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1

l-Leucine Methyl Ester: The Female-Produced Sex Pheromone of the Scarab Beetle, Phyllophaga lanceolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female-produced sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Phyllophagalanceolata was identified as the methyl ester of an essential amino acid, l-leucine. During field testing, 239 male P. lanceolata were caught in traps baited with l-leucine methyl ester. l-Isoleucine and l-valine methyl esters, similar in structure to l-leucine methyl ester and previously identified as female-produced sex pheromone compounds employed by other

Satoshi Nojima; Paul S. Robbins; Glenn A. Salsbury; Bruce D. Morris; Wendell L. Roelofs; Michael G. Villani

2003-01-01

2

Development of micellar electro kinetic chromatography for the separation and quantitation of L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucin and L-phenylalanine in human plasma and comparison with HPLC.  

PubMed

Phenylketonuria (PKU) and Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) are two inborn metabolic diseases which are carried by autosomal recessive genes in man. These genetic errors result in accumulation of phenylalanine (in PKU) or valine, leucine and isoluecin (in MSUD). At high concentrations, amongst other problems, these amino acids cause mental retardation. However if detected early after birth, using special diets and other forms of therapy, mental abnormalities can be prevented. As a result in many countries screening of infants for MSUD and PKU, by measuring plasma amino acids has become a routine neonatal test. Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) assays have a number of advantages over the traditional chromatography techniques (such as GC or HPLC). These include low cost, high speed of analysis and high resolution. These characteristics, make CE an ideal method for the screening of inborn errors of metabolism. We developed a CE assay based on pre-column derivatisation of amino acids with phenylisothiocyanate. This conjugate has strong absorbance at 254 nm. CE was carried out using a Spectraphoresis 1000 instrument, fitted with 40 cm of a 25 microm capillary, at 17 degrees C. A running voltage of 18KV was used to separate the amino acid mixture in an electrophoretic buffer containing 45 mM imidazole, 6 mM borate and 208 mM SDS, fixed at pH 9 with 2-N-morpholino ethane sulfonic acid. The assay was calibrated using various concentrations of amino acid standards. LOD, LOQ, recovery, inter-day and intra-day variations of the assay were determined. Also, levels of the 4 amino acids in normal and abnormal plasma were determined and compared with HPLC. PMID:19070110

Darvish, M; Ebrahimi, S A; Ghadam, P

2007-08-01

3

Conversion of l-Leucine to Isovaleric Acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii TL 34 and ITGP23  

PubMed Central

Several branched-chain volatile compounds are involved in the flavor of Swiss cheese. These compounds are probably produced by enzymatic conversion of branched-chain amino acids, but the flora and the pathways involved remain hypothetical. Our aim was to determine the ability of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, which is one of the main components of the secondary flora of Swiss cheese, to produce flavor compounds during leucine catabolism. Cell extracts and resting cells of two strains were incubated in the presence of l-leucine, ?-ketoglutaric acid, and cofactors, and the metabolites produced were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The first step of leucine catabolism was a transamination that produced ?-ketoisocaproic acid, which was enzymatically converted to isovaleric acid. Both reactions were faster at pH 8.0 than at acidic pHs. Cell extracts catalyzed only the transamination step under our experimental conditions. Small amounts of 3-methylbutanol were also produced by resting cells, but neither 3-methylbutanal nor?-hydroxyisocaproic acid was detected. l-Isoleucine and l-valine were also converted to the corresponding acids and alcohols. Isovaleric acid was produced by both strains during growth in a complex medium, even under conditions simulating Swiss cheese conditions (2.1% NaCl, pH 5.4, 24°C). Our results show that P. frendenreichii could play a significant role in the formation of isovaleric acid during ripening. PMID:11823198

Thierry, Anne; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Yvon, Mireille

2002-01-01

4

Molecular Structure of L-Isoleucine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

L-Isoleucine is an essential, branched-chain, aliphatic amino acid that is found in many proteins. It is an important compound for hemoglobin synthesis and regulates energy and blood sugar levels. Together with leucine and valine, it metabolizes in muscle tissue and promotes muscle recovery, wound healing, including the growth of new tissue and increases growth hormone production. Only the L-form occurs in mammalian protein.

2002-08-20

5

A novel l-isoleucine-4?-dioxygenase and l-isoleucine dihydroxylation cascade in Pantoea ananatis  

PubMed Central

A unique operon structure has been identified in the genomes of several plant- and insect-associated bacteria. The distinguishing feature of this operon is the presence of tandem hilA and hilB genes encoding dioxygenases belonging to the PF13640 and PF10014 (BsmA) Pfam families, respectively. The genes encoding HilA and HilB from Pantoea ananatis AJ13355 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The culturing of E. coli cells expressing hilA (E. coli-HilA) or both hilA and hilB (E. coli-HilAB) in the presence of l-isoleucine resulted in the conversion of l-isoleucine into two novel biogenic compounds: l-4?-isoleucine and l-4,4?-dihydroxyisoleucine, respectively. In parallel, two novel enzymatic activities were detected in the crude cell lysates of the E. coli-HilA and E. coli-HilAB strains: l-isoleucine, 2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase (4?-hydroxylating) (HilA) and l-4?-hydroxyisoleucine, 2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating) (HilB), respectively. Two hypotheses regarding the physiological significance of C-4(4?)-hydroxylation of l-isoleucine in bacteria are also discussed. According to first hypothesis, the l-isoleucine dihydroxylation cascade is involved in synthesis of dipeptide antibiotic in P. ananatis. Another unifying hypothesis is that the C-4(4?)-hydroxylation of l-isoleucine in bacteria could result in the synthesis of signal molecules belonging to two classes: 2(5H)-furanones and analogs of N-acyl homoserine lactone. PMID:23554367

Smirnov, Sergey V; Sokolov, Pavel M; Kotlyarova, Veronika A; Samsonova, Natalya N; Kodera, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Torii, Takayoshi; Hibi, Makoto; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Ogawa, Jun

2013-01-01

6

Construction of l-Isoleucine Overproducing Strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the industrial production of the amino acids l-glutamate (1×106tons/year) and l-lysine (300×103tons/year). The classical approach to obtain amino acid overproducing strains of C. glutamicum was mutagenesis and then a selection of mutants. In the past 10 years the genetic engineering and amplification of genes have become fascinating methods for studying metabolic pathways in greater detail and for constructing microbial strains with desired genotypes. To obtain l-isoleucine overproducing strains of C. glutamicum we therefore studied the l-isoleucine biosynthesis by overexpression of the various corresponding genes. To enable a flux increase in recombinant strains all genes specific for l-threonine and l-isoleucine biosynthesis were cloned from this bacterium. We demonstratet that amplification of the feedback inhibition insensitive homoserine dehydrogenase and homoserine kinase in a high l-lysine overproducing strain enable the channeling of the carbon flow from the intermediate l-aspartate semialdehyde towards homoserine, resulting in an accumulation of l-threonine. To obtain effective l-isoleucine overproduction a deregulated threonine dehydratase was overexpressed in l-threonine producing strains of C. glutamicum. In this way the l-threonine was converted to l-isoleucine, which was secreted up to 30g/l into the culture medium.

Sahm, H.; Eggeling, L.; Morbach, S.; Eikmanns, B.

7

Rational design of Escherichia coli for L-isoleucine production.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli was performed to construct a 100% rationally engineered strain capable of overproducing L-isoleucine, an important branched-chain amino acid. The thrABC (encoding L-threonine biosynthetic enzymes), ilvA (encoding feedback-resistant threonine dehydratase), ilvIH (encoding feedback-resistant acetohydroxy acid synthase III), and ygaZH (encoding branched-chain amino acid exporter) genes were amplified by plasmid-based overexpression. The ilvCED (encoding L-isoleucine biosynthetic enzymes) and lrp (encoding global regulator Lrp) genes were also amplified by chromosomal promoter replacement in order to further increase the flux toward L-isoleucine. The final engineered E. coli strain was able to produce 9.46 g/L of L-isoleucine with a yield of 0.14 g/g of glucose by fed-batch culture. The overall design principles described here for the production of highly regulated product should be useful in designing strains for the production of other similar bioproducts. PMID:23656230

Park, Jin Hwan; Oh, Jae Eun; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Sang Yup

2012-11-16

8

Absence d'effets de l'injection de surcharges de L-valine et L-leucine sur les teneurs plasmatiques en insuline  

E-print Network

.) had no effect on insulin and glucagon levels in plasma from fed or 10-hour starved preruminant lambs en insuline et en glucagon de l'agneau préruminant D. ATTAIX Isabelle PAPET J. GRIZARD M. ARNAL-leucine sur les teneurs plasmatiques en insuline et en glucagon de l'agneau préruminant. De telles injections

Boyer, Edmond

9

L-Leucine and NO-mediated cardiovascular function.  

PubMed

Reduced availability of nitric oxide (NO) in the vasculature is a major factor contributing to the impaired action of insulin on blood flow and, therefore, insulin resistance in obese and diabetic subjects. Available evidence shows that vascular insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in developed nations. Interestingly, increased concentrations of L-leucine in the plasma occur in obese humans and other animals with vascular dysfunction. Among branched-chain amino acids, L-leucine is unique in inhibiting NO synthesis from L-arginine in endothelial cells and may modulate cardiovascular homeostasis in insulin resistance. Results of recent studies indicate that L-leucine is an activator of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GFAT), which is the first and a rate-controlling enzyme in the synthesis of glucosamine (an inhibitor of endothelial NO synthesis). Through stimulating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and thus protein synthesis, L-leucine may enhance GFAT protein expression, thereby inhibiting NO synthesis in endothelial cells. We propose that reducing circulating levels of L-leucine or endothelial GFAT activity may provide a potentially novel strategy for preventing and/or treating cardiovascular disease in obese and diabetic subjects. Such means may include dietary supplementation with either ?-ketoglutarate to enhance the catabolism of L-leucine in the small intestine and other tissues or with N-ethyl-L-glutamine to inhibit GFAT activity in endothelial cells. Preventing leucine-induced activation of GFAT by nutritional supplements or pharmaceutical drugs may contribute to improved cardiovascular function by enhancing vascular NO synthesis. PMID:25552397

Yang, Ying; Wu, Zhenlong; Meininger, Cynthia J; Wu, Guoyao

2015-03-01

10

Decomposition of L-valine under nonthermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma.  

PubMed

L-Valine solutions in water and phosphate buffer were treated with nonthermal plasma generated by using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device and the products generated after plasma treatments were characterized by (1)H NMR and GC-MS. Our results demonstrate that L-valine is decomposed to acetone, formic acid, acetic acid, threo-methylaspartic acid, erythro-methlyaspartic acid, and pyruvic acid after direct exposure to DBD plasma. The concentrations of these compounds are time-dependent with plasma treatment. The mechanisms of L-valine under the DBD plasma are also proposed in this study. Acetone, pyruvic acid, and organic radicals (•)CHO, CH3COCH2OO(•) (acetonylperoxy), and CH3COC(OH)2OO(•) (1,1-dihydroxypropan-2-one peroxy) may be the determining chemicals in DNA damage. PMID:24450953

Li, Yingying; Kojtari, Arben; Friedman, Gary; Brooks, Ari D; Fridman, Alex; Ji, Hai-Feng

2014-02-13

11

Improvement of the Redox Balance Increases l-Valine Production by Corynebacterium glutamicum under Oxygen Deprivation Conditions  

PubMed Central

Production of l-valine under oxygen deprivation conditions by Corynebacterium glutamicum lacking the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA and overexpressing the l-valine biosynthesis genes ilvBNCDE was repressed. This was attributed to imbalanced cofactor production and consumption in the overall l-valine synthesis pathway: two moles of NADH was generated and two moles of NADPH was consumed per mole of l-valine produced from one mole of glucose. In order to solve this cofactor imbalance, the coenzyme requirement for l-valine synthesis was converted from NADPH to NADH via modification of acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase encoded by ilvC and introduction of Lysinibacillus sphaericus leucine dehydrogenase in place of endogenous transaminase B, encoded by ilvE. The intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio significantly decreased, and glucose consumption and l-valine production drastically improved. Moreover, l-valine yield increased and succinate formation decreased concomitantly with the decreased intracellular redox state. These observations suggest that the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio, i.e., reoxidation of NADH, is the primary rate-limiting factor for l-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions. The l-valine productivity and yield were even better and by-products derived from pyruvate further decreased as a result of a feedback resistance-inducing mutation in the acetohydroxy acid synthase encoded by ilvBN. The resultant strain produced 1,470 mM l-valine after 24 h with a yield of 0.63 mol mol of glucose?1, and the l-valine productivity reached 1,940 mM after 48 h. PMID:22138982

Hasegawa, Satoshi; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Suda, Masako; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki

2012-01-01

12

Escherichia coli W as a new platform strain for the enhanced production of L-valine by systems metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

A less frequently employed Escherichia coli strain W, yet possessing useful metabolic characteristics such as less acetic acid production and high L-valine tolerance, was metabolically engineered for the production of L-valine. The ilvA gene was deleted to make more pyruvate, a key precursor for L-valine, available for enhanced L-valine biosynthesis. The lacI gene was deleted to allow constitutive expression of genes under the tac or trc promoter. The ilvBN(mut) genes encoding feedback-resistant acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) I and the L-valine biosynthetic ilvCED genes encoding acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase, dihydroxy acid dehydratase, and branched chain amino acid aminotransferase, respectively, were amplified by plasmid-based overexpression. The global regulator Lrp and L-valine exporter YgaZH were also amplified by plasmid-based overexpression. The engineered E. coli W (?lacI ?ilvA) strain overexpressing the ilvBN(mut) , ilvCED, ygaZH, and lrp genes was able to produce an impressively high concentration of 60.7?g/L L-valine by fed-batch culture in 29.5?h, resulting in a high volumetric productivity of 2.06?g/L/h. The most notable finding is that there was no other byproduct produced during L-valine production. The results obtained in this study suggest that E. coli W can be a good alternative to Corynebacterium glutamicum and E. coli K-12, which have so far been the most efficient L-valine producer. Furthermore, it is expected that various bioproducts including other amino acids might be more efficiently produced by this revisited platform strain of E. coli. PMID:21191998

Park, Jin Hwan; Jang, Yu-Sin; Lee, Jeong Wook; Lee, Sang Yup

2011-05-01

13

Neomycin inhibition of (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine accumulation and signaling.  

PubMed

The majority of plant defenses against insect herbivores are coordinated by jasmonate (jasmonic acid, JA; (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, JA-Ile)-dependent signaling cascades. Insect feeding and mimicking herbivory by application of oral secretions (OS) from the insect induced both cytosolic Ca(2+) and jasmonate-phytohormone elevation in plants. Here it is shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana upon treatment with OS from lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis larvae, the antibiotic neomycin selectively blocked the accumulation of OS-induced Ca(2+) elevation and level of the bioactive JA-Ile, in contrast to JA level. Furthermore, neomycin treatment affected the downstream expression of JA-Ile-responsive genes, VSP2 and LOX2, in Arabidopsis. The neomycin-dependent reduced JA-Ile level is partially due to increased CYP94B3 expression and subsequent JA-Ile turn-over to12-hydroxy-JA-Ile. It is neither due to the inhibition of the enzymatic conjugation process nor to substrate availability. Thus, blocking Ca(2+) elevation specifically controls JA-Ile accumulation and signaling, offering an insight into role of calcium in defense against insect herbivory. PMID:24859518

Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Reichelt, Michael; Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm; Mithöfer, Axel

2014-07-01

14

Local rhamnosoft, ceramides and L-isoleucine in atopic eczema: a randomized, placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory moisturizing cream containing rhamnosoft, ceramides, and L-isoleucine (ILE) (pro-AMP cream) has been recently developed for the specific treatment of atopic eczema (AE) of the face. In this trial, we evaluated the clinical efficacy and tolerability of pro-AMP cream in the treatment of facial AE in children in comparison with an emollient cream. Methods In a randomized, prospective, assessor-blinded, parallel groups (2:1) controlled trial, 107 children (72 allocated to pro-AMP cream and 35 allocated to control group) with mild-to-moderate chronic AE of the face were enrolled. Treatments were applied twice daily for a 6-week period. Facial Eczema Severity Score (ESS) was evaluated at baseline, week 3, and week 6, by an assessor unaware of treatment allocation. Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score was assessed at week 3 and at week 6. Tolerability was evaluated at week 3 and at week 6 using a 4-point score (from 0: low tolerability to 3: very good tolerability). Results At baseline ESS, mean (SD) was 6.1 (2.4) in the pro-AMP cream group and 5.3 (3) in the control group. In the pro-AMP group, in comparison with baseline, ESS was significantly reduced to 2.5 (?59%) after 3 wks and to 1.0 (?84%) at week 6 (p = 0.0001). In the control group, ESS was reduced to 3 (?42%) at week 2 and to 2.6 (?50%) at week 6. At week 6, ESS in pro-AMP cream was significantly lower than the control group (1.0 vs. 2.6; p = 0.001). Both products were well tolerated. Conclusion Pro-AMP cream has shown to be effective in the treatment of mild-to-moderate chronic lesion of AE of the face. Clinical efficacy was greater in comparison with an emollient cream. (Clinical trial Registry: NTR4084). PMID:24750568

Marseglia, Alessia; Licari, Amelia; Agostinis, Fabio; Barcella, Antonio; Bonamonte, Domenico; Puviani, Mario; Milani, Massimo; Marseglia, GianLuigi

2014-01-01

15

Studies on the macroscopic protonation constants of some ?-amino acids in ethanol–water mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both to demonstrate whether the predominant species are dipolar ion or the neutral form and to predict the change of dipolar form to neutral form ratio in ethanol–water mixtures, the macroscopic protonation constants of eight ?-amino acid (glycine, l-alanine, l-valine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, l-serine, l-methionine, and l-isoleucine) were determined potentiometrically in 20–80% (v\\/v) ethanol–water mixtures at 25°C with an ionic strength

Alev Do?an; Fitnat Köseo?lu; Esma K?l?ç

2002-01-01

16

Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals.

Nirmala, L. Ruby; Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph

2013-06-01

17

3H-L-leucine transport by the promiscuous crustacean dipeptide-like cotransporter.  

PubMed

The crustacean intestine and hepatopancreas display a variety of solute transport mechanisms for transmembrane transfer of dietary contents from lumen to epithelial cytosol. An in vitro intestinal perfusion apparatus was used to characterize mucosal to serosoal (MS) and serosal to mucosal (SM) Zn(2+) -dependent (3)H-L-leucine transport by the intestine of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Transmural 20?µM MS (3)H-L-leucine fluxes across lobster intestine were a hyperbolic function of luminal zinc concentration (1-50?µM) following Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(m) = 2.67 ± 0.74?µM; J(max) = 19.56 ± 2.22?pmol/cm(2) ×min). Transmural 20?µM SM (3)H-L-leucine fluxes were not affected by serosal zinc, resulting in a highly significant stimulation of net amino acid transfer to the blood by luminal metal. MS fluxes of 20?µM (3)H-L-leucine were also hyperbolic functions of luminal [Cu(2+)], [Mn(2+)], [Na(+)], and [H(+)]. MS flux of (3)H-L-leucine was a sigmoidal function of luminal [L-leucine] and was stimulated by the addition of 20?µM luminal zinc at both pH 7.0 and 5.5. A greater enhanced amino acid transport occurred at the lower pH 5.5. MS flux of 20?µM (3)H-L-leucine in the presence of 20?µM zinc was significantly inhibited by addition of 100?µM luminal glycylsarcosine, and MS flux of 20?µM (3)H-glycylsarcosine was inhibited by 100?µM L-leucine in the presence of 20?µM zinc. Results suggest that (3)H-L-leucine and metals form a complex (e.g., Leu-Zn-Leu] that may functionally mimic dipeptides and use a dipeptide-like transporter during MS fluxes as suggested for fish and mammals. PMID:21732547

Obi, I; Wells, A L; Ortega, P; Patel, D; Farah, L; Zanotto, F P; Ahearn, G A

2011-10-01

18

The thermodynamic characteristics of complex formation between calcium ions and L-leucine in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex formation of L-leucine with calcium ions in aqueous solution was studied by potentiometric titration at 298.15 K and ionic strength values I = 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 (KNO3). The formation of the CaL+ and CaHL2+ complex particles was established and their stability constants were determined. The enthalpies of protolytic equilibria of leucine and formation of calcium ion complexes with leucine were determined calorimetrically at 298.15 K and I = 0.5 (KNO3). The thermodynamic characteristics of complex formation between calcium ions and L-leucine were calculated.

Kurochkin, V. Yu.; Chernikov, V. V.; Orlova, T. D.

2011-04-01

19

Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine coordinates metabolic networks required for anthesis and floral attractant emission in wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

20

Nano spray-dried pyrazinamide-l-leucine dry powders, physical properties and feasibility used as dry powder aerosols.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding l-leucine and using an ethanolic solvent on the physicochemical properties and aerodynamic behavior of nano spray-dried pyrazinamide (PZA)-l-leucine powders. Materials and methods: A nano spray dryer was employed to prepare PZA-l-leucine powders. The physicochemical properties were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The Andersen cascade impactor was used to evaluate the in vitro aerosolization performance of the sprayed powders. Results and discussion: The incorporation of l-leucine at 10% improved the percentage fine particle fraction (%FPF) in all ethanolic solvent formulations by up to nearly twofold (20.0-23.4%) compared to the normal spray-dried PZA of (8.8-13.0%). Changes in the particle density and morphology were also observed. The dense solid particles of PZA were completely converted to bulk hollow particles with a thin shell by increasing the l-leucine content up to 50%. Higher ethanol concentration resulted in larger dimensions of the hollow particle but did not directly affect the aerosolization performance. The co-spray dried PZA with 20% l-leucine in a 10% ethanol feed solvent gave the best aerosolization performance (FPF?=?33.0%). Conclusions: The co-spray dried PZA with a suitable l-leucine content using a nano spray drying technique could be applied to formulate the PZA DPI. PMID:25331092

Kaewjan, Kanogwan; Srichana, Teerapol

2014-10-21

21

Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of l-Valine Zinc Sulphate: an organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal.  

PubMed

Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid l-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36°C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01°C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a=9.969(3) Å, b=7.238(3) Å, c=24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00Å(3). Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with l-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal(.) A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure l-valine. PMID:22750341

Puhal Raj, A; Ramachandra Raja, C

2012-11-01

22

Decrease in plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine after phenylalanine-tyrosine free amino acid solutions in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an overnight fast, 5 male healthy subjects ingested increasing amounts of a solution containing a fixed proportion of seven essential amino acids (L-isoleucine, 13.3%; L-leucine, 21.0%; L-lysine, 15.2%; L-methionine, 21.0%; L-threonine, 9.5%; L-tryptophan, 4.8% and L-valine, 15.2%) and lacking phenylalanine and tyrosine. The solutions caused a rapid fall in plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine which was proportional to the total

E. A. Moja; V. Lucini; F. Benedetti; A. Lucca

1996-01-01

23

Synthesis and toxicological evaluation of a chitosan-L-leucine conjugate for pulmonary drug delivery applications.  

PubMed

Herein are reported the synthesis of a conjugate of chitosan with L-leucine, the preparation of nanoparticles from both chitosan and the conjugate for use in pulmonary drug delivery, and the in vitro evaluation of toxicity and inflammatory effects of both the polymers and their nanoparticles on the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. The nanoparticles, successfully prepared both from chitosan and the conjugate, had a diameter in the range of 10-30 nm. The polymers and their nanoparticles were tested for their effects on cell viability by MTT assay, on trans-epithelial permeability by using sodium fluorescein as a fluid phase marker, and on IL-8 secretion by ELISA. The conjugate nanoparticles had a low overall toxicity (IC50 = 2 mg/mL following 48 h exposure; no induction of IL-8 release at 0.5 mg/mL concentration), suggesting that they may be safe for pulmonary drug delivery applications. PMID:25191851

Muhsin, Mohammad D A; George, Graeme; Beagley, Kenneth; Ferro, Vito; Armitage, Charles; Islam, Nazrul

2014-10-13

24

N-acetyl-L-leucine accelerates vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy by action in the cerebellum and thalamus.  

PubMed

An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-?PET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-?PET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of ?PET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by activating the vestibulocerebellum and deactivating the posterolateral thalamus. PMID:25803613

Günther, Lisa; Beck, Roswitha; Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

2015-01-01

25

N-Acetyl-L-Leucine Accelerates Vestibular Compensation after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy by Action in the Cerebellum and Thalamus  

PubMed Central

An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-?PET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-?PET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of ?PET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by activating the vestibulocerebellum and deactivating the posterolateral thalamus. PMID:25803613

Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

2015-01-01

26

Thermal, dielectric studies on pure and amino acid ( l-glutamic acid, l-histidine, l-valine) doped KDP single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids (l-glutamic acid, l-histidine, l-valine) doped potassium dihydrogen phospate crystals are grown by solution growth technique. Slow cooling as well as slow evaporation methods were employed to grow these crystals. The concentration of dopants in the mother solution was varied from 0.1mol% to 10mol%. The solubility data for all dopants concentration were determined. There is variation in pH value

P. Kumaresan; S. Moorthy Babu; P. M. Anbarasan

2008-01-01

27

Cell-type specificity of l-leucyl l-leucine methyl ester.  

PubMed

l-Leucyl l-leucine methyl ester (LeuLeuOMe) is a lysosomotropic agent which is converted to a membranolytic compound by dipeptidyl peptidase I and kills human leukocytes such as CD8+ T cells and monocytes but not B cells. The reagent has also been used in mice on the assumption that the cell-type specificity to murine leukocytes is the same as that to human leukocytes. During study on the effect of LeuLeuOMe on antigen-driven IL-2 production using murine splenocytes as antigen-presenting cells, however, we noticed that murine B cells were sensitive to LeuLeuOMe. We therefore examined the cell-type specificity using murine splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the most sensitive cells to LeuLeuOMe were CD8+ cells and that CD19+ cells (B cells) were as sensitive as CD3+ cells (T cells). Murine splenic B cells, which were either positively or negatively sorted with a cell sorter, were also sensitive to LeuLeuOMe, whereas human peripheral blood B cells, which were positively sorted, were not. Peritoneal macrophages were the most insensitive to LeuLeuOMe. Thus, this study demonstrated that the cell-type specificity to murine leukocytes is different from that to human leukocytes. PMID:10860815

Kobayashi, Y; Takasaki, A; Kurosaka, K; Sakurai, Y; Iwamura, M; Watanabe, N

2000-06-16

28

Kinetic analysis for the degradation of glycyl-L-leucine and L-leucyl-glycine in subcritical water.  

PubMed

Two dipeptides, glycyl-L-leucine (G-L) and L-leucyl-glycine (L-G), the concentrations of which were 10 mmol/L, were degraded in subcritical water in order to understand fully the phenomena occurring during treatment. Treatment was administered in a stainless steel tubular reactor, which was connected to an HPLC pump and immersed in an oil bath at 200-240 °C, with residence times of 10-180 s. When G-L and L-G were treated, L-G and G-L significantly formed, respectively, and then they gradually decreased at every temperature. Irrespective of the kind of substrate, ring formation occurred, and cyclo-(glycyl-L-leucine) was one of the final products. The reaction rate constants related to degradation were estimated under the assumption that all the reactions obeyed first-order kinetics, and the simulated results corresponded well with the experimental ones in every case. PMID:22232254

Kobayashi, Takashi; Fujita, Ryo; Chaiyapat, Incharoensakdi; Mori, Hajime; Hosoda, Asao; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Adachi, Shuji

2012-01-01

29

l-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.  

PubMed

Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (?-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite ?-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. PMID:25378554

Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E; Gerton, Jennifer L

2015-03-15

30

l-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome  

PubMed Central

Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (?-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite ?-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. PMID:25378554

Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E.; Gerton, Jennifer L.

2015-01-01

31

Comparative proteome analysis of global effect of POS5 and zwf-ppnK overexpression in L-isoleucine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum strain JHI3-156 produces L-isoleucine (Ile). Overexpression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived NADH kinase gene (POS5) and the endogenous glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NAD kinase genes (zwf-ppnK) in JHI3-156 increased Ile production by 26 and 31 %, respectively. To decipher the global effect of POS5 and zwf-ppnK overexpression on Ile biosynthesis, proteomic analysis was conducted. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were identified in the POS5-overexpressing strain, most of which are related to inositol catabolism, central carbon metabolism, anaplerotic pathway, protein biosynthesis and the stress response. In the zwf-ppnK-overexpressing strain, seven differentially-expressed proteins, including PpnK and anaplerotic enzymes, were identified. This result indicates the involvement of a novel inositol catabolism step and the importance of the anaplerotic pathway in Ile biosynthesis. This finding will be helpful in the systematic metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for Ile biosynthesis. PMID:25650341

Shi, Feng; Li, Kun; Li, Yongfu

2015-05-01

32

Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine Coordinates Metabolic Networks Required for Anthesis and Floral Attractant Emission in Wild Tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata)[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

33

L-Leucine improves the anaemia in models of Diamond Blackfan anaemia and the 5q- syndrome in a TP53-independent way.  

PubMed

Haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and upregulation of the tumour suppressor TP53 have been shown to be the common basis for the anaemia observed in Diamond Blackfan anaemia and 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome. We previously demonstrated that treatment with L-Leucine resulted in a marked improvement in anaemia in disease models. To determine if the L-Leucine effect was Tp53-dependent, we used antisense MOs to rps19 and rps14 in zebrafish; expression of tp53 and its downstream target cdkn1a remained elevated following L-leucine treatment. We confirmed this observation in human CD34+ cells. L-Leucine thus alleviates anaemia in RP-deficient cells in a TP53-independent manner. PMID:25098371

Narla, Anupama; Payne, Elspeth M; Abayasekara, Nirmalee; Hurst, Slater N; Raiser, David M; Look, A Thomas; Berliner, Nancy; Ebert, Benjamin L; Khanna-Gupta, Arati

2014-11-01

34

Stimulation of mTORC1 with L-leucine Rescues Defects Associated with Roberts Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Roberts syndrome (RBS) is a human disease characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development and growth and mental retardation. RBS is caused by mutations in ESCO2, a gene which encodes an acetyltransferase for the cohesin complex. While the essential role of the cohesin complex in chromosome segregation has been well characterized, it plays additional roles in DNA damage repair, chromosome condensation, and gene expression. The developmental phenotypes of Roberts syndrome and other cohesinopathies suggest that gene expression is impaired during embryogenesis. It was previously reported that ribosomal RNA production and protein translation were impaired in immortalized RBS cells. It was speculated that cohesin binding at the rDNA was important for nucleolar form and function. We have explored the hypothesis that reduced ribosome function contributes to RBS in zebrafish models and human cells. Two key pathways that sense cellular stress are the p53 and mTOR pathways. We report that mTOR signaling is inhibited in human RBS cells based on the reduced phosphorylation of the downstream effectors S6K1, S6 and 4EBP1, and this correlates with p53 activation. Nucleoli, the sites of ribosome production, are highly fragmented in RBS cells. We tested the effect of inhibiting p53 or stimulating mTOR in RBS cells. The rescue provided by mTOR activation was more significant, with activation rescuing both cell division and cell death. To study this cohesinopathy in a whole animal model we used ESCO2-mutant and morphant zebrafish embryos, which have developmental defects mimicking RBS. Consistent with RBS patient cells, the ESCO2 mutant embryos show p53 activation and inhibition of the TOR pathway. Stimulation of the TOR pathway with L-leucine rescued many developmental defects of ESCO2-mutant embryos. Our data support the idea that RBS can be attributed in part to defects in ribosome biogenesis, and stimulation of the TOR pathway has therapeutic potential. PMID:24098154

Xu, Baoshan; Lee, Kenneth K.; Zhang, Lily; Gerton, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

35

Investigation on synthesis and morphology characteristic of novel chiral poly(amide–imide)\\/TiO2 nanocomposites derived from L-isoleucine-based diacid and 4,4?-methylenebis(3-chloro-2,6-diethylaniline)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, a new optically active poly(amide–imide) (PAI) was synthesized from the polymerization reaction of N-trimellitylimido-L-isoleucine diacid with 4,4?-methylenebis(3-chloro-2,6-diethylaniline) using molten tetra-n-butylammonium bromide and triphenyl phosphite as a condensing agent and green media. Then the surface of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles was modified with ?-aminopropyltriethoxyl silane as a coupling agent. The obtained polymer and inorganic metal oxide nanoparticles

Shadpour Mallakpour; Kazem Banihassan

2012-01-01

36

Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.c (L-(+)-Valine): Characterization of organic substances for chemical purity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM K55.c, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2012. Twenty National Measurement Institutes or Designated Institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of valine present as the main component in the comparison sample for CCQM-K55.c. The comparison samples were prepared from analytical grade L-valine purchased from a commercial supplier and used as provided without further treatment or purification. Valine was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of low structural complexity [molecular weight range 100-300] and high polarity (pKOW > -2). The KCRV for the valine content of the material was 992.0 mg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.3 mg/g. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) was assigned by combination of KCRVs assigned from participant results for each orthogonal impurity class. The relative expanded uncertainties reported by laboratories having results consistent with the KCRV ranged from 1 mg/g to 6 mg/g when using mass balance based approaches alone, 2 mg/g to 7 mg/g using quantitative 1H NMR (qNMR) based approaches and from 1 mg/g to 2.5 mg/g when a result obtained by a mass balance method was combined with a separate qNMR result. The material provided several analytical challenges. In addition to the need to identify and quantify various related amino acid impurities including leucine, isoleucine, alanine and ?-amino butyrate, care was required to select appropriate conditions for performing Karl Fischer titration assay for water content to avoid bias due to in situ formation of water by self-condensation under the assay conditions. It also proved to be a challenging compound for purity assignment by qNMR techniques. There was overall excellent agreement between participants in the identification and the quantification of the total and individual related structure impurities, water content, residual solvent and total non-volatile content of the sample. Appropriate technical justifications were developed to rationalise observed discrepancies in the limited cases where methodology differences led to inconsistent results. The comparison demonstrated that to perform a qNMR purity assignment the selection of appropriate parameters and an understanding of their potential influence on the assigned value is critical for reliable implementation of the method, particularly when one or more of the peaks to be quantified consist of complex multiplet signals. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Choteau, Tiphaine; Daireaux, Adeline; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; Moad, Michael; Chan, Benjamin; Muñoz, Amalia; Conneely, Patrick; Ricci, Marina; Pires do Rego, Eliane Cristina; Garrido, Bruno C.; Violante, Fernando G. M.; Windust, Anthony; Dai, Xinhua; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Su, Fuhai; Quan, Can; Wang, Haifeng; Lo, Man-fung; Wong, Wai-fun; Gantois, Fanny; Lalerle, Béatrice; Dorgerloh, Ute; Koch, Matthias; Klyk-Seitz, Urszula-Anna; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Philipp, Rosemarie; Piechotta, Christian; Recknagel, Sebastian; Rothe, Robert; Yamazaki, Taichi; Zakaria, Osman Bin; Castro, E.; Balderas, M.; González, N.; Salazar, C.; Regalado, L.; Valle, E.; Rodríguez, L.; Ángel Laguna, L.; Ramírez, P.; Avila, M.; Ibarra, J.; Valle, L.; Pérez, M.; Arce, M.; Mitani, Y.; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.; Tang Lin, Teo; Liu, Qinde; Tong Kooi, Lee; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Prevoo-Franzsen, Désirée; Nhlapo, Nontete; Visser, Ria; Kim, Byungjoo; Lee, Hwashim; Kankaew, Pornhatai; Pookrod, Preeyaporn; Sudsiri, Nittaya; Shearman, Kittiya; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Hasibe; Bilsel, Mine; Çergel, Muhiddin; Gonca Çoskun, Fatma; Uysal, Emrah; Gündüz, Simay; Ün, Ilker; Warren, John; Bearden, Daniel W.; Bedner, Mary; Duewer, David L.; Lang, Brian E.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Schantz, Michele M.; Sieber, John R.

2014-01-01

37

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated inactivation of the hormone jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine by multiple members of the cytochrome P450 94 family in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) controls diverse aspects of plant immunity, growth, and development. The amplitude and duration of JA responses are controlled in large part by the intracellular level of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). In contrast to detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about enzymes involved in JA-Ile metabolism and turnover. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 94B3 and 94C1 were recently shown to sequentially oxidize JA-Ile to hydroxy (12OH-JA-Ile) and dicarboxy (12COOH-JA-Ile) derivatives. Here, we report that a third member (CYP94B1) of the CYP94 family also participates in oxidative turnover of JA-Ile in Arabidopsis. In vitro studies showed that recombinant CYP94B1 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile and lesser amounts of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Consistent with this finding, metabolic and physiological characterization of CYP94B1 loss-of-function and overexpressing plants demonstrated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 coordinately govern the majority (>95%) of 12-hydroxylation of JA-Ile in wounded leaves. Analysis of CYP94-promoter-GUS reporter lines indicated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 serve unique and overlapping spatio-temporal roles in JA-Ile homeostasis. Subcellular localization studies showed that CYP94s involved in conversion of JA-Ile to 12COOH-JA-Ile reside on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro studies further showed that 12COOH-JA-Ile, unlike JA-Ile, fails to promote assembly of COI1-JAZ co-receptor complexes. The double loss-of-function mutant of CYP94B3 and ILL6, a JA-Ile amidohydrolase, displayed a JA profile consistent with the collaborative action of the oxidative and the hydrolytic pathways in JA-Ile turnover. Collectively, our results provide an integrated view of how multiple ER-localized CYP94 and JA amidohydrolase enzymes attenuate JA signaling during stress responses. PMID:25210037

Koo, Abraham J; Thireault, Caitlin; Zemelis, Starla; Poudel, Arati N; Zhang, Tong; Kitaoka, Naoki; Brandizzi, Federica; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Howe, Gregg A

2014-10-24

38

Crystal Engineering of l-Alanine with l-Leucine Additive using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization.  

PubMed

In this work, we demonstrated that the change in the morphology of l-alanine crystals can be controlled with the addition of l-leucine using the metal-assisted and microwave accelerated evaporative crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique. Crystallization experiments, where an increasing stoichiometric amount of l-leucine is added to initial l-alanine solutions, were carried out on circular poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) disks modified with a 21-well capacity silicon isolator and silver nanoparticle films using microwave heating (MA-MAEC) and at room temperature (control experiments). The use of the MA-MAEC technique afforded for the growth of l-alanine crystals with different morphologies up to ?10-fold faster than those grown at room temperature. In addition, the length of l-alanine crystals was systematically increased from ?380 to ?2000 ?m using the MA-MAEC technique. Optical microscope images revealed that the shape of l-alanine crystals was changed from tetragonal shape (without l-leucine additive) to more elongated and wire-like structures with the addition of the l-leucine additive. Further characterization of l-alanine crystals was undertaken by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements. In order to elucidate the growth mechanism of l-alanine crystals, theoretical simulations of l-alanine's morphology with and without l-leucine additive were carried out using Materials Studio software in conjunction with our experimental data. Theoretical simulations revealed that the growth of l-alanine's {011} and {120} crystal faces were inhibited due to the incorporation of l-leucine into these crystal faces in selected positions. PMID:24839404

Mojibola, Adeolu; Dongmo-Momo, Gilles; Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

2014-05-01

39

Self-assembling of helical poly(phenylacetylene) carrying L-valine pendants in solution, on mica substrate, and on water surface.  

PubMed

In the present work, we investigated self-assembling of a poly(phenylacetylene) carrying L-valine pendants (PPA-Val) in a water/methanol solution, upon evaporation of the solution on mica, and on the water surface. With intercalation of a fluorescence probe of Ru(phen)2(dppx)2+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, dppx=7,8-dimethyldipyridophenazine) into the hydrophobic cavities associated by the PPA-Val chains, their helical structures were directly detected in solution with an in situ fluorescence microscope. Helical aggregates were observed with AFM upon evaporation of the solvents, suggesting that the helical structures in the solution are the building blocks of the helical aggregates. Self-assembling structures of PPA-Val on the water surface were, however, very different from that formed upon evaporation of its THF solution on the mica surface. The polymer chains associated into a monolayer of extended fibers on the water surface, whereas superhelical fibers formed on the mica surface. Water molecules play a critical role in inducing the polymer to form diverse morphological structures in its bulk solution and on its surface. In solution, the isotropic hydrophobic effect drove the polymer chains to form superhelical aggregates, while on the water surface, the hydrophobic effect concentrated mainly on the lateral part of the polymer, thus giving a monolayer of extended fibers. PMID:15323507

Li, Bing Shi; Kang, Shi Zhao; Cheuk, Kevin K L; Wan, Lijun; Ling, Liansheng; Bai, ChunLi; Tang, Ben Zhong

2004-08-31

40

New poly(ester urea) derived from L-leucine: electrospun scaffolds loaded with antibacterial drugs and enzymes.  

PubMed

Electrospun scaffolds from an amino acid containing poly(ester urea) (PEU) were developed as promising materials in the biomedical field and specifically in tissue engineering applications. The selected poly(ester urea) was obtained with a high yield and molecular weight by reaction of phosgene with a bis(?-aminoacyl)-?,?-diol-diester monomer. The polymer having L-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and carbonic acid units had a semicrystalline character and relatively high glass transition and melting temperatures. Furthermore it was highly soluble in most organic solvents, an interesting feature that facilitated the electrospinning process and the effective incorporation of drugs with bactericidal activity (e.g. biguanide derivatives such as clorhexidine and polyhexamethylenebiguanide) and enzymes (e.g. ?-chymotrypsin) that accelerated the degradation process. Continuous micro/nanofibers were obtained under a wide range of processing conditions, being diameters of electrospun fibers dependent on the drug and solvent used. Poly(ester urea) samples were degradable in media containing lipases and proteinases but the degradation rate was highly dependent on the surface area, being specifically greater for scaffolds with respect to films. The high hydrophobicity of new scaffolds had repercussions on enzymatic degradability since different weight loss rates were found depending on how samples were exposed to the medium (e.g. forced or non-forced immersion). New scaffolds were biocompatible, as demonstrated by adhesion and proliferation assays performed with fibroblast and epithelial cells. PMID:25492010

Díaz, Angélica; del Valle, Luis J; Tugushi, David; Katsarava, Ramaz; Puiggalí, Jordi

2015-01-01

41

Formation of amino acid ( l-leucine, l-phenylalanine) derived volatile flavour compounds by Moraxella phenylpyruvica and Staphylococcus xylosus in cured meat model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain isolated from Danish immersion curing brine, Moraxella phenylpyruvica 0100, and a commercial meat starter culture, Staphylococcus xylosus DD34, were tested for their ability to form characteristic volatile compounds in minimal medium with the added amino acid l-leucine or l-phenylalanine under different environmental conditions (pH 5.5 and 6.0; 0 and 210ppm nitrate; pre-incubation with and without agitation) and

Jens K. S Møller; Lars L Hinrichsen; Henrik J Andersen

1998-01-01

42

Study of the Miscibility of Hard and Soft Segments of Optically Active Poly(amide-imide-ether-urethane) Copolymers based-L-Leucine with Different Soft Segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three series of new optically active poly(amide-imide-ether-urethane) (PAIEU) copolymers with different soft segments including polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG) or polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG) of molecular weight (MW) of 1000 were successfully synthesized. These copolymers were prepared via direct polycondensation reaction of an aromatic diacid based on L-leucine (1), 4,4’-methylene-bis-(4-phenylisocyanate) (MDI) (2) and different polyether polyols. FTIR spectroscopy shows the

Shadpour Mallakpour; Fatemeh Rafiemanzelat

2006-01-01

43

Production of recombinant L-leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus cereus in pilot scale using the runaway replication system E. coli[pIET98].  

PubMed

A method for the production of recombinant L-leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus cereus in pilot scale is described employing the temperature induced runaway replication vector pIET98 and the Escherichia coli host strain BL21. Fed-batch cultivation using a semi-synthetic high-cell densitiy medium was adjusted in 5-L scale to yield a constant growth rate of 0,17 h(-1) and a final cell concentration of 27 g dry weight/L by exponentially increasing the nutrient supply. Runaway replication and thus, LeuDH expression was induced during the feeding phase by increasing the cultivation temperature to 41 degrees C yielding a specific enzyme activity of 110 U/mg, which corresponds to 30% of the soluble cell protein. The cultivation was terminated when the dissolved oxygen content fell below 10% saturation. The final volume activity was 600,000 U/L cultivation. No change in growth, cell density, or expression activity was observed scaling up the cultivation volume to 200 L. Thus, 120,000,000 units L-leucine dehydrogenase were obtained from one cultivation. The purification of L-leucine dehydrogenase to homogeneity was carried out by heat denaturation, liquid-liquid extraction, gel filtration, and anion-exchange chromatography to give pure enzyme in 65% yield. The integrity of the recombinant enzyme was tested measuring the molecular weight and determining the N-terminal amino acid sequence. PMID:10797242

Ansorge, M B; Kula, M R

2000-06-01

44

Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Synthetic TF Antigen Mimic/Galectin-3 Inhibitor Lactulose-l-Leucine1  

PubMed Central

Currently incurable, prostate cancer metastasis has a remarkable ability to spread to the skeleton. Previous studies demonstrated that interactions mediated by the cancer-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich glycoantigen (TF-Ag) and the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 play an important role in several rate-limiting steps of cancer metastasis such as metastatic cell adhesion to bone marrow endothelium, homotypic tumor cell aggregation, and clonogenic survival and growth. This study investigated the ability of a synthetic small-molecular-weight nontoxic carbohydrate-based TF-Ag mimic lactulose-l-leucine (Lac-l-Leu) to inhibit these processes in vitro and, ultimately, prostate cancer bone metastasis in vivo. Using an in vivo mouse model, based on intracardiac injection of human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells stably expressing luciferase, we investigated the ability of Lac-l-Leu to impede the establishment and growth of bone metastasis. Parallel-flow chamber assay, homotypic aggregation assay, modified Boyden chamber assay, and clonogenic growth assay were used to assess the effects of Lac-l-Leu on tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium, homotypic tumor cell aggregation, transendothelial migration, and clonogenic survival and growth, respectively. We report that daily intraperitoneal administration of Lac-l-Leu resulted in a three-fold (P < .05) decrease in metastatic tumor burden compared with the untreated control. Mechanistically, the effect of Lac-l-Leu, which binds and inhibits galectins by mimicking essential structural features of the TF-Ag, was associated with a dose-dependent inhibition of prostate cancer cell adhesion to bone marrow endothelium, homotypic aggregation, transendothelial migration, and clonogenic growth. We conclude that small-molecular-weight carbohydrate-based compounds targeting ?-galactoside-mediated interactions could provide valuable means for controlling and preventing metastatic prostate cancer spread to the skeleton. PMID:22355275

Glinskii, Olga V; Sud, Sudha; Mossine, Valeri V; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Anthony, Douglas C; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Pienta, Kenneth J; Glinsky, Vladislav V

2012-01-01

45

Tautomeric and microscopic protonation equilibria of some alpha-amino acids.  

PubMed

The acid-base equilibria of several amino acids, namely glycine, l-alanine, l-valine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, l-serine, l-methionine, and l-isoleucine, have been characterized in terms of microscopic protonation constants and tautomeric ratios. In this study, the microscopic protonation constants and tautomeric ratios of eight amino acids in different ethanol-water mixtures have been determined. The variation of microscopic constants of amino acids is discussed on the basis of solute-solvent interactions, and the ratio of dipolar ionic form to neutral form is determined in ethanol-water mixtures (20/80% ethanol by volume). The dipolar ionic form still greatly predominates, even in 80% ethanol, as estimated from potentiometric titration data. PMID:17416338

Do?an, Alev; Kiliç, Esma

2007-06-01

46

Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens. PMID:25409658

Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

2015-02-01

47

A comparison of the rate equations, kinetic parameters, and activation energies for the initial uptake of l -lysine, l -valine, ?-aminobutyric acid, and ?-aminoisobutyric acid by mouse brain slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  At substrate concentrations, in medium, of 0.2 to 20mm and at temperatures of 25 and 37°C, the initial concentrative influx of the amino acidsl-lysine (30 and 37°C),l-valine, and -aminobutyric acid into incubated mouse-cerebrum slices follows the rate equation for the initial influx of -aminoisobutyric acid (Cohen,J. Physiol.\\u000a228:105, 1973),v=V\\u000amax\\/(1+K\\u000at\\/S)+k\\u000au\\u000aS. Kinetic constants at 37°C are:V\\u000amax=0.089 moles\\/g

Stephen R. Cohen

1975-01-01

48

Authentication of pure L-leucine products manufactured in China by discriminating between plant and animal sources using nitrogen stable isotope technique.  

PubMed

?L-leucine products among other branched chain amino acid supplements are highly susceptible to economically motivated adulteration. Curbing this menace is critical and timely. Hence, the ?(15) N composition of the L-leucine derived from plants and animals sources was estimated. The trophic enrichment phenomenon of ?(15) N composition was utilized to elucidate the sources. We finally established the distinction between the respective sources. Samples of plant sources (maize and soybean) and that of animal sources (pig fur and duck feather) were analyzed for ?(15) N isotopic signatures. An elemental analyzer which was connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer operated in the continuous flow mode was utilized. The raw materials were obtained from China. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated lower ?(15) N values of range -0.7344‰ to 2.384‰ and 1.032‰ to 2.064‰ for maize and soybean samples, respectively. Whereas, a range of 3.860‰ to 6.011‰ and 5.875‰ to 6.011‰ was, respectively, detected in pig fur and duck feather samples. The ?(15) N difference in plants and animals samples was significant (F = 165.0; P = 1.675 E-10 for maize and pig fur samples; F = 212.8; P = 0.0001284 for soybean and duck feather samples). It was observed that ?(15) N trophic enrichment is helpful in elucidating the respective sources. The authors can emphatically assert that the range of ?(15) N composition of L-leucine derived from plants sources within the study area is -1.000‰ to 3.000‰ whereas the range in animal sources is 4.000‰ to 9.000‰. Practical Application?This study provides a reliable approach in verifying the authenticity of not only L-leucine products but also other branched chain amino acid supplements and thereby would help in fraud detection of any economically motivated adulteration and mislabeling of these products. When coupled with H and O stable isotope techniques, the region-of-origin of the detected adulteration can also be traced successfully. It therefore serves as a guide to food regulatory bodies, food scientists, retailers of these products, consumers, and the general public at large. PMID:23458748

Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria; Tang, Shijiang

2013-03-01

49

The role of physico-chemical and bulk characteristics of co-spray dried l-leucine and polyvinylpyrrolidone on glidant and binder properties in interactive mixtures.  

PubMed

In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was spray dried with l-leucine (PVP-Leu) to create a prototype multifunctional interactive excipient. The physico-chemical and bulk properties such as particle size, surface composition, surface energy and bulk cohesion of PVP-Leu was measured and compared against pure spray dried PVP (PVP-SD). The mixing behaviour of these excipients and their effect on flow and binder activity of paracetamol was assessed. The mean particle sizes of PVP-Leu PVP-SD and PVP were 2.5, 2.1 and 21.9?m, respectively. Surface composition characterization indicated that l-leucine achieved higher concentrations on the surface compared to the bulk of the PVP-Leu particles. The surface energy of PVP-Leu was significantly lower compared to PVP-SD. In addition, PVP-Leu exhibited a significantly lower bulk cohesion compared PVP-SD. The excipients were blended with paracetamol and qualitative characterization indicated that PVP-Leu blended more homogeneously with paracetamol compared to PVP-SD. Both PVP-Leu and PVP-SD then exhibited a significantly improved binder activity compared to PVP. The flow of the paracetamol was markedly improved with PVP-Leu while PVP-SD and PVP had negligible effect on its flow. This study reveals how physico-chemical and bulk properties of such prototype interactive excipients can play a key role in determining multi-factorial excipient performance. PMID:25572691

Mangal, Sharad; Meiser, Felix; Lakio, Satu; Morton, David; Larson, Ian

2015-02-20

50

Microwave irradiation as a versatile tool for increasing reaction rates and yields in synthesis of optically active polyamides containing flexible L-leucine amino acid.  

