10. Delay estimation in computer networks 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Nicholas Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Computer networks are becoming increasingly large and complex; more so with the recent penetration of the internet into all walks of life. It is essential to be able to monitor and to analyse networks in a timely and ...

  11. Towards secure multiresolution network coding

    E-print Network

    Medard, Muriel

    Emerging practical schemes indicate that algebraic mixing of different packets by means of random linear network coding can increase the throughput and robustness of streaming services over wireless networks. However, ...

  12. Mining Social Networks for Recommendation

    E-print Network

    Ester, Martin

    Mining Social Networks for Recommendation Mohsen Jamali & Martin Ester Simon Fraser University based Model based Link prediction Distrust Summary Introduction Jamali & Ester: Mining Social Networks based Link prediction Distrust Summary Flood of information · Conventional (industrial / mass) media

  13. Onion structure and network robustness

    E-print Network

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.026106

    2011-01-01

    In a recent work [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], Schneider et al. proposed a new measure for network robustness and investigated optimal networks with respect to this quantity. For networks with a power-law degree distribution, the optimized networks have an onion structure-high-degree vertices forming a core with radially decreasing degrees and an over-representation of edges within the same radial layer. In this paper we relate the onion structure to graphs with good expander properties (another characterization of robust network) and argue that networks of skewed degree distributions with large spectral gaps (and thus good expander properties) are typically onion structured. Furthermore, we propose a generative algorithm producing synthetic scale-free networks with onion structure, circumventing the optimization procedure of Schneider et al. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks and random removals.

  14. Intervention in gene regulatory networks 

    E-print Network

    Choudhary, Ashish

    2006-10-30

    In recent years Boolean Networks (BN) and Probabilistic Boolean Networks (PBN) have become popular paradigms for modeling gene regulation. A PBN is a collection of BNs in which the gene state vector transitions according to the rules of one...

  15. Network coding for anonymous broadcast

    E-print Network

    Sergeev, Ivan A

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the use of network coding for anonymous broadcast. Network coding, the technique of transmitting or storing mixtures of messages rather than individual messages, can provide anonymity with its mixing ...

  16. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high performance networks is a consistent, widely deployed, well-maintained toolset that is optimized for wide area, high-speed data transfer (e.g. GridFTP) that allows scientists to easily utilize the services and capabilities that the network provides. Network test and measurement is an important part of ensuring that these tools and network services are functioning correctly. One example of a tool in this area is the recently developed perfSONAR, which has already shown its usefulness in fault diagnosis during the recent deployment of high-performance data movers at NERSC and ORNL. On the other hand, it is clear that there is significant work to be done in the area of authentication and access control - there are currently compatibility problems and differing requirements between the authentication systems in use at different facilities, and the policies and mechanisms in use at different facilities are sometimes in conflict. Finally, long-term software maintenance was of concern for many attendees. Scientists rely heavily on a large deployed base of software that does not have secure programmatic funding. Software packages for which this is true include data transfer tools such as GridFTP as well as identity management and other software infrastructure that forms a critical part of the Open Science Grid and the Earth System Grid.

  17. Gateways among Academic Computer Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCredie, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Local area networks for intracampus facilities and national inter-campus networks are discussed. Descriptions of some of these networks (ARPAnet, BITNET, CSNET, EDUNET, MAILNET, RLIN, AND USENET) are provided that illustrate the wide range of academic applications currently available. (Author/MLW)

  18. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  19. The Johns Hopkins Hospital Network

    PubMed Central

    Tolchin, Stephen G.; Barta, Wendy; Harkness, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins Hospital has initiated an ambitious program to apply modern technologies to the development of a new, comprehensive clinical information system. One component of this system is a networking technology for supporting the integration of diverse and functionally distinct information systems. This paper discusses the selection of the networking technology implemented at JHH, issues and problems, networking concepts, protocols and reliability.

  20. Bayesian Networks Applications in Genetics

    E-print Network

    Nuel, Gregory

    Bayesian Networks Applications in Genetics Segregation, IBD and Linkage from the Perspective the Perspective of BNT #12;Bayesian Networks Applications in Genetics Outline 1 Bayesian Networks Model and Notations Belief Propagation Exact Inference 2 Applications in Genetics Segregation IBD Linkage G. NUEL

  1. Energy efficiency in wireless networks 

    E-print Network

    Jung, Eun-Sun

    2005-11-01

    . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 26 6 Total data delivered per joule: fixed network load. : : : : : : : : : : : : : 27 7 Aggregate throughput: fixed data rate (PSMS) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 28 8 Total data delivered per joule: fixed data rate (PSMS) : : : : : : : : : : : 29 9... Aggregate throughput: dynamic network load. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 34 xi FIGURE Page 10 Total data delivered per joule: dynamic network load. : : : : : : : : : : : 35 11 Aggregate throughput: dynamic rate (PSMS) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 36 12 Total...

  2. FI & IITM & ACN Network Architectures

    E-print Network

    Carle, Georg

    FI & IITM & ACN SS 2013 Network Architectures and Services NET 2013-08-1 Proceedings), and Autonomous Communication Networks (ACN) Technische Universität München Summer Semester 2013 Georg Carle, Marc, Germany, 30.04.-31.07.2013 #12;#12;Network Architectures and Servies NET 2013-08-1 FI & IITM & ACN SS 2013

  3. NASA Integrated Space Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Wallace; Wright, Nate; Prior, Mike; Bhasin, Kul

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Network for Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) has been in the definition phase since 2010. It is intended to integrate NASA s three existing network elements, i.e., the Space Network, Near Earth Network, and Deep Space Network, into a single network. In addition to the technical merits, the primary purpose of the Integrated Network is to achieve a level of operating cost efficiency significantly higher than it is today. Salient features of the Integrated Network include (a) a central system element that performs service management functions and user mission interfaces for service requests; (b) a set of common service execution equipment deployed at the all stations that provides return, forward, and radiometric data processing and delivery capabilities; (c) the network monitor and control operations for the entire integrated network are conducted remotely and centrally at a prime-shift site and rotating among three sites globally (a follow-the-sun approach); (d) the common network monitor and control software deployed at all three network elements that supports the follow-the-sun operations.

