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Sample records for l-leucine l-isoleucine l-valine

  1. NMR analyses of the conformations of L-isoleucine and L-valine bound to Escherichia coli isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Kohda, D.; Kawai, G.; Yokoyama, S.; Kawakami, M.; Mizushima, S.; Miyazawa, T.

    1987-10-06

    The 400-MHz /sup 1/H NMR spectra of L-isoleucine and L-valine were measured in the presence of Escherichia coli isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS). Because of chemical exchange of L-isoleucine or L-valine between the free state and the IleRS-bound state, a transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (TRNOE) was observed among proton resonances of L-isoleucine or L-valine. However, in the presence of isoleucyl adenylate tightly bound to the amino acid activation site of IleRS, no TRNOE for L-isoleucine or L-valine was observed. This indicates that the observed TRNOE is due to the interaction of L-isoleucine or L-valine with the amino acid activation site of IleRS. The conformations of these amino acids in the amino acid activation site of IleRS were determined by the analyses of time dependences of TRNOEs and TRNOE action spectra. The IleRS-bound L-isoleucine takes the gauche/sup +/ form about the C/sub ..cap alpha../-C/sub ..beta../ bond and the trans form about the C/sub ..beta../-C/sub ..gamma../sub 1// bond. The IleRS-bound L-valine takes the guache/sup -/ form about the C/sub ..cap alpha../-C/sub ..beta../ bond. Thus, the conformation of the IleRS-bound L-valine is the same as that of IleRS-bound L-isoleucine except for the delta-methyl group. The side chain of L-isoleucine or L-valine lies in an aliphatic hydrophobic pocket of the active site of IleRS. Such hydrophobic interaction with IleRS is more significant for L-isoleucine than for L-valine. The TRNOE analysis is useful for studying the amino acid discrimination mechanism of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

  2. New hydrophobic L-amino acid salts: maleates of L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-norvaline.

    PubMed

    Arkhipov, Sergey G; Rychkov, Denis A; Pugachev, Alexey M; Boldyreva, Elena V

    2015-07-01

    Crystals of maleates of three amino acids with hydrophobic side chains [L-leucenium hydrogen maleate, C6H14NO2(+)C4H3O4(-), (I), L-isoleucenium hydrogen maleate hemihydrate, C6H14NO2(+)C4H3O4(-)0.5H2O, (II), and L-norvalinium hydrogen maleate-L-norvaline (1/1), C5H11NO2(+)C4H3O4(-)C5H12NO2, (III)], were obtained. The new structures contain C2(2)(12) chains, or variants thereof, that are a common feature in the crystal structures of amino acid maleates. The L-leucenium salt is remarkable due to a large number of symmetrically non-equivalent units (Z' = 3). The L-isoleucenium salt is a hydrate despite the fact that L-isoleucine is a nonpolar hydrophobic amino acid (previously known amino acid maleates formed hydrates only with lysine and histidine, which are polar and hydrophilic). The L-norvalinium salt provides the first example where the dimeric cation L-Nva...L-NvaH(+) was observed. All three compounds have layered noncentrosymmetric structures. Preliminary tests have shown the presence of the second harmonic generation (SGH) effect for all three compounds. PMID:26146397

  3. L-Leucine and L-isoleucine enhance growth of BBN-induced urothelial tumors in the rat bladder by modulating expression of amino acid transporters and tumorigenesis-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Li; Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min; Yamano, Shotaro; Takeshita, Masanori; Yunoki, Takayuki; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the underlying mechanisms of L-leucine and L-isoleucine mediated promotion of bladder carcinogenesis using an initiation-promotion model. Rats were administered N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine for 4 weeks and then fed AIN-93G basal diet or diet supplemented with L-leucine or L-isoleucine for 8 weeks followed by the basal diet for another 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, week 20, there was a significant elevation of papillary and nodular (PN) hyperplasia multiplicity in the amino acid groups. L-Leucine and L-isoleucine transporters were up-regulated in PN hyperplasias and/or bladder tumors compared with concomitant normal-appearing bladder urothelium at weeks 12 and/or 20 in all groups. In addition, in normal-appearing bladder urothelium, significantly increased mRNA levels of y+LAT1, LAT2, LAT4, and 4F2hc were observed in the amino acid groups compared with the BBN control group at both weeks 12 and 20, and increased mRNA levels of LAT1 were observed at week 20. Furthermore, up-regulation of TNF-α, c-fos, β-catenin, p53, p21(Cip1/WAF1), cdk4, cyclin D1 and caspase 3 in the amino acid groups was detected in normal-appearing bladder urothelium. Overall, our results indicate that supplementation with l-leucine or l-isoleucine enhanced growth of bladder urothelial tumors by triggering expression of amino acid transporters and tumorigenesis-associated genes. PMID:23747718

  4. The contest for precursors: channelling L-isoleucine synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum without byproduct formation.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Michael; Krumbach, Karin; Bang, Won-Gi; van Ooyen, Jan; Noack, Stephan; Klein, Bianca; Bott, Michael; Eggeling, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    L-Isoleucine is an essential amino acid, which is required as a pharma product and feed additive. Its synthesis shares initial steps with that of L-lysine and L-threonine, and four enzymes of L-isoleucine synthesis have an enlarged substrate specificity involved also in L-valine and L-leucine synthesis. As a consequence, constructing a strain specifically overproducing L-isoleucine without byproduct formation is a challenge. Here, we analyze for consequences of plasmid-encoded genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum MH20-22B on L-isoleucine formation, but still obtain substantial accumulation of byproducts. In a different approach, we introduce point mutations into the genome of MH20-22B to remove the feedback control of homoserine dehydrogenase, hom, and threonine dehydratase, ilvA, and we assay sets of genomic promoter mutations to increase hom and ilvA expression as well as to reduce dapA expression, the latter gene encoding the dihydrodipicolinate synthase. The promoter mutations are mirrored in the resulting differential protein levels determined by a targeted LC-MS/MS approach for the three key enzymes. The best combination of genomic mutations was found in strain K2P55, where 53 mM L-isoleucine could be obtained. Whereas in fed-batch fermentations with the plasmid-based strain, 94 mM L-isoleucine with L-lysine as byproduct was formed; with the plasmid-less strain K2P55, 109 mM L-isoleucine accumulated with no substantial byproduct formation. The specific molar yield with the latter strain was 0.188 mol L-isoleucine (mol glucose)(-1) which characterizes it as one of the best L-isoleucine producers available and which does not contain plasmids. PMID:25301583

  5. Purification and catalytic properties of L-valine dehydrogenase from Streptomyces cinnamonensis.

    PubMed Central

    Priestley, N D; Robinson, J A

    1989-01-01

    NAD+-dependent L-valine dehydrogenase was purified 180-fold from Streptomyces cinnamonensis, and to homogeneity, as judged by gel electrophoresis. The enzyme has an Mr of 88,000, and appears to be composed of subunits of Mr 41,200. The enzyme catalyses the oxidative deamination of L-valine, L-leucine, L-2-aminobutyric acid, L-norvaline and L-isoleucine, as well as the reductive amination of their 2-oxo analogues. The enzyme requires NAD+ as the only cofactor, which cannot be replaced by NADP+. The enzyme activity is significantly decreased by thiol-reactive reagents, although purine and pyrimidine bases, and nucleotides, do not affect activity. Initial-velocity and product-inhibition studies show that the reductive amination proceeds through a sequential ordered ternary-binary mechanism; NADH binds to the enzyme first, followed by 2-oxoisovalerate and NH3, and valine is released first, followed by NAD+. The Michaelis constants are as follows; L-valine, 1.3 mM; NAD+, 0.18 mM; NADH, 74 microM; 2-oxoisovalerate, 0.81 mM; and NH3, 55 mM. The pro-S hydrogen at C-4' of NADH is transferred to the substrate; the enzyme is B-stereospecific. It is proposed that the enzyme catalyses the first step of valine catabolism in this organism. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2803248

  6. Conversion of l-Leucine to Isovaleric Acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii TL 34 and ITGP23

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Anne; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Yvon, Mireille

    2002-01-01

    Several branched-chain volatile compounds are involved in the flavor of Swiss cheese. These compounds are probably produced by enzymatic conversion of branched-chain amino acids, but the flora and the pathways involved remain hypothetical. Our aim was to determine the ability of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, which is one of the main components of the secondary flora of Swiss cheese, to produce flavor compounds during leucine catabolism. Cell extracts and resting cells of two strains were incubated in the presence of l-leucine, ?-ketoglutaric acid, and cofactors, and the metabolites produced were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The first step of leucine catabolism was a transamination that produced ?-ketoisocaproic acid, which was enzymatically converted to isovaleric acid. Both reactions were faster at pH 8.0 than at acidic pHs. Cell extracts catalyzed only the transamination step under our experimental conditions. Small amounts of 3-methylbutanol were also produced by resting cells, but neither 3-methylbutanal nor?-hydroxyisocaproic acid was detected. l-Isoleucine and l-valine were also converted to the corresponding acids and alcohols. Isovaleric acid was produced by both strains during growth in a complex medium, even under conditions simulating Swiss cheese conditions (2.1% NaCl, pH 5.4, 24C). Our results show that P. frendenreichii could play a significant role in the formation of isovaleric acid during ripening. PMID:11823198

  7. Conversion of L-leucine to isovaleric acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii TL 34 and ITGP23.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Anne; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Yvon, Mireille

    2002-02-01

    Several branched-chain volatile compounds are involved in the flavor of Swiss cheese. These compounds are probably produced by enzymatic conversion of branched-chain amino acids, but the flora and the pathways involved remain hypothetical. Our aim was to determine the ability of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, which is one of the main components of the secondary flora of Swiss cheese, to produce flavor compounds during leucine catabolism. Cell extracts and resting cells of two strains were incubated in the presence of L-leucine, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, and cofactors, and the metabolites produced were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The first step of leucine catabolism was a transamination that produced alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, which was enzymatically converted to isovaleric acid. Both reactions were faster at pH 8.0 than at acidic pHs. Cell extracts catalyzed only the transamination step under our experimental conditions. Small amounts of 3-methylbutanol were also produced by resting cells, but neither 3-methylbutanal noralpha-hydroxyisocaproic acid was detected. L-Isoleucine and L-valine were also converted to the corresponding acids and alcohols. Isovaleric acid was produced by both strains during growth in a complex medium, even under conditions simulating Swiss cheese conditions (2.1% NaCl, pH 5.4, 24 degrees C). Our results show that P. frendenreichii could play a significant role in the formation of isovaleric acid during ripening. PMID:11823198

  8. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 for L-valine production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jinyu; Dong, Xunyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an L-valine-producing strain was developed from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 through deletion of the three genes aceE, alaT and ilvA combined with the overexpression of six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnF and brnE. Overexpression of lrp1 alone increased L-valine production by 16-fold. Deletion of the aceE, alaT and ilvA increased L-valine production by 44-fold. Overexpression of the six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnE and brnF in the triple deletion mutant WCC003 further increased L-valine production. The strain WCC003/pJYW-4-ilvBNC1-lrp1-brnFE produced 243mM L-valine in flask cultivation and 437mM (51g/L) L-valine in fed-batch fermentation and lacked detectable amino-acid byproduct such as l-alanine and l-isoleucine that are usually found in the fermentation of L-valine-producing C. glutamicum. PMID:25769288

  9. A novel l-isoleucine-4?-dioxygenase and l-isoleucine dihydroxylation cascade in Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Sokolov, Pavel M; Kotlyarova, Veronika A; Samsonova, Natalya N; Kodera, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Torii, Takayoshi; Hibi, Makoto; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A unique operon structure has been identified in the genomes of several plant- and insect-associated bacteria. The distinguishing feature of this operon is the presence of tandem hilA and hilB genes encoding dioxygenases belonging to the PF13640 and PF10014 (BsmA) Pfam families, respectively. The genes encoding HilA and HilB from Pantoea ananatis AJ13355 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The culturing of E. coli cells expressing hilA (E. coli-HilA) or both hilA and hilB (E. coli-HilAB) in the presence of l-isoleucine resulted in the conversion of l-isoleucine into two novel biogenic compounds: l-4?-isoleucine and l-4,4?-dihydroxyisoleucine, respectively. In parallel, two novel enzymatic activities were detected in the crude cell lysates of the E. coli-HilA and E. coli-HilAB strains: l-isoleucine, 2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase (4?-hydroxylating) (HilA) and l-4?-hydroxyisoleucine, 2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating) (HilB), respectively. Two hypotheses regarding the physiological significance of C-4(4?)-hydroxylation of l-isoleucine in bacteria are also discussed. According to first hypothesis, the l-isoleucine dihydroxylation cascade is involved in synthesis of dipeptide antibiotic in P. ananatis. Another unifying hypothesis is that the C-4(4?)-hydroxylation of l-isoleucine in bacteria could result in the synthesis of signal molecules belonging to two classes: 2(5H)-furanones and analogs of N-acyl homoserine lactone. PMID:23554367

  10. Construction of l-Isoleucine Overproducing Strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahm, H.; Eggeling, L.; Morbach, S.; Eikmanns, B.

    Nowadays the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the industrial production of the amino acids l-glutamate (1106tons/year) and l-lysine (300103tons/year). The classical approach to obtain amino acid overproducing strains of C. glutamicum was mutagenesis and then a selection of mutants. In the past 10 years the genetic engineering and amplification of genes have become fascinating methods for studying metabolic pathways in greater detail and for constructing microbial strains with desired genotypes. To obtain l-isoleucine overproducing strains of C. glutamicum we therefore studied the l-isoleucine biosynthesis by overexpression of the various corresponding genes. To enable a flux increase in recombinant strains all genes specific for l-threonine and l-isoleucine biosynthesis were cloned from this bacterium. We demonstratet that amplification of the feedback inhibition insensitive homoserine dehydrogenase and homoserine kinase in a high l-lysine overproducing strain enable the channeling of the carbon flow from the intermediate l-aspartate semialdehyde towards homoserine, resulting in an accumulation of l-threonine. To obtain effective l-isoleucine overproduction a deregulated threonine dehydratase was overexpressed in l-threonine producing strains of C. glutamicum. In this way the l-threonine was converted to l-isoleucine, which was secreted up to 30g/l into the culture medium.

  11. Optical Properties of TGS Crystal with L-Valine Admixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stadnyk, V. Yo. Romanyuk, N. A.; Kiryk, Yu. I.

    2010-11-15

    The thermal expansion and temperature and the spectral dependences of the refractive indices and birefringence of triglycine sulphate (TGS) crystals with a 5% L-valine admixture have been investigated. It is established that the introduction of L-valine weakens the temperature dependence of the refractive indices and the birefringence and thermal expansion of TGS crystals. The parameters of the Sellmeier formula, refractions, and electronic polarizabilities are calculated. The changes observed may be related to the increase in hardness of admixture-containing crystals, the decrease in the spontaneous polarization, the replacement of the refraction components of the valine bond, or the spontaneous electro-optic effect.

  12. Application of metabolic engineering for the biotechnological production of L-valine.

    PubMed

    Oldiges, Marco; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Blombach, Bastian

    2014-07-01

    The branched chain amino acid L-valine is an essential nutrient for higher organisms, such as animals and humans. Besides the pharmaceutical application in parenteral nutrition and as synthon for the chemical synthesis of e.g. herbicides or anti-viral drugs, L-valine is now emerging into the feed market, and significant increase of sales and world production is expected. In accordance, well-known microbial production bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains, have recently been metabolically engineered for efficient L-valine production under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and the respective cultivation and production conditions have been optimized. This review summarizes the state of the art in L-valine biosynthesis and its regulation in E. coli and C. glutamicum with respect to optimal metabolic network for microbial L-valine production, genetic strain engineering and bioprocess development for L-valine production, and finally, it will shed light on emerging technologies that have the potential to accelerate strain and bioprocess engineering in the near future. PMID:24816722

  13. L-Leucine and NO-mediated cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Wu, Zhenlong; Meininger, Cynthia J; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-03-01

    Reduced availability of nitric oxide (NO) in the vasculature is a major factor contributing to the impaired action of insulin on blood flow and, therefore, insulin resistance in obese and diabetic subjects. Available evidence shows that vascular insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in developed nations. Interestingly, increased concentrations of L-leucine in the plasma occur in obese humans and other animals with vascular dysfunction. Among branched-chain amino acids, L-leucine is unique in inhibiting NO synthesis from L-arginine in endothelial cells and may modulate cardiovascular homeostasis in insulin resistance. Results of recent studies indicate that L-leucine is an activator of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GFAT), which is the first and a rate-controlling enzyme in the synthesis of glucosamine (an inhibitor of endothelial NO synthesis). Through stimulating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and thus protein synthesis, L-leucine may enhance GFAT protein expression, thereby inhibiting NO synthesis in endothelial cells. We propose that reducing circulating levels of L-leucine or endothelial GFAT activity may provide a potentially novel strategy for preventing and/or treating cardiovascular disease in obese and diabetic subjects. Such means may include dietary supplementation with either α-ketoglutarate to enhance the catabolism of L-leucine in the small intestine and other tissues or with N-ethyl-L-glutamine to inhibit GFAT activity in endothelial cells. Preventing leucine-induced activation of GFAT by nutritional supplements or pharmaceutical drugs may contribute to improved cardiovascular function by enhancing vascular NO synthesis. PMID:25552397

  14. Co-production of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and L-isoleucine in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Han, Guoqiang; Hu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, production of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated by overexpressing genes metK and vgb. Compared with vector control, overexpression of metK alone in C. glutamicum ATCC13032 and IWJ001 increased SAM production 5.11 and 11.65 times, respectively; while overexpression of metK and vgb in C. glutamicum ATCC13032 and IWJ001 increased SAM production 5.83 and 14.95 times, respectively. Further studies on IWJ001/pDXW-8-metk-vgb showed that the limiting factor for SAM production is intracellular ATP supply. Since IWJ001 is an L-isoleucine production strain, IWJ001/pDXW-8-metk-vgb could produce both SAM and L-isoleucine. After 72 h fermentation, SAM and L-isoleucine in IWJ001/pDXW-8-metk-vgb reached 0.67 g/L and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential application of C. glutamicum for co-production of SAM and amino acids. PMID:26215341

  15. Biosensor-driven adaptive laboratory evolution of l-valine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Regina; Gätgens, Cornelia; Gätgens, Jochem; Polen, Tino; Kalinowski, Jörn; Frunzke, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution has proven a valuable strategy for metabolic engineering. Here, we established an experimental evolution approach for improving microbial metabolite production by imposing an artificial selective pressure on the fluorescent output of a biosensor using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cells showing the highest fluorescent output were iteratively isolated and (re-)cultivated. The L-valine producer Corynebacterium glutamicum ΔaceE was equipped with an L-valine-responsive sensor based on the transcriptional regulator Lrp of C. glutamicum. Evolved strains featured a significantly higher growth rate, increased L-valine titers (~25%) and a 3-4-fold reduction of by-product formation. Genome sequencing resulted in the identification of a loss-of-function mutation (UreD-E188*) in the gene ureD (urease accessory protein), which was shown to increase L-valine production by up to 100%. Furthermore, decreased L-alanine formation was attributed to a mutation in the global regulator GlxR. These results emphasize biosensor-driven evolution as a straightforward approach to improve growth and productivity of microbial production strains. PMID:26453945

  16. A Co 2O 2 metallacycle exclusively supported by L-valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galn-Mascars, J. R.; Mart-Gastaldo, C.; Murcia-Martnez, A.

    2008-12-01

    [Co 2(OH) 2( L-valine) 4]2.5H 2O has been prepared under hydrothermal conditions and constitutes the first example of a [Co 2O 2] core supported exclusively by aminoacids. This synthetic dimetallic model for redox active metalloenzymes is one of the few binary aminoacid compounds of biologically relevant metal ions that has been structurally characterized, showing the possibilities of this synthetic approach for preparation of models in bioinorganic chemistry.

  17. Baicalein reverts L-valine-induced persistent sodium current up-modulation in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Caioli, Silvia; Candelotti, Elena; Pedersen, Jens Z; Saba, Luana; Antonini, Alessia; Incerpi, Sandra; Zona, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    L-valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) largely used as dietary integrator by athletes and involved in some inherited rare diseases such as maple syrup urine disease. This pathology is caused by an altered BCAA metabolism with the accumulation of toxic keto acids in tissues and body fluids with consequent severe neurological symptoms. In animal models of BCAA accumulation, increased oxidative stress levels and lipid peroxidation have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze both whether high BCAA concentrations in neurons induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and whether, by performing electrophysiological recordings, the neuronal functional properties are modified. Our results demonstrate that in primary cortical cultures, a high dose of valine increases ROS production and provokes neuronal hyperexcitability because the action potential frequencies and the persistent sodium current amplitudes increase significantly compared to non-treated neurons. Since Baicalein, a flavone obtained from the Scutellaria root, has been shown to act as a strong antioxidant with neuroprotective effects, we evaluated its possible antioxidant activity in primary cortical neurons chronically exposed to L-valine. The preincubation of cortical neurons with Baicalein prevents the ROS production and is able to revert both the neuronal hyperexcitability and the increase of the persistent sodium current, indicating a direct correlation between the ROS production and the altered physiological parameters. In conclusion, our data show that the electrophysiological alterations of cortical neurons elicited by high valine concentration are due to the increase in ROS production, suggesting much caution in the intake of BCAA dietary integrators. PMID:26721313

  18. Possibility of wound dressing using poly(L-leucine)/poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(L-leucine) triblock copolymer.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Choi, E Y; Oh, J S; Lee, H C; Park, S S; Cho, C S

    2000-01-01

    ABA-type block copolymers (abbreviated as LEL) composed of poly(L-leucine) (PLL) as the A component and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as the B component were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of L-leucine N-carboxyanhydride initiated by primary amino group located at both ends of PEG chain. A silver sulfadiazine (AgSD)-impregnated wound dressing of sponge type was prepared by the lyophilization method. Morphological structure of this wound dressing by scanning electron microscopy was observed to be composed of a dense skin layer and a porous inner layer. Equilibrium water content of LEL wound dressing increased with an increase in PEG content in the block copolymer due to the hydrophilicity of PEG. AgSD release from AgSD-impregnated wound dressing in PBS buffer (pH = 7.4) was dependent on PEG content in the block copolymer. Release of AgSD was increased in proportion to the PEG content in the copolymer. Antibacterial capacity of AgSD-impregnated wound dressing was examined in agar plate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the suppression of bacterial proliferation in the wound dressing was dependent upon the PEG content. In cytotoxicity test, cell damage did not occur by the release of AgSD from the LEL sponge matrix of AgSD-medicated wound dressing. In in vivo test, granulous tissue formation and wound contraction for the AgSD- and dehydroepiandrosterone-impregnated LEL-2 wound dressing were faster than for any other groups. PMID:10632395

  19. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum CP, a Chinese l-leucine producing strain.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yongli; Ma, Yuechao; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Xie, Xixian; Chen, Ning

    2016-02-20

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum CP, an industrial l-leucine producing strain in China. The whole genome consists of a circular chromosome and a plasmid. The comparative genomics analysis shows that there are many mutations in the key enzyme coding genes relevant to l-leucine biosynthesis compared to C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. PMID:26784991

  20. Dietary L-leucine improves the anemia in a mouse model for Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Jaako, Pekka; Debnath, Shubhranshu; Olsson, Karin; Bryder, David; Flygare, Johan; Karlsson, Stefan

    2012-09-13

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid hypoplasia caused by a functional haploinsufficiency of genes encoding for ribosomal proteins. Recently, a case study reported a patient who became transfusion-independent in response to treatment with the amino acid L-leucine. Therefore, we have validated the therapeutic effect of L-leucine using our recently generated mouse model for RPS19-deficient DBA. Administration of L-leucine significantly improved the anemia in Rps19-deficient mice (19% improvement in hemoglobin concentration; 18% increase in the number of erythrocytes), increased the bone marrow cellularity, and alleviated stress hematopoiesis. Furthermore, the therapeutic response to L-leucine appeared specific for Rps19-deficient hematopoiesis and was associated with down-regulation of p53 activity. Our study supports the rationale for clinical trials of L-leucine as a therapeutic agent for DBA. PMID:22791294

  1. d- and l-Isoleucine Metabolism and Regulation of Their Pathways in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Robert S.; Massey, Linda K.; Sokatch, John R.

    1974-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida oxidized isoleucine to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and propionyl-CoA by a pathway which involved deamination of d-isoleucine by oxidation and l-isoleucine by transamination, oxidative decarboxylation, and beta oxidation at the ethyl side chain. At least three separate inductive events were required to form all of the enzymes of the pathway: d-amino acid dehydrogenase was induced during growth in the presence of d-isoleucine; branched-chain keto dehydrogenase was induced during growth on 2-keto-3-methylvalerate and enzymes specific for isoleucine metabolism; tiglyl-CoA hydrase and 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase were induced by growth on isoleucine, 2-keto-3-methylvalerate, 2-methylbutyrate, or tiglate. Tiglyl-CoA hydrase and 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase were purified simultaneously by several enzyme concentration procedures, but were separated by isoelectric focusing. Isoelectric points, pH optima, substrate specificity, and requirements for enzyme action were determined for both enzymes. Evidence was obtained that the dehydrogenase catalyzed the oxidation of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA. 2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase catalyzed the oxidation of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, but l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase from pig heart did not catalyze the oxidation of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA; therefore, they appeared to be different dehydrogenases. Furthermore, growth on tiglate resulted in the induction of tiglyl-CoA hydrase and 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, but these two enzymes were not induced during growth on crotonate or 3-hydroxybutyrate. PMID:4150713

  2. Dietary L-leucine supplementation enhances intestinal development in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuli; Wu, Zhenlong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Kaiji; Ji, Yun; Wang, Bin; Jiao, Ning; He, Beibei; Wang, Weiwei; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-08-01

    L-Leucine is a signaling amino acid in animal metabolism. It is unknown whether supplementing L-leucine to breast-fed neonates may enhance their small-intestinal development. This hypothesis was tested with a piglet model. Seven-day-old sow-reared pigs with an average birth weight of 1.45 kg were assigned randomly to the control or leucine group (n = 30/group). Piglets in the leucine group were orally administrated with 1.4 g L-leucine/kg body weight, whereas piglets in the control group received isonitrogenous L-alanine, twice daily for 14 days. The supplemental L-leucine amounted to 200 % of L-leucine intake from sow's milk by 7-day-old pigs. At the end of the 2-week experiment, tissue samples were collected for determining intestinal morphology, expression of genes for intestinal leucine transporters (real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis), and plasma metabolites and hormones. L-leucine administration increased (P < 0.05) villus height in the duodenum, an elevated ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum, plasma concentrations of leucine, glutamine and asparagine, as well as body-weight gains. mRNA levels for L-leucine transporters (SLC6A14, SLC6A19 and SLC7A9) and the abundance of the ATB(0,+) protein were increased (P < 0.05) but those for SLC7A7 mRNA and the LAT2 protein were decreased (P < 0.05) in the jejunum of leucine-supplemented piglets, compared with the control. Plasma concentrations of ammonia, urea, triglycerides, and growth-related hormones did not differ between the control and leucine groups. Collectively, these results indicate that L-leucine supplementation improves intestinal development and whole-body growth in suckling piglets with a normal birth weight. PMID:25940921

  3. Isolation and characterization of awamori yeast mutants with L-leucine accumulation that overproduce isoamyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Hashida, Keisuke; Watanabe, Daisuke; Nasuno, Ryo; Ohashi, Masataka; Iha, Tomoya; Nezuo, Maiko; Tsukahara, Masatoshi

    2015-02-01

    Awamori shochu is a traditional distilled alcoholic beverage made from steamed rice in Okinawa, Japan. Although it has a unique aroma that is distinguishable from that of other types of shochu, no studies have been reported on the breeding of awamori yeasts. In yeast, isoamyl alcohol (i-AmOH), known as the key flavor of bread, is mainly produced from ?-ketoisocaproate in the pathway of L-leucine biosynthesis, which is regulated by end-product inhibition of ?-isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS). Here, we isolated mutants resistant to the L-leucine analog 5,5,5-trifluoro-DL-leucine (TFL) derived from diploid awamori yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular L-leucine, and among them, one mutant overproduced i-AmOH in awamori brewing. This mutant carried an allele of the LEU4 gene encoding the Ser542Phe/Ala551Val variant IPMS, which is less sensitive to feedback inhibition by L-leucine. Interestingly, we found that either of the constituent mutations (LEU4(S542F) and LEU4(A551V)) resulted in the TFL tolerance of yeast cells and desensitization to L-leucine feedback inhibition of IPMS, leading to intracellular L-leucine accumulation. Homology modeling also suggested that L-leucine binding was drastically inhibited in the Ser542Phe, Ala551Val, and Ser542Phe/Ala551Val variants due to steric hindrance in the cavity of IPMS. As we expected, awamori yeast cells expressing LEU4(S542F), LEU4(A551V), and LEU4(S542F/A551V) showed a prominent increase in extracellular i-AmOH production, compared with that of cells carrying the vector only. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of novel awamori yeasts to expand the diversity of awamori taste and flavor. PMID:25060730

  4. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of l-valine based on transcriptome analysis and in silico gene knockout simulation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Hwan; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2007-01-01

    The l-valine production strain of Escherichia coli was constructed by rational metabolic engineering and stepwise improvement based on transcriptome analysis and gene knockout simulation of the in silico genome-scale metabolic network. Feedback inhibition of acetohydroxy acid synthase isoenzyme III by l-valine was removed by site-directed mutagenesis, and the native promoter containing the transcriptional attenuator leader regions of the ilvGMEDA and ilvBN operon was replaced with the tac promoter. The ilvA, leuA, and panB genes were deleted to make more precursors available for l-valine biosynthesis. This engineered Val strain harboring a plasmid overexpressing the ilvBN genes produced 1.31 g/liter l-valine. Comparative transcriptome profiling was performed during batch fermentation of the engineered and control strains. Among the down-regulated genes, the lrp and ygaZH genes, which encode a global regulator Lrp and l-valine exporter, respectively, were overexpressed. Amplification of the lrp, ygaZH, and lrp-ygaZH genes led to the enhanced production of l-valine by 21.6%, 47.1%, and 113%, respectively. Further improvement was achieved by using in silico gene knockout simulation, which identified the aceF, mdh, and pfkA genes as knockout targets. The VAMF strain (Val ΔaceF Δmdh ΔpfkA) overexpressing the ilvBN, ilvCED, ygaZH, and lrp genes was able to produce 7.55 g/liter l-valine from 20 g/liter glucose in batch culture, resulting in a high yield of 0.378 g of l-valine per gram of glucose. These results suggest that an industrially competitive strain can be efficiently developed by metabolic engineering based on combined rational modification, transcriptome profiling, and systems-level in silico analysis. PMID:17463081

  5. Pushing product formation to its limit: metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-leucine overproduction.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Michael; Haas, Sabine; Klaffl, Simon; Polen, Tino; Eggeling, Lothar; van Ooyen, Jan; Bott, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Using metabolic engineering, an efficient L-leucine production strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum was developed. In the wild type of C. glutamicum, the leuA-encoded 2-isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) is inhibited by low L-leucine concentrations with a K(i) of 0.4 mM. We identified a feedback-resistant IMPS variant, which carries two amino acid exchanges (R529H, G532D). The corresponding leuA(fbr) gene devoid of the attenuator region and under control of a strong promoter was integrated in one, two or three copies into the genome and combined with additional genomic modifications aimed at increasing L-leucine production. These modifications involved (i) deletion of the gene encoding the repressor LtbR to increase expression of leuBCD, (ii) deletion of the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator IolR to increase glucose uptake, (iii) reduction of citrate synthase activity to increase precursor supply, and (iv) introduction of a gene encoding a feedback-resistant acetohydroxyacid synthase. The production performance of the resulting strains was characterized in bioreactor cultivations. Under fed-batch conditions, the best producer strain accumulated L-leucine to levels exceeding the solubility limit of about 24 g/l. The molar product yield was 0.30 mol L-leucine per mol glucose and the volumetric productivity was 4.3 mmol l? h?. These values were obtained in a defined minimal medium with a prototrophic and plasmid-free strain, making this process highly interesting for industrial application. PMID:24333966

  6. Mechanism of specific influence of L-Glutamic acid on the shape of L-Valine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiura, Hiromu; Nagano, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2013-01-01

    The specific interaction between L-valine (L-Val) and L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) in the process of evaporative crystallization from an aqueous solution has been investigated. It was found that only 2.0% (wt/wt) of L-Glu against the total amount of L-Val was required to induce significant agglomeration of L-Val. Interestingly, the agglomeration was only induced under acidic conditions, suggesting that the electrostatic interaction was an effective factor for the agglomeration process. As well as the electrostatic interaction, the length of the amino acid side chain was identified as another important factor. In addition, we confirmed that the incorporation rate of L-Glu into L-Val crystals was different during the nucleation and crystal growth stages. Based on these results, a mechanism has been proposed for the interaction of L-Glu and L-Val during the agglomeration process.

  7. Fluorescence of the Schiff bases of pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate withL-isoleucine in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Cambrn, G; Sevilla, J M; Pineda, T; Blzquez, M

    1996-03-01

    The present study reports on the absorption and emission properties of the Schiff bases formed by pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate withL-isoleucine in aqueous solutions. Species protonated at the imine and ring nitrogen are the most fluorescent in both Schiff bases with a quantum yield of 0.02, i.e., 20-fold the value found for species in alkaline solutions. In agreement with other studies, species protonated at the imine nitrogen shows an emission around 500 nm upon excitation at 415 nm. In contrast to previous observations on other PLP Schiff bases, emissions at 560 nm (PL-Ile) and 540 nm (PLP-Ile) are observed upon excitation at 365 and 415 nm, respectively. The emission at 470 nm found in PLP-Ile Schiff base upon excitation at 355 nm is ascribed to a multipolar monoprotonated species. An estimation for the pK a of the imine in the excited state ( ? 8.5) for both Schiff bases is also reached. Our results suggest that fast protonation reactions on the excited state are responsible for the observed fluorescence. These effects, in which the hydrogen bond and the phosphate group seem to play a role, could be extended to understanding coenzyme environments in proteins. PMID:24226991

  8. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine coordinates metabolic networks required for anthesis and floral attractant emission in wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

    PubMed

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

  9. Nano spray-dried pyrazinamide-l-leucine dry powders, physical properties and feasibility used as dry powder aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kaewjan, Kanogwan; Srichana, Teerapol

    2014-10-21

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding l-leucine and using an ethanolic solvent on the physicochemical properties and aerodynamic behavior of nano spray-dried pyrazinamide (PZA)-l-leucine powders. Materials and methods: A nano spray dryer was employed to prepare PZA-l-leucine powders. The physicochemical properties were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The Andersen cascade impactor was used to evaluate the in vitro aerosolization performance of the sprayed powders. Results and discussion: The incorporation of l-leucine at 10% improved the percentage fine particle fraction (%FPF) in all ethanolic solvent formulations by up to nearly twofold (20.0-23.4%) compared to the normal spray-dried PZA of (8.8-13.0%). Changes in the particle density and morphology were also observed. The dense solid particles of PZA were completely converted to bulk hollow particles with a thin shell by increasing the l-leucine content up to 50%. Higher ethanol concentration resulted in larger dimensions of the hollow particle but did not directly affect the aerosolization performance. The co-spray dried PZA with 20% l-leucine in a 10% ethanol feed solvent gave the best aerosolization performance (FPF?=?33.0%). Conclusions: The co-spray dried PZA with a suitable l-leucine content using a nano spray drying technique could be applied to formulate the PZA DPI. PMID:25331092

  10. Liver functional metabolomics discloses an action of L-leucine against Streptococcus iniae infection in tilapias.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Mei; Yang, Man-Jun; Wang, Sanying; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus iniae seriously affects the intensive farming of tilapias. Much work has been conducted on prevention and control of S.iniae infection, but little published information on the metabolic response is available in tilapias against the bacterial infection, and no metabolic modulation way may be adopted to control this disease. The present study used GC/MS based metabolomics to characterize the metabolic profiling of tilapias infected by a lethal dose (LD50) of S.iniae and determined two characteristic metabolomes separately responsible for the survival and dying fishes. A reversal changed metabolite, decreased and increased l-leucine in the dying and survival groups, respectively, was identified as a biomarker which featured the difference between the two metabolomes. More importantly, exogenous l-leucine could be used as a metabolic modulator to elevate survival ability of tilapias infected by S.iniae. These results indicate that tilapias mount metabolic strategies to deal with bacterial infection, which can be regulated by exogenous metabolites such as l-leucine. The present study establishes an alternative way, metabolic modulation, to cope with bacterial infections. PMID:25957884

  11. Quantitation and Enantiomeric Ratios of Aroma Compounds Formed by an Ehrlich Degradation of l-Isoleucine in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    The conversion of parent free amino acids into alcohols by an enzymatic deamination, decarboxylation, and reduction caused by microbial enzymes was first reported more than 100 years ago and is today known as the Ehrlich pathway. Because the chiral center at the carbon bearing the methyl group in l-isoleucine should not be prone to racemization during the reaction steps, the analysis of the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid as well as in the compounds formed by secondary reactions, such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutyl acetate, are an appropriate measure to follow the proposed degradation mechanism in the Ehrlich reaction. On the basis of a newly developed method for quantitation and chiral analysis, the enantiomers of the five metabolites were determined in a great number of fermented foods. Whereas 2-methylbutanol occurred as pure (S)-enantiomer in nearly all samples, a ratio of almost 1:1 of (S)- and (R)-2-methylbutanal was found. These data are not in agreement with the literature suggesting the formation of 2-methylbutanol by an enzymatic reduction of 2-methylbutanal. Also, the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanoic acid was closer to that in 2-methylbutanol than to that found in 2-methylbutanal, suggesting that also the acid is probably not formed by oxidation of the aldehyde as previously proposed. Additional model studies with (S)-2-methylbutanal did not show a racemization under the conditions of food production or during workup of the sample for volatile analysis. Therefore, the results establish that different mechanisms might be responsible for the formation of aldehydes and acids from the parent amino acids in the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:26717969

  12. Comparative Physiological Studies of the Yeast and Mycelial Forms of Histoplasma capsulatum: Uptake and Incorporation of l-Leucine

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rishab K.; Howard, Dexter H.

    1971-01-01

    l-Leucine entered the cells of both morphological forms of Histoplasma capsulatum by a permease-like system at low external concentrations of substrate. However, at levels greater than 5 10?5m l-leucine, the amino acid entered the cells both through a simple diffusion-like process and the permease-like system. The rate of the amino acid diffusion into yeast and mycelial forms appeared to be the same, whereas the initial rate of accumulation through the permease-like system was 5 to 10 times faster in the mycelial phase than it was in the yeast phase. The Michaelis constants were 2.2 10?5m in yeast phase and 2 10?5m in mycelial phase cells. Transport of l-leucine at an external concentration of 10?5m showed all of the characteristics of a system of active transport, which was dependent on temperature and pH. Displacement or removal of the ?-amino group, or modification of the ?-carboxyl group abolished amino acid uptake. The process was competitively inhibited by neutral aliphatic side-chain amino acids (inhibition constants ranged from 1.5 10?5 to 6.2 10?5m). Neutral aromatic side-chain amino acids and the d-isomers of leucine and valine did not inhibit l-leucine uptake. These data were interpreted to mean that the l-leucine transport system is stereospecific and is highly specific for neutral aliphatic side-chain amino acids. Incorporation of l-leucine into macromolecules occurred at almost the same rate in both morphological forms of the fungus. The mycelial phase but not the yeast phase showed a slight initial lag in incorporation. In both morphological forms the intracellular pool of l-leucine was of limited capacity, and the total uptake of the amino acid was a function of intracellular pool size. The initial rate of l-leucine uptake was independent of the level of intracellular pool. Both morphological forms deaminated and degraded only a minor fraction of the accumulated leucine. PMID:4323295

  13. N-Acetyl-L-Leucine Accelerates Vestibular Compensation after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy by Action in the Cerebellum and Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by activating the vestibulocerebellum and deactivating the posterolateral thalamus. PMID:25803613

  14. N-acetyl-L-leucine accelerates vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy by action in the cerebellum and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Günther, Lisa; Beck, Roswitha; Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by activating the vestibulocerebellum and deactivating the posterolateral thalamus. PMID:25803613

  15. Platform Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum with Reduced Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Activity for Improved Production of l-Lysine, l-Valine, and 2-Ketoisovalerate

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Jens; Schwentner, Andreas; Brunnenkan, Britta; Gabris, Christina; Grimm, Simon; Gerstmeir, Robert; Takors, Ralf; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2013-01-01

    Exchange of the native Corynebacterium glutamicum promoter of the aceE gene, encoding the E1p subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), with mutated dapA promoter variants led to a series of C. glutamicum strains with gradually reduced growth rates and PDHC activities. Upon overexpression of the l-valine biosynthetic genes ilvBNCE, all strains produced l-valine. Among these strains, C. glutamicum aceE A16 (pJC4 ilvBNCE) showed the highest biomass and product yields, and thus it was further improved by additional deletion of the pqo and ppc genes, encoding pyruvate:quinone oxidoreductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, respectively. In fed-batch fermentations at high cell densities, C. glutamicum aceE A16 Δpqo Δppc (pJC4 ilvBNCE) produced up to 738 mM (i.e., 86.5 g/liter) l-valine with an overall yield (YP/S) of 0.36 mol per mol of glucose and a volumetric productivity (QP) of 13.6 mM per h [1.6 g/(liter × h)]. Additional inactivation of the transaminase B gene (ilvE) and overexpression of ilvBNCD instead of ilvBNCE transformed the l-valine-producing strain into a 2-ketoisovalerate producer, excreting up to 303 mM (35 g/liter) 2-ketoisovalerate with a YP/S of 0.24 mol per mol of glucose and a QP of 6.9 mM per h [0.8 g/(liter × h)]. The replacement of the aceE promoter by the dapA-A16 promoter in the two C. glutamicum l-lysine producers DM1800 and DM1933 improved the production by 100% and 44%, respectively. These results demonstrate that C. glutamicum strains with reduced PDHC activity are an excellent platform for the production of pyruvate-derived products. PMID:23835179

  16. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.c (L-(+)-Valine): Characterization of organic substances for chemical purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Choteau, Tiphaine; Daireaux, Adeline; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; Moad, Michael; Chan, Benjamin; Muñoz, Amalia; Conneely, Patrick; Ricci, Marina; Pires do Rego, Eliane Cristina; Garrido, Bruno C.; Violante, Fernando G. M.; Windust, Anthony; Dai, Xinhua; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Su, Fuhai; Quan, Can; Wang, Haifeng; Lo, Man-fung; Wong, Wai-fun; Gantois, Fanny; Lalerle, Béatrice; Dorgerloh, Ute; Koch, Matthias; Klyk-Seitz, Urszula-Anna; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Philipp, Rosemarie; Piechotta, Christian; Recknagel, Sebastian; Rothe, Robert; Yamazaki, Taichi; Zakaria, Osman Bin; Castro, E.; Balderas, M.; González, N.; Salazar, C.; Regalado, L.; Valle, E.; Rodríguez, L.; Ángel Laguna, L.; Ramírez, P.; Avila, M.; Ibarra, J.; Valle, L.; Pérez, M.; Arce, M.; Mitani, Y.; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.; Tang Lin, Teo; Liu, Qinde; Tong Kooi, Lee; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Prevoo-Franzsen, Désirée; Nhlapo, Nontete; Visser, Ria; Kim, Byungjoo; Lee, Hwashim; Kankaew, Pornhatai; Pookrod, Preeyaporn; Sudsiri, Nittaya; Shearman, Kittiya; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Hasibe; Bilsel, Mine; Çergel, Muhiddin; Gonca Çoskun, Fatma; Uysal, Emrah; Gündüz, Simay; Ün, Ilker; Warren, John; Bearden, Daniel W.; Bedner, Mary; Duewer, David L.; Lang, Brian E.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Schantz, Michele M.; Sieber, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM K55.c, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2012. Twenty National Measurement Institutes or Designated Institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of valine present as the main component in the comparison sample for CCQM-K55.c. The comparison samples were prepared from analytical grade L-valine purchased from a commercial supplier and used as provided without further treatment or purification. Valine was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of low structural complexity [molecular weight range 100-300] and high polarity (pKOW > -2). The KCRV for the valine content of the material was 992.0 mg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.3 mg/g. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) was assigned by combination of KCRVs assigned from participant results for each orthogonal impurity class. The relative expanded uncertainties reported by laboratories having results consistent with the KCRV ranged from 1 mg/g to 6 mg/g when using mass balance based approaches alone, 2 mg/g to 7 mg/g using quantitative 1H NMR (qNMR) based approaches and from 1 mg/g to 2.5 mg/g when a result obtained by a mass balance method was combined with a separate qNMR result. The material provided several analytical challenges. In addition to the need to identify and quantify various related amino acid impurities including leucine, isoleucine, alanine and α-amino butyrate, care was required to select appropriate conditions for performing Karl Fischer titration assay for water content to avoid bias due to in situ formation of water by self-condensation under the assay conditions. It also proved to be a challenging compound for purity assignment by qNMR techniques. There was overall excellent agreement between participants in the identification and the quantification of the total and individual related structure impurities, water content, residual solvent and total non-volatile content of the sample. Appropriate technical justifications were developed to rationalise observed discrepancies in the limited cases where methodology differences led to inconsistent results. The comparison demonstrated that to perform a qNMR purity assignment the selection of appropriate parameters and an understanding of their potential influence on the assigned value is critical for reliable implementation of the method, particularly when one or more of the peaks to be quantified consist of complex multiplet signals. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. The role of an L-leucine residue on the conformations of glycyl-L-leucine oligomers and its N- or C-terminal dependence: infrared absorption and Raman scattering studies.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Hiro-Fumi; Kanbe, Hide-Hiro; O'Connor, Charmian J

    2016-01-01

    The conformations of glycyl-L-leucine oligomers (GnL, residue number n=3, 4, and 5) in the solid state were found to be similar to that of a polyglycine II (PGII). However, for L-leucyl-glycine oligomers (LGn; n=3, 4, 5) in the solid state, LG3 and LG4 have already been confirmed to take a reverse-turn structure (LG3-type reverse-turn) while LG5 adopts a PGII-type helix. The present results provide evidence that the conformations of L-leucine-containing glycine oligomers depend strongly upon whether the L-leucine residue is placed in the N- or C-terminal position. For the aqueous G3L and G4L samples, we assumed that reverse-turn structures similar to the type II ?-turn, rather than the LG3-type reverse-turn, are stabilized in concentrated solution, probably as the result of aggregation. Models to explain the mechanism of these phenomena are presented. PMID:26385704

  18. l-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E.; Gerton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (?-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite ?-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. PMID:25378554

  19. Application of a genetically encoded biosensor for live cell imaging of L-valine production in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, Nurije; Grnberger, Alexander; Mahr, Regina; Helfrich, Stefan; Nh, Katharina; Blombach, Bastian; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Frunzke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ?aceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ?aceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains. PMID:24465669

  20. Application of a Genetically Encoded Biosensor for Live Cell Imaging of L-Valine Production in Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Mahr, Regina; Helfrich, Stefan; Nh, Katharina; Blombach, Bastian; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Frunzke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ?aceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ?aceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains. PMID:24465669

  1. L-Leucine improves the anaemia in models of Diamond Blackfan anaemia and the 5q- syndrome in a TP53-independent way.

    PubMed

    Narla, Anupama; Payne, Elspeth M; Abayasekara, Nirmalee; Hurst, Slater N; Raiser, David M; Look, A Thomas; Berliner, Nancy; Ebert, Benjamin L; Khanna-Gupta, Arati

    2014-11-01

    Haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and upregulation of the tumour suppressor TP53 have been shown to be the common basis for the anaemia observed in Diamond Blackfan anaemia and 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome. We previously demonstrated that treatment with L-Leucine resulted in a marked improvement in anaemia in disease models. To determine if the L-Leucine effect was Tp53-dependent, we used antisense MOs to rps19 and rps14 in zebrafish; expression of tp53 and its downstream target cdkn1a remained elevated following L-leucine treatment. We confirmed this observation in human CD34+ cells. L-Leucine thus alleviates anaemia in RP-deficient cells in a TP53-independent manner. PMID:25098371

  2. Arabidopsis CYP94B3 encodes jasmonyl-L-isoleucine 12-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Matsubara, Takuya; Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Kosaku; Wakuta, Shinji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hirokazu; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    The hormonal action of jasmonate in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. It has been shown that jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is the bioactive form involved in the jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway. However, the catabolism of JA-Ile is poorly understood. Although a metabolite, 12-hydroxyJA-Ile, has been characterized, detailed functional studies of the compound and the enzyme that produces it have not been conducted. In this report, the kinetics of wound-induced accumulation of 12-hydroxyJA-Ile in plants were examined, and its involvement in the plant wound response is described. Candidate genes for the catabolic enzyme were narrowed down from 272 Arabidopsis Cyt P450 genes using Arabidopsis mutants. The candidate gene was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris to reveal that CYP94B3 encodes JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase. Expression analyses demonstrate that expression of CYP94B3 is induced by wounding and shows specific activity toward JA-Ile. Plants grown in medium containing JA-Ile show higher sensitivity to JA-Ile in cyp94b3 mutants than in wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that CYP94B3 plays a major regulatory role in controlling the level of JA-Ile in plants. PMID:21849397

  3. Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine Coordinates Metabolic Networks Required for Anthesis and Floral Attractant Emission in Wild Tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata)[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure and interaction of L-valine Schiff base divanadium(V) complex containing a V2O3 core with DNA and BSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiong; Li, Lianzhi; Dong, Jianfang; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Tao; Li, Jinghong

    2013-04-01

    A divanadium(V) complex, [V2O3(o-van-val)2] (o-van-val = Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and L-valine), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure shows that both of the vanadium centers in the complex have a distorted octahedral coordination environment composed of tridentate Schiff base ligand. A V2O3 core in molecular structure adopts intermediate between cis and trans configuration with the O1dbnd V1⋯V1Adbnd O1A torsion angle 115.22 (28) and the V1⋯V1A distance 3.455 . The binding properties of the complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, CD spectra and viscosity measurement. The results indicate that the complex binds to CT-DNA in non-classical intercalative mode. Meanwhile, the interaction of the complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and CD spectra. Results indicated that the complex can markedly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static quenching process, and cause its conformational change. The calculated apparent binding constant Kb was 1.05 106 M-1 and the binding site number n was 1.18.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Inactivation of the Hormone Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine by Multiple Members of the Cytochrome P450 94 Family in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.; Thireault, Caitlin; Zemelis, Starla; Poudel, Arati N.; Zhang, Tong; Kitaoka, Naoki; Brandizzi, Federica; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) controls diverse aspects of plant immunity, growth, and development. The amplitude and duration of JA responses are controlled in large part by the intracellular level of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile). In contrast to detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about enzymes involved in JA-Ile metabolism and turnover. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 94B3 and 94C1 were recently shown to sequentially oxidize JA-Ile to hydroxy (12OH-JA-Ile) and dicarboxy (12COOH-JA-Ile) derivatives. Here, we report that a third member (CYP94B1) of the CYP94 family also participates in oxidative turnover of JA-Ile in Arabidopsis. In vitro studies showed that recombinant CYP94B1 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile and lesser amounts of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Consistent with this finding, metabolic and physiological characterization of CYP94B1 loss-of-function and overexpressing plants demonstrated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 coordinately govern the majority (>95%) of 12-hydroxylation of JA-Ile in wounded leaves. Analysis of CYP94-promoter-GUS reporter lines indicated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 serve unique and overlapping spatio-temporal roles in JA-Ile homeostasis. Subcellular localization studies showed that CYP94s involved in conversion of JA-Ile to 12COOH-JA-Ile reside on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro studies further showed that 12COOH-JA-Ile, unlike JA-Ile, fails to promote assembly of COI1-JAZ co-receptor complexes. The double loss-of-function mutant of CYP94B3 and ILL6, a JA-Ile amidohydrolase, displayed a JA profile consistent with the collaborative action of the oxidative and the hydrolytic pathways in JA-Ile turnover. Collectively, our results provide an integrated view of how multiple ER-localized CYP94 and JA amidohydrolase enzymes attenuate JA signaling during stress responses. PMID:25210037

  6. Crystal Engineering of l-Alanine with l-Leucine Additive using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated that the change in the morphology of l-alanine crystals can be controlled with the addition of l-leucine using the metal-assisted and microwave accelerated evaporative crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique. Crystallization experiments, where an increasing stoichiometric amount of l-leucine is added to initial l-alanine solutions, were carried out on circular poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) disks modified with a 21-well capacity silicon isolator and silver nanoparticle films using microwave heating (MA-MAEC) and at room temperature (control experiments). The use of the MA-MAEC technique afforded for the growth of l-alanine crystals with different morphologies up to ?10-fold faster than those grown at room temperature. In addition, the length of l-alanine crystals was systematically increased from ?380 to ?2000 ?m using the MA-MAEC technique. Optical microscope images revealed that the shape of l-alanine crystals was changed from tetragonal shape (without l-leucine additive) to more elongated and wire-like structures with the addition of the l-leucine additive. Further characterization of l-alanine crystals was undertaken by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements. In order to elucidate the growth mechanism of l-alanine crystals, theoretical simulations of l-alanines morphology with and without l-leucine additive were carried out using Materials Studio software in conjunction with our experimental data. Theoretical simulations revealed that the growth of l-alanines {011} and {120} crystal faces were inhibited due to the incorporation of l-leucine into these crystal faces in selected positions. PMID:24839404

  7. Crystal Engineering of l-Alanine with l-Leucine Additive using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mojibola, Adeolu; Dongmo-Momo, Gilles; Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrated that the change in the morphology of l-alanine crystals can be controlled with the addition of l-leucine using the metal-assisted and microwave accelerated evaporative crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique. Crystallization experiments, where an increasing stoichiometric amount of l-leucine is added to initial l-alanine solutions, were carried out on circular poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) disks modified with a 21-well capacity silicon isolator and silver nanoparticle films using microwave heating (MA-MAEC) and at room temperature (control experiments). The use of the MA-MAEC technique afforded for the growth of l-alanine crystals with different morphologies up to ?10-fold faster than those grown at room temperature. In addition, the length of l-alanine crystals was systematically increased from ?380 to ?2000 ?m using the MA-MAEC technique. Optical microscope images revealed that the shape of l-alanine crystals was changed from tetragonal shape (without l-leucine additive) to more elongated and wire-like structures with the addition of the l-leucine additive. Further characterization of l-alanine crystals was undertaken by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements. In order to elucidate the growth mechanism of l-alanine crystals, theoretical simulations of l-alanine's morphology with and without l-leucine additive were carried out using Materials Studio software in conjunction with our experimental data. Theoretical simulations revealed that the growth of l-alanine's {011} and {120} crystal faces were inhibited due to the incorporation of l-leucine into these crystal faces in selected positions. PMID:24839404

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and comparative DNA binding studies of Schiff base complexes derived from L-leucine and glyoxal.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Mohammad; Shahid, Nida; Sami, Naushaba; Azam, Mohammad; Khan, Asad U

    2011-11-01

    The mononuclear Schiff base complexes of the type, [ML(CH(3)OH)(2)] [M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] have been synthesized by template condensation of L-leucine and glyoxal. The complexes have been characterized on the basis of the results of the elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectroscopic studies viz, FT-IR, Mass, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. The UV-vis and magnetic moment data revealed an octahedral geometry around Co(II), Ni(II) ion with distortion around Cu(II) ion complex confirmed by EPR data. The conductivity data show a non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies support that all the complexes exhibit a significant binding to calf thymus DNA. PMID:21807556

  9. X-ray structure and computational study for N-acryloyl-L-valine, a versatile monomer for preparing smart drug delivery carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamasi, Gabriella; Casolaro, Mario; Cini, Renzo

    2012-12-01

    The title compound (NAV) has been synthesized by the acylation reaction of L-valine with acryloyl chloride, in alkaline solution. The X-ray crystal and molecular structure was solved and refined in the P212121 space group and was characterized by an almost coplanar H2Cdbnd CHsbnd C(dbnd O)sbnd N(sbnd H)sbnd C system, Cdbnd Csbnd Csbnd N, Cdbnd Csbnd Cdbnd O and (Cdbnd )Csbnd C(dbnd O)sbnd N(sbnd H)sbnd C torsion angles being +anti periplanar (+ap) (trans, +172(1)°), -syn periplanar (-sp, cys) (-8(1)°), and (-ap, trans) (-175(1)°). The carboxylic group plane is almost perpendicular to the amide plane (dihedral angle: 83(1)°) and the Odbnd Csbnd C(sbnd H)sbnd N(sbnd H) torsion angle is-sp, cys (-28(1)°). The Csbnd O bond distance at amide is 1.240(3) Å, whereas the Csbnd O bond distances at carboxylic group are 1.200(3) and 1.303(3) Å, respectively allowing an easy assignment of protonation site. The molecule has been theoretically analyzed via the methods of density functional theory DFT and semi-empirical quantum mechanics at PM3 level (SEQMPM3) in order to examine the conformational surface at the gas phase and in the presence of solvent molecules. The DFT computations at B3LYP/6-311++G** are the most reliable ones among those performed in this work (SEQMPM3, and B3LYP/6-31G**) as the agreement between computed and XRD bond parameters is excellent. Even the conformations are very reliable and the effect of the solvent was evaluated in a box of water molecules (at SEQMPM3) and through the PCM method at DFT for water, methanol, chloroform and other solvents.