PubMed

In this investigation, a series of thermally stable and optically active polyamides (PA)s containing bulky pendant chiral functionality from polymerization of a diacid monomer containing rigid phthalimide and flexible L-leucine groups, (2S)-5-[4-(4-methyl-2-phthalimidylpentanoylamino)benzoylamino]isophthalic acid with several aromatic and aliphatic diisocyanates such as 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), toluylene-2,4-diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, and hexamethylene diisocyanate under gradual heating method were prepared and compared with microwave-assisted polycondensation method. The polymerization reactions occurred rapidly under microwave irradiation and produced a series of PAs with good yields and moderate inherent viscosities of 0.26-0.68 dL/g. All of the new PAs showed good solubility and were readily dissolved in aprotic organic solvents. The resulting polymers were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis technique. Thermal stability and thermal properties of PAs were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The interpretation of kinetic parameters (E, Delta H, Delta S, and Delta G) of thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats-Redfern equations. PMID:19756941

Mallakpour, Shadpour; Zadehnazari, Amin

2010-05-01

51

Amino acid inhibition and stimulation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid exit from anuran small intestine  

PubMed Central

1. Using the vascularly perfused frog small intestine, the exit of the non-metabolized amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) from the pre-loaded epithelium into the blood has been studied in winter animals. 2. Marked inhibition of the instantaneous rate constant for AIB exit into the vascular bed is observed when L-leucine, but not D-leucine, is added either to the intestinal lumen or to the vascular bed. The extent of the inhibition is related to the leucine concentration in an alinear fashion. The concentration of luminal L-leucine giving half maximal inhibition is 2·5 mM. 3. The instantaneous rate constant for AIB exit is similarly decreased by 10 mM-L-tryptophan and by L-phenylalanine added to the intestinal lumen and to a lesser extent by L-asparagine, L-valine, L-glutamine, L-isoleucine, and L-norleucine. 4. 10 mM-L-proline added to the lumen stimulates AIB exit from the pre-loaded epithelium into the blood. This stimulation is due to an increased rate constant for movement of AIB across the basolateral membrane. 5. No inhibition is found when the dipeptide L-leucyl-L-leucine (10 mM) is added to the intestinal lumen in the presence of 10 mM-L-leucine. When added to the vascular compartment this dipeptide has no effect upon AIB exit from the epithelium. 6. Possible mechanisms by which amino acids and peptides may influence AIB movement out of the epithelium into the blood are discussed and conclusions are drawn concerning AIB transport across the intestinal basolateral membrane of the intact epithelium. PMID:7120150

Boyd, C. A. R.; Perring, Vivien S.

1982-01-01

52

Synthesis of poly(alkenoic acid) with L-leucine residue and methacrylate photopolymerizable groups useful in formulating dental restorative materials.  

PubMed

To develop resin-modified glass ionomer materials, we synthesized methacrylate-functionalized acrylic copolymer (PAlk-LeuM) derived from acrylic acid, itaconic acid and N-acryloyl-L-leucine using (N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl-N'-4-hydroxybutyl) urea as the modifying agent. The spectroscopic (proton/carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) characteristics, and the gel permeation chromatography/Brookfield viscosity measurements were analysed and compared with those of the non-modified copolymer (PAlk-Leu). The photocurable copolymer (PAlk-LeuM, ~14?mol% methacrylate groups) and its precursor (PAlk-Leu) were incorporated in dental ionomer compositions besides diglycidyl methacrylate of bisphenol A (Bis-GMA) or an analogue of Bis-GMA (Bis-GMA-1), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The kinetic data obtained by photo-differential scanning calorimetry showed that both the degree of conversion (60.50-75.62%) and the polymerization rate (0.07-0.14?s(-1)) depend mainly on the amount of copolymer (40-50 wt.%), and conversions over 70% were attained in the formulations with 40 wt.% PAlk-LeuM. To formulate light-curable cements, each organic composition was mixed with filler (90 wt.% fluoroaluminosilicate/10 wt.% hydroxyapatite) into a 2.7:1 ratio (powder/liquid ratio). The light-cured specimens exhibited flexural strength (FS), compressive strength (CS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) varying between 28.08 and 64.79?MPa (FS), 103.68-147.13?MPa (CS) and 16.89-31.87?MPa (DTS). The best values for FS, CS and DTS were found for the materials with the lowest amount of PAlk-LeuM. Other properties such as the surface hardness, water sorption/water solubility, surface morphology and fluorescence caused by adding the fluorescein monomer were also evaluated. PMID:24701975

Buruiana, Tinca; Nechifor, Marioara; Melinte, Violeta; Podasca, Viorica; Buruiana, Emil C

2014-01-01

53

Folding and translocation of the undecamer of poly-L-leucine across the water-hexane interface. A molecular dynamics study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The undecamer of poly-L-leucine at the water-hexane interface is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. This represents a simple model relevant to folding and insertion of hydrophobic peptides into membranes. The peptide, initially placed in a random coil conformation on the aqueous side of the system, rapidly translocates toward the hexane phase and undergoes interfacial folding into an alpha-helix in the subsequent 36 ns. Folding is nonsequential and highly dynamic. The initially formed helical segment at the N-terminus of the undecamer becomes transiently broken and, subsequently, reforms before the remainder of the peptide folds from the C-terminus. The formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds during the folding of the peptide is preceded by a dehydration of the participating polar groups, as they become immersed in hexane. Folding proceeds through a short-lived intermediate, a 3(10)-helix, which rapidly interconverts to an alpha-helix. Both helices contribute to the equilibrium ensemble of folded structures. The helical peptide is largely buried in hexane, yet remains adsorbed at the interface. Its preferred orientation is parallel to the interface, although the perpendicular arrangement with the N-terminus immersed in hexane is only slightly less favorable. In contrast, the reversed orientation is highly unfavorable, because it would require dehydration of C-terminus carbonyl groups that do not participate in intramolecular hydrogen bonding. For the same reason, the transfer of the undecamer from the interface to the bulk hexane is also unfavorable. The results suggest that hydrophobic peptides fold in the interfacial region and, simultaneously, translocate into the nonpolar side of the interface. It is further implied that peptide insertion into the membrane is accomplished by rotating from the parallel to the perpendicular orientation, most likely in such a way that the N-terminus penetrates the bilayer.

Chipot, C.; Pohorille, A.

1998-01-01

54

Solvent Effects on the Protonation Constants of Some ? Amino Acid Esters in 1,4Dioxane–Water Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometric protonation constants of some ?-amino acid esters (glycine methyl ester, glycine t-butyl ester, l-valine methyl ester, l-valine ethyl ester, l-valine t-butyl ester, l-serine methyl ester, l-serine ethyl ester, l-leucine methyl ester, l-leucine ethyl ester, l-leucine t-butyl ester, l-alanine methyl ester, l-alanine benzyl ester, l-phenylalanine methyl ester, l-phenylalanine ethyl ester, and l-phenylalanine t-butyl ester) in water and 20%, 40%,

Alev Do?an; Nazife Aslan; Esin Canel; Esma K?l?ç

2010-01-01

55

21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...L-Isoleucine L-Leucine L-Lysine DL-Methionine (not for infant foods) L-Methionine L-Phenylalanine L-Proline L-Serine...Aminoacetic acid (glycine) L-Leucine DL-Methionine L-Methionine L-Tryptophan...

2011-04-01

56

21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid L-Glutamine Aminoacetic acid (glycine) L-Histidine L-Isoleucine L-Leucine...Monohydrochloride L-Cystine Aminoacetic acid (glycine) L-Leucine DL-Methionine L-Methionine...L-glutamine) 12.4 Aminoacetic acid (glycine) 3.5 L-Histidine 2.4...

2010-04-01

57

Threonine deaminase from Salmonella typhimurium. Relationship between regulatory sites.  

PubMed

Kinetic analysis of the biosynthetic threonine deaminase, EC 4.2.1.16, from Samonella typhimurium yields hyperbolic substrate saturation curves in the absence of, and higher order substrate saturation curves in the presence of, L-isoleucine. L-Valine reverses this effect of L-isoleucine by restoring the hyperbolic substrate saturation curves. The inhibition of enzyme activity and the reversal of valine stimulation is a function of a second order concentration of L-isoleucine, whereas antagonism of inhibition is a function of first order concentration of valine. The antagonistic effects on enzyme activity of L-isoleucine and of L-valine appear as competitive in diagnostic plots. Threonine deaminase possesses two L-isoleucine binding sites (Kd equals 3.6 muM) and one L-valine binding site (Kd equals 26 muM); the binding of these ligands appear competitive. Exclusion of L-valine requires the binding of 2 molecules of L-isoleucine whereas binding of a single L-valine molecule prevents the binding of 2 L-isoleucine molecules. Cooperative binding of L-isoleucine is not observed under any of the conditions tested. Two cases, expressed in terms of modified Adair equations and based upon the assumption that L-threonine also serves as an activator ligand which binds to the L-valine site, are presented. Case I states that liganding of the activator sites must percede substrate-binding at the active site, and Case II states that the activator site liganding is required solely for reactivation of the L-isoleucine-inhibited enzyme. Analysis of kinetic data by a curve-fitting process suggests that Case II described the relationship between the activator site and the L-isoleucine sites. An enzymatically inactive derivative of threonine deaminase, prepared by reduction with borohydride, binds isoleucine and valine in a manner similar to native holoenzyme. Binding of L-threonine and L-valine to the derivatized enzyme is competitive. The Kd for threonine binding is 3 mM, which is in excellent agreement with the Kd determined by the curve fitting process. It is concluded that the modulation of threonine deaminase activity is wrought by interaction between inhibitor sites and an activator site rather than inhibitor and active sites and that induced transitions rather than concerted transitions more adequately describe the underlying regulatory principle. PMID:1089662

Decedue, C J; Hofler, J G; Burns, R O

1975-02-25

58

Application of the spin-trap HPLC-ESR method to radiation chemistry of amino acids in aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent studies of the application of the newly developed spin-trap HPLC-ESR method to ?-radiolysis of aqueous solutions containing amino acids are reviewed. 2-Methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP) was used as a spin trap to convert generated unstable free radicals into relatively stable aminoxyl radicals, which were separated individually by HPLC with cation-exchange columns. Compounds derived from MNP during the preparation of aqueous MNP solutions were found to be t-butylnitrosohydroxylamine, t-butyl alcohol and isbutene. The preparation procedure of the solution in which these undesirable products are minimized is proposed. ?-Radiolysis of aqueous MNP solutions resulted in the formation of five aminoxyl radicals. The chromatographic retention times of the radicals were found to be different from those of the spin adducts from the amino acids studied here. Amino acids investigated in the present work were glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine and DL-methionine. Twenty-five spin adducts from the amino acids were detected and identified by the method. The reactions by which short-lived radicals are produced in ?-irradiated aqueous solutions of the amino acids have been found to be H-abstraction by hydroxyl radicals and deamination by hydrated electrons.

Makino, Keisuke; Moriya, Fumio; Hatano, Hiroyuki

59

Essential amino acids and other essential components for development of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from third-stage larvae to young adults.  

PubMed

Third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus costaricensis were cultured to the young adult stage in Waymouth's chemically defined medium MB 752/1, which contained 18 amino acids, 11 vitamins, glutathione, hypoxanthine, and glucose in a balanced salt solution. Nutritional requirements were examined by deletion of single components from Waymouth's medium. Ten amino acids, namely L-arginine, L-histidine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, and L-valine, were shown to be essential for the parasite's development. L-Aspartic acid, L-cysteine, L-cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, glycine, L-proline, and L-tyrosine were not essential. Among the 11 vitamins, only choline chloride was essential for the development. The deletion of pyridoxine from the medium adversely affected parasite development. Glucose was also required by the worms, but glutathione and hypoxanthine were not required for their development. When the 10 essential L-amino acids were replaced individually by D-isomers of the same amino acids, none supported larval development in the manner of the L-amino acids. PMID:8064517

Hata, H

1994-08-01

60

Current knowledge on isobutanol production with Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Due to steadily rising crude oil prices great efforts have been made to develop designer bugs for the fermentative production of higher alcohols, such as 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-Methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol), which all possess quality characteristics comparable to traditional oil based fuels. The common metabolic engineering approach uses the last two steps of the Ehrlich pathway, catalyzed by 2-ketoacid decarboxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase converting the branched chain 2-ketoacids of L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine into the respective alcohols. This strategy was successfully used to engineer well suited and industrially employed bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of higher alcohols. Among these alcohols, isobutanol is currently the most promising one regarding final titer and yield. This article summarizes the current knowledge and achievements on isobutanol production with E. coli, B. subtilis and C. glutamicum regarding the metabolic engineering approaches and process conditions. PMID:22008938

Blombach, Bastian; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

2011-01-01

61

Experimental Evidence for Three Pheromone Races of the Scarab Beetle Phyllophaga anxia (LeConte)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study offers experimental evidence for the existence of three pheromone races of the northern genitalic form of Phyllophaga anxia: one race in which females produce and males respond mainly to l-valine methyl ester, a second producing and responding to l-isoleucine methyl ester, and a third producing and responding to an intermediate range of blends of the two compounds. At

Paul S. Robbins; Daniel B. Cash; Charles E. Linn; Wendell L. Roelofs

2008-01-01

62

Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants.  

PubMed Central

The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester. PMID:19537965

Robbins, Paul S.; Alm, Steven R.; Armstrong, Charles. D.; Averill, Anne L.; Baker, Thomas C.; Bauernfiend, Robert J.; Baxendale, Frederick P.; Braman, S. Kris; Brandenburg, Rick L.; Cash, Daniel B.; Couch, Gary J.; Cowles, Richard S.; Crocker, Robert L.; DeLamar, Zandra D.; Dittl, Timothy G.; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M.; Flanders, Kathy L.; Forgatsch, Tom; Gibb, Timothy J.; Gill, Bruce D.; Gilrein, Daniel O.; Gorsuch, Clyde S.; Hammond, Abner M.; Hastings, Patricia D.; Held, David W.; Heller, Paul R.; Hiskes, Rose T.; Holliman, James L.; Hudson, William G.; Klein, Michael G.; Krischik, Vera L.; Lee, David J.; Linn, Charles E.; Luce, Nancy J.; MacKenzie, Kenna E.; Mannion, Catherine M.; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Potter, Daniel A.; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Royals, Brian M.; Salsbury, Glenn A.; Schiff, Nathan M.; Shetlar, David J.; Skinner, Margaret; Sparks, Beverly L.; Sutschek, Jessica A.; Sutschek, Timothy P.; Swier, Stanley R.; Sylvia, Martha M.; Vickers, Neil J.; Vittum, Patricia J.; Weidman, Richard; Weber, Donald C.; Williamson, R. Chris; Villani, Michael G

2006-01-01

63

L-leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) and creatine monohydrate prevent myostatin-induced Akirin-1/Mighty mRNA down-regulation and myotube atrophy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine if L-leucine (Leu), ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB), or creatine monohydrate (Crea) prevented potential atrophic effects of myostatin (MSTN) on differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Methods After four days of differentiation, myotubes were treated with MSTN (10 ng/ml) for two additional days and four treatment groups were studied: 1) 3x per day 10 mM Leu, 2) 3x per day 10 mM HMB, 3) 3x per day 10 mM Crea, 4) DM only. Myotubes treated with DM without MSTN were analyzed as the control condition (DM/CTL). Following treatment, cells were analyzed for total protein, DNA content, RNA content, muscle protein synthesis (MPS, SUnSET method), and fiber diameter. Separate batch treatments were analyzed for mRNA expression patterns of myostatin-related genes (Akirin-1/Mighty, Notch-1, Ski, MyoD) as well as atrogenes (MuRF-1, and MAFbx/Atrogin-1). Results MSTN decreased fiber diameter approximately 30% compared to DM/CTL myotubes (p?

2014-01-01

64

Ruthenium-Nitrosyl Complexes with Glycine, l-Alanine, l-Valine, l-Proline, d-Proline, l-Serine, l-Threonine, and l-Tyrosine: Synthesis, X-ray Diffraction Structures, Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Properties, and Antiproliferative Activity  

PubMed Central

The reactions of [Ru(NO)Cl5]2– with glycine (Gly), l-alanine (l-Ala), l-valine (l-Val), l-proline (l-Pro), d-proline (d-Pro), l-serine (l-Ser), l-threonine (l-Thr), and l-tyrosine (l-Tyr) in n-butanol or n-propanol afforded eight new complexes (1–8) of the general formula [RuCl3(AA–H)(NO)]?, where AA = Gly, l-Ala, l-Val, l-Pro, d-Pro, l-Ser, l-Thr, and l-Tyr, respectively. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), 1H NMR, UV–visible and ATR IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. X-ray crystallography studies have revealed that in all cases the same isomer type (from three theoretically possible) was isolated, namely mer(Cl),trans(NO,O)-[RuCl3(AA–H)(NO)], as was also recently reported for osmium analogues with Gly, l-Pro, and d-Pro (see Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.2013, 639, 1590–1597). Compounds 1, 4, 5, and 8 were investigated by ESI-MS with regard to their stability in aqueous solution and reactivity toward sodium ascorbate. In addition, cell culture experiments in three human cancer cell lines, namely, A549 (nonsmall cell lung carcinoma), CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), and SW480 (colon carcinoma), were performed, and the results are discussed in conjunction with the lipophilicity of compounds. PMID:24555845

2014-01-01

65

Experimental evidence for three pheromone races of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga anxia (LeConte).  

PubMed

This study offers experimental evidence for the existence of three pheromone races of the northern genitalic form of Phyllophaga anxia: one race in which females produce and males respond mainly to L-valine methyl ester, a second producing and responding to L-isoleucine methyl ester, and a third producing and responding to an intermediate range of blends of the two compounds. At Franklinville, NY, pheromone gland contents of females were analyzed using coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection. Two types of females were found, one that produced greater than 99% L-valine methyl ester and another that produced greater than 99% L-isoleucine methyl ester. Capture-mark-release-recapture field tests with males at Franklinville established that most males were recaptured in traps baited with the same blends with which they were originally captured. The populations characterized at Franklinville, NY, have also been found at numerous locations from eastern Canada and the northeast and north central USA, sometimes in allopatry and sometimes in sympatry. At a site in Carver, MA, P. anxia males responded to blends of the methyl esters of L-valine and L-isoleucine, and Carver females produced blends similar to those to which the males responded. Populations responding to blends have been identified only from southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island. At a field site near Waterloo, NY, the addition of small proportions of L-isoleucine methyl ester to lures containing L-valine methyl ester did not affect trap captures, but higher proportions of L-isoleucine methyl ester were inhibitory, decreasing trap captures. PMID:18213495

Robbins, Paul S; Cash, Daniel B; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L

2008-02-01

66

Analysis of acetohydroxyacid synthase variants from branched-chain amino acids-producing strains and their effects on the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids in Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) controls carbon flux through the branch point and determines the relative rates of the synthesis of isoleucine, valine and leucine, respectively. However, it is strongly regulated by its end products. In this study, we characterized AHAS variants from five branched-chain amino acids-producing strains. Amino acid substitution occurred in both catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Interestingly, AHAS variants reduced sensitivity to feedback inhibition by branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Although AHAS with amino acid substitution in regulatory subunit showed higher resistance, amino acid substitution in catalytic subunit could also endow AHAS with resistance to feedback inhibition. In addition, AHAS variants from V2 and L5 displayed about 1.4-fold higher specific activity compared to other AHAS variants. On the other hand, AHAS variant from V1 exhibited the highest resistance to BCAAs, 87% of original activity left even in the presence of 10mM BCAAs. Recombinant Corynebacteriumglutamicum strains were further constructed to investigate the effects of expressing AHAS variants on the synthesis of BCAAs and alanine (main by-product) in C. glutamicum. BCAAs production was increased with the increase of resistance to feedback inhibition, although valine showed a significant increase. For instance, C. g-1BN could accumulate 9.51g/l valine, 0.450g/l leucine and 0.180g/l isoleucine, and alanine was reduced to 0.477g/l. These AHAS variants are important for further improving performance of BCAAs-producing strain. PMID:25697867

Guo, Yanfeng; Han, Mei; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Weiguo

2015-05-01

67

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

PubMed Central

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants. PMID:20065117

Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

2010-01-01

68

Emission of methylbutyric acid from Gypsophila paniculata L. during bud opening: Changes in amino acid catabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the mechanism of methylbutyric acid emission which is responsible for the unpleasant odor of gypsophila inflorescences (Gypsophila paniculata L. ‘Bristol Fairy’ and ‘Golan’), we investigated the activities of enzymes in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids. The continuous application of either 10mM l-leucine, 10mM l-isoleucine or 4.5mM isovaleraldehyde increased the production of methylbutyric acids. When gypsophila inflorescences

Hataitip Nimitkeatkai; Yoshinori Ueda; Hajime Furukawa; Katsuhiko Inamoto; Motoaki Doi

2005-01-01

69

Effect of KCl and KNO3 on Partial Molal Volumes and Partial Molal Compressibilities of Some Amino Acids at Different Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density ( ?) and ultrasonic velocity ( u) values of amino acids l-alanine, l-proline, l-valine, and l-leucine in 2M aqueous KCl and 2M aqueous KNO3 solutions have been measured as a function of amino acid concentration at different temperatures (298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, 313.15 K, 318.15 K, and 323.15 K). Using the ? and u data, partial molal volume ({?_v^o}) and partial molal isentropic compressibility ({?_k^o }) values have been computed. The increase in partial molal volume with temperature has been attributed to the volume expansion of hydrated zwitterions. The {?_v^o} and {?_k^o} values of l-alanine, l-proline, l-valine, and l-leucine in 2M aqueous KCl and KNO3 solutions have been found to be larger than the corresponding values in water. The larger partial molal volumes of l-alanine, l-proline, l-valine, and l-leucine in 2M aqueous KCl and KNO3 solutions have been ascribed to the formation of ‘zwitterion-K+/Cl-/NO{3/-}’ and ‘K+/Cl-/NO{3/-}-water dipole’ aggregates in solutions. The formation of these entities in solutions causes the release of water associated with zwitterions to the bulk water. The larger partial molal compressibilities of l-alanine-/ l-proline-/ l-valine-/ l-leucine-2M aqueous KCl/KNO3 solutions than the corresponding values in water have been attributed to the formation of ‘zwitterion-ion’ and ‘ion-water dipole’ incompressible entities in solutions.

Riyazuddeen; Khan, Imran

2009-04-01

70

Amino acid metabolism in the thermophilic phototroph, Chloroflexus aurantiacus : properties and metabolic role of two l-threonine (l-serine) dehydratases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two l-threonine (l-serine) dehydratases (EC 4.2.1.16) of the thermophilic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus Ok-70-fl were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by procedures involving anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Only one of the two enzymes was sensitive to inhibition by l-isoleucine (Ki=2 µM) and activation by l-valine. The isoleucine-insensitive dehydratase was active with l-threonine (Km=20 mM) as well as with l-serine

Gisela Laakmann-Ditges; Jobst-Heinrich Klemme

1988-01-01

71

ISOLEUCYL-tRNA SYNTHETASE OF E. coli B. A RAPID KINETIC INVESTIGATION OF THE L-ISOLEUCINE ACTIVATING REACTION  

E-print Network

kinetic and thermodynamic features of the isoleucine activating enzymekinetic pab'1way is ordered or random under the conditions, except for the case when enzyme andenzyme-substrate complex, Table I. In agreement with our kinetic

Holler, E.

2008-01-01

72

Thermodynamics of solvation of some small peptides in water at T = 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enthalpies of solution in water, ?solHm, of some small peptides, namely the amides of five N-acetyl substituted amino acids of glycine, l-alanine, l-proline, l-valine, l-leucine and two cyclic anhydrides of glycine and l-sarcosine (diketopiperazines), were measured by isothermal calorimetry at T=(296.84, 306.89, and 316.95)K. The enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution at T=298.15K were derived and added to the

Giuseppe Della Gatta; Tatiana Usacheva; Elena Badea; Bart?omiej Pa?ecz; Daniela Ichim

2006-01-01

73

Potential antiproteolytic effects of L-leucine: observations of in vitro and in vivo studies  

PubMed Central

The purpose of present review is to describe the effect of leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle proteolysis suppression in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Most studies, using in vitro methodology, incubated skeletal muscles with leucine with different doses and the results suggests that there is a dose-dependent effect. The same responses can be observed in in vivo studies. Importantly, the leucine effects on skeletal muscle protein synthesis are not always connected to the inhibition of skeletal muscle proteolysis. As a matter of fact, high doses of leucine incubation can promote suppression of muscle proteolysis without additional effects on protein synthesis, and low leucine doses improve skeletal muscle protein ynthesis but have no effect on skeletal muscle proteolysis. These research findings may have an important clinical relevancy, because muscle loss in atrophic states would be reversed by specific leucine supplementation doses. Additionally, it has been clearly demonstrated that leucine administration suppresses skeletal muscle proteolysis in various catabolic states. Thus, if protein metabolism changes during different atrophic conditions, it is not surprising that the leucine dose-effect relationship must also change, according to atrophy or pathological state and catabolism magnitude. In conclusion, leucine has a potential role on attenuate skeletal muscle proteolysis. Future studies will help to sharpen the leucine efficacy on skeletal muscle protein degradation during several atrophic states. PMID:18637185

Zanchi, Nelo E; Nicastro, Humberto; Lancha, Antonio H

2008-01-01

74

L-Leucine for gold nanoparticles synthesis and their cytotoxic effects evaluation.  

PubMed

This work reports the preparation of water-soluble leucine capped gold nanoparticles by two single-step synthesis methods. The first procedure involves a citrate reduction approach where the citrate is used as reducing agent and leucine as capping/stabilizing agent. Different sizes of gold nanoparticles, citrate reduced and stabilized by leucine, Leu-AuNPs-C, with the mean diameters in the range of 21-56 nm, were obtained by varying the macroscopic parameters such as: concentration of the gold precursor solution, Au (III):citrate molar ratio and leucine pH. In the second procedure, leucine acts both as reducing and stabilizing agent, allowing us to obtain spherical gold nanoparticles, Leu-AuNPs, with a majority of 80 % (with the mean diameter of 63 nm). This proves that leucine is an appropriate reductant for the formation of water-soluble and stable gold nanoparticles colloids. The characterization of the leucine coated gold nanoparticles was carried out by TEM, UV-Vis and FT-IR analysis. The cytotoxic effect of Leu-AuNPs-C and Leu-AuNPs was also evaluated. PMID:25092048

Berghian-Grosan, Camelia; Olenic, Liliana; Katona, Gabriel; Perde-Schrepler, Maria; Vulcu, Adriana

2014-11-01

75

L e t t e r The formation of cubane cluster controlled by L-valineGd  

E-print Network

used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a contrast-enhancing agent for making tumor diag- nostics.2 Ã?Gd separations are in the range 3.7676(6)Ã?3.9017(6) A . Each triangular metal face is capped,1,1,5,5,5-hexaÃ?uoropentane-2,4-dione),7 which has a tetrahedral geometry with face-capping hydroxides. Mean

Gao, Song

76

Chiral discrimination by ionic liquids: impact of ionic solutes.  

PubMed

Chiral ionic liquids hold promise in many asymmetric applications. This study explores the impact of ionic solutes on the chiral discrimination of five amino acid methyl ester-based ionic liquids, including L- and D-alanine methyl ester, L-proline methyl ester, L-leucine methyl ester, and L-valine methyl ester cations combined with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) anion. Circularly polarized luminescence spectroscopy was used to study the chiral discrimination by measuring the racemization equilibrium of a dissymmetric europium complex, Eu(dpa)3 (3-) (where dpa = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate). The chiral discrimination measured was dependent on the concentration of Eu(dpa)3 (3-) and this concentration-dependence was different in each of the ionic liquids. Ionic liquids with L-leucine methyl ester and L-valine methyl ester even switched enantiomeric preference based on the solute concentration. Changing the cation of the Eu(dpa)3 (3-) salt from tetrabutylammonium to tetramethylammonium ion also affected the chiral discrimination demonstrated by the ionic liquids. Chirality 27:320-325, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25727925

Brown, Christopher J; Hopkins, Todd A

2015-04-01

77

Synthesis and biological activity of novel thiourea derivatives as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.  

PubMed

A new series of chiral thiourea derivatives (5a-5c) and thiourea containing benzimidazole moieties (9b-9e) were synthesized from different amino acids (l-valine, l-isoleucine, l-methionine, l-phenylalanine, and d-phenylglycine). The compounds were characterized and tested against the two most studied members of the pH regulatory enzyme family, carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). KI values of the novel compounds were measured in the range of 3.4-73.6 ?M for hCA I isozyme and 8.7-1.44.2 ?M for hCA II isozyme, respectively. Phenol was also tested as standard in order to understand the structure activity relationship and the clinically used sulfonamide acetazolamide was tested for comparison reasons. All of the compounds exhibited competitive inhibition with 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate. PMID:24666304

Korkmaz, Neslihan; Obaidi, Oday A; Senturk, Murat; Astley, Demet; Ekinci, Deniz; Supuran, Claudiu T

2015-02-01

78

Postnatal amino acid uptake by the rat small intestine. Changes in membrane transport systems for amino acids associated with maturation of jejunal morphology.  

PubMed

The uptake of a number of amino acids by the developing small intestine of the rat was investigated in vitro. L-valine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-arginine and L-lysine were all taken up by active transport and concentrated within the jejunal mucosa. GABA was not actively transported by the jejunum. The kinetics of carrier transport of amino acids was determined from birth to maturity. The Michaelis constant (Km) of the L-leucine, L-methionine, L-arginine and l-lysine transport systems was found to be low postnatally and increased with age, particularly after the time of weaning. The rate of l-leucine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine and L-lysine transport (Vmax) was high postnatally but decreased after weaning. Neutral amino acids were transported at higher rates than basic amino acids. l-arginine was poorly transported by the jejunum. The specificity of transport systems for amino acids was investigated in inhibition studies. Amino acid transport systems appeared to be polyfunctional in the postnatal period but were more specific in post-weaned animals. The changes in kinetics and specificity of amino acid transport in the small intestine are discussed with reference to their possible functional significance and to the maturational changes in the jejunum, particularly with the appearance of a functionally distinct absorptive cell lining the intestinal villi during the third postnatal week (the time of weaning). PMID:121999

Murphy, S; Daniels, V G

1979-04-01

79

Stereo and regioselectivity in ''Activated'' tritium reactions  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the stereo and positional selectivity of the microwave discharge activation (MDA) method, the tritium labeling of several amino acids was undertaken. The labeling of L-valine and the diastereomeric pair L-isoleucine and L-alloisoleucine showed less than statistical labeling at the ..cap alpha..-amino C-H position mostly with retention of configuration. Labeling predominated at the single ..beta.. C-H tertiary (methyne) position. The labeling of L-valine and L-proline with and without positive charge on the ..cap alpha..-amino group resulted in large increases in specific activity (greater than 10-fold) when positive charge was removed by labeling them as their sodium carboxylate salts. Tritium NMR of L-proline labeled both as its zwitterion and sodium salt showed also large differences in the tritium distribution within the molecule. The distribution preferences in each of the charge states are suggestive of labeling by an electrophilic like tritium species(s). 16 refs., 5 tabs.

Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.; Hembree, W.C.; Wolf, A.P.

1988-01-01

80

Intestinal nutrient absorption - A biomarker for deleterious heavy metals in aquatic environments  

SciTech Connect

The deleterious effects of heavy metals on absorptive processes at the membrane surface will be summarized. Among the deleterious heavy metal chlorides (HgCl{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}HgCl, CdCl{sub 2}, CoCl{sub 2}, SrCl{sub 2}) tested HgCl{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}HgCl, and CdCl{sub 2} inhibit the absorption of several amino acids and sugars (L-leucine, L-methionine, L-isoleucine, L-lysine, cyclolencine, D-glucose, and D-galactose). The dose dependent inhibition of L-leucine uptake by HgCl{sub 2} is shown in a number of fish from different collection sites representing nektonic plankton feeders as well as demersal carnivores. The same type of data is shown for both HgCl{sub 2} and HC{sub 3}HgCl in the case of the commercially important summer flounder. Since the overall rate of intestinal absorption of amino acids and sugars involves the three processes of simple diffusion, protein-mediated facilitated diffusions, and protein-mediated sodium dependent active transport, the inhibition of the overall rate may not be sensitive enough as a biomarker. However, the active component, which alone accumulates essential amino acids in the tissue, appears to be very sensitive and can be used as a biomarker. The terminal tissue-to-medium (T/M) ratio of L-leucine concentration shows a 2-3 fold accumulation in the absence of mercury. Since the diffusional components can at best equilibrate L-leucine across the membrane % inhibition of the active component can be calculated after subtracting 1 from the experimental T/M values. The resulting inhibition is very sever ranging from approximately 50-100% for HgCl{sub 2} and 20-70% for CH{sub 3}HgCl over a range of 5-20 ppm of mercury.

Farmanfarmaian, A. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway (USA))

1988-09-01

81

Molecular recognition of isomeric protonated amino acid esters monitored by ESI-mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Summary Two new 9,9’-spirobifluorene-derived crown ethers were prepared and used to recognise constitutionally isomeric amino acid derivatives. The performance of the receptors was evaluated by ESI-mass spectrometry using the isomer labelled guest method (ILGM). This method revealed the preferred binding of L-norleucine and L-leucine compared to L-isoleucine for both receptors. Furthermore, non-covalent isotope effects demonstrate the relevance of dispersive interactions for the overall binding event. These effects also provide hints for the relative spatial orientation of the guest molecules within the host–guest complex, and thereby prove the importance of the spirobifluorene moiety for the observed binding of the protonated amino acid esters. PMID:24778737

Liesenfeld, Andrea

2014-01-01

82

Production of 2-ketoisocaproate with Corynebacterium glutamicum strains devoid of plasmids and heterologous genes.  

PubMed

2-Ketoisocaproate (KIC), the last intermediate in l-leucine biosynthesis, has various medical and industrial applications. After deletion of the ilvE gene for transaminase B in l-leucine production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, KIC became the major product, however, the strains were auxotrophic for l-isoleucine. To avoid auxotrophy, reduction of IlvE activity by exchanging the ATG start codon of ilvE by GTG was tested instead of an ilvE deletion. The resulting strains were indeed able to grow in glucose minimal medium without amino acid supplementation, but at the cost of lowered growth rates and KIC production parameters. The best production performance was obtained with strain MV-KICF1, which carried besides the ilvE start codon exchange three copies of a gene for a feedback-resistant 2-isopropylmalate synthase, one copy of a gene for a feedback-resistant acetohydroxyacid synthase and deletions of ltbR and iolR encoding transcriptional regulators. In the presence of 1?mM l-isoleucine, MV-KICF1 accumulated 47?mM KIC (6.1?g?l(-1) ) with a yield of 0.20?mol/mol glucose and a volumetric productivity of 1.41?mmol?KIC?l(-1) ?h(-1) . Since MV-KICF1 is plasmid free and lacks heterologous genes, it is an interesting strain for industrial application and as platform for the production of KIC-derived compounds, such as 3-methyl-1-butanol. PMID:25488800

Vogt, Michael; Haas, Sabine; Polen, Tino; van Ooyen, Jan; Bott, Michael

2015-03-01

83

Production of 2-ketoisocaproate with Corynebacterium glutamicum strains devoid of plasmids and heterologous genes  

PubMed Central

2-Ketoisocaproate (KIC), the last intermediate in l-leucine biosynthesis, has various medical and industrial applications. After deletion of the ilvE gene for transaminase B in l-leucine production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, KIC became the major product, however, the strains were auxotrophic for l-isoleucine. To avoid auxotrophy, reduction of IlvE activity by exchanging the ATG start codon of ilvE by GTG was tested instead of an ilvE deletion. The resulting strains were indeed able to grow in glucose minimal medium without amino acid supplementation, but at the cost of lowered growth rates and KIC production parameters. The best production performance was obtained with strain MV-KICF1, which carried besides the ilvE start codon exchange three copies of a gene for a feedback-resistant 2-isopropylmalate synthase, one copy of a gene for a feedback-resistant acetohydroxyacid synthase and deletions of ltbR and iolR encoding transcriptional regulators. In the presence of 1?mM l-isoleucine, MV-KICF1 accumulated 47?mM KIC (6.1?g?l?1) with a yield of 0.20?mol/mol glucose and a volumetric productivity of 1.41?mmol?KIC?l?1?h?1. Since MV-KICF1 is plasmid free and lacks heterologous genes, it is an interesting strain for industrial application and as platform for the production of KIC-derived compounds, such as 3-methyl-1-butanol. PMID:25488800

Vogt, Michael; Haas, Sabine; Polen, Tino; van Ooyen, Jan; Bott, Michael

2015-01-01

84

An extreme-halophile archaebacterium possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase characteristic of the Gram-positive eubacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focal point of phenylalanine biosynthesis is a dehydratase reaction which in different organisms may be prephenate dehydratase, arogenate dehydratase, or cyclohexadienyl dehydratase. Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and cyanobacterial divisions of the eubacterial kingdom exhibit different dehydratase patterns. A new extreme-halophile isolate, which grows on defined medium and is tentatively designated as Halobacterium vallismortis CH-1, possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase present in Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the conventional sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine, the phenomenon of metabolic interlock was exemplified by the sensitivity of prephenate dehydratase to allosteric effects produced by extra-pathway (remote) effectors. Thus, L-tryptophan inhibited activity while L-tyrosine, L-methionine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine activated the enzyme. L-Isoleucine and L-phenylalanine were effective at micromolar levels; other effectors operated at mM levels. A regulatory mutant selected for resistance to growth inhibition caused by beta-2-thienylalanine possessed an altered prephenate dehydratase in which a phenomenon of disproportionately low activity at low enzyme concentration was abolished. Inhibition by L-tryptophan was also lost, and activation by allosteric activators was diminished. Not only was sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine lost, but the mutant enzyme was now activated by this amino acid (a mutation type previously observed in Bacillus subtilis). It remains to be seen whether this type of prephenate dehydratase will prove to be characteristic of all archaebacteria or of some archaebacterial subgroup cluster.

Jensen, R. A.; d'Amato, T. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

1988-01-01

85

Purification and partial characterization of an elastolytic serine protease of Prevotella intermedia.  

PubMed Central

Elastolytic strains of Prevotella intermedia were isolated from pus samples of adult periodontal lesions. Elastase was found to associate with envelope, and it could be solubilized with guanidine-HCl. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by sequential procedures including ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. This elastase was a serine protease, and its mass was 31 kDa. It hydrolyzed elastin powder, but collagen and azodye-conjugated proteins were not degraded by this enzyme. Both synthetic substrates for human pancreatic (glutaryl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-leucine p-nitroanilide) and leukocyte elastase (methoxy succinyl-L-alanyl-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-valine p-nitroanilide) were hydrolyzed. Images PMID:8357246

Shibata, Y; Fujimura, S; Nakamura, T

1993-01-01

86

[Kinetic and allosteric properties of highly-purified, biosynthetic L-threonine dehydrogenase from brewer's yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis].  

PubMed

Kinetic and allosteric propeties of highly purified "biosynthetic" L-threonine dehydratase from brewer's yeast S. carlbergensis were studied at three pH values, using L-threonine and L-serine as substrates. It was shown that the plot of the initial reaction rate (v) versus initial substrate concentrations ([S]0 pH 6.5 is hyperbolic (Km=5.0.10-2M), while these at pH 7.8 and 9.5 have a faintly pronounced sigmoidal shape with fast occurring saturation plateaus ([S]0.5= 1.0.10-2 and 0.9.10-2M, respectively). the ratios between L-threonine and L-serine dehydratation rates depend on pH. The kinetic properties and the dependence of substrate specificity on pH suggest that the enzyme molecule undergoes pH-induced (at pH 7.0) conformational changes. The determination of pK values of the enzyme functional groups involved in L-threonine binding demonstrated that these groups have pK is approximately equal to 7.5 and 9.5. The latter group was hypothetically identified as a epsilon-NH2-group of the lysine residue. High concentrations of the allosteric inhibitor (L-isoleucine) decrease the rates of L-threonine and L-serine dehydratation and induce the appearance (at pH 6.5) or increase (at pH 7.9 and 9.5) of homotropic cooperative interactions between the active sites in the course of L-threonine dehydratation. The enzyme inhibition by L-isoleucine increases with a decrease of L-threonine concentrations. Low L-isoleucine concentrations, as well as the enzyme activator (L-valine) stimulate the enzyme at non-saturating substrate concentrations (when L-threonine or L-serine are used as substrates) without normalization of (v) versus [S]0 plots. The maximal activation of the enzyme is observed at pHG 8.5--9.0. It is assumed that the molecule of "biosynthetic" L-threonine dehydratase from brewer's yeast contains two types of sites responsible for the effector binding, i.e., "activatory" and "inhibitory" ones. PMID:6428467

Kovaleva, S V; Dorozhko, A I; Rabinovich, S E; Kagan, Z S

1984-04-01

87

Taxonomy of Phytopathogenic Pseudomonads1  

PubMed Central

Phytopathogenic pseudomonads were placed into four major groups on the basis of nutritional and physiological characteristics. Group I consists of 86 strains of phytopathogens distinguishable from other fluorescent pseudomonads by low growth rates, ability to induce hypersensitivity on tobacco, absence of arginine dihydrolase, and relatively limited ranges of carbon sources. Most of these strains cannot utilize benzoate, 2-ketogluconate, spermine, ?-alanine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, and l-lysine. Most of the organisms in group I clustered into a small number of subgroups, each of which generally corresponded to a previously recognized nomenspecies. These subgroups differ with respect to the number of substrates used. As a rule, the organisms that utilize the fewest substrates have the most limited host ranges. The fluorescent pseudomonads of group II are arginine dihydrolase-positive and utilize a considerably larger number of carbon sources. Most pathogens of group II are similar to Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype A. Groups III and IV consist of nonfluorescent pseudomonads. These two groups can be distinguished by the number of carbon sources used and by pigmentation. An amended description of the flurescent pseudomonads and their internal subdivision is presented. PMID:5411761

Sands, D. C.; Schroth, M. N.; Hildebrand, D. C.

1970-01-01

88

Enniatins of Fusarium sp. strain F31 and their inhibition of Botrytis cinerea spore germination.  

PubMed

A spectrum of enniatins was isolated from Fusarium sp. strain F31 by bioassay-guided isolation directed against Botrytis cinerea. Two new enniatins, J(2) (7) and J(3) (8), were co-isolated and both contained, in addition to three hydroxyisovaleric acid units, N-methylated l-alanine, l-valine, and l-isoleucine units, differing only in their primary sequence. Two other enniatins, named enniatin J(1) (1) and enniatin K(1) (6), each containing two N-Me-l-Val units and one N-Me-l-Ala or alpha-N-Me-l-butyric acid unit, respectively, were isolated for the first time without directed biosynthesis. The enniatin structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods, and the absolute configuration of the amino acids (l) and hydroxyisovaleric acid (d) was consistent with all previously isolated enniatins. The known enniatins B (2), B(1) (4), B(2) (5), and B(4) (3) were also isolated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of pure enniatins against Botrytis cinerea was 75 microg/mL. PMID:15165149

Pohanka, Anton; Capieau, Kristof; Broberg, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Stenström, Elna; Kenne, Lennart

2004-05-01

89

Transport of L-phenylalanine and related amino acids at the ovine blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

1. Unidirectional influx of amino acids at the blood-brain barrier was studied in the lamb and sheep under barbiturate anaesthesia using the single-pass indicator-dilution technique. 2. In the lamb, influx of both L-phenylalanine (14 +/- 1 nmol g-1 min-1) and L-alanine (12 +/- 2 nmol g-1 min-1) was greater than in the sheep: L-phenylalanine influx, 9 +/- 1 nmol g-1 min-1; L-alanine influx, 5 +/- 1 nmol g-1 min-1 (P less than 0.01). This difference reflected higher blood concentrations of these amino acids in the younger animal. 3. The kinetic parameters of transport for L-phenylalanine were determined in the lamb and sheep from measurements of influx over a range of blood concentrations. The concentration dependence of L-phenylalanine influx was best described by a model with a saturable and non-saturable component. Maximum influx (Jmax) was higher and apparent transport constant (km, app) lower in the lamb. Values obtained (mean +/- S.E.M.) were: lamb, Jmax, 138 +/- 6 nmol g-1 min; km, app, 0.85 +/- 0.10 mmol l-1; sheep, Jmax, 107 +/- 7 nmol g-1 min-1; km, app, 2.25 +/- 0.25 mmol l-1. 4. L-Phenylalanine inhibited influx of L-leucine, L-tyrosine, L-valine and L-glutamine but not L-arginine and L-lysine. Its influx was inhibited by L-histidine, L-valine and L-leucine, but not by L-glutamine or L-alanine. In the lamb, L-phenylalanine inhibited L-histidine influx with an apparent inhibitor constant (kh) of 139 mumol l-1, and a maximum inhibition of 92%. In the sheep, L-phenylalanine inhibited L-methionine influx with an apparent kh of 33 mumol l-1 and a maximum inhibition of 82%. 5. Fractional extraction of phenylalanine and alanine was stereospecific with preference for the L-enantiomer. In the lamb, fractional extraction values (mean +/- S.E.M.) were: L-phenylalanine, 0.58 +/- 0.03; D-phenylalanine, 0.20 +/- 0.02; L-alanine, 0.16 +/- 0.03; D-alanine, 0.05 +/- 0.02. Self-inhibition of extraction was evident for L-phenylalanine and L-alanine in both lamb and sheep. PMID:3236248

Brenton, D P; Gardiner, R M

1988-08-01

90

Esterification of all four monoribonucleotides with acetyl-D-L-valine proceeds with a preference for the D-isomer but the D/L ratio in the products declines as a function of the hydrophobicity of the nucleotide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We recently reported that esterification of 5'-AMP with N-acetyl amino acids proceeds with a preference for D-amino acids, and the D/L ratio in products declines as the hydrophobicity of the amino acid declines. Using one amino acid, Ac-Val, we now show that esterification of all four nucleotides proceeds with a preference for the D-isomer and the preference declines as the hydrophobicity of the nucleotide declines. So, in both types of experiments, the preferences seem determined by hydrophobic interactions.

Wickramasinghe, N. S.; Lacey, J. C. Jr; Lacey JC, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

91

A Hydrolase from Lactobacillus sakei Moonlights as a Transaminase  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic transamination of amino acids yields ?-keto acids and is the initial step for the production of volatile compounds that contribute to the sensory perception of fermented foods such as salami. Lactobacillus sakei is one of the lactic acid bacterial strains commonly used in starter cultures. Although the genome sequence of L. sakei 23K lacks genes encoding typical branched-chain amino acid transaminases, transamination activity and the formation of amino acid-derived volatile metabolites could be demonstrated. A protein purified from L. sakei is held responsible for the transamination activity. By heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli, we were able to characterize the transamination side activity of an enzyme annotated as a putative acylphosphatase (AcP). A transamination side activity of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was also discovered. Both enzymes showed substrate specificity toward branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. AcP also accepted l-methionine. Activity was optimal at neutral pH for both enzymes, whereas AcP showed a significantly higher temperature optimum (55°C) than that of HEWL (37°C). Kinetic parameters revealed high affinity toward l-leucine for AcP (Km = 1.85 mM) and toward l-isoleucine for HEWL (Km = 3.79 mM). AcP seems to play a major role in the metabolism of amino acids in L. sakei. PMID:23354716

Sinz, Quirin; Freiding, Simone; Vogel, Rudi F.

2013-01-01

92

Origin and incidence of 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, a compound with a "fungal" and "corky" aroma found in cork stoppers and oak chips in contact with wines.  

PubMed

This study identifies a previously isolated bacterium as Rhizobium excellensis, a new species of proteobacteria able to form a large quantity of 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (MDMP). R. excellensis actively synthesizes MDMP from L-alanine and L-leucine and, to a lesser extent, from L-phenylalanine and L-valine. MDMP is a volatile, strong-smelling substance detected in wines with cork stoppers that have an unpleasant "corky", "herbaceous" (potato, green hazelnut), or "dusty" odor that is very different from the typical "fungal" nose of a "corked" wine that is generally due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA). The contamination of cork by MDMP is not correlated with the presence of TCA. It appears possible that R. excellensis is the microorganism mainly responsible for the presence of this molecule in cork bark. However, other observations suggest that MDMP might taint wine through other ways. Oak wood can also be contaminated and affect wines with which it comes into contact. Nevertheless, because 93% of the MDMP content in wood is destroyed after 10 min at 220 °C, sufficiently toasted oak barrels or alternatives probably do not represent a major source of MDMP in most of the cases. Due to MDMP's relatively low detection threshold estimated at 2.1 ng/L, its presence in about 40% of the untreated natural cork stoppers sampled at concentrations above 10 ng/cork suggests that this compound, if extracted from the stoppers, may pose a risk for wine producers. PMID:21058737

Chatonnet, Pascal; Fleury, Antoine; Boutou, Stéphane

2010-12-01

93

Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

2008-12-01

94

Identification of N-[(5-{[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]amino}-3-(trifluoroacetyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)acetyl]-l-leucine (NTRC-824), a neurotensin-like nonpeptide compound selective for the neurotensin receptor type 2.  

PubMed

Compounds acting via the neurotensin receptor type 2 (NTS2) are known to be active in animal models of acute and chronic pain. To identify novel NTS2 selective analgesics, we searched for NTS2 selective nonpeptide compounds using a FLIPR assay and identified the title compound (NTRC-824, 5) that, to our knowledge, is the first nonpeptide that is selective for NTS2 versus NTS1 and behaves like the endogenous ligand neurotensin in the functional assay. PMID:25157640

Thomas, James B; Giddings, Angela M; Wiethe, Robert W; Olepu, Srinivas; Warner, Keith R; Sarret, Philippe; Gendron, Louis; Longpre, Jean-Michel; Zhang, Yanan; Runyon, Scott P; Gilmour, Brian P

2014-09-11

95

Crystallization of Amino Acids on a 21-well Circular PMMA Platform using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization.  

PubMed

We describe the design and the use of a circular poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) crystallization platform capable of processing 21 samples in Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization (MA-MAEC). The PMMA platforms were modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to generate a microwave-induced temperature gradient between the solvent and the SNFs due to the marked differences in their physical properties. Since amino acids only chemisorb on to silver on the PMMA platform, SNFs served as selective and heterogeneous nucleation sites for amino acids. Theoretical simulations for electric field and temperature distributions inside a microwave cavity equipped with a PMMA platform were carried out to determine the optimum experimental conditions, i.e., temperature variations and placement of the PMMA platform inside a microwave cavity. In addition, the actual temperature profiles of the amino acid solutions were monitored for the duration of the crystallization experiments carried out at room temperature and during microwave heating. The crystallization of five amino acids (L-threonine, L-histidine, L-leucine, L-serine and L-valine HCl) at room temperature (control experiment) and using MA-MAEC were followed by optical microscopy. The induction time and crystal growth rates for all amino acids were determined. Using MA-MAEC, for all amino acids the induction times were significantly reduced (up to ~8-fold) and the crystal growth rates were increased (up to ~50-fold) as compared to room temperature crystallization, respectively. All crystals were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction, which demonstrated that the crystal structures of all amino acids grown at room temperature and using MA-MAEC were similar. PMID:24855565

Alabanza, Anginelle M; Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

2013-01-01

96

Self-assembly thermodynamics of pH-responsive amino-acid-based polymers with a nonionic surfactant.  