  4. Space-Time Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    Concept of space-time neural network affords distributed temporal memory enabling such network to model complicated dynamical systems mathematically and to recognize temporally varying spatial patterns. Digital filters replace synaptic-connection weights of conventional back-error-propagation neural network.

  5. NETWORK SECURITY: COMPROMISES AND COUNTERMEASURES

    E-print Network

    ddos traceback deception mining honey pot ABSTRACT Network security is a long-standing and wellNETWORK SECURITY: COMPROMISES AND COUNTERMEASURES Thomas C Bryan Department of Computing Sciences 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 thomas.bryan@villanova.edu KEY WORDS network security mimicry

  6. Sensor Networks Prof. Amol Deshpande

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    units Sensors sensing environmental properties e.g. temperature, humidity, light etc #12;Sensor Networks of sensors can be attached temperature, humidity, light, air pressure, vibration, gps etc Mica MoteMica MoteSensor Networks Prof. Amol Deshpande #12;Outline Brief description of sensor networks Applications

  7. The Careers Service Careers Network

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    The Careers Service Careers Network bristol.ac.uk//careers/employers/ partnership/ The Careers Network is a database of Bristol alumni who want to offer career insights to current students. They may do this by providing a written testimonial about their career and/or agreeing to answer questions by email. The network

  8. Breaking Free with Wireless Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischman, John

    2002-01-01

    Discusses wireless local area networks (LANs) which typically consist of laptop computers that connect to fixed access points via infrared or radio signals. Topics include wide area networks; personal area networks; problems, including limitations of available bandwidth, interference, and security concerns; use in education; interoperability;…

  9. Discovering natural communities in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Angsheng; Li, Jiankou; Pan, Yicheng

    2015-10-01

    Understanding and detecting natural communities in networks have been a fundamental challenge in networks, and in science generally. Recently, we proposed a hypothesis that homophyly/kinship is the principle of natural communities based on real network experiments, proposed a model of networks to explore the principle of natural selection in nature evolving, and proposed the measure of structure entropy of networks. Here we proposed a community finding algorithm by our measure of structure entropy of networks. We found that our community finding algorithm exactly identifies almost all natural communities of networks generated by natural selection, if any, and that the algorithm exactly identifies or precisely approximates almost all the communities planted in the networks of the existing models. We verified that our algorithm identifies or very well approximates the ground-truth communities of some real world networks, if the ground-truth communities are semantically well-defined, that our algorithm naturally finds the balanced communities, and that the communities found by our algorithm may have larger modularity than that by the algorithms based on modularity, for some networks. Our algorithm provides for the first time an approach to detecting and analyzing natural or true communities in real world networks. Our results demonstrate that structure entropy minimization is the principle of detecting the natural or true communities in large-scale networks.

  10. Evaluation of the National Network

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Evaluation of the National Network of Science Learning Centres: Final Report January 2008 #12;Evaluation of the National Network of Science Learning Centres The Wellcome Trust and the Department 7471 8000; Fax: 020 7736 0784 www.ghkint.com #12;Evaluation of the National Network of Science Learning

  11. Network Systems Administration Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lexington Community Coll., KY. Office of Institutional Research.

    In spring 1996, Lexington Community College (LCC) in Kentucky, conducted a survey to gather information on employment trends and educational needs in the field of network systems administration (NSA). NSA duties involve the installation and administration of network operating systems, applications software, and networking infrastructure;…

  12. Telecommunications Networking in Online Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the development of telecommunications networks and describes current technology being used for online information retrieval. Highlights include use for military and research needs; experiences in Europe versus those in the United States; value-added networks (VANs); local area networks (LANs) and personal computers; and the Integrated…

  13. Theorizing Network-Centric Activity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HaLevi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Networks and network-centric activity are increasingly prevalent in schools and school districts. In addition to ubiquitous social network tools like Facebook and Twitter, educational leaders deal with a wide variety of network organizational forms that include professional development, advocacy, informational networks and network-centric reforms.…

  14. Process-in-Network: A Comprehensive Network Processing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Urzaiz, Gabriel; Villa, David; Villanueva, Felix; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    A solid and versatile communications platform is very important in modern Ambient Intelligence (AmI) applications, which usually require the transmission of large amounts of multimedia information over a highly heterogeneous network. This article focuses on the concept of Process-in-Network (PIN), which is defined as the possibility that the network processes information as it is being transmitted, and introduces a more comprehensive approach than current network processing technologies. PIN can take advantage of waiting times in queues of routers, idle processing capacity in intermediate nodes, and the information that passes through the network. PMID:22969390

  15. Networking among Chevron Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linden, Margaret J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the process by which librarians at the Chevron and Gulf Oil Corporations managed the merger of corporation libraries and developed a framework for a company-wide library network. The discussion covers corporate policies for information exchange, shared resources, and cost control, and examines factors that led to the success of the…

  16. Critical Branching Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kello, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical…

  17. Networks for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Princeton, NJ.

    EDUCOM, the Inter University Communications Council, Inc., planned its 1972 spring conference as a forum for presentations, discussions, and informal meetings to review the present state and the future possibilities of computer networks for higher education. Speeches presented were specifically related to: (1) the current status and future plans…