  10. L-Leucine improves the anemia and developmental defects associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia and del(5q) MDS by activating the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Payne, Elspeth M; Virgilio, Maria; Narla, Anupama; Sun, Hong; Levine, Michelle; Paw, Barry H; Berliner, Nancy; Look, A Thomas; Ebert, Benjamin L; Khanna-Gupta, Arati

    2012-09-13

    Haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins (RPs) has been proposed to be the common basis for the anemia observed in Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) and myelodysplastic syndrome with loss of chromosome 5q [del(5q) MDS]. We have modeled DBA and del(5q) MDS in zebrafish using antisense morpholinos to rps19 and rps14, respectively, and have demonstrated that, as in humans, haploinsufficient levels of these proteins lead to a profound anemia. To address the hypothesis that RP loss results in impaired mRNA translation, we treated Rps19 and Rps14-deficient embryos with the amino acid L-leucine, a known activator of mRNA translation. This resulted in a striking improvement of the anemia associated with RP loss. We confirmed our findings in primary human CD34⁺ cells, after shRNA knockdown of RPS19 and RPS14. Furthermore, we showed that loss of Rps19 or Rps14 activates the mTOR pathway, and this is accentuated by L-leucine in both Rps19 and Rps14 morphants. This effect could be abrogated by rapamycin suggesting that mTOR signaling may be responsible for the improvement in anemia associated with L-leucine. Our studies support the rationale for ongoing clinical trials of L-leucine as a therapeutic agent for DBA, and potentially for patients with del(5q) MDS. PMID:22734070

  11. The mTORC1/4E-BP pathway coordinates hemoglobin production with L-leucine availability.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jacky; Bauer, Daniel E; Ghamari, Alireza; Nizzi, Christopher P; Deck, Kathryn M; Kingsley, Paul D; Yien, Yvette Y; Huston, Nicholas C; Chen, Caiyong; Schultz, Iman J; Dalton, Arthur J; Wittig, Johannes G; Palis, James; Orkin, Stuart H; Lodish, Harvey F; Eisenstein, Richard S; Cantor, Alan B; Paw, Barry H

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, the mechanisms by which diverse cell types acquire distinct amino acids and how cellular function adapts to their availability are fundamental questions in biology. We found that increased neutral essential amino acid (NEAA) uptake was a critical component of erythropoiesis. As red blood cells matured, expression of the amino acid transporter gene Lat3 increased, which increased NEAA import. Inadequate NEAA uptake by pharmacologic inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of LAT3 triggered a specific reduction in hemoglobin production in zebrafish embryos and murine erythroid cells through the mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1)/4E-BP (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein) pathway. CRISPR-mediated deletion of members of the 4E-BP family in murine erythroid cells rendered them resistant to mTORC1 and LAT3 inhibition and restored hemoglobin production. These results identify a developmental role for LAT3 in red blood cells and demonstrate that mTORC1 serves as a homeostatic sensor that couples hemoglobin production at the translational level to sufficient uptake of NEAAs, particularly L-leucine. PMID:25872869

  12. The mTORC1/4E-BP pathway coordinates hemoglobin production with L-leucine availability

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jacky; Bauer, Daniel E.; Ghamari, Alireza; Nizzi, Christopher P.; Deck, Kathryn M.; Kingsley, Paul D.; Yien, Yvette Y.; Huston, Nicholas C.; Chen, Caiyong; Schultz, Iman J.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Wittig, Johannes G.; Palis, James; Orkin, Stuart H.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Cantor, Alan B.; Paw, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, the mechanisms by which diverse cell types acquire distinct amino acids and how cellular function adapts to their availability are fundamental questions in biology. Here, we found that increased neutral essential amino acid (NEAA) uptake was a critical component of erythropoiesis. As red blood cells matured, expression of the amino acid transporter gene Lat3 increased, which increased NEAA import. Inadequate NEAA uptake by pharmacologic inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of LAT3 triggered a specific reduction in hemoglobin production in zebrafish embryos and murine erythroid cells through the mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1)/4E-BP (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein) pathway. CRISPR-mediated deletion of members of the 4E-BP family in murine erythroid cells rendered them resistant to mTORC1 and LAT3 inhibition and restored hemoglobin production. These results identify a developmental role for LAT3 in red blood cells and demonstrate that mTORC1 serves as a homeostatic sensor that couples hemoglobin production at the translational level to sufficient uptake of NEAAs, particularly L-leucine. PMID:25872869

  13. One-step biosynthesis of ?-ketoisocaproate from L-leucine by an Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalyst expressing an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to develop a whole-cell biotransformation process for the production of ?-ketoisocaproate from L-leucine. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain was constructed by expressing an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus vulgaris. To enhance ?-ketoisocaproate production, the reaction conditions were optimized as follows: whole-cell biocatalyst 0.8?g/L, leucine concentration 13.1?g/L, temperature 35?C, pH 7.5, and reaction time 20?h. Under the above conditions, the ?-ketoisocaproate titer reached 12.7?g/L with a leucine conversion rate of 97.8%. In addition, different leucine feeding strategies were examined to increase the ?-ketoisocaproate titer. When 13.1?g/L leucine was added at 2-h intervals (from 0 to 22?h, 12 addition times), the ?-ketoisocaproate titer reached 69.1?g/L, while the leucine conversion rate decreased to 50.3%. We have developed an effective process for the biotechnological production of ?-ketoisocaproate that is more environmentally friendly than the traditional petrochemical synthesis approach. PMID:26217895

  14. One-step biosynthesis of ?-ketoisocaproate from l-leucine by an Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalyst expressing an l-amino acid deaminase from Proteus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to develop a whole-cell biotransformation process for the production of ?-ketoisocaproate from L-leucine. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain was constructed by expressing an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus vulgaris. To enhance ?-ketoisocaproate production, the reaction conditions were optimized as follows: whole-cell biocatalyst 0.8?g/L, leucine concentration 13.1?g/L, temperature 35?C, pH 7.5, and reaction time 20?h. Under the above conditions, the ?-ketoisocaproate titer reached 12.7?g/L with a leucine conversion rate of 97.8%. In addition, different leucine feeding strategies were examined to increase the ?-ketoisocaproate titer. When 13.1?g/L leucine was added at 2-h intervals (from 0 to 22?h, 12 addition times), the ?-ketoisocaproate titer reached 69.1?g/L, while the leucine conversion rate decreased to 50.3%. We have developed an effective process for the biotechnological production of ?-ketoisocaproate that is more environmentally friendly than the traditional petrochemical synthesis approach. PMID:26217895

  15. Authentication of pure L-leucine products manufactured in China by discriminating between plant and animal sources using nitrogen stable isotope technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip N; Appiah-Sefah, Gloria; Tang, Shijiang

    2013-03-01

    ?L-leucine products among other branched chain amino acid supplements are highly susceptible to economically motivated adulteration. Curbing this menace is critical and timely. Hence, the ?(15) N composition of the L-leucine derived from plants and animals sources was estimated. The trophic enrichment phenomenon of ?(15) N composition was utilized to elucidate the sources. We finally established the distinction between the respective sources. Samples of plant sources (maize and soybean) and that of animal sources (pig fur and duck feather) were analyzed for ?(15) N isotopic signatures. An elemental analyzer which was connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer operated in the continuous flow mode was utilized. The raw materials were obtained from China. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated lower ?(15) N values of range -0.7344 to 2.384 and 1.032 to 2.064 for maize and soybean samples, respectively. Whereas, a range of 3.860 to 6.011 and 5.875 to 6.011 was, respectively, detected in pig fur and duck feather samples. The ?(15) N difference in plants and animals samples was significant (F = 165.0; P = 1.675 E-10 for maize and pig fur samples; F = 212.8; P = 0.0001284 for soybean and duck feather samples). It was observed that ?(15) N trophic enrichment is helpful in elucidating the respective sources. The authors can emphatically assert that the range of ?(15) N composition of L-leucine derived from plants sources within the study area is -1.000 to 3.000 whereas the range in animal sources is 4.000 to 9.000. Practical Application?This study provides a reliable approach in verifying the authenticity of not only L-leucine products but also other branched chain amino acid supplements and thereby would help in fraud detection of any economically motivated adulteration and mislabeling of these products. When coupled with H and O stable isotope techniques, the region-of-origin of the detected adulteration can also be traced successfully. It therefore serves as a guide to food regulatory bodies, food scientists, retailers of these products, consumers, and the general public at large. PMID:23458748

  16. The role of physico-chemical and bulk characteristics of co-spray dried L-leucine and polyvinylpyrrolidone on glidant and binder properties in interactive mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Sharad; Meiser, Felix; Lakio, Satu; Morton, David; Larson, Ian

    2015-02-20

    In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was spray dried with l-leucine (PVP-Leu) to create a prototype multifunctional interactive excipient. The physico-chemical and bulk properties such as particle size, surface composition, surface energy and bulk cohesion of PVP-Leu was measured and compared against pure spray dried PVP (PVP-SD). The mixing behaviour of these excipients and their effect on flow and binder activity of paracetamol was assessed. The mean particle sizes of PVP-Leu PVP-SD and PVP were 2.5, 2.1 and 21.9?m, respectively. Surface composition characterization indicated that l-leucine achieved higher concentrations on the surface compared to the bulk of the PVP-Leu particles. The surface energy of PVP-Leu was significantly lower compared to PVP-SD. In addition, PVP-Leu exhibited a significantly lower bulk cohesion compared PVP-SD. The excipients were blended with paracetamol and qualitative characterization indicated that PVP-Leu blended more homogeneously with paracetamol compared to PVP-SD. Both PVP-Leu and PVP-SD then exhibited a significantly improved binder activity compared to PVP. The flow of the paracetamol was markedly improved with PVP-Leu while PVP-SD and PVP had negligible effect on its flow. This study reveals how physico-chemical and bulk properties of such prototype interactive excipients can play a key role in determining multi-factorial excipient performance. PMID:25572691

  17. Effect of L-leucine graft content on aqueous solution behavior and membrane-lytic activity of a pH-responsive pseudopeptide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongjun; Khormaee, Sariah; Eccleston, Mark E; Slater, Nigel K H

    2009-09-14

    A series of pH-responsive polymers have been synthesized by grafting L-leucine onto the pendant carboxylic acid groups of the linear pseudopeptide, poly(L-lysine iso-phthalamide). The effect of the degree of grafting on aqueous solution properties, cell membrane-disruptive activity, and in vitro cytotoxicity was examined by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, hemolysis, alamar blue staining, and propidium iodide fluorescence assays. Modification of poly(L-lysine iso-phthalamide) with < or =23.6 mol % L-leucine caused a marginal effect on the pH-mediated hydrophobic association and hemolytic activity. Increasing the degree of grafting from 31.9 to 61.2 mol % resulted in polymers with progressively enhanced hydrophobic association and cell membrane disruption, thus confirming that the pH responsiveness and the extent of hydrophobic association and membrane disruption of the polymers can be modulated by varying the degree of grafting with hydrophobic amino acids. The pH responses were demonstrated to be concentration-dependent. At certain degrees of leucine grafting, the polymers were nonmembrane-lytic at physiological pH but mediated considerable membrane lysis at endosomal pH values (5.0-6.8), a feature critical for potential drug delivery applications. PMID:19642668

  18. Acetohydroxyacid synthase, a novel target for improvement of L-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Bastian; Hans, Stephan; Bathe, Brigitte; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2009-01-01

    The influence of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) on L-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated. An AHAS with a deleted C-terminal domain in the regulatory subunit IlvN was engineered by truncating the ilvN gene. Compared to the wild-type AHAS, the newly constructed enzyme showed altered kinetic properties, i.e., (i) an about twofold-lower K(m) for the substrate pyruvate and an about fourfold-lower V(max); (ii) a slightly increased K(m) for the substrate alpha-ketobutyrate with an about twofold-lower V(max); and (iii) insensitivity against the inhibitors L-valine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine (10 mM each). Introduction of the modified AHAS into the L-lysine producers C. glutamicum DM1729 and DM1933 increased L-lysine formation by 43% (30 mM versus 21 mM) and 36% (51 mM versus 37 mM), respectively, suggesting that decreased AHAS activity is linked to increased L-lysine formation. Complete inactivation of the AHAS in C. glutamicum DM1729 and DM1933 by deletion of the ilvB gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of AHAS, led to L-valine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine auxotrophy and to further-improved L-lysine production. In batch fermentations, C. glutamicum DM1729 Delta ilvB produced about 85% more L-lysine (70 mM versus 38 mM) and showed an 85%-higher substrate-specific product yield (0.180 versus 0.098 mol C/mol C) than C. glutamicum DM1729. Comparative transcriptome analysis of C. glutamicum DM1729 and C. glutamicum DM1729 Delta ilvB indicated transcriptional differences for about 50 genes, although not for those encoding enzymes involved in the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway. PMID:19047397

  19. Vibrational spectral studies and non-linear optical properties of L-leucine L-leucinium picrate: a Density Functional Theory approach.

    PubMed

    Guidara, Sameh; Feki, Habib; Abid, Younes

    2013-11-01

    Single crystals of l-leucine l-leucinium picrate were grown by slow evaporation at room temperature and were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction study to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized compound. The optimized molecular structure, vibrational spectra and the optical properties were calculated by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using the B3LYP function with the 6-31G(d) basis set. Good consistency is found between the calculated results and the experimental structure, IR, and Raman spectra. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational modes was carried out. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, confirms the occurrence of intermolecular hydrogen bonds that are responsible for the stabilization of the title compound, leading to high nonlinear optical (NLO) activity. The lowering in the HOMO and LUMO energy gap explains the eventual charge transfer interactions that take place within the molecules. PMID:23867646

  20. Studies of enthalpy-entropy compensation, partial entropies, and Kirkwood-Buff integrals for aqueous solutions of glycine, L-leucine, and glycylglycine at 298.15 K.

    PubMed

    Kurhe, Deepti N; Dagade, Dilip H; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Patil, Kesharsingh J

    2009-12-31

    Densities and osmotic coefficient measurements for dilute aqueous solutions of glycine, l-leucine, and glycylglycine have been reported at 298.15 K. The partial molar volumes and activity coefficients of solute as well as solvent have been estimated using the density and osmotic coefficient data, respectively. Excess and mixing thermodynamic properties, such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes, have been obtained using the activity data from this study and the heat data reported in the literature. The concentration enthalpy-entropy compensation effects have been observed for the studied systems, and the compensation temperatures are reported. It has been observed that the excess free energy change for all the studied systems is almost the same over the studied concentration range, showing that the differences in properties of such solutions are largely decided by the enthalpy-entropy effects. These results, along with partial entropy data, show the effects of the presence of hydrophobic interactions and water structure making effect in the case of aqueous solutions of l-leucine. The application of the Starikov-Norden enthalpy-entropy compensation model yielded information about a "hidden Carnot cycle" and the existence of multiple microphases. Application of the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions for the studied systems yields pair correlation functions between the components. The variation of Kirkwood-Buff integrals with concentration further signifies the concentration dependence of the hydrophobic hydration and interactions in the solution phase. The osmotic second virial coefficients have also been obtained using the KB theory and show good agreement with those obtained using the McMillan-Mayer theory of solutions. The mean square concentration fluctuations is estimated using the KB theory, which gives information about the microheterogeneity in the solution phase, which further reflects the presence of hydration and solute association. PMID:19924870

  1. Dietary L-leucine and L-alanine supplementation have similar acute effects in the prevention of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Anne; Petzke, Klaus J; Klaus, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    High-protein diets have been shown to alleviate detrimental effects of high-fat diets and this effect can be partially mimicked by dietary L-leucine supplementation. Here, we aimed to elucidate the early mechanisms and the specificity of leucine effects. We performed a 1-week trial with male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum with semisynthetic high-fat diets containing an adequate (10 % w/w, AP) or high (50 % w/w, HP) amount of whey protein, or supplemented with L-leucine corresponding to the leucine content within the HP diet (Leu) or supplemented with equimolar L-alanine (Ala). Food and water intake were monitored continuously using a computer-controlled monitor system and body composition changes were assessed using quantitative NMR. HP completely prevented the AP-induced accumulation of body fat. Leu and Ala resulted in a similar reduction of body fat accumulation which was intermediate between AP and HP. There were no significant effects on plasma glucose or insulin. Triacylglycerol content and gene expression of lipogenesis enzymes in liver as well as plasma cholesterol were reduced by HP compared to AP with Leu and Ala again showing intermediate effects. Body fat gain and liver triacylglycerols were strongly correlated with total energy intake. Water intake was rapidly increased by HP feeding and total water intake correlated strongly with total amino nitrogen intake. We concluded that the positive effects of high-protein diets on metabolic syndrome associated traits are acutely due to effects on satiety possibly linked to amino nitrogen intake and on the subsequent suppression of liver lipogenesis without evidence for a specific leucine effect. PMID:22847780

  2. A Study of the Solvation Structure of L-Leucine in Alcohol-Water Binary Solvents through Molecular Dynamics Simulations and FTIR and NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Hatomoto, Yohei; Tonegawa, Junko; Tsutsumi, Youichi; Umecky, Tatsuya

    2015-10-26

    The solvation structures of l-leucine (Leu) in aliphatic-alcohol-water and fluorinated-alcohol-water solvents are elucidated for various alcohol contents by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and IR, and (1) H and (13) C?NMR spectroscopy. The aliphatic alcohols included methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, whereas the fluorinated alcohols were 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The MD results show that the hydrophobic alkyl moiety of Leu is surrounded by the alkyl or fluoroalkyl groups of the alcohol molecules. In particular, TFE and HFIP significantly solvate the alkyl group of Leu. IR spectra reveal that the Leu C-H stretching vibration blueshifts in fluorinated alcohol solutions with increasing alcohol content, whereas the vibration redshifts in aliphatic alcohol solutions. When the C-H stretching vibration blueshifts in the fluorinated alcohol solutions, the hydrogen and carbon atoms of the Leu alkyl group are magnetically shielded. Consequently, TFE and HFIP molecules may solvate the Leu alkyl group through the blue-shifting hydrogen bonds. PMID:26289908

  3. Synthesis of poly(alkenoic acid) with L-leucine residue and methacrylate photopolymerizable groups useful in formulating dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Buruiana, Tinca; Nechifor, Marioara; Melinte, Violeta; Podasca, Viorica; Buruiana, Emil C

    2014-01-01

    To develop resin-modified glass ionomer materials, we synthesized methacrylate-functionalized acrylic copolymer (PAlk-LeuM) derived from acrylic acid, itaconic acid and N-acryloyl-L-leucine using (N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl-N'-4-hydroxybutyl) urea as the modifying agent. The spectroscopic (proton/carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) characteristics, and the gel permeation chromatography/Brookfield viscosity measurements were analysed and compared with those of the non-modified copolymer (PAlk-Leu). The photocurable copolymer (PAlk-LeuM, ~14 mol% methacrylate groups) and its precursor (PAlk-Leu) were incorporated in dental ionomer compositions besides diglycidyl methacrylate of bisphenol A (Bis-GMA) or an analogue of Bis-GMA (Bis-GMA-1), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The kinetic data obtained by photo-differential scanning calorimetry showed that both the degree of conversion (60.50-75.62%) and the polymerization rate (0.07-0.14 s(-1)) depend mainly on the amount of copolymer (40-50 wt.%), and conversions over 70% were attained in the formulations with 40 wt.% PAlk-LeuM. To formulate light-curable cements, each organic composition was mixed with filler (90 wt.% fluoroaluminosilicate/10 wt.% hydroxyapatite) into a 2.7:1 ratio (powder/liquid ratio). The light-cured specimens exhibited flexural strength (FS), compressive strength (CS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) varying between 28.08 and 64.79 MPa (FS), 103.68-147.13 MPa (CS) and 16.89-31.87 MPa (DTS). The best values for FS, CS and DTS were found for the materials with the lowest amount of PAlk-LeuM. Other properties such as the surface hardness, water sorption/water solubility, surface morphology and fluorescence caused by adding the fluorescein monomer were also evaluated. PMID:24701975

  4. Affinity of Smectite and Divalent Metal Ions (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+)) with L-leucine: An Experimental and Theoretical Approach Relevant to Astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pramod; Pant, Chandra Kala; Gururani, Kavita; Arora, Priyanka; Pandey, Neetu; Bhatt, Preeti; Sharma, Yogesh; Negi, Jagmohan Singh; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-12-01

    Earth is the only known planet bestowed with life. Several attempts have been made to explore the pathways of the origin of life on planet Earth. The search for the chemistry which gave rise to life has given answers related to the formation of biomonomers, and their adsorption on solid surfaces has gained much attention for the catalysis and stabilization processes related to the abiotic chemical evolution of the complex molecules of life. In this communication, surface interactions of L-leucine (Leu) on smectite (SMT) group of clay (viz. bentonite and montmorillonite) and their divalent metal ion (Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Cu(2+)) incorporated on SMT has been studied to find the optimal conditions of time, pH, and concentration at ambient temperature (298K). The progress of adsorption was followed spectrophotometrically and further characterized by FTIR, SEM/EDS and XRD. Leu, a neutral/non polar amino acid, was found to have more affinity in its zwitterionic form towards Cu(2+)- exchanged SMT and minimal affinity for Mg(2+)- exchanged SMT. The vibrational frequency shifts of -NH3 (+) and -COO(-) favor Van der Waal's forces during the course of surface interaction. Quantum calculations using density functional theory (DFT) have been applied to investigate the absolute value of metal ion affinities of Leu (Leu-M(2+) complex, M?=?Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+)) with the help of their physico-chemical parameters. The hydration effect on the relative stability and geometry of the individual species of Leu-M(2+)??(H2O)n, (n =2 and 4) has also been evaluated within the supermolecule approach. Evidence gathered from investigations of surface interactions, divalent metal ions affinities and hydration effects with biomolecules may be important for better understanding of chemical evolution, the stabilization of biomolecules on solid surfaces and biomolecular-metal interactions. These results may have implications for understanding the origin of life and the preservation of biomarkers. PMID:25952510

  5. Affinity of Smectite and Divalent Metal Ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+) with L-leucine: An Experimental and Theoretical Approach Relevant to Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Pramod; Pant, Chandra Kala; Gururani, Kavita; Arora, Priyanka; Pandey, Neetu; Bhatt, Preeti; Sharma, Yogesh; Negi, Jagmohan Singh; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-12-01

    Earth is the only known planet bestowed with life. Several attempts have been made to explore the pathways of the origin of life on planet Earth. The search for the chemistry which gave rise to life has given answers related to the formation of biomonomers, and their adsorption on solid surfaces has gained much attention for the catalysis and stabilization processes related to the abiotic chemical evolution of the complex molecules of life. In this communication, surface interactions of L-leucine (Leu) on smectite (SMT) group of clay (viz. bentonite and montmorillonite) and their divalent metal ion (Mg2+, Ca2+ and Cu2+) incorporated on SMT has been studied to find the optimal conditions of time, pH, and concentration at ambient temperature (298 K). The progress of adsorption was followed spectrophotometrically and further characterized by FTIR, SEM/EDS and XRD. Leu, a neutral/non polar amino acid, was found to have more affinity in its zwitterionic form towards Cu2+- exchanged SMT and minimal affinity for Mg2+- exchanged SMT. The vibrational frequency shifts of —NH3 + and —COO- favor Van der Waal's forces during the course of surface interaction. Quantum calculations using density functional theory (DFT) have been applied to investigate the absolute value of metal ion affinities of Leu (Leu—M2+ complex, M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+) with the help of their physico-chemical parameters. The hydration effect on the relative stability and geometry of the individual species of Leu—M2+ × (H2O)n, ( n =2 and 4) has also been evaluated within the supermolecule approach. Evidence gathered from investigations of surface interactions, divalent metal ions affinities and hydration effects with biomolecules may be important for better understanding of chemical evolution, the stabilization of biomolecules on solid surfaces and biomolecular-metal interactions. These results may have implications for understanding the origin of life and the preservation of biomarkers.

  6. Folding and translocation of the undecamer of poly-L-leucine across the water-hexane interface. A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipot, C.; Pohorille, A.

    1998-01-01

    The undecamer of poly-L-leucine at the water-hexane interface is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. This represents a simple model relevant to folding and insertion of hydrophobic peptides into membranes. The peptide, initially placed in a random coil conformation on the aqueous side of the system, rapidly translocates toward the hexane phase and undergoes interfacial folding into an alpha-helix in the subsequent 36 ns. Folding is nonsequential and highly dynamic. The initially formed helical segment at the N-terminus of the undecamer becomes transiently broken and, subsequently, reforms before the remainder of the peptide folds from the C-terminus. The formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds during the folding of the peptide is preceded by a dehydration of the participating polar groups, as they become immersed in hexane. Folding proceeds through a short-lived intermediate, a 3(10)-helix, which rapidly interconverts to an alpha-helix. Both helices contribute to the equilibrium ensemble of folded structures. The helical peptide is largely buried in hexane, yet remains adsorbed at the interface. Its preferred orientation is parallel to the interface, although the perpendicular arrangement with the N-terminus immersed in hexane is only slightly less favorable. In contrast, the reversed orientation is highly unfavorable, because it would require dehydration of C-terminus carbonyl groups that do not participate in intramolecular hydrogen bonding. For the same reason, the transfer of the undecamer from the interface to the bulk hexane is also unfavorable. The results suggest that hydrophobic peptides fold in the interfacial region and, simultaneously, translocate into the nonpolar side of the interface. It is further implied that peptide insertion into the membrane is accomplished by rotating from the parallel to the perpendicular orientation, most likely in such a way that the N-terminus penetrates the bilayer.

  7. Inhibition of L-leucine methyl ester mediated killing of THP-1, a human monocytic cell line, by a new anti-inflammatory drug, T614.

    PubMed

    Sawada, T; Hashimoto, S; Tohma, S; Nishioka, Y; Nagai, T; Sato, T; Ito, K; Inoue, T; Iwata, M; Yamamoto, K

    2000-09-01

    T614 (3-formylamino-7-methylsulfonylamino-6-phenoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-o ne) is a member of the family of methanesulfonanilide non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (mNSAIDs), most of which act as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors. L-leucine methyl ester (Leu-OME) is a reagent which has been shown to kill phagocytes following interaction with intracellular proteases. There are two pathways whereby Leu-OME becomes cytotoxic to phagocytes. Within lysosomes, Leu-OME is converted into free Leu, which causes disruption of the lysosomes and subsequent cell necrosis. The other is the conversion of Leu-OME into (Leu-Leu)(n)-OME, which is associated with the induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the action of T614 on Leu-OME mediated killing of THP-1, a human monocytic cell line. We revealed that T614 and phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a serine protease inhibitor, inhibited Leu-OME mediated killing of THP-1 cells. All the other mNSAIDs, including nimesulide (NIM-03), fluosulide (CGP28238), FK3311 and NS398, also rescued THP-1 from Leu-OME mediated killing, although to a lesser degree. Of the classical NSAIDs tested, a protective effect was observed with diclofenac at high concentration, but not with naproxen or indomethacin. Unlike conventional lysosomal inhibitors, such as chloroquine and ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl), T614 and PMSF did not raise lysosomal pH, as measured by flow cytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-dextran). Therefore, the mechanism whereby T614 and PMSF inhibit Leu-OME killing is distinct from that of chloroquine or NH(4)Cl. Based on the similarity of T614 and PMSF, we suggest that, besides their roles as COX-2 inhibitors, T614 and other mNSAIDs may act as lysosomal protease inhibitors. PMID:10996026

  8. Synthesis and characterization of poly-L-leucine initialized and immobilized by rehydrated hydrotalcite: understanding stability and the nature of interaction.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ronald-Alexander; Finocchio, Elisabetta; Llorca, Jordi; Medina, Francisco; Ramis, Gianguido; Sueiras, Jess E; Segarra, Anna M

    2013-10-01

    PLLs were synthesized by the ring-opening polycondensation (ROP) method using ?-L-leucine N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) and initialized by triethylamine (Et3N), water or rehydrated hydrotalcite (HTrus). The role of temperature, different initiators and water in ROP was further investigated. In general, the initiators used in the polymerization reaction lead to PLL alpha-helical chains containing 5-40 monomers with NCA endgroups via a monomer-activated mechanism. However, the water has a twofold effect on ROP, as both a nucleophile and a base, which involves competition between two different types of initiating mechanisms (nucleophilic attack or deprotonation of the NCA monomer) in the polymerization reaction. This competition provides as a main product NCA endgroups with an alpha-helical structure and leads to the formation of the PLL cyclic-chains and beta-sheet structures which reduce the polymer Mw and the PD of the polypeptide. Furthermore, the water can hydrolyze the NCA endgroups resulting in PLL alpha-helical chains that contain living groups as the main product. On the other hand, the HTrus presents a double role: as both an initiator and a support. The polymers synthesized in the presence of HTrus presented a HT-carboxylate endgroup. The PLLs immobilized in HTrus through an anion-exchange method performed for just 30 minutes presented the PLL immobilized in the interlayer space of the HTrus. The PLL chains of the immobilized counterpart are stabilized by H-bonding with the M-OH of the HT structure. All the polypeptides and biohybrid materials synthesized have been characterized using different techniques (EA, ICP, XRD, Raman, MALDI-TOF, ESI-TOF, FT-IR at increasing temperatures, TG/DT analyses and TEM). PMID:23942769

  9. 2-ketoglutarate generation in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria regulates insulin secretory action of amino acids and 2-keto acids.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, S; Schmidt, W; Rustenbeck, I; Panten, U

    1986-02-01

    The various neutral amino acids and aliphatic 2-keto acids exhibit differential effects on insulin secretion. The common denominator for all these effects is the 2-ketoglutarate generation in the pancreatic B-cell mitochondria. The neutral amino acids L-leucine and L-norvaline and the aliphatic ketomonocarboxylic acids 2-ketoisocaproate, 2-ketocaproate, 2-ketovalerate, and 2-keto-3-methylvalerate all stimulate insulin secretion and increase 2-ketoglutarate generation in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria through activation of glutamate dehydrogenase and transamination with L-glutamate and L-glutamine, respectively. The neutral amino acids L-valine, L-norleucine, and L-alanine and the aliphatic 2-keto acids 2-ketoisovalerate and pyruvate do not stimulate insulin secretion and do not increase 2-ketoglutarate generation in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria. Inhibition of 2-keto acid induced insulin secretion by L-valine and L-isoleucine is accompanied by reduced 2-ketoglutarate generation in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria. Thus intramitochondrial 2-ketoglutarate generation in pancreatic B-cells may regulate the insulin secretory potency of amino acids and 2-keto acids. PMID:3521757

  10. Comparative effects of whey protein versus L-leucine on skeletal muscle protein synthesis and markers of ribosome biogenesis following resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Mobley, C Brooks; Fox, Carlton D; Thompson, Richard M; Healy, James C; Santucci, Vincent; Kephart, Wesley C; McCloskey, Anna E; Kim, Mike; Pascoe, David D; Martin, Jeffrey S; Moon, Jordan R; Young, Kaelin C; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    We compared immediate post-exercise whey protein (WP, 500 mg) versus L-leucine (LEU, 54 mg) feedings on skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) mechanisms and ribosome biogenesis markers 3 h following unilateral plantarflexor resistance exercise in male, Wistar rats (~250 g). Additionally, in vitro experiments were performed on differentiated C2C12 myotubes to compare nutrient (i.e., WP, LEU) and 'exercise-like' treatments (i.e., caffeine, hydrogen peroxide, and AICAR) on ribosome biogenesis markers. LEU and WP significantly increased phosphorylated-rpS6 (Ser235/236) in the exercised (EX) leg 2.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 2.7-fold (P < 0.001) compared to the non-EX leg, respectively, whereas vehicle-fed control (CTL) did not (+65 %, P > 0.05). Compared to the non-EX leg, MPS levels increased 32 % and 52 % in the EX leg of CTL (P < 0.01) and WP rats (P < 0.001), respectively, but not in LEU rats (+15 %, P > 0.05). Several genes associated with ribosome biogenesis robustly increased in the EX versus non-EX legs of all treatments; specifically, c-Myc mRNA, Nop56 mRNA, Bop1 mRNA, Ncl mRNA, Npm1 mRNA, Fb1 mRNA, and Xpo-5 mRNA. However, only LEU significantly increased 45S pre-rRNA levels in the EX leg (63 %, P < 0.001). In vitro findings confirmed that 'exercise-like' treatments similarly altered markers of ribosome biogenesis, but only LEU increased 47S pre-rRNA levels (P < 0.01). Collectively, our data suggests that resistance exercise, as well as 'exercise-like' signals in vitro, acutely increase the expression of genes associated with ribosome biogenesis independent of nutrient provision. Moreover, while EX with or without WP appears superior for enhancing translational efficiency (i.e., increasing MPS per unit of RNA), LEU administration (or co-administration) may further enhance ribosome biogenesis over prolonged periods with resistance exercise. PMID:26507545

  11. Comparative analysis of pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-dl-leucine (Tanganil) and its two isomers (N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine) on vestibular compensation: Behavioral investigation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Tighilet, Brahim; Leonard, Jacques; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Lacour, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Head roll tilt, postural imbalance and spontaneous nystagmus are the main static vestibular deficits observed after an acute unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). In the UVL cat model, these deficits are fully compensated over 6 weeks as the result of central vestibular compensation. N-Acetyl-dl-leucine is a drug prescribed in clinical practice for the symptomatic treatment of acute UVL patients. The present study investigated the effects of N-acetyl-dl-leucine on the behavioral recovery after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the cat, and compared the effects of each of its two isomers N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine. Efficacy of these three drug treatments has been evaluated with respect to a placebo group (UVN+saline water) on the global sensorimotor activity (observation grids), the posture control (support surface measurement), the locomotor balance (maximum performance at the rotating beam test), and the spontaneous vestibular nystagmus (recorded in the light). Whatever the parameters tested, the behavioral recovery was strongly and significantly accelerated under pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-dl-leucine and N-acetyl-L-leucine. In contrast, the N-acetyl-D-leucine isomer had no effect at all on the behavioral recovery, and animals of this group showed the same recovery profile as those receiving a placebo. It is concluded that the N-acetyl-L-leucine isomer is the active part of the racemate component since it induces a significant acceleration of the vestibular compensation process similar (and even better) to that observed under treatment with the racemate component only. PMID:26607469

  12. Interactions in L-phenylalanine/L-leucine/L-glutamic Acid/L-proline + 2 M aqueous NaCl/2 M NaNO3 systems at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyazuddeen, Imran Khan; Afrin, Sadaf

    2012-12-01

    Density (?) and speed of sound ( u) in 2 M aqueous NaCl and 2 M NaNO3 solutions of amino acids: L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-glutamic acid, and L-proline have been measured for several molal concentrations of amino acids at different temperatures. The ? and u data have been used to calculate the values of isothermal compressibility and internal pressure at different temperatures. The trends of variations of ? T and P i with an increase in molal concentration of amino acid and temperature have been discussed in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions in the systems.

  13. Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of L-Leucine-enriched amino-acid mixtures on body composition and physical performance in men and women aged 65–75 years

    PubMed Central

    Ispoglou, T; White, H; Preston, T; McElhone, S; McKenna, J; Hind, K

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Adequate protein intake is essential to retaining muscle and maintaining physical function, especially in the elderly, and L-Leucine has received attention as an essential amino acid (EAA) that enhances protein retention. The study's aim was to compare the efficacy of EAA mixtures on lean tissue mass (LTM) and functional performance (FP) in a healthy elderly population. Subjects/Methods: Thirty-six subjects (65–75 years) volunteered to receive capsules with EAAs (Groups A and B containing 20% and 40% L-Leucine, respectively) or placebo (lactose containing 0% L-Leucine, Group C) for 12 weeks. The daily amount ranged from 11 to 21 g (0.21 g/ kg/day) and was taken in two equal dosages alongside food, morning and evening. Main outcomes measured before and after intervention were LTM and FP (30-s arm-curl test; 30-s chair-stand test (30-CST); 6-min walk test (6-WT); and handgrip strength). Secondary outcomes included dietary intakes and physical activity. Results: Twenty-five subjects (11 male and 14 female) completed the study (Group A, n=8; Group B, n=8; Group C, n=9). Gains associated with medium effect sizes were noted in LTM (Group B, 1.1 ±1.1%, P=0.003) and FP (Group A in 30-CST (11.0±11.5%, P=0.02) and 6-WT (8.8±10.0%, P=0.02); Group B in 6-WT (5.8±6.6%, P=0.03) and a trend in 30-CST (13.2±16.0, P=0.06)). Significant differences between groups were not observed in secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Twice-daily supplementation of EAAs containing 20% or 40% L-Leucine improved aspects of functional status and at the higher level improved LTM. Further work to establish change in a larger sample and palatable supplemental format is now required. PMID:26081485

  14. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate with branched-chain amino acids or L-leucine does not preferentially increase serum IGF-1 and expression of myogenic-related genes in response to a single bout of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Ferreira, Maria P; Cooke, Matthew B; La Bounty, Paul; Campbell, Bill; Greenwood, Mike; Willoughby, Darryn S; Kreider, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the co-ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) or L-leucine (LEU) preferentially affected serum IGF-1 and the expression of myogenic-related genes in response to resistance exercise (RE). Forty-one college-age males were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: CHO, CHO-BCAA, CHO-LEU, or placebo (PLC). Resistance exercise consisted of 4 sets of 10 repetitions of leg press and leg extension at 80 % 1RM. Supplements were ingested peri-exercise, and venous blood and muscle biopsies were obtained pre-exercise (PRE), and at 30, 120, and 360 min post-exercise. Serum IGF-1 was determined with ELISA, and skeletal muscle mRNA expression of myostatin, ACTRIIB, p21kip, p27kip, CDK2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, Myo-D, myogenin, MRF-4, and myf5 was determined using real-time PCR. Results were analyzed by two-way ANOVA for serum IGF-1 and two-way MANOVA for mRNA expression. Serum IGF-1 in CHO + BCAA was greater than PLC (p < 0.05) but was not affected by RE (p > 0.05). A significant group × time interaction was located for cylin D1 (p < 0.05), but not for any other genes. However, significant time effects were noted for cyclin B1 and p21cip (p < 0.05). At 30, 120 and 360 min post-exercise, p21cip was significantly less than PRE. Cyclin D1 was greater than PRE and 30 min post-exercise at 120 and 360 min post-exercise, whereas cyclin B1 was significantly greater than PRE at 120 min post-exercise (p < 0.05). Unlike the co-ingestion of CHO with either BCAA or L-leucine in conjunction with RE, the expression of various myogenically related genes were up-regulated with RE. PMID:25740607

  15. Determination of isotopic ratios of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine and their stable isotope labeled analogues in biological samples by gas chromatography/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schweer, H; Watzer, B; Seyberth, H W; Steinmetz, A; Schaefer, J R

    1996-07-01

    A gas chromatographic/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC/MS/MS) method for measuring very low levels of enrichment of [5,5,5-2H3]-L-leucine and [ring-13C6]-L-phenylalanine in plasma and lipoprotein hydrolysates is described. The amino acids were derivatized to their N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl ester derivatives and the isotope ratio was determined by GC/MS/MS in the negative-ion chemical ionization mode. Parent ions were the [M-HF]- ions and fragment ions used for quantification were [P-2HF-C3H7]- (leucine) and [P-HF-OC4H9]- (phenylalanine), respectively. The limit of quantification was about 10 pg of the labeled compound co-eluting with 20 ng of the endogenous compound. The calibration curves were linear in the investigated range from 0.1% to 100% of the labeled compound. In biological samples, the higher selectivity of GC/MS/MS compared with GC/MS was demonstrated. PMID:8799305

  16. Expanded target and cofactor repertoire for the transcriptional activator LysM from Sulfolobus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ningning; Nguyen Duc, Trong; van Oeffelen, Liesbeth; Muyldermans, Serge; Peeters, Eveline; Charlier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Previously, Lrp-like transcriptional regulator LysM from the hyperthermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus was proposed to have a single target, the lysWXJK operon of lysine biosynthesis, and a single effector molecule, l-lysine. Here we identify ?70 novel binding sites for LysM in the S. solfataricus genome with a LysM-specific nanobody-based chromatin immunoprecipitation assay coupled to microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) and in silico target site prediction using an energy-based position weight matrix, and validate these findings with in vitro binding. LysM binds to intergenic and coding regions, including promoters of various amino acid biosynthesis and transport genes. We confirm that l-lysine is the most potent effector molecule that reduces, but does not completely abolish, LysM binding, and show that several other amino acids and derivatives, including d-lysine, l-arginine, l-homoarginine, l-glutamine and l-methionine and branched-chain amino acids l-leucine, l-isoleucine and l-valine, significantly affect DNA-binding properties of LysM. Therefore, it appears from this study that LysM is a much more versatile regulator than previously thought, and that it uses a variety of amino acids to sense nutritional quality of the environment and to modulate expression of the metabolic machinery of Sulfolobus accordingly. PMID:23355617

  17. Ruthenium-Nitrosyl Complexes with Glycine, l-Alanine, l-Valine, l-Proline, d-Proline, l-Serine, l-Threonine, and l-Tyrosine: Synthesis, X-ray Diffraction Structures, Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Properties, and Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The reactions of [Ru(NO)Cl5]2 with glycine (Gly), l-alanine (l-Ala), l-valine (l-Val), l-proline (l-Pro), d-proline (d-Pro), l-serine (l-Ser), l-threonine (l-Thr), and l-tyrosine (l-Tyr) in n-butanol or n-propanol afforded eight new complexes (18) of the general formula [RuCl3(AAH)(NO)]?, where AA = Gly, l-Ala, l-Val, l-Pro, d-Pro, l-Ser, l-Thr, and l-Tyr, respectively. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), 1H NMR, UVvisible and ATR IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. X-ray crystallography studies have revealed that in all cases the same isomer type (from three theoretically possible) was isolated, namely mer(Cl),trans(NO,O)-[RuCl3(AAH)(NO)], as was also recently reported for osmium analogues with Gly, l-Pro, and d-Pro (see Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.2013, 639, 15901597). Compounds 1, 4, 5, and 8 were investigated by ESI-MS with regard to their stability in aqueous solution and reactivity toward sodium ascorbate. In addition, cell culture experiments in three human cancer cell lines, namely, A549 (nonsmall cell lung carcinoma), CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), and SW480 (colon carcinoma), were performed, and the results are discussed in conjunction with the lipophilicity of compounds. PMID:24555845