PubMed

The behavior of pH-responsive polymers poly(N-methacryloyl-l-valine) (P1), poly(N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine) (P2), and poly(N-methacryloylglycyne-l-leucine) (P3) has been studied in the presence of the nonionic surfactant Brij98. The pure polymers phase-separate in an acidic medium with critical pHtr values of 3.7, 5.5, and 3.4, respectively. The addition of the surfactant prevents phase separation and promotes reorganization of polymer molecules. The nature of the interaction between polymer and surfactant depends on the amino acid structure in the side chain of the polymer. This effect was investigated by dynamic light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, electrophoretic measurements, small-angle neutron scattering, and infrared spectroscopy. Thermodynamic analysis revealed an endothermic association reaction in P1/Brij98 mixture, whereas a strong exothermic effect was observed for P2/Brij98 and P3/Brij98. Application of regular solution theory for the analysis of experimental enthalpograms indicated dominant hydrophobic interactions between P1 and Brij98 and specific interactions for the P2/Brij98 system. Electrophoretic and dynamic light scattering measurements support the applicability of the theory to these cases. The specific interactions can be ascribed to hydrogen bonds formed between the carboxylic groups of the polymer and the oligo(ethylene oxide) head groups of the surfactant. Thus, differences in polymer-surfactant interactions between P1 and P2 polymers result in different structures of polymer-surfactant complexes. Specifically, small-angle neutron scattering revealed pearl-necklace complexes and "core-shell" structures for P1/Brij98 and P2/Brij98 systems, respectively. These results may help in the design of new pH-responsive site-specific micellar drug delivery systems or pH-responsive membrane-disrupting agents. PMID:25192406

Bogomolova, Anna; Keller, Sandro; Klingler, Johannes; Sedlak, Marian; Rak, Dmytro; Sturcova, Adriana; Hruby, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Filippov, Sergey K

2014-09-30

97

Dried bonito dashi: taste qualities evaluated using conditioned taste aversion methods in wild-type and T1R1 knockout mice.  

PubMed

The primary taste of dried bonito dashi is thought to be umami, elicited by inosine 5'-monphosphate (IMP) and L-amino acids. The present study compared the taste qualities of 25% dashi with 5 basic tastes and amino acids using conditioned taste aversion methods. Although wild-type C57BL/6J mice with compromised olfactory systems generalized an aversion of dashi to all 5 basic tastes, generalization was greater to sucrose (sweet), citric acid (sour), and quinine (bitter) than to NaCl (salty) or monosodium L-glutamate (umami) with amiloride. At neutral pH (6.5-6.9), the aversion generalized to l-histidine, L-alanine, L-proline, glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-serine, and monosodium L-glutamate, all mixed with IMP. Lowering pH of the test solutions to 5.7-5.8 (matching dashi) with HCl decreased generalization to some amino acids. However, adding lactic acid to test solutions with the same pH increased generalization to 5'-inosine monophosphate, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, and taurine but eliminated generalization to L-histidine. T1R1 knockout mice readily learned the aversion to dashi and generalized the aversion to sucrose, citric acid, and quinine but not to NaCl, glutamate, or any amino acid. These results suggest that dashi elicits a complex taste in mice that is more than umami, and deleting T1R1 receptor altered but did not eliminate their ability to taste dashi. In addition, lactic acid may alter or modulate taste transduction or cell-to-cell signaling. PMID:25604941

Delay, Eugene R; Kondoh, Takashi

2015-02-01

98

Sex Pheromone of the Scarab Beetle Phyllophaga elenans and Some Intriguing Minor Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three amino acid-derived compounds were identified in extracts from the pheromone glands of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga elenans, i.e., L-isoleucine methyl ester (LIME), N-formyl L-isoleucine methyl ester (For-LIME), and N-acetyl L-isoleucine methyl ester (Ac-LIME). The compounds were characterized from their spectral data (MS and IR), confirmed by synthesis, and their absolute configurations were assigned by gas chromatography with a chiral

Walter S. Leal; Allan C. Oehlschlager; Paulo H. G. Zarbin; Eduardo Hidalgo; Philip J. Shannon; Yasuhiro Murata; Lilliana Gonzalez; Romano Andrade; Mikio Ono

2003-01-01

99

Synthesis and characterization of new polyamides derived from alanine and valine derivatives  

PubMed Central

Background Many efforts have been recently devoted to design, investigate and synthesize biocompatible, biodegradable polymers for applications in medicine for either the fabrication of biodegradable devices or as drug delivery systems. Many of them consist of condensation of polymers having incorporated peptide linkages susceptible to enzymatic cleavage. Polyamides (PAs) containing ?-amino acid residues such as L-leucine, L-alanine and L-phenylalanine have been reported as biodegradable materials. Furthermore, polyamides (PAs) derived from C10 and C14 dicarboxylic acids and amide-diamines derived from 1,6-hexanediamine or 1,12-dodecanediamine and L-phenylalanine, L-valyl-L-phenylalanine or L-phenylalanyl-L-valine residues have been reported as biocompatible polymers. We have previously described the synthesis and thermal properties of a new type of polyamides-containing amino acids based on eight new symmetric meta-oriented protected diamines derived from coupling of amino acids namely; Fomc-glycine, Fmoc-alanine, Fomc-valine and Fomc-leucine with m-phenylene diamine or 2,6-diaminopyridine. Results revealed that incorporation of pyridine onto the polymeric backbone of all series decreases the thermal stability. Here we describe another family of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and ?-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4?-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of the polymers. Results We report here the preparation of a new type of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and ?-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4?-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of polymers. The thermal properties of the polymers were evaluated by different techniques. Results revealed that structure-thermal property correlation based on changing the dicarboxylic acid monomer or the diamine monomer demonstrated an interesting connection between a single change (changing the dicarboxylic acids in each series while the diamine is fixed) and thermal properties. The newly prepared polymers may possess biodegradability and thus may find some applications as novel biomaterials. Conclusions The thermal properties of the new type of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and ?-amino acid (alanine and valine) linked to benzidine and 4,4?-oxydianiline were evaluated by thermal gravimetric (TG), differential thermal gravimetric (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. Results revealed that the structure-thermal property correlation based on changing the dicarboxylic acid monomer or the diamine monomer demonstrated an interesting connection between a single change (changing the dicarboxylic acids in each series while the diamine is fixed) and thermal properties. In addition, pyridine-containing polymers exhibited semicrystalline characteristic with melting temperature, Tm. where none of the valine-containing polymers showed a melting and crystallization peak indicating that the polymers were amorphous. This is expected since L-valine side chain can inhibit close packing and eliminate crystallization. The newly prepared polymers may possess biodegradability and thus may find some applications as novel biomaterials. PMID:23122321

2012-01-01

100

Optimum conditions for prebiotic evolution in extraterrestrial environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goal of the dissertation was to devise synthetic pathways leading to the production of peptides and amino acids from smaller organic precursors. To this end, eight different zeolites were tested in order to determine their catalytic potential in the conversion of amino acids to peptides. The zeolites tested were either synthetic or naturally occurring. Acidic solutions of amino acids were prepared with or without zeolites and their reactivity was monitored over a four-week time interval. The kinetics and feasibility of peptide synthesis from selected amino acid combinations was investigated via the paper chromatography technique. Nine different amino acids were tested. The nature and extent of product were measured at constant time intervals. It was found that two ZSM-5 synthetic zeolites as well as the Fisher Scientific zeolite mix without alumina salts may have a catalytic potential in the conversion of amino acids to peptides. The conversion was verified by matching the paper chromatogram of the experimental product with that of a known peptide. The experimental results demonstrate that the optimum solvent system for paper chromatographic analysis of the zeolite-catalyzed self-assembly of the amino acids L-aspartic acid, L- asparagine, L-histidine, and L-serine is a 50:50 mixture of 1-butanol and acetone by volume. For the amino acids L-alanine, L-glycine, and L-valine, the optimum solvent was found to be a 30:70 mixture of ammonia and propanol by volume. A mathematical model describing the distance traveled (spot position) versus reaction time was constructed for the zeolite-catalyzed conversion of L- leucine and L-tyrosine and was found to approximately follow the function f(t) = 25 ln t. Two case studies for prebiotic synthesis leading to the production of amino acids or peptides in extraterrestrial environments were discussed: one involving Saturn's moon Titan, and the other involving Jupiter's moon Europa. In the Titan study, it was determined that organic synthesis, based on simple precursors, may lead in the Titan environment to the production of biologically important molecules such as amino acids. In the Europa study, three synthetic schemes using hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid, and hydrocyanic acid, and leading to the production of larger biologically important molecules such as amino acids were presented. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Abbas, Ousama H.

101

Chloride and ethyl ester morpholine thiourea derivatives and their Ni(II) complexes. Crystal and molecular structures of the thiourea derivative L-leucine methyl ester and its complexes with Cu(II) and Pt(II). Growth of the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have synthesized a series of ligands (1, 3, 4, 6 and 7) and some of their complexes with Ni (II), Cu (II) and Pt (II) (2, 5, 8 and 9). These compounds were studied and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV–Vis spectra, conductivity measurements in solution, FAB+\\/MS, 1H and 13C NMR, ESR, etc. Compound 7 crystallized in the

E. Rodr??guez-Fernández; Eva Garc??a; M. R. Hermosa; A. Jiménez-Sánchez; M. Mar Sánchez; Enrique Monte; Julio J. Criado

1999-01-01

102

2-Ethylhydracrylic Aciduria in Short\\/BranchedChain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Application to Diagnosis and Implications for the R-Pathway of Isoleucine Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Isolated excretion of 2-methylbutyrylgly- cine (2-MBG) is the hallmark of short\\/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD), a re- cently identified defect in the proximal pathway of L-isoleucine oxidation. SBCADD might be underdiag- nosed because detection and recognition of urine acyl- glycines is problematic. Excretion of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid (2-EHA), an intermediate formed in the normally minor R-pathway of L-isoleucine oxidation, has

Stanley H. Korman; Brage S. Andresen; Avraham Zeharia; Alisa Gutman; Avihu Boneh; James J. Pitt

103

Selection of amidases with novel substrate specificities from penicillin amidase of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

To obtain amidases with novel substrate specificity, the cloned gene for penicillin amidase of Escherichia coli ATCC 11105 was mutagenized and mutants were selected for the ability to hydrolyze glutaryl-(L)-leucine and provide leucine to Leu- host cells. Cells with the wild-type enzyme did not grow in minimal medium containing glutaryl-(L)-leucine as a sole source of leucine. The growth rates of Leu- cells that expressed these mutant amidases increased as the glutaryl-(L)-leucine concentration increased or as the medium pH decreased. Growth of the mutant strains was restricted by modulation of medium pH and glutaryl-(L)-leucine concentration, and successive generations of mutants that more efficiently hydrolyzed glutaryl-(L)-leucine were isolated. The kinetics of glutaryl-(L)-leucine hydrolysis by purified amidases from two mutants and the respective parental strains were determined. Glutaryl-(L)-leucine hydrolysis by the purified mutant amidases occurred most rapidly between pH 5 and 6, whereas hydrolysis by wild-type penicillin amidase at this pH was negligible. The second-order rate constants for glutaryl-(L)-leucine hydrolysis by two "second-generation" mutant amidases, 48 and 77 M-1 s-1, were higher than the rates of hydrolysis by the respective parental amidases. The increased rates of glutaryl-(L)-leucine hydrolysis resulted from both increases in the molecular rate constants and decreases in apparent Km values. The results show that it is possible to deliberately modify the substrate specificity of penicillin amidase and successively select mutants with amidases that are progressively more efficient at hydrolyzing glutaryl-(L)-leucine. PMID:2690733

Forney, L J; Wong, D C; Ferber, D M

1989-01-01

104

BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EVIDENCE FOR SUBSTRATE LIMITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were measured along a transect in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA, to examine the factors that control microbial water column processes in this subtropical estuary. The microbial measures included 3 H-L-leucine incorporation, e...

105

26 The Open Biochemistry Journal, 2009, 3, 26-38 1874-091X/09 2009 Bentham Open  

E-print Network

Structure Revision and Active Site Mapping of E. Coli Isoleucyl- tRNA Synthetase by Means of Maldi Mass, F-91128, Palaiseau, France Abstract: The correct amino acid sequence of E. coli isoleucyl for L-isoleucine or for non cognate amino acids on E. coli IleRS was achieved by qualita- tive

Boyer, Edmond

106

Reduction of the off-flavor volatile generated by the yogurt starter culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in soymilk.  

PubMed

Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus establish a symbiotic relationship in milk; however, S. thermophilus predominantly grows in soymilk. This study determined that excess diacetyl was notably generated mainly by S. thermophilus in soymilk, and this flavor compound created an unpleasant odor in fermented soymilk. The addition of l-valine to soymilk reduced the amount of diacetyl and increased the levels of acetoin during fermentation by S. thermophilus . In addition, it was found that the expression of the ilvC gene was repressed and that of the als and aldB genes was stimulated in S. thermophilus by l-valine. Sensory evaluations with the triangle difference test and a preference test showed that the soymilk fermented with l-valine was significantly preferred compared with that without l-valine. In this study, we successfully controlled the metabolic flux of S. thermophilus in soymilk and produced more favorable fermented soymilk without the use of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria strains. PMID:24495115

Kaneko, Daisuke; Igarashi, Toshinori; Aoyama, Kenji

2014-02-19

107

Regulation of transmural transport of amino acid/metal conjugates by dietary calcium in crustacean digestive tract.  

PubMed

Effects of luminal Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) on transmural mucosal to serosal (MS) transport of (3) H-L-leucine were characterized in the isolated and perfused intestine of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. (3) H-L-leucine MS transport in the presence of 20 µM Mn(2+) was a sigmoidal function of luminal amino acid concentration, following the Hill equation for multisite cooperative, carrier-mediated, transport. Luminal Ca(2+) was a non-competitive inhibitor of Mn(2+) -stimulated (3) H-L-leucine MS flux. Amino acid transport was hyperbolically stimulated by luminal Ca(2+) or Mn(2+). During 20 µM Mn(2+) -stimulation of (3) H-L-leucine MS flux, addition of 25 mM Ca(2+) strongly reduced amino acid transport Jmax , without affecting amino acid binding properties. Hyperbolic luminal Mn(2+) stimulation of 20 µM (3) H-L-leucine MS flux was also strongly inhibited by 25 mM luminal Ca(2+) , significantly reducing 20 µM (3) H-L-leucine Jmax . Increasing the luminal concentration of verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, significantly increased MS transport of 20 µM (3) H-L-leucine in the presence of 100 nM Mn(2+) by reducing diffusional Ca(2+) uptake into intestinal epithelial cells through verapamil-sensitive channels. A model is proposed supporting the concept of molecular mimicry, whereby (3) H-L-leucine enters lobster intestinal epithelial cells by one or more amino acid-specific transporters and by a dipeptide-like transporter that is capable of binding and transporting peptide molecular mimics (bis-complexes) between Ca(2+) or Mn(2+) and (3) H-L-leucine using the membrane potential as a major driving force for the transport event. According to the model, Ca(2+) entry through apical Ca(2+) channels regulates the magnitude of the membrane potential and therefore the size of the driving force for bis-complex uptake. PMID:24254522

Abdel-Malak, Rania; Ahearn, Gregory A

2014-03-01

108

Growth of Esteya vermicola in media amended with nitrogen sources yields conidia with increased predacity and resistance to environmental stress.  

PubMed

Esteya vermicola , an endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematode, exhibits great potential as a biological agent against nematodes. In this study to enhance the sporulation, predacity, and environmental resistance of E. vermicola, various nitrogen sources, such as glycine, L-leucine, and ammonium nitrate, were tested. The supplement of glycine and L-leucine had a significant influence on the growth rate of the colony, enhancing colony dry mass by 5-fold more than did ammonium nitrate or the control. Of the nitrogen sources tested, ammonium nitrate and L-leucine promoted sporulation, yielding more than 6 × 10(6) CFU/g, while glycine enhanced the proportion of lunate spores. Meanwhile, the supplement of nitrogen sources had a significant influence on adhesive rate and mortality rate against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus . Moreover, the supplement of glycine enhanced the survival rate against heat stress by more than 3-fold that of L-leucine, ammonium nitrate, and control. The spores produced in media amended with glycine, L-leucine, and ammonium nitrate had slightly but not significantly higher UV resistance and drought resistance than spores produced without nitrogen sources. These results suggested that the addition of glycine resulted in the production of E. vermicola conidia with increased predacity and resistance to environmental stress that may be more suitable for control of pine wilt disease. PMID:21942397

Wang, Zhen; Wang, Chun Yan; Gu, Li Juan; Wang, Yun Bo; Zhang, Yong An; Sung, Chang Keun

2011-10-01

109

Enantiomeric Separation of Moxifloxacin and Its ( R , R )Isomer by Ligand-Exchange Chiral Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new stereospecific LC method for the separation and quantification of moxifloxacin and its (R,R)-enantiomer in bulk drug was developed and validated by ligand-exchange liquid chromatography on a reversed phase column\\u000a using aqueous mobile phase containing the chiral reagent l-isoleucine-Cu(II). The UV detector was operated at 293 nm. The flow rate of mobile phase was set at 0.9 mL min?1. The achiral ODS

M. Ravikumar; M. Satish Varma; T. Satyanarayana Raju; P. Suchitra; P. Yadagiri Swamy

2009-01-01

110

Transcriptional regulation of plant inducible defenses against herbivores: a mini-review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inducible plant defenses against herbivores are controlled by a transient burst of jasmonic acid (JA) and its conversion to the active hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). JA-Ile shows high affinity for binding to the COI1 protein complex with JAZ repressor protein(s), a multi component JA-Ile receptor, promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of JAZ transcriptional repressors. Degradation of JAZ proteins in Arabidopsis leads

Melkamu G. Woldemariam; Ian T. Baldwin; Ivan Galis

2011-01-01

111

4-Hydroxyisoleucine production of recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum under optimal corn steep liquor limitation.  

PubMed

4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is a nonproteinogenic amino acid that exhibits insulinotropic biological activity. Here, L-isoleucine dioxygenase gene (ido) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis YBT-1520 was cloned and expressed in an L-isoleucine-producing strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum SN01, in order to directly convert its endogenous L-isoleucine (Ile) into 4-HIL through single-step fermentation. The effects of corn steep liquor limitation as well as ido and truncated ido?6 overexpression on 4-HIL production were researched. 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was improved to 65.44?±?2.27 mM after fermented for 144 h under corn steep liquor-subsufficient condition, obviously higher than that under corn steep liquor-rich and insufficient conditions. The conversion ratio of Ile to 4-HIL increased to 0.85 mol/mol. In addition, 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was higher than that by ido?6-overexpressing strain, in accord with the relatively higher affinity of Ido as compared to Ido?6. This research generated a novel system for 4-HIL de novo biosynthesis and demonstrated corn steep liquor limitation as a useful strategy for improving 4-HIL production in recombinant C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum. PMID:25725632

Shi, Feng; Niu, Tengfei; Fang, Huimin

2015-05-01

112

Evaluation of Surface Damage of Organic Films due to Irradiation with Energetic Ion Beams  

SciTech Connect

The surface of L-leucine films irradiated with an Ar{sub 5000} cluster ion beam (5 keV) was characterized by using the X-ray reflective (XRR) measurement method, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry. No significant damage was detected on the surface of the L-leucine films irradiated with the Ar cluster ion beam. Therefore, the large cluster-low-energy (about 1 eV/atom) beam would be suitable for low-damage etching of organic materials.

Hada, Masaki; Hontani, Yusaku; Ichiki, Kazuya; Seki, Toshio [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan); Ibuki, Sachi; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Matsuo, Jiro [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Aoki, Takaaki [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishigyo, Kyoto, 615-8530 (Japan)

2011-01-07

113

[Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum].  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis. PMID:583180

Minasian, A E; Chermensk?, D N; Bezborodov, A M

1979-01-01

114

Effect of L-azetidine 2-carboxilic acid on the activity of the general amino-acid permease from Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus.  

PubMed

Addition of the L-proline analogue L-azetidine 2-carboxylic acid to growing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus promoted fast deactivation of the general aminoacid permease, measured as L-valine uptake, without an immediate decrease in the growth rate. Cells preincubated with the analogue for 3 h were unable to restore either growth ability or general aminoacid permease activity in analogue-free medium. Eadie-Hofstee plots of L-valine uptake in the presence of the analogue are consistent with a strong reduction in the number of active molecules of the general amino-acid permease located in the plasma membrane. Inhibitory effects on protein synthesis were seen after preincubations of the yeast with the analogue for 3 h although a 30 min preincubation had no effect. PMID:2048935

Iglesias, R; Ferreras, J M; Arias, F J; Muñoz, R; Rojo, M A; Girbés, T

1991-01-01

115

Resolution of sulphur-containing amino acids by chiral phase gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl esters of the pentafluoropropionyl-amino acid derivatives of the tetrafunctional, sulphur-bridged, stereoisomeric lanthionines, cystathionines and ?-methyl-lanthionines were resolved on glass capillaries coated with the chiral stationary phase N-propionyl-L-valine-N-tert-butylamide-polysiloxane (Chirasil-Val) within 35min. Interestingly, L-cystathionine elutes before its D-enantiomer in contrast to the usual order of emergence on an L-phase. The method was applied to the polypeptide antibiotic nisin, which contains mesolanthionine

E. KiJsters; H. Allgaier; G. Jung; E. Bayer

1984-01-01

116

Stereodifferentiation of 3-hydroxyisobutyric- and 3-aminoisobutyric acid in human urine by enantioselective multidimensional capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chiral metabolites 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA) and 3-aminoisobutyric acid (AIBA) are intermediates in the pathways of l-valine and thymine and play an important role in the diagnosis of the very rare inherited metabolic diseases 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria (McKusick 236975) and methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (McKusick 603178-MSDD). Until now only a few approaches have been made in enantioselective analysis of HIBA and

Frank Podebrad; Martin Heil; Thomas Beck; Armin Mosandl; Adrian C Sewell; Hans Böhles

2000-01-01

117

AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SUGAR AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION BY EVERTED SACS OF HAMSTER INTESTINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of evcrted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C 14- or H~-labcled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorp- tivc cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to conccntrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles

WILLIAM B. KINTER; T. HASTINGS WILSON

1965-01-01

118

Synthesis of a novel duocarmycin derivative DU257 and its application to immunoconjugate using poly(ethylene glycol)-dipeptidyl linker capable of tumor specific activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel anti-tumor agent, duocarmycin derivative DU-257, was designed and synthesized to prepare immunoconjugate in order to confirm the feasibility of enzymatically cleavable linker consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and dipeptide, l-alanyl-l-valine. Oxyethylamine arm was introduced at 4-methoxy position of segment B of DU-86 to form DU-257 and evaluated its property. DU-257 retained similar stability and potency with DU-86 while enhanced

Toshiyuki Suzawa; Satoru Nagamura; Hiromitsu Saito; So Ohta; Nobuo Hanai; Motoo Yamasaki

2000-01-01

119

Developmental aspects ofl-valine uptake by mouse intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

14C-l-Valine uptake by intestinal segments of mice of various ages, ranging between 20-day fetuses and adults, was studied in vitro. 1 mMl-Valine was accumulated against a concentration gradient by processes which showed saturation kinetics. There appeared to be a two-fold increase ofl-valine accumulation after the 2nd postnatal day and a three-fold increase in adult mice. Fetal transport of valine only

Christos S. Bartsocas; Emmanuel Kavazarakis

1981-01-01

120

Effects of ¹?C-labelled precursor feeding on production of beauvericin, enniatins H, I, and MK1688 by Fusarium oxysporum KFCC11363P.  

PubMed

The effects of ¹?C-labelled precursor feeding on the production of cyclic hexadepsipeptides were investigated by the mycelium of F. oxysporum KFCC11363P producing beauvericin along with enniatins H, I, and MK1688. Most ¹?C-phenylalanine and ¹?C-valine were incorporated easily into the biosynthetic pathway of ¹?C-labelled beauvericin in vivo by the mycelium. However, only a small amount of ¹?C-labelled enniatins could be detected by feeding of ¹?C-valine. When L-valine was fed as a precursor to the mycelium at large scale, the level of beauvericin increased to maximum followed by enniatins H and I. Feeding of L-valine did not affect the production of enniatin MK1688. These results suggest that L-valine feeding led to the production of D-hydroxyisovaleic acid in the mycelium and specifically enhanced the production of cyclic hexadepsipeptides containing D-hydroxyisovaleic acid, such as beauvericin and enniatins H and I. PMID:22019403

Lee, Hee-Seok; Kim, Kyung-Ai; Seo, Dong-Geun; Lee, Chan

2012-01-01

121

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...locations.html. (c)(1) When aspartame is used as a sugar substitute tablet for sweetening hot beverages, including coffee and tea, L-leucine may be used as a lubricant in the manufacture of such tablets at a level not to exceed 3.5 percent...

2011-04-01

122

Identification, Purification, and Characterization of a Novel Amino Acid Racemase, Isoleucine 2-Epimerase, from Lactobacillus Species  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative ?-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative ?-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli and then purified to homogeneity. The enzyme catalyzed the racemization of a broad spectrum of nonpolar amino acids. In particular, it catalyzed at high rates the epimerization of l-isoleucine to d-allo-isoleucine and d-allo-isoleucine to l-isoleucine. In contrast, the enzyme showed no ?-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity. The relative molecular masses of the subunit and native enzyme were estimated to be about 49 kDa and 200 kDa, respectively, indicating that the enzyme was composed of four subunits of equal molecular masses. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for l-isoleucine were 5.00 mM and 153 ?mol·min?1·mg?1, respectively, and those for d-allo-isoleucine were 13.2 mM and 286 ?mol·min?1·mg?1, respectively. Hydroxylamine and other inhibitors of pyridoxal 5?-phosphate-dependent enzymes completely blocked the enzyme activity, indicating the enzyme requires pyridoxal 5?-phosphate as a coenzyme. This is the first evidence of an amino acid racemase that specifically catalyzes racemization of nonpolar amino acids at the C-2 position. PMID:24039265

Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi

2013-01-01

123

Development of a two-stage feeding strategy based on the kind and level of feeding nutrients for improving fed-batch production of L-threonine by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Fed-batch fermentation is the predominant method for industrial production of amino acids. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the effects of four kinds of feeding nutrients and developed an accurate optimization strategy for fed-batch production of L-threonine. The production of L-threonine was severely inhibited when cell growth ceased in the bath culture. Similarly, L-threonine production was also associated with cell growth in the carbon-, phosphate-, and sulfate-limited fed-batch cultures, but the accumulation of L-threonine was markedly increased because of the extended production time in the growth stage. Interestingly, auxotrophic amino acid (L-isoleucine)-limited feeding promoted L-threonine production over the non-growth phase. Metabolite analysis indicates that substantial production of acetate and glutamate and the resulting accumulation of ammonium may lead to the inhibition of L-threonine production. During the growth phase, the levels of L-isoleucine were accurately optimized by balancing cell growth and production with Pontryagin's maximum principle, basing on the relationship between the specific growth rate ? and specific production rate ?. Furthermore, the depletion of L-isoleucine and phosphate at the end of the growth phase favored the synthesis of L-threonine in the subsequent non-growth phase. Combining the two-stage feeding profiles, the final L-threonine concentration and conversion rate were increased by 5.9- and 2.1-fold, respectively, compared to batch processes without feeding control. The identification of efficient feeding nutrient and the development of accurate feeding strategies provide potential guidelines for microbial production of amino acids. PMID:22965189

Liu, Shuwen; Liang, Yong; Liu, Qian; Tao, Tongtong; Lai, Shujuan; Chen, Ning; Wen, Tingyi

2013-01-01

124

Third and fourth limiting amino acids in sorghum for growing and finishing swine  

E-print Network

-methionine (Met) and L-isoleucine (Ile) were added individually and in all combinations to a vitamin, mineral, lysine and threonine fortified sorghum basal diet (B) and fed to growing and finishing pigs (18. 1 and 50. 0 kg average initial weight, respectively...). The B diet was formulated with equimolar additions of glycine (Gly) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) to provide 12. 0 and 11. 5X crude protein (N x 6. 25) for growing and finish- ing diets, respectively. Trp, Met and Ile were added at the expense of Gly...

Purser, Kenneth Wayne

1976-01-01

125

Sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga (Phytalus) georgiana (horn).  

PubMed

The sex pheromone of Phyllophaga (Phytalus) georgiana was characterized as valine methyl ester, tentatively the L-enantiomer. This is the first sex pheromone identified from the Phyllophaga subgenus Phytalus. The pheromone was extracted from female glands, the active component isolated by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection analysis, characterized by mass spectrometry, and shown to be active in field tests. The seasonal flight pattern was determined for P. georgiana as well as for three other species, P. anxia (both northern and southern genitalic forms), P. gracilis, and P. postrema. The latter three species were captured in traps baited with L-isoleucine methyl ester. PMID:19247715

Robbins, Paul S; Nojima, Satoshi; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert J; Consolie, Nancy H; Peck, Daniel C; Roelofs, Wendell L

2009-03-01

126

Vanadium-controlled crystallization of stereoisomers of NBu4[VO2(N-salicylidene-isoleucinato)] through epimerization.  

PubMed

Reported herein is a simple synthetic and crystallization procedure for sequential isolation of two stereoisomers of isoleucine-derived vanadium(V) complexes from a racemic mixture with three stereogenic centers and therefore eight hypothetical species. The products of this crystallization were characterized by electronic and vibrational circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, and polarimetry to compare the chiroptic properties of the enantiomerically pure analogues prepared from L-isoleucine and D-allo-isoleucine. NMR studies pointed to the yet unobserved phenomenon of vanadium-catalyzed epimerization of isoleucine. PMID:24938223

Krivosudský, Lukáš; Schwendt, Peter; Šimunek, Ján; Gyepes, Róbert

2014-07-14

127

l-Threonine deaminase in marine planktonic algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The “biosynthetic” l-threonine (deaminating) dehydratase activity of 7 marine planktonic species from 5 classes of algae showed high substrate specificity toward l-threonine, with the exception of one alga. The algal extracts deaminated l-serine and l-allothreonine at rates which were 20–25 and 5–10%, respectively, of that of l-threonine, and these reaction were inhibited by l-isoleucine. d-Threonine, d-serine, l-homoserine, and l-O-methylthreonine were

Naval J. Antia; Robert S. Kripps

1973-01-01

128

Isoleucine as a possible bridge between exogenous delivery and terrestrial enhancement of homochirality.  

PubMed

We report a highly enantioselective oligomerization of isoleucine stereomers in the salt-induced peptide formation reaction under plausibly prebiotic earth conditions. Up to 6.5-fold superiority in reactivity of L-isoleucine was observed, compared to its D-enantiomer, after 14 evaporation cycles in the presence of Cu(2+) and NaCl. Since isoleucine is among the proteinogenic amino acids that were found enantioenriched in meteorites, this present work may further correlate the extraterrestrial delivery and endogenous production of biological homochirality by virtue of a protein constituent rather than the rarely occurring ?-methylated amino acids. PMID:22968664

Li, Feng; Fitz, Daniel; Rode, Bernd M

2013-02-01

129

High-Fat Feeding Impairs Nutrient Sensing and Gut Brain Integration in the Caudomedial Nucleus of the Solitary Tract in Mice  

PubMed Central

Hyperphagic obesity is characterized in part by a specific increase in meal size that contributes to increased daily energy intake, but the mechanisms underlying impaired activity of meal size regulatory circuits, particularly those converging at the caudomedial nucleus of the solitary tract in the hindbrain (cmNTS), remain poorly understood. In this paper, we assessed the consequences of high-fat (HF) feeding and diet-induced obesity (DIO) on cmNTS nutrient sensing and metabolic integration in the control of meal size. Mice maintained on a standard chow diet, low-fat (LF) diet or HF diet for 2 weeks or 6 months were implanted with a bilateral brain cannula targeting the cmNTS. Feeding behavior was assessed using behavioral chambers and meal-pattern analysis following cmNTS L-leucine injections alone or together with ip CCK. Molecular mechanisms implicated in the feeding responses were assessed using western blot, immunofluorescence and pharmacological inhibition of the amino acid sensing mTORC1 pathway (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1). We found that HF feeding blunts the anorectic consequences of cmNTS L-leucine administration. Increased baseline activity of the L-leucine sensor P70 S6 kinase 1 and impaired L-leucine-induced activation of this pathway in the cmNTS of HF-fed mice indicate that HF feeding is associated with an impairment in cmNTS mTOR nutritional and hormonal sensing. Interestingly, the acute orexigenic effect of the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin was preserved in HF-fed mice, supporting the assertion that HF-induced increase in baseline cmNTS mTORC1 activity underlies the defect in L-leucine sensing. Last, the synergistic feeding-suppressive effect of CCK and cmNTS L-leucine was abrogated in DIO mice. These results indicate that HF feeding leads to an impairment in cmNTS nutrient sensing and metabolic integration in the regulation of meal size. PMID:25774780

Cavanaugh, Althea R.; Schwartz, Gary J.; Blouet, Clémence

2015-01-01

130

Synthesis of 6-substituted 1-oxoindanoyl isoleucine conjugates and modeling studies with the COI1-JAZ co-receptor complex of lima bean.  

PubMed

The conjugates of 6-substituted 1-oxoindanoyl carboxylic acids with L-isoleucine are mimics of the plant hormone (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile (3) that controls and regulates secondary metabolism and stress responses. In order to generate ligands that can be used as hormone-like compounds possessing different biological activities, an efficient and short synthesis of 6-bromo-1-oxoindane-4-carboxylic acid opens a general route to 6-Br-1-oxoindanoyl L-isoleucine conjugate (Br-In-L-Ile) (9a) as a key intermediate for several bioactive 6-halogen-In-L-Ile analogs (7a, 8a, 10a). The 6-ethynyl-In-L-Ile analog (11a) might be a valuable tool to localize macromolecular receptor molecules by click-chemistry. The activities of In-Ile derivatives were evaluated by assays inducing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Each compound showed slightly different VOC induction patterns. To correlate such differences with structural features, modeling studies of In-Ile derivatives with COI-JAZa/b/c co-receptors of P. lunatus were performed. The modeling profits from the rigid backbone of the 1-oxoindanonoyl conjugates, which allows only well defined interactions with the receptor complex. PMID:25008776

Nakamura, Yoko; Paetz, Christian; Brandt, Wolfgang; David, Anja; Rendón-Anaya, Martha; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Mithöfer, Axel; Boland, Wilhelm

2014-07-01

131

Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of the structures of the polypeptide antibiotics samarosporin and stilbellin and identity with emerimicin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural identity of the polypeptide antibiotics, samarosporin I(II) and stilbellin I(II) with emerimicin IV(III) has been established by thin-layer chromatography, quantitative amino acid analysis by ion-exchange chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography of the N-pentafluoropropionyl amino acid n-propyl esters and N,O-bis-pentafluoropropionyl phenylalaninol with quartz capillaries coated with the chiral stationary phase N-propionyl-L-valine-tert-butylamide, and determination of the relative molecular masses and sequence-specific fragments

H. Brückner; G. Jung; M. Przybylski

1983-01-01

132

Self-assembled peptide fibers from valylvaline bola-amphiphiles by a parallel ?-sheet network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of dipeptide-based bola-amphiphiles, bis(N-?-amide-L-valyl-L-valine) 1, n-alkane dicarboxylate (n=4–12), have been synthesized. The bola-amphiphiles with n=4 and 6 self-assembled to form crystalline solids in water, whereas those with n=7–12 produced peptide fibers. FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the peptide fibers have parallel-type ?-sheet networks between the valylvaline units. FT-IR deconvolution study of carboxyl regions indicated that

Masaki Kogiso; Yuji Okada; Takeshi Hanada; Kiyoshi Yase; Toshimi Shimizu

2000-01-01

133

Pincer ligands based on ?-amino acids: III. New ligands based on 4-substituted phenols and their copper complexes. Enantioselective recognition of tyrosine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions of L-methionine, L-serine, and L-valine with 5-substituted-2-hydroxybenzene-1,3-dicarbaldehydes gave a series of\\u000a chiral Schiff base pincer ligands which were reduced to the corresponding diamines. The new Schiff base ligands reacted with\\u000a copper(II) chloride to form dinuclear copper complexes which were found to be capable of recognizing tyrosine enantiomers\\u000a in aqueous solution. The structure of the complexes was determined on the

N. E. Borisova; V. A. Knizhnikov; T. G. Gulevich; M. Yu. Seliverstov; E. A. Borisov; M. D. Reshetova

2009-01-01

134

Possible selective adsorption of enantiomers by Na-montmorillonite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Racemic amino acids including (D,L) alpha-alamine, (D,L) alpha-aminobutyric acid, (D,L) valine, and (D,L) norvaline were incubated with Na-montmorillonite at 100% CEC at three hydrogen ion concentrations, and amino acid adsorption was determined by ion exchange chromatography. Enantiomers were analyzed by gas chromatography. Differences in the quantities of D and L enantiomers in any of the fractions was no larger than a few percent. Although a large difference in the adsorption of the amino acid enantiomers was not observed, the analysis may indicate a small preferential adsorption (0.5-2%) of L-amino acids by Na-montmorillonite.

Friebele, E.; Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

1981-01-01

135

Food Intake Regulation: Amino Acid Toxicity and Changes in Rat Brain and Plasma Amino Acids1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food intake and changes of brain and plasma amino acid concentrations of young rats fed diets high in individual amino acid (6% casein diet plus 5% of L-methionine, L-tryptophan, L-histidine, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, DL-threonine, L-lysine or L-glutamic acid) were investigated. Inclusion of methionine or tryptophan in the diet produced the most severe depressions in food intake and growth, followed in decreasing

Y. PENG; J. GUBIN; A. E. HARPER; M. G. VAVICH; A. R. KEMMERER

136

Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations in bulls of various growth hormone genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leucine\\/valine substitution at amino acid position 127 was identified by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in the bovine growth hormone gene. Genotyping was performed in 84 AI bulls of three different breeds, in which plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) were also measured. Gene frequencies of variants L (leucine)

P. Schlee; R. Graml; E. Schallenberger; D. Schams; O. Rottmann; A. Olbrich-Bludau; F. Pirchner

1994-01-01

137

In Vitro Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Elastase by Metal-Chelating Peptide Derivatives  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase is a zinc metalloendopeptidase, probably responsible for the tissue destruction observed during infections with this organism. The elastase of a virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain (Habs serotype 1) was isolated and found to have a molecular weight of 35,000; it readily degraded elastin and cartilage proteoglycans. A series of amino acid and peptide derivatives containing the metal-chelating moieties hydroxamate, phosphoryl, or thiol were synthesized and tested as potential inhibitors of the enzyme. Inhibition constants (Kis) for the compounds were determined with the chromophoric substrate furylacryloyl-glycyl-l-leucyl-l-alanine. The hydroxamic acid derivatives of benzyloxycarbonyl-glycine, benzyloxycarbonyl-l-leucine and benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanine had inhibition constants in the range of 11 to 28 ?M. The 2-mercaptoacetyl derivatives of l-leucyl-d-phenylalanine and l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine had Ki values of 34 and 1.5 ?M, respectively, demonstrating the stereospecificity of the inhibition. The most potent inhibitors tested were 2- mercaptoacetyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-leucine and phosphoryl-l-leucyl-l-phenylala-nine (Ki = 0.2 ?M). Similar compounds lacking the metal-chelating moiety were about 3 orders of magnitude poorer inhibitors. When the inhibition of the enzyme activity towards azocasein, elastin, or cartilage was examined, inhibitor concentrations approximately 50-fold higher than the respective Kis were required to obtain 60 to 90% inhibition. Virtually complete inhibition was achieved with these substrates at inhibitor concentrations 500-fold higher than the respective Kis (0.1 to 14 mM). Although, 2-mercaptoacetyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-leucine and phosphoryl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine exhibited the same affinity to the enzyme, the latter was inferior in inhibiting cartilage proteoglycan degradation. 2-Mercaptoacetyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-leucine represents a class of potent elastase inhibitors that might prove useful in the management of P. aeruginosa infections. Images PMID:6815099

Kessler, Efrat; Israel, Mary; Landshman, Nahum; Chechick, Aaron; Blumberg, Shmaryahu

1982-01-01

138

Purification and characterization of thermostable leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leucine dehydrogenase (l-leucine: NAD+ oxidoreductase, deaminating, EC 1.4.1.9) has been purified to homogeneity from a moderate thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus stearothermophilus. Am improved method of preparative slab gel electrophoresis was used effectively to purify it. The enzyme has a molecular mass of about 300,000 and consists of six subunits with identical molecular mass (Mr, 49,000). The enzyme does not lose its

Toshihisa Ohshima; Shinji Nagata; Kenji Soda

1985-01-01

139

Microbial uptake of dissolved organic matter in Mcmurdo Sound, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and activity of bacterioplankton, and the turnover of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were examined in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. On the eastern side of the Sound, bacteria averaged 6.5×108 l-1, and turnover rates of dissolved adenosine triphosphate, D-glucose and l-leucine averaged 16, 116 and 124 h, respecitvely. These molecules as well as thymidine were taken up maximally from 0°

R. E. Hodson; F. Azam; A. F. Carlucci; J. A. Fuhrman; D. M. Karl; O. Holm-Hansen

1981-01-01

140

Experiments on the origin of molecular chirality by parity non-conservation during beta-decay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are described to test a theory for the origin of optical activity wherein the longitudinally polarized electrons resulting from parity violation during radioactive beta decay, and their resulting circularly polarized Bremsstrahlung, might interact asymmetrically with organic matter to yield optically active products. Experiments involve subjecting a number of racemic and optically active amino acid samples to irradiation in a 61700 Ci90SR-90Y beta radiation source for a period of 1.34 years, then examining them for any asymmetric effects by means of optical rotatory dispersion and analytical gas chromatography. In the cases of D,L-leucine, norleucine, norvaline and proline as solids, of D,L-leucine in solution and of D,L-tyrosine in alkaline solution no optical rotation was observed during CRD measurements in the 250-630 nm spectral region. While slight differences were noted in the percent radiolysis of solid D- (12.7%) and L-leucine (16.2%) as determined by GC, no enrichment of either enantiomer was found.

Bonner, W. A.

1973-01-01

141

Formulation of inhalable lipid-based salbutamol sulfate microparticles by spray drying technique  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this work was to develop dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of salbutamol sulfate (SS) by the aid of solid lipid microparticles (SLmPs), composed of biocompatible phospholipids or cholesterol. Methods The SLmPs were prepared by using two different solvent systems (ethanol and water-ethanol) and lipid carriers (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol) with/without L-leucine in the spray drying process. The spray-dried microparticles were physically-mixed with coarse lactose monohydrate in order to make our final DPI formulations and were investigated in terms of physical characteristics as well as in vitro drug release profile and aerosolization behavior. Results We observed significant differences in the sizes, morphologies, and in vitro pulmonary depositions between the formulations. In particular, the SS-containing SLmPs prepared with water-ethanol (30:70 v/v) solution of DPPC and L-leucine which had then been blended with coarse lactose (1:9 w/w) exhibited the highest emitted dose (87.9%) and fine particle fraction (42.7%) among the formulations. In vitro drug release study indicated that despite of having a significant initial burst release for both cholesterol and DPPC-based microparticles, the remained drug released more slowly than the pure drug. Conclusion This study demonstrated the potential of using lipid carriers as well as L-leucine in DPI formulations of SS to improve its aerosolization behavior and retard the release profile of the drug. PMID:24919924

2014-01-01

142

Low-damage milling of an amino acid thin film with cluster ion beam  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we characterized the surface damage layer and sputtering yield of polycrystalline L-leucine films before and after irradiation with Ar cluster or monomer ion beams with x ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Irradiation with Ar monomer ion beams induced heavy damage on the surface of L-leucine films, such as bond breaking and carbonization. In contrast, no significant surface damage was observed in the films irradiated with Ar cluster ion beams. The sputtering yield of L-leucine decreased dramatically with increasing fluence of monomer Ar ions and approached the value of the sputtering yield of graphite; but under irradiation with Ar cluster ion beams, the sputtering yield remained constant with fluence. The differences in sputtering yield behavior were explained in relation with the surface damage layer on organic materials. Thus, cluster ion beams could potentially be used to mill down biological materials without significant damage on the surface and could contribute to various applications in the analysis and processing of life matter.

Hada, Masaki; Ibuki, Sachi; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Matsuo, Jiro [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Hontani, Yusaku; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Ichiki, Kazuya; Seki, Toshio [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Aoki, Takaaki [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan)

2011-11-01

143

Side-chain interactions in the regulatory domain of human glutamate dehydrogenase determine basal activity and regulation.  

PubMed

Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) is central to the metabolism of glutamate, a major excitatory transmitter in mammalian central nervous system (CNS). hGDH1 is activated by ADP and L-leucine and powerfully inhibited by GTP. Besides this housekeeping hGDH1, duplication led to an hGDH2 isoform that is expressed in the human brain dissociating its function from GTP control. The novel enzyme has reduced basal activity (4-6% of capacity) while remaining remarkably responsive to ADP/L-leucine activation. While the molecular basis of this evolutionary adaptation remains unclear, substitution of Ser for Arg443 in hGDH1 is shown to diminish basal activity (< 2% of capacity) and abrogate L-leucine activation. To explore whether the Arg443Ser mutation disrupts hydrogen bonding between Arg443 and Ser409 of adjacent monomers in the regulatory domain ('antenna'), we replaced Ser409 by Arg or Asp in hGDH1. The Ser409Arg-1 change essentially replicated the Arg443Ser-1 mutation effects. Molecular dynamics simulation predicted that Ser409 and Arg443 of neighboring monomers come in close proximity in the open conformation and that introduction of Ser443-1 or Arg409-1 causes them to separate with the swap mutation (Arg409/Ser443) reinstating their proximity. A swapped Ser409Arg/Arg443Ser-1 mutant protein, obtained in recombinant form, regained most of the wild-type hGDH1 properties. Also, when Ser443 was replaced by Arg443 in hGDH2 (as occurs in hGDH1), the Ser443Arg-2 mutant acquired most of the hGDH1 properties. Hence, side-chain interactions between 409 and 443 positions in the 'antenna' region of hGDHs are crucial for basal catalytic activity, allosteric regulation, and relative resistance to thermal inactivation. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is central to the metabolism of the excitatory transmitter glutamate, and links it with carbohydrate metabolism in energy homeostasis and cell signaling. The isoform hGDH2, in contrast to hGDH1, is dissociated from GTP (guanosine triphosphate) control, has a reduced basal activity, but remains highly responsive to ADP/L-leucine activation. Substitution of Serine (Ser) for arginine (Arg443) in hGDH1 diminishes basal activity (< 2% of capacity) and abrogates L-leucine activation. We provide evidence that side-chain interactions between 409 and 443 positions in the regulatory domain of GDH are crucial for basal catalytic activity, allosteric regulation, and relative resistance to thermal inactivation. PMID:25620628

Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Sundaram, Shobana; Providaki, Maria; Petraki, Zoe; Kokkinidis, Michael; Zaganas, Ioannis; Logothetis, Diomedes E; Plaitakis, Andreas

2015-04-01

144

Proton NMR studies of the molecular basis for the anti-sickling activity of non-covalent antisickling compounds.  

PubMed

Two new techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are proposed to identify and characterize the binding sites of antisickling compounds to Hb S: measurements of the longitudinal relaxation rates (T1(-1)) of the C2 protons of individual surface histidyl residues of the C2 protons of individual surface histidyl residues of Hb S and intermolecular transferred nuclear Overhauser effects from protons in the heme pockets of the Hb S molecule. Using these methods, we have investigated the binding sites of L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, L-valine, and p-bromobenzylalcohol to sickle hemoglobin. With the exception of L-valine, all of these molecules are known to inhibit the polymerization of deoxy Hb S. We have found that for the compounds with antisickling activity, there are at least two binding sites to the Hb S molecule, one at or near the heme pockets of the alpha and beta chains and the other one in the vicinity of the beta 6 mutation site. PMID:3615505

Ho, C; Russu, I M

1987-01-01

145

Amino acids as natural inhibitors for hydrate formation in CO2 sequestration.  

PubMed

The motivation for this work was the potential of hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine, l-alanine, and l-valine to be applied as thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors (THIs). To confirm their capabilities in inhibiting the formation of gas hydrates, three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium conditions for carbon dioxide hydrate formation in the presence of 0.1-3.0 mol % amino acid solutions were determined in the range of 273.05-281.45 K and 14.1-35.2 bar. From quantitative analyses, the inhibiting effects of the amino acids (on a mole concentration basis) decreased in the following order: l-valine > l-alanine > glycine. The application of amino acids as THIs has several potential advantages over conventional methods. First, the environmentally friendly nature of amino acids as compared to conventional inhibitors means that damage to ecological systems and the environment could be minimized. Second, the loss of amino acids in recovery process would be considerably reduced because amino acids are nonvolatile. Third, amino acids have great potential as a model system in which to investigate the inhibition mechanism on the molecular level, since the structure and chemical properties of amino acids are well understood. PMID:21663046

Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Chun, Hee Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

2011-07-01

146

Exploring Solute-Solvent Interactions of -Amino Acids in Aqueous [] Arrangements by Volumetric, Viscometric, Refractometric, and Acoustic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular interaction prevailing in glycine, l-alanine, l-valine, and aqueous solution of ionic liquid (IL) [1-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (] have been investigated by thermophysical properties. The apparent molar volume (), viscosity -coefficient, molal refraction (), and adiabatic compressibility ( of glycine, l-alanine, and l-valine have been studied in 0.001 mol , 0.003 mol , and 0.005 mol aqueous 1-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [] solutions at 298.15 K from the values of densities , viscosities (), refractive index (, and speed of sound , respectively. The extent of interaction, i.e., the solute-solvent interaction is expressed in terms of the limiting apparent molar volume (, viscosity -coefficient, and limiting apparent molar adiabatic compressibility (. The limiting apparent molar volumes (, experimental slopes ( derived from the Masson equation, and viscosity - and -coefficients using the Jones-Dole equation have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions, respectively. Molal refractions ( have been calculated with the help of the Lorentz-Lorenz equation. The role of the solvent (aqueous IL solution) and the contribution of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions to the solution complexes have also been analyzed through the derived properties.