  18. Abstract -C networks, fuzzy

    E-print Network

    Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

    pulses are summed and averaged with different weights during the time period of latent sumnution logic and memory circuits. The McCulloch-Rtts neuron model assumes that incomingand outgoing signalsmay Severallcgicalopentiomusing netwcrkswithMcCulla;h-pittsneurons. Multilayer neural networks usually use continuous

  19. Babylonian Resistor Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.; Lipscombe, Trevor C.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Babylonians had an iterative technique for numerically approximating the values of square roots. Their method can be physically implemented using series and parallel resistor networks. A recursive formula for the equivalent resistance R[subscript eq] is developed and converted into a nonrecursive solution for circuits using…

  20. Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi?niewski, M.; ?o??dek, P.; Fietkiewicz, K.; Krasnowski, M.; Polakowski, K.; Krygiel, H.; Laskowski, J.; Krzy?anowski, T.; Tyminski, Z.; Zar?ba, P.; Gozdalski, M.; Maciejewski, M.

    2012-09-01

    The PFN started in March 2004. Most of its observers are amateurs, members of Comets and Meteors Workshop. The network consists of 24 continuously working stations, where 46 sensitive CCTV video cameras and 3 DSLR Canon photo cameras with wide angle lenses operate. We create the PyFN software for trajectory and orbit calculation.

  1. Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi?niewski, M.; ?o??dek, P.; Olech, A.; Tyminski, Z.; Maciejewski, M.; Fietkiewicz, K.; Zar?ba, P.; Gozdalski, M.; Krzy?anowski, T.; Myszkiewicz, M.; Gawro?ski, M. P.; Polakowski, K.

    2015-10-01

    The PFN started in March 2004. Most of its observers are amateurs, members of Comets and Meteors Workshop. The network consists of 38 continuously working stations, where nearly 70 sensitive CCTV video and digital cameras operate. We create the PyFN software for trajectory and orbit calculation.

  2. Accessibility in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travençolo, B. A. N.; da F. Costa, L.

    2008-12-01

    This Letter describes a method for the quantification of the diversity of non-linear dynamics in complex networks as a consequence of self-avoiding random walks. The methodology is analyzed in the context of theoretical models and illustrated with respect to the characterization of the accessibility in urban streets.

  3. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  4. Managing the Cooperative Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, JoAn S.

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the management of not-for-profit corporations which provide computerized library networks highlights marketing, nonprofit constraints, multiple goals, consumer demands, professional commitment, external influences, motivation and control, dependence on charisma, management and altruism, hybrid organizations, and rational management.…

  5. WATERSHED INFORMATION NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Watershed Information Network is a set of about 30 web pages that are organized by topic. These pages access existing databases like the American Heritage Rivers Services database and Surf Your Watershed. WIN in itself has no data or data sets.
    L...

  6. Designing Networks for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskowski, Paul Luke

    2009-01-01

    The last decades have seen tremendous growth and transformation in the Internet's commercial landscape. Underneath this success, however, the underlying network architecture has shown a marked resistance to change; it is now described as stagnant and ossified. Numerous design proposals have been developed by researchers, implemented in code, and…

  7. Programmable Multimode Quantum Networks

    E-print Network

    Seiji Armstrong; Jean-Francois Morizur; Jiri Janousek; Boris Hage; Nicolas Treps; Ping Koy Lam; Hans-A. Bachor

    2012-08-29

    Entanglement between large numbers of quantum modes is the quintessential resource for future technologies such as the quantum internet. Conventionally the generation of multimode entanglement in optics requires complex layouts of beam-splitters and phase shifters in order to transform the input modes in to entangled modes. These networks need substantial modification for every new set of entangled modes to be generated. Here we report on the highly versatile and efficient generation of various multimode entangled states with the ability to switch between different linear optics networks in real time. By defining our modes to be combinations of different spatial regions of one beam, we may use just one pair of multi-pixel detectors each with M photodiodes in order to measure N entangled modes, with a maximum number of N=M modes. We program virtual networks that are fully equivalent to the physical linear optics networks they are emulating. We present results for N=2 up to N=8 entangled modes here, including N=2,3,4 cluster states. Our approach introduces flexibility and scalability to multimode entanglement, two important attributes that are highly sought after in state of the art devices.

  8. (Network A) Blue Switch

    E-print Network

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    Network Layer IP and ICMP implementation Data Link Layer MAC addressing and VL concept Physical Layer 1 1 duplex, databus according to specification ·Commonly used in Avionics applications (Airbus A380, A400M potentially suitable for future manned space applications include ·High Data Integrity and Determinism

  9. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

    2006-10-24

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  10. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

    2007-09-18

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  11. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2010-01-26

    Various aspects and applications or microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  12. Architecting the Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chretien, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The word "architect" calls to mind a designer of buildings. An architect's job is to develop a structure to fit the client's needs, some of which are conflicting (or seem to be). When it comes to designing a campus network, IT infrastructure architects have a similar function. Like a building architect, an IT architect must develop a…

  13. Collaboration in social networks.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Marsili, Matteo; Pin, Paolo

    2012-03-20

    The very notion of social network implies that linked individuals interact repeatedly with each other. This notion allows them not only to learn successful strategies and adapt to them, but also to condition their own behavior on the behavior of others, in a strategic forward looking manner. Game theory of repeated games shows that these circumstances are conducive to the emergence of collaboration in simple games of two players. We investigate the extension of this concept to the case where players are engaged in a local contribution game and show that rationality and credibility of threats identify a class of Nash equilibria--that we call "collaborative equilibria"--that have a precise interpretation in terms of subgraphs of the social network. For large network games, the number of such equilibria is exponentially large in the number of players. When incentives to defect are small, equilibria are supported by local structures whereas when incentives exceed a threshold they acquire a nonlocal nature, which requires a "critical mass" of more than a given fraction of the players to collaborate. Therefore, when incentives are high, an individual deviation typically causes the collapse of collaboration across the whole system. At the same time, higher incentives to defect typically support equilibria with a higher density of collaborators. The resulting picture conforms with several results in sociology and in the experimental literature on game theory, such as the prevalence of collaboration in denser groups and in the structural hubs of sparse networks. PMID:22383559