  18. L-leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) and creatine monohydrate prevent myostatin-induced Akirin-1/Mighty mRNA down-regulation and myotube atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine if L-leucine (Leu), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), or creatine monohydrate (Crea) prevented potential atrophic effects of myostatin (MSTN) on differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Methods After four days of differentiation, myotubes were treated with MSTN (10 ng/ml) for two additional days and four treatment groups were studied: 1) 3x per day 10 mM Leu, 2) 3x per day 10 mM HMB, 3) 3x per day 10 mM Crea, 4) DM only. Myotubes treated with DM without MSTN were analyzed as the control condition (DM/CTL). Following treatment, cells were analyzed for total protein, DNA content, RNA content, muscle protein synthesis (MPS, SUnSET method), and fiber diameter. Separate batch treatments were analyzed for mRNA expression patterns of myostatin-related genes (Akirin-1/Mighty, Notch-1, Ski, MyoD) as well as atrogenes (MuRF-1, and MAFbx/Atrogin-1). Results MSTN decreased fiber diameter approximately 30% compared to DM/CTL myotubes (p < 0.001). Leu, HMB and Crea prevented MSTN-induced atrophy. MSTN did not decrease MPS levels compared to DM/CTL myotubes, but MSTN treatment decreased the mRNA expression of Akirin-1/Mighty by 27% (p < 0.001) and MyoD by 26% (p < 0.01) compared to DM/CTL myotubes. shRNA experiments confirmed that Mighty mRNA knockdown reduced myotube size, linking MSTN treatment to atrophy independent of MPS. Remarkably, MSTN + Leu and MSTN + HMB myotubes had similar Akirin-1/Mighty and MyoD mRNA levels compared to DM/CTL myotubes. Furthermore, MSTN + Crea myotubes exhibited a 36% (p < 0.05) and 86% (p < 0.001) increase in Akirin-1/Mighty mRNA compared to DM/CTL and MSTN-only treated myotubes, respectively. Conclusions Leu, HMB and Crea may reduce MSTN-induced muscle fiber atrophy by influencing Akirin-1/Mighty mRNA expression patterns. Future studies are needed to examine if Leu, HMB and Crea independently or synergistically affect Akirin-1/Mighty expression, and how Akirin-1/Mighty expression mechanistically relates to skeletal muscle hypertrophy in vivo. PMID:25132809

  19. Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Paul S.; Alm, Steven R.; Armstrong, Charles. D.; Averill, Anne L.; Baker, Thomas C.; Bauernfiend, Robert J.; Baxendale, Frederick P.; Braman, S. Kris; Brandenburg, Rick L.; Cash, Daniel B.; Couch, Gary J.; Cowles, Richard S.; Crocker, Robert L.; DeLamar, Zandra D.; Dittl, Timothy G.; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M.; Flanders, Kathy L.; Forgatsch, Tom; Gibb, Timothy J.; Gill, Bruce D.; Gilrein, Daniel O.; Gorsuch, Clyde S.; Hammond, Abner M.; Hastings, Patricia D.; Held, David W.; Heller, Paul R.; Hiskes, Rose T.; Holliman, James L.; Hudson, William G.; Klein, Michael G.; Krischik, Vera L.; Lee, David J.; Linn, Charles E.; Luce, Nancy J.; MacKenzie, Kenna E.; Mannion, Catherine M.; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Potter, Daniel A.; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Royals, Brian M.; Salsbury, Glenn A.; Schiff, Nathan M.; Shetlar, David J.; Skinner, Margaret; Sparks, Beverly L.; Sutschek, Jessica A.; Sutschek, Timothy P.; Swier, Stanley R.; Sylvia, Martha M.; Vickers, Neil J.; Vittum, Patricia J.; Weidman, Richard; Weber, Donald C.; Williamson, R. Chris; Villani, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester. PMID:19537965

  20. Actinoplanes teichomyceticus ATCC 31121 as a cell factory for producing teicoplanin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used clinically in Europe and in Japan for the treatment of multi-resistant Gram-positive infections. It is produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The pharmaceutically active principle is teicoplanin A2, a complex of compounds designated T-A2-1-A2-5 differing in the length and branching of the fatty acid moiety linked to the glucosamine residue on the heptapeptide scaffold. According to European and Japanese Pharmacopoeia, components of the drug must be reproduced in fixed amounts to be authorized for clinical use. Results We report our studies on optimizing the fermentation process to produce teicoplanin A2 in A. teichomyceticus ATCC 31121. Robustness of the process was assessed on scales from a miniaturized deep-well microtiter system to flasks and 3-L bioreactor fermenters. The production of individual factors T-A2-1-A2-5 was modulated by adding suitable precursors to the cultivation medium. Specific production of T-A2-1, characterized by a linear C10:1 acyl moiety, is enhanced by adding methyl linoleate, trilinoleate, and crude oils such as corn and cottonseed oils. Accumulation of T-A2-3, characterized by a linear C10:0 acyl chain, is stimulated by adding methyl oleate, trioleate, and oils such as olive and lard oils. Percentages of T-A2-2, T-A2-4, and, T-A2-5 bearing the iso-C10:0, anteiso-C11:0, and iso-C11:0 acyl moieties, respectively, are significantly increased by adding precursor amino acids L-valine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine. Along with the stimulatory effect on specific complex components, fatty acid esters, oils, and amino acids (with the exception of L-valine) inhibit total antibiotic productivity overall. By adding industrial oils to medium containing L-valine the total production is comparable, giving unusual complex compositions. Conclusions Since the cost and the quality of teicoplanin production depend mainly on the fermentation process, we developed a robust and scalable fermentation process by using an industrial medium in which a complex composition can be modulated by the combined addition of suitable precursors. This work was performed in the wild-type strain ATCC 31121, which has a clear genetic background. This is important for starting a rational improvement program and also helps to better control teicoplanin production during process and strain development. PMID:22008254

  1. Combination of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor LAF237 [(S)-1-[(3-hydroxy-1-adamantyl)ammo]acetyl-2-cyanopyrrolidine] with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist valsartan [N-(1-oxopentyl)-N-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]methyl]-L-valine] enhances pancreatic islet morphology and function in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qianni; Law, Pui Ki; de Gasparo, Marc; Leung, Po Sing

    2008-12-01

    LAF237 [(S)-1-[(3-hydroxy-1-adamantyl)ammo]acetyl-2-cyanopyrrolidine] is an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV that delays the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Valsartan [N-(1-oxopentyl)-N-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]methyl]-l-valine] is an antagonist of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) that reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. LAF237 and valsartan act on a common target through separate pathways to improve pancreatic islet cell function. We hypothesize that the combination of these two drugs acts in a synergistic or additive manner on islet function and structure. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies. To measure the acute effect of the treatment, pancreatic islets of db/db mice were isolated and stimulated in vitro with glucose in the presence of valsartan (1 microM) and exendin-4 (100 nM), a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Combination treatment with valsartan and exendin-4 significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets. For studies of chronic effect, db/db mice received LAF237 (1 mg/kg/day) and/or valsartan (10 mg/kg/day). Islet cell reactive oxygen species (ROS), proliferation, apoptosis, fibrosis, beta-cell area, and glucose homeostasis were evaluated after 8 weeks of treatment, which showed that combination treatment resulted in a significant increase in pancreatic islet beta-cell area compared with monotherapy. This beneficial effect correlated with an increase in beta-cell proliferation and a decrease in ROS-induced islet apoptosis and fibrosis. These in vitro and in vivo data indicate that combination treatment with LAF237 and valsartan has significant beneficial additive effects on pancreatic beta-cell structure and function compared with their respective monotherapeutic effects. PMID:18787107

  2. A dipeptide and an amino acid present in whey protein hydrolysate increase translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Morato, P N; Lollo, P C B; Moura, C S; Batista, T M; Carneiro, E M; Amaya-Farfan, J

    2013-08-15

    Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is capable of increasing muscle glycogen reserves and of concentrating the glucose transporter in the plasma membrane (PM). The objective of this study was to determine which WPH components could modulate translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 to the PM of animal skeletal muscle. Forty-nine animals were divided into 7 groups (n=7) and received by oral gavage 30% glucose plus 0.55 g/kg body mass of the following WPH components: (a) control; (b) WPH; (c) L-isoleucine; (d) L-leucine; (e) L-leucine plus L-isoleucine; (f) L-isoleucyl-L-leucine dipeptide; (g) L-leucyl-L-isoleucine dipeptide. After receiving these solutions, the animals were sacrificed and the GLUT-4 analysed by western blot. Additionally, glycogen, glycaemia, insulin and free amino acids were also determined by standard methods. Of the WPH components tested, the amino acid L-isoleucine and the peptide L-leucyl-L-isoleucine showed greater efficiency in translocating GLUT-4 to the PM and of increasing glucose capture by skeletal muscle. PMID:23561181

  3. Analysis of acetohydroxyacid synthase variants from branched-chain amino acids-producing strains and their effects on the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanfeng; Han, Mei; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Weiguo

    2015-05-01

    Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) controls carbon flux through the branch point and determines the relative rates of the synthesis of isoleucine, valine and leucine, respectively. However, it is strongly regulated by its end products. In this study, we characterized AHAS variants from five branched-chain amino acids-producing strains. Amino acid substitution occurred in both catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Interestingly, AHAS variants reduced sensitivity to feedback inhibition by branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Although AHAS with amino acid substitution in regulatory subunit showed higher resistance, amino acid substitution in catalytic subunit could also endow AHAS with resistance to feedback inhibition. In addition, AHAS variants from V2 and L5 displayed about 1.4-fold higher specific activity compared to other AHAS variants. On the other hand, AHAS variant from V1 exhibited the highest resistance to BCAAs, 87% of original activity left even in the presence of 10mM BCAAs. Recombinant Corynebacteriumglutamicum strains were further constructed to investigate the effects of expressing AHAS variants on the synthesis of BCAAs and alanine (main by-product) in C. glutamicum. BCAAs production was increased with the increase of resistance to feedback inhibition, although valine showed a significant increase. For instance, C. g-1BN could accumulate 9.51g/l valine, 0.450g/l leucine and 0.180g/l isoleucine, and alanine was reduced to 0.477g/l. These AHAS variants are important for further improving performance of BCAAs-producing strain. PMID:25697867

  4. Characterization of neutral amino acid transport in a marine pseudomonad.

    PubMed Central

    Fein, J E; MacLeod, R A

    1975-01-01

    The transport of neutral amino acids in marine pseudomonad B-16 (ATCC 19855) has been investigated. From patterns of competitive inhibition, mutant analysis, and kinetic data, two active transport systems with overlapping substrate specificities were distinguished and characterized. One system (DAG) served glycine, D-alanine, D-serine, and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and, to a lesser extent, L-alanine and possibly other related neutral D- and L-amino acids. The other system (LIV) showed high stereospecificity for neutral amino acids with the L configuration and served primarily to transport L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, and L-alanine. This system exhibited low affinity for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. Neither system was able to recognize structural analogues with modified alpha-amino or alpha-carboxyl groups. The kinetic parameters for L-alanine transport by the DAG and LIV systems were determined with appropriate mutants defective in either system. For L-alanine, Kt values of 4.6 X 10(-5) and 1.9 X 10(-4) M and Vmax values of 6.9 and 20.8 nmol/min per mg of cell dry weight were obtained for transport via the DAG and LIV systems respectively. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid transport heterogeneity was also resolved with the mutants, and Kt values of 2.8 X 10(-5) and 1.4 X 10(-3) M AIB were obtained for transport via the DAG and LIV systems, respectively. Both systems required Na+ for activity (0.3 M Na+ optimal) and in this regard are distinguished from systems of similar substrate specificity reported in nonmarine bacteria. PMID:1194233

  5. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    PubMed Central

    Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2010-01-01

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants. PMID:20065117

  6. Dissecting Complex Metabolic Integration Provides Direct Genetic Evidence for CodY Activation by Guanine Nucleotides▿

    PubMed Central

    Brinsmade, Shaun R.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.

    2011-01-01

    The global regulator CodY controls the expression of dozens of metabolic genes and genes mediating adaptation to nutrient availability in many low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria. Branched-chain amino acids l-isoleucine, l-leucine, and l-valine (ILV) activate CodY both in vivo and in vitro, and genes that direct their synthesis (ilv, ybgE, and ywaA) are highly repressed by CodY, creating a potential negative feedback loop. The nucleoside triphosphate GTP also activates CodY in vitro, but the evidence for activation by GTP in vivo is limited and indirect. We constructed a Bacillus subtilis strain (ybgE bcd ywaA) that is unable to convert branched-chain α-keto acids to ILV or to use ILV as a precursor for branched-chain fatty acid synthesis. Unexpectedly, the strain was not viable on rich medium. Supplementing rich medium with short, branched-chain fatty acids or derepressing expression of genes for de novo ILV synthesis bypassed the original lethality, restoring growth and showing that the lack of viability was due to insufficient intracellular production of the precursors of branched-chain fatty acids. Spontaneous extragenic suppressor mutants that arose in the triple mutant population proved to have additional mutations in guaA or guaB or codY. Expression of ILV biosynthetic genes in codY mutants was increased. The gua mutations caused guanine/guanosine auxotrophy and led to partial derepression of direct CodY-repressed targets, including ILV biosynthetic genes, under conditions similar to those that caused the original lethality. We conclude that a guanine derivative, most likely GTP, controls CodY activity in vivo. PMID:21856856

  7. Conformation of dehydropentapeptides containing four achiral amino acid residues - controlling the role of L-valine.

    PubMed

    Jewgi?ski, Micha?; Krzciuk-Gula, Joanna; Makowski, Maciej; Latajka, Rafa?; Kafarski, Pawe?

    2014-01-01

    Structural studies of pentapeptides containing an achiral block, built from two dehydroamino acid residues (?(Z)Phe and ?Ala) and two glycines, as well as one chiral L-Val residue were performed using NMR spectroscopy. The key role of the L-Val residue in the generation of the secondary structure of peptides is discussed. The obtained results suggest that the strongest influence on the conformation of peptides arises from a valine residue inserted at the C-terminal position. The most ordered conformation was found for peptide Boc-Gly-?Ala-Gly-?(Z)Phe-Val-OMe (3), which adopts a right-handed helical conformation. PMID:24778717

  8. Characterization and modification of enzymes in the 2-ketoisovalerate biosynthesis pathway of Ralstonia eutropha H16

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, JN; Brigham, CJ; Plassmeier, JK; Sinskey, AJ

    2014-08-01

    2-Ketoisovalerate is an important cellular intermediate for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids as well as other important molecules, such as pantothenate, coenzyme A, and glucosinolate. This ketoacid can also serve as a precursor molecule for the production of biofuels, pharmaceutical agents, and flavor agents in engineered organisms, such as the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha. The biosynthesis of 2-ketoisovalerate from pyruvate is carried out by three enzymes: acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, encoded by ilvBH), acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase (AHAIR, encoded by ilvC), and dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD, encoded by ilvD). In this study, enzymatic activities and kinetic parameters were determined for each of the three R. eutropha enzymes as heterologously purified proteins. AHAS, which serves as a gatekeeper for the biosynthesis of all three branched-chain amino acids, demonstrated the tightest regulation through feedback inhibition by l-valine (IC50 = 1.2 mM), l-isoleucine (IC50 = 2.3 mM), and l-leucine (IC50 = 5.4 mM). Intermediates in the valine biosynthesis pathway also exhibit feedback inhibitory control of the AHAS enzyme. In addition, AHAS has a very weak affinity for pyruvate (K-M = 10.5 mu M) and is highly selective towards 2-ketobutyrate (R = 140) as a second substrate. AHAIR and DHAD are also inhibited by the branched-chain amino acids, although to a lesser extent when compared to AHAS. Experimental evolution and rational site-directed mutagenesis revealed mutants of the regulatory subunit of AHAS (IlvH) (N11S, T34I, A36V, T104S, N11F, G14E, and N29H), which, when reconstituted with wild-type IlvB, lead to AHAS having reduced valine, leucine, and isoleucine sensitivity. The study of the kinetics and inhibition mechanisms of R. eutropha AHAS, AHAIR, and DHAD has shed light on interactions between these enzymes and the products they produce; it, therefore, can be used to engineer R. eutropha strains with optimal production of 2-ketoisovalerate for value-added materials.

  9. Heating improves poor compliance with branched chain amino acid-rich supplementation in patients with liver cirrhosis: A before-after pilot study.

    PubMed

    Itou, Minoru; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Shiraishi, Satomi; Ibi, Ryoko; Mutou, Michiko; Okada, Teruyo; Uchida, Yuki; Otsuka, Momoka; Oriishi, Tetsuharu; Tanaka, Suiko; Takakura, Machiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2009-01-01

    Although branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation improves malnutrition in cirrhotic patients, patient compliance with the administration of BCAA-rich supplements is poor due to their bitter taste. Since temperature is an important factor affecting taste, we examined the effect of heating on the stability of BCAAs and on the compliance of patients with liver cirrhosis with BCAA-rich supplement administration. A thermal denaturation test was first conducted, in which the BCAA-rich supplement Aminoleban EN was heated to 37, 60, or 80C for 30 or 60 min. The concentration of three amino acids, L-valine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine, was subsequently measured. The nutritional status of the cirrhotic patients was also evaluted. Patients presenting liver failure with a Child-Pugh class of A (n=2), B (n=2) or C (n=2) were hospitalized at Kurume University Hospital. Six patients with liver cirrhosis (HCV, n=3; HBV, n=1; alcohol, n=2) were enrolled. Venous blood samples were drawn in the morning after a 12-h overnight fast. The BCAA-rich supplement was administered to patients at room temperature (25C) or heat loaded at 60C for 10 min, with the temperature maintained above 45C. Each patient was interviewed by a nationally registered dietitian regarding food consumption and intake of the BCAA-rich supplement immediately after each meal. Nutritional status was evaluated according to serum albumin levels, blood hemoglobin, prothrombin time and total lymphocyte count. No significant decrease was noted in valine, leucine or isoleucine levels following the heating of the BCAAs to 80C. The caloric intake of the BCAA-rich supplement was significantly higher with administration after heating to 60C, compared to caloric intake with administration at 25C. In addition, heating of the BCAA-rich supplement significantly increased blood lymphocyte counts. In conclusion, heating did not affect the stability of the BCAAs, and may improve compliance with BCAA-rich supplement administration. As a result, the nutritional status of cirrhotic patients may be improved. PMID:21475931

  10. Polymeric Sulfated Amino Acid Surfactants: A New Class of Versatile Chiral Selectors for Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) and MEKC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Ali Rizvi, Syed Asad; Zheng, Jie; Apkarian, Robert P.; Dublin, Steven N.; Shamsi, Shahab A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, three amino acids derived (L-leucinol, L-isoleucinol and L-valinol) sulfated chiral surfactants are synthesized and polymerized. These chiral sulfated surfactants are thoroughly characterized to determine critical micelle concentration, aggregation number, polarity, optical rotation and partial specific volume. For the first time the morphological behavior of polymeric sulfated surfactants is revealed using cryogenic high-resolution electron microscopy (cryo-HRSEM). The polysodium N-undecenoyl-L-leucine sulfate (poly-L-SUCLS) shows distinct tubular structure, while polysodium N-undecenoyl-L-valine sulfate (poly-L-SUCVS) also shows tubular morphology but without any distinct order of the tubes. On the other hand, polysodium N-undecenoyl-L-isoleucine sulfate (poly-L-SUCILS) displays random distribution of coiled/curved filaments with heavy association of tightly and loosely bound water. All three polymeric sulfated surfactants are compared for enantio-separation of broad range of structurally diverse racemic compounds at very acidic, neutral and basic pH conditions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). A small combinatorial library of 10 structurally related phenylethylamines (PEAs) is investigated for chiral separation under acidic and moderately acidic to neutral pH conditions using an experimental design. In contrast to neutral pH conditions, at acidic pH, significantly enhanced chiral resolution is obtained for class I and class II PEAs due to the compact structure of polymeric sulfated surfactants. It is observed that the presence of hydroxy group on the benzene ring of PEAs resulted in deterioration of enantioseparation. A sensitive MEKC-mass spectrometry (MS) method is developed for one of the PEA (e.g., ()-pseudoephedrine) in human urine. Very low limit of detection (LOD) is obtained at pH 2.0 (LOD 325 ng/mL), which is ca 16 times better compared to pH 8.0 (LOD 5.2 g/mL). Other broad range of chiral analytes (?-blockers, phenoxypropionic acid, benzoin derivatives, PTH-amino acids, and benzodiazepinones) studied also provided improved chiral separation at low pH compared to high pH conditions. Among the three polymeric sulfated surfactants, poly-L-SUCILS with two chiral centers on the polymer head group provided overall higher enantioresolution for the investigated acidic, basic and neutral compounds. This work clearly demonstrates for the first time the superiority of chiral separation and sensitive MS detection at low pH over conventional high pH chiral separation and detection employing anionic chiral polymeric surfactants in MEKC and MEKC-MS. PMID:17263313

  11. Characterization and modification of enzymes in the 2-ketoisovalerate biosynthesis pathway of Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingnan; Brigham, Christopher J; Plassmeier, Jens K; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    2-Ketoisovalerate is an important cellular intermediate for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids as well as other important molecules, such as pantothenate, coenzyme A, and glucosinolate. This ketoacid can also serve as a precursor molecule for the production of biofuels, pharmaceutical agents, and flavor agents in engineered organisms, such as the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha. The biosynthesis of 2-ketoisovalerate from pyruvate is carried out by three enzymes: acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, encoded by ilvBH), acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase (AHAIR, encoded by ilvC), and dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD, encoded by ilvD). In this study, enzymatic activities and kinetic parameters were determined for each of the three R. eutropha enzymes as heterologously purified proteins. AHAS, which serves as a gatekeeper for the biosynthesis of all three branched-chain amino acids, demonstrated the tightest regulation through feedback inhibition by L-valine (IC50=1.2 mM), L-isoleucine (IC50=2.3 mM), and L-leucine (IC50=5.4 mM). Intermediates in the valine biosynthesis pathway also exhibit feedback inhibitory control of the AHAS enzyme. In addition, AHAS has a very weak affinity for pyruvate (KM=10.5 μM) and is highly selective towards 2-ketobutyrate (R=140) as a second substrate. AHAIR and DHAD are also inhibited by the branched-chain amino acids, although to a lesser extent when compared to AHAS. Experimental evolution and rational site-directed mutagenesis revealed mutants of the regulatory subunit of AHAS (IlvH) (N11S, T34I, A36V, T104S, N11F, G14E, and N29H), which, when reconstituted with wild-type IlvB, lead to AHAS having reduced valine, leucine, and isoleucine sensitivity. The study of the kinetics and inhibition mechanisms of R. eutropha AHAS, AHAIR, and DHAD has shed light on interactions between these enzymes and the products they produce; it, therefore, can be used to engineer R. eutropha strains with optimal production of 2-ketoisovalerate for value-added materials. PMID:25081555

  12. Ten weeks of branched-chain amino acid supplementation improves select performance and immunological variables in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Kephart, Wesley C; Wachs, Taylor D; Mac Thompson, R; Brooks Mobley, C; Fox, Carlton D; McDonald, James R; Ferguson, Brian S; Young, Kaelin C; Nie, Ben; Martin, Jeffrey S; Company, Joseph M; Pascoe, David D; Arnold, Robert D; Moon, Jordan R; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    We examined if supplementing trained cyclists (32 ± 2 year, 77.8 ± 2.6 kg, and 7.4 ± 1.2 year training) with 12 g/day (6 g/day L-Leucine, 2 g/day L-Isoleucine and 4 g/day L-Valine) of either branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, n = 9) or a maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 9) over a 10-week training season affected select body composition, performance, and/or immune variables. Before and after the 10-week study, the following was assessed: (1) 4-h fasting blood draws; (2) dual X-ray absorptiometry body composition; (3) Wingate peak power tests; and (4) 4 km time-trials. No group × time interactions existed for total lean mass (P = 0.27) or dual-leg lean mass (P = 0.96). A significant interaction existed for body mass-normalized relative peak power (19 % increase in the BCAA group pre- to post-study, P = 0.01), and relative mean power (4 % increase in the BCAA group pre- to post-study, P = 0.01). 4 km time-trial time to completion approached a significant interaction (P = 0.08), as the BCAA group improved in this measure by 11 % pre- to post-study, though this was not significant (P = 0.15). There was a tendency for the BCAA group to present a greater post-study serum BCAA: L-Tryptophan ratio compared to the PLA group (P = 0.08). A significant interaction for neutrophil number existed (P = 0.04), as there was a significant 18 % increase within the PLA group from the pre- to post-study time point (P = 0.01). Chronic BCAA supplementation improves sprint performance variables in endurance cyclists. Additionally, given that BCAA supplementation blunted the neutrophil response to intense cycling training, BCAAs may benefit immune function during a prolonged cycling season. PMID:26553453

  13. Jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine hydrolase 1 (JIH1) contributes to a termination of jasmonate signaling in N. attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Woldemariam, Melkamu G; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonate signaling pathway is essential for plant development, reproduction, and defense against herbivores and pathogens. When attacked by herbivores, plants elicit defense responses through the rapid accumulation of jasmonates. Although the transduction of the jasmonate burst into downstream responses has been largely resolved in the past decade, how the jasmonate burst is switched off remained unknown. Recently, two mechanisms that involve cytochrome p450-mediated hydroxylation/carboxylation and NaJIH1-mediated hydrolysis of JA-Ile were identified as major termination mechanisms of JA signaling. Due to a lack of hydrolysis, N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of the JIH1 gene accumulated significantly more JA-Ile than did wild type plants and became more resistant to herbivore attack. Although less likely, additional functions of JIH1, such as contributing to the pool of free Ile and thereby increasing JA-Ile accumulation, remained untested. Here we show that increased isoleucine availability does not explain the observed phenotype in JIH1-deficient N. attenuata plants. PMID:24776843

  14. Gamma-radiolysis of poly- L-tyrosine and poly- L-valine in the solid state at 77K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, R. W.; Hill, D. J. T.; Ho, S. Y.; O'Donnell, J. H.; Pomery, P. J.

    The radicals formed on the ɣ-radiolysis of polytyrosine and polyvaline at 77K have been identified by ESR spectroscopy, and the reactions they undergo on warning to room temperature have been delineated. The major radical components observed on radiolysis of polytryosine are those formed by loss of the phenoxyl hydrogen or by electron addition to the aromatic ring. On warming to room temperature the anion radical decays leaving only the phenoxyl radical. The radicals observed on radiolysis of polyvaline are chain scission radicals formed by cleavage of the N—Cα bond or by loss of a hydrogen atom from the α-carbon. On warming, the chain scission radicals are converted mainly to α-carbon radicals, with little decrease in the total radical concentration.

  15. Synthesis of homopolypeptides by aminolysis mediated by proteases encapsulated in silica nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Baker, Peter J; Patwardhan, Siddharth V; Numata, Keiji

    2014-11-01

    We report the encapsulation of three different proteases in bioinspired silica. Silica particles were formed under mild reaction conditions using cationic amine-rich ethyleneamines as initiators, which resulted in aggregations of nanoscale spheres. Following encapsulation, the proteases were characterized for their hydrolytic and aminolytic activities. The encapsulation resulted in an increase in the thermal stability of the proteases for both hydrolysis and aminolysis reactions. The enhanced thermal stability of the encapsulated proteases increased the production of poly-L-leucine by aminolysis. Furthermore, the encapsulation of papain resulted in an increase in the production of poly-L-alanine and poly-L-valine at 50?C. PMID:25154484

  16. Metabolic changes in rats after intragastric administration of MGCD0103 (Mocetinostat), a HDAC class I inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwei; Wu, Haiya; Wen, Congcong; Sun, Fa; Yang, Xuezhi; Hu, Lufeng

    2015-01-01

    MGCD0103, an isotype-selective HDACi, has been clinically evaluated for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and advanced solid tumors, alone and in combination with standard-of-care agents. In this study, we developed a serum metabolomic method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the effect of intragastric administration of MGCD0103 on rats. The MGCD0103 group rats were given 20, 40, 80 mg/kg of MGCD0103 by intragastric administration each day for 7 days. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that intragastric administration of MGCD0103 induced metabolic perturbations. As compared to the control group, the levels of L-alanine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine of MGCD0103 group decreased. The results indicate that metabolomic methods based on GC-MS may be useful to elucidate side effect of MGCD0103 through the exploration of biomarkers (L-alanine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine). According to the pathological changes of liver at difference dosage, MGCD0103 is hepatotoxic and its toxity is dose-dependent. PMID:26464683

  17. OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 are jasmonyl-L-isoleucine synthases involved in wound- and pathogen-induced jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Wakuta, Shinji; Suzuki, Erika; Saburi, Wataru; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2011-06-17

    The synthesis of JA-Ile was catalysed by JA-Ile synthase, which is a member of the group I GH3 family of proteins. Here, we showed evidence that OsGH3.5 (OsJAR1) and OsGH3.3 (OsJAR2) are the functional JA-Ile synthases in rice, using recombinant proteins. The expression levels of OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 were induced in response to wounding with the concomitant accumulation of JA-Ile. In contrast, only the expression of OsJAR1 was associated with the accumulation of JA-Ile after blast infection. Our data suggest that these two JA-Ile synthases are differentially involved in the activation of JA signalling in response to wounding and pathogen challenge in rice. PMID:21619871

  18. Cyanopeptolins, new depsipeptides from the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. PCC 7806.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Oberer, L; Ino, T; Knig, W A; Busch, M; Weckesser, J

    1993-10-01

    Four depsipeptides (peptide lactones), called cyanopeptolins A, B, C and D, have been isolated from the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. PCC 7806. They possess identical structures consisting of cyclic L-glutamic acid-gamma-aldehyde, L-leucine, N-methyl-phenylalanine, L-valine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid, hexanoic acid and a variable basic amino acid. This variable amino acid can be L-arginine (cyanopeptolin A), L-lysine (cyanopeptolin B), N epsilon-methyl-L-lysine (cyanopeptolin C) and N epsilon,N epsilon-dimethyl-L-lysine (cyanopeptolin D), respectively. The L-glutamic acid-gamma-aldehyde and the amino group of L-leucine form an unusual 3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-piperidine system. L-Threonine is connected to L-valine via its hydroxy-group forming an ester bonding. The hexanoic acid residue is attached to the N-terminal aspartic acid residue which is not a part of the ring structure. The isolation procedure of the four cyanopeptolins as well as structure elucidation are described. Amino acid analysis, GC/MS analysis, FAB-MS and several NMR techniques were used to reveal the structures. PMID:8244882

  19. The structure of brevistin. Studies on antibiotics from the genus Bacillus. X.

    PubMed

    Shoji, J; Kato, T

    1976-04-01

    Acid hydrolysis revealed the constituent amino acids by brevistin as follows: aspartic acid (D-form 2, L-form 1), L-threonine (1), glycine (1), sum of L-valine and L-isoleucine (1), L-phenylalanine (1), L-trytophan (1), and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (D-form 1, L-form 1). The constituent fatty acid was elucidated to be anteisononanoic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A lactone linkage was proved between phenylalanine and the hydroxy group of threonine. Opening the lactone ring with dilute alkali afforded brevistinic acid. Deacylation with an enzyme preparation, Polymyxin Acylase, gave deacyl brevistinic acid. Cleavage reaction with N-bromosuccinimide, sequential analysis by EDMAN degradation and some additional evidences clarified the total structure of brevistin. PMID:931806

  20. Microporous Molecular Materials from Dipeptides Containing Non-proteinogenic Residues.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vitthal N; Comotti, Angiolina; Sozzani, Piero; Bracco, Silvia; Bonge-Hansen, Tore; Hennum, Martin; Grbitz, Carl Henrik

    2015-12-21

    Dipeptides with two hydrophobic side chains have proved to be an exceptional source of microporous organic materials, but since previous structures were limited to the incorporation of only proteinogenic residues, their full potential as adsorbents has remained unexplored. Single-crystal XRD data for ten new compounds with non-proteinogenic L-2-aminobutanoic acid and/or L-2-amino-pentanoic acid are presented. The gas-phase accessibility of their crystal pores, with cross-sections of 2.3 to 5.1?, was monitored by CO2 and CH4 adsorption isotherms. Included CO2 was also detected spectroscopically by 2D MAS NMR. An extensive conformational analysis reveals that the use of linear rather than branched side chains (such as L-valine and L-isoleucine) affords peptides with a greater degree of conformational freedom and yields more-flexible channel surfaces that may easily adapt to a series of potential guest molecules. PMID:26411742

  1. Reviewing the Effects of L-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, João A B; Zampieri, Thais T; Donato, Jose

    2015-05-01

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss. PMID:26007339

  2. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, João A.B.; Zampieri, Thais T.; Donato, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss. PMID:26007339

  3. Stereo and regioselectivity in ''Activated'' tritium reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.; Hembree, W.C.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the stereo and positional selectivity of the microwave discharge activation (MDA) method, the tritium labeling of several amino acids was undertaken. The labeling of L-valine and the diastereomeric pair L-isoleucine and L-alloisoleucine showed less than statistical labeling at the ..cap alpha..-amino C-H position mostly with retention of configuration. Labeling predominated at the single ..beta.. C-H tertiary (methyne) position. The labeling of L-valine and L-proline with and without positive charge on the ..cap alpha..-amino group resulted in large increases in specific activity (greater than 10-fold) when positive charge was removed by labeling them as their sodium carboxylate salts. Tritium NMR of L-proline labeled both as its zwitterion and sodium salt showed also large differences in the tritium distribution within the molecule. The distribution preferences in each of the charge states are suggestive of labeling by an electrophilic like tritium species(s). 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Intestinal nutrient absorption - A biomarker for deleterious heavy metals in aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Farmanfarmaian, A. )

    1988-09-01

    The deleterious effects of heavy metals on absorptive processes at the membrane surface will be summarized. Among the deleterious heavy metal chlorides (HgCl{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}HgCl, CdCl{sub 2}, CoCl{sub 2}, SrCl{sub 2}) tested HgCl{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}HgCl, and CdCl{sub 2} inhibit the absorption of several amino acids and sugars (L-leucine, L-methionine, L-isoleucine, L-lysine, cyclolencine, D-glucose, and D-galactose). The dose dependent inhibition of L-leucine uptake by HgCl{sub 2} is shown in a number of fish from different collection sites representing nektonic plankton feeders as well as demersal carnivores. The same type of data is shown for both HgCl{sub 2} and HC{sub 3}HgCl in the case of the commercially important summer flounder. Since the overall rate of intestinal absorption of amino acids and sugars involves the three processes of simple diffusion, protein-mediated facilitated diffusions, and protein-mediated sodium dependent active transport, the inhibition of the overall rate may not be sensitive enough as a biomarker. However, the active component, which alone accumulates essential amino acids in the tissue, appears to be very sensitive and can be used as a biomarker. The terminal tissue-to-medium (T/M) ratio of L-leucine concentration shows a 2-3 fold accumulation in the absence of mercury. Since the diffusional components can at best equilibrate L-leucine across the membrane % inhibition of the active component can be calculated after subtracting 1 from the experimental T/M values. The resulting inhibition is very sever ranging from approximately 50-100% for HgCl{sub 2} and 20-70% for CH{sub 3}HgCl over a range of 5-20 ppm of mercury.

  5. Kinetics of acid hydrolysis and reactivity of some antibacterial hydrophilic iron(II) imino-complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Ali Mohamed; Nassr, Lobna Abdel-Mohsen Ebaid; Adam, Mohamed Shaker Saied; Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed Abdelhalim

    2015-05-01

    Kinetic study of acid hydrolysis of some hydrophilic Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes with antibacterial properties was performed using spectrophotometry. The Schiff base ligands were derived from sodium 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-5-sulfonate and glycine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, DL-methionine, DL-serine, or L-phenylalanine. The reaction was studied in aqueous media under conditions of pseudo-first order kinetics. Moreover, the acid hydrolysis was studied at different temperatures and the activation parameters were calculated. The general rate equation was suggested as follows: rate = k obs [Complex], where k obs = k 2 [H+]. The evaluated rate constants and activation parameters are consistent with the hydrophilicity of the investigated complexes.

  6. Production of 2-ketoisocaproate with Corynebacterium glutamicum strains devoid of plasmids and heterologous genes.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Michael; Haas, Sabine; Polen, Tino; van Ooyen, Jan; Bott, Michael

    2015-03-01

    2-Ketoisocaproate (KIC), the last intermediate in l-leucine biosynthesis, has various medical and industrial applications. After deletion of the ilvE gene for transaminase B in l-leucine production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, KIC became the major product, however, the strains were auxotrophic for l-isoleucine. To avoid auxotrophy, reduction of IlvE activity by exchanging the ATG start codon of ilvE by GTG was tested instead of an ilvE deletion. The resulting strains were indeed able to grow in glucose minimal medium without amino acid supplementation, but at the cost of lowered growth rates and KIC production parameters. The best production performance was obtained with strain MV-KICF1, which carried besides the ilvE start codon exchange three copies of a gene for a feedback-resistant 2-isopropylmalate synthase, one copy of a gene for a feedback-resistant acetohydroxyacid synthase and deletions of ltbR and iolR encoding transcriptional regulators. In the presence of 1?mM l-isoleucine, MV-KICF1 accumulated 47?mM KIC (6.1?g?l(-1)) with a yield of 0.20?mol/mol glucose and a volumetric productivity of 1.41?mmol?KIC?l(-1) ?h(-1). Since MV-KICF1 is plasmid free and lacks heterologous genes, it is an interesting strain for industrial application and as platform for the production of KIC-derived compounds, such as 3-methyl-1-butanol. PMID:25488800

  7. An extreme-halophile archaebacterium possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase characteristic of the Gram-positive eubacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. A.; d'Amato, T. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1988-01-01

    The focal point of phenylalanine biosynthesis is a dehydratase reaction which in different organisms may be prephenate dehydratase, arogenate dehydratase, or cyclohexadienyl dehydratase. Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and cyanobacterial divisions of the eubacterial kingdom exhibit different dehydratase patterns. A new extreme-halophile isolate, which grows on defined medium and is tentatively designated as Halobacterium vallismortis CH-1, possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase present in Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the conventional sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine, the phenomenon of metabolic interlock was exemplified by the sensitivity of prephenate dehydratase to allosteric effects produced by extra-pathway (remote) effectors. Thus, L-tryptophan inhibited activity while L-tyrosine, L-methionine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine activated the enzyme. L-Isoleucine and L-phenylalanine were effective at micromolar levels; other effectors operated at mM levels. A regulatory mutant selected for resistance to growth inhibition caused by beta-2-thienylalanine possessed an altered prephenate dehydratase in which a phenomenon of disproportionately low activity at low enzyme concentration was abolished. Inhibition by L-tryptophan was also lost, and activation by allosteric activators was diminished. Not only was sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine lost, but the mutant enzyme was now activated by this amino acid (a mutation type previously observed in Bacillus subtilis). It remains to be seen whether this type of prephenate dehydratase will prove to be characteristic of all archaebacteria or of some archaebacterial subgroup cluster.

  8. New salts of amino acids with dimeric cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2010-10-01

    Among salts of amino acids there are compounds with the composition 2A..HX, which consist of dimeric A...A+ cations with short symmetric or asymmetric hydrogen bonds between zwitter-ionic and protonated moieties. These species are materials liable to undergo phase transitions or possess interesting nonlinear optical properties. Here, we report the preparation of 20 new salts with dimeric cations from aqueous solutions, including compounds of glycine, betaine, ?- alanine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-proline, with BF4-, ClO4-, Cl-, Br-, HSeO3-, and HC2O4-; as anions. The prepared salts are characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Some of them are grown in form of good quality single crystals, which allowed the determination of their crystal structure.

  9. Purification and partial characterization of an elastolytic serine protease of Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Y; Fujimura, S; Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    Elastolytic strains of Prevotella intermedia were isolated from pus samples of adult periodontal lesions. Elastase was found to associate with envelope, and it could be solubilized with guanidine-HCl. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by sequential procedures including ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. This elastase was a serine protease, and its mass was 31 kDa. It hydrolyzed elastin powder, but collagen and azodye-conjugated proteins were not degraded by this enzyme. Both synthetic substrates for human pancreatic (glutaryl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-leucine p-nitroanilide) and leukocyte elastase (methoxy succinyl-L-alanyl-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-valine p-nitroanilide) were hydrolyzed. Images PMID:8357246

  10. Purification and partial characterization of an elastolytic serine protease of Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Y; Fujimura, S; Nakamura, T

    1993-07-01

    Elastolytic strains of Prevotella intermedia were isolated from pus samples of adult periodontal lesions. Elastase was found to associate with envelope, and it could be solubilized with guanidine-HCl. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by sequential procedures including ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. This elastase was a serine protease, and its mass was 31 kDa. It hydrolyzed elastin powder, but collagen and azodye-conjugated proteins were not degraded by this enzyme. Both synthetic substrates for human pancreatic (glutaryl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-leucine p-nitroanilide) and leukocyte elastase (methoxy succinyl-L-alanyl-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-valine p-nitroanilide) were hydrolyzed. PMID:8357246

  11. Age-related increase in alanine aminotransferase correlates with elevated levels of plasma amino acids, decanoylcarnitine, Lp-PLA2 Activity, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Jung, Saem; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kim, Minjoo; Song, Juheui; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-07-01

    We investigated plasma metabolite profiles that correlated with age-related serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The study included 602 healthy, nondiabetic subjects (aged 30-65 years); 393 individuals had normal ALT levels at baseline. Fifty-three (13.5%) individuals developed elevated ALT levels after 3 years. The remaining 340 subjects with normal ALT were matched to the elevated-ALT group (n = 53) for age, gender, BMI, fasting glucose, and ALT to form the control group (n = 53). At the 3-year follow-up, the elevated-ALT group exhibited greater increases in waist circumference, serum free fatty acid, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), bilirubin, plasma oxidized LDL, Lp-PLA2 activity, urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2? (8-epi-PGF2?), and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (ba-PWV) compared to the control group after baseline adjustment. The elevated-ALT group exhibited greater increases in plasma l-valine (q = 0.036), l-leucine (q = 0.012), l-phenylalanine (q = 0.012), and decanoylcarnitine (q = 0.002). Mean ALT levels positively correlated with changes in these four metabolites, which correlated with changes in AST, GGT, Lp-PLA2 activity, urinary 8-epi-PGF2?, and ba-PWV. Mean ALT changes did not significantly correlate with HOMA-insulin resistance. These results suggest that increased plasma levels of l-valine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, and decanoylcarnitine precede insulin resistance during periods of elevated ALT. This metabolic disturbance coincides with enhanced risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24874467

  12. Transamination of neutral amino acids and 2-keto acids in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, S; Schmidt, W; Panten, U

    1985-10-15

    High aminotransferase activities catalyzing the reactions between L-glutamate and L-glutamine and the aliphatic ketomonocarboxylic acids 2-ketoisocaproate, 2-ketocaproate, and 2-ketoisovalerate were observed in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria. While maximal rates of transamination with L-glutamate were observed in the presence of micromolar concentrations of keto acid, maximal rates of transamination with L-glutamine were recorded only in the presence of millimolar concentrations of keto acid. The insulin secretagogue 2-ketoisocaproate was the most effective transamination partner for L-glutamate, while the insulin secretagogue 2-ketocaproate was the most effective transamination partner for L-glutamine. Since B-cell mitochondria are well supplied with L-glutamate and L-glutamine, 2-ketoglutarate generation in the presence of these two neutral 2-keto acids may be an important prerequisite for their insulin secretory potency. High rates of transamination of 2-ketoglutarate were observed in the pancreatic B-cell mitochondria with the branched-chain amino acids L-leucine and L-valine, but not with L-norleucine. In connection with the ability of L-leucine to activate glutamate dehydrogenase, this high activity of the branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria may provide an explanation for the insulin secretory potency of this amino acid. PMID:2864344

  13. Esterification of all four monoribonucleotides with acetyl-D-L-valine proceeds with a preference for the D-isomer but the D/L ratio in the products declines as a function of the hydrophobicity of the nucleotide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. S.; Lacey, J. C. Jr; Lacey JC, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    We recently reported that esterification of 5'-AMP with N-acetyl amino acids proceeds with a preference for D-amino acids, and the D/L ratio in products declines as the hydrophobicity of the amino acid declines. Using one amino acid, Ac-Val, we now show that esterification of all four nucleotides proceeds with a preference for the D-isomer and the preference declines as the hydrophobicity of the nucleotide declines. So, in both types of experiments, the preferences seem determined by hydrophobic interactions.

  14. Preparation and characterization of L-Leucine-modified amphiprotic bifunctional mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieve as a drug carrier for ribavirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang; Ji, Yongsheng; Guan, Min; Huang, Huayu; Zhao, Chuande; Zhang, Haixia

    2010-03-01

    In this study, an amphiphilic bifunctional mesoporous SBA-15 material (AMPBIF-SBA-15) was synthesized through post-synthesis method as a drug carrier. Ribavirin was selected as the model drug and whose release from both unmodified and functionalized SBA-15 was evaluated in four media solutions with different pH or ionic strength. The release process indicated that AMPBIF-SBA-15 was a pH-sensitive drug carrier, which showed a phased low-release effect to ribavirin in the simulated body fluid (PBS, pH 7.4) solution. The materials were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements and elemental analysis. This study provided a novel drug carrier for ribavirin to improve curative effect of ribavirin.

  15. New aza-dipeptide analogues as potent and orally absorbed HIV-1 protease inhibitors: candidates for clinical development.

    PubMed

    Bold, G; Fssler, A; Capraro, H G; Cozens, R; Klimkait, T; Lazdins, J; Mestan, J; Poncioni, B; Rsel, J; Stover, D; Tintelnot-Blomley, M; Acemoglu, F; Beck, W; Boss, E; Eschbach, M; Hrlimann, T; Masso, E; Roussel, S; Ucci-Stoll, K; Wyss, D; Lang, M

    1998-08-27

    On the basis of previously described X-ray studies of an enzyme/aza-dipeptide complex,8 aza-dipeptide analogues carrying N-(bis-aryl-methyl) substituents on the (hydroxethyl)hydrazine moiety have been designed and synthesized as HIV-1 protease inhibitors. By using either equally (12) or orthogonally (13) protected dipeptide isosteres, symmetrically and asymmetrically acylated aza-dipeptides can be synthesized. This approach led to the discovery of very potent inhibitors with antiviral activities (ED50) in the subnanomolar range. Acylation of the (hydroxethyl)hydrazine dipeptide isostere with the L-tert-leucine derivative 29 increased the oral bioavailability significantly when compared to the corresponding L-valine or L-isoleucine derivatives. The bis(L-tert-leucine) derivatives CGP 75355, CGP 73547, CGP 75136, and CGP 75176 combine excellent antiviral activity with high blood concentration after oral administration. Furthermore, they show no cross-resistance with saquinavir-resistant strains and maintain activity against indinavir-resistant ones. Consequently they qualify for further profiling as potential clinical candidates. PMID:9719591

  16. Metabolomics changes in a rat model of obstructive jaundice: mapping to metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids as well as oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Long, Yue; Dong, Xin; Yuan, Yawei; Huang, Jinqiang; Song, Jiangang; Sun, Yumin; Lu, Zhijie; Yang, Liqun; Yu, Weifeng

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the global metabolic and some biochemical changes in rats with cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Serum samples were collected in male Wistar rats with BDL (n=8) and sham surgery (n=8) at day 3 after surgery for metabolomics analysis using a combination of reversed phase chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS). The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured to estimate the oxidative stress state. Key changes after BDL included increased levels of l-phenylalanine, l-glutamate, l-tyrosine, kynurenine, l-lactic acid, LysoPC(c) (14:0), glycine and succinic acid and decreased levels of l-valine, PC(b) (19:0/0:0), taurine, palmitic acid, l-isoleucine and citric acid metabolism products. And treatment with BDL significantly decreased the levels of GSH, T-AOC as well as SOD, GSH-Px activities, and upregulated MDA levels. The changes could be mapped to metabolism of amino acids and lipids, Krebs cycle and glycolysis, as well as increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capability. Our study indicated that BDL induces major changes in the metabolism of all 3 major energy substances, as well as oxidative stress. PMID:26236101

  17. Metabolomics changes in a rat model of obstructive jaundice: mapping to metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids as well as oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yue; Dong, Xin; Yuan, Yawei; Huang, Jinqiang; Song, Jiangang; Sun, Yumin; Lu, Zhijie; Yang, Liqun; Yu, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the global metabolic and some biochemical changes in rats with cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Serum samples were collected in male Wistar rats with BDL (n = 8) and sham surgery (n = 8) at day 3 after surgery for metabolomics analysis using a combination of reversed phase chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS). The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured to estimate the oxidative stress state. Key changes after BDL included increased levels of l-phenylalanine, l-glutamate, l-tyrosine, kynurenine, l-lactic acid, LysoPCc (14:0), glycine and succinic acid and decreased levels of l-valine, PCb (19:0/0:0), taurine, palmitic acid, l-isoleucine and citric acid metabolism products. And treatment with BDL significantly decreased the levels of GSH, T-AOC as well as SOD, GSH-Px activities, and upregulated MDA levels. The changes could be mapped to metabolism of amino acids and lipids, Krebs cycle and glycolysis, as well as increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capability. Our study indicated that BDL induces major changes in the metabolism of all 3 major energy substances, as well as oxidative stress. PMID:26236101

  18. Metabonomics reveals metabolite changes in biliary atresia infants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kejun; Xie, Guoxiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Aihua; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Mingming; Ni, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Pan, Weihua; Che, Yanran; Zhang, Ting; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yang; Wen, Jie; Jia, Wei; Cai, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare neonatal cholestatic disorder caused by obstruction of extra- and intra-hepatic bile ducts. If untreated, progressive liver cirrhosis will lead to death within 2 years. Early diagnosis and operation improve the outcome significantly. Infants with neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) present similar symptoms, confounding the early diagnosis of BA. The lack of noninvasive diagnostic methods to differentiate BA from NHS greatly delays the surgery of BA infants, thus deteriorating the outcome. Here we performed a metabolomics study in plasma of BA, NHS, and healthy infants using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Scores plots of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated BA from NHS and healthy infants. Eighteen metabolites were found to be differentially expressed between BA and NHS, among which seven (l-glutamic acid, l-ornithine, l-isoleucine, l-lysine, l-valine, l-tryptophan, and l-serine) were amino acids. The altered amino acids were quantitatively verified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the network of "Cellular Function and Maintenance, Hepatic System Development and Function, Neurological Disease" was altered most significantly. This study suggests that plasma metabolic profiling has great potential in differentiating BA from NHS, and amino acid metabolism is significantly different between the two diseases. PMID:25899098

  19. Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Thomas

    2003-09-01

    In the 1950s Corynebacterium glutamicum was found to be a very efficient producer of L-glutamic acid. Since this time biotechnological processes with bacteria of the species Corynebacterium developed to be among the most important in terms of tonnage and economical value. L-Glutamic acid and L-lysine are bulk products nowadays. L-Valine, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid and L-alanine are among other amino acids produced by Corynebacteria. Applications range from feed to food and pharmaceutical products. The growing market for amino acids produced with Corynebacteria led to significant improvements in bioprocess and downstream technology as well as in molecular biology. During the last decade big efforts were made to increase the productivity and to decrease the production costs. This review gives an overview of the world market for amino acids produced by Corynebacteria. Significant improvements in bioprocess technology, i.e. repeated fed batch or continuous production are summarised. Bioprocess technology itself was improved furthermore by application of more sophisticated feeding and automatisation strategies. Even though several amino acids developed towards commodities in the last decade, side aspects of the production process like sterility or detection of contaminants still have increasing relevance. Finally one focus of this review is on recent developments in downstream technology. PMID:12948636

  20. A Hydrolase from Lactobacillus sakei Moonlights as a Transaminase

    PubMed Central

    Sinz, Quirin; Freiding, Simone; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic transamination of amino acids yields ?-keto acids and is the initial step for the production of volatile compounds that contribute to the sensory perception of fermented foods such as salami. Lactobacillus sakei is one of the lactic acid bacterial strains commonly used in starter cultures. Although the genome sequence of L. sakei 23K lacks genes encoding typical branched-chain amino acid transaminases, transamination activity and the formation of amino acid-derived volatile metabolites could be demonstrated. A protein purified from L. sakei is held responsible for the transamination activity. By heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli, we were able to characterize the transamination side activity of an enzyme annotated as a putative acylphosphatase (AcP). A transamination side activity of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was also discovered. Both enzymes showed substrate specificity toward branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. AcP also accepted l-methionine. Activity was optimal at neutral pH for both enzymes, whereas AcP showed a significantly higher temperature optimum (55C) than that of HEWL (37C). Kinetic parameters revealed high affinity toward l-leucine for AcP (Km = 1.85 mM) and toward l-isoleucine for HEWL (Km = 3.79 mM). AcP seems to play a major role in the metabolism of amino acids in L. sakei. PMID:23354716

  1. Development of Spray-Freeze-Dried Powders for Inhalation with High Inhalation Performance and Antihygroscopic Property.