Roy, Mahendra Nath; Roy, Milan Chandra; Basak, Saptarshi

2014-05-01

147

Determination of the Enantiomeric Purity of Commercial L-[U-14C] Valine: An Experiment Utilizing Reversed-Phase Thin-Layer Chromatography and Liquid Scintillation Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enantiomeric purity of commercial L-[U-14C]valine was determined. The process involved sequential dilution with nonradioactive DL-valine, N-dansylation using dansyl chloride, and resolution using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography in the presence of b-cyclodextrin, a chiral mobile phase additive. Liquid scintillation counting of the bands corresponding to DNS-D- and L-valine gave the enantiomeric purity, as well as the percent radiochemical yield. Because the derivatization reaction proceeded without racemization, the results corresponded to the relative amounts of radioactive D- and L-valine in the commercial sample. The analyses were easily performed using less than 1 ?Ci of L-[U-14C]valine per pair of students. This laboratory experiment provides students with valuable experience in handling radioisotopes, illustrates the use of liquid scintillation counting as a sensitive detection method, reinforces important stereochemical relationships, and can be applied to the analysis of other radioactive amino acids.

Lefevre, Joseph W.

1998-10-01

148

Effect of Selectively Introducing Arginine and D-Amino Acids on the Antimicrobial Activity and Salt Sensitivity in Analogs of Human Beta-Defensins  

PubMed Central

We have examined the antimicrobial activity of C-terminal analogs of human ?-defensins HBD-1and-3 wherein lysines have been selectively replaced by L- and D-arginines and L-isoleucine substituted with its D-enantiomer. The analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. Physiological concentration of NaCl did not attenuate the activity of the peptides against Gram-negative bacteria considerably, while some attenuation of activity was observed against S. aureus. Variable attenuation of activity was observed in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Introduction of D-amino acids abrogated the need for a disulfide bridge for exhibiting activity. Confocal images of carboxyfluorescein (CF) labeled peptides indicated initial localization on the membrane and subsequent translocation into the cell. Analogs corresponding to cationic rich segments of human defensins substituted with L- and D-arginine, could be attractive candidates for development as future therapeutic drugs. PMID:24086767

Olli, Sudar; Rangaraj, Nandini; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

2013-01-01

149

Effect of selectively introducing arginine and D-amino acids on the antimicrobial activity and salt sensitivity in analogs of human beta-defensins.  

PubMed

We have examined the antimicrobial activity of C-terminal analogs of human ?-defensins HBD-1 and-3 wherein lysines have been selectively replaced by L- and D-arginines and L-isoleucine substituted with its D-enantiomer. The analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. Physiological concentration of NaCl did not attenuate the activity of the peptides against Gram-negative bacteria considerably, while some attenuation of activity was observed against S. aureus. Variable attenuation of activity was observed in the presence of Ca²? and Mg²?. Introduction of D-amino acids abrogated the need for a disulfide bridge for exhibiting activity. Confocal images of carboxyfluorescein (CF) labeled peptides indicated initial localization on the membrane and subsequent translocation into the cell. Analogs corresponding to cationic rich segments of human defensins substituted with L- and D-arginine, could be attractive candidates for development as future therapeutic drugs. PMID:24086767

Olli, Sudar; Rangaraj, Nandini; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

2013-01-01

150

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Induces LL-37 and HBD-2 Production in Keratinocytes from Diabetic Foot Ulcers Promoting Wound Healing: An In Vitro Model  

PubMed Central

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the most common diabetes-related cause of hospitalization and often lead to severe infections and poor healing. It has been recently reported that patients with DFU have lower levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) at the lesion area, which contributes with the impairment of wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2 D3) and L-isoleucine induced HBD-2 and LL-37 in primary cultures from DFU. We developed primary cell cultures from skin biopsies from 15 patients with DFU and 15 from healthy donors. Cultures were treated with 1,25 (OH)2D3 or L-isoleucine for 18 h. Keratinocytes phenotype was identified by western blot and flow cytometry. Real time qPCR for DEFB4, CAMP and VDR gene expression was performed as well as an ELISA to measure HBD-2 and LL-37 in supernatant. Antimicrobial activity, in vitro, wound healing and proliferation assays were performed with conditioned supernatant. The results show that primary culture from DFU treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, increased DEFB4 and CAMP gene expression and increased the production of HBD-2 and LL-37 in the culture supernatant. These supernatants had antimicrobial activity over E. coli and induced remarkable keratinocyte migration. In conclusion the 1,25(OH)2D3 restored the production of AMPs in primary cell from DFU which were capable to improve the in vitro wound healing assays, suggesting their potential therapeutic use on the treatment of DFU. PMID:25337708

Gonzalez-Curiel, Irma; Trujillo, Valentin; Montoya-Rosales, Alejandra; Rincon, Kublai; Rivas-Calderon, Bruno; deHaro-Acosta, Jeny; Marin-Luevano, Paulina; Lozano-Lopez, Daniel; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A.; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

2014-01-01

151

A jasmonate ZIM-domain protein NaJAZd regulates floral jasmonic acid levels and counteracts flower abscission in Nicotiana attenuata plants.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid is an important regulator of plant growth, development and defense. The jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins are key regulators in jasmonate signaling ubiquitously present in flowering plants but their functional annotation remains largely incomplete. Recently, we identified 12 putative JAZ proteins in native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, and initiated systematic functional characterization of these proteins by reverse genetic approaches. In this report, Nicotiana attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaJAZd (irJAZd) by RNA interference were used to characterize NaJAZd function. Although NaJAZd transcripts were strongly and transiently up-regulated in the rosette leaves by simulated herbivory treatment, we did not observe strong defense-related phenotypes, such as altered herbivore performance or the constitutive accumulation of defense-related secondary metabolites in irJAZd plants compared to wild type plants, both in the glasshouse and the native habitat of Nicotiana attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, Utah, USA. Interestingly, irJAZd plants produced fewer seed capsules than did wild type plants as a result of increased flower abscission in later stages of flower development. The early- and mid-developmental stages of irJAZd flowers had reduced levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, while fully open flowers had normal levels, but these were impaired in NaMYB305 transcript accumulations. Previously, NaMYB305-silenced plants were shown to have strong flower abscission phenotypes and contained lower NECTARIN 1 transcript levels, phenotypes which are copied in irJAZd plants. We propose that the NaJAZd protein is required to counteract flower abscission, possibly by regulating jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine levels and/or expression of NaMYB305 gene in Nicotiana attenuata flowers. This novel insight into the function of JAZ proteins in flower and seed development highlights the diversity of functions played by jasmonates and JAZ proteins. PMID:23469091

Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

2013-01-01

152

Activities of fluoroquinolone, macrolide, and aminoglycoside drugs combined with inhibitors of glycosylation and fatty acid and peptide biosynthesis against Mycobacterium avium.  

PubMed Central

Smooth- and rough-colony variants of Mycobacterium avium serovar 4 were treated with three classes of drugs. The drugs were chosen for their potential inhibitory effects on the biosynthesis of the cell envelope-associated serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid antigens. Growth was monitored radiometrically with a BACTEC 460-TB instrument, and MICs were determined for each drug. Both variants were then treated with inhibitory drugs in combination with antimicrobial agents that have demonstrated effectiveness against M. avium. No growth inhibition was observed with 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose or avidin. Inhibitors of glycosylation, i.e., 2-deoxy-D-glucose, bacitracin, and ethambutol, were inhibitory to smooth- and rough-colony variants, whereas drugs that inhibit peptide synthesis, i.e., N-carbamyl-L-isoleucine and m-fluoro-phenylalanine, were more inhibitory for the rough-colony variant. Cerulenin, which affects fatty acid synthesis, was inhibitory for both variants, but it appeared to be more effective at inhibiting the growth of the smooth-colony variant at equivalent concentrations. Generally, when inhibitors of glycosylation were used with sparfloxacin and amikacin, a synergistic effect was observed for only the smooth variant. When drugs that affect peptide synthesis were used in combination with amikacin, a synergistic effect was observed for the rough variant, and when cerulenin was used in combination with sparfloxacin or amikacin, a synergistic effect was observed for both variants. Lipid analysis revealed that although the rough variant lacks the serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid antigens, it does possess a group of phenylalanine-isoleucine-containing lipopeptides that may explain its different susceptibility patterns to m-fluoro-phenylalanine and N-carbamyl-L-isoleucine. The significance of these results is discussed with reference to various components in the cell envelope and their importance in cell wall permeability. Images PMID:8494359

Barrow, W W; Wright, E L; Goh, K S; Rastogi, N

1993-01-01

153

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces LL-37 and HBD-2 production in keratinocytes from diabetic foot ulcers promoting wound healing: an in vitro model.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the most common diabetes-related cause of hospitalization and often lead to severe infections and poor healing. It has been recently reported that patients with DFU have lower levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) at the lesion area, which contributes with the impairment of wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2 D3) and L-isoleucine induced HBD-2 and LL-37 in primary cultures from DFU. We developed primary cell cultures from skin biopsies from 15 patients with DFU and 15 from healthy donors. Cultures were treated with 1,25 (OH)2D3 or L-isoleucine for 18 h. Keratinocytes phenotype was identified by western blot and flow cytometry. Real time qPCR for DEFB4, CAMP and VDR gene expression was performed as well as an ELISA to measure HBD-2 and LL-37 in supernatant. Antimicrobial activity, in vitro, wound healing and proliferation assays were performed with conditioned supernatant. The results show that primary culture from DFU treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, increased DEFB4 and CAMP gene expression and increased the production of HBD-2 and LL-37 in the culture supernatant. These supernatants had antimicrobial activity over E. coli and induced remarkable keratinocyte migration. In conclusion the 1,25(OH)2D3 restored the production of AMPs in primary cell from DFU which were capable to improve the in vitro wound healing assays, suggesting their potential therapeutic use on the treatment of DFU. PMID:25337708

Gonzalez-Curiel, Irma; Trujillo, Valentin; Montoya-Rosales, Alejandra; Rincon, Kublai; Rivas-Calderon, Bruno; deHaro-Acosta, Jeny; Marin-Luevano, Paulina; Lozano-Lopez, Daniel; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

2014-01-01

154

Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of the first module of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase for chloroeremomycin, a vancomycin-type glycopeptide antibiotic.  

PubMed

The gene cluster from Amycolotopsis orientalis responsible for biosynthesis of the vancomycin-type glycopeptide antibiotic chloroeremomycin was recently sequenced, indicating that this antibiotic derives from a seven-residue peptide synthesized by a three-subunit (CepA, CepB, and CepC) modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Expression of all or parts of the peptide synthetase in Escherichia coli would facilitate biochemical characterization of its substrate specificity, an important step toward the development of more potent glycopeptides by combinatorial biosynthesis. To determine whether CepA, a three-module 3,158-residue peptide synthetase expected to assemble the first three residues of the heptapeptide precursor, could be heterologously expressed in E. coli and converted to active, holo form by posttranslational priming with a phosphopantetheinyltransferase, we expressed two CepA fragments (CepA1-575 and CepA1-1596) as well as full-length CepA (CepA1-3158). All three constructs were expressed in soluble form. We find that the CepA1-575 fragment, containing adenylation and peptidyl carrier protein domains (A1-PCP1), specifically adenylates l-leucine and d-leucine in a 6:1 ratio, and it can be converted to holo form by the phosphopantetheinyltransferase Sfp; also, we find that holo-CepA1-575 can be covalently aminoacylated with l-leucine on the peptidyl carrier protein 1 domain. However, no amino acid-dependent adenylation or aminoacylation activity was detected for the larger CepA constructs with l-leucine or other expected amino acid substrates, suggesting severe folding problems in the multidomain proteins. PMID:10716695

Trauger, J W; Walsh, C T

2000-03-28

155

Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of the first module of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase for chloroeremomycin, a vancomycin-type glycopeptide antibiotic  

PubMed Central

The gene cluster from Amycolotopsis orientalis responsible for biosynthesis of the vancomycin-type glycopeptide antibiotic chloroeremomycin was recently sequenced, indicating that this antibiotic derives from a seven-residue peptide synthesized by a three-subunit (CepA, CepB, and CepC) modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Expression of all or parts of the peptide synthetase in Escherichia coli would facilitate biochemical characterization of its substrate specificity, an important step toward the development of more potent glycopeptides by combinatorial biosynthesis. To determine whether CepA, a three-module 3,158-residue peptide synthetase expected to assemble the first three residues of the heptapeptide precursor, could be heterologously expressed in E. coli and converted to active, holo form by posttranslational priming with a phosphopantetheinyltransferase, we expressed two CepA fragments (CepA1-575 and CepA1-1596) as well as full-length CepA (CepA1-3158). All three constructs were expressed in soluble form. We find that the CepA1-575 fragment, containing adenylation and peptidyl carrier protein domains (A1-PCP1), specifically adenylates l-leucine and d-leucine in a 6:1 ratio, and it can be converted to holo form by the phosphopantetheinyltransferase Sfp; also, we find that holo-CepA1-575 can be covalently aminoacylated with l-leucine on the peptidyl carrier protein 1 domain. However, no amino acid-dependent adenylation or aminoacylation activity was detected for the larger CepA constructs with l-leucine or other expected amino acid substrates, suggesting severe folding problems in the multidomain proteins. PMID:10716695

Trauger, John W.; Walsh, Christopher T.

2000-01-01

156

Distribution of the Isopropylmalate Pathway to Leucine Among Diverse Bacteria  

PubMed Central

?-Isopropylmalate synthase and ?-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase activities were detected in extracts of the following organisms: Chromatium D, Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, Hydrogenomonas H16, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio extorquens, Rhizobium japonicum, Alcaligenes viscolactis, Escherichia coli B, Proteus vulgaris, Aerobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Micrococcus sp., Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus subtilis, and Nocardia opaca. The ?-isopropylmalate synthase activity in these extracts was inhibited by low concentrations of l-leucine. Taken together with other data, these results suggest that the isopropylmalate pathway is widespread among organisms that can synthesize leucine. PMID:4829932

Stieglitz, B. I.; Calvo, J. M.

1974-01-01

157

Extraction processes for bioproduct separation  

SciTech Connect

The three-phase extraction process, a modification of reactive extraction, was investigated for its applicability in the separation of organic acids from fermentation broth. It was compared with reactive extraction, liquid membrane permeation, and supercritical fluid extraction. These processes are based on the use of amine extractants, which have to be dissolved in nonpolar solvents, for the extraction of carboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, and aminocarboxylic acids. This paper considers the comparison of the above-mentioned processes. Furthermore, the extractability of acids from synthetic aqueous solutions and fermented broths was compared. Principal consideration was paid to the extraction of lactic acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, and L-leucine.

Hartl, J.; Marr, R. [Technische Universitaet Graz (Austria)

1993-01-01

158

Characteristics of lysine transport across the serosal pole of the anuran small intestine.  

PubMed Central

The transport of the dibasic amino acid L-lysine across the serosal pole of the intestinal epithelium has been studied using the vascularly perfused anuran small intestine. The exit of pre-loaded lysine into the vascular bed was inhibited by L-ornithine (2 mM) and L-arginine (10 mM) when pulsed through the lumen during the wash-out, while 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), L-histidine, L-citrulline and L-cystine had no effect. Luminal L-leucine and L-alanine at a concentration of 10 mM markedly stimulated the unloading of lysine into the vascular bed and sarcosine, L-proline and beta-alanine also did so to a lesser extent. The instantaneous rate constant for lysine exit into the vascular bed was increased by the presence of L-arginine, L-ornithine, L-citrulline, L-histidine, AIB, L-leucine and L-alanine at a concentration of 10 mM in the vascular bed. L-proline had no effect. The simultaneously measured efflux of lysine into the lumen was unaffected by the presence of the other amino acids in the vascular bed. The uptake of lysine into the epithelium from the vascular bed was accelerated by L-ornithine and slightly by L-arginine when they were present in the lumen, while L-leucine, L-alanine, beta-alanine, L-proline, L-citrulline, sarcosine, L-histidine and AIB had no effect. The instantaneous rate constant for lysine wash-out into the vascular bed was transiently increased by the presence of L-leucine in the vascular bed at concentrations of 10, 0.10 and 0.01 mM. The steady-state transfer of lysine from the lumen to the vascular bed was stimulated in a biphasic manner by 5 mM-leucine in the lumen and by 0.5 mM-leucine in the vascular bed. The mechanisms for these interactions between lysine transport across the basolateral membrane of the enterocyte and other amino acids are discussed and a possible role for neutral amino acid stimulation of lysine exit is proposed. PMID:6410062

Cheeseman, C I

1983-01-01

159

Amplification of Molecular Information through Self-Assembly: Nanofibers Formed from Amino Acids and Cyanine Dyes by Extended Molecular Pairing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental Section Materials. Cationic cyanine dye, 5-chloro-2-(3-(5-chloro-3-ethyl-2(3H)-benzothiazolylidene)- 2-methyl-1-propenyl)-3-ethyl-, iodine (1) was purchased from Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc.. D-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-lysine hydrochloride, L-arginine, L-leucine, L-serine and ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) were purchased from Wako Pure Chemical, Ltd.. D-alanine, L-phenylalanine and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid, sodium salt (MES) were obtained from Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Nacalai Tesque, Inc. and Aldrich Chem. Co., respectively. Glycine

Tomohiro Shiraki; Masa-aki Morikawa; Nobuo Kimizuka

2008-01-01

160

mer-Hydridotris(tri-methyl-phosphane-?P)(d-valinato-?(2) N,O)iridium hexa-fluorido-phosphate di-chloro-methane 0.675-solvate.  

PubMed

The title compound, [Ir(C5H10NO2)H(C3H9P)3]PF6·0.675CH2Cl2, an iridium compound with a meridional arrangement of PMe3 groups, O,N-bidentate coordination of d-valine and with a hydride ligand trans to the N atom is compared with the l-valine complex reported previously. As expected, the complexes from the corresponding l and d isomers of valine crystallize in enanti-omorphic space groups (P43 and P41, respectively). In the crystal, N-H?O and N-H?F hydrogen bonding is observed, the N-H to carbonyl oxygen hydrogen bond producing a helical motif that proceeds along the 41 screw of the c axis. PMID:24764947

Merola, Joseph S; Slebodnick, Carla; Berg, Michael; Ritchie, Melissa K

2014-03-01

161

Structure of cymbidine A, a monomeric peptidoglycan-related compound with hypotensive and diuretic activities, isolated from a higher plant, Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae).  

PubMed

The structure of a new monomeric peptidoglycan-related compound with hypotensive and diuretic activities, cymbidine A (1) isolated from the orchid Cymbidium goeringii, was elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analysis. The structure of 1 was shown to involve four amino acids (D-alanin, meso-diaminopimelic acid, D-gultamic acid, and L-valine) and two amino sugars (N-acetylglucosamine and 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid). The sequence of the amino acids and amino sugars was determined by the analysis of 2D NMR data. The absolute stereochemistries of the three amino acids (D-Ala, D-Glu and L-Val) were determined by the modified Marfey's method, and the (6S,10R) configurations of meso-diaminopimelic acid in 1 were indicated on the basis of the CD analysis. The absolute stereochemistry of 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid was also determined by CD data. PMID:17473468

Watanabe, Kinzo; Tanaka, Rina; Sakurai, Hitomi; Iguchi, Kazuo; Yamada, Yasuji; Hsu, Chau-Shin; Sakuma, Chiseko; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Shibayama, Humio; Kawai, Tadahide

2007-05-01

162

RBE4 cells are highly resistant to paraquat-induced cytotoxicity: studies on uptake and efflux mechanisms.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used, highly toxic and non-selective contact herbicide, which has been associated with central neurotoxic effects, namely the development of Parkinson's disease, but whose effects to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) itself have rarely been studied. This work studied the mechanisms of PQ uptake and efflux in a rat's BBB cell model, the RBE4 cells. PQ is believed to enter cells using the basic or neutral amino acid or polyamine transport systems or through the choline-uptake system. In contrast, PQ efflux from cells is reported to be mediated by P-glycoprotein. Therefore, we evaluated PQ-induced cytotoxicity and the effect of some substrates/blockers of these transporters (such as arginine, L-valine, putrescine, hemicholinium-3 and GF120918) on such cytotoxicity. RBE4 cells were shown to be extremely resistant to PQ after 24?h of exposure; even at concentrations as high as 50?mM approximately 45% of the cells remained viable. Prolonging exposure until 48?h elicited significant cytotoxicity only for PQ concentrations above 5?mM. Although hemicholinium-3, a choline-uptake system inhibitor, significantly protected cells against PQ-induced toxicity, none of the effects were observed for arginine, L-valine or putrescine. Meanwhile, inhibiting the efflux pump P-glycoprotein using GF120918 significantly enhanced PQ-induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, PQ used the choline-uptake system, instead of the transporters for the basic or neutral amino acids or for the polyamines, to enter RBE4 cells. P-glycoprotein extrudes PQ back to the extracellular medium. However, this efflux mechanism only partially explains the observed RBE4 resistance to PQ. PMID:24105845

Vilas-Boas, V; Silva, R; Guedes-de-Pinho, P; Carvalho, F; Bastos, M L; Remião, F

2014-09-01

163

Carrier-mediated processes in blood--brain barrier penetration and neural uptake of paraquat.  

PubMed

Due to the structural similarity to N-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)), paraquat might induce dopaminergic toxicity in the brain. However, its blood--brain barrier (BBB) penetration has not been well documented. We studied the manner of BBB penetration and neural cell uptake of paraquat using a brain microdialysis technique with HPLC/UV detection in rats. After subcutaneous administration, paraquat appeared dose-dependently in the dialysate. In contrast, MPP(+) could not penetrate the BBB in either control or paraquat pre-treated rats. These data indicated that the penetration of paraquat into the brain would be mediated by a specific carrier process, not resulting from the destruction of BBB function by paraquat itself or a paraquat radical. To examine whether paraquat was carried across the BBB by a certain amino acid transporter, L-valine or L-lysine was pre-administered as a co-substrate. The pre-treatment of L-valine, which is a high affinity substrate for the neutral amino acid transporter, markedly reduced the BBB penetration of paraquat. When paraquat was administered to the striatum through a microdialysis probe, a significant amount of paraquat was detected in the striatal cells after a sequential 180-min washout with Ringer's solution. This uptake was significantly inhibited by a low Na(+) condition, but not by treatment with putrescine, a potent uptake inhibitor of paraquat into lung tissue. These findings indicated that paraquat is possibly taken up into the brain by the neutral amino acid transport system, then transported into striatal, possibly neuronal, cells in a Na(+)-dependent manner. PMID:11430870

Shimizu, K; Ohtaki, K; Matsubara, K; Aoyama, K; Uezono, T; Saito, O; Suno, M; Ogawa, K; Hayase, N; Kimura, K; Shiono, H

2001-07-01

164

Aerosolization characteristics of dry powder inhaler formulations for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application: effect of spray drying process conditions on aerosol performance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20%, v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF(1 ?m/ED)) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

Son, Yoen-Ju; Worth Longest, P; Hindle, Michael

2013-02-25

165

Aerosolization Characteristics of Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations for the Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Application: Effect of Spray Drying Process Conditions on Aerosol Performance  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF1?m/ED) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

2013-01-01

166

Effect of food preservatives on the hydration properties and taste behavior of amino acids: A volumetric and viscometric approach.  

PubMed

Thermodynamic and transport properties of aqueous solutions are very useful in the elucidation of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, which help to understand the hydration and taste behavior of solutes. The densities and viscosities of l-glycine, ?-alanine and l-leucine have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium propionate (NaP) and calcium propionate (CaP) at temperatures 298.15 and 308.15K. From these data, apparent molar volumes (V2,?), viscosity B-coefficients and corresponding transfer parameters (?trV2,?o and ?trB) have been calculated. The dB/dT values suggest that l-glycine and ?-alanine act as structure-breaker, while l-leucine acts as structure-maker both in water and in aqueous solutions of NaP and CaP. The decrease in hydration number and change in taste behavior have also been observed with increasing concentration of the cosolute. PMID:25794759

Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Navalpreet; Kaur, Amanpreet; Gupta, Mehak; Banipal, Parampaul K

2015-08-15

167

Spontaneous Onset of Homochirality in Oligopeptide Chains Generated in the Polymerization of N-Carboxyanhydride Amino Acids in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is concerned with the spontaneous onset of homochiral oligopeptide sequences. We will show that the polymerization of hydrophobic NCA (N-carboxyanhydride = cyclic anhydride)-amino acid racemates (i.e. tryptophane, leucine and isoleucine) in aqueous solution yields oligopeptides that are characterized by a high degree of homochiral sequences. Furthermore we will show that quartz enhances efficiently the mole fraction of oligopeptides with homochiral sequence by selectively adsorbing the more stereoregular oligopeptides from an aqueous solution of oligo-D,L-leucine. We find in particular that the mole fraction of the adsorbed homochiral 7mers is 17 times larger than the mole fraction calculated for a theoretical, random process. Experimentally the stereoisomer distribution for each oligomer length can be determined by the use of enantio-labeling and LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). Furthermore, if we start the polymerization with an enantiomeric excess (e.e.) of 20% of L-leucine (L-amino acid:D-amino acid = 6:4, molar ratio) we observe a chiral amplification in the enantiomeric homochiral oligopeptides. We think that such processes are relevant to the chemical evolution of single handedness.

Hitz, Thomas H.; Luisi, Pier L.

2004-02-01

168

Dose- and Glucose-Dependent Effects of Amino Acids on Insulin Secretion from Isolated Mouse Islets and Clonal INS-1E Beta-Cells  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The influence of glucose and fatty acids on beta-cell function is well established whereas little is known about the role of amino acids (AAs). METHODS: Islets isolated from NMRI mice were incubated overnight. After preincubation, isolated islets as well as clonal INS-1E beta-cells were incubated for 60 min in a modified Krebs Ringer buffer containing glucose and AAs. RESULTS: At 16.7 mmol/l (mM) glucose, L-arginine, L-lysine, L-alanine, L-proline, L-leucine, and L-glutamine potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion dose-dependently, while DL-homocysteine inhibited insulin secretion. Maximal insulin stimulation was obtained at 20 mM L-proline, L-lysine, L-alanine, L-arginine (islets: 2.5 to 6.7 fold increase; INS-1E cells: 1.6 to 2.2 fold increase). L-glutamine and L-leucine only increased glucose-stimulated (16.7 mM) insulin secretion (INS-1E cells: 1.5 and 1.3 fold, respectively) at an AA concentration of 20 mM. Homocysteine inhibited insulin secretion both at 5.6 mM and 16.7 mM glucose. At glucose levels ranging from 1.1 to 25 mM, the equimolar concentration of 10 mM, L-proline, L-lysine, L-arginine increased insulin secretion from mouse islets and INS-1E cells at all glucose levels applied, with a maximal effect obtained at 25 mM glucose. At a concentration of 10 mM, L-arginine and L-lysine had the highest insulinotropic potency among the AAs investigated. CONCLUSION: L-arginine, L-lysine, L-alanine, L-proline, L-leucine and L-glutamine acutely stimulate insulin secretion from mouse islets and INS-1E cells in a dose- and glucose-dependent manner, whereas DL-homocysteine inhibits insulin release. PMID:19290384

Liu, Zhenping; Jeppesen, Per B.; Gregersen, Søren; Chen, Xiaoping; Hermansen, Kjeld

2008-01-01

169

/sup 3/H-cyclosporine internalization and secretion by human fetal pancreatic islets  

SciTech Connect

Human fetal pancreatic islets were isolated from 16- to 20-week-old fetuses by a collagenase technique and cultured 48 hr in RPMI 1640 containing 10% human adult serum and unlabeled 0 to 5 micrograms cyclosporine A (CsA)/ml. Insulin secretory capacity of human fetal islets was expressed as a fractional stimulatory ratio FSR = F2/F1 of the fractional secretion rates during two successive 1 hr static incubations first with 2 mM glucose (F1) to stabilize secretion followed by maximal stimulus, i.e., 25 mM glucose plus 10 mM L-leucine and 10 mM L-arginine (F2). Unlabeled CsA at the above concentrations had no significant effects on the insulin secretory capacity expressed by FSR-values. Studies of net uptake of 3H-CsA by islets cultured for varying periods up to 40 hr and expressed as picomole 3H-CsA per picomole islet insulin content demonstrated that uptake rate was slow and did not reach isotopic equilibrium over the 40 hr of culture. When isolated fetal islets were cultured for 48 hr in the presence of 3H-CsA and varying concentrations of unlabeled CsA it was found during two successive 1 hr static incubations that fetal islets secrete insulin concomitantly with 3H-CsA following maximal stimulus for secretion. An optimal secretory molar ratio of 3H-CsA to insulin of 4.0 +/- 1.3 (n = 7) was found after islets were cultured 48 hr in the presence of a saturating 2.128 micrograms 3H-CsA per milliliter culture medium. In three successive 30-min static incubations of 3H-CsA loaded islets, first with low glucose, followed by high glucose plus L-arginine and L-leucine, and finally with high glucose plus L-arginine and L-leucine and 10 mM theophylline, the proportional fractional secretion rates of insulin and 3H-CsA were of the same magnitude.

Formby, B.; Walker, L.; Peterson, C.M.

1988-10-01

170

Thermodynamic Approach to Enhanced Dispersion and Physical Properties in a Carbon Nanotube/Polypeptide Nanocomposite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high molecular weight synthetic polypeptide has been designed which exhibits favorable interactions with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The enthalpic and entropic penalties of mixing between these two molecules are reduced due to the polypeptide's aromatic sidechains and helical secondary structure, respectively. These enhanced interactions result in a well dispersed SWCNT/Poly (L-Leucine-ran-L-Phenylalanine) nanocomposite with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties using only shear mixing and sonication. At 0.5 wt% loading of SWCNT filler, the nanocomposite exhibits simultaneous increases in the Young's modulus, failure strain, and toughness of 8%, 120%, and 144%, respectively. At one kHz, the same nanotube loading level also enhances the dielectric constant from 2.95 to 22.81, while increasing the conductivity by four orders of magnitude.

Lovell, Conrad S.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lillehei, Peter T.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Park, Cheol

2009-01-01

171

Autophagy sequesters damaged lysosomes to control lysosomal biogenesis and kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Diverse causes, including pathogenic invasion or the uptake of mineral crystals such as silica and monosodium urate (MSU), threaten cells with lysosomal rupture, which can lead to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we demonstrate that lysosomes are selectively sequestered by autophagy, when damaged by MSU, silica, or the lysosomotropic reagent L-Leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe). Autophagic machinery is recruited only on damaged lysosomes, which are then engulfed by autophagosomes. In an autophagy-dependent manner, low pH and degradation capacity of damaged lysosomes are recovered. Under conditions of lysosomal damage, loss of autophagy causes inhibition of lysosomal biogenesis in vitro and deterioration of acute kidney injury in vivo. Thus, we propose that sequestration of damaged lysosomes by autophagy is indispensable for cellular and tissue homeostasis. PMID:23921551

Maejima, Ikuko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Omori, Hiroko; Kimura, Tomonori; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Hamasaki, Maho; Noda, Takeshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

2013-01-01

172

The yeaS (leuE) gene of Escherichia coli encodes an exporter of leucine, and the Lrp protein regulates its expression.  

PubMed

Overexpression of the yeaS gene encoding a protein belonging to the RhtB transporter family conferred upon cells resistance to glycyl-l-leucine, leucine analogues, several amino acids and their analogues. yeaS overexpression promoted leucine and, to a lesser extent, methionine and histidine accumulation by the respective producing strains. Our results indicate that yeaS encodes an exporter of leucine and some other structurally unrelated amino acids. The expression of yeaS (renamed leuE for "leucine export") was induced by leucine, l-alpha-amino-n-butyric acid and, to a lesser extent, by several other amino acids. The global regulator Lrp mediated this induction. PMID:16098526

Kutukova, Ekaterina A; Livshits, Vitaliy A; Altman, Irina P; Ptitsyn, Leonid R; Zyiatdinov, Michael H; Tokmakova, Irina L; Zakataeva, Natalia P

2005-08-29

173

High-level expression and characterization of carboxypeptidase Y from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Pichia pastoris GS115.  

PubMed

Carboxypeptidase Y is widely used in peptide sequencing and mass spectrometry. PRC1 coding for proteinase C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 as procarboxypeptidase Y with a yield of ~605 mg/l in shake-flasks after 168 h induction with 1 % (v/v) methanol. This precursor of carboxypeptidase Y was cleaved by endogenous proteinases of P. pastoris and released into the fermentation broth as active carboxypeptidase Y within 2 weeks at 10 °C, which facilitated the preparation of mature carboxypeptidase Y. The recombinant enzyme was purified. It was optimally active at 30 °C and pH 6.0, with an optimal activity of ~305 U/mg using benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine as substrate. This is the first report about high-level expression and activation of carboxypeptidase Y in P. pastoris. PMID:25214228

Yu, Xianhong; Zhai, Chao; Zhong, Xing; Tang, Wei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Hu; Chen, Wanping; Ma, Lixin

2015-01-01

174

Conformations of helical Aib peptides containing a pair of L-amino acid and D-amino acid.  

PubMed

A pair of L-leucine (L-Leu) and D-leucine (D-Leu) was incorporated into a-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) peptide segments. Thedominant conformations of four hexapeptides, Boc-L-Leu-Aib-Aib-Aib-Aib-L-Leu-OMe (1a), Boc-D-Leu-Aib-Aib-Aib-Aib-L-Leu-OMe(1b), Boc-Aib-Aib-L-Leu-L-Leu-Aib-Aib-OMe (2a), and Boc-Aib-Aib-D-Leu-L-Leu-Aib-Aib-OMe (2b), were investigated by IR,¹H NMR, CD spectra, and X-ray crystallographic analysis. All peptides 1a,b and 2a,b formed 3??-helical structures in solution. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that right-handed (P) 3??-helices were present in 1a and 1b and a mixture of right-handed(P) and left-handed (M) 3??-helices was present in 2b in their crystalline states. PMID:22619002

Demizu, Yosuke; Yabuki, Yu-U; Doi, Mitsunobu; Sato, Yukiko; Tanaka, Masakazu; Kurihara, Masaaki

2012-07-01

175

Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Total Synthesis of Lajollamide A from the Marine Fungus Asteromyces cruciatus  

PubMed Central

The marine-derived filamentous fungus Asteromyces cruciatus 763, obtained off the coast of La Jolla, San Diego, USA, yielded the new pentapeptide lajollamide A (1), along with the known compounds regiolone (2), hyalodendrin (3), gliovictin (4), 1N-norgliovicitin (5), and bis-N-norgliovictin (6). The planar structure of lajollamide A (1) was determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of lajollamide A (1) was unambiguously solved by total synthesis which provided three additional diastereomers of 1 and also revealed that an unexpected acid-mediated partial racemization (2:1) of the L-leucine and L-N-Me-leucine residues occurred during the chemical degradation process. The biological activities of the isolated metabolites, in particular their antimicrobial properties, were investigated in a series of assay systems. PMID:23342379

Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Hong, Hanna; Correa, Jhonny; Egereva, Ekaterina; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Gross, Harald

2012-01-01

176

Enzymatic determination of carbon-14 labeled L-alanine in biological samples  

SciTech Connect

A method for determination of L-alanine-specific radioactivity in biological samples is presented. This method is based on the specific enzymatic transformation of L-alanine to pyruvic acid hydrazone catalyzed by the enzyme L-alanine dehydrogenase, formation of the pyruvic acid 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative, and quantitative trapping in Amberlite XAD-7 columns, followed by radioactivity counting of the lipophilic eluate. No interferences from other UC-labeled materials such as D-glucose, glycerol, L-lactate, L-serine, L-glutamate, L-phenylalanine, glycine, L-leucine, and L-arginine were observed. This inexpensive and high-speed method is applicable to the simultaneous determination of L-alanine-specific radioactivity for a large number of samples.

Serra, F.; Palou, A.; Pons, A.

1987-07-15

177

Modification of Microbial Polymalic Acid With Hydrophobic Amino Acids for Drug-Releasing Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Microbial poly(?, l-malic acid) was modified with either l-leucine ethyl ester (L) or l-phenylalanine methyl ester (F) to produce amphiphylic copolymers. The degradation of these copolymers in aqueous buffer took place under physiological conditions in a few weeks by hydrolysis of the side chain ester group followed by cleavage of the main chain. Spherical nanoparticles with diameters ranging between 70 and 230 nm were prepared from these copolymers by the dialysis-precipitation method. No alteration of the cell viability was observed after incubation of these nanoparticles in different cell lines. Anticancer drugs temozolomide and doxorubicin were encapsulated in the nanoparticles. Temozolomide was released within several hours whereas doxorubicin took several weeks to be completely liberated. PMID:24954994

Lanz-Landázuri, Alberto; Portilla-Arias, José; de Ilarduya, Antxon Martínez; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián

2014-01-01

178

Poly(Glycerol Adipate-co-?-Pentadecalactone) Spray-Dried Microparticles as Sustained Release Carriers for Pulmonary Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this work was to optimize biodegradable polyester poly(glycerol adipate-co-?-pentadecalactone), PGA-co-PDL, microparticles\\u000a as sustained release (SR) carriers for pulmonary drug delivery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Microparticles were produced by spray drying directly from double emulsion with and without dispersibility enhancers (L-arginine and L-leucine) (0.5–1.5%w\\/w) using sodium fluorescein (SF) as a model hydrophilic drug.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Spray-dried microparticles without dispersibility enhancers exhibited aggregated powders leading

Hesham Tawfeek; Sayed Khidr; Eman Samy; Sayed Ahmed; Mark Murphy; Afzaal Mohammed; Anjum Shabir; Gillian Hutcheon; Imran Saleem

179

Crystal structure of the dipeptide binding protein from Escherichia coli involved in active transport and chemotaxis.  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli periplasmic dipeptide binding protein functions in both peptide transport and taxis toward peptides. The structure of the dipeptide binding protein in complex with Gly-Leu (glycyl-L-leucine) has been determined at 3.2 A resolution. The binding site for dipeptides is designed to recognize the ligand's backbone while providing space to accommodate a variety of side chains. Some repositioning of protein side chains lining the binding site must occur when the dipeptide's second residue is larger than leucine. The protein's fold is very similar to that of the Salmonella typhimurium oligopeptide binding protein, and a comparison of the structures reveals the structural basis for the dipeptide binding protein's preference for shorter peptides. PMID:8563629

Dunten, P.; Mowbray, S. L.

1995-01-01

180

Descending pathways to the cutaneus trunci muscle motoneuronal cell group in the cat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathways involved in the cutaneous trunci muscle (CTM) reflex in the cat were investigated. Experimental animals were injected with tritium-labeled L-leucine into their spinal cord, brain stem, or diencephalon and, after six weeks, perfused with 10-percent formalin. The brains and spinal cords were postfixed in formalin and were cut into transverse 25-micron-thick frozen sections for autoradiography. Results based on injections in the C1, C2, C6, and C8 segments suggest that propriospinal pathways to the CTM motor nucleus originating in the cervical cord do no exist, although these propriospinal projections are very strong to all other motoneuronal cell groups surrounding the CTM motor nucleus. The results also demonstrate presence of specific supraspinal projections to the CTM motor nucleus, originating in the contralateral nucleus retroambiguous and the ipsilateral dorsolateral pontine tegmentum.

Holstege, Gert; Blok, Bertil F.

1989-01-01

181

[The effect of hormones on the rate of axonal transport in the ventral spinal nerve roots of rats].  

PubMed

The Wistar male rats in the age of 8-12 months were injected 7-8 microliter of aqueous solution of L-leucine-14C (specific activity 12543 megaBq/mmol) into the area of the ventral horn at the level of L5,6 segment of the spinal cord. The study of radioactivity in various sections of the respective frontal root was performed after one hour. It was found that estradiol dipropionate, testosterone propionate, insulin and small doses of thyroxin increased the axonal transport of the labelled material, while hydrocortisone, large doses of thyroxin, castration and thyroidectomy caused its delay. It is concluded that the axonal transport is under a pronounced hormonal control. PMID:1704487

Frol'kis, V V; Tanin, S A; Martsinko, V I

1990-01-01

182

Dopamine-stimulated fucosylation of brain proteins in vitro is not inhibited by puromycin.  

PubMed

In slices of rat hippocampus, the influence of puromycin (0.5 mM) on dopamine (0.5 mM)-stimulated L-fucose incorporation into glycoproteins was studied. Puromycin (15 min, 2 h and 4 h pretreatment) inhibited protein synthesis by some -70% (estimated by the in vitro incorporation rate of L-leucine), whilst L-fucose incorporation into rat hippocampal glycoproteins was only inhibited about -20% (4 h pretreatment) compared to control values (100%). Under these experimental conditions, the dopamine-induced increase in both the L-fucose incorporation into glycoproteins and the activity of fucokinase was not affected by puromycin. These data suggest that these short-lasting dopamine actions do not depend on protein synthesis. PMID:2988525

Lössner, B; Linke, I; Eppendorfer, B; Jork, R

1985-01-01

183

Characterization of Activity of a Potential Food-Grade Leucine Aminopeptidase from Kiwifruit  

PubMed Central

Aminopeptidase (AP) activity in ripe but firm fruit of Actinidia deliciosa was characterized using L-leucine-p-nitroanilide as a substrate. The enzyme activity was the highest under alkaline conditions and was thermolabile. EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, iodoacetamide, and Zn2+ had inhibitory effect while a low concentration of dithiothreitol (DTT) had stimulatory effect on kiwifruit AP activity. However, DTT was not essential for the enzyme activity. The results obtained indicated that the kiwifruit AP was a thiol-dependent metalloprotease. Its activity was the highest in the seeds, followed by the core and pericarp tissues of the fruit. The elution profile of the AP activity from a DEAE-cellulose column suggested that there were at least two AP isozymes in kiwifruit: one unadsorbed and one adsorbed fractions. It is concluded that useful food-grade aminopeptidases from kiwifruit could be revealed using more specific substrates. PMID:21076540

Premarathne, A. A. A.; Leung, David W. M.

2010-01-01

184

Accurate measurements of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Application of sets of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl ({sup 13}C?) and aliphatic ({sup 13}C{sub aliphatic}) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of {sup 13}C?-{sup 13}C{sub aliphatic} distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr., E-mail: ncn@inano.au.dk [Center for Insoluble Protein Structures (inSPIN), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Khaneja, Navin [Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2014-09-21

185

Structures and properties of a diastereoisomeric molecular compound of (2S,3S)- and (2R,3S)-N-acetyl-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acids.  

PubMed

An X-ray crystal structural analysis revealed that (2S,3S)-N-acetyl-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid (N-acetyl-L-isoleucine; Ac-L-Ile) and (2R,3S)-N-acetyl-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid (N-acetyl-D-alloisoleucine; Ac-D-aIle) formed a molecular compound containing one Ac-L-Ile molecule and one Ac-D-aIle molecule as an unsymmetrical unit. This molecular compound is packed with strong hydrogen bonds forming homogeneous chains consisting of Ac-L-Ile molecules or Ac-D-aIle molecules and weak hydrogen bonds connecting these homogeneous chains in a fashion similar to that observed for Ac-L-Ile and Ac-D-aIle. Recrystallization of an approximately 1:1 mixture of Ac-L-Ile and Ac-D-aIle from water gave an equimolar molecular compound due to its lower solubility than that of Ac-D-aIle or especially Ac-L-Ile. The results suggest that the equimolar mixture of Ac-L-Ile and Ac-D-aIle could be obtained from an Ac-L-Ile-excess mixture by recystallization from water. PMID:19809183

Yajima, Tatsuo; Kimura, Makiko; Nakakoji, Mami; Horikawa, Takao; Tokuyama, Yurie; Shiraiwa, Tadashi

2009-10-01

186

High-resolution biostratigraphy and aminostratigraphy of ODP hole 625B: northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative census data of planktonic foraminifera from the Quaternary section of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 625B (Leg 100, northeastern Gulf of Mexico) have been analyzed. A high-resolution biostratigraphy that subdivides the Pleistocene into 21 stratigraphic units is established by the extension of the work of Ericson and Wollin, and Neff. This stratigraphy may be applied by generating the faunal percentage curves of only four species of planktonic foraminifera: the Globorotalia menardii complex, Globorotalia inflata, and the two coiling varieties of Globorotalia truncatulinoides. The zonation may be supplemented and calibrated by the utilization of standard industry biohorizons, or paleotops. Foraminiferal aminostratigraphy is useful chemical tool for correlation of Pliocene-Pleistocene sections. Prior studies generally demonstrate that (1) amino acid D/L values increase with increasing depth, (2) spinose foraminifera have lower apparent racemization rates than non-spinose foraminifera, and (3) racemic equilibrium is found in early Pliocene or late Miocene samples, depending on the taxa analyzed. Long, high sedimentation-rate sections such as 625B are potentially useful for establishing a detailed Pliocene-Pleistocene aminostratigraphic record. D-alloisoleucine/L-isoleucine trends in Globigerinoides ruber, orbulina universa, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globorotalia menardiitumida complex, and mixed foraminifera species have been determined for the Pleistocene section of Hole 625% at 5 to 10-m sampling intervals. This preliminary study demonstrates that with dense sampling and proper sample preparation, it should be possible to use multiple taxa, each an independent clock, for intercore correlation and for evaluation of hiatuses or reworking effects.

Johnson, G.W.; Johnson, B.; Wehmiller, J.F.; Martin, R.E.

1989-03-01

187

Oxylipin Signaling: A Distinct Role for the Jasmonic Acid Precursor cis-(+)-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid (cis-OPDA)  

PubMed Central

Oxylipins are lipid-derived compounds, many of which act as signals in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. They include the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related jasmonate metabolites cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), methyl jasmonate, and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Besides the defense response, jasmonates are involved in plant growth and development and regulate a range of processes including glandular trichome development, reproduction, root growth, and senescence. cis-OPDA is known to possess a signaling role distinct from JA-Ile. The non-enzymatically derived phytoprostanes are structurally similar to cis-OPDA and induce a common set of genes that are not responsive to JA in Arabidopsis thaliana. A novel role for cis-OPDA in seed germination regulation has recently been uncovered based on evidence from double mutants and feeding experiments showing that cis-OPDA interacts with abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits seed germination, and increases ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) protein abundance. Large amounts of cis-OPDA are esterified to galactolipids in A. thaliana and the resulting compounds, known as Arabidopsides, are thought to act as a rapidly available source of cis-OPDA. PMID:22645585

Dave, Anuja; Graham, Ian A.

2012-01-01

188

Thermosensitive/magnetic poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel as a long-term magnetic resonance contrast platform.  

PubMed

A thermosensitive/magnetic poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel (a magnetic hydrogel) was designed and synthesized for long-term magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. To turn a thermosensitive poly(organophosphazene) hydrogel (an original hydrogel) into a long-term MR contrast platform, cobalt ferrite (CoFe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles, which have hydrophobic surfaces, were bound to the original hydrogel via interactions between the hydrophobic surfaces of the nanoparticles and the (L)-isoleucine ethyl esters of the polymer. The magnetic hydrogel showed extremely low cytotoxicity and adequate magnetic properties for use in long-term MR imaging, in addition to possessing the same properties of the original hydrogel, such as viscosity, thermosensitivity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, a reversible sol-to-gel phase transition near body temperature, and injectability. The magnetic hydrogel was injected into a rat brain using stereotactic surgery. After the injection, the applicable potentiality as a long-term MR contrast platform was successfully estimated over 4-5 weeks. Consequently, it was shown that a magnetic hydrogel as a long-term MR contrast platform has the potential to be applied in a long-term theranostic hydrogel system. Furthermore, it is expected that this platform can be useful in the clinical field of incurable diseases due to either surgical difficulties or lethality, such as with brain tumors, when the platform is combined with therapeutic drugs for long-term MR theragnosis in further studies. PMID:21975461

Kim, Jang Il; Chun, ChangJu; Kim, Bora; Hong, Ji Min; Cho, Jung-Kyo; Lee, Seung Hoon; Song, Soo-Chang

2012-01-01

189

Conversion Percentage of Tryptophan to Nicotinamide is Higher in Rice Protein Diet than in Wheat Protein Diet in Rats  

PubMed Central

We reported previously that the pellagragenic property of corn protein is not only low l-tryptophan concentration but also the lower conversion percentage of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide; the amino acid composition greatly affected the conversion percentage. The amino acid value of wheat protein is lower than that of rice protein. In the present study, we compare the conversion percentages of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide between wheat protein and rice protein diets in growing rats. The body weight gain for 28 days in rats fed with a 10% amino acid mixture diet with wheat protein was lower than that of rats fed with a 10% amino acid diet with rice protein (68.1 ± 1.6 g vs 108.4 ± 1.9 g; P < 0.05). The conversion percentage of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide was also lower for the wheat protein diet compared with the rice protein diet (1.44 ± 0.036% vs 2.84 ± 0.19%; P < 0.05). The addition of limiting amino acids (l-isoleucine, l-lysine, l-tryptophan, l-methionine, l-threonine) to the wheat protein diet improved growth and the conversion percentage. In conclusion, our result supports the thinking that the composition of amino acids affects the conversion ratio of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide. PMID:25788834

Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kawamura, Tomoyo

2015-01-01

190

Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies on mixed ligand copper complexes with polydentate ligands.  

PubMed

Mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of the type [M(Q)(L)]-2H2O have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and N- and/or O-donor amino acids (HL) such as L-threonine, L-proline, L-hydroxyproline, L-isoleucine and L-serine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements, spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) in 10(-3) M concentration indicate their non-electrolytic nature. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed paramagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intra-ligand, charge transfer transitions and d-d transitions. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of crystallized water molecules. The agar cup method and tube dilution method have been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtheriae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. The results have been compared with those of tetracycline, which was screened simultaneously and indicated mild antibacterial activity of the complexes. PMID:23061283

Bodkhe, Akalpita S; Patil, Sunil S; Shaikh, Manzoor M

2012-01-01

191

Jasmonate perception by inositol phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor  

PubMed Central

Jasmonates (JAs) are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development, and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates JA signaling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of JA perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true JA receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone, (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved ?-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the JA co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of JA perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signaling hubs. PMID:20927106

Sheard, Laura B.; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R.; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A.; Zheng, Ning

2010-01-01

192

Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1?JAZ co-receptor  

SciTech Connect

Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved {alpha}-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.

Sheard, Laura B.; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R.; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A.; Zheng, Ning (Tokyo Inst. Tech.); (UWASH); (MSU); (WIS-I); (WU-MED); (UTSMC)

2011-11-07

193

Biosynthesis of the defensive alkaloid cicindeloine in Stenus solutus beetles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To protect themselves from predation and microorganismic infestation, rove beetles of the genus Stenus produce and store bioactive alkaloids like stenusine, 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine, and cicindeloine in their pygidial glands. The biosynthesis of stenusine and 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine was previously investigated in Stenus bimaculatus and Stenus similis, respectively. Both molecules follow the same biosynthetic pathway, where the N-heterocyclic ring is derived from l-lysine and the side chain from l-isoleucine. The different alkaloids are finally obtained by slight modifications of shared precursor molecules. The piperideine alkaloid cicindeloine occurs as a main compound additionally to ( E)-3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine and traces of stenusine in the pygidial gland secretion of Stenus cicindeloides and Stenus solutus. Feeding of S. solutus beetles with [D,15N]-labeled amino acids followed by GC/MS analysis techniques showed that cicindeloine is synthesized via the identical pathway and precursor molecules as the other two defensive alkaloids.