  14. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS QUANTUM NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Fan, Xudong "Sherman"

    for quantum networks, which have applications in quantum computation, communication and metrology. Allen by poling speciality fibres that have improved axial strength. QUANTUM METROLOGY Precision work Science 316, 726­729 (2007) The idea behind quantum metrology is to use quantum mechanics to obtain highly precise

  15. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Work accomplished on the Deep Space Network (DSN) was described, including the following topics: supporting research and technology, advanced development and engineering, system implementation, and DSN operations pertaining to mission-independent or multiple-mission development as well as to support of flight projects.

  16. EBONEEUROPEAN BIODIVERSITY OBSERVATION NETWORK

    E-print Network

    EBONEEUROPEAN BIODIVERSITY OBSERVATION NETWORK Geert De Blust, Guy Laurijssens, Hans Van Calster of biodiversity monitoring through close collaboration of users and data providers #12;#12;Design of a monitoring-effectiveness Optimization of biodiversity monitoring through close collaboration of users and data providers Geert De Blust1

  17. Neural Networks and Micromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, Ernst; Baidyk, Tatiana; Wunsch, Donald C.

    The title of the book, "Neural Networks and Micromechanics," seems artificial. However, the scientific and technological developments in recent decades demonstrate a very close connection between the two different areas of neural networks and micromechanics. The purpose of this book is to demonstrate this connection. Some artificial intelligence (AI) methods, including neural networks, could be used to improve automation system performance in manufacturing processes. However, the implementation of these AI methods within industry is rather slow because of the high cost of conducting experiments using conventional manufacturing and AI systems. To lower the cost, we have developed special micromechanical equipment that is similar to conventional mechanical equipment but of much smaller size and therefore of lower cost. This equipment could be used to evaluate different AI methods in an easy and inexpensive way. The proved methods could be transferred to industry through appropriate scaling. In this book, we describe the prototypes of low cost microequipment for manufacturing processes and the implementation of some AI methods to increase precision, such as computer vision systems based on neural networks for microdevice assembly and genetic algorithms for microequipment characterization and the increase of microequipment precision.

  18. Prototyping distributed simulation networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doubleday, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    Durra is a declarative language designed to support application-level programming. The use of Durra is illustrated to describe a simple distributed application: a simulation of a collection of networked vehicle simulators. It is shown how the language is used to describe the application, its components and structure, and how the runtime executive provides for the execution of the application.

  19. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  20. Encyclopedia of Networked and

    E-print Network

    Liang, Huizhi "Elly"

    "--Provided by publisher. ISBN 978-1-59904-885-7 (hardcover) -- ISBN 978-1-59904-886-4 (e-book) 1. Business enterprises Snavely Cover Design: Lisa Tosheff Printed at: Yurchak Printing Inc. Published in the United States book documents the most relevant contributions to the introduction of networked, dynamic, agile

  1. Networking the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Indika; Scalzo, David; Tapscott, Stephen J; Kosak, Steven T; Groudine, Mark

    2010-07-01

    The nuclei of differentiating cells exhibit several fundamental principles of self-organization. They are composed of many dynamical units connected physically and functionally to each other--a complex network--and the different parts of the system are mutually adapted and produce a characteristic end state. A unique cell-specific signature emerges over time from complex interactions among constituent elements that delineate coordinate gene expression and chromosome topology. Each element itself consists of many interacting components, all dynamical in nature. Self-organizing systems can be simplified while retaining complex information using approaches that examine the relationship between elements, such as spatial relationships and transcriptional information. These relationships can be represented using well-defined networks. We hypothesize that during the process of differentiation, networks within the cell nucleus rewire according to simple rules, from which a higher level of order emerges. Studying the interaction within and among networks provides a useful framework for investigating the complex organization and dynamic function of the nucleus. PMID:20664641

  2. Evolving Digital Ecological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Aaron P.; Ofria, Charles

    2013-01-01

    “It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities” [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism). Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks) that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved). PMID:23533370

  3. Network Attacks CSC 348648

    E-print Network

    Fulp, Errin W.

    Attacks 7 Application DNS poisson, XSS, ... 4 Transport session hijack, port scan, SYN flood 3 Network use SYN flooding E. W. Fulp CSC 348·648 Fall 2014 2 Layer 2 Attacks · Medium Access Control (MAC size ­ An attacker can send a flood of fake ARP messages, each with a unique random MAC address (use

  4. Network Attacks CSC 348648

    E-print Network

    Fulp, Errin W.

    Attacks 7 Application DNS poisson, XSS, ... 4 Transport session hijack, port scan, SYN flood 3 Network use SYN flooding E. W. Fulp CSC 348·648 Fall 2014 2 Layer 2 Attacks . Medium Access Control (MAC a finite size -- An attacker can send a flood of fake ARP messages, each with a unique random MAC address

  5. Network Systems Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 17 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of network systems technician, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 17 units are as follows:…

  6. Secure Network Communications

    E-print Network

    Data Secure Network Communications FIPS 1402 Module v1.0 is defined as a dynamicallylinked library (DLL deterministic random number generation. Platform Module File Name Microsoft Windows XP SP3 FipsComm.dll is the dynamicallylinked library, FipsComm.dll. The physical cryptographic boundary contains the general purpose computing

  7. Diversity Networking Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    Join us at the APS Diversity Reception to relax, network with colleagues, and learn about programs and initiatives for women, underrepresented minorities, and LGBT physicists. You'll have a great time meeting friends in a supportive environment and making connections.