    PubMed

    Otake, Hiroko; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2016-03-01

    Spray-freeze-drying (SFD) is a unique powderization technique to produce highly porous dry powders with a low density. The characteristic morphology can markedly contribute to the superior inhalation performances of SFD powders. Due to the increased specific surface area of the powders, however, moisture adsorption may readily occur, subsequently leading to losses of their inhalation potentials. In this study, hydrophobic amino acids were newly applied as pharmaceutical excipients to obtain SFD powders with both a favorable inhalation performance and antihygroscopic property. SFD powders composed of several hydrophobic amino acids were prepared. The morphology, particle size distribution, and crystallinity of the prepared powders were evaluated by scanning electron micrography, laser diffraction, and X-ray powder diffraction, respectively. The inhalation characteristics of the SFD powders were examined using a twin-stage liquid impinger equipped with an inspiratory pattern simulator and devices. To investigate their antihygroscopicity, moreover, the SFD powders were stored under a humidified condition to assess the morphology, crystallinity, and inhalation performance as described above. It was demonstrated that a SFD powder composed of L-leucine, L-isoleucine, or L-phenylalanine showed a superior inhalation performance, which was sufficiently maintained after storage under the humidified condition, strongly indicating their antihygroscopicity. These results indicated that the hygroscopicity of SFD powders can be effectively improved by the application of hydrophobic amino acids as excipients. PMID:26725381

  2. Statistical optimization for improved production of cyclosporin a in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Survase, Shrikant A; Annapure, Uday S; Singhal, Rekha S

    2009-11-01

    This work evaluates the effect of different amino acids on production of CyA production in solid-state fermentation that was previously optimized for different fermentation parameters by one-factor-at-a-time for the maximum production of CyA by Tolypocladium inflatum MTCC 557. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, glycerol, ammonium sulfate, FeCl3, and inoculum size were selected for further optimization by response surface methodology (RSM). After identifying effective nutrients, RSM was used to develop mathematical model equations, study responses, and establish the optimum concentrations of the key nutrients for higher CyA production. It was observed that supplementation of medium containing (% w/w) glycerol, 1.53; ammonium sulfate, 0.95; FeCl3, 0.18; and inoculum size 6.4 ml/5g yielded a maximum of 7,106 mg/kg as compared with 6,480 mg CyA/kg substrate using one factor at a time. In the second step, the effect of amino acids on the production of CyA was studied. Addition of L-valine and L-leucine in combination after 20 h of fermentation resulted in maximum production of 8,166 mg/kg. PMID:19996692

  3. Effects of alpha-ketomonocarboxylic acids upon insulin secretion and metabolism of isolated pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Panten, U

    1975-01-01

    In perifused isolated pancreatic islets alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) or alpha-ketocaproic acid (KC) induced a high insulin secretion rate and a steep increase of the fluorescence of reduced pyridine pyridine nucleotides [NAD(P)H] which fell again to almost prestimulatory levels 6 min after medium change. Insulin release in response to alpha-ketooctanoic (KO) acid started slowly and was accompanied by a decrease of the NAD(P)H-fluorescence trace. Beta-phenylpyruvate which is known to initiate insulin release also caused a fluorescence decrease. Alpha-keto-isovaleric (KIV) acid or pyruvate had no significant effects upon insulin secretion or NAD(P)H-fluorescence. In contrast to l-leucine, l-norleucine or l-valine did not enhance insulin release or fluorescence of NAD(P)H. KIV, alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMV), KIC and KC raised the production their corresponding amino acids by islet cells. From these results it is concluded that alpha-ketomonocarboxylic acids as such trigger insulin release by acting upon receptor sites which differ from those occupied by amino acids. PMID:1687

  4. Interaction of bovine serum albumin with N-acyl amino acid based anionic surfactants: Effect of head-group hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Dey, Joykrishna

    2015-11-15

    The function of a protein depends upon its structure and surfactant molecules are known to alter protein structure. For this reason protein-surfactant interaction is important in biological, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. In the present work, interactions of a series of anionic surfactants having the same hydrocarbon chain length, but different amino acid head group, such as l-alanine, l-valine, l-leucine, and l-phenylalanine with the transport protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), were studied at low surfactant concentrations using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The results of fluorescence measurements suggest that the surfactant molecules bind simultaneously to the drug binding site I and II of the protein subdomain IIA and IIIA, respectively. The fluorescence as well as CD spectra suggest that the conformation of BSA goes to a more structured state upon surfactant binding at low concentrations. The binding constants of the surfactants were determined by the use of fluorescence as well as ITC measurements and were compared with that of the corresponding glycine-derived surfactant. The binding constant values clearly indicate a significant head-group effect on the BSA-surfactant interaction and the interaction is mainly hydrophobic in nature. PMID:26245717

  5. Modified Jiu Wei Qiang Huo decoction improves dysfunctional metabolomics in influenza A pneumonia-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijuan; Fan, Jiajun; Li, Yubin; Shi, Xunlong; Ju, Dianwen; Yan, Qianlin; Yan, Xin; Han, Lei; Zhu, Haiyan

    2014-04-01

    In order to study the effective mechanism of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), modified Jiu Wei Qiang Huo decoction (MJWQH), against H1N1-induced pneumonia in mice, we chose a holistic approach. A reverse-phase liquid chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) was developed to determine metabolomic biomarkers in mouse serum for the MJWQH effects. Thirteen biomarkers of H1N1-induced pneumonia in mice serum were identified, which comprised l-valine, lauroylcarnitine, palmitoyl-l-carnitine, l-ornithine, uric acid, taurine, O-succinyl-l-homoserine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, PGF2α, 20-ethyl-PGE2, arachidonic acid, and glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine. Among them, metabolites of amino acids, fatty acids and arachidonic acid had the most relevant changes in mice with H1N1-induced pneumonia. MJWQH effectively improved weight loss, lung index, biomarkers and inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 and phospholipase A2 in the infected mice. Importantly, MJWQH reversed the elevated biomarkers to the control levels from the infection, which provided a systematic view and a theoretical basis for its prevention or treatment. The results suggest that the protective effect of MJWQH against H1N1-induced pneumonia is possibly through regulation of pathways for amino acid, fatty acid and arachidonic acid metabolism. They also suggest that the LC-MS-based metabolomic strategy is a powerful tool for elucidation of the mechanisms of TCM. PMID:24132661

  6. Molecular and sensory characterization of gamma-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Andreas; Köster, Jessica; Hofmann, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Addition of a nearly tasteless aqueous extract isolated from beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to a model chicken broth enhanced its mouthfulness and complexity and induced a much more long-lasting savory taste sensation on the tongue. Gel permeation chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/comparative taste dilution analysis (HILIC/cTDA), followed by LC-MS/MS and 1D/2D-NMR experiments, led to the identification of gamma-L-glutamyl-L-leucine, gamma-L-glutamyl-L-valine, and gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine as key molecules inducing this taste-modifying effect. Sensory analysis of aqueous solutions of these peptides showed threshold concentrations between 3.3 and 9.4 mmol/L for an unspecific, slightly astringent sensation. More interestingly, when added to a savory matrix such as sodium chloride and monosodium glutamate solutions or chicken broth, the detection thresholds of these gamma-glutamyl peptides decreased significantly and remarkably enhanced mouthfulness, complexity, and long-lastingness of the savory taste were observed; for example, the threshold of gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-beta-alanine decreased by a factor of 32 in a binary mixture of glutamic acid and sodium chloride. As tasteless molecules inducing mouthfulness, thickness, and increasing continuity of savory foods were coined about 10 years ago as "kokumi" flavor compounds, the peptides identified in raw as well as thermally treated beans have to be considered as kokumi compounds. PMID:17616213

  7. Spectral characterization of novel ternary zinc(II) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline and Schiff bases derived from amino acids and salicylaldehyde-5-sulfonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghaei, Davar M.; Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz

    2007-07-01

    A series of new ternary zinc(II) complexes [Zn(L 1-10)(phen)], where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline and H 2L 1-10 = tridentate Schiff base ligands derived from the condensation of amino acids (glycine, L-phenylalanine, L-valine, L-alanine, and L-leucine) and salicylaldehyde-5-sulfonates (sodium salicylaldehyde-5-sulfonate and sodium 3-methoxy-salicylaldehyde-5-sulfonate), have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectra. The IR spectra of the complexes showed large differences between νas(COO) and νs(COO), Δ ν ( νas(COO) - νs(COO)) of 191-225 cm -1, indicating a monodentate coordination of the carboxylate group. Spectral data showed that in these ternary complexes the zinc atom is coordinated with the Schiff base ligand acts as a tridentate ONO moiety, coordinating to the metal through its phenolic oxygen, imine nitrogen, and carboxyl oxygen, and also with the neutral planar chelating ligand, 1,10-phenanthroline, coordinating through nitrogens.

  8. Raman spectra of amino acids and their aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Zhu, Xian; Fan, Qi; Wan, Xueliang

    2011-03-01

    Amino acids are the basic "building blocks" that combine to form proteins and play an important physiological role in all life-forms. Amino acids can be used as models for the examination of the importance of intermolecular bonding in life processes. Raman spectra serve to obtain information regarding molecular conformation, giving valuable insights into the topology of more complex molecules (peptides and proteins). In this paper, amino acids and their aqueous solution have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. Comparisons of certain values for these frequencies in amino acids and their aqueous solutions are given. Spectra of solids when compared to those of the solute in solution are invariably much more complex and almost always sharper. We present a collection of Raman spectra of 18 kinds of amino acids ( L-alanine, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glycine, L-histidine, L-isoluecine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, L-methionone, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-valine) and their aqueous solutions that can serve as references for the interpretation of Raman spectra of proteins and biological materials.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir after oral administration: interaction with the transporters on Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Katragadda, Suresh; Jain, Ritesh; Kwatra, Deep; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    In vivo systemic absorption of the amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) after oral administration was evaluated in rats. Stability of the prodrugs, L-alanine-ACV (AACV), L-serine-ACV (SACV), L-isoleucine-ACV (IACV), gamma-glutamate-ACV (EACV) and L-valine-ACV (VACV) was evaluated in various tissues. Interaction of these prodrugs with the transporters on Caco-2 cells was studied. In vivo systemic bioavailability of these prodrugs upon oral administration was evaluated in jugular vein cannulated rats. The amino acid ester prodrugs showed affinity towards various amino acid transporters as well as the peptide transporter on the Caco-2 cells. In terms of stability, EACV was most enzymatically stable compared to other prodrugs especially in liver homogenate. In oral absorption studies, ACV and AACV showed high terminal elimination rate constants (lambda(z)). SACV and VACV exhibited approximately five-fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) values relative to ACV (p<0.05). C(max(T)) (maximum concentration) of SACV was observed to be 39+/-22 microM in plasma which is 2 times better than VACV and 15 times better than ACV. C(last(T)) (concentration at the last time point) of SACV was observed to be 0.18+/-0.06 microM in plasma which is two times better than VACV and three times better than ACV. Amino acid ester prodrugs of ACV were absorbed at varying amounts (C(max)) and eliminated at varying rates (lambda(z)) thereby leading to varying extents (AUC). The amino acid ester prodrug SACV owing to its enhanced stability, higher AUC and better concentration at last time point seems to be a promising candidate for the oral treatment of herpes infections. PMID:18638532

  10. Characterization and expression profile of two UDP-glucosyltransferases, UGT85K4 and UGT85K5, catalyzing the last step in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in cassava.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed S; Hansen, Natascha K K; Paquette, Suzanne M; Olsen, Carl E; Mller, Birger L; Jrgensen, Kirsten

    2011-10-01

    Manihot esculenta (cassava) contains two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, biosynthesized from l-valine and l-isoleucine, respectively. In this study, cDNAs encoding two uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) paralogs, assigned the names UGT85K4 and UGT85K5, have been isolated from cassava. The paralogs display 96% amino acid identity, and belong to a family containing cyanogenic glucoside-specific UGTs from Sorghum bicolor and Prunus dulcis. Recombinant UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 produced in Escherichia coli were able to glucosylate acetone cyanohydrin and 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyronitrile, forming linamarin and lotaustralin. UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 show broad in?vitro substrate specificity, as documented by their ability to glucosylate other hydroxynitriles, some flavonoids and simple alcohols. Immunolocalization studies indicated that UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 co-occur with CYP79D1/D2 and CYP71E7 paralogs, which catalyze earlier steps in cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in cassava. These enzymes are all found in mesophyll and xylem parenchyma cells in the first unfolded cassava leaf. In?situ PCR showed that UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 are co-expressed with CYP79D1 and both CYP71E7 paralogs in the cortex, xylem and phloem parenchyma, and in specific cells in the endodermis of the petiole of the first unfolded leaf. Based on the data obtained, UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 are concluded to be the UGTs catalyzing in?planta synthesis of cyanogenic glucosides. The localization of the biosynthetic enzymes suggests that cyanogenic glucosides may play a role in both defense reactions and in fine-tuning nitrogen assimilation in cassava. PMID:21736650

  11. Identification of N-{[6-chloro-4-(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)quinazolin-2-yl]carbonyl}-L-leucine (NTRC-808), a novel nonpeptide chemotype selective for the Neurotensin receptor type 2

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, James B.; Giddings, Angela M.; Olepu, Srinivas; Wiethe, Robert W.; Harris, Danni L.; Narayanan, Sanju; Warner, Keith R.; Sarret, Philippe; Longpre, Jean-Michel; Runyon, Scott P.; Gilmour, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Compounds acting via the GPCR neurotensin receptor type 2 (NTS2) display analgesic effects in relevant animal models. Using a pharmacophore model based on known NT receptor nonpeptide compounds, we screened commercial databases to identify compounds that might possess activity at NTS2 receptor sites. Modification of our screening hit to include structural features known to be recognized by NTS1 and NTS2, led to the identification of the novel NTS2 selective nonpeptide, N-{[6-chloro-4-(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)quinazolin-2-yl]carbonyl}-Lleucine (9). This compound is a potent partial agonist in the FLIPR assay with a profile of activity similar to that of the reference NTS2 analgesic nonpeptide levocabastine (5). PMID:25499438

  12. Cultural Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Propionibacteria

    PubMed Central

    Moss, C. Wayne; Dowell, V. R.; Farshtchi, D.; Raines, L. J.; Cherry, W. B.

    1969-01-01

    The cultural characteristics and cellular fatty acid composition of 40 strains representing 7 species of Propionibacterium and of 9 cultures of anaerobic corynebacteria were studied. The cultures were characterized by means of 23 separate cultural and biochemical tests. Cultures of the two genera differed consistently in only two reactions; the propionibacteria did not produce indole or liquefy gelatin, whereas the anaerobic corynebacteria were consistently positive with these tests. The fatty acids were extracted from whole cells and examined as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The most abundant acid in the seven Propionibacterium species was a C15-saturated branched-chain acid which was present in both the iso-and anteiso-form. Based on a comparison of the relative abundance of these isomers (i-C15 and a-C15), the species were separated into two groups. P. freudenreichii and P. shermanii (group one) were similar and contained the a-C15 isomer as the predominant acid. The i-C15 isomer was the most abundant acid in the second group (P. arabinosum, P. jensenii, P. pentosaceum, P. thoenii, and P. zeae). The fatty acid profiles of the anaerobic corynebacteria were somewhat similar to those of the second group of propionibacteria, but were distinct from the profiles of P. freudenreichii and P. shermanii. The addition of branched-chain amino acids (l-leucine and l-isoleucine) to the growth medium increased the synthesis of the specific fatty acid(s) structurally related to the added amino acid. PMID:4886285

  13. Origin and incidence of 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, a compound with a "fungal" and "corky" aroma found in cork stoppers and oak chips in contact with wines.

    PubMed

    Chatonnet, Pascal; Fleury, Antoine; Boutou, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study identifies a previously isolated bacterium as Rhizobium excellensis, a new species of proteobacteria able to form a large quantity of 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (MDMP). R. excellensis actively synthesizes MDMP from L-alanine and L-leucine and, to a lesser extent, from L-phenylalanine and L-valine. MDMP is a volatile, strong-smelling substance detected in wines with cork stoppers that have an unpleasant "corky", "herbaceous" (potato, green hazelnut), or "dusty" odor that is very different from the typical "fungal" nose of a "corked" wine that is generally due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA). The contamination of cork by MDMP is not correlated with the presence of TCA. It appears possible that R. excellensis is the microorganism mainly responsible for the presence of this molecule in cork bark. However, other observations suggest that MDMP might taint wine through other ways. Oak wood can also be contaminated and affect wines with which it comes into contact. Nevertheless, because 93% of the MDMP content in wood is destroyed after 10 min at 220 °C, sufficiently toasted oak barrels or alternatives probably do not represent a major source of MDMP in most of the cases. Due to MDMP's relatively low detection threshold estimated at 2.1 ng/L, its presence in about 40% of the untreated natural cork stoppers sampled at concentrations above 10 ng/cork suggests that this compound, if extracted from the stoppers, may pose a risk for wine producers. PMID:21058737

  14. Dried bonito dashi: taste qualities evaluated using conditioned taste aversion methods in wild-type and T1R1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Delay, Eugene R; Kondoh, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The primary taste of dried bonito dashi is thought to be umami, elicited by inosine 5'-monphosphate (IMP) and L-amino acids. The present study compared the taste qualities of 25% dashi with 5 basic tastes and amino acids using conditioned taste aversion methods. Although wild-type C57BL/6J mice with compromised olfactory systems generalized an aversion of dashi to all 5 basic tastes, generalization was greater to sucrose (sweet), citric acid (sour), and quinine (bitter) than to NaCl (salty) or monosodium L-glutamate (umami) with amiloride. At neutral pH (6.5-6.9), the aversion generalized to l-histidine, L-alanine, L-proline, glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-serine, and monosodium L-glutamate, all mixed with IMP. Lowering pH of the test solutions to 5.7-5.8 (matching dashi) with HCl decreased generalization to some amino acids. However, adding lactic acid to test solutions with the same pH increased generalization to 5'-inosine monophosphate, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, and taurine but eliminated generalization to L-histidine. T1R1 knockout mice readily learned the aversion to dashi and generalized the aversion to sucrose, citric acid, and quinine but not to NaCl, glutamate, or any amino acid. These results suggest that dashi elicits a complex taste in mice that is more than umami, and deleting T1R1 receptor altered but did not eliminate their ability to taste dashi. In addition, lactic acid may alter or modulate taste transduction or cell-to-cell signaling. PMID:25604941

  15. Involvement of cationic amino acid transporter 1 in L-arginine transport in rat retinal pericytes.

    PubMed

    Zakoji, Nobuyuki; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a known relaxant, is produced in cells from L-arginine (L-Arg). Because the relaxation of retinal pericytes alters the microcirculatory hemodynamics, it is important to understand the manner of NO production in retinal pericytes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism(s) of uptake of L-Arg in retinal pericytes using a conditionally immortalized rat retinal pericyte cell line (TR-rPCT1 cells) which expresses the mRNAs of endothelial NO synthase and inducible NO synthase. L-Arg uptake by TR-rPCT1 cells exhibited Na(+)-independence and concentration-dependence with a Km of 28.9 µM. This process was strongly inhibited by substrates of cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), such as L-ornithine and L-lysine. In contrast, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-glutamine, which are substrates of cation/neutral amino acid transport systems, such as system y(+)L, system B(0,+), and system b(0,+), did not strongly inhibit L-Arg uptake by TR-rPCT1 cells. In addition, the expression of mRNA and protein of CAT1 in TR-rPCT1 cells was observed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. Taking these results into consideration, it appears that CAT1 is involved in L-Arg uptake by retinal pericytes and this is expected to play an important role in the relaxation of retinal pericytes, thereby modulating the microcirculatory hemodynamics in the retina. PMID:25747984

  16. Crystallization of Amino Acids on a 21-well Circular PMMA Platform using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Alabanza, Anginelle M.; Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design and the use of a circular poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) crystallization platform capable of processing 21 samples in Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization (MA-MAEC). The PMMA platforms were modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to generate a microwave-induced temperature gradient between the solvent and the SNFs due to the marked differences in their physical properties. Since amino acids only chemisorb on to silver on the PMMA platform, SNFs served as selective and heterogeneous nucleation sites for amino acids. Theoretical simulations for electric field and temperature distributions inside a microwave cavity equipped with a PMMA platform were carried out to determine the optimum experimental conditions, i.e., temperature variations and placement of the PMMA platform inside a microwave cavity. In addition, the actual temperature profiles of the amino acid solutions were monitored for the duration of the crystallization experiments carried out at room temperature and during microwave heating. The crystallization of five amino acids (L-threonine, L-histidine, L-leucine, L-serine and L-valine HCl) at room temperature (control experiment) and using MA-MAEC were followed by optical microscopy. The induction time and crystal growth rates for all amino acids were determined. Using MA-MAEC, for all amino acids the induction times were significantly reduced (up to ~8-fold) and the crystal growth rates were increased (up to ~50-fold) as compared to room temperature crystallization, respectively. All crystals were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction, which demonstrated that the crystal structures of all amino acids grown at room temperature and using MA-MAEC were similar. PMID:24855565

  17. Self-assembly thermodynamics of pH-responsive amino-acid-based polymers with a nonionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Bogomolova, Anna; Keller, Sandro; Klingler, Johannes; Sedlak, Marian; Rak, Dmytro; Sturcova, Adriana; Hruby, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Filippov, Sergey K

    2014-09-30

    The behavior of pH-responsive polymers poly(N-methacryloyl-l-valine) (P1), poly(N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine) (P2), and poly(N-methacryloylglycyne-l-leucine) (P3) has been studied in the presence of the nonionic surfactant Brij98. The pure polymers phase-separate in an acidic medium with critical pHtr values of 3.7, 5.5, and 3.4, respectively. The addition of the surfactant prevents phase separation and promotes reorganization of polymer molecules. The nature of the interaction between polymer and surfactant depends on the amino acid structure in the side chain of the polymer. This effect was investigated by dynamic light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, electrophoretic measurements, small-angle neutron scattering, and infrared spectroscopy. Thermodynamic analysis revealed an endothermic association reaction in P1/Brij98 mixture, whereas a strong exothermic effect was observed for P2/Brij98 and P3/Brij98. Application of regular solution theory for the analysis of experimental enthalpograms indicated dominant hydrophobic interactions between P1 and Brij98 and specific interactions for the P2/Brij98 system. Electrophoretic and dynamic light scattering measurements support the applicability of the theory to these cases. The specific interactions can be ascribed to hydrogen bonds formed between the carboxylic groups of the polymer and the oligo(ethylene oxide) head groups of the surfactant. Thus, differences in polymer-surfactant interactions between P1 and P2 polymers result in different structures of polymer-surfactant complexes. Specifically, small-angle neutron scattering revealed pearl-necklace complexes and "core-shell" structures for P1/Brij98 and P2/Brij98 systems, respectively. These results may help in the design of new pH-responsive site-specific micellar drug delivery systems or pH-responsive membrane-disrupting agents. PMID:25192406

  18. Crystallization of Amino Acids on a 21-well Circular PMMA Platform using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Alabanza, Anginelle M; Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and the use of a circular poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) crystallization platform capable of processing 21 samples in Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization (MA-MAEC). The PMMA platforms were modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to generate a microwave-induced temperature gradient between the solvent and the SNFs due to the marked differences in their physical properties. Since amino acids only chemisorb on to silver on the PMMA platform, SNFs served as selective and heterogeneous nucleation sites for amino acids. Theoretical simulations for electric field and temperature distributions inside a microwave cavity equipped with a PMMA platform were carried out to determine the optimum experimental conditions, i.e., temperature variations and placement of the PMMA platform inside a microwave cavity. In addition, the actual temperature profiles of the amino acid solutions were monitored for the duration of the crystallization experiments carried out at room temperature and during microwave heating. The crystallization of five amino acids (L-threonine, L-histidine, L-leucine, L-serine and L-valine HCl) at room temperature (control experiment) and using MA-MAEC were followed by optical microscopy. The induction time and crystal growth rates for all amino acids were determined. Using MA-MAEC, for all amino acids the induction times were significantly reduced (up to ~8-fold) and the crystal growth rates were increased (up to ~50-fold) as compared to room temperature crystallization, respectively. All crystals were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction, which demonstrated that the crystal structures of all amino acids grown at room temperature and using MA-MAEC were similar. PMID:24855565

  19. Maintenance valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan requirements for poultry.

    PubMed

    de Lima, M B; Sakomura, N K; Dorigam, J C P; da Silva, E P; Ferreira, N T; Fernandes, J B K

    2016-04-01

    Poultry maintenance requirements for valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan were measured by nitrogen balance using different unit systems. The nitrogen balance trial lasted 5 d with 48 h of fasting (with roosters receiving only water + sucrose) and the last 72 h for feeding and excreta collection. Forty grams of each diet first-limiting in valine, isoleucine, or tryptophan was fed by tube each day (3 d) to give a range of intakes from 0 to 101, 0 to 119, and 0 to 34 mg/kg BW d of valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan, respectively. A nitrogen-free diet containing energy, vitamins, and minerals, meeting the rooster requirements, was offered ad libitum during these three d. To confirm that the amino acids studied were limiting, a treatment was added with a control diet formulated by adding 0.24 g/kg of L-valine, 0.21 g/kg of L-isoleucine, and 0.10 g/kg of L-tryptophan to the diets with lower amino acid level. Excreta were collected during the last 3 d of the balance period and the nitrogen content of the excreta was analyzed. For each amino acid, a linear regression between nitrogen retention (NR) and amino acid intake was performed. The equations from linear regression were: NR = -98.6 (±10.1) + 2.4 (±0.2) × Val, NR = -46.9 (±7.1) + 2.3 (±0.1) × Ile, NR = -39.5 (±7.7) + 7.3 (±0.4) × Trp; where Val, Ile, and Trp are the intakes of valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan in mg/kg body weight per d, respectively. The valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan required to maintain the body at zero NR were calculated to be 41, 20, and 5 mg/kg body weight per d, respectively. For the system unit mg per kg of metabolic weight, the intake of valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan was 59, 32, and 9, respectively. Considering the degree of maturity of the animal and body protein content (BPm (0.73)×u), the amounts of valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan required for maintenance were calculated to be 247, 134, and 37 mg per unit of maintenance protein (BPm (0.73)×u) per d. Maintenance requirement is more adequately expressed as body protein content. PMID:26769273

  20. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-01-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in GE than in control. However, total whole body free amino acids were significantly lower in GE than in control (p<0.05). GE group showed higher EPA (C22:6n3) and DHA (C22:5n3) in their whole body than the other group (p<0.05). In the second experiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p< 0.05) different at 1 (50.8 vs 62.4) and 24 h (57.6 vs 73.6) after feeding, respectively, while no significant difference (p>0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (?IU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05) different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06) and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96) after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon. PMID:25049498

  1. Optimum conditions for prebiotic evolution in extraterrestrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Ousama H.

    The overall goal of the dissertation was to devise synthetic pathways leading to the production of peptides and amino acids from smaller organic precursors. To this end, eight different zeolites were tested in order to determine their catalytic potential in the conversion of amino acids to peptides. The zeolites tested were either synthetic or naturally occurring. Acidic solutions of amino acids were prepared with or without zeolites and their reactivity was monitored over a four-week time interval. The kinetics and feasibility of peptide synthesis from selected amino acid combinations was investigated via the paper chromatography technique. Nine different amino acids were tested. The nature and extent of product were measured at constant time intervals. It was found that two ZSM-5 synthetic zeolites as well as the Fisher Scientific zeolite mix without alumina salts may have a catalytic potential in the conversion of amino acids to peptides. The conversion was verified by matching the paper chromatogram of the experimental product with that of a known peptide. The experimental results demonstrate that the optimum solvent system for paper chromatographic analysis of the zeolite-catalyzed self-assembly of the amino acids L-aspartic acid, L- asparagine, L-histidine, and L-serine is a 50:50 mixture of 1-butanol and acetone by volume. For the amino acids L-alanine, L-glycine, and L-valine, the optimum solvent was found to be a 30:70 mixture of ammonia and propanol by volume. A mathematical model describing the distance traveled (spot position) versus reaction time was constructed for the zeolite-catalyzed conversion of L- leucine and L-tyrosine and was found to approximately follow the function f(t) = 25 ln t. Two case studies for prebiotic synthesis leading to the production of amino acids or peptides in extraterrestrial environments were discussed: one involving Saturn's moon Titan, and the other involving Jupiter's moon Europa. In the Titan study, it was determined that organic synthesis, based on simple precursors, may lead in the Titan environment to the production of biologically important molecules such as amino acids. In the Europa study, three synthetic schemes using hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid, and hydrocyanic acid, and leading to the production of larger biologically important molecules such as amino acids were presented. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Methyl 2-(methylthio)benzoate: A sex attractant for the June beetles, Phyllophaga tristis and P. apicata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male antennae of Phyllophaga tristis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were tested using a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennogram detector (GC-EAD) system for electrophysiological responses to five sex pheromones identified from other Phyllophaga species including L-valine ...

  3. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EVIDENCE FOR SUBSTRATE LIMITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were measured along a transect in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA, to examine the factors that control microbial water column processes in this subtropical estuary. The microbial measures included 3 H-L-leucine incorporation, e...

  4. Sources of ammonia for urea synthesis in isolated rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Rognstad, R

    1977-02-28

    L-Leucine inhibits urea synthesis in rat hepatocytes from a number of nitrogen sources, including ammonia. The inhibition by L-leucine is largely overcome by addition of 1 mM L-ornithine, suggesting that the main site of L-leucine action is at ornithine transcarbamylase, rather than at glutamate dyhydrogenase. L-Norvaline is a more potent inhibitor of urea synthesis than is L-leucine, but again the inhibition is largely counteracted by L-ornithine. Addition of aminooxyacetate and L-norvaline strongly suppresses the formation of glucose and lactate from L-asparagine, suggesting that an alternate pathway of aspartate metabolism, the purine nucleotide cycle, in not a major pathway. Hadacidin, an inhibitor of adenylosuccinate synthetase, an enzyme of the purine nucleotide cycle, has no effect on urea synthesis in rat liver cells. PMID:836898

  5. The N-hydroxymethyl group for stereoselective conjugate addition: application to the synthesis of (-)-statine.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dongwon; Oh, Joon Seok; Kim, Young Gyu

    2002-04-01

    [reaction: see text] Efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure (-)-statine was achieved with the stereoselective intramolecular conjugate addition of the hydroxyl group tethered to the amino group of a configurationally stable N-Boc-L-leucinal derivative. PMID:11922821

  6. Inconclusive Evidence for Non-Terrestrial Isoleucine Enantiomeric Excesses in CR Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Martins, Zita; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers recently described the soluble organic content of eight Antarctic CR carbonaceous chondrites and reported large enantiomeric excesses (ee) of L-isoleucine and Dalloisoleucine. The reported ee values decrease with inferred increases in aqueous alteration. We believe the conclusions presented in the manuscript are not fully justified and the data are potentially flawed.

  7. Comment on the paper ``Growth and characterization of organic nonlinear optical crystal: l-Valinium salicylate (LVS)''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, S.; Moovendaran, K.; Srinivasan, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing L-valine and salicylic acid results in the fractional crystallization of salicylic acid and not any so called L-valinium salicylate as reported recently by Andal and Murugakoothan in the title paper.

  8. Synthesis, metabolism and cellular permeability of enzymatically stable dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Talluri, Ravi S; Samanta, Swapan K; Gaudana, Ripal; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to synthesize and evaluate novel enzymatically stable dipeptide prodrugs for improved absorption of acyclovir. l-Valine-l-valine-acyclovir (LLACV), l-valine-d-valine-acyclovir (LDACV), d-valine-l-valine-acyclovir (DLACV) and d-valine-d-valine-acyclovir (DDACV) were successfully synthesized. The uptake and transport studies were conducted on a Caco-2 cell line. Buffer stability and metabolism of the prodrugs in Caco-2, rat intestine and liver homogenates were studied. Structure and purity of the all compounds were confirmed with LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Uptake and transport of [(3)H] glycylsarcosine was inhibited by all prodrugs except DDACV. DLACV and DDACV exhibited no measurable degradation in Caco-2 homogenate. Except DDACV other three prodrugs were hydrolyzed in rat intestine and liver homogenates. The order of permeability across Caco-2 was LDACV>LLACV>DDACV>DLACV. A linear correlation between the amount of prodrug transported and over all permeability of acyclovir was established. This study shows that the incorporation of one d-valine in a dipeptide did not abolish its affinity towards peptide transporters (PEPT). Moreover, it enhanced enzymatic stability of prodrug to a certain extent depending on the position in a dipeptide conjugate. This strategy improved both the cellular permeability and the amount of intact prodrug transported which would enable targeting the nutrient transporters at blood ocular barrier (BOB). PMID:18573320

  9. Effect of D-valine and cytosine arabinoside on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation in rat and rabbit epididymal epithelial cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Orgebin-Crist, M.C.; Jonas-Davies, J.; Storey, P.; Olson, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Epithelial cell enriched primary cultures were established from the rat and the rabbit epididymis. Epithelial cell aggregates, obtained after pronase digestion of minced epididymis, attached to the culture dish and after 72 h in vitro spread out to form discrete patches of cells. These cells have an epithelioid morphology and form a monolayer of closely apposed polygonal cells where DNA synthesis, as judged by (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake, is very low. In L-valine medium the nonepithelial cell contamination was no more than 10% in rat and rabbit epididymal primary cultures. The labeling index of rat epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly lower than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. In contrast, the labeling index of rabbit epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly higher than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. Cytosine arabinoside decreased the number of labeled cells in both L-valine and D-valine cultures. From these results, it appears that D-valine is a selective agent for rat epididymal epithelial cells, but not for rabbit epithelial cells, and that cytosine arabinoside is a simple and effective means to control the proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in both rat and rabbit epididymal cell cultures.

  10. Oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid directs the metabolism of GABA into the Krebs cycle in rat pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Hernndez-Fisac, Ins; Fernndez-Pascual, Sergio; Ortster, Henrik; Pizarro-Delgado, Javier; Martn Del Ro, Rafael; Bergsten, Peter; Tamarit-Rodriguez, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    OMP (oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid) stimulates by itself a biphasic secretion of insulin whereas L-leucine requires the presence of L-glutamine. L-Glutamine is predominantly converted into GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) in rat islets and L-leucine seems to promote its metabolism in the GABA shunt [Fernndez-Pascual, Mukala-Nsengu-Tshibangu, Martn del Ro and Tamarit-Rodrguez (2004) Biochem. J. 379, 721729]. In the present study, we have investigated how 10mM OMP affects L-glutamine metabolism to uncover possible differences with L-leucine that might help to elucidate whether they share a common mechanism of stimulation of insulin secretion. In contrast with L-leucine, OMP alone stimulated a biphasic insulin secretion in rat perifused islets and decreased the islet content of GABA without modifying its extracellular release irrespective of the concentration of L-glutamine in the medium. GABA was transaminated to L-leucine whose intracellular concentration did not change because it was efficiently transported out of the islet cells. The L-[U-14C]-Glutamine (at 0.5 and 10.0mM) conversion to 14CO2 was enhanced by 10mM OMP within 30% and 70% respectively. Gabaculine (250?M), a GABA transaminase inhibitor, suppressed OMP-induced oxygen consumption but not L-leucine- or glucose-stimulated respiration. It also suppressed the OMP-induced decrease in islet GABA content and the OMP-induced increase in insulin release. These results support the view that OMP promotes islet metabolism in the GABA shunt generating 2-oxo-glutarate, in the branched-chain ?-amino acid transaminase reaction, which would in turn trigger GABA deamination by GABA transaminase. OMP, but not L-leucine, suppressed islet semialdehyde succinic acid reductase activity and this might shift the metabolic flux of the GABA shunt from ?-hydroxybutyrate to succinic acid production. PMID:16819942

  11. Growth of Esteya vermicola in media amended with nitrogen sources yields conidia with increased predacity and resistance to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Chun Yan; Gu, Li Juan; Wang, Yun Bo; Zhang, Yong An; Sung, Chang Keun

    2011-10-01

    Esteya vermicola , an endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematode, exhibits great potential as a biological agent against nematodes. In this study to enhance the sporulation, predacity, and environmental resistance of E. vermicola, various nitrogen sources, such as glycine, L-leucine, and ammonium nitrate, were tested. The supplement of glycine and L-leucine had a significant influence on the growth rate of the colony, enhancing colony dry mass by 5-fold more than did ammonium nitrate or the control. Of the nitrogen sources tested, ammonium nitrate and L-leucine promoted sporulation, yielding more than 6 10(6) CFU/g, while glycine enhanced the proportion of lunate spores. Meanwhile, the supplement of nitrogen sources had a significant influence on adhesive rate and mortality rate against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus . Moreover, the supplement of glycine enhanced the survival rate against heat stress by more than 3-fold that of L-leucine, ammonium nitrate, and control. The spores produced in media amended with glycine, L-leucine, and ammonium nitrate had slightly but not significantly higher UV resistance and drought resistance than spores produced without nitrogen sources. These results suggested that the addition of glycine resulted in the production of E. vermicola conidia with increased predacity and resistance to environmental stress that may be more suitable for control of pine wilt disease. PMID:21942397

  12. Benzylamide antagonists of protease activated receptor 2 with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mei-Kwan; Liu, Ligong; Lim, Junxian; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Cotterell, Adam J; Suen, Jacky Y; Vesey, David A; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2016-02-01

    Activation of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders and its inhibition may yield novel therapeutics. Here, we report a series of PAR2 antagonists based on C-terminal capping of 5-isoxazolyl-l-cyclohexylalanine-l-isoleucine, with benzylamine analogues being effective new PAR2 antagonists. 5-Isoxazolyl-l-cyclohexylalanine-l-isoleucine-2-methoxybenzylamine (10) inhibited PAR2-, but not PAR1-, induced release of Ca(2+) (IC50 0.5?M) in human colon cells, IL-6 and TNF? secretion (IC50 1-5?M) from human kidney cells, and was anti-inflammatory in acute rat paw inflammation (ED50 5mg/kg sc). These findings show that new benzylamide antagonists of PAR2 have anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26725028

  13. Development of an Amino Acid-Functionalized Fluorescent Nanocarrier to Deliver a Toxin to Kill Insect Pests.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yang; You, Shusen; Ji, Chendong; Yin, Meizhen; Yang, Wantai; Shen, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale cultivation ofBacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) crops has led to the rapid development of drug resistance. Herein, a fluorescent star poly(amino acid) is synthesized with l-isoleucine functionalization for the efficient delivery of either positively or negatively charged exogenous proteins into live cells. Poly(amino acid)s (P1)/Cry1Ab complexes greatly increase the cytotoxicity of the Bt toxin, Cry1Ab, and efficiently kill Bt-resistant pests. PMID:26640174

  14. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine production of recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum under optimal corn steep liquor limitation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Niu, Tengfei; Fang, Huimin

    2015-05-01

    4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL) is a nonproteinogenic amino acid that exhibits insulinotropic biological activity. Here, L-isoleucine dioxygenase gene (ido) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis YBT-1520 was cloned and expressed in an L-isoleucine-producing strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum SN01, in order to directly convert its endogenous L-isoleucine (Ile) into 4-HIL through single-step fermentation. The effects of corn steep liquor limitation as well as ido and truncated idoΔ6 overexpression on 4-HIL production were researched. 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was improved to 65.44 ± 2.27 mM after fermented for 144 h under corn steep liquor-subsufficient condition, obviously higher than that under corn steep liquor-rich and insufficient conditions. The conversion ratio of Ile to 4-HIL increased to 0.85 mol/mol. In addition, 4-HIL production by ido-overexpressing strain was higher than that by idoΔ6-overexpressing strain, in accord with the relatively higher affinity of Ido as compared to IdoΔ6. This research generated a novel system for 4-HIL de novo biosynthesis and demonstrated corn steep liquor limitation as a useful strategy for improving 4-HIL production in recombinant C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum. PMID:25725632

  15. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum].

    PubMed

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis. PMID:583180

  16. Looking beyond carbon nanotubes: polypeptide nanotubes as alternatives?

    PubMed

    Praveena, G; Kolandaivel, P; Santhanamoorthi, N; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2007-07-01

    Since the discovery of CNT by Iijima, Nature 354, 56 (1991), CNT's have surged to the forefront as a versatile nanostructured material in nanoelectronic applications. Polypeptides nanotubular structures with tunable properties offer a challenging alternative to CNT. Earlier experimental studies on L-Alanyl-L-Valine (AV) and L-Valyl-L-Alanine (VA) have demonstrated their potential as novel porous materials, which form channel-like structure (Soldatov et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 6308 (2004)). In the study reported here, DFT calculations on two closely related cyclic dipeptides cyclo[L-alanyl-L-valine]3 and cyclo[L-valyl-L-alanine]3 and on their linear correlates, [L-alanyl-L-valine]3 and [L-valyl-L-alanine]3 have been performed. This paper presents the general structural and electronic properties of cyclic and linear correlates of the nanotubular oligomeric dipeptides constructs, AV, and VA. We have compared the energy gaps of these cyclic rings and their linear correlates with that of other nanotubular constructs. The calculated HOMO-LUMO gap of these isolated ring structures is significantly larger than CNT's. Further research is required to reduce the band gaps to be comparable to CNT's and other inorganic tubular structures. Polypeptide design promises to be a major tool in engineering desirable band gap for the creation of novel nanostructured polypeptide nanotubes. PMID:17663238

  17. Leucine modulates peptide transport system-1 across the blood-brain barrier at the stereospecific site within the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Banks, W A; Kastin, A J

    1991-04-01

    Previous results have shown that leucine injected into a cerebral ventricle (i.c.v.) can act as an allosteric regulator of peptide transport system-1 (PTS-1), the system that transports Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 (Tyr-MIF-1) and the enkephalins out of the central nervous system (CNS). D-Leucine appeared more potent than L-leucine. In the current study, dose-response curves were constructed for each compound after both intravenous (i.v.) and i.c.v. injection. Based on ED50 values after i.c.v. injection, D-leucine was about 200 times more potent than L-leucine in its inhibition of PTS-1, thereby confirming stereospecificity of the allosteric site. D- and L-Leucine were also more potent when given i.c.v. than when given i.v., suggesting that the site is located on the CNS side of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The finding that D-leucine was less potent than L-leucine when given i.v. is also consistent with a CNS site of action because the L-isomer of leucine has been shown to be preferentially transported into the brain. These findings agree with the previous suggestion that some of the neurotoxic effects of leucine may be mediated through PTS-1 and could help explain how D-amino acids can exert opiate-related effects on the CNS. PMID:1676737

  18. Leucine modulates peptide transport system-1 across the blood-brain barrier at the stereospecific site within the central nervous system.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Banks WA; Kastin AJ

    1991-04-01

    Previous results have shown that leucine injected into a cerebral ventricle (i.c.v.) can act as an allosteric regulator of peptide transport system-1 (PTS-1), the system that transports Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 (Tyr-MIF-1) and the enkephalins out of the central nervous system (CNS). D-Leucine appeared more potent than L-leucine. In the current study, dose-response curves were constructed for each compound after both intravenous (i.v.) and i.c.v. injection. Based on ED50 values after i.c.v. injection, D-leucine was about 200 times more potent than L-leucine in its inhibition of PTS-1, thereby confirming stereospecificity of the allosteric site. D- and L-Leucine were also more potent when given i.c.v. than when given i.v., suggesting that the site is located on the CNS side of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The finding that D-leucine was less potent than L-leucine when given i.v. is also consistent with a CNS site of action because the L-isomer of leucine has been shown to be preferentially transported into the brain. These findings agree with the previous suggestion that some of the neurotoxic effects of leucine may be mediated through PTS-1 and could help explain how D-amino acids can exert opiate-related effects on the CNS.

  19. Evolutionarily distinct versions of the multidomain enzyme ?-isopropylmalate synthase share discrete mechanisms of V-type allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Garima; Frantom, Patrick A

    2014-07-29

    Understanding the evolution of allostery in multidomain enzymes remains an important step in improving our ability to identify and exploit structure-function relationships in allosteric mechanisms. A recent protein similarity network for the DRE-TIM metallolyase superfamily indicated there are two evolutionarily distinct forms of the enzyme ?-isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS) sharing approximately 20% sequence identity. IPMS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been extensively characterized with respect to catalysis and the mechanism of feedback regulation by l-leucine. Here, IPMS from Methanococcus jannaschii (MjIPMS) is used as a representative of the second form of the enzyme, and its catalytic and regulatory mechanism is compared with that of MtIPMS to identify any functional differences between the two forms. MjIPMS exhibits kinetic parameters similar to those of other reported IPMS enzymes and is partially inhibited by l-leucine in a V-type manner. Identical values of (D2O)kcat (3.1) were determined in the presence and absence of l-leucine, indicating the hydrolytic step is rate-determining in the absence of l-leucine and remains so in the inhibited form of the enzyme. This mechanism is identical to the mechanism identified for MtIPMS ((D2O)kcat = 3.3 0.3 in the presence of l-leucine) despite product release being rate-determining in the uninhibited MtIPMS enzyme. The identification of identical regulatory mechanisms in enzymes with low sequence identity raises important evolutionary questions concerning the acquisition and divergence of multidomain allosteric enzymes and highlights the need for caution when comparing regulatory mechanisms for homologous enzymes. PMID:24991690

  20. Identification, Purification, and Characterization of a Novel Amino Acid Racemase, Isoleucine 2-Epimerase, from Lactobacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli and then purified to homogeneity. The enzyme catalyzed the racemization of a broad spectrum of nonpolar amino acids. In particular, it catalyzed at high rates the epimerization of l-isoleucine to d-allo-isoleucine and d-allo-isoleucine to l-isoleucine. In contrast, the enzyme showed no γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity. The relative molecular masses of the subunit and native enzyme were estimated to be about 49 kDa and 200 kDa, respectively, indicating that the enzyme was composed of four subunits of equal molecular masses. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for l-isoleucine were 5.00 mM and 153 μmol·min−1·mg−1, respectively, and those for d-allo-isoleucine were 13.2 mM and 286 μmol·min−1·mg−1, respectively. Hydroxylamine and other inhibitors of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes completely blocked the enzyme activity, indicating the enzyme requires pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as a coenzyme. This is the first evidence of an amino acid racemase that specifically catalyzes racemization of nonpolar amino acids at the C-2 position. PMID:24039265

  1. Isoleucine as a possible bridge between exogenous delivery and terrestrial enhancement of homochirality.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Fitz, Daniel; Rode, Bernd M

    2013-02-01

    We report a highly enantioselective oligomerization of isoleucine stereomers in the salt-induced peptide formation reaction under plausibly prebiotic earth conditions. Up to 6.5-fold superiority in reactivity of L-isoleucine was observed, compared to its D-enantiomer, after 14 evaporation cycles in the presence of Cu(2+) and NaCl. Since isoleucine is among the proteinogenic amino acids that were found enantioenriched in meteorites, this present work may further correlate the extraterrestrial delivery and endogenous production of biological homochirality by virtue of a protein constituent rather than the rarely occurring ?-methylated amino acids. PMID:22968664

  2. The vascular effects of different arginase inhibitors in rat isolated aorta and mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, NN; Harris, EE; Chin-Dusting, JFP; Andrews, KL

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Arginase and nitric oxide (NO) synthase share the common substrate L-arginine, and arginase inhibition is proposed to increase NO production by increasing intracellular levels of L-arginine. Many different inhibitors are used, and here we have examined the effects of these inhibitors on vascular tissue. Experimental approach Each arginase inhibitor was assessed by its effects on isolated rings of aorta and mesenteric arteries from rats by: (i) their ability to preserve the tolerance to repeated applications of the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine (ACh); and (ii) their direct vasorelaxant effect. Key results In both vessel types, tolerance (defined as a reduced response upon second application) to ACh was reversed with addition of L-arginine, (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine HCl (BEC) or NG-Hydroxy-L-arginine (L-NOHA). On the other hand, N?-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly augmented the response to ACh, an effect that was partially reversed with L-arginine. No effect on tolerance to ACh was observed with L-valine, nor-valine or D,L, ?-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). BEC, L-NOHA and nor-NOHA elicited endothelium-independent vasorelaxation in both endothelium intact and denuded aorta while L-valine, DFMO and nor-valine did not. Conclusions and implications BEC and L-NOHA, but not nor-NOHA, L-valine, DFMO or nor-valine, significantly reversed tolerance to ACh possibly conserving L-arginine levels and therefore increasing NO bioavailability. However, both BEC and L-NOHA caused endothelium-independent vasorelaxation in rat aorta, suggesting that these inhibitors have a role beyond arginase inhibition alone. Our data thus questions the interpretation of many studies using these antagonists as specific arginase inhibitors in the vasculature, without verification with other methods. PMID:19133993

  3. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Corynebacterium glutamicum: an attractive target for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Blombach, Bastian

    2014-12-20

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) catalyzes the oxidative thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO2. Since pyruvate is a key metabolite of the central metabolism and also the precursor for several relevant biotechnological products, metabolic engineering of this multienzyme complex is a promising strategy to improve microbial production processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge and achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor the PDHC of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the bio-based production of l-valine, 2-ketosiovalerate, pyruvate, succinate and isobutanol and to improve l-lysine production. PMID:24486441

  4. Crystal structure of (2S)-3-methyl-2-[(naphthalen-1-ylsulfon-yl)amino]-butanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Danish, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Jabeen, Nabila; Raza, Muhammad Asam

    2015-05-01

    The title compound, C15H17NO4S, was synthesized from l-valine and naphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride. The hydrogen-bonded carb-oxy-lic acid groups form a catemer C(4) motif extending along [100]. The catemer structure is reinforced by a rather long N-H⋯O hydrogen bond, between the sulfamide N-H group and a carb-oxy-lic acid O atom [H⋯O = 2.52 (2) Å], and a C-H⋯O hydrogen bond. PMID:25995919

  5. Sagittamides A and B. Polyacetoxy long-chain acyl amino acids from a didemnid ascidian.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Sarah C; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2005-05-26

    [structure: see text]. An unidentified tunicate from Pohnpei, Micronesia, yielded sagittamides A and B-compounds comprising a long-chain C26 dicarboxylic acid that acylates terminal L-valine and L-ornithine groups. The structures, which contain an unprecedented internal O-hexacetyl-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexaol moiety, were determined by combined spectroscopic analysis including mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D NMR and chemical degradation. The partial absolute stereochemistry of the new compounds was addressed by Marfey's analysis. PMID:15901189

  6. Heat Capacity and Other Thermodynamic Properties of Linear Macromolecules. VIII. Polyesters and Polyamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Umesh; Lau, Suk-fai; Wunderlich, Brent B.; Wunderlich, Bernhard

    1983-01-01

    Heat capacity of polyglycolide, poly(ɛ-caprolactone), poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ethylene sebacate), polyglycine, poly(L-alanine), poly(L-valine),nylon 6, nylon 6.6 and nylon 6.12 is reviewed on the basis of measurements on 35 samples reported in the literature. All heat capacity data are compiled and a set of recommended data have been derived for each polymer. Crystallinity dependence is critically evaluated for poly(ethylene terephthalate). Enthalpy and entropy functions are calculated for amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate). This is the eighth paper in a series of publications which will ultimately cover all heat capacity measurements of linear macromolecules.