Schierling, Andreas; Dettner, Konrad; Schmidt, Jürgen; Seifert, Karlheinz

2012-08-01

194

The Amidohydrolases IAR3 and ILL6 Contribute to Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine Hormone Turnover and Generate 12-Hydroxyjasmonic Acid Upon Wounding in Arabidopsis Leaves*  

PubMed Central

Jasmonates (JAs) are a class of signaling compounds that mediate complex developmental and adaptative responses in plants. JAs derive from jasmonic acid (JA) through various enzymatic modifications, including conjugation to amino acids or oxidation, yielding an array of derivatives. The main hormonal signal, jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), has been found recently to undergo catabolic inactivation by cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation. We characterize here two amidohydrolases, IAR3 and ILL6, that define a second pathway for JA-Ile turnover during the wound response in Arabidopsis leaves. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that these two enzymes cleave the JA-Ile signal, but act also on the 12OH-JA-Ile conjugate. We also show that unexpectedly, the abundant accumulation of tuberonic acid (12OH-JA) after wounding originates partly through a sequential pathway involving (i) conjugation of JA to Ile, (ii) oxidation of the JA-Ile conjugate, and (iii) cleavage under the action of the amidohydrolases. The coordinated actions of oxidative and hydrolytic branches in the jasmonate pathway highlight novel mechanisms of JA-Ile hormone turnover and redefine the dynamic metabolic grid of jasmonate conversion in the wound response. PMID:24052260

Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphaël; Holder, Emilie; Heinrich, Clément; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Michel; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

2013-01-01

195

Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Studies of Mixed Ligand Dioxouranium Complexes with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Some Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

Mixed ligand complexes of dioxouranium (VI) of the type [UO2(Q)(L)·2H2O] have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and amino acids (HL) such as L-threonine, L-tryptophan, and L-isoleucine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes indicate their nonelectrolytic nature. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intraligand and charge transfer transitions, respectively. Bonding of the metal ion through N- and O-donor atoms of the ligands is revealed by IR studies, and the chemical environment of the protons is confirmed by NMR studies. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of coordinated water molecules. The agar cup and tube dilution methods have been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtheriae, S. typhi, and E. coli. PMID:22389843

Patil, Sunil S.; Thakur, Ganesh A.; Shaikh, Manzoor M.

2011-01-01

196

Amino acid chronostratigraphy of late Quaternary coral reefs: Huon Peninsula, New Guinea, and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

D-alloisoleucine/L-isoleucine (D/L) ratios were measured in Tridacna gigas (the giant clam) whose ages were calibrated against radiometrically dated coral reef terraces from New Guinea and storm ridges on coral islands from the Great Barrier Reef. The results of 52 samples show several distinct intervals encompassing a fast epimerization phase at a rate of 0.077/ka for the first 8 ka, a transitional interval for the next 60 ka during which epimerization evolves at the rate of 0.006/ka, and the final phase between 60 and 185 ka when D/L ratios attain quasi-equilibrium (˜1.30) at an average rate of 0.003/ka. The demonstrated relation between the D/L ratios and the radiometric ages is useful for estimating ages of undated or insufficiently dated terraces. A comparison of the "New Guinea curve" and other less completely dated curves from elsewhere demonstrates the effect of sedimentary temperature on the rate of epimerization through time. Refinements of the D/L reaction among coral reef terraces, coupled with a better definition of the kinetic model presented here, would improve our knowledge of the temperature history and the chrono-stratigraphy of Quaternary coral reefs.

Hearty, Paul J.; Aharon, Paul

1988-07-01

197

Comparative planktonic foraminiferal aminostratigraphy of the Colombia basin and the northeast Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The increase in the proportion of D-amino acids in fossil shells with increasing age can be used as a relative dating method as far back as the mid-Miocene. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and mixed foraminiferal aminostratigraphy were determined for DSDP Site 502B (late Pliocene-Pleistocene) and 502A (late Miocene-Pliocene) in the Colombia basin. The aminostratigraphic analysis was conducted every 2.5-5.0 m in the Pleistocene and every 5-10 m in the Pliocene. Previously established planktonic foraminiferal datums and subzonal boundaries were used to establish the geochronology of DSDP Site 502B-502A. Sediment accumulation rates were then calculated and used to estimate the absolute age at a particular depth in each core. Aminostratigraphic analysis indicates a logarithmic increase in D-alloisoleucine/L-isoleucine (A/I) ratios with increasing age, where equilibrium is not reached until ca. 5 Ma. Using the logarithmic curve that best fits the A/I data, one can estimate the numerical age of a bulk sample given the A/I ratio. The mixed species assemblage A/I ratios from ODP Site 625B (Gulf of Mexico) and 502B are comparable from the late Pliocene-Pleistocene, which suggests that aminostratigraphic analysis of a mixed foraminiferal assemblage offers a very useful and unique opportunity to estimate ages in other Pliocene-Pleistocene sections in regions where independent geochronologic control may be lacking.

Fletcher, R.R.; Wehmiller, J.F.; Martin, R.E.; Johnson, B.J. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

1991-03-01

198

2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. Methods We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history of seizures, who was found to excrete increased amounts of 2-methylbutyryl glycine in the urine. The SBCAD gene was examined with sequence analysis. His development was assessed with psychometric testing before and after a trial with low protein diet. Results We found homozygosity for A > G changing the +3 position of intron 3 (c.303+3A > G) in the SBCAD gene. Psychometric testing showed moderate mental retardation and behavioral scores within the autistic spectrum. No beneficial effect was detected after 5 months with a low protein diet. Conclusion This mutation was also found in two previously reported cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD. PMID:17883863

Kanavin, Oivind J; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil; Tvedt, Bjorn; Andresen, Brage S; Stromme, Petter

2007-01-01

199

Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions  

SciTech Connect

The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

1986-03-05

200

Enterohepatic circulation of bacterial chemotactic peptide in rats with experimental colitis  

SciTech Connect

The association of hepatobiliary disorders with colonic inflammation is well recognized. Although the pathophysiology is obscure, increased permeation of toxic bacterial products across the inflamed gut to the portal circulation might be one mechanism. Potentially toxic metabolites include N-formylated chemotactic peptides that are produced by several species of intestinal bacteria and can be detected in colonic fluid in vivo. To investigate the metabolic fate of one of these low molecular weight proinflammatory peptides, N-formyl L-methionine L-leucine /sup 125/I-L-tyrosine was introduced into colon loops of healthy rats (n = 10) and rats with experimental colitis (n = 15) induced by rectal instillation of 15% (vol/vol) acetic acid. Gut, liver, and blood radioactivity were monitored by external gamma-counting and radioactivity in bile was measured by biliary catheter drainage into a well counter. Bile was processed by high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the amount of intact, bioactive peptide excreted over 3 h. After colonic instillation of 1 nmol of peptide, the mean (+/- SEM) biliary excretion of intact peptide was 6.4 +/- 2.0 pmol in normal rats and 49.0 +/- 20 pmol in rats with colitis (p less than 0.01). An enterohepatic circulation of synthetic N-formyl L-methionine L-leucine L-tyrosine has been demonstrated in the rat. Experimental colitis was associated with an eightfold increase in biliary excretion of this proinflammatory bacterial peptide. Proinflammatory bacterial peptides synthesized by colonic bacteria could be important in the pathophysiology of colon inflammation and its frequently associated hepatobiliary complications.

Hobson, C.H.; Butt, T.J.; Ferry, D.M.; Hunter, J.; Chadwick, V.S.; Broom, M.F.

1988-04-01

201

Characterization of a Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell line with increased system L amino acid transport activity.  

PubMed Central

We have studied leucine transport in several Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell lines obtained by fusion of a temperature-sensitive line of Chinese hamster ovary cells, ts025C1, and normal human leukocytes. A hybrid cell line exhibiting a twofold increase in L-leucine uptake over that in the parental cell line was found. This hybrid cell line, 158CnpT-1, was temperature resistant, whereas the parental Chinese hamster ovary mutant, ts025C1, contained a temperature-sensitive leucyl-tRNA synthetase mutation. An examination of the different amino acid transport systems in this hybrid cell line revealed a specific increase of system L activity with no significant changes in systems A and ASC. The Vmax for L-leucine uptake exhibited by the hybrid 158CnpT-1 was twice that in the CHO parental mutant, ts025C1. Cytogenetic analysis showed that the hybrid 158CnpT-1 contains four complete human chromosomes (numbers 4, 5, 10, and 21) and three interspecific chromosomal translocations in a total complement of 34 chromosomes. Biochemical and cytogenetic analysis of segregant clones obtained from hybrid 158CnpT-1 showed that the primary temperature resistance and high system L transport phenotypes can be segregated from this hybrid independently. The loss of the primary temperature resistance was associated with the loss of the human chromosome 5, as previously reported by other laboratories, whereas the loss of the high leucine transport phenotype, which is associated with a lesser degree of temperature resistance, was correlated with the loss of human chromosome 20. Images PMID:6717430

Lobaton, C D; Moreno, A; Oxender, D L

1984-01-01

202

Advanced search for the origin of life's homochirality: asymmetric photon induced processes on chiral compounds with far UV circularly polarized synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assuming an extra-terrestrial formation of life's molecular building blocks such as amino-acids, a possible abiotic explanation for the selection of the L enantiomers could be the exposure to an asymmetric bias such as far UV Circularly Polarized Light (CPL), during their journey towards Earth, inducing some enantiomeric excess (e.e) that could then be amplified on Earth via suitable autocatalytic mechanisms. Synchrotron Radiation (SR), with its intense flux and broad tunability, is a unique tool which mimics such an interstellar far UV CPL. We have recently employed it to study : (1) The irradiation of solid films of the amino acid D,L-leucine, i.e. under relevant astrophysical conditions. Starting from racemic D,L-leucine irradiated with CPL SR beam at 6.8 eV (182 nm), we have been able to induce by enantioselective photolysis an e.e. of 2.6 %, as measured by chiral-sensitive CG-MS analysis, in accordance with the CD spectrum recorded on the same type of sample. (2) CPL-induced gas phase photoionization of chiral molecules. By measuring the angular distribution of photoelectrons ejected from pure enantiomers, we observed a strong anisotropy (up to 16 %) in the forward/backward direction with respect to the light propagation axis. Because of momentum conservation, such an effect is accompanied by an asymmetric recoil of the corresponding ions that could lead to a high e.e. Future prospects on the new VUV SR beamline DESIRS at SOLEIL are presented.

Nahon, Laurent; Garcia, Gustavo; Powis, Ivan; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Brack, André

2007-09-01

203

Mechanism of peptide hydrolysis by co-catalytic metal centers containing leucine aminopeptidase enzyme: a DFT approach.  

PubMed

In this density functional theory study, reaction mechanisms of a co-catalytic binuclear metal center (Zn1-Zn2) containing enzyme leucine aminopeptidase for two different metal bridging nucleophiles (H(2)O and -OH) have been investigated. In addition, the effects of the substrate (L-leucine-p-nitroanilide ? L-leucyl-p-anisidine) and metal (Zn1 ? Mg and Zn2 ? Co, i.e., Mg1-Zn2 and Mg1-Co2 variants) substitutions on the energetics of the mechanism have been investigated. The general acid/base mechanism utilizing a bicarbonate ion followed by this enzyme is divided into two steps: (1) the formation of the gem-diolate intermediate, and (2) the cleavage of the peptide bond. With the computed barrier of 17.8 kcal/mol, the mechanism utilizing a hydroxyl nucleophile was found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured barrier of 18.7 kcal/mol. The rate-limiting step for reaction with L-leucine-p-nitroanilide is the cleavage of the peptide bond with a barrier of 17.8 kcal/mol. However, for L-leucyl-p-anisidine all steps of the mechanism were found to occur with similar barriers (18.0-19.0 kcal/mol). For the metallovariants, cleavage of the peptide bond occurs in the rate-limiting step with barriers of 17.8, 18.0, and 24.2 kcal/mol for the Zn1-Zn2, Mg1-Zn2, and Mg1-Co2 enzymes, respectively. The nature of the metal ion was found to affect only the creation of the gem-diolate intermediate, and after that all three enzymes follow essentially the same energetics. The results reported in this study have elucidated specific roles of both metal centers, the nucleophile, indirect ligands, and substrates in the catalytic functioning of this important class of binuclear metallopeptidases. PMID:21918843

Zhu, Xiaoxia; Barman, Arghya; Ozbil, Mehmet; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Shanghao; Prabhakar, Rajeev

2012-02-01

204

System L amino acid transporter LAT1 accumulates O-(2-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET).  

PubMed

O-(2-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) labeled with fluorine-18 is an important and specific tracer for diagnostics of glioblastoma via positron emission tomography (PET). However, the mechanism of its quite specific accumulation in tumor tissue has not been understood so far. In this work we demonstrate that [(3)H]L-tyrosine is primarily transported by the system L transporter LAT1 in human LN229 glioblastoma cells. FET reduced tyrosine transport, suggesting that it shares the same uptake pathway. More importantly, accumulation of FET was significantly reduced after siRNA-mediated downregulation of LAT1. Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human LAT1 together with the glycoprotein 4F2hc (necessary to pull LAT-1 to the plasma membrane) exhibited a similar accumulation of FET as observed in glioblastoma cells. In contrast, no accumulation was observed in control oocytes, not overexpressing an exogenous transporter. Because LAT1 works exclusively as an exchanger of amino acids, substrates at one side of the membrane stimulate exchange against substrates at the other side. Extracellular FET stimulated the efflux of intracellular [(3)H]L-leucine, demonstrating that FET is indeed an influx substrate for LAT1. However, FET injected into oocytes was not able to stimulate uptake of extracellular [(3)H]L-leucine, indicating that FET is not a good efflux substrate. Our data, therefore, suggest that FET is trapped within cells due to the asymmetry of its intra- and extracellular recognition by LAT1. If also found for other transporters in tumor cells, asymmetric substrate recognition may be further exploited for tumor-specific accumulation of PET-tracers and/or other tumor-related drugs. PMID:25385314

Habermeier, A; Graf, J; Sandhöfer, B F; Boissel, J-P; Roesch, F; Closs, Ellen I

2015-02-01

205

Development and validation of a systematic UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of three phenol impurities in ritonavir.  

PubMed

A stability indicating gradient reverse phase UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of three phenol impurities in ritonavir drug substance. The chromatographic separation was performed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 ?m) using gradient elution of 0.05% ammonia in methanol and 5.0 mM ammonium acetate buffer (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Both negative and positive electrospray ionization (ESI) modes were operated simultaneously for the quantification of three phenol impurities. The total run time was 11 min, within which ritonavir and its three impurities were well separated. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curves showed a good linearity over the concentration range of 0.3-1.5 ppm for phenol and 0.1-1.5 ppm for both 4-nitrophenol and N-phenoxycarbonyl-L-valine (NPV). The determination coefficient obtained was >0.9998 in each case. The method had very low limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) and the accuracy lies between 97.8% and 103.2% for all the three phenol impurities. The developed method was successfully applied for five formulation batches of ritonavir to determine its phenol impurities. PMID:24366213

Venugopal, N; Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, A; Madhavi, G

2014-03-01

206

Synergism between Different Germinant Receptors in the Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores? ‡  

PubMed Central

Rates of commitment to germinate and germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with mixtures of low concentrations of germinants acting on different germinant receptors (GRs) were much higher than the sums of the rates of commitment and germination with individual germinants alone. This synergism with mixtures of nutrient germinants was not seen with spores lacking GRs responsible for recognizing one or several components of the germinant mixtures and was not eliminated by either a gerD mutation or overexpression of one of the GRs involved in this synergism. This synergism was also not seen between the germinant l-valine, which acts via a GR, and the germinant dodecylamine, which does not act via any GR. These results indicate that spores not only integrate but can also amplify signals from multiple germinants and multiple GRs in determining rates of commitment and overall spore germination. This amplification can be explained by a simple mechanism in which a single signal integrator triggers germination above an accumulation threshold. Direct cooperative action between GRs may further add to the synergism seen in germination triggered by multiple GRs. Further experiments and modeling are required to determine the relative contributions of these different mechanisms. PMID:21725007

Yi, Xuan; Liu, Jintao; Faeder, James R.; Setlow, Peter

2011-01-01

207

Crystallization of l-alanine in the presence of additives on a circular PMMA platform designed for metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative crystallization†  

PubMed Central

Crystallization of l-alanine in the presence of l-valine and l-tryptophan additives on a circular poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA) platform designed for Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique was investigated. Theoretical simulations predicted homogeneous temperature and electric field distributions across the circular PMMA platforms during microwave heating. Crystallization of l-alanine with and without additives on the blank and silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) modified sides of the circular PMMA platform occurred within 32–50 min using MA-MAEC technique, while the identical solutions crystallized within 161–194 min at room temperature. Optical microscopy studies revealed that l-alanine crystals without additives were found to be smaller in size and had several well-developed faces, whereas l-alanine crystals grown with additives appeared to be larger and had only one dominant highly-developed face. Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that all l-alanine crystals had identical peaks, despite the morphological differences between the l-alanine crystals with and without additives observed by optical microscope images. PMID:23378822

Alabanza, Anginelle M.; Mohammed, Muzaffer

2013-01-01

208

Antagonism of the gerbil's sweetener and Polycose gustatory responses by copper chloride.  

PubMed

Antagonism of the gerbil's whole chorda tympani nerve taste responses by CuCl2 was studied. A 30 min pretreatment of 0.1 mM CuCl2 suppressed responses to single concentrations of the following sweeteners: L-alanine, L-proline, D-tryptophan, 6-chloro-D-tryptophan, L-valine, glycine, sucrose, maltose, lactose, tetrachloro-galacto-sucrose, glucose, fructose, methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside, glycerol, sorbitol, sodium saccharin, L-4'-cyano-3'-(2-2-2-trifluoro acetamido)succinanilic acid, phenethyurea, and stevioside. The responses to L-serine and the starch hydrolysate, Polycose were depressed to a lesser degree. The responses to glycine HCl and NaCl were slightly suppressed by CuCl2. The 0.1 mM CuCl2 had no effect on the shape of the sucrose concentration-response curve or its 1/2 maximal response (CR50), but did suppress the maximum response (Rmax), characteristic of non-competitive antagonism. Our work suggests the presence of 2 separate receptor sites on the gerbil's taste receptor cell membrane, one of which interacts with sugar sweeteners and most other non-sugar sweeteners and the other with Polycose. PMID:2224518

Somenarain, L; Jakinovich, W

1990-07-01

209

AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SUGAR AND AMINO ACID ABSORPTION BY EVERTED SACS OF HAMSTER INTESTINE  

PubMed Central

Autoradiographs were prepared from frozen sections of everted sacs of hamster jejunum which had been incubated in vitro with C14- or H3-labeled sugars and amino acids. When such tissue was incubated in 1 mM solutions of L-valine or L-methionine, columnar absorptive cells at tips of villi accumulated these amino acids to concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 millimoles per liter of cells. Quantitative data were obtained by microdensitometry of C14 autoradiographs. Similar, though less striking, results were obtained with the sugars: galactose, 3-0-methylglucose, ?-methylglucoside, and 6-deoxyglucose. In all cases the marked "step-up" in concentration occurred near the brush border of the cell, and a "step-down" in concentration occurred at the basal pole of the cell. Known inhibitors of intestinal absorption, e.g., phlorizin in the case of sugars, blocked the concentrative step at the luminal border of the absorptive cell. It is inferred from these data that active transport systems for sugars and amino acids reside in the brush border region of the cell. Additional evidence suggests that the basal membrane of the cell may be the site of both a diffusion barrier and a weak transport system directed into the cell. PMID:19866662

Kinter, William B.; Wilson, T. Hastings

1965-01-01

210

In vitro transcriptional studies of the bkd operon of Pseudomonas putida: L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers.  

PubMed

BkdR is the transcriptional activator of the bkd operon, which encodes the four proteins of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Pseudomonas putida. In this study, hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that BkdR bound to only one face of DNA over the same region identified in DNase I protection assays. Deletions of even a few bases in the 5' region of the BkdR-binding site greatly reduced transcription, confirming that the entire protected region is necessary for transcription. In vitro transcription of the bkd operon was obtained by using a vector containing the bkdR-bkdA1 intergenic region plus the putative rho-independent terminator of the bkd operon. Substrate DNA, BkdR, and any of the L-branched-chain amino acids or D-leucine was required for transcription. Branched-chain keto acids, D-valine, and D-isoleucine did not promote transcription. Therefore, the L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers of the bkd operon. The concentration of L-valine required for half-maximal transcription was 2.8 mM, which is similar to that needed to cause half-maximal proteolysis due to a conformational change in BkdR. A model for transcriptional activation of the bkd operon by BkdR during enzyme induction which incorporates these results is presented. PMID:10217783

Madhusudhan, K T; Luo, J; Sokatch, J R

1999-05-01

211

Rational design of heat-set and specific-ion-responsive supramolecular hydrogels based on the Hofmeister effect.  

PubMed

Smart supramolecular hydrogels have been prepared from a bolaamphiphilic L-valine derivative in aqueous solutions of different salts. The hydrogels respond selectively to different ions and are either reinforced or weakened. In one case, in contrast to conventional systems, the hydrogels are formed upon heating of the system. The use of the hydrogels in the controlled release of an entrapped dye is described as a proof of the potential applications of these systems. The responsive hydrogels were rationally designed by taking into account the noticeable effect of different ions from the Hofmeister series in the solubility of the hydrogelator, which was assessed by using NMR experiments. On the one hand, kosmotropic anions such as sulfate produce a remarkable solubility decrease in the gelator, which is associated with gel reinforcement, as measured by rheological experiments. On the other hand, chaotropic species such as perchlorate weaken the gel. A dramatic effect was observed in the presence of guanidinium chloride, which boosted the solubility of the gelator, in accordance with its chaotropic behaviour reported in protein science. In this case, a direct interaction of the guanidinium species with the carbonyl groups of the hydrogelator is detected by (13) C?NMR spectroscopy. The weakening of this interaction upon a temperature increase allows for the preparation of heat-set hydrogelating systems. PMID:25220485

Nebot, Vicent J; Ojeda-Flores, Juan J; Smets, Johan; Fernández-Prieto, Susana; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F

2014-10-27

212

Synthesis, structural elucidation, biological, antioxidant and nuclease activities of some 5-Fluorouracil-amino acid mixed ligand complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some biologically active mixed ligand complexes (1-9) have been synthesized from 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; A) and amino acids (B) such as glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala) and L-valine (val) with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions. The synthesized mixed ligand complexes (1-9) were characterized by various physico-chemical, spectral, thermal and morphological studies. 5-Fluorouracil and its mixed ligand complexes have been tested for their in vitro biological activities against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species by the agar well diffusion method. The in vitro antioxidant activities of 5-Fluorouracil and its complexes have also been investigated by using the DPPH assay method. The results demonstrate that Cu(II) mixed ligand complexes (4-6) exhibit potent biological as well as antioxidant activities compared to 5-Fluorouracil and Ni(II) (1-3) and Zn(II) (7-9) mixed ligand complexes. Further, the cleaving activities of CT DNA under aerobic conditions show moderate activity with the synthesized Cu(II) and Ni(II) mixed ligand complexes (1-6) while no activity is seen with Zn(II) complexes (7-9). Binding studies of CT DNA with these complexes show a decrease in intensity of the charge transfer band to the extent of 5-15% along with a minor red shift. The free energy change values (?‡G) calculated from intrinsic binding constants indicate that the interaction between mixed ligand complex and DNA is spontaneous.

Shobana, Sutha; Subramaniam, Perumal; Mitu, Liviu; Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Arvind Narayan, Sundaram

2015-01-01

213

Species Specificity in the Biosynthesis of Branched Paraffins in Leaves  

PubMed Central

Isobutyrate-1-14C and l-isoleucine-U-14C fed through the petiole labeled the surface lipids of broccoli leaves, but the incorporation was much less than from straight chain precursors. Not more than one-third of the 14C incorporated into the surface lipids was found in the C29 paraffin and derivatives, whereas more than two-thirds of the 14C from straight chain precursors are usually found in these compounds. The small amount of 14C incorporated into the paraffin fraction was found in the n-C29 paraffin rather than branched paraffins showing that the 14C in the paraffin must have come from degradation products. Radio gas-liquid chromatography of the saturated fatty acids showed that, in addition to the n-C16 acid which was formed from both branched precursors, isoleucine-U-14C gave rise to branched C15, C17, and C19 fatty acids, and isobutyrate-1-14C gave rise to branched C16 and C18 acids. Thus the reason for the failure of broccoli leaf to incorporate branched precursors into branched paraffins is not the unavailability of branched fatty acids, but the absolute specificity of the system that synthesizes paraffins, probably the elongation-decar-boxylation enzyme complex. Consistent with this view, no labeled branched fatty acids longer than C19 could be found in the broccoli leaf. The branched fatty acids were also found in the surface lipids indicating that the epidermal layer of cells did have access to branched chains. Thus the paraffin synthesizing enzyme system is specific for straight chains in broccoli, but the fatty acid synthetase is not. PMID:16656932

Kolattukudy, P. E.

1968-01-01

214

Selectivity of action of pregabalin on Ca(2+) channels but not on fusion pore, exocytotic machinery, or mitochondria in chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland.  

PubMed

The present study was planned to investigate the action of pregabalin on voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) and novel targets (fusion pore formed between the secretory vesicle and the plasma membrane, exocytotic machinery, and mitochondria) that would further explain its inhibitory action on neurotransmitter release. Electrophysiological recordings in the perforated-patch configuration of the patch-clamp technique revealed that pregabalin inhibits by 33.4 ± 2.4 and 39 ± 4%, respectively, the Ca(2+) current charge density and exocytosis evoked by depolarizing pulses in mouse chromaffin cells. Approximately half of the inhibitory action of pregabalin was rescued by l-isoleucine, showing the involvement of ?2?-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Ca(2+) channel blockers were used to inhibit Cav1, Cav2.1, and Cav2.2 channels in mouse chromaffin cells, which were unselectively blocked by the drug. Similar values of Ca(2+) current charge blockade were obtained when pregabalin was tested in human or bovine chromaffin cells, which express very different percentages of VDCC types with respect to mouse chromaffin cells. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory action of pregabalin on VDCCs and exocytosis does not depend on ?1 Ca(2+) channel subunit types. Carbon fiber amperometric recordings of digitonin-permeabilized cells showed that neither the fusion pore nor the exocytotic machinery were targeted by pregabalin. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) measurements performed with mitochondrial ratiometric pericam demonstrated that Ca(2+) uptake or release from mitochondria were not affected by the drug. The selectivity of action of pregabalin might explain its safety, good tolerability, and reduced adverse effects. In addition, the inhibition of the exocytotic process in chromaffin cells might have relevant clinical consequences. PMID:22537772

Hernández-Vivanco, Alicia; Pérez-Alvarez, Alberto; Caba-González, José Carlos; Alonso, María Teresa; Moreno-Ortega, Ana José; Cano-Abad, María; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; Albillos, Almudena

2012-08-01

215

Regulation of Coronafacoyl Phytotoxin Production by the PAS-LuxR Family Regulator CfaR in the Common Scab Pathogen Streptomyces scabies  

PubMed Central

Potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. The most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is Streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin A that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. Recently, it was demonstrated that S. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-L-isoleucine (CFA-L-Ile) as well as other related metabolites in minor amounts. The expression of the biosynthetic genes for CFA-L-Ile production is dependent on a PAS-LuxR family transcriptional regulator, CfaR, which is encoded within the phytotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in S. scabies. In this study, we show that CfaR activates coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by binding to a single site located immediately upstream of the putative -35 hexanucleotide box within the promoter region for the biosynthetic genes. The binding activity of CfaR was shown to require both the LuxR and PAS domains, the latter of which is involved in protein homodimer formation. We also show that CFA-L-Ile production is greatly enhanced in S. scabies by overexpression of both cfaR and a downstream co-transcribed gene, orf1. Our results provide important insight into the regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production, which is thought to contribute to the virulence phenotype of S. scabies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CfaR is a novel member of the PAS-LuxR family of regulators, members of which are widely distributed among actinomycete bacteria. PMID:25826255

Cheng, Zhenlong; Bown, Luke; Tahlan, Kapil; Bignell, Dawn R. D.

2015-01-01

216

A cross-polarization based rotating-frame separated-local-field NMR experiment under ultrafast MAS conditions.  

PubMed

Rotating-frame separated-local-field solid-state NMR experiments measure highly resolved heteronuclear dipolar couplings which, in turn, provide valuable interatomic distances for structural and dynamic studies of molecules in the solid-state. Though many different rotating-frame SLF sequences have been put forth, recent advances in ultrafast MAS technology have considerably simplified pulse sequence requirements due to the suppression of proton-proton dipolar interactions. In this study we revisit a simple two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C dipolar coupling/chemical shift correlation experiment using (13)C detected cross-polarization with a variable contact time (CPVC) and systematically study the conditions for its optimal performance at 60 kHz MAS. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of a proton-detected version of the CPVC experiment. The theoretical analysis of the CPVC pulse sequence under different Hartmann-Hahn matching conditions confirms that it performs optimally under the ZQ (w1H-w1C=±wr) condition for polarization transfer. The limits of the cross polarization process are explored and precisely defined as a function of offset and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch via spin dynamics simulation and experiments on a powder sample of uniformly (13)C-labeled L-isoleucine. Our results show that the performance of the CPVC sequence and subsequent determination of (1)H-(13)C dipolar couplings are insensitive to (1)H/(13)C frequency offset frequency when high RF fields are used on both RF channels. Conversely, the CPVC sequence is quite sensitive to the Hartmann-Hahn mismatch, particularly for systems with weak heteronuclear dipolar couplings. We demonstrate the use of the CPVC based SLF experiment as a tool to identify different carbon groups, and hope to motivate the exploration of more sophisticated (1)H detected avenues for ultrafast MAS. PMID:25486635

Zhang, Rongchun; Damron, Joshua; Vosegaard, Thomas; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2015-01-01

217

Barrier repair therapy for facial atopic eczema with a non-steroidal emollient cream containing rhamnosoft, ceramides and iso-leucine. A six-case report series.  

PubMed

Atopic eczema (AE) is a skin disease very common in paediatric population and face region is commonly involved. AE of the face represents a therapeutic challenge limiting the use, especially for long periods, of corticosteroid topical products due to the high risk of atrophic skin changes. Skin barrier alterations and reduction of innate immune mechanisms (reduced levels of anti-microbial peptides) are now considered the hallmarks of AE. Therefore emollient and barrier repair therapies with topical steroid-free substances could be an alternative or an adjuvant strategy in managing AE especially for the face. A non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory moisturizing cream with barrier repair actions, containing rhamnosoft, ceramides and L-isoleucine (ILE) (Nutratopic pro-AMP) has been recently developed for the specific treatment of AE of the face. We report a series of 6 pediatric cases (2 female and 4 male, age from 6 months to 4 years) with facial eczema in children treated with pro-AMP cream for two/four weeks as single treatment, applied twice daily in the affected area with photograph documentation (baseline and after treatment). Pictures of the skin lesions at baseline and after treatment were taken in all cases using a high-definition digital camera. Pro-AMP cream use was associated with a clinical relevant improvement of all signs of eczema. The product was well tolerated. This case series document the clinical efficacy of a barrier repair therapy cream containing rhamnosoft, ceramides and iso-leucine in the treatment of atopic eczema of the face. PMID:25198568

Puviani, M; Agostinis, F; Milani, M

2014-08-01

218

Amino acid geochronology of the type Cromerian of West Runton, Norfolk, UK  

PubMed Central

Aminostratigraphic studies of continental deposits in the UK have hitherto relied almost exclusively on data from the aragonitic shells of non-marine molluscs for dating Pleistocene sequences. This is usually based on the d/l value of a single amino acid, d-alloisoleucine/l-isoleucine (A/I), in the total shell proteins. Two genera of freshwater gastropods (Valvata and Bithynia) are used to explore the value of using multiple amino acids from the intra-crystalline fraction, which should be more protected from the effects of diagenesis than the inter-crystalline component. Results are compared from both the aragonitic shells and opercula composed of calcite, a more stable form of calcium carbonate. In order to put the amino acid data from the West Runton Freshwater Bed into perspective, statistical analyses are used to compare them with results from the Hoxnian (MIS 11) site at Clacton-on-Sea, Essex. Twelve protein decomposition indicators revealed that the results from the shells were not as clear-cut as those from the opercula. Five indicators from the Valvata shell suggest that West Runton is older than Clacton (at a 95% significance level), but two actually suggested a younger age. Seven indicators show that the Bithynia shells from West Runton are older than congeneric shells from Clacton. In marked contrast, all 12 indicators isolated from the opercula demonstrate that West Runton is significantly older than Clacton. The data are also compared with results from Waverley Wood, an important archaeological site in the English Midlands falling within the ‘Cromerian Complex’. Contrary to earlier interpretations, the new amino acid data from Bithynia opercula indicate that West Runton is older than Waverley Wood, a relationship now consistent with the available biostratigraphy. PMID:21217810

Penkman, K.E.H.; Preece, R.C.; Keen, D.H.; Collins, M.J.

2010-01-01

219

Effects of copper and zinc on growth, feeding and oxygen consumption of Farfantepenaeus paulensis postlarvae (Decapoda: Penaeidae).  

PubMed

The effect of chronic exposure (35 days) to sub-lethal concentrations of copper (17-212 ppb) and zinc (41-525 ppb) on growth of Farfantepenaeus paulensis postlarvae 17 days old (PL(17)) was analysed. The effects of acute exposure of PL(17) to the same metal on food ingestion and oxygen consumption were also evaluated. Studies were performed using copper and zinc singly, and in a mixture of equipotent concentrations (1:2.5). Chronic exposure to copper (85 and 212 ppb) and zinc (106, 212 and 525 ppb) reduced PL(17) growth. Acute exposure to copper (212 ppb) and zinc (525 ppb) reduced the number of Artemia sp. predated during 30 min and the positive feeding response induced by L-isoleucine. Despite of the lower positive feeding response when PL(17) were exposed to zinc, a significant difference from control condition was not seen. Oxygen consumption was reduced by all copper and zinc concentrations tested. The mean reduction was approximately 32%. The copper zinc-mixture did not modify food consumption and feeding response, or the oxygen consumption of the PL(17). The inhibition of food and oxygen consumption induced by copper and zinc could explain, at least in part, the long-term reduction of growth observed in chronically exposed PL(17). Our results also suggest that the inhibition of food consumption induced by copper is possibly due to an effect on chemosensory mechanisms. Finally, an antagonism between copper and zinc was observed, when were employed to analyse feeding behaviour and aerobic metabolism after acute exposure. PMID:10742507

Santos; Troca da Cunha N; Bianchini

2000-05-01

220

A cross-polarization based rotating-frame separated-local-field NMR experiment under ultrafast MAS conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotating-frame separated-local-field solid-state NMR experiments measure highly resolved heteronuclear dipolar couplings which, in turn, provide valuable interatomic distances for structural and dynamic studies of molecules in the solid-state. Though many different rotating-frame SLF sequences have been put forth, recent advances in ultrafast MAS technology have considerably simplified pulse sequence requirements due to the suppression of proton-proton dipolar interactions. In this study we revisit a simple two-dimensional 1H-13C dipolar coupling/chemical shift correlation experiment using 13C detected cross-polarization with a variable contact time (CPVC) and systematically study the conditions for its optimal performance at 60 kHz MAS. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of a proton-detected version of the CPVC experiment. The theoretical analysis of the CPVC pulse sequence under different Hartmann-Hahn matching conditions confirms that it performs optimally under the ZQ (w1H - w1C = ±wr) condition for polarization transfer. The limits of the cross polarization process are explored and precisely defined as a function of offset and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch via spin dynamics simulation and experiments on a powder sample of uniformly 13C-labeled L-isoleucine. Our results show that the performance of the CPVC sequence and subsequent determination of 1H-13C dipolar couplings are insensitive to 1H/13C frequency offset frequency when high RF fields are used on both RF channels. Conversely, the CPVC sequence is quite sensitive to the Hartmann-Hahn mismatch, particularly for systems with weak heteronuclear dipolar couplings. We demonstrate the use of the CPVC based SLF experiment as a tool to identify different carbon groups, and hope to motivate the exploration of more sophisticated 1H detected avenues for ultrafast MAS.

Zhang, Rongchun; Damron, Joshua; Vosegaard, Thomas; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2015-01-01

221

Evolved Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE) Improves the Acetate and Thermal Tolerance of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Acetate-mediated growth inhibition of Escherichia coli has been found to be a consequence of the accumulation of homocysteine, the substrate of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) that catalyzes the final step of methionine biosynthesis. To improve the acetate resistance of E. coli, we randomly mutated the MetE enzyme and isolated a mutant enzyme, designated MetE-214 (V39A, R46C, T106I, and K713E), that conferred accelerated growth in the E. coli K-12 WE strain in the presence of acetate. Additionally, replacement of cysteine 645, which is a unique site of oxidation in the MetE protein, with alanine improved acetate tolerance, and introduction of the C645A mutation into the MetE-214 mutant enzyme resulted in the highest growth rate in acetate-treated E. coli cells among three mutant MetE proteins. E. coli WE strains harboring acetate-tolerant MetE mutants were less inhibited by homocysteine in l-isoleucine-enriched medium. Furthermore, the acetate-tolerant MetE mutants stimulated the growth of the host strain at elevated temperatures (44 and 45°C). Unexpectedly, the mutant MetE enzymes displayed a reduced melting temperature (Tm) but an enhanced in vivo stability. Thus, we demonstrate improved E. coli growth in the presence of acetate or at elevated temperatures solely due to mutations in the MetE enzyme. Furthermore, when an E. coli WE strain carrying the MetE mutant was combined with a previously found MetA (homoserine o-succinyltransferase) mutant enzyme, the MetA/MetE strain was found to grow at 45°C, a nonpermissive growth temperature for E. coli in defined medium, with a similar growth rate as if it were supplemented by l-methionine. PMID:24123739

Mordukhova, Elena A.

2013-01-01

222

Riluzole and gabapentinoids activate glutamate transporters to facilitate glutamate-induced glutamate release from cultured astrocytes  

PubMed Central

We have recently demonstrated that the glutamate transporter activator riluzole paradoxically enhanced glutamate-induced glutamate release from cultured astrocytes. We further showed that both riluzole and the ?2? subunit ligand gabapentin activated descending inhibition in rats by increasing glutamate receptor signaling in the locus coeruleus and hypothesized that these drugs share common mechanisms to enhance glutamate release from astrocytes. In the present study, we examined the effects of riluzole and gabapentin on glutamate uptake and release and glutamate-induced Ca2+ responses in primary cultures of astrocytes. Riluzole and gabapentin facilitated glutamate-induced glutamate release from astrocytes and significantly increased glutamate uptake, the latter being completely blocked by the non-selective glutamate transporter blocker DL-threo-?-benzyloxyaspartic acid (DL-TBOA). Riluzole and gabapentin also enhanced the glutamate-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Some ?2? subunit ligands, pregabalin and L-isoleucine, enhanced the glutamate-induced Ca2+ response, whereas another, 3-exo-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-exo-carboxylic acid (ABHCA), did not. The enhancement of glutamate-induced intracellular Ca2+ response by riluzole and gabapentin was blocked by the DL-TBOA and an inhibitor of Na+/Ca2+ exchange, 2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl]ethyl]isothiurea (KB-R7943). Gabapentin’s enhancement of Ca2+ increase was specific to glutamate stimulation, as it was not mimicked with stimulation by ATP. These results suggest that riluzole and gabapentin enhance Na+-glutamate co-transport through glutamate transporters, induce subsequent Ca2+ influx via the reverse mode of Na+/Ca2+ exchange, and thereby facilitate Ca2+-dependent glutamate release by glutamate in astrocytes. The present study also demonstrates a novel target of gabapentinoid action in astrocytes other than ?2? subunits in neurons. PMID:22206816

Yoshizumi, Masaru; Eisenach, James. C.; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro

2011-01-01

223

A flow-through reaction cell for in situ X-ray diffraction and absorption studies of heterogeneous powder-liquid reactions and phase transformations.  

PubMed

A portable powder-liquid high-corrosion-resistant reaction cell has been designed to follow in situ reactions by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques. The cell has been conceived to be mounted on the experimental stations for diffraction and absorption of the Spanish CRG SpLine-BM25 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Powder reactants and/or products are kept at a fixed position in a vertical geometry in the X-ray pathway by a porous membrane, under forced liquid reflux circulation. Owing to the short pathway of the X-ray beam through the cell, XRD and XAS measurements can be carried out in transmission configuration/mode. In the case of the diffraction technique, data can be collected with either a point detector or a two-dimensional CCD detector, depending on specific experimental requirements in terms of space or time resolution. Crystallization processes, heterogeneous catalytic processes and several varieties of experiments can be followed by these techniques with this cell. Two experiments were carried out to demonstrate the cell feasibility: the phase transformations of layered titanium phosphates in boiling aqueous solutions of phosphoric acid, and the reaction of copper carbonate and L-isoleucine amino acid powders in boiling aqueous solution. In this last case the shrinking of the solid reactants and the formation of Cu(isoleucine)(2) is observed. The crystallization processes and several phase transitions have been observed during the experiments, as well as an unexpected reaction pathway. PMID:22186649

Ferrer, Pilar; da Silva, Iván; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Alfonso, Belén F; Trobajo, Camino; Khainakov, Sergei; Garcia, Jose R; Garcia-Granda, Santiago; Castro, Germán R

2012-01-01

224

Stetson Pit, Dare County, North Carolina: An integrated chronologic, faunal, and floral record of subsurface coastal quaternary sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Continuous split spoon samples from a drill hole penetrating 34 m of coastal plain sediments at Stetson Pit in Dare County, North Carolina were taken for lithologic, aminostratigraphic, faunal (ostracodes) and floral (pollen) analyses. Three distinct aminozones are recognized in the subsurface section based upon D-alloisoleucine/L-isoleucine (A/I) values in each of the molluscan species Mulinia lateralis and Mercenaria sp. Ostracode zonations in the subsurface section are based on percentages of 80 thermophilic and cryophilic species (those living today south and north of Cape Hatteras) and the percentages of brackish water species. Five assemblage zones are delineated. Six pollen assemblage zones are also delineated within the subsurface section based upon study of 48 sediment samples. The subsurface record at Stetson Pit is interpreted to represent portions of four interglacials based upon the combined faunal, floral and aminostratigraphic data. The two younger aminozones, with amino acid age estimates of 100,000??20,000 yr (-7.2 to -11.2 m MSL) and 300,000-500,000 yr (-13 to -14.2 m MSL), represent portions of middle/late Pleistocene interglacials. The lower aminozone (-17.4 to -33 m MSL) spans an interval that probably includes at least two interglacials (based upon faunal and floral records) and has an age estimated to be between 800,000 and 1,300,000 yr. Boundaries delineated by faunal, floral, and amino acid methods do not always coincide, due to sampling constraints and phase lags between the different records. One major unconformity (at -17.4 m MSL) in the Stetson Pit section is easily recognized from lithologic characteristics and may represent a hiatus of as much as 800,000 yr. Lithologic changes associated with all other zone boundaries are subtle and would probably not be considered significant in the absence of faunal, floral, or amino acid data. ?? 1989.

York, L.L.; Wehmiller, J. F.; Cronin, T. M.; Ager, T.A.

1989-01-01

225

Potential drug targets for Mycobacterium avium defined by radiometric drug-inhibitor combination techniques.  

PubMed Central

Previously established radiometric techniques were used to assess the effectiveness of combined antimicrobial drug-inhibitory drug (drug-inhibitor) treatment on two clinical isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex representing three colony variants: smooth opaque (dome) (SmO), smooth transparent (SmT), and rough (Rg). All variants were identified as members of the M. avium complex; however, only the SmT colony type of strain 373 possessed characteristic serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid (GPL) antigens. MICs, determined radiometrically, of drugs with the potential to inhibit the biosynthesis of GPL antigens or other cell envelope constituents were similar for all strains. These drugs included cerulenin, N-carbamyl-DL-phenylalanine, N-carbamyl-L-isoleucine, trans-cinnamic acid, ethambutol, 1-fluoro-1-deoxy-beta-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, and m-fluoro-phenylalanine. The MICs of the antimicrobial drugs amikacin, sparfloxacin, and clarithromycin varied, but overall the MICs for the SmO variant were the lowest. Radiometric assessment of drug-inhibitor combinations by using established x/y determinations revealed enhanced activity when either ethambutol or cerulenin were used in combination with all antimicrobial agents for all variants except the Rg variant of strain 424, for which ethambutol was not effective. Enhanced activity with amino acid analogs was observed with the Rg colony variants of strains 373 and 424. Two potential sites for drug targeting were identified: fatty acid synthesis, for all strains assayed, and peptide biosynthesis, particularly for Rg colony variants that possess previously identified phenylalanine-containing lipopeptides as potential targets for future drug development. Images PMID:7840559

Rastogi, N; Goh, K S; Wright, E L; Barrow, W W

1994-01-01

226

Regulation of Coronafacoyl Phytotoxin Production by the PAS-LuxR Family Regulator CfaR in the Common Scab Pathogen Streptomyces scabies.  

PubMed

Potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. The most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is Streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin A that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. Recently, it was demonstrated that S. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-L-isoleucine (CFA-L-Ile) as well as other related metabolites in minor amounts. The expression of the biosynthetic genes for CFA-L-Ile production is dependent on a PAS-LuxR family transcriptional regulator, CfaR, which is encoded within the phytotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in S. scabies. In this study, we show that CfaR activates coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by binding to a single site located immediately upstream of the putative -35 hexanucleotide box within the promoter region for the biosynthetic genes. The binding activity of CfaR was shown to require both the LuxR and PAS domains, the latter of which is involved in protein homodimer formation. We also show that CFA-L-Ile production is greatly enhanced in S. scabies by overexpression of both cfaR and a downstream co-transcribed gene, orf1. Our results provide important insight into the regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production, which is thought to contribute to the virulence phenotype of S. scabies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CfaR is a novel member of the PAS-LuxR family of regulators, members of which are widely distributed among actinomycete bacteria. PMID:25826255

Cheng, Zhenlong; Bown, Luke; Tahlan, Kapil; Bignell, Dawn R D

2015-01-01

227

Construction of a novel expression system for use in Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important microorganism for production of amino acids in industrial fermentation. Suitable vectors are needed for metabolic engineering in C. glutamicum. Most available vectors used in C. glutamicum carry antibiotic resistant genes as a genetic labeling for rapid identification of recombinant strains, and antibiotics have to be added to maintain the vector when growing the cells. These vectors, though excellent for laboratory use, are not preferable choices for industry-scale fermentation. In this work, we developed a novel expression system for use in C. glutamicum, which do not require antibiotics when used for industrial fermentation. This system includes two vectors: the shuttle vector pJYW-4 for expression of genes and the vector pJYW-6 for deletion of the essential gene alr in C. glutamicum. The vector pJYW-4 contains a large multiple cloning site for cloning multiple genes and two selective markers: one is the kanamycin-resistant gene kan and the other is an essential gene alr. The selective marker kan facilitates molecular manipulation or fermentations in the laboratory, and the selection marker alr is good for use in industry-scale fermentation, allowing in vivo maintenance of the expression vector through auxotrophic complementation; therefore, the two selection markers in pJYW-4 make it useful for both laboratory research and industrial fermentation, and convenient to transfer valuable laboratory-developed strains into industrial production. This newly-constructed expression system was successfully used to increase L-valine production in C. glutamicum ATCC 14067, indicating its potential on developing amino acid-producing C. glutamicum strains. PMID:25108235

Hu, Jinyu; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Hailing; Tan, Yanzhen; Wang, Xiaoyuan

2014-09-01

228

1D cadmium(II) thiocyanate systems: Synthesis and characterization of three new polymeric 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three new cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes, [{Cd(NCS) 2(val)}·H 2O] n1, [Cd(NCS) 2(3-ampy) 2] n2, and [Cd(NCS) 2(pyrazolinone)] n3, (val = D, L-valine, 3-ampy = 3-aminopyridine and pyrazolinone = 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The X-ray structure analysis revealed di-?-N,S thiocyanato bridges connecting cadmium centers in a 1D chain with the co-ligand blocking the remaining coordination sites. The structure of complex 1 features six coordinate Cd(II) centers, each cadmium is surrounded by two N atoms and two S atoms from two bridging N,S-thiocyanato groups giving rise to a zigzag 1D chain and two oxygen atoms of the alternating chelating ?-O,O'-valine that coordinates as zwitterionic terminal amino acid. The structure of complex 2 consists of octahedral Cd(II) centers, connected by di-?-N,S-bridging NCS groups, thus forming a 1D chain system along the [1 0 1] direction. The amino-groups are forming one intra-chain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond and one interchain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond to N-atoms of adjacent chains. The structure of 3 reveals di-?-N,S-NCS doubly bridged unusual penta-coordinated cadmium centers with the alternating monodentate pyrazolinone ligand blocking the fifth coordination site. IR spectra and thermal properties of complexes are reported.

Saber, Mohamed R.; Abu-Youssef, Morsy A. M.; Goher, Mohamed A. S.; Sabra, Berry A.; Hafez, Afaf K.; Badr, Ahmed M.-A.; Mautner, Franz A.

2012-01-01

229

Tepidibacter mesophilus sp. nov., a mesophilic fermentative anaerobe isolated from soil polluted by crude oil, and emended description of the genus Tepidibacter.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, aerotolerant, endospore-forming, fermentative bacterium, designated strain B1(T), was isolated from soil polluted by crude oil in the Karamay Oil Field, China. Cells were Gram-positive, rod-shaped, 1.1-1.6 µm wide and 2.3-4.7 µm long, and were motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Growth occurred at 10-40 °C and pH 6.0-8.9; optimal growth occurred at 28-32 °C and pH 7.3. The optimal concentrations of NaCl and sea salts for growth were 0.5 and 1% (w/v), respectively. The strain was halotolerant and grew in the presence of NaCl or sea salts up to a concentration of 9% (w/v). Substrates utilized as sole carbon sources were beef extract, yeast extract, peptone, tryptone, casein, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-xylose, D-ribose, D-galactose, maltose, L-rhamnose, trehalose, L-valine, DL-alanine plus L-proline and DL-alanine plus L-glycine. The main products of glucose fermentation were ethanol and acetate. iso-C(15:0), iso-C(14:0), C(16:0) and iso-C(13:0) were the major fatty acids. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Tepidibacter, showing 94.7 and 94.1% similarity to the type strains of Tepidibacter formicigenes and Tepidibacter thalassicus, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain B1(T) was 29.8 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain B1(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Tepidibacter, for which the name Tepidibacter mesophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B1(T) (=CGMCC 1.5148(T) =JCM 16806(T)). PMID:21335504

Tan, Hai-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Yue; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-Fen

2012-01-01

230

Synthesis, structural elucidation, biological, antioxidant and nuclease activities of some 5-Fluorouracil-amino acid mixed ligand complexes.  

PubMed

Some biologically active mixed ligand complexes (1-9) have been synthesized from 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; A) and amino acids (B) such as glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala) and L-valine (val) with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions. The synthesized mixed ligand complexes (1-9) were characterized by various physico-chemical, spectral, thermal and morphological studies. 5-Fluorouracil and its mixed ligand complexes have been tested for their in vitro biological activities against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species by the agar well diffusion method. The in vitro antioxidant activities of 5-Fluorouracil and its complexes have also been investigated by using the DPPH assay method. The results demonstrate that Cu(II) mixed ligand complexes (4-6) exhibit potent biological as well as antioxidant activities compared to 5-Fluorouracil and Ni(II) (1-3) and Zn(II) (7-9) mixed ligand complexes. Further, the cleaving activities of CT DNA under aerobic conditions show moderate activity with the synthesized Cu(II) and Ni(II) mixed ligand complexes (1-6) while no activity is seen with Zn(II) complexes (7-9). Binding studies of CT DNA with these complexes show a decrease in intensity of the charge transfer band to the extent of 5-15% along with a minor red shift. The free energy change values (?(‡)G) calculated from intrinsic binding constants indicate that the interaction between mixed ligand complex and DNA is spontaneous. PMID:25022506

Shobana, Sutha; Subramaniam, Perumal; Mitu, Liviu; Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Arvind Narayan, Sundaram

2015-01-01

231

The Effects of Heat Activation on Bacillus Spore Germination, with Nutrients or under High Pressure, with or without Various Germination Proteins.  