  8. Wireless Networks Mahalingam Ramkumar

    E-print Network

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    by exhaustive dialing of phone numbers War Driving: Attacker gains access to wireless medium by just drivingWireless Networks Mahalingam Ramkumar #12;Wireless Dimension Access to Medium: Unlike wired medium (cables) wireless medium (air) is ubiquitous hence access restrictions to the medium must be handled

  9. Management of space networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, R. W.; Williams, B. F.

    1993-02-01

    NASA has proposed missions to the Moon and Mars that reflect three areas of emphasis: human presence, exploration, and space resource development for the benefit of Earth. A major requirement for such missions is a robust and reliable communications architecture. Network management--the ability to maintain some degree of human and automatic control over the span of the network from the space elements to the end users on Earth--is required to realize such robust and reliable communications. This article addresses several of the architectural issues associated with space network management. Round-trip delays, such as the 5- to 40-min delays in the Mars case, introduce a host of problems that must be solved by delegating significant control authority to remote nodes. Therefore, management hierarchy is one of the important architectural issues. The following article addresses these concerns, and proposes a network management approach based on emerging standards that covers the needs for fault, configuration, and performance management, delegated control authority, and hierarchical reporting of events. A relatively simple approach based on standards was demonstrated in the DSN 2000 Information Systems Laboratory, and the results are described.

  10. Computers, Networks and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alan C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is how globally networked, easy-to-use computers can enhance learning only within an educational environment that encourages students to question "facts" and seek challenges. The strengths and weaknesses of computers used as amplifiers for learning are described. (KR)

  11. Management of space networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, R. W.; Williams, B. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA has proposed missions to the Moon and Mars that reflect three areas of emphasis: human presence, exploration, and space resource development for the benefit of Earth. A major requirement for such missions is a robust and reliable communications architecture. Network management--the ability to maintain some degree of human and automatic control over the span of the network from the space elements to the end users on Earth--is required to realize such robust and reliable communications. This article addresses several of the architectural issues associated with space network management. Round-trip delays, such as the 5- to 40-min delays in the Mars case, introduce a host of problems that must be solved by delegating significant control authority to remote nodes. Therefore, management hierarchy is one of the important architectural issues. The following article addresses these concerns, and proposes a network management approach based on emerging standards that covers the needs for fault, configuration, and performance management, delegated control authority, and hierarchical reporting of events. A relatively simple approach based on standards was demonstrated in the DSN 2000 Information Systems Laboratory, and the results are described.

  12. Family Support Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on family support networks. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children, dementia and…

  13. Biospecimen Research Network

    Cancer.gov

    Each year the Biospecimen Research Network (BRN) sponsors a research symposium to highlight the significant impact of pre-analytical biospecimen variables on cancer research and molecular medicine. The meeting features expert presentations, interactive discussions and poster presentations from a broad range of stakeholders whose work involves biospecimens, including researchers, clinicians, industry representatives and patient advocates.

  14. Research Networks - Applied Research

    Cancer.gov

    Research networks such as those listed below have established new approaches to data collection, sharing, and analysis. These approaches allow investigators to deepen their understanding of barriers to cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and healthcare services in community settings and how these barriers affect quality of life and other cancer outcomes.

  15. Neuromorphic Atomic Switch Networks

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Shieh, Hsien Hang; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system. PMID:22880101

  16. BER Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  17. Wide area sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren

    2006-05-01

    The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the system include each node being assigned a health-effect based risk factor. By connecting the nodes on a particular measured isopleth one can define the plume accurately. Radon counts will be provided and used to calculate the alpha counts. The radiological data collected will also be of value under routine conditions, in the absence of a radiological threat, to provide a detailed map of radiation background in the urban environment and complement predictive models of radiation transport. The data can be transferred to the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) to augment its predictive model, thereby increasing its fidelity. Initially, as a proof of concept, a few nodes will be built for the purpose of demonstrating the concept.

  18. Transportation Network Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John M.

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21PstP thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which strategies for scalability of the topology may be enabled by technologies and policies. In particular, the effects of scalable ICNS concepts are evaluated within this proposed topology. Alternative business models are appearing on the scene as the old centralized hub-and-spoke model reaches the limits of its scalability. These models include growth of point-to-point scheduled air transportation service (e.g., the RJ phenomenon and the 'Southwest Effect'). Another is a new business model for on-demand, widely distributed, air mobility in jet taxi services. The new businesses forming around this vision are targeting personal air mobility to virtually any of the thousands of origins and destinations throughout suburban, rural, and remote communities and regions. Such advancement in air mobility has many implications for requirements for airports, airspace, and consumers. These new paradigms could support scalable alternatives for the expansion of future air mobility to more consumers in more places.

  19. Transportation Network Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which strategies for scalability of the topology may be enabled by technologies and policies. In particular, the effects of scalable ICNS concepts are evaluated within this proposed topology. Alternative business models are appearing on the scene as the old centralized hub-and-spoke model reaches the limits of its scalability. These models include growth of point-to-point scheduled air transportation service (e.g., the RJ phenomenon and the Southwest Effect). Another is a new business model for on-demand, widely distributed, air mobility in jet taxi services. The new businesses forming around this vision are targeting personal air mobility to virtually any of the thousands of origins and destinations throughout suburban, rural, and remote communities and regions. Such advancement in air mobility has many implications for requirements for airports, airspace, and consumers. These new paradigms could support scalable alternatives for the expansion of future air mobility to more consumers in more places.