  7. Possible selective adsorption of enantiomers by Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friebele, E.; Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-01-01

    Racemic amino acids including (D,L) alpha-alamine, (D,L) alpha-aminobutyric acid, (D,L) valine, and (D,L) norvaline were incubated with Na-montmorillonite at 100% CEC at three hydrogen ion concentrations, and amino acid adsorption was determined by ion exchange chromatography. Enantiomers were analyzed by gas chromatography. Differences in the quantities of D and L enantiomers in any of the fractions was no larger than a few percent. Although a large difference in the adsorption of the amino acid enantiomers was not observed, the analysis may indicate a small preferential adsorption (0.5-2%) of L-amino acids by Na-montmorillonite.

  8. Selective Interaction of Dopamine with the Self-Assembled Fibrillar Network of a Molecular Hydrogel Revealed by STD-NMR.

    PubMed

    Segarra-Maset, María D; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F

    2015-09-28

    A molecular hydrogel formed by a derivative of L-valine with pendant isonicotinoyl moieties interacts selectively with protonated dopamine in the presence of related compounds such as 3-methylcatechol, and protonated or neutral phenethylamine. A two-point interaction with the gel fibers is postulated to explain the results. The conclusions are obtained from nuclear magnetic resonance saturation transfer experiments (STD-NMR), illustrating how this technique is perfectly suited to monitor the interaction of substrates with the fibrillar network of a molecular gel. PMID:26289821

  9. Effect of amino acid dopants on the spectral, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of potassium acid phthalate crystals for possible optoelectronic and frequency doubling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph; Gnanaraj, J. Martin Sam; Dhavud, S. Shek; Ekadevasena, S.

    2015-09-01

    Undoped and amino acid (L-Arginine and L-Valine) doped KAP crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The changes in the structural, spectral, optical, mechanical and thermal properties were observed. The sharp prominent peaks in the indexed powder XRD pattern confirms the crystalline nature of the sample. Optical studies reveal that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible light region. Thermal stability was checked by TG/DTA analysis. The mechanical stability was evaluated from Vicker's microhardness test. The SHG efficiency for the title materials was tested with different particle sizes by the Kurtz and Perry powder method, which established the existence of phase matching.

  10. Drimane Sesquiterpene-Conjugated Amino Acids from a Marine Isolate of the Fungus Talaromyces minioluteus (Penicillium Minioluteum)

    PubMed Central

    Ngokpol, Suthatip; Suwakulsiri, Wittaya; Sureram, Sanya; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Aree, Thammarat; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2015-01-01

    Four new sesquiterpene lactones (3, 4, 6 and 7) and three known compounds, purpuride (1), berkedrimane B (2) and purpuride B (5), were isolated from the marine fungus, Talaromyces minioluteus (Penicillium minioluteum). New compounds were drimane sesquiterpenes conjugated with N-acetyl-l-valine, and their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, as well as by single crystal X-ray analysis. The isolated compounds could not inhibit the apoptosis-regulating enzyme, caspase-3, while three of the compounds (2, 3 and 7) exhibited weak cytotoxic activity. PMID:26058010

  11. Concerted Feedback Inhibition of the Aspartokinase of Rhodospirillum tenue by Threonine and Methionine: a Novel Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Gero, Malka; Borgne, Lucien Le; Cohen, Georges N.

    1972-01-01

    The presence of a single aspartokinase was demonstrated in Rhodospirillum tenue. The enzyme has been purified about 60-fold. No physical association exists in this species between aspartokinase and homoserine dehydrogenase. The general properties of the enzyme are described. Inhibition by l-lysine, by l-threonine, and concerted inhibition by these two end products are regulatory characters which have also been found in many other species. In R. tenue, aspartokinase is also subject to a hitherto not encountered type of concerted feedback inhibition, by l-threonine plus l-methionine. The inhibition caused by lysine can be reversed either by glycine, l-isoleucine, l-methionine, or l-phenylalanine. The concerted inhibition by lysine plus threonine is reversed by glycine, l-isoleucine, or l-phenylalanine, but not by l-methionine, which exerts in conjunction with threonine the independent concerted inhibition referred to above. Addition of single or several metabolites to cultures of R. tenue caused inhibition of growth and reversal of growth inhibition, compatible with the effects observed in vitro on aspartokinase activity. The regulation of this enzyme in relation to that of other bacterial aspartokinases is discussed. PMID:5079065

  12. Metabolic annotation of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-25

    Increased levels of the organic acid, 2-ethylhydracrylic acid (2-EHA) occur in urine of subjects with impaired L(+)-isoleucine metabolism. Chiral intermediates formed during isoleucine degradation are (S) enantiomers. Blockage of (S) pathway flux drives racemization of (2S, 3S) L(+)-isoleucine and its (2S, 3R) stereoisomer, L(+)-alloisoleucine. This non-protein amino acid is metabolized to (R)-2-methylbutyryl CoA via enzymes common to branched chain amino acid degradation. Subsequently, (R) intermediates serve as alternate substrates for three valine metabolic enzymes, generating 2-EHA. Once formed, 2-EHA accumulates because it is poorly recognized by distal valine pathway enzymes. Thus, urinary 2-EHA represents a biomarker of isoleucine pathway defects. 2-EHA levels are also increased in rats exposed to the industrial solvent, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether or the neurotoxin precursor, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. In these cases, a block in (S) pathway isoleucine catabolism occurs at the level of (S)-2-methylbutyryl CoA conversion to tiglyl CoA via inhibition of electron transferring flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase dependent reactions. Elevated urinary 2-EHA in propionyl CoA carboxylase deficiency and methylmalonic aciduria results from a buildup of distal intermediates in the (S) pathway of isoleucine degradation. In Barth syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome, 2-EHA is a byproduct of impeded propionyl CoA entry into the Krebs cycle. PMID:26115894

  13. Characterization of the Coronatine-Like Phytotoxins Produced by the Common Scab Pathogen Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Fyans, Joanna K; Altowairish, Mead S; Li, Yuting; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2015-04-01

    Streptomyces scabies is an important causative agent of common scab disease of potato tubers and other root crops. The primary virulence factor produced by this pathogen is a phytotoxic secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A, which is essential for disease development. In addition, the genome of S. scabies harbors a virulence-associated biosynthetic gene cluster called the coronafacic acid (CFA)-like gene cluster, which was previously predicted to produce metabolites that resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine (COR) phytotoxin. COR consists of CFA linked to an ethylcyclopropyl amino acid called coronamic acid, which is derived from L-allo-isoleucine. Using a combination of genetic and chemical analyses, we show that the S. scabies CFA-like gene cluster is responsible for producing CFA-L-isoleucine as the major product as well as other minor COR-like metabolites. Production of the metabolites was shown to require the cfl gene, which is located within the CFA-like gene cluster and encodes an enzyme involved in ligating CFA to its amino acid partner. CFA-L-isoleucine purified from S. scabies cultures was shown to exhibit bioactivity similar to that of COR, though it was found to be less toxic than COR. This is the first report demonstrating the production of coronafacoyl phytotoxins by S. scabies, which is the most prevalent scab-causing pathogen in North America. PMID:25423263

  14. Conversion into GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) may reduce the capacity of L-glutamine as an insulin secretagogue.

    PubMed Central

    Fernndez-Pascual, Sergio; Mukala-Nsengu-Tshibangu, Andr; Martn Del Ro, Rafael; Tamarit-Rodrguez, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed examination of L-glutamine metabolism in rat islets in order to elucidate the paradoxical failure of L-glutamine to stimulate insulin secretion. L-Glutamine was converted by isolated islets into GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), L-aspartate and L-glutamate. Saturation of the intracellular concentrations of all of these amino acids occurred at approx. 10 mmol/l L-glutamine, and their half-maximal values were attained at progressively increasing concentrations of L-glutamine (0.3 mmol/l for GABA; 0.5 and 1.0 mmol/l for Asp and Glu respectively). GABA accumulation accounted for most of the 14CO2 produced at various L-[U-14C]glutamine concentrations. Potentiation by L-glutamine of L-leucine-induced insulin secretion in perifused islets was suppressed by malonic acid dimethyl ester, was accompanied by a significant decrease in islet GABA accumulation, and was not modified in the presence of GABA receptor antagonists [50 micromol/l saclofen or 10 micromol/l (+)-bicuculline]. L-Leucine activated islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity, but had no effect on either glutamate decarboxylase or GABA transaminase activity, in islet homogenates. We conclude that (i) L-glutamine is metabolized preferentially to GABA and L-aspartate, which accumulate in islets, thus preventing its complete oxidation in the Krebs cycle, which accounts for its failure to stimulate insulin secretion; (ii) potentiation by L-glutamine of L-leucine-induced insulin secretion involves increased metabolism of L-glutamate and GABA via the Krebs cycle (glutamate dehydrogenase activation) and the GABA shunt (2-oxoglutarate availability for GABA transaminase) respectively, and (iii) islet release of GABA does not seem to play an important role in the modulation of the islet secretory response to the combination of L-leucine and L-glutamine. PMID:14763900

  15. Neurons expressing individual enzymes of dopamine synthesis in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult rats: functional significance and topographic interrelations.

    PubMed

    Ugrumov, M; Taxi, J; Pronina, T; Kurina, A; Sorokin, A; Sapronova, A; Calas, A

    2014-09-26

    Besides dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons having all enzymes of DA synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), "monoenzymatic" neurons expressing only one of them were found in the brain, mostly in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that DA is synthesized by monoenzymatic neurons, i.e. l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), which produced in the monoenzymatic TH neurons is transported in the monoenzymatic AADC neurons for DA synthesis. Incubation of MBH in Krebs-Ringer solution with l-leucine, a competitive inhibitor of l-DOPA uptake, was used to prevent a hypothetical l-DOPA capture into AADC-containing neurons. Incubation of the substantia nigra containing DA-ergic neurons under the same conditions served as the control. According to our data, the l-leucine administration provoked a decrease of DA concentration in MBH and in the incubation medium but not in the substantia nigra and respective incubation medium, showing a decrease of cooperative synthesis of DA in MBH. This conclusion was supported by an observation of higher concentration of l-DOPA in the incubation medium under perfusion of MBH with Krebs-Ringer solution containing tolcapone, an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase, and l-leucine than under perfusion with the same solution, but without l-leucine. Functional interaction between monoenzymatic TH and AADC neurons was indirectly confirmed by finding in electron microscopy their close relations in MBH. Besides monoenzymatic AADC neurons, any AADC-possessing neurons, catecholaminergic and serotoninergic, apparently, could participate in DA synthesis together with monoenzymatic TH neurons. This idea was confirmed by the observation of close topographic relations between monoenzymatic TH neurons and those containing both enzymes, i.e. DA-ergic, noradrenergic or adrenergic. Thus, monoenzymatic neurons possessing TH or AADC and being in close topographic relations can synthesize DA in cooperation. PMID:24997271

  16. In-situ study of substrate - catalyst interactions in a Juliá-Colonna epoxidation using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    PubMed

    Wakeham, Deborah; Crivoi, Dana G; Medina, Francesc; Segarra, Anna M; Rutland, Mark W

    2016-05-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) analysis of the hexa-l-Leucine (PLL)-catalyzed epoxidation of chalcone gives in-situ experimental evidences which demonstrate that the reaction proceeds mainly via the formation of a PLL-bound hydroperoxide complex followed by the reversible addition of chalcone. The observations offer an alternative rationalization for the viability of the preferred catalytic pathway. PMID:26896774

  17. Maternal diabetes promotes mTORC1 downstream signalling in rabbit preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Schindler, Maria; Pendzialek, S Mareike; Thieme, René; Grybel, Katarzyna J; Heller, Regine; Spengler, Katrin; Fleming, Tom P; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is known to be a central cellular nutrient sensor and master regulator of protein metabolism; therefore, it is indispensable for normal embryonic development. We showed previously in a diabetic pregnancy that embryonic mTORC1 phosphorylation is increased in case of maternal hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia. Further, the preimplantation embryo is exposed to increased L-leucine levels during a diabetic pregnancy. To understand how mTOR signalling is regulated in preimplantation embryos, we examined consequences of L-leucine and glucose stimulation on mTORC1 signalling and downstream targets in in vitro cultured preimplantation rabbit blastocysts and in vivo. High levels of L-leucine and glucose lead to higher phosphorylation of mTORC1 and its downstream target ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in these embryos. Further, L-leucine supplementation resulted in higher embryonic expression of genes involved in cell cycle (cyclin D1; CCND1), translation initiation (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E; EIF4E), amino acid transport (large neutral amino acid transporter 2; Lat2: gene SLC7A8) and proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PCNA) in a mTORC1-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of S6K1 and expression patterns of CCND1 and EIF4E were increased in embryos from diabetic rabbits, while the expression of proliferation marker PCNA was decreased. In these embryos, protein synthesis was increased and autophagic activity was decreased. We conclude that mammalian preimplantation embryos sense changes in nutrient supply via mTORC1 signalling. Therefore, mTORC1 may be a decisive mediator of metabolic programming in a diabetic pregnancy. PMID:26836250

  18. Investigation of the Changes in Aerosolization Behavior Between the Jet-Milled and Spray-Dried Colistin Powders Through Surface Energy Characterization.

    PubMed

    Jong, Teresa; Li, Jian; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony; Larson, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface energy factors behind improved aerosolization performance of spray-dried colistin powder formulations compared with those produced by jet milling. Inhalable colistin powder formulations were produced by jet milling or spray drying (with or without l-leucine). Scanning electron micrographs showed the jet-milled particles had irregularly angular shapes, whereas the spray-dried particles were more spherical. Significantly higher fine particle fractions were measured for the spray-dried (43.8%-49.6%) versus the jet-milled formulation (28.4%) from a Rotahaler at 60 L/min; albeit the size distribution of the jet-milled powder was smaller. Surprisingly, addition of l-leucine in the spray drying feed solution gave no significant improvement in fine particle fraction. As measured by inverse gas chromatography, spray-dried formulations had significantly (p < 0.001) lower dispersive, specific, and total surface energy values and more uniform surface energy distributions than the jet-milled powder. Interestingly, no significant difference was measured in the specific and total surface energy values between the spray-dried formulation with or without l-leucine. Based on our previous findings in the self-assembling behavior of colistin in aqueous solution and the surface energy data obtained here, we propose the self-assembly of colistin molecules during spray drying contributed significantly to the reduction of surface free energy and the superior aerosolization performance. PMID:26886330

  19. Experiments on the origin of molecular chirality by parity non-conservation during beta-decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments are described to test a theory for the origin of optical activity wherein the longitudinally polarized electrons resulting from parity violation during radioactive beta decay, and their resulting circularly polarized Bremsstrahlung, might interact asymmetrically with organic matter to yield optically active products. Experiments involve subjecting a number of racemic and optically active amino acid samples to irradiation in a 61700 Ci90SR-90Y beta radiation source for a period of 1.34 years, then examining them for any asymmetric effects by means of optical rotatory dispersion and analytical gas chromatography. In the cases of D,L-leucine, norleucine, norvaline and proline as solids, of D,L-leucine in solution and of D,L-tyrosine in alkaline solution no optical rotation was observed during CRD measurements in the 250-630 nm spectral region. While slight differences were noted in the percent radiolysis of solid D- (12.7%) and L-leucine (16.2%) as determined by GC, no enrichment of either enantiomer was found.

  20. Physico-chemical investigation of asymmetrical peptidolipidyl-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Angelina; Fajolles, Christophe; Hocquelet, Céline; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Lesieur, Sylviane; Bonnet, Véronique; Perly, Bruno; Lebas, Geneviève; Mauclaire, Laurent

    2008-06-01

    A new class of amphiphilic peptidolipidyl-cyclodextrins is reported. The derivatives are chiral due to the presence of an L-leucine in the spacer arm that links a saccharide moiety and a grafted, saturated hydrocarbon chain. Self-assembly properties of the peptidolipidyl-cyclodextrins are characterized by quasi-elastic light scattering, turbidity and UV-visible absorption measurements. NMR experiments give insight into the intermolecular dipolar interactions as a function of temperature and concentration. N-dodecyl-N alpha-(6 I-amidosuccinyl-6 1-deoxy-cyclomaltoheptaose)-L-leucine (1) is poorly soluble in aqueous media. N-dodecyl-N(alpha)-(6 I-amidosuccinyl-6 I-deoxy-2 I,3 I-di-O-methyl-hexakis-(2 II-VII,3 II-VII,6 II-VII-tri-O-methyl)-cyclomaltoheptaose)-L-leucine (2) is found to be more soluble and self-assembles into stable supramolecular colloidal aggregates with nanometric dimensions above a critical aggregation concentration (CAC). It has a propensity for solubilization of hydrophobic species revealing a micellar-like behavior, which is compared to that of the non-ionic detergent octyl glucoside. On the contrary, compound 1 precipitates in a crystalline phase beyond its water solubility limit, and it does not display any solubilizing capacity. The observed behavior corroborates at the molecular level with the NMR results. PMID:18417144

  1. Formulation of inhalable lipid-based salbutamol sulfate microparticles by spray drying technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to develop dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of salbutamol sulfate (SS) by the aid of solid lipid microparticles (SLmPs), composed of biocompatible phospholipids or cholesterol. Methods The SLmPs were prepared by using two different solvent systems (ethanol and water-ethanol) and lipid carriers (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol) with/without L-leucine in the spray drying process. The spray-dried microparticles were physically-mixed with coarse lactose monohydrate in order to make our final DPI formulations and were investigated in terms of physical characteristics as well as in vitro drug release profile and aerosolization behavior. Results We observed significant differences in the sizes, morphologies, and in vitro pulmonary depositions between the formulations. In particular, the SS-containing SLmPs prepared with water-ethanol (30:70v/v) solution of DPPC and L-leucine which had then been blended with coarse lactose (1:9 w/w) exhibited the highest emitted dose (87.9%) and fine particle fraction (42.7%) among the formulations. In vitro drug release study indicated that despite of having a significant initial burst release for both cholesterol and DPPC-based microparticles, the remained drug released more slowly than the pure drug. Conclusion This study demonstrated the potential of using lipid carriers as well as L-leucine in DPI formulations of SS to improve its aerosolization behavior and retard the release profile of the drug. PMID:24919924

  2. The radiolysis and radioracemization of amino acids on silica surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Lemmon, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of experiments on the radioracemization of amino acids in the presence of silica surfaces such as may have been found on the prebiotic earth. L-leucine and a DL-leucine mixture deposited on samples of 1-quartz and an amorphous silica preparation (Syloid 63) was subjected to Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation, then analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the radiolysis and racemization rates. The quartz surface is found to have a marginal efficacy in enhancing radiolysis when compared with a crystalline L-leucine control, although enhancing radioracemization symmetrically by a factor of two. Both the radiolysis and radioracemization of L-leucine and DL-leucine on a Syloid-63 silica surface are observed to increase with increasing radiation dose, and to be substantially greater than in the crystalline controls. Additional experiments with the nonprotein amino acid isovaline deposited on Syloid 63 confirm the greater radiolysis susceptibility of amino acids deposited on silica with respect to the crystalline state, although racemization is not observed. The observations suggest that the presence of a silica surface would have a deleterious effect on any mechanism for the origin of molecular chirality relying on stereoselective beta-radiolysis.

  3. Acetohydroxy Acid Synthetase with a pH Optimum of 7.5 from Neurospora crassa Mitochondria: Characterization and Partial Purification

    PubMed Central

    Glatzer, Louis; Eakin, E.; Wagner, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    An acetohydroxy acid synthetase (AAS) has been found associated with the mitochondrial fraction of wild-type Neurospora crassa. It has a pH optimum of 7.5 and is presumed to be homologous to the pH 8.0 AAS that synthesizes the valine and isoleucine precursors in bacteria and yeast. The enzyme was characterized and purified 30- to 60-fold. The AAS activity of intact mitochondria requires thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), Mn2+ or Mg2+, and flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and is sensitive to end product inhibition by l-valine. This inhibition is pH-dependent and noncompetitive with respect to pyruvate. Activity is slightly repressed during exponential growth in the presence of valine, isoleucine, and leucine. Extraction of the AAS from the mitochondria has a profound influence on the following properties: pH optimum, sensitivity to l-valine, response to FAD, binding of TPP, apparent Km, and stability at 0 to 4 C. The catalytic properties of the partially purified enzyme are described. Two forms of the partially purified AAS can be isolated from preparative Sephadex G-200 chromatographic columns. Both forms are electrophoretically and antigenically similar but one form has an estimated molecular weight of 110,000 to 120,000 whereas the predominant form is a much larger and more buoyant molecule. Images PMID:4263405

  4. Purification and characterization of a novel valine dehydrogenase from Streptomyces aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L T; Nguyen, K T; Kopeck, J; Nov, P; Novotn, J; B?hal, V

    1995-09-01

    The first valine dehydrogenase of S. aureofaciens had been described (Vancurov, I., Vancura, A., Volc, J., Neuzil, J., Flieger, M., Basarov, G. and B?hal, V. (1988) J. Bacteriol. 170, 5192-5196). In the present work, a second valine dehydrogenase was detected and purified by hydrophobic and fast protein liquid chromatographies. The enzyme has a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 240,000 and is composed of 6 identical subunits, each of M(r) 41,000. In the presence of NAD, the enzyme catalyzes the reversible deamination of several branched- and straight-chain amino acids. The enzyme activities with L-2-aminobutyrate and deamino-NAD+ are markedly higher than those with L-valine and NAD+, respectively. The enzyme synthesis is significantly induced by L-valine but severely repressed by ammonia. Molecular and catalytic properties of the enzyme distinguish it from the other described valine dehydrogenases. The results directly demonstrate the presence of two valine dehydrogenases in a single Streptomyces species. PMID:7669808

  5. Isolation and characterization of valine dehydrogenase from Streptomyces aureofaciens.

    PubMed Central

    Vancurov, I; Vancura, A; Volc, J; Neuzil, J; Flieger, M; Basarov, G; B?hal, V

    1988-01-01

    Valine dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the crude extracts of Streptomyces aureofaciens. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was 116,000 by equilibrium ultracentrifugation and 118,000 by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. The enzyme was composed of four subunits with molecular weights of 29,000. The isoelectric point was 5.1. The enzyme required NAD+ as a cofactor, which could not be replaced by NADP+. Sulfhydryl reagents inhibited the enzyme activity. The pH optimum was 10.7 for oxidative deamination of L-valine and 9.0 for reductive amination of alpha-ketoisovalerate. The Michaelis constants were 2.5 mM for L-valine and 0.10 mM for NAD+. For reductive amination the Km values were 1.25 mM for alpha-ketoisovalerate, 0.023 mM for NADH, and 18.2 mM for NH4Cl. Images PMID:3182727

  6. Valine dehydrogenase from Streptomyces fradiae: purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Vancura, A; Vancurov, I; Volc, J; Fussey, S P; Flieger, M; Neuzil, J; Marslek, J; B?hal, V

    1988-12-01

    Valine dehydrogenase (VDH) was purified to homogeneity from cell-free extract of Streptomyces fradiae, which produces tylosin. The enzyme was purified 1508-fold in a 17.7% yield using a combination of hydrophobic chromatography and ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography. The Mr of the native enzyme was determined to be 218,000 and 215,000, by equilibrium ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The enzyme is composed of 12 subunits of Mr 18,000. Using analytical isoelectric focusing the isoelectric point of VDH was found to be 4.7. Oxidative deamination of L-valine was optimal at pH 10.6. Reductive amination of 2-oxoisovalerate was optimal at pH 8.8. The Michaelis constants (Km) were 1 mM for L-valine and 0.029 mM for NAD+. Km values for reductive amination were 0.80 mM for 2-oxoisovalerate, 0.050 mM for NADH and 22 mM for NH4+. PMID:3269392

  7. Isolation and characterization of valine dehydrogenase from Streptomyces aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    Vancurov, I; Vancura, A; Volc, J; Neuzil, J; Flieger, M; Basarov, G; B?hal, V

    1988-11-01

    Valine dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the crude extracts of Streptomyces aureofaciens. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was 116,000 by equilibrium ultracentrifugation and 118,000 by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. The enzyme was composed of four subunits with molecular weights of 29,000. The isoelectric point was 5.1. The enzyme required NAD+ as a cofactor, which could not be replaced by NADP+. Sulfhydryl reagents inhibited the enzyme activity. The pH optimum was 10.7 for oxidative deamination of L-valine and 9.0 for reductive amination of alpha-ketoisovalerate. The Michaelis constants were 2.5 mM for L-valine and 0.10 mM for NAD+. For reductive amination the Km values were 1.25 mM for alpha-ketoisovalerate, 0.023 mM for NADH, and 18.2 mM for NH4Cl. PMID:3182727

  8. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions.

    PubMed

    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-01-01

    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells was improved by genetic engineering of glucose metabolism for improved cofactor regeneration. Here, we compare this system with different strategies for cofactor regeneration such as cascading with alcohol dehydrogenases, with alternative production hosts such as Pseudomonas species or Corynebacterium glutamicum, and with improving whole cell biotransformation systems by metabolic engineering of NADPH regeneration. PMID:24406456

  9. The Novel Dipeptide Translocator Protein Ligand, Referred to As GD-23, Exerts Anxiolytic and Nootropic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Povarnina, P. Yu.; Yarkov, S. A.; Gudasheva, T. A.; Yarkova, M. A.; Seredenin, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO) promotes the translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane and mediates steroid formation. In this study, we first report on a biological evaluation of the dipeptide GD-23 (N-carbobenzoxy-L tryptophanyl-L isoleucine amide), a structural analogue of Alpidem, the principal TSPO ligand. We show that GD-23 in a dose range of 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) exhibits anxiolytic activity in the elevated plus maze test and nootropic activity in the object recognition test in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodents. It was shown that GD-23 did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, holding promise as a nonsedative anxiolytic agent. The anxiolytic and nootropic activities of GD-23 were abrogated by the TSPO specific ligand PK11195, which thus suggests a role for TSPO in mediating the pharmacological activity of GD-23. PMID:26483966

  10. The Novel Dipeptide Translocator Protein Ligand, Referred to As GD-23, Exerts Anxiolytic and Nootropic Activities.

    PubMed

    Povarnina, P Yu; Yarkov, S A; Gudasheva, T A; Yarkova, M A; Seredenin, S B

    2015-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO) promotes the translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane and mediates steroid formation. In this study, we first report on a biological evaluation of the dipeptide GD-23 (N-carbobenzoxy-L tryptophanyl-L isoleucine amide), a structural analogue of Alpidem, the principal TSPO ligand. We show that GD-23 in a dose range of 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) exhibits anxiolytic activity in the elevated plus maze test and nootropic activity in the object recognition test in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodents. It was shown that GD-23 did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, holding promise as a nonsedative anxiolytic agent. The anxiolytic and nootropic activities of GD-23 were abrogated by the TSPO specific ligand PK11195, which thus suggests a role for TSPO in mediating the pharmacological activity of GD-23. PMID:26483966

  11. Effect of Selectively Introducing Arginine and D-Amino Acids on the Antimicrobial Activity and Salt Sensitivity in Analogs of Human Beta-Defensins

    PubMed Central

    Olli, Sudar; Rangaraj, Nandini; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the antimicrobial activity of C-terminal analogs of human β-defensins HBD-1and-3 wherein lysines have been selectively replaced by L- and D-arginines and L-isoleucine substituted with its D-enantiomer. The analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. Physiological concentration of NaCl did not attenuate the activity of the peptides against Gram-negative bacteria considerably, while some attenuation of activity was observed against S. aureus. Variable attenuation of activity was observed in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Introduction of D-amino acids abrogated the need for a disulfide bridge for exhibiting activity. Confocal images of carboxyfluorescein (CF) labeled peptides indicated initial localization on the membrane and subsequent translocation into the cell. Analogs corresponding to cationic rich segments of human defensins substituted with L- and D-arginine, could be attractive candidates for development as future therapeutic drugs. PMID:24086767

  12. Cooperativity Between Different Nutrient Receptors in Germination of Spores of Bacillus subtilis and Reduction of This Cooperativity by Alterations in the GerB Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Atluri, Swaroopa; Ragkousi, Katerina; Cortezzo, Donna E.; Setlow, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The GerA nutrient receptor alone triggers germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with l-alanine or l-valine, and these germinations were stimulated by glucose and K+ plus the GerK nutrient receptor. The GerB nutrient receptor alone did not trigger spore germination with any nutrients but required glucose, fructose, and K+ (GFK) (termed cogerminants) plus GerK for triggering of germination with a number of l-amino acids. GerB and GerA also triggered spore germination cooperatively with l-asparagine, fructose, and K+ and either l-alanine or l-valine. Two GerB variants (termed GerB*s) that were previously isolated by their ability to trigger spore germination in response to d-alanine do not respond to d-alanine but respond to the same l-amino acids that stimulate germination via GerB plus GerK and GFK. GerB*s alone triggered spore germination with these l-amino acids, although GerK plus GFK stimulated the rates of these germinations. In contrast to l-alanine germination via GerA, spore germination via l-alanine and GerB or GerB* was not inhibited by d-alanine. These data support the following conclusions. (i) Interaction with GerK, glucose, and K+ somehow stimulates spore germination via GerA. (ii) GerB can bind and respond to l-amino acids, although normally either the binding site is inaccessible or its occupation is not sufficient to trigger spore germination. (iii) Interaction of GerB with GerK and GFK allows GerB to bind or respond to amino acids. (iv) In addition to spore germination due to the interaction between GerA and GerK, and GerB and GerK, GerB can interact with GerA to trigger spore germination in response to appropriate nutrients. (v) The amino acid sequence changes in GerB*s reduce these receptor variants' requirement for GerK and cogerminants in their response to l-amino acids. (vi) GerK binds glucose, GerB interacts with fructose in addition to l-amino acids, and GerA interacts only with l-valine, l-alanine, and its analogs. (vii) The amino acid binding sites in GerA and GerB are different, even though both respond to l-alanine. These new conclusions are integrated into models for the signal transduction pathways that initiate spore germination. PMID:16352818

  13. A Jasmonate ZIM-Domain Protein NaJAZd Regulates Floral Jasmonic Acid Levels and Counteracts Flower Abscission in Nicotiana attenuata Plants

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid is an important regulator of plant growth, development and defense. The jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins are key regulators in jasmonate signaling ubiquitously present in flowering plants but their functional annotation remains largely incomplete. Recently, we identified 12 putative JAZ proteins in native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, and initiated systematic functional characterization of these proteins by reverse genetic approaches. In this report, Nicotiana attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaJAZd (irJAZd) by RNA interference were used to characterize NaJAZd function. Although NaJAZd transcripts were strongly and transiently up-regulated in the rosette leaves by simulated herbivory treatment, we did not observe strong defense-related phenotypes, such as altered herbivore performance or the constitutive accumulation of defense-related secondary metabolites in irJAZd plants compared to wild type plants, both in the glasshouse and the native habitat of Nicotiana attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, Utah, USA. Interestingly, irJAZd plants produced fewer seed capsules than did wild type plants as a result of increased flower abscission in later stages of flower development. The early- and mid-developmental stages of irJAZd flowers had reduced levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, while fully open flowers had normal levels, but these were impaired in NaMYB305 transcript accumulations. Previously, NaMYB305-silenced plants were shown to have strong flower abscission phenotypes and contained lower NECTARIN 1 transcript levels, phenotypes which are copied in irJAZd plants. We propose that the NaJAZd protein is required to counteract flower abscission, possibly by regulating jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine levels and/or expression of NaMYB305 gene in Nicotiana attenuata flowers. This novel insight into the function of JAZ proteins in flower and seed development highlights the diversity of functions played by jasmonates and JAZ proteins. PMID:23469091

  14. Polymer/organosilica nanocomposites based on polyimide with benzimidazole linkages and reactive organoclay containing isoleucine amino acid: Synthesis, characterization and morphology properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran ; Dinari, Mohammad

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► A reactive organoclay was formed using L-isoleucine amino acid as a swelling agent. ► Polyimide was synthesized from benzimidazole diamine and pyromellitic dianhydride. ► Imide and benzimidazole groups assured the thermal stability of the nanocomposites. ► Nanocomposite films were prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction. ► The TEM micrographs of nanocomposites revealed well-exfoliated structures. -- Abstract: Polyimide–silica nanocomposites are attractive hybrid architectures that possess excellent mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. But, the dispersion of inorganic domains in the polymer matrix and the compatibility between the organic and inorganic phases are critical factors in these hybrid systems. In this investigation, a reactive organoclay was prepared via ion exchange reaction between protonated form of difunctional L-isoleucine amino acid as a swelling agent and Cloisite Na{sup +} montmorillonite. Amine functional groups of this swelling agent formed an ionic bond with the negatively charged silicates, whereas the remaining acid functional groups were available for further interaction with polymer chains. Then organo-soluble polyimide (PI) have been successfully synthesized from the reaction of 2-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-benzimidazole and pyromellitic dianhydride in N,N-dimethylacetamide. Finally, PI/organoclay nanocomposite films enclosing 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% of synthesized organoclay were successfully prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction through thermal imidization. The synthesized hybrid materials were subsequently characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. The PI/organoclay nanocomposite films have good optical transparencies and the mechanical properties were substantially improved by the incorporation of the reactive organoclay.

  15. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces LL-37 and HBD-2 production in keratinocytes from diabetic foot ulcers promoting wound healing: an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Curiel, Irma; Trujillo, Valentin; Montoya-Rosales, Alejandra; Rincon, Kublai; Rivas-Calderon, Bruno; deHaro-Acosta, Jeny; Marin-Luevano, Paulina; Lozano-Lopez, Daniel; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the most common diabetes-related cause of hospitalization and often lead to severe infections and poor healing. It has been recently reported that patients with DFU have lower levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) at the lesion area, which contributes with the impairment of wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2 D3) and L-isoleucine induced HBD-2 and LL-37 in primary cultures from DFU. We developed primary cell cultures from skin biopsies from 15 patients with DFU and 15 from healthy donors. Cultures were treated with 1,25 (OH)2D3 or L-isoleucine for 18 h. Keratinocytes phenotype was identified by western blot and flow cytometry. Real time qPCR for DEFB4, CAMP and VDR gene expression was performed as well as an ELISA to measure HBD-2 and LL-37 in supernatant. Antimicrobial activity, in vitro, wound healing and proliferation assays were performed with conditioned supernatant. The results show that primary culture from DFU treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, increased DEFB4 and CAMP gene expression and increased the production of HBD-2 and LL-37 in the culture supernatant. These supernatants had antimicrobial activity over E. coli and induced remarkable keratinocyte migration. In conclusion the 1,25(OH)2D3 restored the production of AMPs in primary cell from DFU which were capable to improve the in vitro wound healing assays, suggesting their potential therapeutic use on the treatment of DFU. PMID:25337708

  16. Activities of fluoroquinolone, macrolide, and aminoglycoside drugs combined with inhibitors of glycosylation and fatty acid and peptide biosynthesis against Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, W W; Wright, E L; Goh, K S; Rastogi, N

    1993-01-01

    Smooth- and rough-colony variants of Mycobacterium avium serovar 4 were treated with three classes of drugs. The drugs were chosen for their potential inhibitory effects on the biosynthesis of the cell envelope-associated serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid antigens. Growth was monitored radiometrically with a BACTEC 460-TB instrument, and MICs were determined for each drug. Both variants were then treated with inhibitory drugs in combination with antimicrobial agents that have demonstrated effectiveness against M. avium. No growth inhibition was observed with 6-fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose or avidin. Inhibitors of glycosylation, i.e., 2-deoxy-D-glucose, bacitracin, and ethambutol, were inhibitory to smooth- and rough-colony variants, whereas drugs that inhibit peptide synthesis, i.e., N-carbamyl-L-isoleucine and m-fluoro-phenylalanine, were more inhibitory for the rough-colony variant. Cerulenin, which affects fatty acid synthesis, was inhibitory for both variants, but it appeared to be more effective at inhibiting the growth of the smooth-colony variant at equivalent concentrations. Generally, when inhibitors of glycosylation were used with sparfloxacin and amikacin, a synergistic effect was observed for only the smooth variant. When drugs that affect peptide synthesis were used in combination with amikacin, a synergistic effect was observed for the rough variant, and when cerulenin was used in combination with sparfloxacin or amikacin, a synergistic effect was observed for both variants. Lipid analysis revealed that although the rough variant lacks the serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid antigens, it does possess a group of phenylalanine-isoleucine-containing lipopeptides that may explain its different susceptibility patterns to m-fluoro-phenylalanine and N-carbamyl-L-isoleucine. The significance of these results is discussed with reference to various components in the cell envelope and their importance in cell wall permeability. Images PMID:8494359

  17. Experimental evidence for a metallohydrolase mechanism in which the nucleophile is not delivered by a metal ion: EPR spectrokinetic and structural studies of aminopeptidase from Vibrio proteolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Periyannan, GopalRaj; Narayanan, Beena; Kittell, AaronW.; Kim, Jung-Ja; Bennett, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Metallohydrolases catalyse some of the most important reactions in biology and are targets for numerous chemotherapeutic agents designed to combat bacterial infectivity, antibiotic resistance, HIV infectivity, tumour growth, angiogenesis and immune disorders. Rational design of inhibitors of these enzymes with chemotherapeutic potential relies on detailed knowledge of the catalytic mechanism. The roles of the catalytic transition ions in these enzymes have long been assumed to include the activation and delivery of a nucleophilic hydroxy moiety. In the present study, catalytic intermediates in the hydrolysis of L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine by Vibrio proteolyticus aminopeptidase were characterized in spectrokinetic and structural studies. Rapid-freeze-quench EPR studies of reaction products of L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine and Co(II)-substituted aminopeptidase, and comparison of the EPR data with those from structurally characterized complexes of aminopeptidase with inhibitors, indicated the formation of a catalytically competent post-Michaelis pre-transition state intermediate with a structure analogous to that of the inhibited complex with bestatin. The X-ray crystal structure of an aminopeptidaseL-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine complex was also analogous to that of the bestatin complex. In these structures, no water/hydroxy group was observed bound to the essential metal ion. However, a water/hydroxy group was clearly identified that was bound to the metal-ligating oxygen atom of Glu152. This water/hydroxy group is proposed as a candidate for the active nucleophile in a novel metallohydrolase mechanism that shares features of the catalytic mechanisms of aspartic proteases and of B2 metallo-?-lactamases. Preliminary studies on site-directed variants are consistent with the proposal. Other features of the structure suggest roles for the dinuclear centre in geometrically and electrophilically activating the substrate. PMID:17238863

  18. Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 ?M Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 ?M Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements. PMID:21983793

  19. Aroma-active ester profile of ale beer produced under different fermentation and nutritional conditions.

    PubMed

    Hiralal, Lettisha; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of aroma-active esters produced during fermentation are vital for the complex flavour of beer. This study assessed the influence of fermentation temperature, pH, and wort nutritional supplements on the production of yeast-derived ester compounds and the overall fermentation performance. The best fermentation performance was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.75 g/l l-leucine resulting in highest reducing sugar and FAN (free amino nitrogen) utilization and ethanol production. At optimum fermentation pH of 5, 38.27% reducing sugars and 35.28% FAN was utilized resulting in 4.07% (v/v) ethanol. Wort supplemented with zinc sulphate (0.12 g/l) resulted in 5.01% ethanol (v/v) production and 54.32% reducing sugar utilization. Increase in fermentation temperature from 18°C to room temperature (± 22.5°C) resulted in 17.03% increased ethanol production and 14.42% and 62.82% increase in total acetate ester concentration and total ethyl ester concentration, respectively. Supplementation of worth with 0.12 g/l ZnSO4 resulted in 2.46-fold increase in both isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate concentration, while a 7.05-fold and 1.96-fold increase in the concentration of isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, respectively was obtained upon 0.75 g/l l-leucine supplementation. Wort supplemented with l-leucine (0.75 g/l) yielded the highest beer foam head stability with a rating of 2.67, while highest yeast viability was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.12 g/l zinc sulphate. Results from this study suggest that supplementing wort with essential nutrients required for yeast growth and optimizing the fermentation conditions could be an effective way of improving fermentation performance and controlling aroma-active esters in beer. PMID:23845914

  20. Changes of function and metabolism of the pancreatic B-cell caused by amino acids and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Panten, U; Holze, S; Lenzen, S

    1980-01-01

    Evidence is presented that, to explain the insulin releasing capacity of L-leucine, b-BCH or alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), the following alternatives must be considered: 1. Interaction of the unchanged molecules with specific B-cell membrane receptors triggers insulin release. Stimulation of metabolism is a consequence of these events. 2. Primary enhancement of intramitochondrial hydrogen production triggers insulin secretion which could modulate metabolism. 3. Combination of mechanism 1 and 2: a) Additive effects of 1 and 2. b) Potentiation of 1 by 2. c) Potentiation of 2 by 1. 4. Different control of first phase or second phase of insulin release by 1, 2, or 3. PMID:7005061

  1. Fluorescence of oxidized flavoproteins from perifused isolated pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Panten, U; Ishida, H

    1975-12-01

    In perifused pancreatic islets, the fluorescence of oxidized flavoproteins (FAD) was recorded continuously. Elevation of glucose concentration in the medium form 0 or 5 mM to 20 mM led to decrease in FAD-fluorescence beginning 10 sec after change of medium. L-leucine (10 mM), (+/-)-B-BCH (20 mM) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (10 mM) caused typical kinetics of FAD-fluorescence decrease. The results are interpreted to indicate rapid changes of the functional state of B-cell mitochondria induced by the above-mentioned stimulators of insulin release. PMID:1320

  2. The effect of some conditions on the secretion of extracellular beta-galactosidase synthesised by Kluyveromyces fragilis 28.

    PubMed

    Demczuk, A; Kowalewska-Piontas, J; Bednarski, W

    2003-01-01

    To induce extracellular secretion of beta-galactosidase synthesised by Kluyveromyces fragilis 28, it was used glycine, L-asparagine, L-leucine, dimethyl fluoride, dimethyl sulfoxide, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide, penicillin G and glycolipids from Candida antarctica. The highest increase in the secretion of beta-galactosidase was obtained in the yeast culture cultivated in the medium with polypeptone when glycine was used as the secretion inductor. The extracellular activity of beta-galactosidase reached 0.416 A.U./ml, and was 10-fold higher than the beta-galactosidase activity reported in the control group. PMID:24757788

  3. Alpha-helical hydrophobic polypeptides form proton-selective channels in lipid bilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, A. E.; Deamer, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Proton translocation is important in membrane-mediated processes such as ATP-dependent proton pumps, ATP synthesis, bacteriorhodopsin, and cytochrome oxidase function. The fundamental mechanism, however, is poorly understood. To test the theoretical possibility that bundles of hydrophobic alpha-helices could provide a low energy pathway for ion translocation through the lipid bilayer, polyamino acids were incorporated into extruded liposomes and planar lipid membranes, and proton translocation was measured. Liposomes with incorporated long-chain poly-L-alanine or poly-L-leucine were found to have proton permeability coefficients 5 to 7 times greater than control liposomes, whereas short-chain polyamino acids had relatively little effect. Potassium permeability was not increased markedly by any of the polyamino acids tested. Analytical thin layer chromatography measurements of lipid content and a fluorescamine assay for amino acids showed that there were approximately 135 polyleucine or 65 polyalanine molecules associated with each liposome. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that a major fraction of the long-chain hydrophobic peptides existed in an alpha-helical conformation. Single-channel recording in both 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 M KCl was also used to determine whether proton-conducting channels formed in planar lipid membranes (phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine, 1:1). Poly-L-leucine and poly-L-alanine in HCl caused a 10- to 30-fold increase in frequency of conductive events compared to that seen in KCl or by the other polyamino acids in either solution. This finding correlates well with the liposome observations in which these two polyamino acids caused the largest increase in membrane proton permeability but had little effect on potassium permeability. Poly-L-leucine was considerably more conductive than poly-L-alanine due primarily to larger event amplitudes and, to a lesser extent, a higher event frequency. Poly-L-leucine caused two populations of conductive events, one in the 0.1-0.5 pA range, and one in the 1.0-5.0 pA range, whereas nearly all events caused by poly-L-alanine were in the 0.1-0.5 pA range at an applied voltage of +60 mV. The channel-like activity appeared to switch between conductive and nonconductive states, with most open-times in the range of 50-200 ms. We conclude that hydrophobic polyamino acids produce proton-conducting defects in lipid bilayers that may be used to model functional proton channels in biological membranes.

  4. Suppression of immunoglobulin production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by monocytes via secretion of heavy-chain ferritin.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Makiko; Harada, Gakuro; Matsumoto, Shin-ei; Aiba, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Akira; Fujiki, Tsukasa; Udono, Miyako; Kabayama, Shigeru; Yoshida, Tadashi; Zhang, Pingbo; Fujii, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2014-02-01

    In vitro antigen stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) does not induce immunoglobulin (Ig) production. However, pretreatment of PBMCs with l-leucyl-l-leucine methyl ester (LLME) prior to in vitro stimulation removes the suppression of Ig production. In the present study, we attempted to identify the target cells of LLME and determine the mechanisms by which Ig production in PBMCs is suppressed. We found that CD14(+) monocytes are involved in the suppression of Ig production in PBMCs. Furthermore, we confirmed that heavy-chain ferritin derived from CD14(+) monocytes suppresses Ig production in PBMCs, possibly through iron sequestration. PMID:24157279

  5. Alpha-helical hydrophobic polypeptides form proton-selective channels in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, A E; Deamer, D W

    1994-01-01

    Proton translocation is important in membrane-mediated processes such as ATP-dependent proton pumps, ATP synthesis, bacteriorhodopsin, and cytochrome oxidase function. The fundamental mechanism, however, is poorly understood. To test the theoretical possibility that bundles of hydrophobic alpha-helices could provide a low energy pathway for ion translocation through the lipid bilayer, polyamino acids were incorporated into extruded liposomes and planar lipid membranes, and proton translocation was measured. Liposomes with incorporated long-chain poly-L-alanine or poly-L-leucine were found to have proton permeability coefficients 5 to 7 times greater than control liposomes, whereas short-chain polyamino acids had relatively little effect. Potassium permeability was not increased markedly by any of the polyamino acids tested. Analytical thin layer chromatography measurements of lipid content and a fluorescamine assay for amino acids showed that there were approximately 135 polyleucine or 65 polyalanine molecules associated with each liposome. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that a major fraction of the long-chain hydrophobic peptides existed in an alpha-helical conformation. Single-channel recording in both 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 M KCl was also used to determine whether proton-conducting channels formed in planar lipid membranes (phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine, 1:1). Poly-L-leucine and poly-L-alanine in HCl caused a 10- to 30-fold increase in frequency of conductive events compared to that seen in KCl or by the other polyamino acids in either solution. This finding correlates well with the liposome observations in which these two polyamino acids caused the largest increase in membrane proton permeability but had little effect on potassium permeability. Poly-L-leucine was considerably more conductive than poly-L-alanine due primarily to larger event amplitudes and, to a lesser extent, a higher event frequency. Poly-L-leucine caused two populations of conductive events, one in the 0.1-0.5 pA range, and one in the 1.0-5.0 pA range, whereas nearly all events caused by poly-L-alanine were in the 0.1-0.5 pA range at an applied voltage of +60 mV. The channel-like activity appeared to switch between conductive and nonconductive states, with most open-times in the range of 50-200 ms. We conclude that hydrophobic polyamino acids produce proton-conducting defects in lipid bilayers that may be used to model functional proton channels in biological membranes. Images FIGURE 13 PMID:7520289

  6. The radiolysis and racemization of leucine on proton irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Lemmon, R. M.; Conzett, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    D- and L-Leucine have been subjected to 39-55 percent radiolysis using 0.11 MeV protons, both with the proton beam passing through the sample or being absorbed by it and with quenching the sample immediately on completion of irradiation or after a 21-day interval. Racemization was small (1.1-1.7 percent) and comparable in all cases, suggesting that radioracemization and secondary degradative effects were not important factors in the recent unsuccessful attempts to induce optical activity in DL-Leucine by partial radiolysis using 0-11 MeV longitudinally polarized protons.