PubMed

Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75°C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the l-asparagine-glucose-fructose-K(+) mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation. PMID:25681191

Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E; Doona, Christopher J; Setlow, Peter

2015-04-15

232

Molecular basis for the anti-sickling activity of aromatic amino acids and related compounds: a proton nuclear magnetic resonance investigation.  

PubMed

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and relaxation techniques have been used to investigate the interactions of sickle cell hemoglobin (Hb S) and human normal adult hemoglobin (Hb A) with p-bromobenzyl alcohol, L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, and L-valine. With the exception of valine, all these compounds inhibit the polymerization of deoxy-Hb S [Noguchi, C. T., & Schechter, A. N. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 5455)). Using transferred nuclear Overhauser effects among the proton resonances of the compound of interest and the corresponding longitudinal relaxation rates (T1(-1], we have shown that the binding of each of the compounds investigated to deoxy-Hb S is comparable to that to deoxy-Hb A. Intermolecular transferred nuclear Overhauser effects have been observed between proton resonances of the anti-sickling compounds and specific protons situated in the heme pockets of Hb. On the basis of these results, we suggest that one binding site, common to all compounds with anti-sickling activity, is at or near the heme pockets in the alpha and beta chains of both deoxy-HB S and deoxy-Hb A. The proton T1(-1) values of the histidyl residues situated over the surface of the hemoglobin molecule indicate that a second binding site is located at or near the beta 6 position, containing the mutation in Hb S (beta 6Glu----Val). The binding of the compounds investigated to the latter site induces conformational changes in the amino-terminal domains of the beta chains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3964645

Russu, I M; Lin, A K; Yang, C P; Ho, C

1986-02-25

233

Substrate specificity of amino acid transport in sheep erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

The specificity of amino acid transport in normal (high-glutathione) sheep erythrocytes was investigated by studying the interaction of various neutral and dibasic amino acids in both competition and exchange experiments. Apparent Ki values were obtained for amino acids as inhibitors of L-alanine influx. Amino acids previously found to be transported by high-glutathione cells at fast rates (L-cysteine, L-alpha-amino-n-butyrate) were the most effective inhibitors. D-Alanine and D-alpha-amino-n-butyrate were without effect. Of the remaining amino acids studied, only L-norvaline, L-valine, L-norleucine, L-serine and L-2,4-diamino-n-butyrate significantly inhibited L-alanine uptake. L-Alanine efflux from pre-loaded cells was markedly stimulated by extracellular L-alanine. Those amino acids that inhibited L-alanine influx also stimulated L-alanine efflux. In addition, D-alanine, D-alpha-amino-n-biutyrate, L-threonine, L-asparagine, L-alpha, beta-diaminoproprionate, L-ornithine, L-lysine and S-2-aminoethyl-L-cysteine also significantly stimulated L-alanine efflux. L-Lysine uptake was inhibited by L-alanine but not by D-alanine, and the inhibitory potency of L-alanine was not influenced by the replacement of Na+ in the incubation medium with choline. L-Lysine efflux from pre-loaded cells was stimulated by L-alanine but not by D-alanine. It is concluded that these cells possess a highly selective stero-specific amino acid-transport system. Although the optimum substrates are small neutral amino acids, this system also has a significant affinity for dibasic amino acids. PMID:849280

Young, J D; Ellory, J C

1977-01-01

234

Investigation of Isovaline Enantiomeric Excesses and Other C5 Amino Acids in Carbonaceous Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of biological homochirality is one of the most perplexing puzzles to understanding the emergence of life on Earth. While many models have been proposed, the only reported non-biologically generated. compounds that show a significant enantiomeric excess are a few amino acids in the CM2 Murchison and Murray meteorites (e.g. Pizzarello and Cronin 2000; Pizzarello et al, 2008). Of these isovaline (alpha-ethyl-alanine) is of particular interest since it is typically abundant in CM2 meteorites, is exceedingly rare in biology, and due to its chemical structure is likely to maintain its primordial D/L ratio. Instead of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique employed by Pizzarello et al., we have used liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection/time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) to study the enantiomeric ratio of isovaline in the CM2 meteorites Murchison and LEW90500 and the CR2 QUE99177. We have placed particular emphasis on understanding the suite of C5 amino acids in these meteorites. In doing so, we have determined that D and L 3-aminopentanoic acid co-elutes with Lisovaline and L-valine under common chromatographic conditions (Glavin and Dworkin 2006) for omicron-phthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl-L-cysteine (OPA/NAC). We have devised a method to separate these compounds and we will report the actual D/ L ratios of isovaline in these meteorites and how they compare to the GC-MS measurements of Pizzarello and co-workers.

Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.

2009-01-01

235

The Mechanism of Amino Acid Efflux from Seed Coats of Developing Pea Seeds as Revealed by Uptake Experiments.  

PubMed Central

The uptake of amino acids by excised seed coat halves of developing seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was characterized. The influx of L-valine and L-glutamic acid was proportional to their external concentration, with coefficients of proportionality (k) of 11.0 and 7.1 [mu]mol g-1 fresh weight min-1 M-1, respectively. The influx of L-lysine could be analyzed into a component with linear kinetics (k = 8.1 [mu]mol g-1 fresh weight min-1 M-1) and one with saturation kinetics (Michaelis constant = 6.5 mM), but the latter may have resulted from the mutual interaction between the influx of the cationic lysine and the membrane potential. The influx of the amino acids was not affected by 10 [mu]M carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, but was inhibited by about 50% in the presence of 2.5 mM p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. Conservative estimates of the permeability coefficients of the plasma membrane of seed coat parenchyma cells for lysine, glutamic acid, and several neutral amino acids were all in the range of 4 x 10-7 cm s-1 to 9 x 10-7 cm s-1, which is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater than those reported for artificial lipid bilayers. It is concluded that nonselective pores constitute a pathway in the plasma membrane for passive transport of amino acids. It is argued that this pathway is also used for the efflux of endogenous amino acids, the process by which nitrogen becomes available for the embryo. PMID:12223741

De Jong, A.; Koerselman-Kooij, J. W.; Schuurmans, JAMJ.; Borstlap, A. C.

1997-01-01

236

The GerW Protein Is Not Involved in the Germination of Spores of Bacillus Species  

PubMed Central

Germination of dormant spores of Bacillus species is initiated when nutrient germinants bind to germinant receptors in spores’ inner membrane and this interaction triggers the release of dipicolinic acid and cations from the spore core and their replacement by water. Bacillus subtilis spores contain three functional germinant receptors encoded by the gerA, gerB, and gerK operons. The GerA germinant receptor alone triggers germination with L-valine or L-alanine, and the GerB and GerK germinant receptors together trigger germination with a mixture of L-asparagine, D-glucose, D-fructose and KCl (AGFK). Recently, it was reported that the B. subtilis gerW gene is expressed only during sporulation in developing spores, and that GerW is essential for L-alanine germination of B. subtilis spores but not for germination with AGFK. However, we now find that loss of the B. subtilis gerW gene had no significant effects on: i) rates of spore germination with L-alanine; ii) spores’ levels of germination proteins including GerA germinant receptor subunits; iii) AGFK germination; iv) spore germination by germinant receptor-independent pathways; and v) outgrowth of germinated spores. Studies in Bacillus megaterium did find that gerW was expressed in the developing spore during sporulation, and in a temperature-dependent manner. However, disruption of gerW again had no effect on the germination of B. megaterium spores, whether germination was triggered via germinant receptor-dependent or germinant receptor-independent pathways. PMID:25790435

Cruz-Mora, Jose; Pérez-Valdespino, Abigail; Gupta, Srishti; Withange, Nilumi; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Christie, Graham; Setlow, Peter

2015-01-01

237

L-Serine overproduction with minimization of by-product synthesis by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

The direct fermentative production of L-serine by Corynebacterium glutamicum from sugars is attractive. However, superfluous by-product accumulation and low L-serine productivity limit its industrial production on large scale. This study aimed to investigate metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies towards eliminating by-products as well as increasing L-serine productivity. Deletion of alaT and avtA encoding the transaminases and introduction of an attenuated mutant of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) increased both L-serine production level (26.23 g/L) and its productivity (0.27 g/L/h). Compared to the parent strain, the by-products L-alanine and L-valine accumulation in the resulting strain were reduced by 87 % (from 9.80 to 1.23 g/L) and 60 % (from 6.54 to 2.63 g/L), respectively. The modification decreased the metabolic flow towards the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and induced to shift it towards L-serine production. Meanwhile, it was found that corn steep liquor (CSL) could stimulate cell growth and increase sucrose consumption rate as well as L-serine productivity. With addition of 2 g/L CSL, the resulting strain showed a significant improvement in the sucrose consumption rate (72 %) and the L-serine productivity (67 %). In fed-batch fermentation, 42.62 g/L of L-serine accumulation was achieved with a productivity of 0.44 g/L/h and yield of 0.21 g/g sucrose, which was the highest production of L-serine from sugars to date. The results demonstrated that combined metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies could minimize by-product accumulation and improve L-serine productivity. PMID:25434811

Zhu, Qinjian; Zhang, Xiaomei; Luo, Yuchang; Guo, Wen; Xu, Guoqiang; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

2015-02-01

238

Constant time tensor correlation experiments by non-gamma-encoded recoupling pulse sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constant-time tensor correlation under magic-angle spinning conditions is an important technique in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the measurements of backbone or side-chain torsion angles of polypeptides and proteins. We introduce a general method for the design of constant-time tensor correlation experiments under magic-angle spinning. Our method requires that the amplitude of the average Hamiltonian must depend on all the three Euler angles bringing the principal axis system to the rotor-fixed frame, which is commonly referred to as non-gamma encoding. We abbreviate this novel approach as COrrelation of Non-Gamma-Encoded Experiment (CONGEE), which exploits the orientation-dependence of non-gamma-encoded sequences with respect to the magic-angle rotation axis. By manipulating the relative orientation of the average Hamiltonians created by two non-gamma-encoded sequences, one can obtain a modulation of the detected signal, from which the structural information can be extracted when the tensor orientations relative to the molecular frame are known. CONGEE has a prominent feature that the number of rf pulses and the total pulse sequence duration can be maintained to be constant so that for torsion angle determination the effects of systematic errors owing to the experimental imperfections and/or T2 effects could be minimized. As a proof of concept, we illustrate the utility of CONGEE in the correlation between the C' chemical shift tensor and the C?-H? dipolar tensor for the backbone psi angle determination. In addition to a detailed theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experiments measured for [U-13C, 15N]-L-alanine and N-acetyl-[U-13C, 15N]-D,L-valine are used to validate our approach at a spinning frequency of 20 kHz.

Mou, Yun; Tsai, Tim W. T.; Chan, Jerry C. C.

2012-10-01

239

Zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the theoretical description and experimental demonstration of a zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling (ZQ-SDR) technique for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 13C-labeled molecules, including proteins, under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The ZQ-SDR technique combines zero-quantum recoupling pulse sequence blocks with randomly varying chemical shift precession periods to create randomly amplitude- and phase-modulated effective homonuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. To a good approximation, couplings between different 13C spin pairs become uncorrelated under ZQ-SDR, leading to spin dynamics (averaged over many repetitions of the ZQ-SDR sequence) that are fully described by an orientation-dependent N × N polarization transfer rate matrix for an N-spin system, with rates that are inversely proportional to the sixth power of internuclear distances. Suppression of polarization transfers due to non-commutivity of pairwise couplings (i.e., dipolar truncation) does not occur under ZQ-SDR, as we show both analytically and numerically. Experimental demonstrations are reported for uniformly 13C-labeled L-valine powder (at 14.1 T and 28.00 kHz MAS), uniformly 13C-labeled protein GB1 in microcrystalline form (at 17.6 T and 40.00 kHz MAS), and partially labeled 13C-labeled protein GB1 (at 14.1 T and 40.00 kHz MAS). The experimental results verify that spin dynamics under ZQ-SDR are described accurately by rate matrices and suggest the utility of ZQ-SDR in structural studies of 13C-labeled solids.

Qiang, Wei; Tycko, Robert

2012-09-01

240

Biochemical characterization of the soluble alkaline phosphatase isolated from the venomous snake W. aegyptia.  

PubMed

A soluble form of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been identified and purified from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using an HPLC system Gold 126/1667 equipped with Protein PAK 125 and Protein PAK 60 columns. The enzyme was purified 3.4 fold over crude venom with a yield of 37.3%. On SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions the purified enzyme showed three bands of 212 kD, 80 kD, and 55 kD. However, under reducing conditions, the enzyme showed two bands of 80 kD and 55 kD. The specific activity of ALP was 24 U/mg with p-nitrophenylephosphate as the substrate. During isoelectric focusing experiments the ALP exhibited two bands focused at pH 6.2 and 6.8, which suggests that either the enzyme exists as two different isoforms or the two bands in IEF may be two subunits of 80 kD and 55 kD. The kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and IC50 of ALP inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, imidazole, caffeine, orthophosphate and permanganate were also investigated in the present study. Zinc and cyanide ions at a concentration of 15 mM and 10 mM, respectively, completely inhibited the activity of W. aegyptia ALP. PMID:12503880

Al-Saleh, Saad S M

2002-12-01

241

Influence of leucine on arterial concentrations and regional exchange of amino acids in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

1. L-Leucine was given to healthy, post-absorptive subjects as a continuous intravenous infusion (300 mumol/min) during 2 1/2 h. Arterial blood concentrations and regional exchange amino acids were measured across the splanchnic region, the brain and a leg, by the catheter technique. Renal clearance of amino acids was also determined. 2. During the infusion of leucine its concentration rose four- to six-folds, while the concentrations of several other amino acids declined continually, the effect being most pronounced for isoleucine (-55% of initial value), methionine (-55%), valine (-40%), tyrosine (-35%) and phenylalanine (-35%). 3. The infused leucine was taken up by muscle tissue (55%), by the splanchnic region (25%) and by the brain (10%). Neither leg-muscle release nor splanchnic uptake of aromatic amino acids was affected. Renal clearance and tubular reabsorption of amino acids were uninfluenced by leucine infusion. The uptake of isoleucine and methionine by the brain, seen in the basal state, was inhibited during leucine infusion. 4. The marked reduction in the concentrations of the aromatic amino acids, the uptake of leucine by the brain and the inhibition of brain methionine uptake, which accompany leucine infusion in healthy subjects, may be of relevance for the treatment of patients with portal-systemic encephalopathy. PMID:7428288

Hagenfeldt, L; Eriksson, S; Wahren, J

1980-09-01

242

In vitro stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis by leucine and insulin  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the potential of leu to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the presence or absence of insulin or insulin plus a mixture of the other plasma amino acids. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 75 g were fasted for 24 hrs, sacrificed, and the soleus muscle isolated from the hind limb. Protein synthesis was determined in isolated muscles incubated for 2 hrs at 37/sup 0/C in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 ..mu..Ci of /sup 14/C-tyrosine and supplemented with either 10 mM glucose (G), glucose plus 0.1 IU/m. insulin (I), or glucose, insulin and plasma levels of amino acids (IAA). Contralateral muscles were incubated in the respective media with the addition of 0.5 mM L-leucine. Insulin stimulated protein synthesis by 51% above the G group, and IAA produced a 110% stimulation. Leu stimulated protein synthesis by an additional 15-20% in each of the medias. These results confirm the ability of leu to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in vitro and establish that the effect is additive with stimulations by insulin and other amino acids.

Hatlestad, C.L.; Layman, D.K.

1986-03-01

243

Basolateral plasma membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. Identification by lactoperoxidase-catalysed iodination and isolation after density perturbation with digitonin.  

PubMed Central

Lactoperoxidase-catalysed iodination was used to label intestinal epithelial cell sheets with 125I. The iodination was carried out under conditions that allowed little penetration of lactoperoxidase into the cells and membrane-bound 125I therefore provided an effective marker for following plasma-membrane fragments through subcellular-fractionation procedures. 2. After homogenization and isopycnic zonal centrifugation through sucrose gradients two peaks of membrane-bound 125I were detected. One coincided with brush border enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, disaccharidases and L-leucine B-naphthylamidase, whereas the other was coincident with the major peak of (Na++K+)-stimulated ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase), which has been thought to be concentrated in the basolateral plasma membranes of these cells. Neither peak of 125I reflected the distribution of any marker for an intracellular organelle. 3. A larger proportion of the (Na++K+)-stimulated ATPase, and thus of the basolateral plasma-membrane material, was found in a crude 'mitochondrial' fraction. It was not readiily separated from mitochondria by conventional techniques of subcellular fractionation. 4. Treatment of the 'mitochondrial' fraction with digitonin increased the density of basolateral plasma membrane but had little effect on mitochondrial density. A purified preparation of digitonin-loaded basolateral plasma membranes was isolated at a density of 1.20-1.22 by isopycnic centrifugation. 5. The enzymic composition of this preparation of basolateral plasma membranes is compared with previous preparations isolated from intestinal mucosal 'scrape' materials and from isolated cells. Images PLATE 1 PMID:129058

Lewis, B A; Elkin, A; Michell, R H; Coleman, R

1975-01-01

244

Reduced leu operon expression in a miaA mutant of Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhimurium miaA mutants lacking the tRNA base modification cis-2-methylthioribosylzeatin (ms2io6A) were examined and found to be sensitive to a variety of chemical oxidants and unable to grow aerobically at 42 degrees C in a defined medium. Leucine supplementation suppressed both of these phenotypes, suggesting that leucine synthesis was defective. Intracellular levels of leucine decreased 40-fold in mutant strains after a shift from 30 to 42 degrees C during growth, and expression of a leu-lacZ transcriptional fusion ceased. Steady-state levels of leu mRNA were also significantly reduced during growth at elevated temperatures. Failure of miaA mutant leu-lacZ expression to be fully derepressed during L-leucine limitation at 30 degrees C and suppression of the miaA mutation by a mutation in the S. typhimurium leu attenuator suggests that translational control of the transcription termination mechanism regulating leu expression is defective. Since the S. typhimurium miaA mutation was also suppressed by the Escherichia coli leu operon in trans, phenotypic differences between E. coli and S. typhimurium miaA mutants may result from a difference between their respective leu operons. Images PMID:3141379

Blum, P H

1988-01-01

245

Molecular Dynamics of Peptide Folding at Aqueous Interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even though most monomeric peptides are disordered in water they can adopt sequence-dependent, ordered structures, such as a-helices, at aqueous interfaces. This property is relevant to cellular signaling, membrane fusion, and the action of toxins and antibiotics. The mechanism of folding nonpolar peptides at the water-hexane interface was studied in the example of an 11-mer, of poly-L-leucine. Initially placed as a random coil on the water side of the interface, the peptide folded into an a-helix in 36 ns. Simultaneously, the peptide translocated into the hexane side of the interface. Folding was not sequential and involved a 3/10-helix as an intermediate. The folded peptide was either parallel to the interface or had its C-terminus exposed to water. An 11-mer, LQQLLQQLLQL, composed of leucine (L) and glutamine (G), was taken as a model amphiphilic peptide. It rapidly adopted an amphiphilic, disordered structure at the interface. Further folding proceeded through a series of amphiphilic intermediates.

Pohorille, Andrew; Chipot, Christophe; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

246

Polypeptide cationic micelles mediated co-delivery of docetaxel and siRNA for synergistic tumor therapy.  

PubMed

Combination of two or more therapeutic strategies with different mechanisms can cooperatively impede tumor growth. Co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drug and small interfering RNA (siRNA) within a single nanoparticle (NP) provides a rational strategy for combined cancer therapy. Here, we prepared polypeptide micelle nanoparticles (NPs) of a triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-leucine) (PEG-PLL-PLLeu) to systemically codeliver docetaxel (DTX) and siRNA-Bcl-2 for an effective drug/gene vector. The hydrophobic PLLeu core entrapped with anticancer drugs, while the PLL polypeptide cationic backbone allowed for electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged siRNA. The resulting micelle NP exhibited very stable, good biocompatible and excellent passive targeted properties. The micelle complexes with siRNA-Bcl-2 effectively knocked down the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein. Moreover, the co-delivery system of DTX and siRNA-Bcl-2 (DTX-siRNA-NPs) obviously down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene and enhanced antitumor activity with a smaller dose of DTX, resulting the significantly inhibited tumor growth of MCF-7 xenograft murine model as compared to the individual siRNA and only DTX treatments. Our results demonstrated well-defined PEG-PLL-PLLeu polypeptide cationic micelles with the excellent synergistic effect of DTX and siRNA-Bcl-2 in combined cancer therapy. PMID:23375952

Zheng, Cuifang; Zheng, Mingbin; Gong, Ping; Deng, Jizhe; Yi, Huqiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Yijuan; Liu, Peng; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

2013-04-01

247

Dynamic proteome analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under constant light.  

PubMed

Understanding the dynamic nature of protein abundances provides insights into protein turnover not readily apparent from conventional, static mass spectrometry measurements. This level of data is particularly informative when surveying protein abundances in biological systems subjected to large perturbations or alterations in environment such as cyanobacteria. Our current analysis expands upon conventional proteomic approaches in cyanobacteria by measuring dynamic changes of the proteome using a (13)C(15)N-l-leucine metabolic labeling in Cyanothece ATCC51142. Metabolically labeled Cyanothece ATCC51142 cells grown under nitrogen-sufficient conditions in continuous light were monitored longitudinally for isotope incorporation over a 48 h period, revealing 414 proteins with dynamic changes in abundances. In particular, proteins involved in carbon fixation, pentose phosphate pathway, cellular protection, redox regulation, protein folding, assembly, and degradation showed higher levels of isotope incorporation, suggesting that these biochemical pathways are important for growth under continuous light. Calculation of relative isotope abundances (RIA) values allowed the measurement of actual active protein synthesis over time for different biochemical pathways under high light exposure. Overall results demonstrated the utility of "non-steady state" pulsed metabolic labeling for systems-wide dynamic quantification of the proteome in Cyanothece ATCC51142 that can also be applied to other cyanobacteria. PMID:22060561

Aryal, Uma K; Stöckel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A; Gritsenko, Marina A; Nicora, Carrie D; Koppenaal, David W; Smith, Richard D; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Jacobs, Jon M

2012-02-01

248

Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after ECMO remains high.Cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown and may impact recovery. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Fourteen immature piglets (7.8-15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8 hour-ECMO (UNLOAD) and post-wean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused [2-13C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]-L-leucine, as a tracer of amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis into the coronary artery. RELOAD showed marked elevations in myocardial oxygen consumption above baseline and UNLOAD. Pyruvate uptake was markedly increased though RELOAD decreased pyruvate contribution to oxidative CAC metabolism.RELOAD also increased absolute concentrations of all CAC intermediates, while maintaining or increasing 13C-molar percent enrichment. RELOAD also significantly increased cardiac fractional protein synthesis rates by >70% over UNLOAD. Conclusions: RELOAD produced high energy metabolic requirement and rebound protein synthesis. Relative pyruvate decarboxylation decreased with RELOAD while promoting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and amino acid incorporation into protein rather than to the CAC for oxidation. These perturbations may serve as therapeutic targets to improve contractile function after ECMO.

Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

2013-08-19

249

Combination Chemotherapeutic Dry Powder Aerosols via Controlled Nanoparticle Agglomeration  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an aerosol system for efficient local lung delivery of chemotherapeutics where nanotechnology holds tremendous potential for developing more valuable cancer therapies. Concurrently, aerosolized chemotherapy is generating interest as a means to treat certain types of lung cancer more effectively with less systemic exposure to the compound. Methods Nanoparticles of the potent anticancer drug, paclitaxel, were controllably assembled to form low density microparticles directly after preparation of the nanoparticle suspension. The amino acid, L-leucine, was used as a colloid destabilizer to drive the assembly of paclitaxel nanoparticles. A combination chemotherapy aerosol was formed by assembling the paclitaxel nanoparticles in the presence of cisplatin in solution. Results Freeze-dried powders of the combination chemotherapy possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. In addition, the dissolution rates of dried nanoparticle agglomerate formulations (~60% to 66% after 8 h) were significantly faster than that of micronized paclitaxel powder as received (~18% after 8 h). Interestingly, the presence of the water soluble cisplatin accelerated the dissolution of paclitaxel. Conclusions Nanoparticle agglomerates of paclitaxel alone or in combination with cisplatin may serve as effective chemotherapeutic dry powder aerosols to enable regional treatment of certain lung cancers. PMID:19415471

El-Gendy, Nashwa; Berkland, Cory

2014-01-01

250

A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of the Association of 1,1'-Binaphthyl-2,2'-diyl hydrogenphosphate Enantiomers with a Chiral Molecular Micelle.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the binding of 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diyl hydrogenphosphate (BNP) enantiomers to the molecular micelle poly-(sodium undecyl-(L,L)-leucine-valine) (poly(SULV)). Poly(SULV) is used as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis separations. Four poly(SULV) binding pockets were identified and either (R)-BNP or (S)-BNP were docked into each pocket. MD simulations were then used to identify the preferred BNP binding site. Within the preferred site, both enantiomers formed hydrogen bonds with poly(SULV) and penetrated into the poly(SULV) core. Comparisons of BNP enantiomer binding to the preferred poly(SULV) pocket showed that (S)-BNP formed stronger hydrogen bonds, moved deeper into the binding site, and had a lower poly(SULV) binding free energy than the (R) enantiomer. Finally, MD simulation results were in agreement with capillary electrophoresis and NMR experiments. Each technique showed (S)-BNP interacted more strongly with poly(SULV) than (R)-BNP and that the site of chiral recognition was near the poly(SULV) leucine chiral center. PMID:25083022

Morris, Kevin F; Billiot, Eugene J; Billiot, Fereshteh H; Gladis, Ashley A; Lipkowitz, Kenny B; Southerland, William M; Fang, Yayin

2014-08-17

251

Identification of Immunopotentiating Lactic Acid Bacteria that Induce Antibody Production by in vitro Stimulated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLME) is known to remove lysosome-rich cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To evaluate the immunopotentiating ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), we adopted the in vitro stimulation protocol of LLME-treated PBMCs as a model assay system and monitored the level of antibody produced by stimulated PBMCs. The results indicated that several LAB strains have immunopotentiating ability against PBMCs, as evidenced by the enhanced antibody production and increased number of antigen-specific B cells. Next, we identified T cells as the direct target cells of the immunopotentiating LAB strain L32, suggesting that L32 induced antibody production by PBMCs through T-cell activation. Finally, we tested the immunopotentiating ability of ligands for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate the LAB signal, and observed that both L32 and one of the TLR2 ligands, LTA-BS, induced antigen-specific antibody production by in vitro stimulated PBMC. This suggests that L32 and LTA-BS can be used as an adjuvant for stimulating immune reaction in PBMCs. PMID:24936344

YAMASHITA, Makiko; HITAKA, Akira; FUJINO, Himiko; MATSUMOTO, Takashi; HASEGAWA, Takanori; MORIMATSU, Fumiki; FUJIKI, Tsukasa; KATAKURA, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

252

Identification of Immunopotentiating Lactic Acid Bacteria that Induce Antibody Production by in vitro Stimulated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.  

PubMed

L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLME) is known to remove lysosome-rich cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To evaluate the immunopotentiating ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), we adopted the in vitro stimulation protocol of LLME-treated PBMCs as a model assay system and monitored the level of antibody produced by stimulated PBMCs. The results indicated that several LAB strains have immunopotentiating ability against PBMCs, as evidenced by the enhanced antibody production and increased number of antigen-specific B cells. Next, we identified T cells as the direct target cells of the immunopotentiating LAB strain L32, suggesting that L32 induced antibody production by PBMCs through T-cell activation. Finally, we tested the immunopotentiating ability of ligands for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate the LAB signal, and observed that both L32 and one of the TLR2 ligands, LTA-BS, induced antigen-specific antibody production by in vitro stimulated PBMC. This suggests that L32 and LTA-BS can be used as an adjuvant for stimulating immune reaction in PBMCs. PMID:24936344

Yamashita, Makiko; Hitaka, Akira; Fujino, Himiko; Matsumoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Takanori; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Fujiki, Tsukasa; Katakura, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

253

Hybrid polypeptide micelles loading indocyanine green for tumor imaging and photothermal effect study.  

PubMed

Indocyanine green (ICG) is a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence dye for extensive applications; however, it is limited for further biological application due to its poor aqueous stability in vitro, concentration-dependent aggregation, rapid elimination from the body, and lack of target specificity. To overcome its limitations, ICG was encapsulated in the core of a polymeric micelle, which self-assembled from amphiphilic PEG-polypeptide hybrid triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-leucine) (PEG-PLL-PLLeu), with PLLeu as the hydrophobic core and PEG as the hydrophilic shell. The ICG was associated with the hydrophobic core via hydrophobic interaction and also the hydrophilic heads through electrostatic attractive interaction. Compared with free ICG, PEG-PLL-PLLeu-ICG micelles significantly improved quantum yield and fluorescent stability. The cellular uptake experiments showed that PEG-PLL-PLLeu-ICG micelles have a high cellular uptake rate. And the in vivo experiments revealed the excellent passive tumor targeting ability and long circulation time of PEG-PLL-PLLeu-ICG. The above results indicated the broad prospects of PEG-PLL-PLLeu-ICG application in the fields of tumor diagnosis and imaging. In addition, temperature measurements under NIR laser irradiation and in vitro photothermal ablation studies proved the potential application of PEG-PLL-PLLeu-ICG in tumor photothermal therapy. PMID:23941524

Wu, Lei; Fang, Shengtao; Shi, Shuai; Deng, Jizhe; Liu, Bin; Cai, Lintao

2013-09-01

254

Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase Regulates Lactation and Cell Proliferation via mTOR Signaling in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The role of LeuRS, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, as an intracellular l-leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway has been the subject of much research recently. Despite this, the association between LeuRS and lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) remains unknown. In this study, we found that LeuRS expression in mammary gland tissue was significantly higher during lactation than pregnancy. Moreover, our data demonstrates that LeuRS is localized in the cytoplasm. Treatment with leucine increased DCMECs viability and proliferation, as well as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), p-S6K1, ?-Casein, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression. Secretion of lactose and triglyceride were also increased. siRNA-mediated knockdown of LeuRS led to reduction in all of these processes. Based on these data, LeuRS up-regulates the mTOR pathway to promote proliferation and lactation of DCMECs in response to changes in the intracellular leucine concentration. PMID:24722568

Wang, Lina; Lin, Ye; Bian, Yanjie; Liu, Lili; Shao, Li; Lin, Lin; Qu, Bo; Zhao, Feng; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

2014-01-01

255

Specificity of the volume-activated amino acid efflux pathway in cultured human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

It has been shown that cell swelling stimulates the efflux of taurine from MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells via a pathway which has channel-like properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the specificity of the volume-activated taurine efflux pathway in both cell lines. A hyposmotic shock increased the efflux of glycine, L-alanine, AIB (?-aminoisobutyric acid), D-aspartate but not L-leucine from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. It was evident that the time course of activation/inactivation of those amino acids whose efflux was affected by cell swelling was similar to that of volume-activated taurine efflux. The effect of exogenous ATP on swelling-induced glycine, AIB and D-aspartate efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells was similar to that found on taurine efflux. In addition, volume-activated AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 cells, like that of swelling-induced taurine efflux, was inhibited by diiodosalicylate. Tamoxifen inhibited volume-activated taurine release from both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results suggest that neutral and anionic ?-amino acids are able to utilize the volume-activated taurine efflux pathway in both cell lines. The effect of tamoxifen on breast cancer growth may, in part, be related to perturbations in cell volume regulation. PMID:21460411

Shennan, David B; Thomson, Jean

2011-03-01

256

Direct manipulation of insect reproduction by agents of parasite origin  

PubMed Central

Reproductive output of female Tenebrio molitor beetles is reduced upon infection with metacestodes of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. We are using this as a model to investigate the adaptive significance of parasite-induced curtailment of insect reproduction. Production of the yolk protein vitellogenin (Vg) in the insect fat body is significantly reduced both in vitro and in vivo by metacestodes. Synthesis can be measured by using [14C]L-leucine incorporation, followed by immunoprecipitation. In this paper we demonstrate that a significant decrease in [14C]Vg can be produced by an acetic acid extract of the parasite. Conclusive evidence is presented that the active component(s) originate from the metacestodes: an extract of parasites grown entirely axenically has similar deleterious effects. The developmental stage of the metacestode is important: immature (stage I to II) parasites had greater capacity to suppress Vg synthesis than mature ones (stage V to VI). Examination of the chemical nature of the effector molecule(s) revealed that acetic-acid-extractable, boiling-resistant, pronase-sensitive agents in the molecular mass range 10 to 50 kDa reduced Vg synthesis by 47.4%. These data suggest that metacestodes produce a modulator molecule that directly affects insect vitellogenesis and, therefore, that reduction of host fitness may confer a selective advantage upon the parasite.

Webb, T. J.; Hurd, H.

1999-01-01

257

Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultrasound on Biomass Reduction and Toxin Release in the Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial blooms are expected to increase, and the toxins they produce threaten human health and impair ecosystem services. The reduction of the nutrient load of surface waters is the preferred way to prevent these blooms; however, this is not always feasible. Quick curative measures are therefore preferred in some cases. Two of these proposed measures, peroxide and ultrasound, were tested for their efficiency in reducing cyanobacterial biomass and potential release of cyanotoxins. Hereto, laboratory assays with a microcystin (MC)-producing cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) were conducted. Peroxide effectively reduced M. aeruginosa biomass when dosed at 4 or 8 mg L?1, but not at 1 and 2 mg L?1. Peroxide dosed at 4 or 8 mg L?1 lowered total MC concentrations by 23%, yet led to a significant release of MCs into the water. Dissolved MC concentrations were nine-times (4 mg L?1) and 12-times (8 mg L?1 H2O2) higher than in the control. Cell lysis moreover increased the proportion of the dissolved hydrophobic variants, MC-LW and MC-LF (where L = Leucine, W = tryptophan, F = phenylalanine). Ultrasound treatment with commercial transducers sold for clearing ponds and lakes only caused minimal growth inhibition and some release of MCs into the water. Commercial ultrasound transducers are therefore ineffective at controlling cyanobacteria. PMID:25513892

Lürling, Miquel; Meng, Debin; Faassen, Elisabeth J.

2014-01-01

258

Structure-activity relationship study of compounds binding to large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) based on pharmacophore modeling and in situ rat brain perfusion.  

PubMed

Large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is predominantly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and it has a major role in transporting neutral amino acids into the brain. LAT1 has the potential to function as a drug carrier for improved drug brain delivery which makes it an intriguing target protein for central nervous system disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and brain tumors. In this study, a 3D pharmacophore was generated for a set of LAT1 substrates whose binding affinities were studied using competitive inhibition of the brain uptake of [(14)C]-l-leucine with an in situ rat brain perfusion method. The pharmacophore highlights the most important molecular features shared by efficient LAT1-binding compounds and elucidates their 3D-arrangement in detail. This clarifies the structure-activity relationships of LAT1 substrates and provides insights for making a binding hypothesis. The results can be further applied in the design of novel efficient LAT1 substrates. PMID:23228412

Ylikangas, Henna; Peura, Lauri; Malmioja, Kalle; Leppänen, Jukka; Laine, Krista; Poso, Antti; Lahtela-Kakkonen, Maija; Rautio, Jarkko

2013-02-14

259

Hydrophobic oligopeptide-based star-block copolymers as unimolecular nanocarriers for poorly water-soluble drugs.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic oligopeptide (HOP)-based star-block copolymers of the form PEI-g-(HOP-b-PEG) were synthesized, characterized and evaluated as nanocarriers for poorly water-soluble drugs. The designed PEI-g-(HOP-b-PEG) polymers were composed of a hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) core, a HOP [i.e., oligo(l-tryptophan), oligo(l-phenylalanine), oligo(l-leucine), oligo(?-benzyl-l-glutamate) and oligo(?-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine)] inner shell and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) outer shell. The synthesized polymers were characterized using (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their micellization behavior was investigated by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as a probe; the results demonstrated that these star-block copolymers predominantly resembled unimolecular micelles, particularly when shorter HOP blocks and/or elongated PEG chains were incorporated. The encapsulation properties of these unimolecular micelles were evaluated using pyrene, oil-red O (OR) and doxorubicin (DOX) as guest hydrophobic compounds, which revealed that poorly water-soluble guests can be efficiently solubilized in PEI-g-(HOP-b-PEG) with a loading capacity of up to 10%. The encapsulated DOX demonstrated sustained release from PEI-g-(HOP-b-PEG). The synthesized star-block copolymers, given their structural versatility, water solubility and biodegradability, could potentially be used as unimolecular nanocarriers for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:23722014

Li, Jinhu; Li, Jiayan; Xu, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Daojun

2013-10-01

260

In vivo exposure of Mytilus edulis to living enteric bacteria: a threat for immune competency?  

PubMed

Mussels are widespread in coastal environments and experience various physical, chemical, and bacteriological conditions. Owing to the increase of coastal urbanization, mussels are now commonly exposed not only to indigenous bacteria, but also to enteric bacteria originating from pulsed and chronic sewage discharges into coastal environments. Due to its broad resilience to environmental variations, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis is commonly used as an indicator of environmental quality in bio-monitoring programs. However, since mussel immune system capabilities may be affected by the presence of exogenous fecal bacteria in coastal seawater subjected to sewage discharges, we aimed to determine the effect of in vivo bacterial challenges on mussels' immune competency by using two exogenous enteric bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, and an indigenous bacterial strain Vibrio splendidus (as control). Bacterial strains were tested individually, by injection into the posterior adductor muscle at three different cell densities (10(2), 10(3), and 10(4) cells). Unlike classic in vitro experiments using higher bacterial concentrations, neither the enteric bacteria nor the indigenous strain induced significant increase or decrease of either cell-mediated (phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species, and NO(x) production) or humoral components (prophenoloxidase-like, acid phosphatase, and L-leucine-aminopeptidase production) of the immune system. This study demonstrates that, at low concentrations, E. coli and E. faecalis do not represent an additional threat that could impair M. edulis immune competency and, as a consequence, its potential of survival in coastal areas subjected to sewage discharges. PMID:23014953

Gauthier-Clerc, Sophie; Boily, Isabelle; Fournier, Michel; Lemarchand, Karine

2013-02-01

261

Structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome and mechanism of inhibition by a peptidyl boronate  

SciTech Connect

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has the remarkable ability to resist killing by human macrophages. The 750 kDa proteasome, not available in most eubacteria except Actinomycetes, appears to contribute to Mtb's resistance. The crystal structure of the Mtb proteasome at 3.0 Angstroms resolution reveals a substrate-binding pocket with composite features of the distinct {beta}1, {beta}2 and {beta}5 substrate binding sites of eukaryotic proteasomes, accounting for the broad specificity of the Mtb proteasome towards oligopeptides described in the companion article [Lin et al. (2006), Mol Microbiol doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.05035.x]. The substrate entrance at the end of the cylindrical proteasome appears open in the crystal structure due to partial disorder of the a-subunit N-terminal residues. However, cryo-electron microscopy of the core particle reveals a closed end, compatible with the density observed in negative-staining electron microscopy that depended on the presence of the N-terminal octapeptides of the a-subunits in the companion article, suggesting that the Mtb proteasome has a gated structure. We determine for the first time the proteasomal inhibition mechanism of the dipeptidyl boronate N-(4-morpholine)carbonyl-{beta}-(1-naphthyl)-l-alanine-l-leucine boronic acid (MLN-273), an analogue of the antimyeloma drug bortezomib. The structure improves prospects for designing Mtb-specific proteasomal inhibitors as a novel approach to chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

Hu,G.; Lin, G.; Wang, M.; Dick, L.; Xu, R.; Nathan, C.; Li, H.

2006-01-01

262

Impact of Core-Forming Segment Structure on Drug Loading in Biodegradable Polymeric Micelles Using PEG-b-Poly(lactide-co-depsipeptide) Block Copolymers  

PubMed Central

We synthesized series of amphiphilic AB-type block copolymers having systematic variation in the core-forming segments using poly(lactide-co-depsipeptide)s as a hydrophobic segment and prepared polymeric micelles using the block copolymers, PEG-b-poly(lactide-co-depsipeptide). We then discussed the relationship between the core-forming segment structure and drug loading efficiency for the polymeric micelles. PEG-b-poly(lactide-co-depsipeptide)s, PEG-b-PLGL containing l-leucine (Leu), and PEG-b-PLGF containing l-phenylalanine (Phe), with similar molecular weights and various mole fractions of depsipeptide units, were synthesized. Polymeric micelles entrapping model drug (fluorescein, FL) were prepared using these copolymers. As a result, PEG-b-poly(lactide-co-depsipeptide) micelles showed higher drug loading compared with PEG-b-PLLA and PEG-b-PDLLA as controls. The drug loading increased with increase in the mole fraction of depsipeptide unit in the hydrophobic segments. The introduction of aliphatic and aromatic depsipeptide units was effective to achieve higher FL loading into the micelles. PEG-b-PLGL micelle showed higher drug loading than PEG-b-PLGF micelle when the amount of FL in feed was high. These results obtained in this study should be useful for strategic design of polymeric micelle-type drug delivery carrier with high drug loading efficiency. PMID:24696855

Takahashi, Akihiro; Ozaki, Yuta; Kuzuya, Akinori

2014-01-01

263

Design and synthesis of nonionic copolypeptide hydrogels with reversible thermoresponsive and tunable physical properties.  

PubMed

Polypeptide-based formulations that undergo liquid to hydrogel transitions upon change in temperature have become desirable targets since they can be mixed with cells or injected into tissues as liquids, and subsequently transform into rigid scaffolds or depots. Such materials have been challenging to prepare using synthetic polypeptides, especially when reversible gelation and tunable physical properties are desired. Here, we designed and prepared new nonionic diblock copolypeptide hydrogels (DCH) containing hydrophilic poly(?-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl]-rac-glutamate) and hydrophobic poly(l-leucine) segments, named DCHEO, and also further incorporated copolypeptide domains into DCHEO to yield unprecedented thermoresponsive DCH, named DCHT. Although previous attempts to prepare nonionic hydrogels composed solely of synthetic polypeptides have been unsuccessful, our designs yielded materials with highly reversible thermal transitions and tunable properties. Nonionic, thermoresponsive DCHT were found to support the viability of suspended mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and were able to dissolve and provide prolonged release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. The versatility of these materials was further demonstrated by the independent molecular tuning of DCHT liquid viscosity at room temperature and DCHT hydrogel stiffness at elevated temperature, as well as the DCHT liquid to hydrogel transition temperature itself. PMID:25748800

Zhang, Shanshan; Alvarez, Daniel J; Sofroniew, Michael V; Deming, Timothy J

2015-04-13

264

[Rate of axoplasmic transport in the ventral roots of the spinal cord of the rat in old age and its relation to the level of energy metabolism].  

PubMed

Aqueous solution of L-leucine-14C (specific activity 339 mCi/mmol) was introduced in a dose of 7-8 microliter to the ventral horn (L5,6) of the spinal cord of adult (8-12 month) and old (26-28 month) rats. The radioactivity of various parts of the corresponding ventral roots was measured after 1-2.5 hrs. Labelled substances (including protein) were found to migrate with fast flow in adult rats with the rate of 408 +/- 10.9 and 380 +/- 22 mm/24 hrs, respectively, as compared with 217 +/- 11.3 and 200 +/- 40 mm/24 hrs in old rats. The axoplasmic flow slows down in old rats with the increase of distance from the neuronal body. Uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation due to intraperitoneal administration of 2.4-dinitrophenol, NaF inhibition of glycolysis, hypoxic hypoxia produce more marked deceleration of axoplasmatic flow in old rats, while small doses of NaF accelerate the flow, which correlates with the rise of cAMP level in the ventral roots. PMID:6204212

Frol'kis, V V; Tanin, S A; Martsinko, V I; Kul'chitski?, O K

1984-01-01

265

Dynamic proteome analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under constant light  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the dynamic nature of protein abundances provides insights into protein turnover not readily apparent from conventional, static mass spectrometry measurements. This level of data is particularly informative when surveying protein abundances in biological systems subjected to large perturbations or alterations in environment such as cyanobacteria. Our current analysis expands upon conventional proteomic approaches in cyanobacteria by measuring dynamic changes of the proteome using a 13C15N-L-leucine metabolic labeling in Cyanothece ATCC51142. Metabolically labeled Cyanothece ATCC51142 cells grown under nitrogen sufficient conditions in continuous light were monitored longitudinally for isotope incorporation over a 48 h period, revealing 422 proteins with dynamic changes in abundances. In particular, proteins involved in carbon fixation, pentose phosphate pathway, cellular protection, redox regulation, protein folding, assembly and degradation showed higher levels of isotope incorporation suggesting that these biochemical pathways are important for growth under non-diazotrophic conditions. Calculation of relative isotope abundances (RIA) values allowed to measure actual active protein synthesis over time for different biochemical pathways under non-diazotrophic conditions. Overall results demonstrated the utility of 'non-steady state' pulsed metabolic labeling for systems-wide dynamic quantification of the proteome in Cyanothece ATCC51142 that can also be applied to other cyanobacteria.

Aryal, Uma K.; Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Jacobs, Jon M.

2012-02-03

266

AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) reports, July, August, September 1989. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains AFRRI Scientific Reports SR 89-26 through SR89-39 and Technical Report TR89-1 for Jul-Sep 1989. Partial contents include: Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents; Cell-cycle radiation response: Role of intracellular factors; Characteristics of radiation-induced performance changes in bar-press avoidance with and without a preshock warning cue; Norepinephrine-induced phosphorylation of a 25 kd phosphoprotein in rat aorta is altered in intraperitoneal sepsis; Quantitative measurement of radiation-induced base products in DNA using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Tropism of canine neutrophils to xanthine oxidase; Effects of acute sublethal gamma radiation exposure on aggressive behavior in male mice: A dose-response study; Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells; Stomach nodules in pigeons; An assessment of the behavioral toxicity of high-energy iron particles compared to other qualities of radiation; L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester treatment of canine marrow and peripheral blood cells; Localization of cyclo-oxygenase and prostaglandin E2 in the secretory granule of the mast cell; Radioprotection of mice with interleukin-1: Relationship to the number of spleen colony-forming units; Survival after total-body irradiation. I. Effects of partial small-bowel shielding; Laboratory x-ray irradiator for cellular radiobiology research studies: Dosimetry report.

Not Available

1989-11-01

267

Nutritional and regulatory roles of leucine in muscle growth and fat reduction.  

PubMed

The metabolic roles for L-leucine, an essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), go far beyond serving exclusively as a building block for de novo protein synthesis. Growing evidence shows that leucine regulates protein and lipid metabolism in animals. Specifically, leucine activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, including the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and to promote mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in enhanced cellular respiration and energy partitioning. Activation of cellular energy metabolism favors fatty acid oxidation to CO2 and water in adipocytes, lean tissue gain in young animals, and alleviation of muscle protein loss in aging adults, lactating mammals, and food-deprived subjects. As a functional amino acid, leucine holds great promise to enhance the growth, efficiency of food utilization, and health of animals and humans.  PMID:25553480

Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Liu, Hongnan; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Yuzhe; Deng, Dun; Tang, Yulong; Feng, Zemeng; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

2015-01-01

268

A Model for the Enantiomeric Enrichment of Polypeptides on the Primitive Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixture of D- and L-leucine N-Carboxyanhydride (NCA) having an enantiomeric composition of 65.6% L- and 34.4% D-isomer (i.e. 31.2% enantiomeric excess (e.e.)) was polymerized to the extent of 52% with sodium methoxide initiator to yield a polyleucine product the enantiomeric composition of which was 72.7% L- and 27.3% D-leucine (45.4% e.e.). This polymer was in turn partially hydrolyzed by acid, whereupon the unhydrolyzed polyleucine residue was found to have an enantiomeric composition of 77.5% L- and 22.5% D-leucine (55.0% e.e.). Thus the e.e. increase in the partial polymerization step (14.2%) and the partial hydrolysis step (9.6%) combined to total 23.8% for the overall polymerization-hydrolysis sequence. On the basis of these model experiments it is proposed that repetitive partial polymerization hydrolysis reactions, driven by environmental dry-wet cycles, might have been operative on the primitive Earth to engender the abiotic evolution of optically enriched polypeptides.

Blair, Neal E.; Bonner, William A.

1981-12-01

269

Peptide coupling between amino acids and the carboxylic acid of a functionalized chlorido-gold(I)-phosphane.  

PubMed

We have developed a protocol for the direct coupling between methyl ester protected amino acids and the chlorido-gold(I)-phosphane (p-HOOC(C6H4)PPh2)AuCl. By applying the EDC·HCl/NHS strategy (EDC·HCl = N-ethyl-N'-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride, NHS = N-hydroxysuccinimide), the methyl esters of l-phenylalanine, glycine, l-leucine, l-alanine, and l-methionine are coupled with the carboxylic acid of the gold complex in moderate to good yields (62-88%). All amino acid tagged gold complexes were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As corroborated by measurement of the angle of optical rotation, no racemization occurred during the reaction. The molecular structure of the leucine derivative was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In the course of developing an efficient coupling protocol, the acyl chlorides (p-Cl(O)C(C6H4)PPh2)AuX (X = Cl, Br) were also prepared and characterized. PMID:25203269

Kriechbaum, Margit; List, Manuela; Himmelsbach, Markus; Redhammer, Günther J; Monkowius, Uwe

2014-10-01

270

Combining cosmogenic radionuclides and amino acid racemization to date late Pliocene glacial deposits exposed on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequences of glacial deposits spanning the Quaternary are valuable archives recording the effects of glaciation on landscapes through time, but determining the age of such deposits has long challenged geologists. The recent advances in cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) measurement has made it possible to date some of these deposits, but dating buried glacial sediments in most settings remains problematic. Here we explore a new approach to date the oldest glacial deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene Clyde Foreland Formation of Baffin Island. This formation, approximately 40 m thick, includes interlayered shell-bearing marine, glaciomarine, and glacial sediments deposited along the northern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and earlier continental ice sheets. Previous work on foraminifera assemblages suggests that the deposits span the last ?2 Ma. By combining CRN measurements (10Be and 26Al) from the glacial units and measurements of the D-alloisoleucine:L-isoleucine ratios (A/I) in valves of the mollusk Hiatella arctica in the marine units overlying a particular glacial deposit, we can calculate the age of the glacial deposit. Because the post-burial temperature history for the mollusks preserved in the Clyde Foreland Formation is poorly constrained, A/I ratios alone cannot be used to determine absolute ages. Instead, we use A/I ratios to identify sediment packages of discrete ages and define a step-wise burial history function for glacial units. A/I ratios of all packages (<0.3 for the total hydrolysate fraction) fall within the A/I interval characterized by linear racemization kinetics, so the age of each package in the burial history function can simply be defined as a fractional age with respect to the total burial age for the glacial deposit of interest. The long duration of burial (26Al/10Be as low as 1.6±0.6 at 2?) and low initial CRN inventories require that post-burial muogenic production is accounted for using the burial history function. We apply a numerical model to calculate the duration of burial from the measured CRN concentrations for a given inherited CRN inventory. But because this initial inventory is unknown, a single CRN sample/burial history combination will not provide a unique age solution. Instead, measurements from multiple localities where a particular glacial deposit has differing burial histories (i.e., the thickness of overlying units or ages of overlying units differ) are required to statistically determine the total burial age that most closely matches the observed CRN inventories and burial histories.