  20. A random interacting network model for complex networks.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Bedartha; Shekatkar, Snehal M; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Ambika, G; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a RAndom Interacting Network (RAIN) model to study the interactions between a pair of complex networks. The model involves two major steps: (i) the selection of a pair of nodes, one from each network, based on intra-network node-based characteristics, and (ii) the placement of a link between selected nodes based on the similarity of their relative importance in their respective networks. Node selection is based on a selection fitness function and node linkage is based on a linkage probability defined on the linkage scores of nodes. The model allows us to relate within-network characteristics to between-network structure. We apply the model to the interaction between the USA and Schengen airline transportation networks (ATNs). Our results indicate that two mechanisms: degree-based preferential node selection and degree-assortative link placement are necessary to replicate the observed inter-network degree distributions as well as the observed inter-network assortativity. The RAIN model offers the possibility to test multiple hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying network interactions. It can also incorporate complex interaction topologies. Furthermore, the framework of the RAIN model is general and can be potentially adapted to various real-world complex systems. PMID:26657032

  1. Weighted Scale-Free Network Properties of Ecological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Maeng, Seong Eun

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the scale-free network properties of the bipartite ecological network, in particular, the plant-pollinator network. In plant-pollinator network, the pollinators visit the plant to get the nectars. In contrast to the other complex network, the plant-pollinator network has not only the trophic relationships among the interacting partners but also the complexities of the coevolutionary effects. The interactions between the plant and pollinators are beneficial relations. The plant-pollinator network is a bipartite and weighted network. The networks have two types of the nodes: plant and pollinator. We consider the visiting frequency of a pollinator to a plant as the weighting value of the link. We defined the strength of a node as the sum of the weighting value of the links. We reported the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the degree and the strength of the plant-pollinator network. The CDF of the plants followed stretched exponential functions for both degree and strength, but the CDF of the pollinators showed the power law for both degree and strength. The average strength of the links showed the nonlinear dependence on the degree of the networks.

  2. Evaluating predictive performance of network biomarkers with network structures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang; Karakira, Ibrahim; Afra, Salim; Naji, Ghada; Alhajj, Reda; Zeng, Jia; Demetrick, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Network is a powerful structure which reveals valuable characteristics of the underlying data. However, previous work on evaluating the predictive performance of network-based biomarkers does not take nodal connectedness into account. We argue that it is necessary to maximize the benefit from the network structure by employing appropriate techniques. To address this, we aim to learn a weight coefficient for each node in the network from the quantitative measure such as gene expression data. The weight coefficients are computed from an optimization problem which minimizes the total weighted difference between nodes in a network structure; this can be expressed in terms of graph Laplacian. After obtaining the coefficient vector for the network markers, we can then compute the corresponding network predictor. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by conducting experiments using published breast cancer biomarkers with three patient cohorts. Network markers are first grouped based on GO terms related to cancer hallmarks. We compare the predictive performance of each network marker group across gene expression datasets. We also evaluate the network predictor against the average method for feature aggregation. The reported results show that the predictive performance of network markers is generally not consistent across patient cohorts. PMID:25219385

  3. A random interacting network model for complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Bedartha; Shekatkar, Snehal M.; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Ambika, G.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a RAndom Interacting Network (RAIN) model to study the interactions between a pair of complex networks. The model involves two major steps: (i) the selection of a pair of nodes, one from each network, based on intra-network node-based characteristics, and (ii) the placement of a link between selected nodes based on the similarity of their relative importance in their respective networks. Node selection is based on a selection fitness function and node linkage is based on a linkage probability defined on the linkage scores of nodes. The model allows us to relate within-network characteristics to between-network structure. We apply the model to the interaction between the USA and Schengen airline transportation networks (ATNs). Our results indicate that two mechanisms: degree-based preferential node selection and degree-assortative link placement are necessary to replicate the observed inter-network degree distributions as well as the observed inter-network assortativity. The RAIN model offers the possibility to test multiple hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying network interactions. It can also incorporate complex interaction topologies. Furthermore, the framework of the RAIN model is general and can be potentially adapted to various real-world complex systems. PMID:26657032

  4. Network architecture in a converged optical + IP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakim, Walid; Zottmann, Harald

    2012-01-01

    As demands on Provider Networks continue to grow at exponential rates, providers are forced to evaluate how to continue to grow the network while increasing service velocity, enhancing resiliency while decreasing the total cost of ownership (TCO). The bandwidth growth that networks are experiencing is in the form packet based multimedia services such as video, video conferencing, gaming, etc... mixed with Over the Top (OTT) content providers such as Netflix, and the customer's expectations that best effort is not enough you end up with a situation that forces the provider to analyze how to gain more out of the network with less cost. In this paper we will discuss changes in the network that are driving us to a tighter integration between packet and optical layers and how to improve on today's multi - layer inefficiencies to drive down network TCO and provide for a fully integrated and dynamic network that will decrease time to revenue.