  7. Crystallographic analysis of transition-state mimics bound to penicillopepsin: phosphorus-containing peptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Fraser, M E; Strynadka, N C; Bartlett, P A; Hanson, J E; James, M N

    1992-06-01

    The molecular structures of three phosphorus-based peptide inhibitors of aspartyl proteinases complexed with penicillopepsin [1, Iva-L-Val-L-Val-StaPOEt [Iva = isovaleryl, StaP = the phosphinic acid analogue of statine [(S)-4-amino-(S)-3-hydroxy-6-methylheptanoic acid] (IvaVVStaPOEt)]; 2, Iva-L-Val-L-Val-L-LeuP-(O)Phe-OMe [LeuP = the phosphinic acid analogue of L-leucine; (O)Phe = L-3-phenyllactic acid; OMe = methyl ester] [Iva VVLP(O)FOMe]; and 3, Cbz-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-LeuP-(O)-Phe-OMe (Cbz = benzyloxycarbonyl) [CbzAALP(O)FOMe

  8. Physiology of Rickettsiae VII. Amino Acid Incorporation by Coxiella burnetii and by Infected Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Mallavia, L. P.; Paretsky, D.

    1967-01-01

    Protein synthesis, in terms of 14C-labeled amino acid incorporation into a hot trichloroacetic acid fraction, was studied in cell-free preparations of Coxiella burnetii, and in uninfected and Q fever-infected guinea pig and chick embryo hosts. Purified and disrupted suspensions of C. burnetii incorporated 14C-labeled l-leucine, l-phenylalanine and algal hydrolysate. Livers of infected guinea pigs and chick embryos had a greater incorporation rate at the height of infection than comparable preparations from uninfected animals. As chick embryonic development continued during infection, the rate of incorporation progressively decreased below that of uninfected embryos. PMID:6025436

  9. Growth of L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride single crystal for OLED and super-capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaivani, D.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2015-12-01

    L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride (LVAC), a novel semi-organic material, was grown using slow evaporation under isothermal condition. The single crystal data reveal that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The SEM micrographs give clear picture about the surface morphology. Further, they confirm the inclusion of aluminium chloride into atomic sites of L-Valine. The compositional elements present in the crystal were identified through EDAX analysis. The mass spectral analysis was carried out to determine the molecular weight of the grown crystal. The optical transparency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. FTIR spectral study was used to identify the functional groups present in the grown material. The luminescence characteristics of grown material were analysed to confirm the effect of metal ion on the ligand. This property makes the material suitable for OLED application. The supercapacitive performance of the grown crystal was finally studied using cyclic voltammetry.

  10. Identification of the Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis

    PubMed Central

    Lukassen, Mie Bech; Saei, Wagma; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Tamminen, Anu; Kumar, Abhishek; Kempken, Frank; Wiebe, Marilyn G.; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-01-01

    Scopularide A is a promising potent anticancer lipopeptide isolated from a marine derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain. The compound consists of a reduced carbon chain (3-hydroxy-methyldecanoyl) attached to five amino acids (glycine, l-valine, d-leucine, l-alanine, and l-phenylalanine). Using the newly sequenced S. brevicaulis genome we were able to identify the putative biosynthetic gene cluster using genetic information from the structurally related emericellamide A from Aspergillus nidulans and W493-B from Fusarium pseudograminearum. The scopularide A gene cluster includes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS1), a polyketide synthase (PKS2), a CoA ligase, an acyltransferase, and a transcription factor. Homologous recombination was low in S. brevicaulis so the local transcription factor was integrated randomly under a constitutive promoter, which led to a three to four-fold increase in scopularide A production. This indirectly verifies the identity of the proposed biosynthetic gene cluster. PMID:26184239

  11. Nocardiamides A and B, two cyclohexapeptides from the marine-derived actinomycete Nocardiopsis sp. CNX037.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng-Chao; Li, Sumei; Nam, Sang-Jip; Liu, Zhong; Zhang, Changsheng

    2013-04-26

    Two new cyclic hexapeptides, nocardiamides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the culture broth of marine-derived actinomycete CNX037 strain that was identified as a Nocardiopsis species. The planar structures of nocardiamides A (1) and B (2) were assigned on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were deduced by the advanced Marfey's method and chiral-phase HPLC analysis. The challenge of locating two d- and one l-valine residue in 1 and 2 was accomplished by total synthesis using solid-phase peptide synthetic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed negligible antimicrobial activities against seven indicator strains and exhibited no cytotoxicity against HCT-116. PMID:23586970

  12. Crystal growth, structural and thermal studies of amino acids admixtured L-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, P.; Saravanan, T.; Parthipan, G.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2011-05-01

    To study the improved characteristics of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals, amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been grown by slow cooling method. Amino acids like glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine have been selected for doping. Optical quality bulk crystals have been harvested after a typical growth period of about twenty days. The effect of amino acids in the crystal lattice and molecular vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) analyses respectively. Thermal behavior of the amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been studied from the TG and DTG analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out to find the crystalline nature. Optical transmission studies have been carried out by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The cut off wavelength is below 240 nm for the grown crystals.

  13. Standard thermodynamic functions of complex formation between Cu2+ and glycine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Heat effects of the interaction of copper(II) solutions with aminoacetic acid (glycine) are measured by the direct calorimetry at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 against a background of potassium nitrate. Standard enthalpy values for reactions of the formation of aminoacetic acid copper complexes in aqueous solutions are obtained using an equation with a single individual parameter by extrapolating it to zero ionic strength. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of complex formation in the Cu2+-glycine system are calculated. It is shown that glycine-like coordination is most likely in Cu(II) complexes with L-asparagine, L-glutamine, and L-valine.

  14. The NRPS Enzyme DdaD Tethers Nβ-fumaramoyl-DAP for Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-Dependent Epoxidation by DdaC During Dapdiamide Antibiotic Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hollenhorst, Marie A.; Bumpus, Stefanie B.; Matthews, Megan L.; Bollinger, J. Martin; Kelleher, Neil L.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    The gene cluster from Pantoea agglomerans responsible for biosynthesis of the dapdiamide antibiotics encodes an adenylation-thiolation didomain protein, DdaD, and an Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase homolog, DdaC. Here we show that DdaD, a nonribosomal peptide synthetase module, activates and sequesters Nβ-fumaramoyl-L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid as a covalently tethered thioester for subsequent oxidative modification of the fumaramoyl group. DdaC catalyzes Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent epoxidation of the covalently bound Nβ-fumaramoyl-L-2,3-diaminopropionyl-S-DdaD species to generate Nβ-epoxysuccinamoyl-DAP in thioester linkage to DdaD. After hydrolytic release, Nβ-epoxysuccinamoyl-DAP can be ligated to L-valine by the ATP-dependent ligase DdaF to form the natural antibiotic Nβ-epoxysuccinamoyl-diaminopropionyl-valine. PMID:20945916

  15. Development of a satisfactory and general continuous assay for aminotransferases by coupling with (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuejing; Bresser, Julia; Schall, Iris; Djurdjevic, Ivana; Buckel, Wolfgang; Wang, Xingguo; Engel, Paul C

    2012-12-15

    A continuous general spectrophotometric assay for measuring the activity of aminotransferases has been developed. It is based on the transamination of a keto compound (amino acceptor) and l-glutamate (amino donor), yielding the corresponding amino compound and 2-oxoglutarate. The rate of formation of 2-oxoglutarate is measured in a coupled reaction with overproduced recombinant nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase from Acidaminococcus fermentans, with the rate of absorbance decrease at 340nm indirectly reflecting the aminotransferase activity. This new method allows continuous monitoring of the course of transamination. Because glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate are obligatory participants in most biological transamination reactions, a coupled assay based on measuring the formation of 2-oxoglutarate has very wide applicability. The article demonstrates its utility with branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and l-valine:pyruvate aminotransferase. PMID:23000002

  16. Identification of the Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis.

    PubMed

    Lukassen, Mie Bech; Saei, Wagma; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Tamminen, Anu; Kumar, Abhishek; Kempken, Frank; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Srensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-07-01

    Scopularide A is a promising potent anticancer lipopeptide isolated from a marine derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain. The compound consists of a reduced carbon chain (3-hydroxy-methyldecanoyl) attached to five amino acids (glycine, l-valine, d-leucine, l-alanine, and l-phenylalanine). Using the newly sequenced S. brevicaulis genome we were able to identify the putative biosynthetic gene cluster using genetic information from the structurally related emericellamide A from Aspergillus nidulans and W493-B from Fusarium pseudograminearum. The scopularide A gene cluster includes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS1), a polyketide synthase (PKS2), a CoA ligase, an acyltransferase, and a transcription factor. Homologous recombination was low in S. brevicaulis so the local transcription factor was integrated randomly under a constitutive promoter, which led to a three to four-fold increase in scopularide A production. This indirectly verifies the identity of the proposed biosynthetic gene cluster. PMID:26184239

  17. 13C-1H dipolar recoupling under very fast magic-angle spinning using virtual pulses.

    PubMed

    Takegoshi, K; Terao, T

    1999-05-01

    A new solid-state NMR pulse sequence for recoupling 13C-1H dipolar interactions under magic-angle spinning is proposed, which works under a spinning speed of a few to several tens kilohertz. The sequence is composed of two different frequency switched Lee-Goldburg sequences, and the modulation of the spin part of the 13C-1H dipolar interaction is introduced by a virtual pulse sequence consisting of unitary operators connecting the rotating frame and the tilted rotating frame. When the cycle time of the spinning is equal to or twice the cycle time of the sequence, the 13C-1H dipolar interactions can be recoupled. The sequence is insensitive to experimental imperfections such as rf inhomogeneity or frequency offset, and the resulting lineshape can be represented by a simple analytical equation based on the zeroth-order average Hamiltonian. Experimental results for [2-(13)C] L-valine x HCl are reported. PMID:10378429

  18. Design of a new DNA-polyintercalating drug, a bisacridinyl peptidic analogue of Triostin A.

    PubMed Central

    Helbecque, N; Bernier, J L; Hénichart, J P

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of a new bifunctional compound in which two aminoacridine chromophores are linked by the bicyclic depsipeptidic backbone of des-N-tetramethylTriostin A is described. The molecule, bis-[(9-acridinyl)-D-seryl-L-alanyl-L-cysteinyl-L-valine] dilactone disulphide, structurally analogous to the antibiotic anti-tumour drug Triostin A, is shown to possess a high affinity to DNA and to act as a bis-intercalator on the basis of spectroscopic, viscosimetric and thermal-denaturation studies. This model constitutes the first attempt of a synergic association between a peptidic moiety that mimics a naturally occurring drug and aminoacridine, the two parts themselves each exhibiting a high affinity for the DNA target. PMID:3838469

  19. Purification and properties of thermostable N-acylamino acid racemase from Amycolatopsis sp. TS-1-60.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, S; Hatano, K

    1995-03-01

    Thermostable N-acylamino acid racemase from Amycolatopsis sp. TS-1-60, a rare actinomycete strain selected for its ability to grow on agar plates incubated at 40 degrees C, was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The relative molecular mass (M(r)) of the native enzyme and the subunit was estimated to be 300,000 and 40,000 on gel filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis respectively. The isoelectric point (pI) of the enzyme was 4.2. The optimum temperature and pH were 50 degrees C and 7.5 respectively. The enzyme was stable at 55 degrees C for 30 min. The enzyme catalyzed the racemization of optically active N-acylamino acids such as N-acetyl-L- or D-methionine, N-acetyl-L-valine, N-acetyl-L-tyrosine and N-chloroacetyl-L-valine. In addition, the enzyme also catalyzed the racemization of the dipeptide L-alanyl-L-methionine. By contrast, the optically active amino acids, N-alkyl-amino acids and methyl and ethyl ester derivatives of N-acetyl-D- and L-methionine were not racemized. The apparent Km values for N-acetyl-L-methionine and N-acetyl-D-methionine were calculated to be 18.5 mM and 11.3 mM respectively. The enzyme activity was markedly enhanced by the addition of divalent metal ions such as Co2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ and was inhibited by addition of EDTA and P-chloromercuribenzoic acid. The similarity between the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme and that of Streptomyces atratus Y-53 [Tokuyama et al. (1994) Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 40:835-840] was above 80%. PMID:7766084

  20. Valine-spectrophotometric readout dosimeter (1 Gy 50 kGy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilekani, S. R.; Gupta, B. L.

    2005-07-01

    In this method 20 mg unirradiated/irradiated L-valine powder [(CH 3) 2CH·NH 2CH·COOH] is dissolved in 10 ml of a solution containing 4×10 -4 mol dm -3 Fe 2+ and 2.5×10 -4 mol dm -3 xylenol orange (XO) in aerated aqueous 0.060 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid (FX). The plot of absorbance at 550 nm against dose is non linear. A dose of 1-50 kGy can be measured. However, dosimeter can be sensitized in the dose range of 1 to 16 kGy by dissolving 50-mg valine powder in 10 ml of a solution which contains 5×10 -4 mol dm -3 Fe 2+ and 3×10 -4 mol dm -3 XO in aerated aqueous 0.065 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid. The plot of absorbance at 549 nm against dose is non-linear. However, dosimeter shows linear response when 500 mg unirradiated/irradiated L-valine powder is dissolved in 10 ml of a solution containing 7.5×10 -4 mol dm -3 Fe 2+ and 3×10 -4 mol dm -3 XO in aerated aqueous 0.25 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid. The plot of absorbance at 557 nm against dose is linear in the dose range of 20-400Gy and doses down to about 1 Gy can be measured using 10-cm path cells. Response of the dosimeter is independent of irradiation temperature in the temperature range 20-50 °C. Irradiated valine powder is stable for about 1 month. The reproducibility of the method is better than ±2%. This dosimeter is very useful as transfer dosimeter for food irradiation and radiation sterilization.

  1. Signal function of metabolism of neutral amino acids and 2-keto acids for initiation of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, S; Formanek, H; Panten, U

    1982-06-25

    2-Ketocaproate and 2-ketoisocaproate were equally potent insulin secretagogues. The insulin secretory potency of L-leucine was less than half of that of the keto acids and L-norleucine did not induce any insulin release by isolated islets and by the perfused pancreas from ob/ob mice. Rates of decarboxylation of 2-keto-[1-14C]isocaproate and of 2-keto-[1-14C]caproate were equally high. The finding is consistent with the view that enhanced production of reducing equivalents is necessary for initiation of insulin release. The rates of decarboxylation and transamination of L-[1-14C]leucine by isolated pancreatic islets were several times higher than the rates observed with L-[1-14C]norleucine. Thus, the high activity of the pancreatic islet branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase may be important for the recognition of L-leucine as an insulin secretagogue by pancreatic B-cells. PMID:7045091

  2. Influence of coating material on the flowability and dissolution of dry-coated fine ibuprofen powders.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li; Zhou, Qi Tony; Denman, John A; Stewart, Peter J; Hapgood, Karen P; Morton, David A V

    2015-10-12

    This study investigates the effects of a variety of coating materials on the flowability and dissolution of dry-coated cohesive ibuprofen powders, with the ultimate aim to use these in oral dosage forms. A mechanofusion approach was employed to apply a 1% (w/w) dry coating onto ibuprofen powder with coating materials including magnesium stearate (MgSt), L-leucine, sodium stearyl fumarate (SSF) and silica-R972. No significant difference in particle size or shape was measured following mechanofusion with any material. Powder flow behaviours characterised by the Freeman FT4 system indicated coatings of MgSt, L-leucine and silica-R972 produced a notable surface modification and substantially improved flow compared to the unprocessed and SSF-mechanofused powders. ToF-SIMS provided a qualitative measure of coating extent, and indicated a near-complete layer on the drug particle surface after dry coating with MgSt or silica-R972. Of particular note, the dissolution rates of all mechanofused powders were enhanced even with a coating of a highly hydrophobic material such as magnesium stearate. This surprising increase in dissolution rate of the mechanofused powders was attributed to the lower cohesion and the reduced agglomeration after mechanical coating. PMID:26215464

  3. The role of sodium and potassium in insulin secretion from rabbit pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hales, C. N.; Milner, R. D. G.

    1968-01-01

    1. Insulin secretion from pieces of rabbit pancreas incubated in vitro was studied in media of different ionic composition and in response to different substances added to the media. 2. Experiments were performed which demonstrated that a sodium pump played a role in insulin secretion and that inhibition of the pump by ouabain, or by the omission of extracellular potassium, stimulated insulin secretion. 3. A rise in extracellular potassium concentration stimulated insulin secretion independently of changes in the osmolarity or sodium or chloride concentration of the incubation medium. 4. The role of extracellular sodium in insulin secretion was investigated. Extracellular sodium was a pre-requisite for insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, glucagon, L-leucine, tolbutamide, potassium or ouabain. 5. The presence of 33 mM glucose in the incubation medium was not essential for the stimulation of insulin secretion by L-leucine, tolbutamide or ouabain. Glucagon did not stimulate insulin secretion in the presence of 33 mM glucose but did so in the presence of 165 mM glucose. 6. The results obtained in these experiments suggested that a transmembrane sodium flux probably in the ? cell was a fundamental event in the stimulation of insulin secretion by diverse stimuli. PMID:5636996

  4. The radiolysis and radioracemization of amino acids on clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Hall, H.; Chow, G.; Yi, L.; Lemmon, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of the surfaces of kaolinite and bentonite clays on the radiolysis and radioracemization of L-leucine and its hydrochloride salt have been investigated experimentally. L-leucine and its hydrochloride salt were deposited on the clays and the amino acid/clay preparations were irradiated by a Co-60 gamma-ray source which induced 2-89 percent radiolysis. The efficiency of radiolysis and radioracemization were measured using gas chromatography. Results were obtained for leucine in 0.1 M aqueous solution for comparison with the clay-deposted leucine and leucine hydrochloride. It is found that radiolysis and radioracemization in the samples occurred according to a pseudo-first-order rate law. Comparison of the specific rate constants showed that leucine and its hydrochloride salt were the most resistant to both radiolysis and radioracemization, followed by leucine and its hydrochloride salt on kaolin. Leucine and its HCl salt on bentonite, and leucine in aqueous solution were found to be the least resistant to radiolysis and radioracemization. The experimental results are intepreted with respect to the Vester-Ulbricht mechanism for the origin of optical activity.

  5. Effect of food preservatives on the hydration properties and taste behavior of amino acids: a volumetric and viscometric approach.

    PubMed

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Navalpreet; Kaur, Amanpreet; Gupta, Mehak; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2015-08-15

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of aqueous solutions are very useful in the elucidation of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, which help to understand the hydration and taste behavior of solutes. The densities and viscosities of L-glycine, ?-alanine and L-leucine have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium propionate (NaP) and calcium propionate (CaP) at temperatures 298.15 and 308.15K. From these data, apparent molar volumes (V2,?), viscosity B-coefficients and corresponding transfer parameters (?trV2,?o and ?trB) have been calculated. The dB/dT values suggest that L-glycine and ?-alanine act as structure-breaker, while L-leucine acts as structure-maker both in water and in aqueous solutions of NaP and CaP. The decrease in hydration number and change in taste behavior have also been observed with increasing concentration of the cosolute. PMID:25794759

  6. Kinetics of the intracellular differentiation of Leishmania amazonensis and internalization of host MHC molecules by the intermediate parasite stages.

    PubMed

    Courret, N; Frehel, C; Prina, E; Lang, T; Antoine, J C

    2001-03-01

    The establishment of Leishmania in mammals depends on the transformation of metacyclic promastigotes into amastigotes within macrophages. The kinetics of this process was examined using mouse macrophages infected with metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis. The appearance of amastigote characteristics, including large lysosome-like organelles called megasomes, stage-specific antigens, high cysteine protease activity and sensitivity to L-leucine methyl ester, was followed over a 5-day period. Megasomes were observed at 48 h but probable precursors of these organelles were detected at 12h p.i. The promastigote-specific molecules examined were down-regulated within 5 to 12h after phagocytosis whereas the amastigote-specific antigens studied were detectable from 2 to 12-24 h. An increase in the cysteine protease activity and in sensitivity to L-leucine methyl ester of the parasites was detected from 24 h. The data indicate that at 48 h p.i., parasites exhibit several amastigote features but that complete differentiation requires at least 5 days. The appearance of megasomes or of megasome precursors and the rise in cysteine protease activity correlate quite well with the capacity of parasites to internalize and very likely degrade host MHC molecules. The fact that internalization by the parasites of host cell molecules occurs very early during the differentiation process argues for a role of this mechanism in parasite survival. PMID:11289063

  7. Leishmania DNA is rapidly degraded following parasite death: an analysis by microscopy and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Prina, Eric; Roux, Emeric; Mattei, Denise; Milon, Geneviève

    2007-09-01

    Control of human leishmaniases relies on appropriate diagnosis and reliable methods for monitoring chemotherapy. The current method used for estimation of parasite burden during chemotherapy patient follow-up as well as in pharmacological studies performed in experimental models involves PCR-based assays. Compared to time-consuming conventional methods, this type of Leishmania DNA detection-based method is extremely sensitive, but could fail in distinguishing viable Leishmania from slowly degenerating ones. We have used an in vitro model to monitor the duration of Leishmania DNA persistence in mouse macrophages following exposure to l-leucine ester, a molecule otherwise known to rapidly kill intracellular Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes. At 1h of post l-leucine ester exposure, more than 98% of amastigote-loaded macrophages harbored killed parasites and parasite remnants, as assessed by microscopy. This dramatic decrease in parasite load and the microscopic parasite follow-up over the 120 h time period studied were correlated with Leishmania DNA as quantified by real-time PCR. Our results indicate that kinetoplast and nuclear parasite DNA degradation occurs very rapidly after amastigote death. These data add further weight to the argument that PCR assays represent not only a robust method for diagnosis but can also be reliable for monitoring parasite size reduction rate post any intervention (Leishmania-targeting molecules, immunomodulators...). PMID:17890124

  8. Small intestinal dipeptidases and disaccharidases in uraemic rats on a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Sterner, G; Lindberg, T; Asp, N G; Denneberg, T; Wennberg, A

    1983-01-01

    Small intestinal dipeptidases (substrate: glycyl-L-leucine, L-methionyl-L-methionine, and L-alanyl-L-proline) were determined in uraemic and sham-operated rats given normal protein diet (24%), low protein diet (6%), and total parenteral nutrition for 10-14 days. Disaccharidases (substrate: maltose, sucrose, trehalose, and lactose) were measured after normal and low protein diet orally. Glycyl-L-leucine and L-methionyl-L-methionine splitting activities were increased on normal protein diet but decreased after low protein feeding in uraemic rats. Parenteral nutrition further lowered the enzyme activity. L-Alanyl-L-proline dipeptidase activity showed an inverse relation to protein intake with the highest values after parenteral nutrition. Lactase increased in uraemic rats after low protein feeding and was the only disaccharidase to be affected by the nutritional change. It is suggested that the changes of the intestinal dipeptidase activities in uraemia are adaptive to variation in the luminal content of di- and oligopeptides because of the type of nutrition given. PMID:6408496

  9. Aerosolization Characteristics of Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations for the Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Application: Effect of Spray Drying Process Conditions on Aerosol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF1μm/ED) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

  10. Chemotactic behavior of Campylobacter spp. in function of different temperatures (37C and 42C).

    PubMed

    Baserisalehi, Majid; Bahador, Nima

    2011-12-01

    The chemotactic behaviour of Campylobacter strains was determined in the presence of different amino acids at two temperatures (37 C and 42 C). Two strains of catalase positive (Campylobacter jejuni) and negative (Campylobacter sputurum) Campylobacter were isolated from river water in Tonekabon, Iran and identified by phenotyping and 16srRNA Gene sequencing methods. Chemotactic responses of the isolates were assessed toward a variety of amino acids viz., L-cystine, L-asparagine, L-histidine, L-aspartic acid, L-serine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine and L-tryptophan by disc and capillary methods at two temperatures: 37 C and 42 C. C. jejuni showed positive chemotactic response towards L-cystine,L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, - L-leucine, L-asparagine and L-Serine at both, 37 C and 42 C however, it was greater at 37 C. C. sputurum showed negative or weak response towards all of the amino acids. In addition, C. jejuni illustrated strong chemotactic response to L-asparagine follow by L-serine and weak chemotaxis response to L-phenylalanine and L-cysteine at 37 C. Overall, C. jejuni showed relatively strong chemotactic response to some amino acids, likewise it was greater at 37 C. Hence, the human body temperature (37 C) in compared to avian body temperature (42 C) probably promotes chemotactic response of C. jejuni, which it might be a reason for causing disease in human being compared to avian. PMID:21757020

  11. [Formation Mechanism of the Disinfection By-product 1, 1-Dichloroacetone in Drinking Water].

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun-sheng; Meng, Zhuang; Xu, Yang-yang; Miao, Jia

    2015-05-01

    A novel method using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as extractant and 1,2-dibromopropane as internal standard for the determination of the disinfection by-producs 1,1-dichloroacetone (DCAce) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was described. The formation process of DCAce and its influencing factors were discussed with L-leucine as the precursor during the chloramination process. The results indicated that the DCAce production increased with the increase of chloramine dosage when the chloramine addition was in the range of 5-30 mg L(-1). The DCAce amount produced under alkaline condition was higher than those produced under the neutral and acidic conditions, and the DCAce amount reduced with the increase of pH value. Temperature was another important factor that affected the DCAce formation from methylamine especially in the range of 15-35C , and the higher the temperature, the more the DCAce produced. The formation process of DCAce from L-leucine by chloramine consisted of a series of complicated reactions, including substitution, oxidation, bond breaking, amino diazotization, reduction and so on, and eventually DCAce was formed. PMID:26314113

  12. Crystal Structure of a Novel N-Substituted L-Amino Acid Dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hui-Min; Miyakawa, Takuya; Jia, Min Ze; Nakamura, Akira; Ohtsuka, Jun; Xue, You-Lin; Kawashima, Takashi; Kasahara, Takuya; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Tanokura, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    A novel dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD (SadA) stereoselectively catalyzes the C3-hydroxylation of N-substituted branched-chain or aromatic L-amino acids, especially N-succinyl-L-leucine, coupled with the conversion of ?-ketoglutarate to succinate and CO2. To elucidate the structural basis of the substrate specificity and stereoselective hydroxylation, we determined the crystal structures of the SadA.Zn(II) and SadA.Zn(II).?-KG complexes at 1.77 and 1.98 resolutions, respectively. SadA adopted a double-stranded ?-helix fold at the core of the structure. In addition, an HXD/EXnH motif in the active site coordinated a Zn(II) as a substitute for Fe(II). The ?-KG molecule also coordinated Zn(II) in a bidentate manner via its 1-carboxylate and 2-oxo groups. Based on the SadA.Zn(II).?-KG structure and mutation analyses, we constructed substrate-binding models with N-succinyl-L-leucine and N-succinyl-L-phenylalanine, which provided new insight into the substrate specificity. The results will be useful for the rational design of SadA variants aimed at the recognition of various N-succinyl L-amino acids. PMID:23724013

  13. Dry powder inhaler formulation of high-payload antibiotic nanoparticle complex intended for bronchiectasis therapy: Spray drying versus spray freeze drying preparation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Teo, Jeanette; Chew, Jia Wei; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2016-02-29

    Inhaled nano-antibiotics have recently emerged as the promising bronchiectasis treatment attributed to the higher and more localized antibiotic exposure generated compared to native antibiotics. Antibiotic nanoparticle complex (or nanoplex in short) prepared by self-assembly complexation with polysaccharides addresses the major drawbacks of existing nano-antibiotics by virtue of its high payload and cost-effective preparation. Herein we developed carrier-free dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of ciprofloxacin nanoplex by spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). d-Mannitol and l-leucine were used as the drying adjuvant and aerosol dispersion enhancer, respectively. The DPI formulations were evaluated in vitro in terms of the (1) aerosolization efficiency, (2) aqueous reconstitution, (3) antibiotic release, and (4) antimicrobial activity against respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The SFD powders exhibited superior aerosolization efficiency to their SD counterparts in terms of emitted dose (92% versus 66%), fine particle fraction (29% versus 23%), and mass median aerodynamic diameter (3μm versus 6μm). The superior aerosolization efficiency of the SFD powders was attributed to their large and porous morphology and higher l-leucine content. While the SFD powders exhibited poorer aqueous reconstitution that might jeopardize their mucus penetrating ability, their antibiotic release profile and antimicrobial activity were not adversely affected. PMID:26757148

  14. /sup 3/H-cyclosporine internalization and secretion by human fetal pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Formby, B.; Walker, L.; Peterson, C.M.

    1988-10-01

    Human fetal pancreatic islets were isolated from 16- to 20-week-old fetuses by a collagenase technique and cultured 48 hr in RPMI 1640 containing 10% human adult serum and unlabeled 0 to 5 micrograms cyclosporine A (CsA)/ml. Insulin secretory capacity of human fetal islets was expressed as a fractional stimulatory ratio FSR = F2/F1 of the fractional secretion rates during two successive 1 hr static incubations first with 2 mM glucose (F1) to stabilize secretion followed by maximal stimulus, i.e., 25 mM glucose plus 10 mM L-leucine and 10 mM L-arginine (F2). Unlabeled CsA at the above concentrations had no significant effects on the insulin secretory capacity expressed by FSR-values. Studies of net uptake of 3H-CsA by islets cultured for varying periods up to 40 hr and expressed as picomole 3H-CsA per picomole islet insulin content demonstrated that uptake rate was slow and did not reach isotopic equilibrium over the 40 hr of culture. When isolated fetal islets were cultured for 48 hr in the presence of 3H-CsA and varying concentrations of unlabeled CsA it was found during two successive 1 hr static incubations that fetal islets secrete insulin concomitantly with 3H-CsA following maximal stimulus for secretion. An optimal secretory molar ratio of 3H-CsA to insulin of 4.0 +/- 1.3 (n = 7) was found after islets were cultured 48 hr in the presence of a saturating 2.128 micrograms 3H-CsA per milliliter culture medium. In three successive 30-min static incubations of 3H-CsA loaded islets, first with low glucose, followed by high glucose plus L-arginine and L-leucine, and finally with high glucose plus L-arginine and L-leucine and 10 mM theophylline, the proportional fractional secretion rates of insulin and 3H-CsA were of the same magnitude.

  15. Blind spectral unmixing in terahertz domain using nonnegative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian; Huang, Ping J.; Ma, Ye H.; Hou, Di B.; Zhang, Guangxin

    2015-11-01

    Recovering component spectra from terahertz measurements of unknown mixtures has been studied in this paper using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). NMF mathematically decomposes the spectra data into two nonnegative matrixes which describe the component spectra and the corresponding fractional abundance. Two basic algorithms in the class of this method, NMF and NMF with smoothness constraint (cNMF), were adopted to resolve the terahertz absorption spectra matrix obtained from a ternary mixture with varying compositions of Nitrofurantoin, L-Leucine and D-Tyrosine. The quality of the decomposition results was evaluated. The performance of the two algorithms on extracting component terahertz spectra was compared. The optimal result reached by cNMF in this study implies the capability of the NMF method for blind terahertz spectral unmixing. The attempt made in our work helps to further investigate unknown mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy.

  16. Transport in bacteriophage P22-infected Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, P S; Burma, D P; Taneja, S K; Chakravorty, M

    1975-01-01

    There was rapid efflux of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, and alpha-methyl-D-glucoside after infection of Salmonella typhimurium with the clear plaque mutant C1 of phage P22. The efflux was similar to that observed with cyanide or arsenate treatment except that there was partial recovery in the case of phage infection and almost complete recovery under the condition of lysogeny. There was no efflux after infection with the temperature-sensitive mutant ts16C1 at nonpermissive temperature. Superinfection of superinfection exclusion negative lysogen (sie A minus sie B minus) with C1 led to efflux, whereas the efflux was much less on superinfection of sie A+ Sie B+ lysogen. These results indicate that an effective injection process is enough to cause depression in the cellular transport processes. PMID:1094132

  17. Descending pathways to the cutaneus trunci muscle motoneuronal cell group in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert; Blok, Bertil F.

    1989-01-01

    Pathways involved in the cutaneous trunci muscle (CTM) reflex in the cat were investigated. Experimental animals were injected with tritium-labeled L-leucine into their spinal cord, brain stem, or diencephalon and, after six weeks, perfused with 10-percent formalin. The brains and spinal cords were postfixed in formalin and were cut into transverse 25-micron-thick frozen sections for autoradiography. Results based on injections in the C1, C2, C6, and C8 segments suggest that propriospinal pathways to the CTM motor nucleus originating in the cervical cord do no exist, although these propriospinal projections are very strong to all other motoneuronal cell groups surrounding the CTM motor nucleus. The results also demonstrate presence of specific supraspinal projections to the CTM motor nucleus, originating in the contralateral nucleus retroambiguous and the ipsilateral dorsolateral pontine tegmentum.

  18. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins.

    PubMed

    Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Ottaviani, Javier I; Keen, Carl L; Fraga, Cesar G

    2003-12-18

    It was determined that flavan-3-ols and procyanidins have an inhibitory effect on angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and the effect was dependent on the number of epicatechin units forming the procyanidin. The inhibition by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins was competitive with the two substrates assayed: N-hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) and N-[3-(2-furyl)acryloyl]-L-phenylalanylglycylglycine (FAPGG). Tetramer and hexamer fractions were the more potent inhibitors, showing Ki of 5.6 and 4.7 microM, respectively. As ACE is a membrane protein, the interaction of flavanols and procyanidins with the enzyme could be related to the number of hydroxyl groups on the procyanidins, which determine their capacity to be adsorbed on the membrane surface. PMID:14675780

  19. Effect of amino acid doping on the growth and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, C.M.; Sankar, R.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2008-02-05

    Effect of amino acids (L-leucine and isoleucine) doping on the growth aspects and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate crystals has been studied. Pure and doped crystals were grown from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique. The cell parameter values were found to significantly vary for doped crystals. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups in the grown crystal. Morphology study reveals that amino acid doping induces faster growth rate along b-direction leading to a wide b-plane and hence suitable for pyroelectric detector applications. Ferroelectric domain structure has been studied by atomic force microscopy and hysteresis measurements reveal an increase of coercive field due to the formation of single domain pattern.

  20. High cell density cultivation of Brevibacterium linens and formation of proteinases and lipase.

    PubMed

    Adamitsch, Bernhard F; Karner, Ferdinand; Hampel, Werner A

    2003-05-01

    Brevibacterium linens forms hydrolytic enzymes which can be used to accelerate the ripening of cheese without causing bitterness. B. linens ATCC 9172 was grown to a high cell density (50 g dry wt l-1 after 60 h) in a mineral medium containing lactic acid, soy-peptone and ammonium sulphate by applying a continuous feed of nutrients. The maximal activities of L-leucine aminopeptidase and cell-associated proteinase were 286 U l-1 and 202 U l-1, respectively. The cell-associated lipolytic activity exhibited a strong and sudden increase at 46 h, resulting in a maximum of 9.5 U g-1 dry wt; thus the volumetric productivity of proteolytic and lipolytic activity was 4220 U l-1 h-1 and 7.3 U l-1 h-1, respectively. PMID:12882170

  1. High-yield production of lipoglycopeptide antibiotic A40926 using a mutant strain Nonomuraea sp. DP-13 in optimized medium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Guanghao; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Ziqing; Zhang, Chunzhi

    2016-02-17

    The lipoglycopeptide antibiotic A40926 produced by Nonomuraea sp. is a complex of structurally related components differing in the fatty acid moiety. Besides showing an intrinsic antibacterial activity, A40926 is the precursor of the semisynthetic antibiotic Dalvance. In this work, A40926 production by a mutant strain Nonomuraea sp. DP-13 was investigated. It was found that A40926 production was markedly promoted by using poorly assimilated carbon source maltodextrin and nitrogen source soybean meal. Addition of Cu(2+) resulted in a stimulation of A40926 production, but Co(2+) had an inhibitory effect. L-Leucine addition greatly improved total A40926 production and modified the complex composition toward factor B0. An optimized production medium IM-3 was developed and a maximum A40926 production of 1096mg/L was obtained in the 10-L fermenter. This was the highest A40926 productivity so far reported. PMID:25831044

  2. Involvement of IL-10 in the suppression of antibody production by in vitro immunized peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Katakura, Yoshinori; Aiba, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Shin-ei; Morihara, Kazuko; Teruya, Kiichiro; Ichikawa, Akira; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we have established an in vitro immunization method to induce antigen-specific antibody-producing B cells. In the present study, we have attempted to clarify the mechanisms that regulate antibody production by in vitro immunized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Freshly isolated PBMC did not induce antibody production following in vitro immunization, but expressed the interleukin (IL)-10 gene. On the other hand, PBMC pretreated with l-leucyl-l-leucine methyl ester (LLME) induced antibody production, but did not express the IL-10 gene. IL-10 induced functional impairment of CD4+ Th cells and CD11c+ DC, resulting in the suppression of antibody production by in vitro immunized PBMC. PMID:19002996

  3. Identification of genes involved in the suppression of antibody production from human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Makiko; Katakura, Yoshinori; Furukawa, Yuki; Matsumoto, Shin-ei; Tomimatsu, Kousuke; Teruya, Kiichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2006-04-01

    Pretreatment with L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLME) is a prerequisite for peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce antigen-specific antibodies when sensitized with an antigen. Little information, however, is available regarding the mechanisms involved in LLME-induced augmentation of antibody production from PBMCs that are antigen sensitized. In the present study, we attempted to identify the genes involved in the suppression of antibody production from PBMCs that was not treated with LLME, but sensitized with an antigen. Using subtractive screening, we obtained 63 independent genes, including 17 EST genes, that are specific for LLME-nontreated PBMC. Among these genes, the expression of heavy chain ferritin (H-ferritin), CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18), and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) were augmented in LLME-nontreated PBMCs, suggesting that inflammatory factors might be involved in the suppression of antibody production in LLME-nontreated PBMCs. PMID:16636465

  4. Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Total Synthesis of Lajollamide A from the Marine Fungus Asteromyces cruciatus

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Hong, Hanna; Correa, Jhonny; Egereva, Ekaterina; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Gross, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The marine-derived filamentous fungus Asteromyces cruciatus 763, obtained off the coast of La Jolla, San Diego, USA, yielded the new pentapeptide lajollamide A (1), along with the known compounds regiolone (2), hyalodendrin (3), gliovictin (4), 1N-norgliovicitin (5), and bis-N-norgliovictin (6). The planar structure of lajollamide A (1) was determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of lajollamide A (1) was unambiguously solved by total synthesis which provided three additional diastereomers of 1 and also revealed that an unexpected acid-mediated partial racemization (2:1) of the L-leucine and L-N-Me-leucine residues occurred during the chemical degradation process. The biological activities of the isolated metabolites, in particular their antimicrobial properties, were investigated in a series of assay systems. PMID:23342379

  5. Radiofrequency radiation and cellular secretory processes. Final report, February 1983-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, E.N.; Slaby, F.

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of unmodulated 915-MHz radiation on the secretory processes of exocrine and endocrine cells under in vitro conditions. Pancreatic tissue slices were exposed to 915-MHz radiation in a Crawford-cell exposure system. Sham-exposed slices were either incubated at 37 or 40 C. These slices were pulse-labeled with tritiated L-leucine and the labeled secretory proteins were determined by autoradiography and counting of silver grains. In another experiment, amylase secretion from exposed and sham-exposed pancreatic slices was determined. The results suggest that radiation exposure can alter exocrine and endocrine secretions under conditions where the microwave energy produced hyperthermia in localized areas.

  6. Kinetic resolution of rac-phenylalanine by stereoselective complexation to a chiral cobalt complex through pi-pi stacking interaction.

    PubMed

    Jitsukawa, Koichiro; Katoh, Akira; Funato, Kentaro; Ohata, Nayumi; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Hideki

    2003-10-01

    A cobalt(III) complex with chiral ligand, H2cpel (N-carboxymethyl-N-pyridylethyl-l-leucine), was prepared for chiral recognition of amino acids. Through the competitive coordination of racemic phenylalanine to the chiral cobalt complex, [Co(cpel)(CO(3))](-) (1), enantioselective recognition was achieved on the ternary complex, which was determined on the basis of HPLC analysis with a chiral column. The formation rate for the [Co(cpel)(l-phe)] complex (2) was 6-times superior to that of [Co(cpel)(d-phe)] (3). The preferential formation of 2 might be illustrated by the interligand pi-pi stacking interaction. Crystal structural analysis for 2 and 3 revealed that aromatic rings, pyridine ring of CPEL and phenylalanine sidechain, in 2 were very close each other but those in 3 were far apart. Such interligand aromatic interaction in 2 was also examined by the use of (1)H NMR spectra. PMID:14514289

  7. Radiolysis, racemization and the origin of molecular asymmetry in the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Lemmon, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation has been undertaken to determine whether ionizing radiation might engender racemization of optically active amino acids, along with their usual radiolysis. As prototypes, crystalline Dand L-leucine, as well as aqueous solutions of their sodium salts were exposed to the radiation from a 3000 Ci Co-60 gamma-ray source. Gamma-ray doses which caused about 68% radiolysis of solid leucine left a residue which was about 5% racemized, while racemization proved even greater at lower doses for the dissolved sodium salts. In aqueous solution both percent degradation and percent racemization of the sodium salts were proportional to gamma-ray dosage within the range employed (1,000,000-27,000,000 rads). Implications of these observations for the origin of molecular asymmetry by the beta-decay parity violation mechanism are discussed.

  8. Thermodynamic Approach to Enhanced Dispersion and Physical Properties in a Carbon Nanotube/Polypeptide Nanocomposite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, Conrad S.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lillehei, Peter T.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Park, Cheol

    2009-01-01

    A high molecular weight synthetic polypeptide has been designed which exhibits favorable interactions with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The enthalpic and entropic penalties of mixing between these two molecules are reduced due to the polypeptide's aromatic sidechains and helical secondary structure, respectively. These enhanced interactions result in a well dispersed SWCNT/Poly (L-Leucine-ran-L-Phenylalanine) nanocomposite with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties using only shear mixing and sonication. At 0.5 wt% loading of SWCNT filler, the nanocomposite exhibits simultaneous increases in the Young's modulus, failure strain, and toughness of 8%, 120%, and 144%, respectively. At one kHz, the same nanotube loading level also enhances the dielectric constant from 2.95 to 22.81, while increasing the conductivity by four orders of magnitude.

  9. Anti-AIDS agents 49. Synthesis, anti-HIV, and anti-fusion activities of IC9564 analogues based on betulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Sun, I-Chen; Chen, Chin-Ho; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Wu, Jiu-Hong; Wang, Hui-Kang; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2002-09-12

    The betulinic acid derivative IC9564 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 entry. Among a series of IC9564 derivatives, 5 and 20 were the most promising compounds against HIV infection with EC(50) values of 0.33 and 0.46 microM, respectively. Both compounds inhibited syncytium formation with EC(50) values of 0.40 and 0.33 microM, respectively. The comparable EC(50) values in the two assays suggested that these compounds are fusion inhibitors. The structure-activity relationship data also indicated that a double bond in IC9564 can be eliminated and the statine moiety can be replaced with L-leucine while retaining anti-HIV activity. PMID:12213068

  10. The gas chromatographic resolution of DL-isovaline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, J. J.; Bonner, W. A.; Van Dort, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Isovaline is of cosmological interest because it is one of the 12 non-protein amino acids which have been isolated from the Murchison meteorite, and unlike the other chiral amino acids in this meteorite, it has no alpha-hydrogen at its asymmetric center and hence cannot racemize by the customary alpha-hydrogen-dependent mechanisms which engender racemization in ordinary amino acids. Experiments were conducted in which a .01 M solution of N-TFA-DL-isovalyl-L-leucine isopropyl ester in nitromethane was injected into the capillary column of a gas chromatograph coupled to a digital electronic integrator-recorder. Efflux times and integrated peak area percents are shown next to each diastereometer peak.

  11. Autophagy sequesters damaged lysosomes to control lysosomal biogenesis and kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Ikuko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Omori, Hiroko; Kimura, Tomonori; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Hamasaki, Maho; Noda, Takeshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse causes, including pathogenic invasion or the uptake of mineral crystals such as silica and monosodium urate (MSU), threaten cells with lysosomal rupture, which can lead to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we demonstrate that lysosomes are selectively sequestered by autophagy, when damaged by MSU, silica, or the lysosomotropic reagent L-Leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe). Autophagic machinery is recruited only on damaged lysosomes, which are then engulfed by autophagosomes. In an autophagy-dependent manner, low pH and degradation capacity of damaged lysosomes are recovered. Under conditions of lysosomal damage, loss of autophagy causes inhibition of lysosomal biogenesis in vitro and deterioration of acute kidney injury in vivo. Thus, we propose that sequestration of damaged lysosomes by autophagy is indispensable for cellular and tissue homeostasis. PMID:23921551

  12. Ozone-Induced Rice Grain Yield Loss Is Triggered via a Change in Panicle Morphology That Is Controlled by ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Keita; Sawada, Hiroko; Kohno, Yoshihisa; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C.; Terao, Tomio; Ioki, Motohide; Tamaoki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Rice grain yield is predicted to decrease in the future because of an increase in tropospheric ozone concentration. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the responses to ozone of two rice (Oryza Sativa L.) cultivars, Sasanishiki and Habataki. Sasanishiki showed ozone-induced leaf injury, but no grain yield loss. By contrast, Habataki showed grain yield loss with minimal leaf injury. A QTL associated with grain yield loss caused by ozone was identified in Sasanishiki/Habataki chromosome segment substitution lines and included the ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 (APO1) gene. The Habataki allele of the APO1 locus in a near-isogenic line also resulted in grain yield loss upon ozone exposure, suggesting APO1 involvement in ozone-induced yield loss. Only a few differences in the APO1 amino acid sequences were detected between the cultivars, but the APO1 transcript level was oppositely regulated by ozone exposure: i.e., it increased in Sasanishiki and decreased in Habataki. Interestingly, the levels of some phytohormones (jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, and abscisic acid) known to be involved in attenuation of ozone-induced leaf injury tended to decrease in Sasanishiki but to increase in Habataki upon ozone exposure. These data indicate that ozone-induced grain yield loss in Habataki is caused by a reduction in the APO1 transcript level through an increase in the levels of phytohormones that reduce leaf damage. PMID:25923431

  13. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies on mixed ligand copper complexes with polydentate ligands.

    PubMed

    Bodkhe, Akalpita S; Patil, Sunil S; Shaikh, Manzoor M

    2012-01-01

    Mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of the type [M(Q)(L)]-2H2O have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and N- and/or O-donor amino acids (HL) such as L-threonine, L-proline, L-hydroxyproline, L-isoleucine and L-serine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements, spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) in 10(-3) M concentration indicate their non-electrolytic nature. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed paramagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intra-ligand, charge transfer transitions and d-d transitions. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of crystallized water molecules. The agar cup method and tube dilution method have been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtheriae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. The results have been compared with those of tetracycline, which was screened simultaneously and indicated mild antibacterial activity of the complexes. PMID:23061283

  14. Comparative planktonic foraminiferal aminostratigraphy of the Colombia basin and the northeast Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, R.R.; Wehmiller, J.F.; Martin, R.E.; Johnson, B.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The increase in the proportion of D-amino acids in fossil shells with increasing age can be used as a relative dating method as far back as the mid-Miocene. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and mixed foraminiferal aminostratigraphy were determined for DSDP Site 502B (late Pliocene-Pleistocene) and 502A (late Miocene-Pliocene) in the Colombia basin. The aminostratigraphic analysis was conducted every 2.5-5.0 m in the Pleistocene and every 5-10 m in the Pliocene. Previously established planktonic foraminiferal datums and subzonal boundaries were used to establish the geochronology of DSDP Site 502B-502A. Sediment accumulation rates were then calculated and used to estimate the absolute age at a particular depth in each core. Aminostratigraphic analysis indicates a logarithmic increase in D-alloisoleucine/L-isoleucine (A/I) ratios with increasing age, where equilibrium is not reached until ca. 5 Ma. Using the logarithmic curve that best fits the A/I data, one can estimate the numerical age of a bulk sample given the A/I ratio. The mixed species assemblage A/I ratios from ODP Site 625B (Gulf of Mexico) and 502B are comparable from the late Pliocene-Pleistocene, which suggests that aminostratigraphic analysis of a mixed foraminiferal assemblage offers a very useful and unique opportunity to estimate ages in other Pliocene-Pleistocene sections in regions where independent geochronologic control may be lacking.

  15. Biosynthesis of the defensive alkaloid cicindeloine in Stenus solutus beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierling, Andreas; Dettner, Konrad; Schmidt, Jrgen; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2012-08-01

    To protect themselves from predation and microorganismic infestation, rove beetles of the genus Stenus produce and store bioactive alkaloids like stenusine, 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine, and cicindeloine in their pygidial glands. The biosynthesis of stenusine and 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine was previously investigated in Stenus bimaculatus and Stenus similis, respectively. Both molecules follow the same biosynthetic pathway, where the N-heterocyclic ring is derived from l-lysine and the side chain from l-isoleucine. The different alkaloids are finally obtained by slight modifications of shared precursor molecules. The piperideine alkaloid cicindeloine occurs as a main compound additionally to ( E)-3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine and traces of stenusine in the pygidial gland secretion of Stenus cicindeloides and Stenus solutus. Feeding of S. solutus beetles with [D,15N]-labeled amino acids followed by GC/MS analysis techniques showed that cicindeloine is synthesized via the identical pathway and precursor molecules as the other two defensive alkaloids.