Refsnider, K. A.; Miller, G. H.

2009-12-01

271

Amino acid prodrug of quinidine: an approach to circumvent P-glycoprotein mediated cellular efflux.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of large neutral amino acid modification in overcoming P-gp mediated cellular efflux of quinidine. L-isoleucine ester prodrug of quinidine (Ile-quinidine) was synthesized in our laboratory. [14C]-erythromycin was selected as a model substrate to study interaction of quinidine and Ile-quinidine with P-gp. Transport studies were conducted to study translocation kinetics of quinidine and Ile-quinidine in MDCK-MDR1 cells. In cellular accumulation study, uptake rate of [14C]-erythromycin elevated drastically in presence of cyclosporine A and GF 120918. This result indicates that [14C]-erythromycin is an excellent substrate of P-gp. Similarly, uptake rate of [14C]-erythromycin was enhanced significantly in presence of quinidine (25 and 50 ?M). However, [14C]-erythromycin uptake rate remained fairly constant in presence of Ile-quinidine (25 ?M). Apparent A-B and B-A permeability of quinidine observed in MDCK-MDR1 cells were 1.6 ± 0.2 × 10(-6) and 7.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-6)cm/s, a 4.4-fold difference. Moreover, A-B permeability of quinidine increased dramatically in the presence of cyclosporine A and GF 120918. Apparent permeability values of Ile-quinidine observed from A-B and B-A direction were 4.3 ± 0.9 × 10(-6) and 5.5 ± 0.4 × 10(-6)cm/s, a 1.3-fold difference. Importantly, A-B transport of Ile-quinidine did not change dramatically in the presence of cyclosporine and GF 120918. Based on these results, it was apparent that quinidine displayed higher substrate affinity toward P-gp relative to Ile-quinidine. Chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of Ile-quinidine resulted in regeneration of low quantities of quinidine during transport studies. Competitive inhibition studies demonstrated that Ile-quinidine was recognized by multiple amino acid transporters such as LAT1, LAT2 and cationic amino acid transporter. In conclusion, chemical modification of quinidine with neutral amino acids results in circumvention of P-gp mediated drug efflux. Hence, amino acid transporter targeted prodrug delivery seems to be a viable strategy for improving drug accumulation in P-gp overexpressing cells. PMID:24440401

Patel, Mitesh; Mandava, Nanda K; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

2014-04-10

272

Significance of peptide transporter 1 in the intestinal permeability of valacyclovir in wild-type and PepT1 knockout mice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the contribution of PepT1 [peptide transporter 1 (SLC15A1)] to the intestinal permeability of valacyclovir, an ester prodrug of the antiviral drug acyclovir. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusions were employed (pH 6.5 × 90 minutes) to assess the effective permeability (P(eff)) of 100 ?M [(3)H]valacyclovir in wild-type and PepT1 knockout mice. Acyclovir pharmacokinetics was also evaluated after oral administration of 25 nmol/g valacyclovir. In wild-type mice, jejunal uptake of valacyclovir was best described by both saturable (K(m) = 10.2 mM) and nonsaturable components where the saturable pathway accounted for 82% of total transport. Valacyclovir P(eff) was 2.4 × 10(-4) cm/s in duodenum, 1.7 × 10(-4) cm/s in jejunum, 2.1 × 10(-4) cm/s in ileum, and 0.27 × 10(-4) cm/s in colon. In Pept1 knockout mice, P(eff) values were about 10% of that in wild-type animals for these small intestinal segments. Valacyclovir P(eff) was similar in the colon of both genotypes. There were no differences in valacyclovir P(eff) between any of the intestinal segments of PepT1 knockout mice. Valacyclovir P(eff) was significantly reduced by the dipeptide glycylsarcosine and the aminocephalosporin cefadroxil, but not by the amino acids l-valine or l-histidine, the organic acid p-aminohippurate, or the organic base tetraethylammonium (all at 25 mM). PepT1 ablation resulted in 3- to 5-fold reductions in the in vivo rate and extent of valacyclovir absorption. Our findings conclusively demonstrate, using in situ and in vivo validations in genetically modified mice, that PepT1 has a major influence in improving the oral absorption of valacyclovir. PMID:23264448

Yang, Bei; Smith, David E

2013-03-01

273

Mixed ligand complex formation of 2-aminobenzamide with Cu(II) in the presence of some amino acids: Synthesis, structural, biological, pH-metric, spectrophotometric and thermodynamic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of 2-aminobenzamide (2AB) and amino acids viz., glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala), L-valine (val) and L-phenylalanine (phe) have been synthesised and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectral techniques. The calculated g-tensor values for Cu(II) complexes at 77 K and 300 K, show the distorted octahedral geometry which has been confirmed from the absorption studies. Consequently, the thermal studies illustrate that the loss of water and acetate molecules in the initial stage which are followed by the decomposition of organic residues. The powder X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis reflect that all the complexes have well-defined crystallinity nature with homogeneous morphology. The binding activities of CT DNA with CuAB complexes have been examined by absorption studies. Further, the oxidative cleavage interactions of 2-aminobenzamide and CuAB complexes with DNA were studied by gel electrophoresis method in H2O2 medium. Also, the complex formation of Cu(II) involving 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids were carried out by a combined pH-metric and spectrophotometric techniques in 50% (v/v) water-ethanol mixture at 300, 310, 320 and 330 ± 0.1 K with I = 0.15 mol dm-3 (NaClO4). In solution, CuAB and CuAB2 species has been detected and the binding modes of 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids in both binary and mixed ligand complexes are same. The calculated stabilization value of ? log K, log X and log X' indicates higher stabilities for the mixed ligand complexes rather than their binary species. The thermodynamic parameters like ?G, ?H and ?S have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant. In vitro biological activities of 2-aminobenzamide, CuA and CuAB complexes show remarkable activities against some bacterial and fungal strains. The percentage distribution of various binary and mixed ligand species in solution at dissimilar pH intervals were also evaluated.

Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Esakkidurai, Thirugnanasamy; Subbaraj, Paramasivam; Shobana, Sutha

2013-10-01

274

Insights into the electronic structure of Cu(II) bound to an imidazole analogue of westiellamide.  

PubMed

Three synthetic analogues of westiallamide, H3L(wa), have previously been synthesized (H3L(1-3)) that have a common backbone (derived from l-valine) with H3L(wa) but differ in their heterocyclic rings (imidazole, oxazole, thiazole, and oxazoline). Herein we explore in detail through high-resolution pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) the geometric and electronic structures of the mono- and dinuclear Cu(II) complexes of these cyclic pseudo hexapeptides. Orientation-selective hyperfine sublevel correlation, electron nuclear double resonance, and three-pulse electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy of [Cu(II)(H2L(1))(MeOH)2](+) reveal delocalization of the unpaired electron spin onto the ligating and distal nitrogens of the coordinated heterocyclic rings and that they are magnetically inequivalent. DFT calculations confirm this and show similar spin densities on the distal heteroatoms in the heterocyclic rings coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in the other cyclic pseudo hexapeptide [Cu(II)(H2L(2,3,wa))(MeOH)2](+) complexes. The magnetic inequivalencies in [Cu(II)(H2L(1))(MeOH)2](+) arise from different orientations of the heterocyclic rings coordinated to the Cu(II) ion, and the delocalization of the unpaired electron onto the distal heteroatoms within these N-methylimidazole rings depends upon their location with respect to the Cu(II) d(x(2)-y(2)) orbital. A systematic study of DFT functionals and basis sets was undertaken to examine the ability to reproduce the experimentally determined spin Hamiltonian parameters. Inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) using MAG-ReSpect or ORCA with a BHLYP/IGLO-II Wachters setup with SOC corrections and ?38% Hartree-Fock exchange gave the best predictions of the g and A((63)Cu) matrices. DFT calculations of the (14)N hyperfine and quadrupole parameters for the distal nitrogens of the coordinated heterocyclic rings in [Cu(II)(H2L(1))(MeOH)2](+) with the B1LYP functional and the SVP basis set were in excellent agreement with the experimental data, though other choices of functional and basis set also provided reasonable values. MCD, EPR, mass spectrometry, and DFT showed that preparation of the dinuclear Cu(II) complex in a 1:1 MeOH/glycerol mixture (necessary for MCD) resulted in the exchange of the bridging methoxide ligand for glycerol with a corresponding decrease in the magnitude of the exchange coupling. PMID:25393875

Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Hanson, Graeme R; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Noble, Christopher J; Riley, Mark J; Seibold, Bjoern

2014-12-01

275

Terahertz spectra and normal mode analysis of the crystalline VA class dipeptide nanotubes.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) vibrational modes are characterized by nonlocal, collective molecular motions which are relevant to conformational changes and molecular functions in biological systems. We have investigated the THz spectra of a set of small bionanotubes which can serve as very simple models of membrane pores, and have examined the character of the THz modes which can impact transport processes. In this work, THz spectra of the crystalline VA class dipeptide nanotubes were calculated at both the harmonic and vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) level using the CHARMM22 force field with periodic boundary conditions. Comparison of the calculated THz spectra against the experimental spectra revealed that the VSCF corrections generally improved the predictions in the low-frequency region. The improvements were especially manifested in the overall blue-shifts of the VSCF frequencies relative to the harmonic values, and blue shifts were attributed to the overall positive coupling strengths in all systems. Closer examination of the motions in the most significantly coupled normal mode pairs leads us to propose that, when two similar side-chain squeezing modes are coupled, the rapidly increased van der Waals interactions can lead to a stiffening of the effective potential, which in turn leads to the observed blue-shifts. However, we also noted that when the side-chain atoms become unphysically proximate and the van der Waals repulsion becomes too large, the VSCF calculations tend to deviate in the high frequency region and for the system of l-isoleucyl-l-valine. In addition, normal-mode analysis revealed a series of channel-breathing motions in all systems except l-valyl-l-alanine. We show that the inner products of the backbone vibrations between these channel-breathing motions divided the remaining VA class dipeptide systems into two subgroups. It is suggested that these modes may facilitate a pathway for the guest molecule absorption, substitution and removal in the VA class dipeptide nanotubes. Normal mode analysis also demonstrated that the THz motions may contribute to the pore permeability either directly by changing the pore size, or indirectly by affecting the solvent-host effective potentials. PMID:19055402

Zhang, Hailiang; Siegrist, Karen; Plusquellic, David F; Gregurick, Susan K

2008-12-31

276

Discovery of new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from medicinal plants to treat hypertension using an in vitro assay  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose of the study Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors plays a critical role in treating hypertension. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate ACE inhibition activity of 50 Iranian medicinal plants using an in vitro assay. Methods The ACE activity was evaluated by determining the hydrolysis rate of substrate, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL), using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Results Six extracts revealed?>?50% ACE inhibition activity at 330 ?g/ml concentration. They were Berberis integerrima Bunge. (Berberidaceae) (88.2?±?1.7%), Crataegus microphylla C. Koch (Rosaceae) (80.9?±?1.3%), Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae) (66.3?±?1.2%), Onopordon acanthium L. (Asteraceae) (80.2?±?2.0%), Quercus infectoria G. Olivier. (Fagaceae) (93.9?±?2.5%) and Rubus sp. (Rosaceae) (51.3?±?1.0%). Q. infectoria possessed the highest total phenolic content with 7410?±?101 mg gallic acid/100 g dry plant. Antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria (IC50 value 1.7?±?0.03 ?g/ml) was more than that of BHT (IC50 value of 10.3?±?0.15 ?g/ml) and Trolox (IC50 value of 3.2?±?0.06 ?g/ml) as the positive controls. Conclusions In this study, we introduced six medicinal plants with ACE inhibition activity. Despite the high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria, due to its tannin content (tannins interfere in ACE activity), another plant, O. acanthium, which also had high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity, but contained no tannin, could be utilized in further studies for isolation of active compounds. PMID:24359711

2013-01-01

277

Enzyme engineering aspects of biocatalysis: cofactor regeneration as example.  

PubMed

Reaction engineering is an important tool in the case of cofactor depending enzyme-catalyzed reactions. It allows the establishment of conditions resulting in lower product specific cofactor costs as compared with product-specific enzyme costs. This is shown for the stereospecific reduction of carbonyl compounds yielding chiral amino acids and alcohols. In continuous processes, cofactor costs can be reduced if the cofactor can be retained within the bioreactor or recycled into it after separation of the product. In case of readily water-soluble substrates it is even possible to recycle the cofactor during a single pass through a continuously operated reactor more than 4000 times because normally very low cofactor concentrations are sufficient to saturate the enzymes involved. L-tert-Leucine has been produced by reductive amination with a space-time yield of up to 366 g L(-1) d(-1) in a single continuously operated enzyme membrane reactor and a two-stage cascade. Total turnover number of the cofactor NAD(+) increased to 4230. (S)-1-Phenyl-2-propanol was obtained by reduction of the corresponding ketone in an membrane reactor with integrated extraction of the product. A new alcohol dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis was used. A space-time yield of 63 g L(-1) d(-1) and a total turnover number of 1350 have been reached. L-Leucine has been produced using polymer-enlarged NADH. The total turnover number was 80,000 at a space-time yield of 214 g L(-1) d(-1). PMID:18629898

Kragl, U; Kruse, W; Hummel, W; Wandrey, C

1996-10-20

278

Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

1977-01-01

279

Association between Arterial Stiffness and Serum L-Octanoylcarnitine and Lactosylceramide in Overweight Middle-Aged Subjects: 3-Year Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Existing data on the association between being overweight and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk in adults are inconsistent. We prospectively and longitudinally investigated the effects of weight on arterial stiffness and plasma metabolites in middle-aged subjects (aged 40–55 years). A group of 59 individuals who remained within the range of overweight during repeated measurements over a 3-year period was compared with a control group of 59 normal weight subjects who were matched for age and gender. Changes in metabolites by UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and changes in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) were examined. At baseline, the overweight group showed higher BMI, waist circumference, triglyceride, free fatty acid (FFA), glucose, insulin, and hs-CRP, and lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. After 3 years, the changes in waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP), triglyceride, FFA, glucose, insulin, hs-CRP, and ba-PWV observed in the overweight group were significantly different from those in the control group after adjusting for baseline levels. Furthermore, the overweight group showed greater increases in L-octanoylcarnitine (q=0.006) and decanoylcarnitine (q=0.007), and higher peak intensities of L-leucine, L-octanoylcarnitine, and decanoylcarnitine. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the change in ba-PWV was independently and positively associated with changes in L-octanoylcarnitine, lactosylceramide, and SBP, and with baseline BMI. Our results indicate that the duration of overweight is an important aggravating factor for arterial stiffness, especially during middle age. Additionally, an age-related increase in plasma L-octanoylcarnitine, lactosylceramide, SBP, and baseline BMI are independent predictors of increased arterial stiffness in middle-aged individuals. PMID:25781947

Kim, Minjoo; Jung, Saem; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

2015-01-01

280

Development and evaluation of a dry powder formulation of liposome-encapsulated oseltamivir phosphate for inhalation.  

PubMed

Abstract This study aims to develop oseltamivir phosphate (OP) liposomes as inhalation powders by spray-drying based on the single factor investigation, which was mainly composed of lactose, l-leucine and mannitol. It was found that the ratio of OP and liposomes (1:10), inlet temperature (110?°C) and airflow rate (2.3?mL/min) showed optimized physical properties of OP liposomes. Deposition was evaluated after the aerosolization of powders at 600?L/h via the Aerolizer® into a twin-stage impinger. The concentrations of OP and oseltamivir carboxylate (OSCA) in rats plasma using LC-MS have been determined and performed via pharmacokinetic software DAS 2.0 package. The liposomal OP dry powders displayed an average particle size around 3.5?µm with fine particle fraction (FPF?=?35.40%). In vitro evaluation demonstrated a sustained release pattern accounting for 20% drug release compared to that of OP solution up to 90% drug release in 2?h. And the cumulative release percentage was up to 50% in 20?h. Atrioventricular fitting results indicated that all preparations were best fitted with a two-compartment model. There was a significant difference in MRT, Cmax and Tmax (p?

Tang, Yue; Zhang, Heyang; Lu, Xifeng; Jiang, Liqun; Xi, Xinyuan; Liu, Jianping; Zhu, Jiabi

2013-12-01

281

The contribution of phenylalanine to tyrosine metabolism in vivo. Studies in the post-absorptive and phenylalanine-loaded rat.  

PubMed

1. Rates of appearance and oxidation of plasma L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine, as well as conversion of plasma phenylalanine into plasma tyrosine, were determined in 90-120 g rats after overnight starvation and while receiving 115-120 mumol of L-phenylalanine/h. 2. In the post-absorptive state, plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine appearances were similar, despite the fact that 22% of plasma tyrosine appearance could be attributed to the hydroxylation of phenylalanine. 3. A constant infusion of 115-120 mumol of L-phenylalanine/h did not significantly alter plasma leucine kinetics, but increased appearance of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine. The percentage of phenylalanine and tyrosine appearance that was oxidized increased from 12.1% and 24.4% to 37.3% and 48.0% respectively. In phenylalanine-loaded rats, 72% of plasma tyrosine appearance could be attributed to the conversion of phenylalanine. 4. Whole-body tyrosine oxidation measured from a continuous infusion of either L-[14C]tyrosine or L-[14C]phenylalanine differed by 165%. 5. It can be concluded that, in the post-absorptive state, phenylalanine hydroxylation makes a substantial contribution to the plasma appearance of tyrosine and is significantly increased when phenylalanine is administered. The disposal of excess infused phenylalanine is a result of a greater percentage of plasma phenylalanine being converted into tyrosine and a greater proportion of tyrosine being further oxidized. However, apparent tyrosine oxidation rates estimated from plasma tyrosine specific radioactivities and appearance of expired 14CO2 during administration of [14C]tyrosine are underestimates of true rates, in part because tyrosine generated from phenylalanine hydroxylation is catabolized without freely equilibrating with the plasma compartment. PMID:6870807

Moldawer, L L; Kawamura, I; Bistrian, B R; Blackburn, G L

1983-03-15

282

Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Serum Withdrawal on Branched-Chain Amino Acid Pathway Gene and Protein Expression in Mouse Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, valine and isoleucine, are traditionally associated with skeletal muscle growth and maintenance, energy production, and generation of neurotransmitter and gluconeogenic precursors. Recent evidence from human and animal model studies has established an additional link between BCAA levels and obesity. However, details of the mechanism of regulation of BCAA metabolism during adipogenesis are largely unknown. We interrogated whether the expression of genes and proteins involved in BCAA metabolism are sensitive to the adipocyte differentiation process, and responsive to nutrient stress from starvation or BCAA excess. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes under control conditions and under conditions of L-leucine supplementation or serum withdrawal. RNA and proteins were isolated at days 0, 4 and 10 of differentiation to represent pre-differentiation, early differentiation and late differentiation stages. Expression of 16 BCAA metabolism genes was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the protein levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 2 (Bcat2) and branched-chain alpha keto acid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) was quantified by immunoblotting. Under control conditions, all genes displayed induction of gene expression during early adipogenesis (Day 4) compared to Day 0. Leucine supplementation resulted in an induction of Bcat2 and Bckdha genes during early and late differentiation. Western blot analysis demonstrated condition-specific concordance between gene and protein expression. Serum withdrawal resulted in undetectable Bcat2 and Bckdha protein levels at all timepoints. These results demonstrate that the expression of genes related to BCAA metabolism are regulated during adipocyte differentiation and influenced by nutrient levels. These results provide additional insights on how BCAA metabolism is associated with adipose tissue function and extends our understanding of the transcriptomic response of this pathway to variations in nutrient availability. PMID:25050624

Vivar, Juan C.; Knight, Megan S.; Pointer, Mildred A.; Gwathmey, Judith K.; Ghosh, Sujoy

2014-01-01

283

Tryptophan Substitution of a Putative D4S6 Gating Hinge Alters Slow Inactivation in Cardiac Sodium Channels  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated Na+ channels display rapid activation gating (opening) as well as fast and slow inactivation gating (closing) during depolarization. We substituted residue S1759 (serine), a putative D4S6 gating hinge of human cardiac hNav1.5 Na+ channels with A (alanine), D (aspartate), K (lysine), L (leucine), P (proline), and W (tryptophan). Significant shifts in gating parameters for activation and steady-state fast inactivation were observed in A-, D-, K-, and W-substituted mutant Na+ channels. No gating shifts occurred in the L-substituted mutant, whereas the P-substituted mutant did not yield sufficient Na+ currents. Wild-type, A-, D-, and L-substituted mutant Na+ channels showed little or no slow inactivation with a 10-s conditioning pulse ranging from ?180 to 0 mV. Unexpectedly, W- and K-substituted mutant Na+ channels displayed profound maximal slow inactivation around ?100 mV (?85% and ?70%, respectively). However, slow inactivation was progressively reversed in magnitude from ?70 to 0 mV. This regression was minimized in inactivation-deficient hNav1.5-S1759W/L409C/A410W Na+ channels, indicating that the intracellular fast-inactivation gate caused such a reversal. Our data suggest that the hNav1.5-S1759 residue plays a critical role in slow inactivation. Possible mechanisms for S1759 involvement in slow inactivation and for antagonism between fast and slow inactivation are discussed. PMID:15805167

Wang, Sho-Ya; Russell, Corinna; Wang, Ging Kuo

2005-01-01

284

Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future. PMID:10698727

Hitzfeld, B C; Höger, S J; Dietrich, D R

2000-01-01

285

Evaluation and Modification of Commercial Dry Powder Inhalers for the Aerosolization of a Submicrometer Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Formulation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate and modify commercial dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for the aerosolization of a submicrometer excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation. The optimized device and formulation combination was then tested in a realistic in vitro mouth-throat - tracheobronchial (MT-TB) model. An optimized EEG submicrometer powder formulation, consisting of albuterol sulfate (drug), mannitol (hygroscopic excipient), L-leucine (dispersion enhancer) and poloxamer 188 (surfactant) in a ratio of 30:48:20:2 was prepared using a Büchi Nano spray dryer. The aerosolization performance of the EEG formulation was evaluated with 5 conventional DPIs: Aerolizer, Novolizer, HandiHaler, Exubera and Spiros. To improve powder dispersion, the HandiHaler was modified with novel mouth piece (MP) designs. The aerosol performance of each device was assessed using a next generation impactor (NGI) at airflow rates generating a pressure drop of 4 kPa across the DPI. In silico and in vitro deposition and hygroscopic growth of formulations was studied using a MT-TB airway geometry model. Both Handihaler and Aerolizer produced high emitted doses (ED) together with a significant submicrometer aerosol fraction. A modified HandiHaler with a MP including a three-dimensional (3D) array of rods (HH-3D) produced a submicrometer particle fraction of 38.8% with a conventional fine particle fraction (% <5µm) of 97.3%. The mass median diameter (MMD) of the aerosol was reduced below 1 µm using this HH-3D DPI. The aerosol generated from the modified HandiHaler increased to micrometer size (2.8 µm) suitable for pulmonary deposition, when exposed to simulated respiratory conditions, with negligible mouth-throat (MT) deposition (2.6 %). PMID:23608613

Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael

2013-01-01

286

Evaluation and modification of commercial dry powder inhalers for the aerosolization of a submicrometer excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate and modify commercial dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for the aerosolization of a submicrometer excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation. The optimized device and formulation combination was then tested in a realistic in vitro mouth-throat - tracheobronchial (MT-TB) model. An optimized EEG submicrometer powder formulation, consisting of albuterol sulfate (drug), mannitol (hygroscopic excipient), l-leucine (dispersion enhancer) and poloxamer 188 (surfactant) in a ratio of 30:48:20:2 was prepared using a Büchi Nano spray dryer. The aerosolization performance of the EEG formulation was evaluated with five conventional DPIs: Aerolizer, Novolizer, HandiHaler, Exubera and Spiros. To improve powder dispersion, the HandiHaler was modified with novel mouth piece (MP) designs. The aerosol performance of each device was assessed using a next generation impactor (NGI) at airflow rates generating a pressure drop of 4 kPa across the DPI. In silico and in vitro deposition and hygroscopic growth of formulations was studied using a MT-TB airway geometry model. Both HandiHaler and Aerolizer produced high emitted doses (EDs) together with a significant submicrometer aerosol fraction. A modified HandiHaler with a MP including a three-dimensional (3D) array of rods (HH-3D) produced a submicrometer particle fraction of 38.8% with a conventional fine particle fraction (%<5 ?m) of 97.3%. The mass median diameter (MMD) of the aerosol was reduced below 1 ?m using this HH-3D DPI. The aerosol generated from the modified HandiHaler increased to micrometer size (2.8 ?m) suitable for pulmonary deposition, when exposed to simulated respiratory conditions, with negligible mouth-throat (MT) deposition (2.6%). PMID:23608613

Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P Worth; Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael

2013-06-14

287

Efficient fermentation of an improved synthetic grape must by enological and laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Grape must or freshly pressed grape juice is a complex chemical matrix that impacts the efficiency of yeast fermentation. The composition of natural grape must (NGM) can be variable; thus, to ensure reproducibility, a synthetic grape must (SGM) with defined composition is commonly used. The aim of this work was to create conditions to advance the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains for wine fermentation studies, considering previous results obtained for enological strains fermenting NGM under simulated winery conditions. We designed a new SGM formulation, ISA-SGM, by introducing specific modifications to a commonly used formulation, putting together previous reports. We added glucose and fructose in equal amounts (125 g/l) and 50 parts per million (ppm) sulfur dioxide (SO2, corresponding to standard enological treatment), and we optimized the concentrations of malic acid (3 g/l), citric acid (0.3 g/l), and tartaric acid (3 g/l). Using ISA-SGM, we obtained similar fermentative profiles for the wine strain ISA1000, the prototrophic strain S288C, and its auxotrophic derivative BY4741. In this case, the concentrations of supplements were optimized to 120 mg/l L-uracil, 80 mg/l L-methionine, 400 mg/l L-leucine, and 100 mg/l L-histidine. All these strains tested in ISA-SGM presented a similar fermentative performance as ISA1000 in NGM. ISA-SGM formulation is a promising new tool to allow the use of the auxotrophic BY strains in the detailed assessment of the alcoholic fermentation process under simulated winery conditions, and it provides a foundation to extract relevant physiological conclusions in future research on enological yeast traits. PMID:24949253

2014-01-01

288

Hormonal regulation of leucine catabolism in mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are actively taken up and catabolized by the mammary gland during lactation for syntheses of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. Available evidence shows that the onset of lactation is associated with increases in circulating levels of cortisol, prolactin and glucagon, but decreases in insulin and growth hormone. This study determined the effects of physiological concentrations of these hormones on the catabolism of leucine (a representative BCAA) in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Cells were incubated at 37 °C for 2 h in Krebs buffer containing 3 mM D-glucose, 0.5 mM L-leucine, L-[1-14C]leucine or L-[U-14C]leucine, and 0-50 ?U/mL insulin, 0-20 ng/mL growth hormone 0-200 ng/mL prolactin, 0-150 nM cortisol or 0-300 pg/mL glucagon. Increasing extracellular concentrations of insulin did not affect leucine transamination or oxidative decarboxylation, but decreased the rate of oxidation of leucine carbons 2-6. Elevated levels of growth hormone dose dependently inhibited leucine catabolism, ?-ketoisocaproate (KIC) production and the syntheses of glutamate plus glutamine. In contrast, cortisol and glucagon increased leucine transamination, leucine oxidative decarboxylation, KIC production, the oxidation of leucine 2-6 carbons and the syntheses of glutamate plus glutamine. Prolactin did not affect leucine catabolism in the cells. The changes in leucine degradation were consistent with alterations in abundances of BCAA transaminase and phosphorylated levels of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase. Reductions in insulin and growth hormone but increases in cortisol and glucagon with lactation act in concert to stimulate BCAA catabolism for glutamate and glutamine syntheses. These coordinated changes in hormones may facilitate milk production in lactating mammals. PMID:22707151

Lei, Jian; Feng, Dingyuan; Zhang, Yongliang; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Li, Xilong; Yao, Kang; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Guoyao

2013-09-01

289

Regulation of Bud Rest in Tubers of Potato, Solanum tuberosum L  

PubMed Central

The rest period of the potato tuber was studied in relation to certain biochemical changes that are induced by gibberellic acid (GA3). The concentration of reducing sugars in excised plugs with buds treated with 10?4m GA3 decreased in the first 4 hours after treatment and then rapidly increased up to 70 hours. The pattern in control buds was similar, but the changes occurred more slowly. The response to GA3 is temperature-dependent and is not limited to any particular tissue of the tuber. The concentration of reducing sugars in excised buds increased proportionally to the log of the concentration of GA3 in a range from 10?8 to 10?4m. At 10?3m, GA3 slightly inhibited production of reducing sugars. Malonate inhibits the initial decrease and the subsequent increase in reducing sugars in control buds, but not the increase induced by GA3. Total protein in buds was not influenced by 10?4m GA3 over a period of 40 hours, nor did activity of ?-amylase increase significantly until 20 hours after beginning of treatment. Invertase activity was present initially and, in the presence of GA3, increased after 20 hours. GA3 had no effect on starch phosphorylase activity, which was always present and remained steady over the 20-hour test period. In short term experiments the rate of protein synthesis and synthesis of specific protein fractions were not affected by 10?4m GA3, as measured by the incorporation of l-phenylalanine-U-14C or by experiments with 14C- and 3H- labeled l-phenylalanine or l-leucine. PMID:16657283

Clegg, M. D.; Rappaport, Lawrence

1970-01-01

290

Covalent immobilisation of protease and laccase substrates onto siloxanes.  

PubMed

Immobilisation of enzyme substrates is a powerful tool in the detection of enzymes in the chemosphere and the environment. A siloxane based strategy for the covalent immobilisation of oxidoreductase and protease substrates was developed involving activation of silica gel and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as model carriers with (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane or (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APTS, MPTS). Ferulic acid and L-Leucine-p-nitroanilide, Gly-Phe p-nitroanilide (GPpNA) and N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu p-nitroanilide (SAAPLpNA) as laccase and protein substrates, respectively, were covalently attached using glutaraldehyde or carbodiimide based cross-linking strategies. In contrast to conversion in solution, immobilised SAAPLpNA was hydrolysed much faster by protease than immobilised GPpNA indicating steric hindrance with decreasing chain length between point of attachment and site of enzyme attack. Immobilised ferulic acid was oxidised by laccase both in case of MPTS and APTS-modified silica gel giving clearly visible colour changes with Delta E values of 7.2 and 2.3, respectively after 24h of incubation, where Delta E describes the distance between two colours. Similarly, clearly visible colour changes with a Delta E value of 8.6 were seen after laccase treatment of ferulic acid immobilised on APTS activated PET as carrier. Limited surface hydrolysis of PET with a cutinase enhanced coupling of APTS and ferulic acid due to a larger number of hydroxyl groups available on the surface and consequently led to a higher colour difference of Delta E=12.2 after laccase oxidation. The covalent coupling product between ferulic acid and 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane was identified by LC-MS (M+1m/z601) and successfully oxidised with laccase. PMID:20547407

Rollett, Alexandra; Schroeder, Marc; Schneider, Konstantin P; Fischer, Roland; Kaufmann, Franz; Schöftner, Rainer; Guebitz, Georg M

2010-08-01

291

Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing leucine metabolism-related enzymes derived from Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

An obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile has a unique metabolic pathway to convert leucine to 4-methylvalerate, in which 4-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA (4M2PE-CoA) is an intermediate of this pathway. 4M2PE-CoA is also able to be converted to 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV), a branched side chain monomer unit, for synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymer. In this study, to synthesize 3H4MV-containing PHA copolymer from leucine, the leucine metabolism-related enzymes (LdhA and HadAIBC) derived from C. difficile and PHA biosynthesis enzymes (PhaPCJAc and PhaABRe) derived from Aeromonas caviae and Ralstonia eutropha were co-expressed in the codon usage-improved Escherichia coli. Under microaerobic culture conditions, this E. coli was able to synthesize P(3HB-co-12.2 mol% 3H4MV) from glucose with the supplementation of 1 g/L leucine. This strain also produced P(3HB-co-12.6 mol% 3H4MV) using the culture supernatant of leucine overproducer E. coli strain NS1391 as the medium for PHA production, achieving 3H4MV copolymer synthesis only from glucose. Furthermore, we tested the feasibility of the 3H4MV copolymer synthesis in E. coli strain NS1391 from glucose. The recombinant E. coli NS1391 was able to synthesize P(3HB-co-3.0 mol% 3H4MV) from glucose without any leucine supplementation. This study demonstrates the potential of the new metabolic pathway for 3H4MV synthesis using leucine metabolism-related enzymes from C. difficile. PMID:24484910

Saika, Azusa; Watanabe, Yoriko; Sudesh, Kumar; Tsuge, Takeharu

2014-06-01

292

Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism and Protein Synthesis during Mechanical Circulatory Support by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation  

SciTech Connect

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support essential for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative. We focused on the amino acid leucine, and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart (i) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate (FCpyruvate) to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and (ii) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 hours of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [13C6,15N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-13C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (~ 40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. Conclusion: The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining (i) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate, and (ii) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis, suggesting an improved protein balance.

Priddy, MD, Colleen M.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

2013-02-01

293

Cu(II)-dipeptide complexes of 2-(4'-thiazolyl)benzimidazole: synthesis, DNA oxidative damage, antioxidant and in vitro antitumor activity.  

PubMed

Two new Cu(II)-dipeptide complexes of 2-(4'-thiazolyl)benzimidazole, [Cu(Gly-Gly)(TBZ)(Cl)]·4H2O (1) and [Cu(Gly-l-Leu)(TBZ)(Cl)]·H2O (2) (Gly-Gly=glycyl-glycine anion, Gly-l-Leu=glycyl-l-leucine anion and TBZ=2-(4'-thiazolyl)benzimidazole) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements and spectroscopy methods (IR, UV-visible, electrospray ionization mass spectra (ESI-MS) and EPR). The DNA binding and cleavage properties of the complexes monitored by multi-spectroscopic techniques (UV absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism), viscosity determination and agarose gel electrophoresis indicated that the complexes bound to calf thymus (CT)-DNA via a partial intercalative mode with considerable intrinsic binding constants (Kb=1.64×10(5)M(-1) for 1 and 2.59×10(5)M(-1) for 2), and cleaved pBR322 DNA efficiently in the mediation of ascorbic acid (AA), probably via an oxidative damage mechanism induced by OH. The antioxidant activities of the complexes have been evaluated by means of modified nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) photoreduction and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays using HepG2 cells as a model, and it was found that IC50 values of 1 and 2 for dismutation of O2(-) were 0.172 and 0.247?M, respectively, and the CAA50 values were 10.57 and 10.74?M. In addition, the complexes were subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity against three human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa, A549 and HepG2), which revealed that the complexes exhibited effective cytotoxicity (IC50 values varying from 33.17 to 100?M) and selective inhibition toward HeLa cell lines. These findings indicate that the complexes have the potential to act as effective metallopeptide chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25528481

Fu, Xia-Bing; Zhang, Jia-Jia; Liu, Dan-Dan; Gan, Qian; Gao, Hong-Wei; Mao, Zong-Wan; Le, Xue-Yi

2015-02-01

294

Bacterial proteolytic activity in sediments of the Subantarctic Indian Ocean sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic material entering the oceanic benthic zone can be permanently buried or recycled to CO 2 in the sediment. Therefore it is important to know the carbon flux across the sediment-water interface to determine the initial and rate-limiting step in carbon oxidation, a bacterial enzymatic activity. Bacterial density and ectoproteolytic activity, determined using a fluorogenic substrate analog ( L-leucine-7-amino-4-methyl coumarin, Leu-MCA) were investigated in the water column and in sediments during the ANTARES 1 JGOFS cruise in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. A strong decrease in ectoproteolytic activity was observed with increasing water depth. Peak activity in surface water was three orders of magnitude less than in surface sediment. Analysis of experimental data revealed, for most sediment bacterial communities, the existence of a biphasic mechanism with different velocities for organic matter degradation and different affinities of enzymatic systems for substrates. To explain this, we hypothesize a strategy of bacterial communities that use the episodic supplies of organic matter reaching the sediment. Microbial ectoproteolytic activities were highest in surface sediment horizons and decreased progressively with depth. As benthic microbial activities reflect the quantity and quality of organic matter reaching the sea floor, high potential ectoproteolytic activities (PEA) measured in the sediment of the Polar Front Zone could indicate a direct and rapid coupling of relatively high surface productivity and deep ocean water by sinking particle fluxes. Lower values of PEA were found in sediment in the northern study area where lateral processes associated with ocean circulation (Antarctic Circumpolar Current) have an important influence on settling particles. The lowest sediment PEA values were measured at 52°S, a region in which low primary production provides a poor supply of organic matter for the sea floor.

Talbot, Vincent; Bianchi, Micheline

295

The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? EPA can enhance protein synthesis and retard protein breakdown in muscle cells. ? These effects were concurrent with increases in p70s6k and FOXO3a phosphorylation. ? EPA may be a useful tool in the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. -- Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to stimulate protein synthesis with little information regarding their effects on protein breakdown. Furthermore whether there are distinct effects of EPA and DHA remains to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein synthesis, protein breakdown and signalling pathways in C2C12 myotubes. Fully differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated for 24 h with 0.1% ethanol (control), 50 ?M EPA or 50 ?M DHA prior to experimentation. After serum (4 h) and amino acid (1 h) starvation cells were stimulated with 2 mM L-leucine and protein synthesis measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine. Protein breakdown was measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine and signalling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, 4EBP1, rps6 and FOXO3a) via Western blots. Data revealed that after incubation with EPA protein synthesis was 25% greater (P < 0.05) compared to control cells, with no effect of DHA. Protein breakdown was 22% (P < 0.05) lower, compared to control cells, after incubation with EPA, with no effect of DHA. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed that both EPA and DHA incubation increased (P < 0.05) p70s6k phosphorylation, EPA increased (P < 0.05) FOXO3a phosphorylation, with no alteration in other signalling proteins. The current study has demonstrated distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein metabolism with EPA showing a greater ability to result in skeletal muscle protein accretion.

Kamolrat, Torkamol [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)] [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Gray, Stuart R., E-mail: s.r.gray@abdn.ac.uk [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

2013-03-22

296

Operon for biosynthesis of lipstatin, the Beta-lactone inhibitor of human pancreatic lipase.  

PubMed

Lipstatin, isolated from Streptomyces toxytricini as a potent and selective inhibitor of human pancreatic lipase, is a precursor for tetrahydrolipstatin (also known as orlistat, Xenical, and Alli), the only FDA-approved antiobesity medication for long-term use. Lipstatin features a 2-hexyl-3,5-dihydroxy-7,10-hexadecadienoic-?-lactone structure with an N-formyl-l-leucine group attached as an ester to the 5-hydroxy group. It has been suggested that the ?-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid ?-lactone moiety of lipstatin in S. toxytricini is derived from Claisen condensation between two fatty acid substrates, which are derived from incomplete oxidative degradation of linoleic acid based on feeding experiments. In this study, we identified a six-gene operon (lst) that was essential for the biosynthesis of lipstatin by large-deletion, complementation, and single-gene knockout experiments. lstA, lstB, and lstC, which encode two ?-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III homologues and an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase homologue, were indicated to be responsible for the generation of the ?-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid backbone. Subsequently, the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene lstE and the putative formyltransferase gene lstF were involved in decoration of the ?-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid chain with an N-formylated leucine residue. Finally, the 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-homologous gene lstD might be responsible for the reduction of the ?-keto group of the biosynthetic intermediate, thereby facilitating the formation of the unique ?-lactone ring. PMID:25239907

Bai, Tingli; Zhang, Daozhong; Lin, Shuangjun; Long, Qingshan; Wang, Yemin; Ou, Hongyu; Kang, Qianjin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Wen; Tao, Meifeng

2014-12-01

297

Membrane potential dependence of the kinetics of cationic amino acid transport systems in human placenta.  

PubMed Central

1. Mediated influx of L-lysine into human placental brush-border membrane vesicles occurs through two systems, one of lower affinity but high capacity, the other of very high affinity but low capacity. These transporters have features characteristic of systems y+ (the classical system) and y+L (recently described in the erythrocyte), respectively. 2. In solutions containing sodium the entry of lysine through the high-affinity system (y+L) is inhibited by the neutral amino acids L-leucine, L-methionine and L-glutamine with comparable high affinity. The removal of sodium reduces the affinity but not the maximal extent of this inhibition. Leucine and methionine, but apparently not glutamine, inhibit lysine entry through system y+ with a much lower affinity. 3. The influx of lysine through system y+ changes markedly in response to alterations of membrane potential. In the presence of an inwardly directed negative diffusion potential created by an inwardly directed thiocyanate (SCN-) gradient, the influx of lysine through this route is accelerated; with an inwardly directed positive potassium diffusion potential, lysine influx through this route is reduced. The influx of lysine through system y+L is much less sensitive to such alterations of potential. 4. Analysis of the kinetic constants characterizing system y+ shows that with a change of potential from zero to negative (approximately -60 mV) the maximum velocity (Vmax) is roughly doubled and the half-saturation constant (Km) halved leading to a 4-fold increase in permeability. For system y+L smaller changes are seen and Km does not change; the resulting increase in y+L permeability is 1.5-fold. 5. These findings are discussed with respect both to the mechanism of membrane transport and placental epithelial function. PMID:7799228

Eleno, N; Devés, R; Boyd, C A

1994-01-01

298

Transport of large neutral amino acids into BeWo cells.  

PubMed

BeWo choriocarcinoma cells were cultured onto solid microcarrier beads, packed into columns and superfused. Unidirectional influx of l -phenylalanine (l -phe) and l -leucine (l -leu) across the microvillous border of the cells was studied using a rapid paired-tracer dilution technique. Influx of l -phe and l -leu comprised both saturable and non-saturable components. K(m)values for l -phe and l -leu were 0.57+/-0.01 m m and 0.05+/-0.01 m m, respectively, with V(max)values of 120.4+/-0.5 nmol/mg/min and 41. 7+/-0.2 nmol/mg/min. Non-saturable uptake components were 29.0+/-0.1 nmol/mg/m m and 37.9+/-0.1 nmol/mg/min/m m respectively. l -leu uptake was found to be sodium-independent. The uptake of l -[(3)H]phe was strongly inhibited (90-100 per cent) by unlabelled l -phe, d -phe, l -leu or 2-aminoendobicyclo-[2,2, 1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) but not by l -arginine (l -arg) or methyl alpha-aminoisobutric acid (Me-AIB). Pre-incubation of Bewo cultures for 24 h in the presence of an additional 1.2 m ml -phe (simulating maternal phenylketonuria) significantly reduced both the K(m)and V(max)components of l -phe influx. l -arg (2 m m) had no effect on l -leu influx whereas 2 m ml -phe completely inhibited saturable l -leu influx. These data suggest that the microvillous border of differentiated BeWo cells transport large neutral amino acids predominantly via system L rather than by B(0) or y(+)L transporters. PMID:10940206

Eaton, B M; Sooranna, S R

2000-01-01

299

Efficient fermentation of an improved synthetic grape must by enological and laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Grape must or freshly pressed grape juice is a complex chemical matrix that impacts the efficiency of yeast fermentation. The composition of natural grape must (NGM) can be variable; thus, to ensure reproducibility, a synthetic grape must (SGM) with defined composition is commonly used. The aim of this work was to create conditions to advance the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains for wine fermentation studies, considering previous results obtained for enological strains fermenting NGM under simulated winery conditions. We designed a new SGM formulation, ISA-SGM, by introducing specific modifications to a commonly used formulation, putting together previous reports. We added glucose and fructose in equal amounts (125 g/l) and 50 parts per million (ppm) sulfur dioxide (SO2, corresponding to standard enological treatment), and we optimized the concentrations of malic acid (3 g/l), citric acid (0.3 g/l), and tartaric acid (3 g/l). Using ISA-SGM, we obtained similar fermentative profiles for the wine strain ISA1000, the prototrophic strain S288C, and its auxotrophic derivative BY4741. In this case, the concentrations of supplements were optimized to 120 mg/l L-uracil, 80 mg/l L-methionine, 400 mg/l L-leucine, and 100 mg/l L-histidine. All these strains tested in ISA-SGM presented a similar fermentative performance as ISA1000 in NGM. ISA-SGM formulation is a promising new tool to allow the use of the auxotrophic BY strains in the detailed assessment of the alcoholic fermentation process under simulated winery conditions, and it provides a foundation to extract relevant physiological conclusions in future research on enological yeast traits. PMID:24949253

Viana, Tiago; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Prista, Catarina

2014-01-01

300

Formation of Isobutene from 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylbutyrate by Diphosphomevalonate Decarboxylase?  

PubMed Central

Isobutene is an important commercial chemical used for the synthesis of butyl rubber, terephthalic acid, specialty chemicals, and a gasoline performance additive known as alkylate. Currently, isobutene is produced from petroleum and hence is nonrenewable. Here, we report that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (ScMDD) can convert 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate (3-HMB) to isobutene. Whole cells of Escherichia coli producing ScMDD with an N-terminal 6×His tag (His6-ScMDD) formed isobutene from 3-HMB at a rate of 154 pmol h?1 g cells?1. In contrast, no isobutene was detected from control cells lacking ScMDD. His6-ScMDD was purified by nickel affinity chromatography and shown to produce isobutene from 3-HMB at a rate of 1.33 pmol min?1 mg?1 protein. Controls showed that both His6-ScMDD and 3-HMB were required for detectable isobutene formation. Isobutene was identified by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection as well as by GC-mass spectrometry (MS). ScMDD was subjected to error-prone PCR, and two improved variants were characterized, ScMDD1 (I145F) and ScMDD2 (R74H). Whole cells of E. coli producing ScMDD1 and ScMDD2 produced isobutene from 3-HMB at rates of 3,000 and 5,888 pmol h?1 g cells?1, which are 19- and 38-fold increases compared to rates for cells producing His6-ScMDD. This showed that genetic modifications can be used to increase the rate at which ScMDD converts 3-HMB to isobutene. Because 3-HMB can be produced from l-leucine, ScMDD has a potential application for the production of renewable isobutene. Moreover, isobutene is a gas, which might simplify its purification from a fermentation medium, substantially reducing production costs. PMID:20971863

Gogerty, David S.; Bobik, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

301

Formation of isobutene from 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate by diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase.  

PubMed

Isobutene is an important commercial chemical used for the synthesis of butyl rubber, terephthalic acid, specialty chemicals, and a gasoline performance additive known as alkylate. Currently, isobutene is produced from petroleum and hence is nonrenewable. Here, we report that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (ScMDD) can convert 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate (3-HMB) to isobutene. Whole cells of Escherichia coli producing ScMDD with an N-terminal 6×His tag (His(6)-ScMDD) formed isobutene from 3-HMB at a rate of 154 pmol h(-1) g cells(-1). In contrast, no isobutene was detected from control cells lacking ScMDD. His(6)-ScMDD was purified by nickel affinity chromatography and shown to produce isobutene from 3-HMB at a rate of 1.33 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. Controls showed that both His(6)-ScMDD and 3-HMB were required for detectable isobutene formation. Isobutene was identified by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection as well as by GC-mass spectrometry (MS). ScMDD was subjected to error-prone PCR, and two improved variants were characterized, ScMDD1 (I145F) and ScMDD2 (R74H). Whole cells of E. coli producing ScMDD1 and ScMDD2 produced isobutene from 3-HMB at rates of 3,000 and 5,888 pmol h(-1) g cells(-1), which are 19- and 38-fold increases compared to rates for cells producing His(6)-ScMDD. This showed that genetic modifications can be used to increase the rate at which ScMDD converts 3-HMB to isobutene. Because 3-HMB can be produced from l-leucine, ScMDD has a potential application for the production of renewable isobutene. Moreover, isobutene is a gas, which might simplify its purification from a fermentation medium, substantially reducing production costs. PMID:20971863

Gogerty, David S; Bobik, Thomas A

2010-12-01

302

Molecular imaging of urogenital diseases.  

PubMed

There is an expanding and exciting repertoire of PET imaging radiotracers for urogenital diseases, particularly in prostate cancer, renal cell cancer, and renal function. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. With growing therapeutic options for the treatment of metastatic and advanced prostate cancer, improved functional imaging of prostate cancer beyond the limitations of conventional CT and bone scan is becoming increasingly important for both clinical management and drug development. PET radiotracers, apart from ¹?F-FDG, for prostate cancer are ¹?F-sodium fluoride, ¹¹C-choline, and ¹?F-fluorocholine, and (¹¹C-acetate. Other emerging and promising PET radiotracers include a synthetic l-leucine amino acid analogue (anti-¹?F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid), dihydrotestosterone analogue (¹?F-fluoro-5?-dihydrotestosterone), and prostate-specific membrane antigen-based PET radiotracers (eg, N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-¹?F-fluorobenzyl-l-cysteine, ??Zr-DFO-J591, and ??Ga [HBED-CC]). Larger prospective and comparison trials of these PET radiotracers are needed to establish the role of PET/CT in prostate cancer. Although renal cell cancer imaging with FDG-PET/CT is available, it can be limited, especially for detection of the primary tumor. Improved renal cell cancer detection with carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX)-based antibody (¹²?I-girentuximab) and radioimmunotherapy targeting with ¹??Lu-cG250 appear promising. Evaluation of renal injury by imaging renal perfusion and function with novel PET radiotracers include p-¹?F-fluorohippurate, hippurate m-cyano-p-¹?F-fluorohippurate, and rubidium-82 chloride (typically used for myocardial perfusion imaging). Renal receptor imaging of the renal renin-angiotensin system with a variety of selective PET radioligands is also becoming available for clinical translation. PMID:24484747

Cho, Steve Y; Szabo, Zsolt

2014-03-01

303

Kinetic and chemical mechanism of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (MtIPMS) catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) with alpha-ketoisovalerate (alpha-KIV) and the subsequent hydrolysis of alpha-isopropylmalyl-CoA to generate the products CoA and alpha-isopropylmalate (alpha-IPM). This is the first committed step in l-leucine biosynthesis. We have purified recombinant MtIPMS and characterized it using a combination of steady-state kinetics, isotope effects, isotopic labeling, and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The alpha-keto acid specificity of the enzyme is narrow, and the acyl-CoA specificity is absolute for AcCoA. In the absence of alpha-KIV, MtIPMS does not enolize the alpha protons of AcCoA but slowly hydrolyzes acyl-CoA analogues. Initial velocity studies, product inhibition, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that MtIPMS follows a nonrapid equilibrium random bi-bi kinetic mechanism, with a preferred pathway to the ternary complex. MtIPMS requires two catalytic bases for maximal activity (both with pK(a) values of ca. 6.7), and we suggest that one catalyzes deprotonation and enolization of AcCoA and the other activates the water molecule involved in the hydrolysis of alpha-isopropylmalyl-CoA. Primary deuterium and solvent kinetic isotope effects indicate that there is a step after chemistry that is rate-limiting, although, with poor substrates such as pyruvate, hydrolysis becomes partially rate-limiting. Our data is inconsistent with the suggestion that a metal-bound water is involved in hydrolysis. Finally, our results indicate that the hydrolysis of alpha-isopropylmalyl-CoA is direct, without the formation of a cyclic anhydride intermediate. On the basis of these results, a chemical mechanism for the MtIPMS-catalyzed reaction is proposed. PMID:16846242

de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro S; Blanchard, John S

2006-07-25

304

Association between Arterial Stiffness and Serum L-Octanoylcarnitine and Lactosylceramide in Overweight Middle-Aged Subjects: 3-Year Follow-Up Study.  