  5. Drainage networks after wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Predicting runoff and erosion from watersheds burned by wildfires requires an understanding of the three-dimensional structure of both hillslope and channel drainage networks. We investigate the small-and large-scale structures of drainage networks using field studies and computer analysis of 30-m digital elevation model. Topologic variables were derived from a composite 30-m DEM, which included 14 order 6 watersheds within the Pikes Peak batholith. Both topologic and hydraulic variables were measured in the field in two smaller burned watersheds (3.7 and 7.0 hectares) located within one of the order 6 watersheds burned by the 1996 Buffalo Creek Fire in Central Colorado. Horton ratios of topologic variables (stream number, drainage area, stream length, and stream slope) for small-scale and large-scale watersheds are shown to scale geometrically with stream order (i.e., to be scale invariant). However, the ratios derived for the large-scale drainage networks could not be used to predict the rill and gully drainage network structure. Hydraulic variables (width, depth, cross-sectional area, and bed roughness) for small-scale drainage networks were found to be scale invariant across 3 to 4 stream orders. The relation between hydraulic radius and cross-sectional area is similar for rills and gullies, suggesting that their geometry can be treated similarly in hydraulic modeling. Additionally, the rills and gullies have relatively small width-to-depth ratios, implying sidewall friction may be important to the erosion and evolutionary process relative to main stem channels.

  6. Logic as a complex network

    E-print Network

    Sawa, Koji

    2015-01-01

    When we represent logical, connective implications by directed edges, the resulting set of directed edges can be regarded as a complex network. In this article, we compose a network model that represents a deductive-logic-like structure composed solely of implications. The proposed network model grows like the BA model reported by Barabasi and Albert [Science 286, 509 (1999)]. Though the BA model references the whole of the existing network when a node is added, our model references only part of the existing network. In this view, our model is more realistic than the BA model. However, it also exhibits power law characteristics.

  7. Evolution of cosmic string networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Turok, Neil

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the evolution and observable consequences of a network of cosmic strings is given. A simple model for the evolution of the string network is presented, and related to the statistical mechanics of string networks. The model predicts the long string density throughout the history of the universe from a single parameter, which researchers calculate in radiation era simulations. The statistical mechanics arguments indicate a particular thermal form for the spectrum of loops chopped off the network. Detailed numerical simulations of string networks in expanding backgrounds are performed to test the model. Consequences for large scale structure, the microwave and gravity wave backgrounds, nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing are calculated.

  8. Wireless integrated network sensors (WINS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, G.; Bhatti, I.; Lin, T. H.; Natkunanthanan, S.; Newberg, Fredric; Rofougaran, R.; Sipos, Anton; Valoff, Scott; Pottie, Gregory J.; Kaiser, William J.

    1999-07-01

    Wireless Integrated Network Systems (WINS) provide distributed network and Internet access to sensors, controls, and processors that are deeply embedded in equipment, facilities, and the environment. The WINS network is a new monitoring and control capability for applications in transportation, manufacturing, health care, environmental monitoring, and safety and security. WINS combine microsensor technology, low power signal processing, low power computation, and low power, low cost wireless networking capability in a compact system. WINS networks will provide sensing, local control, and embedded intelligent systems in structures, materials, and environments. This paper describes the WINS architecture and WINS technology components including sensor interface and WINS event recognition systems.

  9. Mixed deterministic and probabilistic networks

    PubMed Central

    Dechter, Rina

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces mixed networks, a new graphical model framework for expressing and reasoning with probabilistic and deterministic information. The motivation to develop mixed networks stems from the desire to fully exploit the deterministic information (constraints) that is often present in graphical models. Several concepts and algorithms specific to belief networks and constraint networks are combined, achieving computational efficiency, semantic coherence and user-interface convenience. We define the semantics and graphical representation of mixed networks, and discuss the two main types of algorithms for processing them: inference-based and search-based. A preliminary experimental evaluation shows the benefits of the new model. PMID:20981243

  10. Queueing in networks of computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The designers of networks of computers must assess the capacity of the network to complete work within reasonable times. The utilization law, Little's law, forced-flow law, and response time formula are simple tools that can be used to calculate throughput and response times of networks. Bottleneck analysis can be used to calculate simple lower bounds on response time in terms of individual server parameters and the load on network as a whole. These simple results are important tools for all users of scientific networks - back of the envelope calculations can quickly reveal the effects of distant servers on local throughput and response time.

  11. Failure and robustness in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Mark

    2010-03-01

    We consider the physics of structural failure in complex systems and the ways in which we can guard against it, from the point of view of network theory. How, for instance, can we design a communication network to provide robust connections when nodes are expected to fail regularly? Conversely, given a network such as the social network of contacts over which a disease spreads, how can we attack it so as to make it fail and thereby prevent the spread of disease? We consider a variety of different definitions of failure and robustness, and discuss some of the interesting and sometimes paradoxical behaviors that can arise when networks fail.

  12. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking

    SciTech Connect

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-10-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking.

  13. Random errors in egocentric networks

    PubMed Central

    Almquist, Zack W.

    2013-01-01

    The systematic errors that are induced by a combination of human memory limitations and common survey design and implementation have long been studied in the context of egocentric networks. Despite this, little if any work exists in the area of random error analysis on these same networks; this paper offers a perspective on the effects of random errors on egonet analysis, as well as the effects of using egonet measures as independent predictors in linear models. We explore the effects of false-positive and false-negative error in egocentric networks on both standard network measures and on linear models through simulation analysis on a ground truth egocentric network sample based on facebook-friendships. Results show that 5–20% error rates, which are consistent with error rates known to occur in ego network data, can cause serious misestimation of network properties and regression parameters. PMID:23878412

  14. Controllability of structural brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shi; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Cieslak, Matthew; Telesford, Qawi K.; Yu, Alfred B.; Kahn, Ari E.; Medaglia, John D.; Vettel, Jean M.; Miller, Michael B.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function is driven by dynamic interactions between large-scale neural circuits or networks, enabling behaviour. However, fundamental principles constraining these dynamic network processes have remained elusive. Here we use tools from control and network theories to offer a mechanistic explanation for how the brain moves between cognitive states drawn from the network organization of white matter microstructure. Our results suggest that densely connected areas, particularly in the default mode system, facilitate the movement of the brain to many easily reachable states. Weakly connected areas, particularly in cognitive control systems, facilitate the movement of the brain to difficult-to-reach states. Areas located on the boundary between network communities, particularly in attentional control systems, facilitate the integration or segregation of diverse cognitive systems. Our results suggest that structural network differences between cognitive circuits dictate their distinct roles in controlling trajectories of brain network function. PMID:26423222