  16. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Grls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ?-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a stop signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature. PMID:25806705

  17. Rational design of a ligand-based antagonist of jasmonate perception.

    PubMed

    Monte, Isabel; Hamberg, Mats; Chini, Andrea; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Garca-Casado, Gloria; Porzel, Andrea; Pazos, Florencio; Boter, Marta; Solano, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    (+)-7-iso-Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) regulates developmental and stress responses in plants. Its perception involves the formation of a ternary complex with the F-box COI1 and a member of the JAZ family of co-repressors and leads to JAZ degradation. Coronatine (COR) is a bacterial phytotoxin that functionally mimics JA-Ile and interacts with the COI1-JAZ co-receptor with higher affinity than JA-Ile. On the basis of the co-receptor structure, we designed ligand derivatives that spatially impede the interaction of the co-receptor proteins and, therefore, should act as competitive antagonists. One derivative, coronatine-O-methyloxime (COR-MO), has strong activity in preventing the COI1-JAZ interaction, JAZ degradation and the effects of JA-Ile or COR on several JA-mediated responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, it potentiates plant resistance, preventing the effect of bacterially produced COR during Pseudomonas syringae infections in different plant species. In addition to the utility of COR-MO for plant biology research, our results underscore its biotechnological potential for safer and sustainable agriculture. PMID:24997606

  18. Catabolism and Deactivation of the Lipid-Derived Hormone Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J. K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2012-01-01

    The oxylipin hormone jasmonate controls myriad processes involved in plant growth, development, and immune function. The discovery of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) as the major bioactive form of the hormone highlights the need to understand biochemical and cell biological processes underlying JA-Ile homeostasis. Among the major metabolic control points governing the accumulation of JA-Ile in plant tissues are the availability of jasmonic acid, the immediate precursor of JA-Ile, and oxidative enzymes involved in catabolism and deactivation of the hormone. Recent studies indicate that JA-Ile turnover is mediated by a ω-oxidation pathway involving members of the CYP94 family of cytochromes P450. This discovery opens new opportunities to genetically manipulate JA-Ile levels for enhanced resistance to environmental stress, and further highlights ω-oxidation as a conserved pathway for catabolism of lipid-derived signals in plants and animals. Functional characterization of the full complement of CYP94 P450s promises to reveal new pathways for jasmonate metabolism and provide insight into the evolution of oxylipin signaling in land plants. PMID:22639640

  19. Novel players fine-tune plant trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Boter, Marta; Solano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are essential signalling molecules that co-ordinate the plant response to biotic and abiotic challenges, as well as co-ordinating several developmental processes. Huge progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the components and mechanisms that govern JA perception and signalling. The bioactive form of the hormone, (+)-7-iso-jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), is perceived by the COI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins also act as direct repressors of transcriptional activators such as MYC2. In the emerging picture of JA-Ile perception and signalling, COI1 operates as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ repressors for degradation by the 26S proteasome, thereby derepressing transcription factors such as MYC2, which in turn activate JA-Ile-dependent transcriptional reprogramming. It is noteworthy that MYCs and different spliced variants of the JAZ proteins are involved in a negative regulatory feedback loop, which suggests a model that rapidly turns the transcriptional JA-Ile responses on and off and thereby avoids a detrimental overactivation of the pathway. This chapter highlights the most recent advances in our understanding of JA-Ile signalling, focusing on the latest repertoire of new targets of JAZ proteins to control different sets of JA-Ile-mediated responses, novel mechanisms of negative regulation of JA-Ile signalling, and hormonal cross-talk at the molecular level that ultimately determines plant adaptability and survival. PMID:26374889

  20. The Amidohydrolases IAR3 and ILL6 Contribute to Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine Hormone Turnover and Generate 12-Hydroxyjasmonic Acid Upon Wounding in Arabidopsis Leaves*

    PubMed Central

    Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphaël; Holder, Emilie; Heinrich, Clément; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Michel; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are a class of signaling compounds that mediate complex developmental and adaptative responses in plants. JAs derive from jasmonic acid (JA) through various enzymatic modifications, including conjugation to amino acids or oxidation, yielding an array of derivatives. The main hormonal signal, jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), has been found recently to undergo catabolic inactivation by cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation. We characterize here two amidohydrolases, IAR3 and ILL6, that define a second pathway for JA-Ile turnover during the wound response in Arabidopsis leaves. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that these two enzymes cleave the JA-Ile signal, but act also on the 12OH-JA-Ile conjugate. We also show that unexpectedly, the abundant accumulation of tuberonic acid (12OH-JA) after wounding originates partly through a sequential pathway involving (i) conjugation of JA to Ile, (ii) oxidation of the JA-Ile conjugate, and (iii) cleavage under the action of the amidohydrolases. The coordinated actions of oxidative and hydrolytic branches in the jasmonate pathway highlight novel mechanisms of JA-Ile hormone turnover and redefine the dynamic metabolic grid of jasmonate conversion in the wound response. PMID:24052260

  1. Oxylipin Signaling: A Distinct Role for the Jasmonic Acid Precursor cis-(+)-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid (cis-OPDA)

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Anuja; Graham, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxylipins are lipid-derived compounds, many of which act as signals in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. They include the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related jasmonate metabolites cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), methyl jasmonate, and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Besides the defense response, jasmonates are involved in plant growth and development and regulate a range of processes including glandular trichome development, reproduction, root growth, and senescence. cis-OPDA is known to possess a signaling role distinct from JA-Ile. The non-enzymatically derived phytoprostanes are structurally similar to cis-OPDA and induce a common set of genes that are not responsive to JA in Arabidopsis thaliana. A novel role for cis-OPDA in seed germination regulation has recently been uncovered based on evidence from double mutants and feeding experiments showing that cis-OPDA interacts with abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits seed germination, and increases ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) protein abundance. Large amounts of cis-OPDA are esterified to galactolipids in A. thaliana and the resulting compounds, known as Arabidopsides, are thought to act as a rapidly available source of cis-OPDA. PMID:22645585

  2. Metabonomic analysis of hepatitis E patients shows deregulated metabolic cycles and abnormalities in amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Munshi, S U; Taneja, S; Bhavesh, N S; Shastri, J; Aggarwal, R; Jameel, S

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis E, which is endemic to resource-poor regions of the world, is largely an acute and self-limiting disease, but some patients have an increased susceptibility to develop fulminant hepatitis. The pathogenesis of hepatitis E in humans is poorly characterized. To understand the metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology of hepatitis E, we have used (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify various metabolites in the plasma and urine of the patients with hepatitis E. These were compared with specimens from patients with acute hepatitis B as disease controls and healthy volunteers. Data were analysed using chemometric statistical methods and metabolite databases. The main metabonomic changes found in patients with hepatitis E, but not in those with hepatitis B, included increased plasma levels of L-isoleucine, acetone, and glycerol, reduced plasma levels of glycine, and reduced urinary levels of imidazole, 3-aminoisobutanoic acid, 1-methylnicotinamide, biopterin, adenosine, 1-methylhistidine, and salicyluric acid. Patients with hepatitis E or B both showed increased levels of plasma and urinary L-proline and decreased levels of various other metabolites. Pathway analysis tools suggest the involvement of glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism in patients with acute hepatitis E. These findings may help better understand the clinical and biochemical manifestations in this disease and the underlying pathophysiologic processes. Based on our findings, it would be worthwhile determining whether patients with hepatitis E are more prone to develop lactic acidosis and ketosis compared with other forms of viral hepatitis. PMID:21914081

  3. Conversion Percentage of Tryptophan to Nicotinamide is Higher in Rice Protein Diet than in Wheat Protein Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kawamura, Tomoyo

    2015-01-01

    We reported previously that the pellagragenic property of corn protein is not only low l-tryptophan concentration but also the lower conversion percentage of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide; the amino acid composition greatly affected the conversion percentage. The amino acid value of wheat protein is lower than that of rice protein. In the present study, we compare the conversion percentages of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide between wheat protein and rice protein diets in growing rats. The body weight gain for 28 days in rats fed with a 10% amino acid mixture diet with wheat protein was lower than that of rats fed with a 10% amino acid diet with rice protein (68.1 1.6 g vs 108.4 1.9 g; P < 0.05). The conversion percentage of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide was also lower for the wheat protein diet compared with the rice protein diet (1.44 0.036% vs 2.84 0.19%; P < 0.05). The addition of limiting amino acids (l-isoleucine, l-lysine, l-tryptophan, l-methionine, l-threonine) to the wheat protein diet improved growth and the conversion percentage. In conclusion, our result supports the thinking that the composition of amino acids affects the conversion ratio of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide. PMID:25788834

  4. Hepatic and fecal metabolomic analysis of the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xue; Wei, Xiaoli; Yin, Xinmin; Wang, Yuhua; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Cuiqing; Zhao, Haiyang; McClain, Craig J; Feng, Wenke; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    The interactions among the gut, liver, and immune system play an important role in liver disease. Probiotics have been used for the treatment and prevention of many pathological conditions, including liver diseases. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) was used herein, in conjunction with chemometric data analysis, to identify metabolites significantly affected by probiotics in mice fed with or without alcohol. The metabolomics analysis indicates that the levels of fatty acids increased in mouse liver and decreased in mouse feces when mice were chronically exposed to alcohol. Supplementing the alcohol-fed mice with culture supernatant from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGGs) normalized these alcohol-induced abnormalities and prevented alcoholic liver disease (ALD). These results agree well with previous studies. In addition to diet-derived long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), LGGs may positively modify the gut's bacterial population to stimulate LCFA synthesis, which has been shown to enhance intestinal barrier function, reduce endotoxemia, and prevent ALD. We also found that several amino acids, including l-isoleucine, a branched chain amino acid, were downregulated in the liver and fecal samples from animals exposed to alcohol and that the levels of these amino acids were corrected by LGGs. These results demonstrate that LGGs alleviates alcohol-induced fatty liver by mechanisms involving increasing intestinal and decreasing hepatic fatty acids and increasing amino acid concentration. PMID:25592873

  5. The SARP Family Regulator Txn9 and Two-Component Response Regulator Txn11 are Key Activators for Trioxacarcin Biosynthesis in Streptomyces bottropensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kui; Qi, Li-Hua; Zhang, Mei; Hou, Xian-Feng; Pan, Hai-Xue; Tang, Gong-Li; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Trioxacarcin A is a polyoxygenated, structurally complex antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spp., which possesses high anti-bacterial, anti-malaria, and anti-tumor activities. The trioxacarcin biosynthetic pathway involves type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) with L-isoleucine as a unique starter unit, as well as many complex post-PKS tailoring enzymes and resistance and regulatory proteins. In this work, two regulatory genes, txn9 coding for a Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein family regulator and txn11 for a two-component response regulator, were revealed to be absolutely required for trioxacarcin production by individually inactivating all the six annotated regulatory genes in the txn cluster. Complementation assay suggested that these two activators do not have a regulatory cascade relationship. Moreover, transcriptional analysis showed that they activate 15 of the 28 txn operons, indicating that a complicated regulatory network is involved in the trioxacarcin production. Information gained from this study may be useful for improving the production of the highly potent trioxacarcin A. PMID:26178900

  6. Separation of Ofloxacin and Its Six Related Substances Enantiomers by Chiral Ligand-Exchange Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinlei; Zhao, Longshan; Deng, Miaoduo; Liu, Lijie; Ma, Yongfu; Guo, Xingjie

    2015-11-01

    A chiral ligand-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the enantioseparation of ofloxacin and its six related substances termed impurities A, B, C, D, E, and F. The separation was performed on a conventional C18 column. Different organic modifiers, copper salts, amino acids, the ratio of Cu(2+) to amino acid, pH of aqueous phase, and column temperature were optimized. The optimal mobile phase conditions were methanol-water systems consisting of 5 mmol/L copper sulfate and 10 mmol/L L-isoleucine (L-Ile). Under such conditions, good enantioseparation of ofloxacin and impurities A, C, E, and F could be observed with resolutions (RS ) of 3.54, 1.97, 3.21, 3.50, and 2.12, respectively. On the relationship between the thermodynamic parameters and structures of analytes, the mechanism of chiral recognition was investigated. It was concluded that ofloxacin and impurities A, C, E, and F were all enthalpically driven enantioseparation and that low column temperature was beneficial to enantioseparation. Furthermore, the structure-separation relationship of these analytes is also discussed. PMID:26382212

  7. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheard, Laura B; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A; Zheng, Ning

    2011-11-07

    Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved {alpha}-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.

  8. Extrusion decreases the negative effects of kidney bean on enzyme and transport activities of the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Marzo, F; Milagro, F I; Urdaneta, E; Barrenetxe, J; Ibaez, F C

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of raw and extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) consumption on the gut physiology of young growing rats. The intestinal enzyme activity (sucrase, maltase, Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, aminopeptidase N, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, alkaline phosphatase) and the uptake of sugar (d-galactose) and amino acids (l-leucine) were measured in brush border membrane vesicles. Five groups of growing male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 15 days on five different 10% protein diets: one containing casein as the main source of protein (Control, C), and four containing raw (RKB1, RKB6) or extruded kidney bean (EKB1, EKB6) at 1% and 6% of total protein content respectively. Extrusion treatment significantly reduced the content of bioactive factors (phytates, tannins) and abolished lectins, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and ?-amylase inhibitory activities. Rats fed raw beans (especially RKB6) showed lower growth rate and food intake as compared to those fed extruded legumes, probably due to the high levels of lectins and other anti-nutritive factors in the raw beans. Gut enzymatic activities and uptake of d-galactose and l-leucine were lower in RKB6 and RKB1-fed animals, although they significantly improved in the groups fed extruded beans. Enzymatic activity and uptake in EKB1 were similar to those of casein-fed rats, whereas the uptake and growth rate of EKB6 were different to the control. This is attributable to the higher non-thermolabile biofactor content in the EKB6 diet, especially phytates and tannins, than in EKB1. This article shows the dose-dependent toxicological effects of bioactive factors contained in kidney beans on gut function. The extrusion process reduced their adverse impact on gut physiology and growth rate. PMID:21114542

  9. Different EDC/NHS activation mechanisms between PAA and PMAA brushes and the following amidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuie; Yan, Qin; Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2011-10-01

    Infrared spectroscopy was applied to investigate the well-known EDC/NHS (N-ethyl-N'-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide) activation details of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brushes grafted on porous silicon. Succinimidyl ester (NHS-ester) is generally believed to be the dominant intermediate product, conveniently used to immobilize biomolecules containing free primary amino groups via amide linkage. To our surprise, the infrared spectral details revealed that the EDC/NHS activation of PMAA generated anhydride (estimated at around 76% yield and 70% composition), but not NHS-ester (around 5% yield and 11% composition) under the well-documented reaction conditions, as the predominant intermediate product. In contrast, EDC/NHS activation of PAA still follows the general rule, i.e., the expected NHS-ester is the dominant intermediate product (around 45% yield and 57% composition), anhydride the side product (40% yield and 28% composition), under the optimum reaction conditions. The following amidation on PAA-based NHS-esters with a model amine-containing compound, L-leucine methyl ester, generated approximately 70% amides and 30% carboxylates. In contrast, amidation of PAA- or PMAA-based anhydrides with L-leucine methyl ester only produced less than 30% amides but more than 70% carboxylates. The above reaction yields and percentage compositions were estimated by fitting the carbonyl stretching region with 5 possible species, NHS-ester, anhydride, N-acylurea, unreacted acid, unhydrolyzed tert-butyl ester, and using the Beer-Lambert law. The different surface chemistry mechanisms will bring significant effects on the performance of surface chemistry-derived devices such as biochips, biosensors, and biomaterials. PMID:21853994

  10. Enterohepatic circulation of bacterial chemotactic peptide in rats with experimental colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, C.H.; Butt, T.J.; Ferry, D.M.; Hunter, J.; Chadwick, V.S.; Broom, M.F.

    1988-04-01

    The association of hepatobiliary disorders with colonic inflammation is well recognized. Although the pathophysiology is obscure, increased permeation of toxic bacterial products across the inflamed gut to the portal circulation might be one mechanism. Potentially toxic metabolites include N-formylated chemotactic peptides that are produced by several species of intestinal bacteria and can be detected in colonic fluid in vivo. To investigate the metabolic fate of one of these low molecular weight proinflammatory peptides, N-formyl L-methionine L-leucine /sup 125/I-L-tyrosine was introduced into colon loops of healthy rats (n = 10) and rats with experimental colitis (n = 15) induced by rectal instillation of 15% (vol/vol) acetic acid. Gut, liver, and blood radioactivity were monitored by external gamma-counting and radioactivity in bile was measured by biliary catheter drainage into a well counter. Bile was processed by high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the amount of intact, bioactive peptide excreted over 3 h. After colonic instillation of 1 nmol of peptide, the mean (+/- SEM) biliary excretion of intact peptide was 6.4 +/- 2.0 pmol in normal rats and 49.0 +/- 20 pmol in rats with colitis (p less than 0.01). An enterohepatic circulation of synthetic N-formyl L-methionine L-leucine L-tyrosine has been demonstrated in the rat. Experimental colitis was associated with an eightfold increase in biliary excretion of this proinflammatory bacterial peptide. Proinflammatory bacterial peptides synthesized by colonic bacteria could be important in the pathophysiology of colon inflammation and its frequently associated hepatobiliary complications.

  11. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  12. Protease activities of rumen protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, C W; Lovelock, L K; Krumholz, L; Buchanan-Smith, J G

    1984-01-01

    Intact, metabolically active rumen protozoa prepared by gravity sedimentation and washing in a mineral solution at 10 to 15 degrees C had comparatively low proteolytic activity on azocasein and low endogenous proteolytic activity. Protozoa washed in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 4 degrees C and stored on ice autolysed when they were warmed to 39 degrees C. They also exhibited low proteolytic activity on azocasein, but they had a high endogenous proteolytic activity with a pH optimum of 5.8. The endogenous proteolytic activity was inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, for example, iodoacetate (63.1%) and the aspartic proteinase inhibitor, pepstatin (43.9%). Inhibitors specific for serine proteinases and metalloproteinases were without effect. The serine and cysteine proteinase inhibitors of microbial origin, including antipain, chymostatin, and leupeptin, caused up to 67% inhibition of endogenous proteolysis. Hydrolysis of casein by protozoa autolysates was also inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Some of the inhibitors decreased endogenous deamination, in particular, phosphoramidon, which had little inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Protozoal and bacterial preparations exhibited low hydrolytic activities on synthetic proteinase and carboxypeptidase substrates, although the protozoa had 10 to 78 times greater hydrolytic activity (per milligram of protein) than bacteria on the synthetic aminopeptidase substrates L-leucine-p-nitroanilide, L-leucine-beta-naphthylamide, and L-leucinamide. The aminopeptidase activity was partially inhibited by bestatin. It was concluded that cysteine proteinases and, to a lesser extent, aspartic proteinases are primarily responsible for proteolysis in autolysates of rumen protozoa. The protozoal autolysates had high aminopeptidase activity; low deaminase activity was observed on endogenous amino acids. PMID:6364968

  13. Group 11 complexes with amino acid derivatives: Synthesis and antitumoral studies.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Lourdes; Meireles, Margarida; Kasper, Cornelia; Laguna, Antonio; Villacampa, M Dolores; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2016-03-01

    Gold(I), gold(III), silver(I) and copper(I) complexes with modified amino acid esters and phosphine ligands have been prepared in order to test their cytotoxic activity. Two different phosphine fragments, PPh3 and PPh2py (py=pyridine), have been used. The amino acid esters have been modified by introducing an aromatic amine as pyridine that coordinates metal fragments through the nitrogen atom, giving complexes of the type [M(L)(PR3)](+) or [AuCl3(L)] (L=l-valine-N-(4-pyridylcarbonyl) methyl ester (L1), l-alanine-N-(4-pyridylcarbonyl) methyl ester (L2), l-phenylalanine-N-(4-pyridylcarbonyl) methyl-ester) (L3); M=Au(I), Ag(I), Cu(I), PR3=PPh3, PPh2py). The in vitro cytotoxic activity of metal complexes was tested against four tumor human cell lines and one tumor mouse cell line. A metabolic activity test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, MTT) was used and IC50 values were compared with those obtained for cisplatin. Several complexes displayed significant cytotoxic activities. In order to determine whether antiproliferation and cell death are associated with apoptosis, NIH-3T3 cells were exposed to five selected complexes (Annexin V+ FITC, PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry. These experiments showed that the mechanism by which the complexes inhibit cell proliferation inducing cell death in NIH-3T3 cells is mainly apoptotic. PMID:26780577

  14. Dissociative electron attachment to gas phase valine: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Papp, Peter; Urban, Jan; Matejck, Stefan; Stano, Michal; Ingolfsson, Oddur

    2006-11-28

    Using a crossed electron/molecule beam technique the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to gas phase L-valine, (CH(3))(2)CHCH(NH(2))COOH, is studied by means of mass spectrometric detection of the product anions. Additionally, ab initio calculations of the structures and energies of the anions and neutral fragments have been carried out at G2MP2 and B3LYP levels. Valine and the previously studied aliphatic amino acids glycine and alanine exhibit several common features due to the fact that at low electron energies the formation of the precursor ion can be characterized by occupation of the pi* orbital of the carboxyl group. The dominant negative ion (M-H)(-) (m/Z=116) is observed at electron energies of 1.12 eV. This ion is the dominant reaction product at electron energies below 5 eV. Additional fragment ions with m/Z=100, 72, 56, 45, 26, and 17 are observed both through the low lying pi* and through higher lying resonances at about 5.5 and 8.0-9.0 eV, which are characterized as core excited resonances. According to the threshold energies calculated here, rearrangements play a significant role in the formation of DEA fragments observed from valine at subexcitation energies. PMID:17144694

  15. Synthesis, structural elucidation, biological, antioxidant and nuclease activities of some 5-Fluorouracil-amino acid mixed ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobana, Sutha; Subramaniam, Perumal; Mitu, Liviu; Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Arvind Narayan, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Some biologically active mixed ligand complexes (1-9) have been synthesized from 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; A) and amino acids (B) such as glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala) and L-valine (val) with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions. The synthesized mixed ligand complexes (1-9) were characterized by various physico-chemical, spectral, thermal and morphological studies. 5-Fluorouracil and its mixed ligand complexes have been tested for their in vitro biological activities against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species by the agar well diffusion method. The in vitro antioxidant activities of 5-Fluorouracil and its complexes have also been investigated by using the DPPH assay method. The results demonstrate that Cu(II) mixed ligand complexes (4-6) exhibit potent biological as well as antioxidant activities compared to 5-Fluorouracil and Ni(II) (1-3) and Zn(II) (7-9) mixed ligand complexes. Further, the cleaving activities of CT DNA under aerobic conditions show moderate activity with the synthesized Cu(II) and Ni(II) mixed ligand complexes (1-6) while no activity is seen with Zn(II) complexes (7-9). Binding studies of CT DNA with these complexes show a decrease in intensity of the charge transfer band to the extent of 5-15% along with a minor red shift. The free energy change values (?G) calculated from intrinsic binding constants indicate that the interaction between mixed ligand complex and DNA is spontaneous.

  16. Correlation analysis of urine metabolites and clinical staging in patients with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting; Lin, Yunliang; Yin, Haiqin; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Qinglei; Zhang, Peihai; Bi, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the correlation between urine metabolites and clinical staging in patients with ovarian cancer. The urina sanguinis from 56 cases of primary epithelial ovarian cancer patients and 15 healthy volunteers was collected and the urine metabolites were extracted. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) analysis was performed. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to analyze the mass spectrometry data. Database retrieval and comparison of the screened metabolites were performed and one-way ANOVA and least significant difference (LSD) t test were carried out. PCA analysis of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS results showed that the score plots of samples from healthy people and patients with ovarian cancer at different clinical stages were separated. Further PLS-DA analysis significantly improved the classification results. The R2X was 0.757, the R2Y was 0.977 and the Q2Y was 0.87, indicating that the model stability and predictability were good. Eight metabolites, including N-acetylneuraminic acid-9-phosphate, 5-methioadenosine, uric acid-3-nucleoside, pseudouridine, L-valine, succinic acid, L-proline and ?-nicotinamide mononucleotide were identified. The contents of these metabolites increased with the development of the disease. There was correlation between urine metabolites and clinical staging in patients with ovarian cancer.

  17. Amino acid and carbohydrate preferences in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2008-01-01

    Compared with mice from the 129P3/J (129) inbred strain, mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) inbred strain have higher consumption of several sweet-tasting amino acids and carbohydrates. To examine the relative contribution of taste and nutritive properties in these strain differences, we measured responses of B6 and 129 mice to eight sweet and non-sweet amino acids and carbohydrates in two-bottle preference tests with water. Mice from the two strains did not differ in consumption of non-sweet L-valine and L-histidine. Compared with 129 mice, B6 mice had higher consumption and lower preference thresholds for sweet amino acids L-glutamine, L-alanine and L-threonine, monosaccharides glucose and fructose, and maltooligosaccharide. These data suggest that differences in gustatory responsiveness are an important factor underlying higher consumption of some amino acids and carbohydrates by B6 mice compared with 129 mice. It is likely that in B6 mice, higher sweet taste responsiveness results in increased consumption of sweet-tasting amino acids and sugars, and higher taste responsiveness to complex carbohydrates results in increased consumption of maltooligosaccharide. However, postingestive processes also influence nutrient consumption and may be responsible for higher intake of carbohydrates compared with sweet-tasting amino acids. Results of this study set the stage for genetic analysis of differences between B6 and 129 mice in taste responsiveness and macronutrient consumption. PMID:17764708

  18. Long-term doxorubicin release from multiple stimuli-responsive hydrogels based on ?-amino-acid residues.

    PubMed

    Casolaro, Mario; Casolaro, Ilaria; Bottari, Severino; Del Bello, Barbara; Maellaro, Emilia; Demadis, Konstantinos D

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a series of pH- and temperature-stimuli-sensitive vinyl hydrogels, bearing ?-amino acid residues (L-phenylalanine, L-valine) and incorporating magnetic nanoparticles of different chemical compositions (CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4). The goal was to study the potential applications of these nanocomposites in the controlled release of doxorubicin (DOXO), a potent anticancer drug. The strength of the electrostatic interaction between the protonated nitrogen of the DOXO molecule and the ionized carboxylic groups of the hydrogel allowed effective control of the drug release rate in saline solutions. The embedded magnetic nanoparticles were an additional remote control of the drug release under the stimulus of an appropriate external alternating magnetic field (AMF). Data showed that the controlled release of DOXO proceeded for months and followed a diffusion-controlled release mechanism, while maintaining the amount of released drug within acceptable therapeutic windows. The amount of the released DOXO was found in all cases substantially higher than the "control" because the application of the AMF augments in stimulating the nanoparticles within the DOXO-loaded hydrogel. In vitro experiments have shown that the released DOXO is able to induce cell death to cervix adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa cells). PMID:24931342

  19. Rational design of heat-set and specific-ion-responsive supramolecular hydrogels based on the Hofmeister effect.

    PubMed

    Nebot, Vicent J; Ojeda-Flores, Juan J; Smets, Johan; Fernndez-Prieto, Susana; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F

    2014-10-27

    Smart supramolecular hydrogels have been prepared from a bolaamphiphilic L-valine derivative in aqueous solutions of different salts. The hydrogels respond selectively to different ions and are either reinforced or weakened. In one case, in contrast to conventional systems, the hydrogels are formed upon heating of the system. The use of the hydrogels in the controlled release of an entrapped dye is described as a proof of the potential applications of these systems. The responsive hydrogels were rationally designed by taking into account the noticeable effect of different ions from the Hofmeister series in the solubility of the hydrogelator, which was assessed by using NMR experiments. On the one hand, kosmotropic anions such as sulfate produce a remarkable solubility decrease in the gelator, which is associated with gel reinforcement, as measured by rheological experiments. On the other hand, chaotropic species such as perchlorate weaken the gel. A dramatic effect was observed in the presence of guanidinium chloride, which boosted the solubility of the gelator, in accordance with its chaotropic behaviour reported in protein science. In this case, a direct interaction of the guanidinium species with the carbonyl groups of the hydrogelator is detected by (13) C?NMR spectroscopy. The weakening of this interaction upon a temperature increase allows for the preparation of heat-set hydrogelating systems. PMID:25220485

  20. Phloem Unloading of Amino Acids at the Site of Attachment of Cuscuta europaea

    PubMed Central

    Wolswinkel, Pieter; Ammerlaan, Ankie; Peters, Henricus F. C.

    1984-01-01

    By washing out 14C-solutes or 3H-solutes in 0.5 mm CaSO4 during a period of 5 to 6 hours, the release of amino acids by excised stem segments of broad bean (Vicia faba L. cv Witkiem) was studied. Three hours after pulse labeling with l-valine, l-asparagine, or α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), hollow stem segments were excised from the plant and incubated in a washout solution. In experiments with valine and asparagine, stem segments parasitized by Cuscuta europaea released a higher percentage of labeled solutes into the bathing medium than control segments. This can be ascribed to enhanced phloem unloading at the site of attachment of Cuscuta. At low temperature (0°C) and after addition of p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate to the bathing medium, parasitized segments did not release an enhanced percentage of labeled solutes, in comparison with control segments. These data suggest a metabolic control of the phenomenon of enhanced phloem unloading of amino acids. In experiments with AIB, an enhanced release of labeled solutes could not clearly be observed, but at the site of attachment of Cuscuta an accumulation of labeled solutes was measured. Accumulation of AIB in parenchyma cells, before the start of a washout experiment, will tend to obscure the phenomenon of enhanced phloem unloading. PMID:16663556

  1. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  2. Na -dependent transport of basic, zwitterionic, and bicyclic amino acids by a broad-scope system in mouse blastocysts

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, L.J.; Christensen, H.N.; Campione, A.L.

    1985-10-05

    Mouse blastocysts which had been activated from diapause in utero appeared to take up amino acids via a Na -dependent transport system with novel characteristics. In contrast to other cell types, uptake of 3-aminoendobicyclo (3,2,1)octane-3-carboxylic acid (BCO) by blastocysts was largely Na dependent. Moreover, L-alanine and BCO met standard criteria for mutual competitive inhibition of the Na -dependent transport of each other. The Ki for each of these amino acids as an inhibitor of transport of the other had a value similar to the value of its Km for transport. In addition, both 2-aminoendobicyclo (2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid and L-valine appeared to inhibit Na -dependent transport of alanine and BCO competitively. Finally, alanine and L-lysine appeared to compete for the same Na+-dependent transport sites in blastocysts. For these reasons, the authors conclude that lysine, alanine, and BCO are transported by a common Na+-dependent system in blastocysts. In addition, the apparent interaction of the system with other basic amino acids, such as 1-dimethylpiperidine-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid, which has a nondissociable positive charge on its side chain, and L-arginine and L-homoarginine, whose cationic forms are highly predominant at neutral pH, suggests that the cationic forms of basic amino acids are transported by the wide-scope system.

  3. Biochemical characterization of Santalum album (Chandan) leaf peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kamle, Madhu; Singh, Jagtar

    2011-04-01

    The Santalum peroxidase was extracted from the leaves and precipitated with double volume of chilled acetone. The optimum percent relative activity for the Santalum peroxidase was observed at pH 5.0 and 50C temperature. The Santalum peroxidase per cent relative activity was stimulated in the presence of phenolic compounds like ferrulic acid and caffeic acids; however, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and protocatechuic acid act as inhibitors. All divalent cations Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) stimulate the relative activity of the Santalum peroxidase at concentration of 2.0?M. Amino acids like L-alanine and L-valine activate the per cent relative activity, while L-proline and DL-methionine showed moderate inhibition for the Santalum peroxidase. However, a very low a concentration of cysteine acts as a strong inhibitor of Santalum peroxidase at the concentration of 0.4mM. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE) was performed for isoenzyme determination and two bands were observed. Km and Vmax values were calculated from Lineweaver-Burk graph. The apparent Vmax/Km value for O-dianisidine and H2O2 were 400 and 5.0??105 Units/min/mL respectively. PMID:23573005

  4. Genetic basis of destruxin production in the entomopathogen Metarhizium robertsii.

    PubMed

    Giuliano Garisto Donzelli, Bruno; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Moon, Yong-Sun; Sun-Moon, Yong; Churchill, Alice C L; Gibson, Donna M

    2012-04-01

    Destruxins are among the most exhaustively researched secondary metabolites of entomopathogenic fungi, yet definitive evidence for their roles in pathogenicity and virulence has yet to be shown. To establish the genetic bases for the biosynthesis of this family of depsipeptides, we identified a 23,792-bp gene in Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575 containing six complete nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules, with an N-methyltransferase domain in each of the last two modules. This domain arrangement is consistent with the positioning of the adjacent amino acids N-methyl-L: -valine and N-methyl-L: -alanine within the depsipeptide structure of destruxin. DXS expression levels in vitro and in vivo exhibited comparable patterns, beginning at low levels during the early growth phases and increasing with time. Targeted gene knockout using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation produced mutants that failed to synthesize destruxins, in comparison with wild type and ectopic control strains, indicating the involvement of this gene in destruxin biosynthesis. The destruxin synthetase (DXS) disruption mutant was as virulent as the control strain when conidial inoculum was topically applied to larvae of Spodoptera exigua, Galleria mellonella, and Tenebrio molitor indicating that destruxins are dispensable for virulence in these insect hosts. The DXS mutants exhibited no other detectable changes in morphology and development. PMID:22367459

  5. Enhancement of ascomycin production in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus by combining resin HP20 addition and metabolic profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Haishan; Zhao, Sumin; Fu, Hong; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-09-01

    Combinatorial approach of adsorbent resin HP20 addition and metabolic profiling analysis were carried out to enhance ascomycin production. Under the optimal condition of 5% m/v HP20 added at 24h, ascomycin production was increased to 380 from 300mg/L. To further rationally guide the improvement of ascomycin production, metabolic profiling analysis was employed to investigate the intracellular metabolite changes of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus FS35 in response to HP20 addition. A correlation between the metabolic profiles and ascomycin accumulation was revealed by partial least-squares to latent structures discriminant analysis, and 11 key metabolites that most contributed to metabolism differences and ascomycin biosynthesis were identified. Based on the analysis of metabolite changes together with their pathways, the potential key factors associated with ascomycin overproduction were determined. Finally, rationally designed fermentation strategies based on HP20 addition were performed as follows: 2% v/v n-hexadecane was added at 24h; 1.0g/L valine was supplemented at 48h; 1.0g/L lysine was added at 72h. The ascomycin production was ultimately improved to 460mg/L, a 53.3% enhancement compared with that obtained in initial condition. These results demonstrated that the combination of HP20 addition and metabolic profiling analysis could be successfully applied to the rational guidance of production improvement of ascomycin, as well as other clinically important compounds. PMID:24965502

  6. Production of L-(1-/sup 11/C)valine by HPLC resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, L.C.; Sun, T.T.; Byrd, B.L.; Callahan, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Based on a recently developed analytical technique, preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) resolution of DL-(1-/sup 11/C)valine has been achieved. A conventional reverse-phase HPLC column and a chiral mobile phase (aqueous solution of L-proline, cupric acetate, and sodium acetate) were used. The copper can be removed from the L-valine fraction by precipitation as the sulfide, and final purification by cation-exchange chromatography yields L-(1-/sup 11/C)valine in a form that is acceptable for clinical positron tomographic studies. This purification method does not remove the L-proline introduced in the resolution process, but added L-proline did not affect the tissue distribution of L-(1-/sup 14/C)valine in rats. We have produced up to 60 mCi of L-(1-/sup 11/C)valine in an overall synthesis and resolution time of 50 min. This procedure should be adapable to the rapid resolution of other C-11-labeled amino acid racemates.

  7. Production of L-(1-/sup 11/C)valine by HPLC resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, L.C.; Sun, T.T.; Byrd, B.L.; Callahan, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Based on a recently developed analytical technique, preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) resolution of DL-(1-/sup 11/C)valine has been achieved. A conventional reverse-phase HPLC column and a chiral mobile phase (aqueous solution of L-proline, cupric acetate, and sodium acetate) were used. The copper can be removed from the L-valine fraction by precipitation as the sulfide, and final purification by cation-exchange chromatography yields L-(1-/sup 11/C)valine in a form that is acceptable for clinical positron tomographic studies. This purification method does not remove the L-proline introduced in the resolution process, but added L-proline did not affect the tissue distribution of L-(1-/sup 14/C)valine in rats. We have produced up to 60 mCi of L-(1-/sup 11/C)valine in an overall synthesis and resolution time of 50 min. This procedure should be adaptable to the rapid resolution of other C-/sup 11/-labeled amino acid racemates.

  8. Removal of L-alanine from the production of L-2-aminobutyric acid by introduction of alanine racemase and D-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Tao, Rongsheng; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yu; Lin, Xin; Yang, Yunliu; Zheng, Huabao; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Sheng

    2011-05-01

    L-2-Aminobutyric acid can be synthesized in a transamination reaction from L-threonine and L-aspartic acid as substrates by the action of threonine deaminase and aromatic aminotransferase, but the by-product L-alanine was produced simultaneously. A small amount of L-alanine increased the complexity of the L-2-aminobutyric acid recovery process because of their extreme similarity in physical and chemical properties. Acetolactate synthase has been introduced to remove the pyruvate intermediate for reducing the L-alanine concentration partially. To eliminate the remnant L-alanine, alanine racemase of Bacillus subtilis in combination with D-amino acid oxidase of Rhodotorula gracilis or Trigonopsis variabilis respectively was introduced into the reaction system for the L-2-aminobutyric acid synthesis. L-Alanine could be completely removed by the action of alanine racemase of B. subtilis and D-amino acid oxidase of R. gracilis; thereby, high-purity L-2-aminobutyric acid was achieved. The results revealed that alanine racemase could discriminate effectively between L-alanine and L-2-aminobutyric acid, and selectively catalyzed L-alanine to D-alanine reversibly. D-Amino acid oxidase then catalyzed D-alanine to pyruvate stereoselectively. Furthermore, this method was also successfully used to remove the by-product L-alanine in the production of other neutral amino acids such as L-tertiary leucine and L-valine, suggesting that multienzymatic whole-cell catalysis can be employed to provide high purity products. PMID:21305278

  9. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the molluscan CNS.

    PubMed

    Moroz, L L; Chen, D; Gillette, M U; Gillette, R

    1996-02-01

    Putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was assayed in molluscan CNS through histochemical localization of NADPH-diaphorase and through measurement of L-arginine/L-citrulline conversion. Several hundreds of NADPH-dependent diaphorase-positive neurons stained consistently darkly in the nervous system of the predatory opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea californica, whereas stained neurons were relatively sparse and/or light in the other opisthobranchs (Philine, Aplysia, Tritonia, Flabellina, Cadina, Armina, Coriphella, and Doriopsilla sp.) and cephalopods (Sepia and Rossia sp.). L-Arginine/L-citrulline conversion was beta-NADPH dependent, insensitive to removal of Ca2+, inhibited by the calmodulin blocker trifluoperazine, and inhibited by the competitive NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) but not D-NAME. Inhibitors of arginase [L-valine and (+)-S-2-amino-5-iodoacetamidopentanoic acid)] did not affect L-citrulline production in the CNS. NOS activity was largely associated with the particulate fraction and appeared to be a novel, constitutive Ca(2+)-independent isoform. Enzymatic conversion of L-arginine/L-citrulline in Pleurobranchaea and Aplysia CNS was 4.0 and 9.8%, respectively, of that of rat cerebellum, L-Citrulline formation in gill and muscle of Pleurobranchaea was not significant. The localization of relatively high NOS activity in neuron somata in the CNS of Pleurobranchaea is markedly different from the other opisthobranchs, all of which are grazers. Potentially, this is related to the animal's opportunistic predatory lifestyle. PMID:8592165

  10. Evaluation of vancomycin-based synergistic system with amino acid ester chiral ionic liquids as additives for enantioseparation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjing; Du, Yingxiang; Zhang, Qi; Lei, Yuntao

    2014-02-01

    Recently, chiral ionic liquids (ILs) have drawn increasing attention in chiral separation field; however, few papers reported the application of chiral ILs for chiral separation by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and among the papers, chiral ILs were mainly applied as additives to ?-cyclodextrin derivatives systems to establish synergistic systems. The synergistic system based on antibiotics with chiral ILs as additives has never been reported before. In this paper, two chiral ionic liquids (ILs) based on amino acid ester, L-alanine and L-valine tert butyl ester bis (trifluoromethane) sulfonamide, were first applied to evaluate the synergistic effect with antibiotic selector for CE chiral separation. The vancomycin-based synergistic system with chiral ILs as additives was successfully established and investigated for the enantioseparation of naproxen, carprofen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and pranoprofen. Compared to vancomycin-alone cases, significant improvement of separation for all the analytes was observed. Several parameters, such as type and proportion of organic modifier, composition and pH of buffer, concentration of chiral ILs and vancomycin were systematically investigated, and then evaluated by means of Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) to research the influences on the synergistic effect. Finally, the established method was successfully applied to test the chiral impurity of naproxen sample. PMID:24401404

  11. Identification and biosynthesis of novel male specific esters in the wings of the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus martius sanaos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Brattstrm, Oskar; Brakefield, Paul M; Francke, Wittko; Lfstedt, Christer

    2014-06-01

    Representatives of the highly speciose tropical butterfly genus Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are characterized by morphological differences in the male androconia, a set of scales and hair pencils located on the surface of the wings. These androconia are assumed to be associated with the release of courtship pheromones. In the present study, we report the identification and biosynthetic pathways of several novel esters from the wings of male B. martius sanaos. We found that the volatile compounds in this male butterfly were similar to female-produced moth sex pheromones. Components associated with the male wing androconial areas were identified as ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl hexadecanoates and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoates, among which the latter are novel natural products. By topical application of deuterium-labelled fatty acid and amino acid precursors, we found these pheromone candidates to be produced in patches located on the forewings of the males. Deuterium labels from hexadecanoic acid were incorporated into (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, providing experimental evidence of a ?11-desaturase being active in butterflies. This unusual desaturase was found previously to be involved in the biosynthesis of female-produced sex pheromones of moths. In the male butterflies, both hexadecanoic acid and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid were then enzymatically esterified to form the ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl esters, incorporating ethanol, isobutanol, and 2-phenylethanol, derived from the corresponding amino acids L-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine. PMID:24894159

  12. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: a novel pathway for the early steps leading to isopentenyl diphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Rohmer, M; Knani, M; Simonin, P; Sutter, B; Sahm, H

    1993-01-01

    Incorporation of 13C-labelled glucose, acetate, pyruvate or erythrose allowed the determination of the origin of the carbon atoms of triterpenoids of the hopane series and/or of the ubiquinones from several bacteria (Zymomonas mobilis, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris) confirmed our earlier results obtained by incorporation of 13C-labelled acetate into the hopanoids of other bacteria and led to the identification of a novel biosynthetic route for the early steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis. The C5 framework of isoprenic units results most probably (i) from the condensation of a C2 unit derived from pyruvate decarboxylation (e.g. thiamine-activated acetaldehyde) on the C-2 carbonyl group of a triose phosphate derivative issued probably from dihydroxyacetone phosphate and not from pyruvate and (ii) from a transposition step. Although this hypothetical biosynthetic pathway resembles that of L-valine biosynthesis, this amino acid or its C5 precursors could be excluded as intermediates in the formation of isoprenic units. PMID:8240251

  13. Effects of water-alcohol binary solvents on the thermochemical characteristics of L-tryptophane dissolution at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelin, V. G.; Smirnov, V. I.

    2013-01-01

    The enthalpies of L-tryptophane solution in water-methanol, water-ethanol, water-1-propanol, and water-2-propanol mixtures at alcohol concentrations of x 2 = 0-0.4 mole fractions were measured by calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of L-tryptophane solution (?sol H ?) and transfer (?tr H ?) from water to the binary solvent were calculated. The influence of the composition of the water-alcohol mixture and the structure and properties of L-tryptophane on the enthalpy characteristics of the latter was considered. The enthalpy coefficients of pair interactions ( h xy ) of L-tryptophane with alcohol molecules were calculated. The coefficients were positive and increased in the series: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), 1-propanol (1-PrOH), and 2-propanol (2-PrOH). The solution and transfer enthalpies of L-tryptophane were compared with those of aliphatic amino acids (glycine, L-threonine, DL-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine) in similar binary solvents.

  14. Metabonomic Profiling of TASTPM Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zeping; Browne, Edward R.; Liu, Tao; Angel, Thomas E.; Ho, Paul C.; Chun Yong Chan, Eric

    2012-12-07

    Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is important for the development of new therapies against and diagnosis of AD. In this study, non-targeted metabotyping of TASTPM transgenic AD mice was performed. The metabolic profiles of both brain and plasma of TASTPM mice were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to those of wild type C57BL/6J mice. TASTPM mice were metabolically distinct compared to wild type mice (Q28 Y = 0.587 and 0.766 for PLS-DA models derived from brain and plasma, respectively). A number of metabolites were found to be perturbed in TASTPM mice in both brain (D11 fructose, L-valine, L-serine, L-threonine, zymosterol) and plasma (D-glucose, D12 galactose, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, palmitic acid and D-gluconic acid). In addition, enzyme immunoassay confirmed that selected endogenous steroids were significantly perturbed in brain (androstenedione and 17-OH-progesterone) and plasma (cortisol and testosterone) of TASTPM mice. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that perturbations related to amino acid metabolism (brain), steroid biosynthesis (brain), linoleic acid metabolism (plasma) and energy metabolism (plasma) accounted for the differentiation of TASTPM and wild-type

  15. A norepinephrine coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for simultaneous multiple chiral recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Liang, Ru-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Ni; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2015-08-28

    A newly designed molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) material was developed and successfully used as recognition element for enantioselective recognition by microchip electrophoresis. In this work, molecularly imprinted polymers were facilely prepared employing Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) as the supporting substrate and norepinephrine as the functional monomer in the presence of template molecule in a weak alkaline solution. After extracting the embedded template molecules, the produced imprinted Fe3O4@polynorepinephrine (MIP-Fe3O4@PNE) NPs have cavities complementary to three dimensional shape of template molecules favoring high binding capacity and magnetism property for easy manipulation. The MIP-Fe3O4@PNE NPs prepared with l-tryptophan, l-valine, l-threonine, Gly-l-Phe, S-(-)-ofloxacin or S-(-)-binaphthol as template molecules were packed in the polydimethylsiloxane microchannel via magnetic field as novel stationary phase to successful enantioseparation of corresponding target analysts. The MIP-Fe3O4@PNE NPs-based microchip electrophoresis system exhibited strong recognition ability, excellent high-performance, admirable reproducibility and stability, which provided a powerful protocol for separation enantiomers within a short analytical time and opened up an avenue for multiplex chiral compound assay in various systems. PMID:26206627

  16. Supramolecular effects and molecular discrimination by macrocyclic hosts embedded in synthetic bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Y; Hayashida, O

    1993-01-01

    Hybrid assemblies were prepared in combinations of a synthetic lipid, involving an L-alanine residue interposed between an anionic head group and a hydrophobic double-chain segment, with cage-type cyclophanes having a three-dimensionally extended hydrophobic cavity. Incorporation behavior of the cage-type hosts into the multi- and single-walled vesicules was characterized by highly sensitive differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic light-scattering measurements as well as by gel-filtration chromatography and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Both hosts were found to be completely incorporated into a relatively polar domain close to the vesicular surface. Anionic guest molecules, such as naphthol yellow S, dimethylsulfonazo III, bromopyrogallol red, and orange G, were effectively incorporated into the hydrophobic cavities provided by the cage-type cyclophanes embedded in the single-walled bilayer membrane, as confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy; the formation constants for 1:1 host-guest complexes were in the order of 10(4)-10(5) mol.dm-3. This means that the binding affinities of the cage-type hosts are largely retained even when the hosts are incorporated into the vesicle. Moreover, the pyridinium moieties bound to the chiral L-valine residues in the bridging components of the hosts underwent conformational changes upon inclusion of the guest, as confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations. Images PMID:8433975

  17. Crystallization of l-alanine in the presence of additives on a circular PMMA platform designed for metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative crystallization.

    PubMed

    Alabanza, Anginelle M; Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

    2012-12-21

    Crystallization of l-alanine in the presence of l-valine and l-tryptophan additives on a circular poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA) platform designed for Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique was investigated. Theoretical simulations predicted homogeneous temperature and electric field distributions across the circular PMMA platforms during microwave heating. Crystallization of l-alanine with and without additives on the blank and silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) modified sides of the circular PMMA platform occurred within 32-50 min using MA-MAEC technique, while the identical solutions crystallized within 161-194 min at room temperature. Optical microscopy studies revealed that l-alanine crystals without additives were found to be smaller in size and had several well-developed faces, whereas l-alanine crystals grown with additives appeared to be larger and had only one dominant highly-developed face. Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that all l-alanine crystals had identical peaks, despite the morphological differences between the l-alanine crystals with and without additives observed by optical microscope images. PMID:23378822

  18. Crystallization of l-alanine in the presence of additives on a circular PMMA platform designed for metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Alabanza, Anginelle M.; Mohammed, Muzaffer

    2013-01-01

    Crystallization of l-alanine in the presence of l-valine and l-tryptophan additives on a circular poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA) platform designed for Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique was investigated. Theoretical simulations predicted homogeneous temperature and electric field distributions across the circular PMMA platforms during microwave heating. Crystallization of l-alanine with and without additives on the blank and silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) modified sides of the circular PMMA platform occurred within 3250 min using MA-MAEC technique, while the identical solutions crystallized within 161194 min at room temperature. Optical microscopy studies revealed that l-alanine crystals without additives were found to be smaller in size and had several well-developed faces, whereas l-alanine crystals grown with additives appeared to be larger and had only one dominant highly-developed face. Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that all l-alanine crystals had identical peaks, despite the morphological differences between the l-alanine crystals with and without additives observed by optical microscope images. PMID:23378822

  19. Determination of D-malic acid in apple juice by liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Eisele, T A

    1996-01-01

    Eleven laboratories collaboratively studied a liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determination of D-malic acid in apple juice. The mobile phase consisted of mM L-valine and 8 mM copper acetate adjusted to pH 5.5 with NaOH. The UV detector was set at 330 nm, and a single reversed-phase LC column was used. Seven paired samples containing various amounts of D-malic acid ranging from 0 to 188 mg/100 mL of 12 Brix pasteurized apple juice were tested by each collaborator. Repeatability and reproducibility coefficients of variation ranged from 1.0 to 3.5% and 7.7 to 11.7%, respectively, within the range of 26 to 188 mg D-malic acid/100 mL of 12 Brix apple juice. The collaborative study results demonstrated that the method could quantitate the economic adulteration of apple juice with DL-malic acid at lower levels than those reported with previous methods. The LC method for determination of D-malic acid in apple juice has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:8620111

  20. Dynamic Peptide Library for the Discovery of Charge Transfer Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Berdugo, Cristina; Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Javid, Nadeem; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F; Ulijn, Rein V

    2015-11-25

    Coupling of peptide self-assembly to dynamic sequence exchange provides a useful approach for the discovery of self-assembling materials. In here, we demonstrate the discovery and optimization of aqueous, gel-phase nanostructures based on dynamically exchanging peptide sequences that self-select to maximize charge transfer of n-type semiconducting naphthalenediimide (NDI)-dipeptide bioconjugates with various ?-electron-rich donors (dialkoxy/hydroxy/amino-naphthalene or pyrene derivatives). These gel-phase peptide libraries are characterized by spectroscopy (UV-vis and fluorescence), microscopy (TEM), HPLC, and oscillatory rheology and it is found that, of the various peptide sequences explored (tyrosine Y-NDI with tyrosine Y, phenylalanine F, leucine L, valine V, alanine A or glycine G-NH2), the optimum sequence is tyrosine-phenylalanine in each case; however, both its absolute and relative yield amplification is dictated by the properties of the donor component, indicating cooperativity of peptide sequence and donor/acceptor pairs in assembly. The methodology provides an in situ discovery tool for nanostructures that enable dynamic interfacing of supramolecular electronics with aqueous (biological) systems. PMID:26540455

  1. Thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry study of diastereomeric isoindole derivatives of amino acids and amino acid amides.