PubMed

Existing data on the association between being overweight and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk in adults are inconsistent. We prospectively and longitudinally investigated the effects of weight on arterial stiffness and plasma metabolites in middle-aged subjects (aged 40-55 years). A group of 59 individuals who remained within the range of overweight during repeated measurements over a 3-year period was compared with a control group of 59 normal weight subjects who were matched for age and gender. Changes in metabolites by UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and changes in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) were examined. At baseline, the overweight group showed higher BMI, waist circumference, triglyceride, free fatty acid (FFA), glucose, insulin, and hs-CRP, and lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. After 3 years, the changes in waist circumference, diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP), triglyceride, FFA, glucose, insulin, hs-CRP, and ba-PWV observed in the overweight group were significantly different from those in the control group after adjusting for baseline levels. Furthermore, the overweight group showed greater increases in L-octanoylcarnitine (q=0.006) and decanoylcarnitine (q=0.007), and higher peak intensities of L-leucine, L-octanoylcarnitine, and decanoylcarnitine. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the change in ba-PWV was independently and positively associated with changes in L-octanoylcarnitine, lactosylceramide, and SBP, and with baseline BMI. Our results indicate that the duration of overweight is an important aggravating factor for arterial stiffness, especially during middle age. Additionally, an age-related increase in plasma L-octanoylcarnitine, lactosylceramide, SBP, and baseline BMI are independent predictors of increased arterial stiffness in middle-aged individuals. PMID:25781947

Kim, Minjoo; Jung, Saem; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

2015-01-01

305

Triiodothyronine Facilitates Weaning From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation by Improved Mitochondrial Substrate Utilization  

PubMed Central

Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a bridge to recovery after myocardial injury in infants and children, yet morbidity and mortality remain high. Weaning from the circuit requires adequate cardiac contractile function, which can be impaired by metabolic disturbances induced either by ischemia?reperfusion and/or by ECMO. We tested the hypothesis that although ECMO partially ameliorates metabolic abnormalities induced by ischemia?reperfusion, these abnormalities persist or recur with weaning. We also determined if thyroid hormone supplementation (triiodothyronine) during ECMO improves oxidative metabolism and cardiac function. Methods and Results Neonatal piglets underwent transient coronary ischemia to induce cardiac injury then were separated into 4 groups based on loading status. Piglets without coronary ischemia served as controls. We infused into the left coronary artery [2?13C]pyruvate and [13C6, 15N]l?leucine to evaluate oxidative metabolism by gas chromatography?mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. ECMO improved survival, increased oxidative substrate contribution through pyruvate dehydrogenase, reduced succinate and fumarate accumulation, and ameliorated ATP depletion induced by ischemia. The functional and metabolic benefit of ECMO was lost with weaning, yet triiodothyronine supplementation during ECMO restored function, increased relative pyruvate dehydrogenase flux, reduced succinate and fumarate, and preserved ATP stores. Conclusions Although ECMO provides metabolic rest by decreasing energy demand, metabolic impairments persist, and are exacerbated with weaning. Treating ECMO?induced thyroid depression with triiodothyronine improves substrate flux, myocardial oxidative capacity and cardiac contractile function. This translational model suggests that metabolic targeting can improve weaning. PMID:24650924

Files, Matthew D.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Des Rosiers, Christine; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A.

2014-01-01

306

Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: Preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% ± 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 ± 0.8 ?m, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 ± 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 ± 0.1 ?m, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 ± 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchi’s Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection. PMID:18203434

Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

2007-01-01

307

[Effects of applying different kind fertilizers on enzyme activities related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in reddish paddy soil].  

PubMed

Based on the long-term fixed position experimental data from Qianyanzhou Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1998, this paper analyzed the effects of applying different kind fertilizers (straw, ST; pig manure, OM; and chemical fertilizer, NPK) on the nutrients (C, N, and P) status and the activities of related enzymes ( beta-1,4-glucosidase, betaG; beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; L-leucine aminopeptidase, LAP; and acid phosphatase, AP) in reddish paddy soil. With the application of OM, the activities of soil betaG, NAG, and LAP increased significantly, as compared with other treatments, and were 1.4, 2. 6, and 1.9 times higher than the control (CK) , respectively. Applying OM also improved the ratio of soil organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N), but decreased the soil betaG/(NAG+LAP) ratio, suggesting that pig manure could benefit the degradation of soil cellulose and the accumulation of soil organic carbon. Applying NPK increased the activities of soil betaG, NAG, and LAP, but decreased the AP activity, with a decrement of 34% as compared with CK. Under the application of NPK, the soilbetaG/AP and (NAG+ LAP)/AP ratios increased, but the ratios of soil organic carbon to total phosphorus (C/P) and of soil total nitrogen to total phosphorus (N/P) decreased, indicating that chemical fertilizers could induce the accumulation of soil inorganic phosphorus, and inhibit the microbial functions of degrading polysaccharides and phosphate phospholipids. PMID:23898644

Xu, Li-Li; Wang, Qiu-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Min; Dai, Xiao-Qin; Yang, Feng-Ting; Bu, Jin-Feng; Wang, Hui-min

2013-04-01

308

Structural characterization of the products of hydroxyl-radical damage to leucine and their detection on proteins.  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported the formation of valine hydroperoxides and aldehydes from hydroxyl-radical attack on free valine and protein molecules. We have also demonstrated that the major degradation products of valine hydroperoxides by several biochemical and cellular systems are the corresponding hydroxides, and therefore proposed that hydroxyvalines may serve as useful in vivo markers for studying protein oxidation. Here we have undertaken the structural elucidation of the oxidation products of leucine, another amino acid which is very susceptible to peroxidation. Hydroxyl-radical (HO.) attack on l-leucine in the presence of oxygen, followed by NaBH4 reduction, gave rise to five major oxidation products which have been isolated and identified. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence, the five products have been identified as (2S)-gamma-hydroxyleucine, (2S,4S)-delta-hydroxyleucine, (2S,4R)-delta-hydroxyleucine, (2S,4R)-4-methylproline (trans-4-methyl-l-proline) and (2S,4S)-4-methylproline (cis-4-methyl-l-proline). The three hydroxyleucines have been confirmed to be the reduction products of the corresponding hydroperoxyleucines, while the two proline analogues are from reduction of their corresponding cyclic Schiff bases. By HPLC analysis using post-column o-phthaldialdehyde derivatization, we have detected hydroxyleucines in the hydrolysates of tripeptides and proteins which had been gamma-radiolysed and treated with NaBH4. Furthermore, we demonstrate the occurrence of the hydroxyleucines on proteins in physiological and pathological samples. Hydroxyleucines, like hydroxyvalines, may provide useful in vivo markers for studying protein oxidation. In the present study we also investigated the competition between leucine, valine and phenylalanine for HO., and proposed a possible radical-transfer process in such free-radical reactions. PMID:9164839

Fu, S L; Dean, R T

1997-01-01

309

Obesity-Related Metabolomic Analysis of Human Subjects in Black Soybean Peptide Intervention Study by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography and Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to identify key metabolites related to weight reduction in humans by studying the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from 34 participants who underwent dietary intervention with black soybean peptides (BSP) for 12 weeks. This research is a sequel to our previous work in which the effects of BSP on BMI and blood composition of lipid were investigated. Sera of the study were subjected to ultra performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), and the data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) score plots. Body mass index and percent body fat of the test group were reduced. Levels of betaine, benzoic acid, pyroglutamic acid, pipecolic acid, N-phenylacetamide, uric acid, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine, and lysophosphatidyl cholines (lysoPCs) (C18:1, C18:2, C20:1, and C20:4) showed significant increases. Levels of l-proline, valine, l-leucine/isoleucine, hypoxanthine, glutamine, l-methionine, phenylpyruvic acid, several carnitine derivatives, and lysoPCs (C14:0, PC16:0, C15:0, C16:0, C17:1, C18:0, and C22:0) were significantly decreased. In particular, lysoPC 16:0 with a VIP value of 12.02 is esteemed to be the most important metabolite for evaluating the differences between the 2 serum samples. Our result confirmed weight-lowering effects of BSP, accompanied by favorable changes in metabolites in the subjects' blood. Therefore, this research enables us to better understand obesity and increases the predictability of the obesity-related risk by studying metabolites present in the blood. PMID:23862058

Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Hee; Ahn, Chang-Won; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Kang Sung; Kwon, Dae Young

2013-01-01

310

The molecular mechanism of intestinal levodopa absorption and its possible implications for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the naturally occurring precursor amino acid for dopamine and the main therapeutic agent for neurologic disorders due to dopamine depletion, such as Parkinson's disease. l-DOPA absorption in small intestine has been suggested to be mediated by the large neutral amino acids transport machinery, but the identity of the involved transporters is unknown. Clinically, coadministration of l-DOPA and dietary amino acids is avoided to decrease competition for transport in intestine and at the blood-brain barrier. l-DOPA is routinely coadministered with levodopa metabolism inhibitors (dopa-decarboxylase and cathechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors) that share structural similarity with levodopa. In this systematic study involving Xenopus laevis oocytes and Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelia expression systems and ex vivo preparations from wild-type and knockout mice, we identified the neutral and dibasic amino acids exchanger (antiporter) b(0,+)AT-rBAT (SLC7A9-SLC3A1) as the luminal intestinal l-DOPA transporter. The major luminal cotransporter (symporter) B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) was not involved in levodopa transport. L-Leucine and L-arginine competed with levodopa across the luminal enterocyte membrane as expected for b(0,+)AT-rBAT substrates, whereas dopa-decarboxylase and cathechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors had no effect. The presence of amino acids in the basolateral compartment mimicking the postprandial phase increased transepithelial levodopa transport by stimulating basolateral efflux via the antiporter LAT2-4F2 (SLC7A8-SLC3A2). Additionally, the aromatic amino acid uniporter TAT1 (SLC16A10) was shown to play a major role in l-DOPA efflux from intestinal enterocytes. These results identify the molecular mechanisms mediating small intestinal levodopa absorption and suggest strategies for optimization of delivery and absorption of this important prodrug. PMID:25073474

Camargo, Simone M R; Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Mariotta, Luca; Ramadan, Tamara; Huggel, Katja; Singer, Dustin; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

2014-10-01

311

Activation of autophagy by rapamycin does not protect oligodendrocytes against protein aggregate formation and cell death induced by proteasomal inhibition.  

PubMed

Pathological protein inclusions containing the microtubule-associated protein tau, ubiquitin, and a variety of heat shock proteins, originating in oligodendrocytes, are consistent features observed in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Defects in the proteolytic degradation systems have been associated with protein aggregate formation. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy are critically involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and their activities need to be carefully balanced. A genuine crosstalk exists between the UPS and the autophagosomal system, and when the UPS is impaired, autophagy might act as a compensatory mechanism. Autophagy represents a lysosomal degradation system for degrading long-lived proteins and organelles, including damaged mitochondria. As we have shown before, proteasomal impairment by the reversible proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 (carbobenzoxy-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal) in oligodendrocytes leads to protein aggregate formation and apoptotic cell death, caused by activation of caspases and the mitochondrial pathway. The present study was undertaken to elucidate whether upregulation of the autophagic pathway by rapamycin can protect oligodendrocytes and ameliorate the consequences of MG-132-induced protein aggregate formation. The data show that rapamycin attenuated the formation of dense protein aggregates, but did not enhance the survival capability of oligodendrocytes after proteasomal inhibition. After activation of the autophagic pathway in combination with proteasomal inhibition, caspase 3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage were even more pronounced than after proteasomal inhibition alone. Furthermore, rapamycin augmented MG-132-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, which are involved in the regulation of cell death and survival. In summary, depending on the cellular context and system, rapamycin may promote cell survival or, under other conditions in concert with apoptosis, may augment cell death, which seems to be the case in oligodendrocytes. Its therapeutic use for neurodegenerative disorders is most likely limited, since long-term administration may impair neuronal survival and specifically damage the myelin forming cells of the CNS. PMID:25069858

Noack, Monika; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

2015-01-01

312

The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib reduced cholesterol accumulation in fibroblasts from Niemann-Pick type C patients carrying missense mutations.  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a lipid storage disorder mainly caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. Approximately 60% of these mutations are missense changes that may induce reduced NPC1 protein levels by increased degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome. This is the case for the most prevalent worldwide mutation, p.Ile1061Thr, as well as for other three missense changes. In the present study, we analyzed the NPC1 levels in fibroblasts from eighteen NPC patients presenting missense mutations. We found that fourteen of these cells lines showed decreased levels of NPC1. Six of these cell lines were homozygous, whereas the other eight were associated with a frame shifting mutation. We focused our attention in the NPC homozygous samples and demonstrated that, in most of the cases, NPC1 reduction was a consequence of a decrease of its half-life. NPC cells were treated not only with the proteasome inhibitors carbobenzoxy-l-leucyl-l-leucyl-l-leucinal or N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal, both widely used as a research tools, but also with bortezomib, the first proteasome inhibitor to reach clinical applications, although it has never been used in NPC disease. We observed that, after treatment, the mutant NPC1 protein levels were partially recovered in most of the cell lines. Importantly, these mutant proteins partially recovered their activity and substantially reduced free cholesterol levels. These results suggest that by enhancing the NPC1 protein stability with the use of proteasome inhibitors, their functionality might be recovered and this might represent a therapeutical approach for future treatments of NPC disease resulting from specific missense mutations. PMID:25131710

Macías-Vidal, Judit; Girós, Marisa; Guerrero, Martina; Gascón, Pere; Serratosa, Joan; Bachs, Oriol; Coll, Maria Josep

2014-10-01

313

Diabetes-induced activation of system y+ and nitric oxide synthase in human endothelial cells: association with membrane hyperpolarization.  

PubMed Central

1. The activity of the human endothelial cell L-arginine transporter (system y+) has been correlated with cGMP production (index of nitric oxide) and prostacyclin (PGI2) release in umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured from normal or gestational diabetic pregnancies. 2. In non-diabetic and diabetic cells, transport of L-arginine was Na+ and pH independent, inhibited by other cationic L-arginine analogues and unaffected by neutral amino acids. 3. Diabetes was associated with an increased Vmax for saturable L-arginine transport (4.6 +/- 0.13 vs. 9.9 +/- 0.5 pmol (microgram protein)-1 min-1, P < 0.01), but had no effect on initial rates of transport for L-serine, L-citrulline, L-leucine or 2-deoxyglucose. 4. In non-diabetic and diabetic cells, elevated K+ resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition in the initial rates of transport for L-arginine and the membrane potential-sensitive probe tetra[3H]phenylphosphonium (TPP+). 5. When resting membrane potential was measured using the whole-cell patch voltage clamp technique, diabetic cells were hyperpolarized (-78 +/- 0.3 mV) compared with non-diabetic cells (-70 +/- 0.04 mV, P < 0.04). Accumulation of [3H]TPP+ was also increased in diabetic compared with non-diabetic cells. 6. Basal intracellular cGMP levels were elevated 2.5-fold in diabetic cells, and L-NAME (100 microM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, abolished basal cGMP accumulation in non-diabetic and diabetic cells. 7. Histamine (10 microM) had no effect on L-arginine transport but evoked significant increases in cGMP in non-diabetic and diabetic cells, which were completely inhibited by L-NAME but unaffected by superoxide dismutase. 8. Basal and histamine-stimulated PGI2 release was decreased markedly in diabetic cells. 9. Our findings demonstrate that gestational diabetes is associated with phenotypic changes in fetal endothelial cells, which result in a membrane hyperpolarization, activation of the human endothelial cell L-arginine transporter (system y+), elevation of basal nitric oxide synthesis and decreased PGI2 production. PMID:8583401

Sobrevia, L; Cesare, P; Yudilevich, D L; Mann, G E

1995-01-01

314

Engineering hydrophobically modified chitosan for enhancing the dispersion of respirable microparticles of levofloxacin.  

PubMed

The potential of amphiphilic chitosan formed by grafting octanoyl chains on the chitosan backbone for pulmonary delivery of levofloxacin has been studied. The success of polymer synthesis was confirmed using FT-IR and NMR, whilst antimicrobial activity was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Highly dispersible dry powders for delivery as aerosols were prepared with different amounts of chitosan and octanoyl chitosan to study the effect of hydrophobic modification and varying concentration of polymer on aerosolization of drug. Powders were prepared by spray-drying from an aqueous solution containing levofloxacin and chitosan/amphiphilic octanoyl chitosan. l-leucine was also used to assess its effect on aerosolization. Following spray-drying, the resultant powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, dynamic light scattering, HPLC, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. The in vitro aerosolization profile was determined using a Next Generation Impactor, whilst in vitro antimicrobial assessment was performed using MIC assay. Microparticles of chitosan have the property of mucoadhesion leading to potential increased residence time in the pulmonary mucus, making it important to test the toxicity of these formulations. In-vitro cytotoxicity evaluation using MTT assay was performed on A549 cell line to determine the toxicity of formulations and hence feasibility of use. The MTT assay confirmed that the polymers and the formulations were non-cytotoxic. Hydrophobically modifying chitosan showed significantly lower MIC (4-fold) than the commercial chitosan against P. aeruginosa. The powders generated were of suitable aerodynamic size for inhalation having a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 4.5?m for formulations containing octanoyl chitosan. These highly dispersible powders have minimal moisture adsorption and hence an emitted dose of more than 90% and a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 52%. Powders with non-modified chitosan showed lower dispersibility, with an emitted dose of 72% and FPF of 20%, as a result of high moisture adsorption onto the chitosan matrix leading to cohesiveness and subsequently decreased dispersibility. PMID:25305582

Merchant, Zahra; Taylor, Kevin M G; Stapleton, Paul; Razak, Sana A; Kunda, Nitesh; Alfagih, Iman; Sheikh, Khalid; Saleem, Imran Y; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana

2014-11-01

315

Effects of Different Organic Manures on the Biochemical and Microbial Characteristics of Albic Paddy Soil in a Short-Term Experiment  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK with livestock manure (NPK+M), NPK with straw (NPK+S), and NPK with green manure (NPK+G) on soil enzyme activities and microbial characteristics of albic paddy soil, which is a typical soil with low productivity in China. The responses of extracellular enzyme activities and the microbial community diversity (determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis [PLFA] and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) were measured. The results showed that NPK+M and NPK+S significantly increased rice yield, with NPK+M being approximately 24% greater than NPK. The NPK+M significantly increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and available phosphate (P) and enhanced phosphatase, ?-cellobiosidase, L-leucine aminopeptidase and urease activities. The NPK+S significantly increased SOC and available potassium (K) and significantly enhanced N-acetyl-glucosamidase, ?-xylosidase, urease, and phenol oxidase activities. The NPK+G significantly improved total nitrogen (N), ammonium N, available P, and N-acetyl-glucosamidase activity. The PLFA biomass was highest under NPK+S, followed by NPK+M and NPK+G treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the PLFA indicated that soils with NPK+M and NPK+S contained higher proportions of unsaturated and cyclopropane fatty acids (biomarkers of fungi and gram-negative bacteria) and soil under NPK+G contained more straight chain saturated fatty acids (representing gram-positive bacteria). PCA of the DGGE patterns showed that organic amendments had a greater influence on fungal community. Cluster analysis of fungal DGGE patterns revealed that NPK+G was clearly separated. Meanwhile, the bacterial community of NPK+M treatment was the most distinct. RDA analysis revealed changes of microbial community composition mostly depended on ?-xylosidase, ?-cellobiosidase activities, total N and available K contents. The abundances of gram-negative bacterial and fungal PLFAs probably effective in improving fertility of low-yield albic paddy soil because of their significant influence on DGGE profile. PMID:25879759

Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Wei; Liang, Guoqing; Wang, Xiubin; Sun, Jingwen; He, Ping; Li, Lujiu

2015-01-01

316

A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): A pilot study in a canine model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •LAT1 is highly expressed in tumors but at low levels in normal tissues. •We examine LAT1 expression and function in malignant melanoma (MM). •LAT1 expression in MM tissues and cell lines is higher than those in normal tissues. •LAT1 selective inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake and cell growth in MM cells. •New chemotherapeutic protocols including LAT1 inhibitors are effective for treatment. -- Abstract: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transporter recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25 MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in normal tissues. Additionally, MM with distant metastasis showed a higher expression than those without distant metastasis. Functional analysis of LAT1 was performed on one of the five cell lines, CMeC-1. [{sup 3}H]L-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or LPM. These findings suggest that LAT1 could be a new therapeutic target for MM.

Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)] [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Fu, Dah-Renn; Endo, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi [Veterinary Oncology, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)] [Veterinary Oncology, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Iwano, Hidetomo [Veterinary Biochemistry, Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)] [Veterinary Biochemistry, Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Uchide, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: uchide@rakuno.ac.jp [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)] [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)

2013-09-13

317

Effect of a Herbal-Leucine mix on the IL-1?-induced cartilage degradation and inflammatory gene expression in human chondrocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional treatments for the articular diseases are often effective for symptom relief, but can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favorable influence on the course of the disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective potential of a Herbal and amino acid mixture containing extract of the Uncaria tomentosa, Boswellia spp., Lepidium meyenii and L-Leucine on the IL-1?-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), glycosaminoglycan (GAG), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), aggrecan (ACAN) and type II collagen (COL2A1) in human OA chondrocytes and OA cartilage explants. Methods Primary OA chondrocytes or OA cartilage explants were pretreated with Herbal-Leucine mixture (HLM, 1-10 ?g/ml) and then stimulated with IL-1? (5 ng/ml). Effect of HLM on IL-1?-induced gene expression of iNOS, MMP-9, MMP-13, ACAN and COL2A1 was verified by real time-PCR. Estimation of NO and GAG release in culture supernatant was done using commercially available kits. Results HLM tested in these in vitro studies was found to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, as evidenced by strong inhibition of iNOS, MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression and NO production in IL-1?-stimulated OA chondrocytes (p < 0.05). Supporting these gene expression results, IL-1?-induced cartilage matrix breakdown, as evidenced by GAG release from cartilage explants, was also significantly blocked (p < 0.05). Moreover, in the presence of herbal-Leucine mixture (HLM) up-regulation of ACAN and COL2A1 expression in IL-1?-stimulated OA chondrocytes was also noted (p < 0.05). The inhibitory effects of HLM were mediated by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB in human OA chondrocytes in presence of IL-1?. Conclusion Our data suggests that HLM could be chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent in arthritis, switching chondrocyte gene expression from catabolic direction towards anabolic and regenerative, and consequently this approach may be potentially useful as a new adjunct therapeutic/preventive agent for OA or injury recovery. PMID:21854562

2011-01-01

318

Expression of Na(+)-independent amino acid transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes by injection of rabbit kidney cortex mRNA.  

PubMed Central

Poly(A)+ mRNA was isolated from rabbit kidney cortex and injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Injection of mRNA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Na(+)-independent uptake of L-[3H]alanine and L-[3H]arginine. L-Alanine uptake was stimulated about 3-fold and L-arginine uptake was stimulated about 8-fold after injection of mRNA (25-50 ng, after 3-6 days) as compared with water-injected oocytes. T.I.C. of oocyte extracts suggested that the increased uptake actually represented an increase in the oocyte content of labelled L-alanine and L-arginine. The expressed L-alanine uptake, obtained by subtracting the uptake in water-injected oocytes from that in mRNA-injected oocytes, showed saturability and was inhibited completely by 2-aminobicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) and L-arginine. The expressed L-arginine uptake in mRNA-injected oocytes also showed saturability, being completely inhibited by L-dibasic amino acids) and partially inhibited by BCH. Expression of both L-alanine and L-arginine uptake showed clear cis-inhibition by cationic (e.g. L-arginine) and neutral (e.g. L-leucine) amino acids. In all, this points to the expression of a Na(+)-independent transport system with broad specificity (i.e. b degree, (+)-like). In addition, part of the expressed uptake of L-arginine could be due to a system y(+)-like transporter. After size fractionation through a sucrose density gradient, the mRNA species encoding these increased transport activities (Na(+)-independent transport of L-alanine and of L-arginine) were found in fractions of an average mRNA chain-length of 1.8-2.4 kb. On the basis of these results, we conclude that Na(+)-independent transport system(s) for L-alanine and L-arginine from rabbit renal cortical tissues, most likely proximal tubules, are expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. These observations may represent the first steps towards expression and cloning of these transport pathways. PMID:1536650

Bertran, J; Werner, A; Stange, G; Markovich, D; Biber, J; Testar, X; Zorzano, A; Palacin, M; Murer, H

1992-01-01

319

Acute effects of a commercially-available pre-workout supplement on markers of training: a double-blind study  

PubMed Central

Background Pre-workout supplements containing numerous ingredients claim to increase performance and strength. Product-specific research is important for identifying efficacy of combined ingredients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a proprietary pre-workout dietary supplement containing creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine, L-Tarurine, L-Leucine, and caffeine, on anaerobic power, muscular strength, body composition, and mood states. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, matched-pair design, twenty male subjects (mean?±?SD; 22.4?±?9.5 yrs, 76.9?±?11.2 kg, 22.7?±?9.5% body fat), consumed either 30 g of a pre-workout supplement (SUP) or maltodextrin placebo (PLC) 30 minutes before a resistance training workout, after completing baseline testing. Body composition was determined via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Subjects completed 12 vertical jumps for height (VJ) and one repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to failure lifts on bench (BPM) and leg press (LPM). Finally, subjects completed a Wingate power test on a cycle ergometer [mean power (WMP) and peak power (WPP)]. After baseline testing, participants completed eight days of supplementation and four split-body resistance-training bouts. Side effect questionnaires were completed daily 30 minutes after consuming the supplement. Subjects completed post-supplement testing on Day 8. Data were analyzed utilizing a 2?×?2 repeated measures ANOVA [treatment (PLC vs SUP)?×?time (T1 vs T2)] and ninety-five percent confidence intervals. Results There were no significant treatment?×?time interactions (p?>?0.05). There were no significant changes in %body fat (%BF; ?-0.43?±?0.58; p?=?0.920), fat mass (?-2.45?±?5.72; p?=?0.988), or lean body mass (LBM; 10.9?±?12.2; p?=?0.848). 95% CI demonstrated significant LBM increases for both groups. There was a main effect for time for WPP (?100.5?±?42.7W; p?=?0.001), BPM (?8.0?±?12.9 lbs; p?=?0.001), and LPM (?80.0?±?28.8 lbs; p?=?0.001), with no significant differences between treatments. There was no significant difference in mood states between groups or over time. Conclusion The proprietary pre-workout blend combined with eight days of training did not significantly (ANOVA) improve body composition or performance. While not significant, greater gains in LPM were demonstrated in the SUP group for lean body mass and lower body strength. Future studies should evaluate more chronic effects of proprietary pre-workout blends on total training volume and performance outcomes. PMID:25302053

2014-01-01

320

Measurements of substrate oxidation using (13)CO 2-breath testing reveals shifts in fuel mix during starvation.  

PubMed

Most fasting animals are believed to sequentially switch from predominantly utilizing one metabolic substrate to another from carbohydrates, to lipids, then to proteins. The timing of these physiological transitions has been estimated using measures of substrate oxidation including changes in respiratory exchange ratios, blood metabolites, nitrogen excretion, or enzyme activities in tissues. Here, we demonstrate how (13)CO2-breath testing can be used to partition among the oxidation of distinct nutrient pools in the body (i.e., carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins) that have become artificially enriched in (13)C. Seventy-two Swiss Webster mice were raised to adulthood on diets supplemented with (13)C-1-L-leucine, (13)C-1-palmitic acid, (13)C-1-D-glucose, or no tracer. Mice were then fasted for 72 h during which [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], ?(13)C of exhaled CO2, body temperature, body mass, and blood metabolites (i.e., glucose, ketone bodies, and triacylglycerols) were measured. The fasting mice exhibited reductions in body mass (29 %), body temperature (3.3 °C), minimum observed metabolic rates (24 %), and respiratory exchange ratio (0.18), as well as significant changes in blood metabolites; but these responses were not particularly indicative of changes in oxidative fuel mixture. Measurements of endogenous nutrient oxidation by way of (13)CO2-breath testing revealed a decrease in the rate of oxidation of carbohydrates from 61 to 10 % of the total energy expenditure during the first 6 h without food. This response was mirrored by a coincidental increase in rate of endogenous lipid oxidation from 18 to 64 %. A transient peak in carbohydrate oxidation occurred between 8 and 14 h, presumably during increased glycogen mobilization. A well-defined period of protein sparing between 8 and 12 h was observed where endogenous protein oxidation accounted for as little as 8 % of the total energy expenditure. Thereafter, protein oxidation continually increased accounting for as much as 24 % of the total energy expenditure by 72 h. This study demonstrates that (13)CO2-breath testing may provide a complementary approach to characterizing the timing and magnitude of sequential changes in substrate oxidation that occur during prolonged fasting and starvation. PMID:23925409

McCue, Marshall D; Pollock, Erik D

2013-12-01

321

Relationship of whole body nitrogen utilization to urea kinetics in growing steers.  

PubMed

Urea kinetics were measured in 2 experiments, with treatments designed to change protein deposition by the animal. Our hypothesis was that increased protein deposition by cattle (Bos taurus) would reduce urea production and recycling to the gastrointestinal tract. Urea kinetics were measured by continuous intravenous infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea followed by measurement of enrichment in urinary urea at plateau. In Exp. 1, 6 steers (139 kg) were maintained in a model in which leucine was the most limiting AA. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial and were provided to steers in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Leucine treatments included 0 or 4 g/d of abomasally supplemented L-leucine, and energy treatments included control, abomasal glucose infusion (382 g DM/d), or ruminal VFA infusion (150 g/d of acetic acid, 150 g/d of propionic acid, and 50 g/d of butyric acid). Leucine supplementation increased (P < 0.01) N retention, and energy supplementation tended to increase (P = 0.09) N retention without differences between glucose and VFA supplements (P = 0.86). Energy supplementation did not strikingly improve the efficiency of leucine utilization. Although both leucine and energy supplementation reduced urinary urea excretion (P ? 0.02), treatments did not affect urea production (P ? 0.34) or urea recycling to the gut (P ? 0.30). The magnitude of change in protein deposition may have been too small to significantly affect urea kinetics. In Exp. 2, 6 steers (168 kg) were maintained in a model wherein methionine was the most limiting AA. Steers were placed in 2 concurrent 3 × 3 Latin squares. Steers in one square were implanted with 24 mg of estradiol and 120 mg trenbolone acetate, and steers in the other square were not implanted. Treatments in each square were 0, 3, or 10 g/d of L-methionine. Implantation numerically improved N retention (P = 0.13) and reduced urea production rate (P = 0.03), urinary urea excretion (P < 0.01), and urea recycling to the gastrointestinal tract (P = 0.14). Effects of methionine were similar to implantation, but smaller in magnitude. When protein deposition by the body is increased markedly, ruminally available N in the diet may need to be increased to offset reductions in urea recycling. PMID:22851238

Titgemeyer, E C; Spivey, K S; Parr, S L; Brake, D W; Jones, M L

2012-10-01

322

Effect of gibberellic acid on growth and indole metabolism of dwarf-pea plants  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to describe the pathway of biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan (TPP) and determine the effect of gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) on this system. Treatment of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L. var Little Marvel) with 0.8 ..mu..g GA/sub 3//plant resulted in increase in plant height along with increased auxin level. A cell-free preparation of pea shoot tissue was able to convert D,L-tryptophan-3-/sup 14/C into different indole metabolites. The acidic and neutral fractions obtained after TPP incubation were subjected to thin-layer chromatography. In the neutral fraction, two peaks of radioactivity were found and these matched the Rfs for indole-acetaldehyde (IAAId) and indole-3-ethanol (IEt). One major peak of radioactivity was observed in the radiochromatograms of the acidic fraction and it corresponded with a authentic IAA. The enzymes involved in the conversion of TPP to IAA involved, in the first step, a transaminase (tryptophan aminotransferase, EC 2 x 6 x 1) reaction. The aminotransferase was purified about 82-fold by acetone precipitation and Sephadex G-200 filtration. It had a pH optimum of 8.5 and a temperature optimum of 40/sup 0/C. With ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate a co-substrate, the enzyme transaminated aromatic as well as aliphatic amino acids including D,L-tryptophan, D,L-alanine and D,L leucine. D-TPP was found to be more effective than L-TPP as a substrate. GA/sub 3/ treatment to dwarf pea plants results in increase in the specific activity of the enzyme over the observation period. In the second step of TPP conversion, IPyA is decarboxylated by an enzyme to IAAId. In plants treated with GA/sub 3/, the enzyme activity was significantly higher three days after treatment but remained unaffected at all other stages when observations were made. The final step enzyme is a dehydrogenase that can convert IAAId to IAA in the presence of MAD as a co-factor.

Husain, Z.

1987-01-01

323

Leucyl-leucine methyl ester treatment of donor cells permits establishment of immunocompetent parent----F1 chimeras that are selectively tolerant of host alloantigens  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of murine lymphocytes with L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (Leu-Leu-OMe) selectively removes natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors, and the capacity to cause lethal graft-vs-host disease, whereas bone marrow stem cell function and alloantigen-induced L3T4+ T helper function remains intact. The present studies assess the immunocompetence of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras established by reconstituting irradiated (C57BL/6 X DBA/2)F1 (B6D2F1) mice with Leu-Leu-OMe-treated C57BL/6 (B6) bone marrow and spleen cells. Spleen cells from such chimeras were found to have normal B and T cell mitogenic responses. Furthermore, levels of natural-killer cell function were comparable to those observed in B6----B6 syngeneic radiation chimeras established without Leu-Leu-OMe treatment of donor cells. Spleen cells from B6----B6D2F1 mice were identical with B6----B6 or B6 mice in allostimulatory capacity and thus contained no discernible cells of non-H-2b phenotype. Whereas B6----B6D2F1 spleen cells demonstrated alloproliferative and allocytotoxic responses toward H-2k bearing spleen cells, no H-2d specific proliferative or cytotoxic responses could be elicited. B6----B6D2F1 spleen cells did not suppress the generation of anti-H-2d or anti-H-2k proliferative or cytotoxic responses from control B6 spleen cells. Furthermore, addition of rat concanavalin A supernatants did not reconstitute anti-H-2d responses of B6----B6D2F1 chimeric spleen cells. Thus, Leu-Leu-OMe treatment of B6 donor cells not only prevents lethal graft-vs-host disease, but also permits establishment of long-lived parent----F1 chimeras that are selectively tolerant of host H-2 disparate alloantigens, but fully immunocompetent with respect to natural killer cell function, B and T cell mitogenesis, and anti-third party alloresponsiveness.

Thiele, D.L.; Calomeni, J.A.; Lipsky, P.E.

1987-10-01

324

Prepuberal stimulation of 5-HT7-R by LP-211 in a rat model of hyper-activity and attention-deficit: permanent effects on attention, brain amino acids and synaptic markers in the fronto-striatal interface.  

PubMed

The cross-talk at the prefronto-striatal interface involves excitatory amino acids, different receptors, transducers and modulators. We investigated long-term effects of a prepuberal, subchronic 5-HT7-R agonist (LP-211) on adult behaviour, amino acids and synaptic markers in a model for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Naples High Excitability rats (NHE) and their Random Bred controls (NRB) were daily treated with LP-211 in the 5th and 6th postnatal week. One month after treatment, these rats were tested for indices of activity, non selective (NSA), selective spatial attention (SSA) and emotionality. The quantity of L-Glutamate (L-Glu), L-Aspartate (L-Asp) and L-Leucine (L-Leu), dopamine transporter (DAT), NMDAR1 subunit and CAMKII?, were assessed in prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal (DS) and ventral striatum (VS), for their role in synaptic transmission, neural plasticity and information processing. Prepuberal LP-211 (at lower dose) reduced horizontal activity and (at higher dose) increased SSA, only for NHE but not in NRB rats. Prepuberal LP-211 increased, in NHE rats, L-Glu in the PFC and L-Asp in the VS (at 0.250 mg/kg dose), whereas (at 0.125 mg/kg dose) it decreased L-Glu and L-Asp in the DS. The L-Glu was decreased, at 0.125 mg/kg, only in the VS of NRB rats. The DAT levels were decreased with the 0.125 mg/kg dose (in the PFC), and increased with the 0.250 mg/kg dose (in the VS), significantly for NHE rats. The basal NMDAR1 level was higher in the PFC of NHE than NRB rats; LP-211 treatment (at 0.125 mg/kg dose) decreased NMDAR1 in the VS of NRB rats. This study represents a starting point about the impact of developmental 5-HT7-R activation on neuro-physiology of attentive processes, executive functions and their neural substrates. PMID:24709857

Ruocco, Lucia A; Treno, Concetta; Gironi Carnevale, Ugo A; Arra, Claudio; Boatto, Gianpiero; Nieddu, Maria; Pagano, Cristina; Illiano, Placido; Barbato, Fabiana; Tino, Angela; Carboni, Ezio; Laviola, Giovanni; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Adriani, Walter; Sadile, Adolfo G

2014-01-01

325

Immunization with DISC1 protein in an animal model of ADHD influences behavior and excitatory amino acids in prefrontal cortex and striatum.  

PubMed

The Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene is involved in vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Naples high-excitability (NHE) rat model neuropsychiatric problems characterized by an unbalanced mesocortical dopamine system. Here, we assessed behavioral and neurochemical effects of immunization against multimeric rat DISC1 protein in adult NHE rats, an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their Random-Bred (NRB) controls. Males of both lines received subcutaneous injections of vehicle (PB), adjuvant only (AD) or recombinant rat DISC1 protein purified from E. coli, suspended in AD (anti-DISC1) at age of 30, 45 and 60 postnatal days (pnd). At 75 pnd, the rats were exposed to a Làt maze and 2 days later to an Olton eight-arm radial maze, and horizontal (HA) and vertical activities (VA) were monitored. Non-selective (NSA) and selective spatial attention (SSA) were monitored in the Làt and in the Olton maze by duration of rearings and working memory, respectively. Post mortem neurochemistry in the prefrontal cortex (PFc), dorsal (DS) and ventral (VS) striatum of L-Glutamate, L-Aspartate and L-Leucine was performed. All immunized rats showed a clear humoral IgM (but not IgG) immune response against the immunogen, indicating that immunological self-tolerance to DISC1 can be overcome by immunization. NHE rats exhibited a higher unspecific IgM response to adjuvant, indicating an immunological abnormality. The sole anti-DISC1 immunization-specific behavioral in the NHE rats was an increased horizontal activity in the Làt maze. Adjuvant treatment increased vertical activity in both lines, but in the NRB controls it increased rearing and decreased horizontal activity. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of soluble or membrane-trapped neurotransmitters aspartate, glutamate and leucine revealed increased soluble aspartate levels in the ventral striatum of NRB controls after anti-DISC1 immunization. Immune activation by adjuvant independent of simultaneous DISC1 immunization led to other specific changes in NHE and control NRB rats. In DISC1-immunized NHE rats, horizontal activity in Lat maze correlated with membrane-trapped glutamate in PFc and in the NRB rats, duration of rearing in Olton maze correlated with membrane-trapped glutamate in PFc and aspartate in dorsal striatum. In addition to non-specific immune activation (by AD), the postnatal anti-DISC1 immune treatment led to behavioral changes related to mechanisms of activity and attention and had influenced amino acids and synaptic markers in striatum and neocortex in the adult NHE as well as control animals. PMID:25595600

Ruocco, L A; Treno, C; Gironi Carnevale, U A; Arra, C; Boatto, G; Pagano, C; Tino, A; Nieddu, M; Michel, M; Prikulis, I; Carboni, E; de Souza Silva, M A; Huston, J P; Sadile, A G; Korth, C

2015-03-01

326

New Organic Stable Isotope Reference Materials for Distribution through the USGS and the IAEA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread adoption of relative stable isotope-ratio measurements in organic matter by diverse scientific disciplines is at odds with the dearth of international organic stable isotopic reference materials (RMs). Only two of the few carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) organic RMs, namely L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 [1], both available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provide an isotopically contrasting pair of organic RMs to enable essential 2-point calibrations for ?-scale normalization [2, 3]. The supply of hydrogen (H) organic RMs is even more limited. Numerous stable isotope laboratories have resorted to questionable practices, for example by using 'CO2, N2, and H2 reference gas pulses' for isotopic calibrations, which violates the principle of identical treatment of sample and standard (i.e., organic unknowns should be calibrated directly against chemically similar organic RMs) [4], or by using only 1 anchor instead of 2 for scale calibration. The absence of international organic RMs frequently serves as an excuse for indefensible calibrations. In 2011, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded an initiative of 10 laboratories from 7 countries to jointly develop much needed new organic RMs for future distribution by the USGS and the IAEA. The selection of targeted RMs attempts to cover various common compound classes of broad technical and scientific interest. We had to accept compromises to approach the ideal of high chemical stability, lack of toxicity, and low price of raw materials. Hazardous gases and flammable liquids were avoided in order to facilitate international shipping of future RMs. With the exception of polyethylene and vacuum pump oil, all organic RMs are individual, chemically-pure substances, which can be used for compound-specific isotopic measurements in conjunction with liquid and gas chromatographic interfaces. The compounds listed below are under isotopic calibration by the 10 laboratories. Successfully calibrated organic RMs could become available as early as 2015. - n-Hexadecane (C16 n-alkane), three H, C-isotopic varieties; - Glycine (amino acid), three H, C, N-isotopic varieties; - L-valine (amino acid), three H, C, N-isotopic varieties; - Methyl n-heptadecanoate (methyl ester of C17 n-alkanoic fatty acid); - Methyl icosanoate (methyl ester of C20 n-alkanoic fatty acid), three H, C-isotopic varieties; - Caffeine, three H, C, N-isotopic varieties; - Hydrocarbon vacuum pump oils, two H-isotopic varieties; - Polyethylene powder, and possibly a 2H and 13C-enriched polyethylene string. [1] Qi H., Coplen T.B., Geilmann H., Brand W.A., Böhlke J.K. (2003) Two new organic reference materials for ?13C and ?15N measurements and a new value for the ?13C of NBS 22 oil. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 17, 2483-2487. [2] Coplen T.B. (1996) New guidelines for reporting stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope-ratio data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, 3359-3360. [3] Coplen T.B., Brand W.A., Gehre M., Gröning M., Meijer H.A.J., Toman B., Verkouteren R.M. (2006) New guidelines for ?13C measurements. Analytical Chemistry 78 (7), 2439-2441. [4] Werner R.A., Brand W.A. (2001) Referencing strategies and techniques in stable isotope ratio analysis. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 15, 501-519.

Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping

2014-05-01

327

Raltegravir Permeability across Blood-Tissue Barriers and the Potential Role of Drug Efflux Transporters.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate raltegravir transport across several blood-tissue barrier models and the potential interactions with drug efflux transporters. Raltegravir uptake, accumulation, and permeability were evaluated in vitro in (i) P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), or MRP4-overexpressing MDA-MDR1 (P-gp), HEK-ABCG2, HeLa-MRP1, or HEK-MRP4 cells, respectively; (ii) cell culture systems of the human blood-brain (hCMEC/D3), mouse blood-testicular (TM4), and human blood-intestinal (Caco-2) barriers; and (iii) rat jejunum and ileum segments using an in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model. [(3)H]Raltegravir accumulation by MDA-MDR1 (P-gp) and HEK-ABCG2-overexpressing cells was significantly enhanced in the presence of PSC833 {6-[(2S,4R,6E)-4-methyl-2-(methylamino)-3-oxo-6-octenoic acid]-7-l-valine-cyclosporine}, a P-gp inhibitor, or Ko143 [(3S,6S,12aS)-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydro-9-methoxy-6-(2-methylpropyl)-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-propanoic acid 1,1-dimethylethyl ester], a BCRP inhibitor, suggesting the inhibition of a P-gp- or BCRP-mediated efflux process, respectively. Furthermore, [(3)H]raltegravir accumulation by human cerebral microvessel endothelial hCMEC/D3 and mouse Sertoli TM4 cells was significantly increased by PSC833 and Ko143. In human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown on Transwell filters, PSC833, but not Ko143, significantly decreased the [(3)H]raltegravir efflux ratios. In rat intestinal segments, [(3)H]raltegravir in situ permeability was significantly enhanced by the concurrent administration of PSC833 and Ko143. In contrast, in the transporter inhibition assays, raltegravir (10 to 500 ?M) did not increase the accumulation of substrate for P-gp (rhodamine-6G), BCRP ([(3)H]mitoxantrone), or MRP1 [2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF)] by MDA-MDR1 (P-gp)-, HEK-ABCG2-, or HeLa-MRP1-overexpressing cells, respectively. Our data suggest that raltegravir is a substrate but not an inhibitor of the drug efflux transporters P-gp and BCRP. These transporters might play a role in the restriction of raltegravir permeability across the blood-brain, blood-testicular, and blood-intestinal barriers, potentially contributing to its low tissue concentrations and/or low oral bioavailability observed in the clinic setting. PMID:25691630

Hoque, M Tozammel; Kis, Olena; De Rosa, María F; Bendayan, Reina

2015-05-01

328

Optimization and validation of a chiral GC-MS method for the determination of free d-amino acids ratio in human urine: Application to a Gestational Diabetes Mellitus study.  

PubMed

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. It is affecting approximately up to 14% of all pregnancies with an increasing tendency. GDM has been related to relevant short-term and long-term health complications for both mother and offspring. Recent studies strongly emphasized the role of several essential amino acids in the pathogenesis of obesity and highlighted their strong correlation with insulin resistance, but there are no references related to modifications in d-AAs in biological fluids. As d-AA elimination proceeds mainly by renal excretion, urine was the selected sample to evaluate the alterations in free d-AAs ratio in a GDM study. Only 1mL of first void urine or standard solution was required for purification, by using a Discovery DSC-SCX SPE cartridge (500mg/3mL) and derivatization into their N(O)-pentafluoropropionyl amino acid 2-propyl esters. Enantiomeric separation was carried out by GC-MS on a Chirasil-l-Val N-propionyl-l-valine-tert-butylamide polysiloxane fused-silica capillary column (25m×0.25mm I.D., 0.12?m film thickness, Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany), under programmed temperature elution. Detection was performed with an ion trap mass analyzer, operating in the full scan mode in the m/z 50-350 range. 14 pairs of derivatives of d-and l-AAs were separated. The steps of sample preparation, derivatization and GC-MS conditions were optimized for both urine and standards. Several conditions affecting the SPE procedure, such as sorbent mass/volume ratio of the cartridge, sample dilution and pH, were optimized. Volume of reagents and solvents and reaction temperature and time were also tested for the derivatization. Regarding the GC-MS parameters, split ratio, temperature program and mass range were optimized. The final method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision for d-Ala, d-Pro, d-Ser, d-Met, d-Phe, d-Glu, d-Orn and d-Lys. Identification of AAs in urine samples was based on retention time and mass spectra. Urine from 20 women with GDM and 20 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (after 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test), matched according to the week of gestation and age (22-28 week of gestation and age 24-37 years), were enrolled into the study. %d-Relative amounts were determined for Ala, Val, Thr, Ser, Leu, Asx (Asp+Asn), Glx (Glu+Gln), Met, Phe, Tyr, Orn and Lys. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed only for d-Phe and higher values were found in the GDM group. It is possible that d-Phe could be involved in metabolic/signaling pathways to compensate early stages of insulin resistance, although further work is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:25679092

Lorenzo, M Paz; Dudzik, Danuta; Varas, Elena; Gibellini, Manuel; Skotnicki, Mariusz; Zorawski, Marcin; Zarzycki, Wieslaw; Pellati, Federica; García, Antonia

2015-03-25

329

Microbial functional diversity in a mediterranean forest soil: impact of soil nitrogen availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beneficial or negative effects of N deposition on forest soil are strongly linked to the activity of microbial biomass and enzyme activities because they regulate soil quality and functioning due to their involvement in organic matter dynamics, nutrient cycling and decomposition processes. Moreover, because the ability of an ecosystem to withstand serious disturbances may depend in part on the microbial component of the system, by characterizing microbial functional diversity we may be able to better understand and manipulate ecosystem processes. Changes in the biodiversity of the soil microbial community are likely to be important in relation to maintenance of soil ecosystem function because the microbial communities influence the potential of soils for enzyme-mediated substrate catalysis. Objective of this study was to evaluate how soil N availability affected microbial functional diversity in a 4 months laboratory experiment. The incubation experiment was carried out with an organo-mineral soil collected in a Quercus cerris forest at the Roccarespampani site (Central Italy, Viterbo). All samples were incubated at 28°C and were kept to a water content between 55 and 65% of the water holding capacity. Different amount of N (NH4NO3) were added as solution once a week in order to mimic the N wet deposition and to let microbial community deal with a slow increase in time of inorganic N content. The amount of nutrient solutions was chosen depending on the average soil-water loss due to evaporation in one week. The total amount of N-NH4NO3 was chosen to be comparable with the range of N depositions currently reported in European forests, i.e. between 1 and 75 kg N ha-1 y-1. The total amount added at the end of incubation varied from 0, 10, 25, 50 and 75 kg N ha-1. Distilled water was added in the control soil in order to provide the same amount of solution as the treated soils. In order to discriminate the effect of N, the NH4NO3 solutions were adjusted to soil pH and phosphorus was added in order to prevent any nutrient limitation effect. In this experiment microbial functional diversity was assessed at the community level with two independent approaches: the first one uses soil hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and the second one C substrates utilization rates with the MicroResp system. The activities of important soil enzymes involved in organic matter and nutrient transformations were determined using a fluorimetric approach: beta-glucosidase, alfa-glucosidase, beta-xylosidase and beta-cellobiohydrolase activities are key enzymes in the cellulose and starch degradation; N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase and leucine-aminopeptidase activities are involved in N cycling through chitin degradation, a major source of mineralizable N in soil and peptides release; acid phosphatase is crucial in organic P transformation; butyric esterase is an indicator of the physiological performance of microbial biomass in soil. (Poly)phenol oxidative activity was determined spectrophotometrically as an indicator of lignin and lignin-like substances polymerization and depolymerization. All enzymes were assessed at the beginning of the incubation and after 6, 13, 26, 42, 55, 83 and 118 days. For the MicroResp method C substrates for the analysis of Community Level Physiological Profile (CLPP) were selected depending on their ecological relevance and the objective of the experiment. C sources include four carbohydrates (Alpha-D-glucose, N-acetyl-Glucosamine, D-Galactose, D-fructose), four amino acids (L-arabionose, L-leucine, L-arginine, Glycine), five carboxylic acid (Malic acid, citric acid, Oxalic acid, L-aspartic acid and gamma-amino-butyric acid) and two phenolic acids (vanillic acid and syringic acid). MicroResp analysis was performed at the beginning and at the end of the incubation. Discriminant function analysis and Shannon diversity index were used to determine microbial functional diversity with the two different approaches.

Dalmonech, D.; Lagomarsino, A.; Moscatelli, M. C.

2009-04-01