  15. Connecting Dream Networks Across Cultures

    E-print Network

    Varol, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Many species dream, yet there remain many open research questions in the study of dreams. The symbolism of dreams and their interpretation is present in cultures throughout history. Analysis of online data sources for dream interpretation using network science leads to understanding symbolism in dreams and their associated meaning. In this study, we introduce dream interpretation networks for English, Chinese and Arabic that represent different cultures from various parts of the world. We analyze communities in these networks, finding that symbols within a community are semantically related. The central nodes in communities give insight about cultures and symbols in dreams. The community structure of different networks highlights cultural similarities and differences. Interconnections between different networks are also identified by translating symbols from different languages into English. Structural correlations across networks point out relationships between cultures. Similarities between network communit...

  16. Realistic Control of Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Sean P.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2014-01-01

    The control of complex networks is of paramount importance in areas as diverse as ecosystem management, emergency response, and cell reprogramming. A fundamental property of networks is that perturbations to one node can affect other nodes, potentially causing the entire system to change behavior or fail. Here, we show that it is possible to exploit the same principle to control network behavior. Our approach accounts for the nonlinear dynamics inherent to real systems, and allows bringing the system to a desired target state even when this state is not directly accessible due to constraints that limit the allowed interventions. Applications show that this framework permits reprogramming a network to a desired task as well as rescuing networks from the brink of failure—which we illustrate through the mitigation of cascading failures in a power-grid network and the identification of potential drug targets in a signaling network of human cancer. PMID:23803966

  17. Controllability of structural brain networks.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shi; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Cieslak, Matthew; Telesford, Qawi K; Yu, Alfred B; Kahn, Ari E; Medaglia, John D; Vettel, Jean M; Miller, Michael B; Grafton, Scott T; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function is driven by dynamic interactions between large-scale neural circuits or networks, enabling behaviour. However, fundamental principles constraining these dynamic network processes have remained elusive. Here we use tools from control and network theories to offer a mechanistic explanation for how the brain moves between cognitive states drawn from the network organization of white matter microstructure. Our results suggest that densely connected areas, particularly in the default mode system, facilitate the movement of the brain to many easily reachable states. Weakly connected areas, particularly in cognitive control systems, facilitate the movement of the brain to difficult-to-reach states. Areas located on the boundary between network communities, particularly in attentional control systems, facilitate the integration or segregation of diverse cognitive systems. Our results suggest that structural network differences between cognitive circuits dictate their distinct roles in controlling trajectories of brain network function. PMID:26423222

  18. Target Detection via Network Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    A method of ‘network filtering’ has been proposed recently to detect the effects of certain external perturbations on the interacting members in a network. However, with large networks, the goal of detection seems a priori difficult to achieve, especially since the number of observations available often is much smaller than the number of variables describing the effects of the underlying network. Under the assumption that the network possesses a certain sparsity property, we provide a formal characterization of the accuracy with which the external effects can be detected, using a network filtering system that combines Lasso regression in a sparse simultaneous equation model with simple residual analysis. We explore the implications of the technical conditions underlying our characterization, in the context of various network topologies, and we illustrate our method using simulated data. PMID:22822264

  19. Controllability of structural brain networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shi; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Cieslak, Matthew; Telesford, Qawi K.; Yu, Alfred B.; Kahn, Ari E.; Medaglia, John D.; Vettel, Jean M.; Miller, Michael B.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive function is driven by dynamic interactions between large-scale neural circuits or networks, enabling behaviour. However, fundamental principles constraining these dynamic network processes have remained elusive. Here we use tools from control and network theories to offer a mechanistic explanation for how the brain moves between cognitive states drawn from the network organization of white matter microstructure. Our results suggest that densely connected areas, particularly in the default mode system, facilitate the movement of the brain to many easily reachable states. Weakly connected areas, particularly in cognitive control systems, facilitate the movement of the brain to difficult-to-reach states. Areas located on the boundary between network communities, particularly in attentional control systems, facilitate the integration or segregation of diverse cognitive systems. Our results suggest that structural network differences between cognitive circuits dictate their distinct roles in controlling trajectories of brain network function.

  20. Centrality measures in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Michele

    Complex networks represent an extensive variety of systems in nature and human interactions. Networks are graphs that describe the structures of interacting systems and give substantial information about the patterns of connections between the nodes in a particular system. In turn, knowing about the structure of networks and their arrangements enables one to make certain types of predictions about their behavior. With that larger motivation, this thesis research emphasizes different measurement metrics such as degree distribution, assortativity and clustering coefficients, transitivity, modularity, network diameter, and the average path length to associate the configurations of the different networks to determine certain types of behavior. The main focus of this thesis is on social networks, where the assortative patterns of social networks were identified. The various parameters used in the study of the networks were calculated and defined using the software packages Networkx and Gephi. The different types of networks are from the Stanford Network Analysis Project (SNAP) website. In particular, the focus is on using the numerical values of the coefficients to infer differences in the forms of contact in different social networks. The ability to do so has implications for detecting preferences when it comes to the relations between groups of people in social networks. As a result of social networks displaying assortative behaviors, the data indicates that these networks could also project some traits of 'narrow-mindedness' due to the formation of different clusters. Another significant repercussion of this research is the ability of a community to thrive successfully based on the interactions of the people with one another.