    PubMed

    van Leuken, R G; Duchateau, A L; Kwakkenbos, G T

    1995-11-01

    A thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (TSP-LC/MS) method is described for determination of the enantiomeric excess of alpha-amino acids and alpha-amino acid amides as their o-phthalaldehyde/N-acetyl-L-cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatives. The source temperature is an important factor in optimizing the sensitivity of the TSP-LC/MS analysis, whereas the repeller voltage is of minor importance. On-column mass spectra were acquired for the OPA/NAC derivatives of several alpha-amino acids and alpha-amino acid amides. For the main fragment ions, mass spectra fragmentation pathways are proposed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by means of the enantiomeric excess determination of valine in a sample from an enzymatic hydrolysis experiment. Using single ion monitoring, the detection limit of D-valine in the presence of excess L-valine is 10 pmol. The present TSP-LC/MS method is useful for validating the results obtained from LC/UV or LC/fluorescence methods for the enantiomeric excess determination of alpha-amino acids and alpha-amino acid amides. PMID:8788130

  2. Stratigraphy and geochronology of pitfall accumulations in caves and fissures, Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Paul J.; Olson, Storrs L.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai

    2004-05-01

    Deep fractures ("fissures") and avens ("skylights") in limestone cave roofs create natural traps for sediments and biota. Fissures fill quickly with surface sediment and organisms soon after opening. Debris cones are formed as materials fall, wash, or drift on air through openings in cave skylights. Such deposits in Admiral's and Grand Canyon Cave, Bermuda contain distinct beds and are composed of mixtures of sediment and charcoal, together with fossils of land snails, crabs, birds, reptiles, and bats. The "pitfall" accumulations were periodically sealed over by calcite flowstone. A stratigraphic record of surface activity and fauna through both glacial and interglacial periods has been preserved. The succession also provides an ideal setting in which to compare several geochronological methods. Calibrated 14C ages on charcoal and shells provide dated horizons at 1600, 12,800, and about 35,000 14C yr BP. Thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) ages on several flowstone layers constrain the entire sequence in the Admiral's Cave sequence between 126,300900 yr (Termination II) and historical times. A continuous relative-age record generated by amino acid epimerization (AAE) geochronology ( D-alloisoleucine/ L-isoleucine or aIle/Ile) on the pulmonate land gastropod Poecilozonites verifies the biostratigraphy, reveals a minimal degree of mixing between stratigraphic units, and establishes an independent temporal link between the subterranean and subaerial deposits of Bermuda. This convergence between stratigraphy and geochronology yields a precisely dated succession from the oceanic island of Bermuda, and thus presents a unique opportunity to assess the rates and processes of evolutionary and climate change during that interval.

  3. Deciphering the Biosynthetic Origin of l-allo-Isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglian; Qin, Xiangjing; Liu, Jing; Gui, Chun; Wang, Bo; Li, Jie; Ju, Jianhua

    2016-01-13

    The nonproteinogenic amino acid l-allo-isoleucine (l-allo-Ile) is featured in an assortment of life forms comprised of, but not limited to, bacteria, fungi, plants and mammalian systems including Homo sapiens. Despite its ubiquity and functional importance, the specific origins of this unique amino acid have eluded characterization. In this study, we describe the discovery and characterization of two enzyme pairs consisting of a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-linked aminotransferase and an unprecedented isomerase synergistically responsible for the biosynthesis of l-allo-Ile from l-isoleucine (l-Ile) in natural products. DsaD/DsaE from the desotamide biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces scopuliridis SCSIO ZJ46, and MfnO/MfnH from the marformycin biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces drozdowiczii SCSIO 10141 drive l-allo-Ile generation in each respective system. In vivo gene inactivations validated the importance of the DsaD/DsaE pair and MfnO/MfnH pair in l-allo-Ile unit biosynthesis. Inactivation of PLP-linked aminotransferases DsaD and MfnO led to significantly diminished desotamide and marformycin titers, respectively. Additionally, inactivation of the isomerase genes dsaE and mfnH completely abolished production of all l-allo-Ile-containing metabolites in both biosynthetic pathways. Notably, in vitro biochemical assays revealed that DsaD/DsaE and MfnO/MfnH each catalyze a bidirectional reaction between l-allo-Ile and l-Ile. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the enzymatic reaction involves a PLP-linked ketimine intermediate and uses an arginine residue from the C-terminus of each isomerase to epimerize the amino acid ?-position. Consequently, these data provide important new insight into the origins of l-allo-Ile in natural products with medicinal potential and illuminate new possibilities for biotool development. PMID:26669414

  4. Potential drug targets for Mycobacterium avium defined by radiometric drug-inhibitor combination techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, N; Goh, K S; Wright, E L; Barrow, W W

    1994-01-01

    Previously established radiometric techniques were used to assess the effectiveness of combined antimicrobial drug-inhibitory drug (drug-inhibitor) treatment on two clinical isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex representing three colony variants: smooth opaque (dome) (SmO), smooth transparent (SmT), and rough (Rg). All variants were identified as members of the M. avium complex; however, only the SmT colony type of strain 373 possessed characteristic serovar-specific glycopeptidolipid (GPL) antigens. MICs, determined radiometrically, of drugs with the potential to inhibit the biosynthesis of GPL antigens or other cell envelope constituents were similar for all strains. These drugs included cerulenin, N-carbamyl-DL-phenylalanine, N-carbamyl-L-isoleucine, trans-cinnamic acid, ethambutol, 1-fluoro-1-deoxy-beta-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, and m-fluoro-phenylalanine. The MICs of the antimicrobial drugs amikacin, sparfloxacin, and clarithromycin varied, but overall the MICs for the SmO variant were the lowest. Radiometric assessment of drug-inhibitor combinations by using established x/y determinations revealed enhanced activity when either ethambutol or cerulenin were used in combination with all antimicrobial agents for all variants except the Rg variant of strain 424, for which ethambutol was not effective. Enhanced activity with amino acid analogs was observed with the Rg colony variants of strains 373 and 424. Two potential sites for drug targeting were identified: fatty acid synthesis, for all strains assayed, and peptide biosynthesis, particularly for Rg colony variants that possess previously identified phenylalanine-containing lipopeptides as potential targets for future drug development. Images PMID:7840559

  5. Analysis of Arabidopsis JAZ gene expression during Pseudomonas syringae pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Demianski, Agnes J; Chung, Kwi Mi; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonates (JAs) comprise a family of plant hormones that regulate several developmental processes and mediate responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses, including pathogens. JA signalling is manipulated by several strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, including P. syringae strain DC3000, using the virulence factor coronatine (COR) as a mimic of jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). To better understand the JA-Ile-mediated processes contributing to P. syringae disease susceptibility, it is important to investigate the regulation of JA signalling during infection. In Arabidopsis thaliana, JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins are negative regulators of JA signalling. The transcription factor JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/ATMYC2) has been implicated in the regulation of JAZ gene expression. To investigate the regulation of JAZ genes during P. syringae pathogenesis, we examined JAZ gene expression during infection of Arabidopsis by DC3000. We found that eight of the 12 JAZ genes are induced during infection in a COR-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, the induction of the majority of JAZ genes during infection was not dependent on JIN1, indicating that JIN1 is not the only transcription factor regulating JAZ genes. A T-DNA insertion mutant and an RNA interference line disrupted for the expression of JAZ10, one of the few JAZ genes regulated by JIN1 during infection, exhibited enhanced JA sensitivity and increased susceptibility to DC3000, with the primary effect being increased disease symptom severity. Thus, JAZ10 is a negative regulator of both JA signalling and disease symptom development. PMID:21726394

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of biodegradative threonine deaminase (TdcB) from Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Chittori, Sagar; Savithri, H. S.; Murthy, M. R. N.

    2006-03-01

    S. typhimurium biodegradative threonine deaminase (TdcB), a member of the β-family of PLP-dependent enzymes, has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in three different crystal forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Biodegradative threonine deaminase (TdcB) catalyzes the deamination of l-threonine to α-ketobutyrate, the first reaction in the anaerobic breakdown of l-threonine to propionate. Unlike the biosynthetic threonine deaminase, TdcB is insensitive to l-isoleucine and is activated by AMP. Here, the cloning of TdcB (molecular weight 36 kDa) from Salmonella typhimurium with an N-terminal hexahistidine affinity tag and its overexpression in Escherichia coli is reported. TdcB was purified to homogeneity using Ni–NTA affinity column chromatography and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in three different crystal forms. Crystal forms I (unit-cell parameters a = 46.32, b = 55.30, c = 67.24 Å, α = 103.09, β = 94.70, γ = 112.94°) and II (a = 56.68, b = 76.83, c = 78.50 Å, α = 66.12, β = 89.16, γ = 77.08°) belong to space group P1 and contain two and four molecules of TdcB, respectively, in the asymmetric unit. Poorly diffracting form III crystals were obtained in space group C2 and based on the unit-cell volume are most likely to contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. Two complete data sets of resolutions 2.2 Å (crystal form I) and 1.7 Å (crystal form II) were collected at 100 K using an in-house X-ray source.

  7. Accurate measurements of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Khaneja, Navin

    2014-09-21

    Application of sets of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl ({sup 13}C′) and aliphatic ({sup 13}C{sub aliphatic}) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of {sup 13}C′-{sup 13}C{sub aliphatic} distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  8. Expression, purification, and characterization of alanine racemase from Pseudomonas putida YZ-26.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Shi, Ya-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Alanine racemase catalyzes the interconversion of D: - and L: -alanine and plays an important role in supplying D: -alanine, a component of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, to most bacteria. Alanine racemase exists mostly in prokaryotes and is generally absent in higher eukaryotes; this makes it an attractive target for the design of new antibacterial drugs. Here, we present the cloning and characterization of a new gene-encoding alanine racemase from Pseudomonas putida YZ-26. An open reading frame (ORF) of 1,230bp, encoding a protein of 410 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 44,217.3Da, was cloned into modified vector pET32M to form the recombinant plasmid pET-alr. After introduction into E.coli BL21, the strain pET-alr/E.coli BL21 expressed His(6)-tagged alanine racemase. The recombinant alanine racemase was efficiently purified to homogeneity using Ni(2+)-NTA and a gel filtration column, with 82.5% activity recovery. The amino acid sequence deduced from the alanine racemase gene revealed identity similarities of 97.0, 93, 23, and 22.0% with from P. putida F1, P. putida200, P. aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium, respectively. The recombinant alanine racemase is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 43kDa. The enzyme exhibited activity with L: -alanine and L: -isoleucine, and showed higher specificity for the former compared with the latter. The enzyme was stable from pH 7.0-11.0; its optimum pH was at 9.0. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 37C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 40C. Divalent metals, including Sr(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) obviously enhanced enzymatic activity, while the Cu(2+) ion showed inhibitory effects. PMID:22806802

  9. A Cross-Polarization Based Rotating-Frame Separated-Local-Field NMR Experiment Under Ultrafast MAS Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongchun; Damron, Joshua; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rotating-frame separated-local-field solid-state NMR experiments measure highly resolved heteronuclear dipolar couplings which, in turn, provide valuable interatomic distances for structural and dynamic studies of molecules in the solid-state. Though many different rotating-frame SLF sequences have been put forth, recent gains in ultrafast MAS technology have considerably simplified pulse sequence requirements due to the suppression of proton-proton dipolar interactions. In this study we revisit a simple two-dimensional 1H-13C dipolar coupling/chemical shift correlation experiment using 13C detected Cross-Polarization with a Variable Contact time (CPVC) and systematically study the conditions for its optimal performance at 60 kHz MAS. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of a proton-detected version of the CPVC experiment. The theoretical analysis of the CPVC pulse sequence under different Hartmann-Hahn matching conditions confirms that it performs optimally under the ZQ (w1H-w1C=wr) condition for polarization transfer. The limits of the cross polarization process are explored and precisely defined as a function of offset and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch via spin dynamics simulation and experiments on a powder sample of uniformly 13C-labeled L-isoleucine. Our results show that the performance of the CPVC sequence and subsequent determination of 1H-13C dipolar couplings are insensitive to 1H/13C frequency offset frequency when high RF fields are used on both RF channels. Conversely, the CPVC sequence is quite sensitive to the Hartmann-Hahn mismatch, particularly for systems with weak heteronuclear dipolar couplings. We demonstrate the use of the CPVC based SLF experiment as a tool to identify different carbon groups, and hope to motivate the exploration of more sophisticated 1H detected avenues for ultrafast MAS. PMID:25486635

  10. Regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by the PAS-LuxR family regulator CfaR in the common scab pathogen Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenlong; Bown, Luke; Tahlan, Kapil; Bignell, Dawn R D

    2015-01-01

    Potato common scab is an economically important crop disease that is characterized by the formation of superficial, raised or pitted lesions on the potato tuber surface. The most widely distributed causative agent of the disease is Streptomyces scabies, which produces the phytotoxic secondary metabolite thaxtomin A that serves as a key virulence factor for the organism. Recently, it was demonstrated that S. scabies can also produce the phytotoxic secondary metabolite coronafacoyl-L-isoleucine (CFA-L-Ile) as well as other related metabolites in minor amounts. The expression of the biosynthetic genes for CFA-L-Ile production is dependent on a PAS-LuxR family transcriptional regulator, CfaR, which is encoded within the phytotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in S. scabies. In this study, we show that CfaR activates coronafacoyl phytotoxin production by binding to a single site located immediately upstream of the putative -35 hexanucleotide box within the promoter region for the biosynthetic genes. The binding activity of CfaR was shown to require both the LuxR and PAS domains, the latter of which is involved in protein homodimer formation. We also show that CFA-L-Ile production is greatly enhanced in S. scabies by overexpression of both cfaR and a downstream co-transcribed gene, orf1. Our results provide important insight into the regulation of coronafacoyl phytotoxin production, which is thought to contribute to the virulence phenotype of S. scabies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CfaR is a novel member of the PAS-LuxR family of regulators, members of which are widely distributed among actinomycete bacteria. PMID:25826255

  11. Evolved Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE) Improves the Acetate and Thermal Tolerance of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mordukhova, Elena A.

    2013-01-01

    Acetate-mediated growth inhibition of Escherichia coli has been found to be a consequence of the accumulation of homocysteine, the substrate of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) that catalyzes the final step of methionine biosynthesis. To improve the acetate resistance of E. coli, we randomly mutated the MetE enzyme and isolated a mutant enzyme, designated MetE-214 (V39A, R46C, T106I, and K713E), that conferred accelerated growth in the E. coli K-12 WE strain in the presence of acetate. Additionally, replacement of cysteine 645, which is a unique site of oxidation in the MetE protein, with alanine improved acetate tolerance, and introduction of the C645A mutation into the MetE-214 mutant enzyme resulted in the highest growth rate in acetate-treated E. coli cells among three mutant MetE proteins. E. coli WE strains harboring acetate-tolerant MetE mutants were less inhibited by homocysteine in l-isoleucine-enriched medium. Furthermore, the acetate-tolerant MetE mutants stimulated the growth of the host strain at elevated temperatures (44 and 45C). Unexpectedly, the mutant MetE enzymes displayed a reduced melting temperature (Tm) but an enhanced in vivo stability. Thus, we demonstrate improved E. coli growth in the presence of acetate or at elevated temperatures solely due to mutations in the MetE enzyme. Furthermore, when an E. coli WE strain carrying the MetE mutant was combined with a previously found MetA (homoserine o-succinyltransferase) mutant enzyme, the MetA/MetE strain was found to grow at 45C, a nonpermissive growth temperature for E. coli in defined medium, with a similar growth rate as if it were supplemented by l-methionine. PMID:24123739

  12. Repression of jasmonate signaling by a non-TIFY JAZ protein in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Thireault, Caitlin; Shyu, Christine; Yoshida, Yuki; St Aubin, Brian; Campos, Marcelo L; Howe, Gregg A

    2015-05-01

    JAsmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins repress the activity of transcription factors that execute responses to the plant hormone jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The ZIM protein domain recruits the co-repressors NINJA and TOPLESS to JAZ-bound transcription factors, and contains a highly conserved TIF[F/Y]XG motif that defines the larger family of TIFY proteins to which JAZs belong. Here, we report that diverse plant species contain genes encoding putative non-TIFY JAZ proteins, including a previously unrecognized JAZ repressor in Arabidopsis (JAZ13, encoded by At3g22275). JAZ13 is most closely related to JAZ8 and includes divergent EAR, TIFY/ZIM, and Jas motifs. Unlike JAZ8, however, JAZ13 contains a Ser-rich C-terminal tail that is a site for phosphorylation. Overexpression of JAZ13 resulted in reduced sensitivity to JA, attenuation of wound-induced expression of JA-response genes, and decreased resistance to insect herbivory. JAZ13 interacts with the bHLH transcription factor MYC2 and the co-repressor TOPLESS but, consistent with the absence of a TIFY motif, neither NINJA nor other JAZs. Analysis of single and higher-order T-DNA insertion jaz null mutants provided further evidence that JAZ13 is a repressor JA signaling. Our results demonstrate that proteins outside the TIFY family are functional JAZ repressors and further suggest that this expansion of the JAZ family allows fine-tuning of JA-mediated transcriptional responses. PMID:25846245

  13. Chemical and genetic exploration of jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling paths.

    PubMed

    Kombrink, Erich

    2012-11-01

    Jasmonates are lipid-derived compounds that act as signals in plant stress responses and developmental processes. Enzymes participating in biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) and components of JA signaling have been extensively characterized by biochemical and molecular-genetic tools. Mutants have helped to define the pathway for synthesis of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the bioactive form of JA, and to identify the F-box protein COI1 as central regulatory unit. Details on the molecular mechanism of JA signaling were recently unraveled by the discovery of JAZ proteins that together with the adaptor protein NINJA and the general co-repressor TOPLESS form a transcriptional repressor complex. The current model of JA perception and signaling implies the SCF(COI1) complex operating as E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome pathway, thereby allowing MYC2 and other transcription factors to activate gene expression. Chemical strategies, as integral part of jasmonate research, have helped the establishment of structure-activity relationships and the discovery of (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile as the major bioactive form of the hormone. The transient nature of its accumulation highlights the need to understand catabolism and inactivation of JA-Ile and recent studies indicate that oxidation of JA-Ile by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase is the major mechanism for turning JA signaling off. Plants contain numerous JA metabolites, which may have pronounced and differential bioactivity. A major challenge in the field of plant lipid signaling is to identify the cognate receptors and modes of action of these bioactive jasmonates/oxylipins. PMID:23011567

  14. Antipolarity in the ilv Operon of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, James A.; Adelberg, E. A.

    1969-01-01

    The genes governing three of the enzymes of the isoleucine-valine biosynthetic pathway form the operon: operator-ilvA-ilvD-ilvE. The enzymes are: ilvA, l-threonine deaminase; ilvD, dihydroxy acid dehydrase; and ilvE, transaminase B. A nonsense mutation in the ilvD gene (D-ochre) and a nonsense mutation in the ilvE gene (E-amber) affect the properties of the proximal gene product, l-threonine deaminase (TD), in addition to inactivating the enzymes produced by the genes in which the mutations have occurred. The D-ochre mutation causes TD to move in diffusion and gel filtration experiments as though it were 30% smaller than the wild-type enzyme. The E-amber mutation causes TD to move in similar experiments as though it were much larger than the wild-type enzyme. Both mutations completely abolish the sensitivity of TD to l-isoleucine, the normal feedback inhibitor of the wild-type enzyme. The effects of the nonsense mutations on TD can be reversed in three ways: by genetic reversion of the D-ochre mutation; by treatment of the altered enzymes with 3.0 m urea; and by forming a heterozygous diploid, containing the wild-type allele as well as the mutant allele of ilvD or ilvE. The results suggest that the subunits of TD undergo abnormal aggregation in the presence of the partial polypeptides produced by the mutant alleles of ilvD or ilvE; multi-enzyme aggregates in extracts of wild type, however, could not be detected. PMID:4892370

  15. A rapid wound signal activates the systemic synthesis of bioactive jasmonates in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Abraham J K; Gao, Xiaoli; Jones, A Daniel; Howe, Gregg A

    2009-09-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its biologically active derivatives (bioactive JAs) perform a critical role in regulating plant responses to wound stress. The perception of bioactive JAs by the F-box protein COI1 triggers the SCF(COI1)/ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins that repress the expression of JA-response genes. JA is required for many wound-inducible systemic defense responses, but little is known about the role of the hormone in long-distance signal relay between damaged and undamaged leaves. Here, we show that the wounding of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves results in the rapid (<5 min) accumulation of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the bioactive form of JA, in leaves distal to the wound site. The rapid systemic increase in JA-Ile preceded the onset of early transcriptional responses, and was associated with JAZ degradation. Wound-induced systemic production of JA-Ile required the JA biosynthetic enzyme 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3 (OPR3) in undamaged responding leaves, but not in wounded leaves, and was largely dependent on the JA-conjugating enzyme JAR1. Interestingly, the wound-induced synthesis of JA/JA-Ile in systemic leaves was correlated with a rapid decline in OPDA levels. These results are consistent with a model in which a rapidly transmitted wound signal triggers the systemic synthesis of JA, which, upon conversion to JA-Ile, activates the expression of early response genes by the SCF(COI1)/JAZ pathway. PMID:19473329

  16. Novel approaches to the synthesis and cooperative assembly of inorganic materials utilizing block copolypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euliss, Larken E.

    Biominerals and biocomposites are highly ornate and functional materials. Nature controls the properties of these materials by organizing their organic and inorganic constituents on the atomic, molecular, nano, and micron scales. The remarkable precision and complexity of this organization is accomplished using a combination of electrostatics, hydrogen bonding, disulfide bonding, and other molecular-level interactions. The goal of the work described in this dissertation was to use the principles employed by Nature in the biological assembly of biomaterials as inspiration for developing (1) completely synthetic and novel composite materials, and (2) new general methods for the synthesis of composite materials. Specifically, block copolypeptides were used as structure-directing agents in several successful applications of this approach. One application involves the rational design of an organic polymer molecule to direct the crystallization of calcium carbonate into microspheres. I have shown that the doubly-hydrophilic block copolypeptide poly{Nepsilon-2[2-(2 methoxy-ethoxy)ethoxy]acetyl-L-lysine}100-block-poly(L-aspartate sodium salt)30 can act as the structure-directing agent in this process. In addition, control over the morphology of calcium carbonate crystals can be exerted using anionic, amphiphilic block copolypeptides, such as poly(L-aspartate sodium salt)100-block-poly(L-phenylalanine- random-L-leucine)50 and poly(L-glutamate sodium salt) 100-block-poly(L-phenylalanine-random-L-leucine) 50. I have demonstrated that microspheres of calcium carbonate can be prepared by introducing the polymer additive during crystallization. These self-assembling polymers control the precipitation of the microspheres by acting as templates for sphere formation. Another application involves the organization of magnetic nanoparticles into well-defined, soluble nanoclusters. First, I have demonstrated that highly crystalline, monodisperse maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanoparticles, synthesized in organic solvents, can be transferred effectively into an aqueous medium using an ammonium salt. The nanoparticles remain monodisperse, as characterized by TEM and XRD, as well as superparamagnetic, as determined by SQUID magnetometry. Then when the aqueous maghemite is combined with the biologically-inspired block copolypeptide poly(EG2-L-lys) 100-block-poly(L-asp)30, the nanoparticles assemble into uniform clusters of approximately twenty nanoparticles. These water-soluble, block copolypeptide-nanoparticle structures have been characterized by TEM, SQUID, and XRD. Furthermore, I have shown that it is possible to tag the polypeptides with folate molecules (cell-targeting ligands) to produce magnetic microshells with potential applications in the biological imaging and drug delivery fields.

  17. Antigenic, microbicidal and antiparasitic properties of an l-amino acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    PubMed

    Ciscotto, P; Machado de Avila, R A; Coelho, E A F; Oliveira, J; Diniz, C G; Faras, L M; de Carvalho, M A R; Maria, W S; Sanchez, E F; Borges, A; Chvez-Olrtegui, C

    2009-03-01

    Venoms from the bee Apis mellifera, the caterpillar Lonomia achelous, the spiders Lycosa sp. and Phoneutria nigriventer, the scorpions Tityus bahiensis and Tityus serrulatus, and the snakes Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops neuwiedi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta were assayed (800mug/mL) for activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Venoms from B. jararaca and B. jararacussu showed the highest S. aureus growth inhibition and also against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To characterize the microbicidal component(s) produced by B. jararaca, venom was fractionated through gel exclusion chromatography. The high molecular weight, anti-S. aureus P1 fraction was further resolved by anion exchange chromatography through Mono Q columns using a 0-0.5M NaCl gradient. Bactericidal Mono Q fractions P5 and P6 showed significant LAAO activity using l-leucine as substrate. These fractions were pooled and subjected to Heparin affinity chromatography, which rendered a single LAAO activity peak. The anti-S. aureus activity was abolished by catalase, suggesting that the effect is dependent on H(2)O(2) production. SDS-PAGE of isolated LAAO indicated the presence of three isoforms since deglycosylation with a recombinant N-glycanase rendered a single 38.2 kDa component. B. jararaca LAAO specific activity was 142.7 U/mg, based on the oxidation of l-leucine. The correlation between in vivo neutralization of lethal toxicity (ED(50)) and levels of horse therapeutic antibodies anti-LAAO measured by ELISA was investigated to predict the potency of Brazilian antibothropic antivenoms. Six horses were hyperimmunized with Bothrops venoms (50% from B. jararaca and 12.5% each from B. alternatus, B. jararacussu, B. neuwiedii and B. moojeni). To set up an indirect ELISA, B. jararaca LAAO and crude venom were used as antigens. Correlation coefficients (r) between ED(50) and ELISA antibody titers against B. jararaca venom and LAAO were 0.846 (p<0.001) and 0.747 (p<0.001), respectively. The hemolytic and leishmanicidal (anti-Leishmania amazonensis) activity of LAAO was also determined. PMID:19101583

  18. Zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Wei; Tycko, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We present the theoretical description and experimental demonstration of a zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling (ZQ-SDR) technique for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 13C-labeled molecules, including proteins, under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The ZQ-SDR technique combines zero-quantum recoupling pulse sequence blocks with randomly varying chemical shift precession periods to create randomly amplitude- and phase-modulated effective homonuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. To a good approximation, couplings between different 13C spin pairs become uncorrelated under ZQ-SDR, leading to spin dynamics (averaged over many repetitions of the ZQ-SDR sequence) that are fully described by an orientation-dependent N N polarization transfer rate matrix for an N-spin system, with rates that are inversely proportional to the sixth power of internuclear distances. Suppression of polarization transfers due to non-commutivity of pairwise couplings (i.e., dipolar truncation) does not occur under ZQ-SDR, as we show both analytically and numerically. Experimental demonstrations are reported for uniformly 13C-labeled L-valine powder (at 14.1 T and 28.00 kHz MAS), uniformly 13C-labeled protein GB1 in microcrystalline form (at 17.6 T and 40.00 kHz MAS), and partially labeled 13C-labeled protein GB1 (at 14.1 T and 40.00 kHz MAS). The experimental results verify that spin dynamics under ZQ-SDR are described accurately by rate matrices and suggest the utility of ZQ-SDR in structural studies of 13C-labeled solids. PMID:22979851

  19. Construction of a novel expression system for use in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinyu; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Hailing; Tan, Yanzhen; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-09-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important microorganism for production of amino acids in industrial fermentation. Suitable vectors are needed for metabolic engineering in C. glutamicum. Most available vectors used in C. glutamicum carry antibiotic resistant genes as a genetic labeling for rapid identification of recombinant strains, and antibiotics have to be added to maintain the vector when growing the cells. These vectors, though excellent for laboratory use, are not preferable choices for industry-scale fermentation. In this work, we developed a novel expression system for use in C. glutamicum, which do not require antibiotics when used for industrial fermentation. This system includes two vectors: the shuttle vector pJYW-4 for expression of genes and the vector pJYW-6 for deletion of the essential gene alr in C. glutamicum. The vector pJYW-4 contains a large multiple cloning site for cloning multiple genes and two selective markers: one is the kanamycin-resistant gene kan and the other is an essential gene alr. The selective marker kan facilitates molecular manipulation or fermentations in the laboratory, and the selection marker alr is good for use in industry-scale fermentation, allowing in vivo maintenance of the expression vector through auxotrophic complementation; therefore, the two selection markers in pJYW-4 make it useful for both laboratory research and industrial fermentation, and convenient to transfer valuable laboratory-developed strains into industrial production. This newly-constructed expression system was successfully used to increase L-valine production in C. glutamicum ATCC 14067, indicating its potential on developing amino acid-producing C. glutamicum strains. PMID:25108235

  20. Metabolic engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the L-lysine production by increasing the flux into L-lysine biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Han, Mei; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-09-01

    The experiments presented here were based on the conclusions of our previous results. In order to avoid introduction of expression plasmid and to balance the NADH/NAD ratio, the NADH biosynthetic enzyme, i.e., NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), was replaced by NADP-dependent GADPH, which was used to biosynthesize NADPH rather than NADH. The results indicated that the NADH/NAD ratio significantly decreased, and glucose consumption and L-lysine production drastically improved. Moreover, increasing the flux through L-lysine biosynthetic pathway and disruption of ilvN and hom, which involve in the branched amino acid and L-methionine biosynthesis, further improved L-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Compared to the original strain C. glutamicum Lys5, the L-lysine production and glucose conversion efficiency (?) were enhanced to 81.0 6.59 mM and 36.45% by the resulting strain C. glutamicum Lys5-8 in shake flask. In addition, the by-products (i.e., L-threonine, L-methionine and L-valine) were significantly decreased as results of genetic modification in homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) and acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS). In fed-batch fermentation, C. glutamicum Lys5-8 began to produce L-lysine at post-exponential growth phase and continuously increased over 36 h to a final titer of 896 33.41 mM. The L-lysine productivity was 2.73 g l(-1) h(-1) and the ? was 47.06% after 48 h. However, the attenuation of MurE was not beneficial to increase the L-lysine production because of decreasing the cell growth. Based on the above-mentioned results, we get the following conclusions: cofactor NADPH, precursor, the flux through L-lysine biosynthetic pathway and DCW are beneficial to improve L-lysine production in C. glutamicum. PMID:24879631

  1. L-Serine overproduction with minimization of by-product synthesis by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinjian; Zhang, Xiaomei; Luo, Yuchang; Guo, Wen; Xu, Guoqiang; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2015-02-01

    The direct fermentative production of L-serine by Corynebacterium glutamicum from sugars is attractive. However, superfluous by-product accumulation and low L-serine productivity limit its industrial production on large scale. This study aimed to investigate metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies towards eliminating by-products as well as increasing L-serine productivity. Deletion of alaT and avtA encoding the transaminases and introduction of an attenuated mutant of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) increased both L-serine production level (26.23g/L) and its productivity (0.27g/L/h). Compared to the parent strain, the by-products L-alanine and L-valine accumulation in the resulting strain were reduced by 87% (from 9.80 to 1.23g/L) and 60% (from 6.54 to 2.63g/L), respectively. The modification decreased the metabolic flow towards the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and induced to shift it towards L-serine production. Meanwhile, it was found that corn steep liquor (CSL) could stimulate cell growth and increase sucrose consumption rate as well as L-serine productivity. With addition of 2g/L CSL, the resulting strain showed a significant improvement in the sucrose consumption rate (72%) and the L-serine productivity (67%). In fed-batch fermentation, 42.62g/L of L-serine accumulation was achieved with a productivity of 0.44g/L/h and yield of 0.21g/g sucrose, which was the highest production of L-serine from sugars to date. The results demonstrated that combined metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies could minimize by-product accumulation and improve L-serine productivity. PMID:25434811

  2. Investigation of Isovaline Enantiomeric Excesses and Other C5 Amino Acids in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of biological homochirality is one of the most perplexing puzzles to understanding the emergence of life on Earth. While many models have been proposed, the only reported non-biologically generated. compounds that show a significant enantiomeric excess are a few amino acids in the CM2 Murchison and Murray meteorites (e.g. Pizzarello and Cronin 2000; Pizzarello et al, 2008). Of these isovaline (alpha-ethyl-alanine) is of particular interest since it is typically abundant in CM2 meteorites, is exceedingly rare in biology, and due to its chemical structure is likely to maintain its primordial D/L ratio. Instead of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique employed by Pizzarello et al., we have used liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection/time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) to study the enantiomeric ratio of isovaline in the CM2 meteorites Murchison and LEW90500 and the CR2 QUE99177. We have placed particular emphasis on understanding the suite of C5 amino acids in these meteorites. In doing so, we have determined that D and L 3-aminopentanoic acid co-elutes with Lisovaline and L-valine under common chromatographic conditions (Glavin and Dworkin 2006) for omicron-phthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl-L-cysteine (OPA/NAC). We have devised a method to separate these compounds and we will report the actual D/ L ratios of isovaline in these meteorites and how they compare to the GC-MS measurements of Pizzarello and co-workers.

  3. Characterization of CeO{sub 2} crystals synthesized with different amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Atla, Shashi B.; Wu, Min-Nan; Pan, Wei; Hsiao, Yu Tang; Sun, An-Cheng; Tseng, Min-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2014-12-15

    We investigated the relationship between the structures of the CeO{sub 2} products (particle size, morphology and their characteristics) prepared using different amino acids. Cerium hydroxide carbonate precursors were initially prepared by a hydrothermal method and were subsequently converted to CeO{sub 2} by its thermal decomposition. Various amino acids were used as structure-directing agents in the presence of cerium nitrate and urea as precursors. The results indicate morphology selectivity using different amino acids; CeO{sub 2} structures, such as quasi-prism-sphere, straw-bundle, urchin-flower like and polyhedron prisms, indeed could be produced. Raman and photoluminescence studies indicate the presence of oxygen vacancies in the CeO{sub 2} samples. Photoluminescence spectra of CeO{sub 2} with L-Valine exhibit stronger emission compared with other amino acids utilized under this study, indicating the higher degree of defects in these particles. This study clearly indicates that the degree of defects varied in the presence of different amino acids. Improved precision to control the crystal morphology is important in various material applications and our study provides a novel method to achieve this specificity. - Highlights: • We used urea hydrolysis of process for synthesis of CeO{sub 2}. • Structures have been directed using various amino acids. • We obtained straw bundle-like, quasi prism-sphere, polyhedron prisms and urchin flower-like based on amino acids. • We have found that amino acids could achieve the specificity of different degrees of defects. • This could provide the “tailor-make” of cerium crystals.

  4. Oligopeptide Uptake by Bacteroides ruminicola1

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Kenneth A.; Lakshmanan, Sitarama; Bryant, Marvin P.

    1967-01-01

    Bacteroides ruminicola did not take up 14C from exogenous 14C-labeled l-proline or 14C-labeled l-glutamic acid and took up very little 14C from exogenous 14C-labeled l-valine. Growing cultures of B. ruminicola rapidly took up 14C from 14C-proline-labeled peptides of molecular weights up to 2,000 and incorporated it into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble cell material. Uptake and incorporation did not occur at 0 C and were reduced or eliminated in glucose-starved cells, depending upon the length of time the cells were starved. The initial rate of uptake of peptides seemed to exhibit saturation kinetics, but it was impossible to establish this conclusively. The initial uptake of 14C from peptides was not affected by chloramphenicol but the incorporation of it into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble cell material was virtually eliminated. Only moderate amounts of trichloroacetic acid-extractable, labeled material were present in cells during peptide uptake, whether or not chloramphenicol was present. 14C-proline was rapidly released from labeled peptides during uptake, whether or not chloramphenicol was present. The amount of 14C fixed into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble cell material was directly related to the size of peptides originally supplied in the medium. It is concluded that B. ruminicola possesses a general system for the uptake of peptides, that peptides are rapidly hydrolyzed during or after uptake, and that oligopeptides function only to supply amino acids in a form available to the organism. PMID:5337842

  5. Development and validation of enantioselective high performance liquid chromatographic method for Valacyclovir, an antiviral drug in drug substance.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, A S; Pathare, D B; Shingare, M S

    2007-03-12

    A chiral high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the enantiomeric resolution of Valacyclovir, L-valine 2-[(2-amino-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-9h-purin-9-yl) methoxy] ethyl ester, an antiviral agent in bulk drug substance. The enantiomers of Valacyclovir were resolved on a Chiralpak AD (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 10 microm) column using a mobile phase system containing n-hexane: ethanol: diethylamine (30:70:0.1, v/v/v). The resolution between the enantiomers was found not less than four. The presence of diethylamine in the mobile phase has played an important role in enhancing chromatographic efficiency and resolution between the enantiomers. The developed method was extensively validated and proved to be robust. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of (D)-enantiomer were found to be 300 and 900 ng/ml, respectively, for 20 microL injection volume. The calibration curve showed excellent linearity over the concentration range of 900 ng/ml (LOQ) to 6000 ng/ml for (D)-enantiomer. The percentage recovery of (D)-enantiomer was ranged from 97.50 to 102.18 in bulk drug samples of Valacyclovir. Valacyclovir sample solution and mobile phase were found to be stable for at least 48 h. The proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for the quantitative determination of (D)-enantiomer in bulk drugs substance. It can be also used to test the stability samples of Valacyclovir. PMID:17196355

  6. Reactivity of valganciclovir in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Brandl, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The rates of hydrolysis of valganciclovir to ganciclovir and L-valine and isomerization of the R and S diastereomers of valganciclovir in aqueous buffer solution from pH 3.8 to 11.5 were determined at 37 degrees C. The kinetics of hydrolysis were first order for at least two half-lives in neutral and basic solutions. In acidic solutions where less than 10% degradation occurred, the rate of hydrolysis was determined assuming a first-order loss in drug. At 37 degrees C and pH 7.08, the half life is 11 h. The maximum stability at the pH values studied occurred at pH 3.81 with a half life of 220 days. The kinetics of the approach to equilibrium for the isomerization were first order and the ratio of the R:S isomer at equilibrium was 52:48. Isomerization was approximately 10 fold faster than hydrolysis over the pH range studied with a half-life at pH 7.01 of 1 h. The maximum stability toward isomerization (t1/2>533 h) occurs at a pH below 3.8. The pH-rate profile for the hydrolysis and the isomerization reaction are best described by hydroxide ion catalyzed mechanisms. In acidic and neutral solutions, the hydroxide reacts with the protonated form of the drug, while in basic solutions, the hydroxide reacts with the neutral form of the drug. PMID:16305999

  7. Deficiency of ECHS1 causes mitochondrial encephalopathy with cardiac involvement

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Tobias B; Jackson, Christopher B; Murayama, Kei; Kremer, Laura S; Schaller, André; Kotzaeridou, Urania; de Vries, Maaike C; Schottmann, Gudrun; Santra, Saikat; Büchner, Boriana; Wieland, Thomas; Graf, Elisabeth; Freisinger, Peter; Eggimann, Sandra; Ohtake, Akira; Okazaki, Yasushi; Kohda, Masakazu; Kishita, Yoshihito; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Sauer, Sascha; Memari, Yasin; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Durbin, Richard; Hasselmann, Oswald; Cremer, Kirsten; Albrecht, Beate; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Engels, Hartmut; Hahn, Dagmar; Zink, Alexander M; Alston, Charlotte L; Taylor, Robert W; Rodenburg, Richard J; Trollmann, Regina; Sperl, Wolfgang; Strom, Tim M; Hoffmann, Georg F; Mayr, Johannes A; Meitinger, Thomas; Bolognini, Ramona; Schuelke, Markus; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Kölker, Stefan; Prokisch, Holger; Klopstock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) is a multifunctional mitochondrial matrix enzyme that is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and essential amino acids such as valine. Here, we describe the broad phenotypic spectrum and pathobiochemistry of individuals with autosomal-recessive ECHS1 deficiency. Methods Using exome sequencing, we identified ten unrelated individuals carrying compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in ECHS1. Functional investigations in patient-derived fibroblast cell lines included immunoblotting, enzyme activity measurement, and a palmitate loading assay. Results Patients showed a heterogeneous phenotype with disease onset in the first year of life and course ranging from neonatal death to survival into adulthood. The most prominent clinical features were encephalopathy (10/10), deafness (9/9), epilepsy (6/9), optic atrophy (6/10), and cardiomyopathy (4/10). Serum lactate was elevated and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed white matter changes or a Leigh-like pattern resembling disorders of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Analysis of patients’ fibroblast cell lines (6/10) provided further evidence for the pathogenicity of the respective mutations by showing reduced ECHS1 protein levels and reduced 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. While serum acylcarnitine profiles were largely normal, in vitro palmitate loading of patient fibroblasts revealed increased butyrylcarnitine, unmasking the functional defect in mitochondrial β-oxidation of short-chain fatty acids. Urinary excretion of 2-methyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyrate – a potential derivative of acryloyl-CoA in the valine catabolic pathway – was significantly increased, indicating impaired valine oxidation. Interpretation In conclusion, we define the phenotypic spectrum of a new syndrome caused by ECHS1 deficiency. We speculate that both the β-oxidation defect and the block in l-valine metabolism, with accumulation of toxic methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA, contribute to the disorder that may be amenable to metabolic treatment approaches. PMID:26000322

  8. Structure-based functional studies of the effects of amino acid substitutions in GerBC, the C subunit of the Bacillus subtilis GerB spore germinant receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Catta, Parvathimadhavi; Stewart, Kerry-Ann V; Dufner, Matthew; Setlow, Peter; Hao, Bing

    2011-08-01

    Highly conserved amino acid residues in the C subunits of the germinant receptors (GRs) of spores of Bacillus and Clostridium species have been identified by amino acid sequence comparisons, as well as structural predictions based on the high-resolution structure recently determined for the C subunit of the Bacillus subtilis GerB GR (GerBC). Single and multiple alanine substitutions were made in these conserved residues in three regions of GerBC, and the effects of these changes on B. subtilis spore germination via the GerB GR alone or in concert with the GerK GR, as well as on germination via the GerA GR, were determined. In addition, levels of the GerBC variants in the spore inner membrane were measured, and a number of the GerBC proteins were expressed and purified and their solubility and aggregation status were assessed. This work has done the following: (i) identified a number of conserved amino acids that are crucial for GerBC function in spore germination via the GerB GR and that do not alter spores' levels of these GerBC variants; (ii) identified other conserved GerBC amino acid essential for the proper folding of the protein and/or for assembly of GerBC in the spore inner membrane; (iii) shown that some alanine substitutions in GerBC significantly decrease the GerA GR's responsiveness to its germinant l-valine, consistent with there being some type of interaction between GerA and GerB GR subunits in spores; and (iv) found no alanine substitutions that specifically affect interaction between the GerB and GerK GRs. PMID:21685283

  9. Slow leakage of Ca-dipicolinic acid from individual bacillus spores during initiation of spore germination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiwei; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-Qing

    2015-03-01

    When exposed to nutrient or nonnutrient germinants, individual Bacillus spores can return to life through germination followed by outgrowth. Laser tweezers, Raman spectroscopy, and either differential interference contrast or phase-contrast microscopy were used to analyze the slow dipicolinic acid (DPA) leakage (normally ∼20% of spore DPA) from individual spores that takes place prior to the lag time, Tlag, when spores begin rapid release of remaining DPA. Major conclusions from this work with Bacillus subtilis spores were as follows: (i) slow DPA leakage from wild-type spores germinating with nutrients did not begin immediately after nutrient exposure but only at a later heterogeneous time T1; (ii) the period of slow DPA leakage (ΔTleakage = Tlag - T1) was heterogeneous among individual spores, although the amount of DPA released in this period was relatively constant; (iii) increases in germination temperature significantly decreased T1 times but increased values of ΔTleakage; (iv) upon germination with l-valine for 10 min followed by addition of d-alanine to block further germination, all germinated spores had T1 times of less than 10 min, suggesting that T1 is the time when spores become committed to germinate; (v) elevated levels of SpoVA proteins involved in DPA movement in spore germination decreased T1 and Tlag times but not the amount of DPA released in ΔTleakage; (vi) lack of the cortex-lytic enzyme CwlJ increased DPA leakage during germination due to longer ΔTleakage times in which more DPA was released; and (vii) there was slow DPA leakage early in germination of B. subtilis spores by the nonnutrients CaDPA and dodecylamine and in nutrient germination of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium spores. Overall, these findings have identified and characterized a new early event in Bacillus spore germination. PMID:25583976

  10. Organometallic complexes of bulky, optically active, C3-symmetric tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Songchen; Magoon, Yitzhak; Reinig, Regina R.; Schmidt, Bradley M.; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-07-16

    A bulky, optically active monoanionic scorpionate ligand, tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*), is synthesized from the naturally occurring amino acid l-valine as its lithium salt, Li[ToP*] (1). That compound is readily converted to the thallium complex Tl[ToP*] (2) and to the acid derivative H[ToP*] (3). Group 7 tricarbonyl complexes ToP*M(CO)3 (M = Mn (4), Re (5)) are synthesized by the reaction of MBr(CO)5 and Li[ToP*] and are crystallographically characterized. The νCO bands in their infrared spectra indicate that π back-donation in the rhenium compounds is greater with ToP* than with non-methylated tris(4S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP). The reaction of H[ToP*] and ZnEt2 gives ToP*ZnEt (6), whilemore » ToP*ZnCl (7) is synthesized from Li[ToP*] and ZnCl2. The reaction of ToP*ZnCl and KOtBu followed by addition of PhSiH3 provides the zinc hydride complex ToP*ZnH (8). In this study, compound 8 is the first example of a crystallographically characterized optically active zinc hydride. We tested its catalytic reactivity in the cross-dehydrocoupling of silanes and alcohols, which provided Si-chiral silanes with moderate enantioselectivity.« less

  11. Synthesis, Chemical and Enzymatic Hydrolysis, and Aqueous Solubility of Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hasabelnaby, Sherifa; Goudah, Ayman; Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Abd alla, Mosaad S. M.; Tjarks, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Various water-soluble L-valine-, L-glutamate-, and glycine ester prodrugs of two 3-Carboranyl Thymidine Analogues (3-CTAs), designated N5 and N5-2OH, were synthesized for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors since the water solubilities of the parental compounds proved to be insufficient in preclinical studies. The amino acid ester prodrugs were prepared and stored as hydrochloride salts. The water solubilities of these amino acid ester prodrugs, evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 5, pH 6 and pH 7.4, improved 48 to 6600 times compared with parental N5 and N5-2OH. The stability of the amino acid ester prodrugs was evaluated in PBS at pH 7.4, Bovine serum, and Bovine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The rate of the hydrolysis in all three incubation media depended primarily on the amino acid promoiety and, to a lesser extend, on the site of esterification at the deoxyribose portion of the 3-CTAs. In general, 3'-amino acid ester prodrugs were less sensitive to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis than 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs and the stabilities of the latter decreased in the following order: 5'-valine > 5'-glutamate > 5'-glycine. The rate of the hydrolysis of the 5'-amino acid ester prodrugs in Bovine CSF was overall higher than in PBS and somewhat lower than in Bovine serum. Overall, 5'-glutamate ester prodrug of N5 and the 5'-glycine ester prodrugs of N5 and N5-2OH appeared to be the most promising candidates for preclinical BNCT studies. PMID:22889558

  12. Uptake of and Resistance to the Antibiotic Berberine by Individual Dormant, Germinating and Outgrowing Bacillus Spores as Monitored by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwei; Yu, Jing; Suvira, Milomir; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, an alkaloid originally extracted from the plant Coptis chinensis and other herb plants, has been used as a pharmacological substance for many years. The therapeutic effect of berberine has been attributed to its interaction with nucleic acids and blocking cell division. However, levels of berberine entering individual microbial cells minimal for growth inhibition and its effects on bacterial spores have not been determined. In this work the kinetics and levels of berberine accumulation by individual dormant and germinated spores were measured by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy and differential interference and fluorescence microscopy, and effects of berberine on spore germination and outgrowth and spore and growing cell viability were determined. The major conclusions from this work are that: (1) colony formation from B. subtilis spores was blocked ~ 99% by 25 μg/mL berberine plus 20 μg/mL INF55 (a multidrug resistance pump inhibitor); (2) 200 μg/mL berberine had no effect on B. subtilis spore germination with L-valine, but spore outgrowth was completely blocked; (3) berberine levels accumulated in single spores germinating with ≥ 25 μg/mL berberine were > 10 mg/mL; (4) fluorescence microscopy showed that germinated spores accumulated high-levels of berberine primarily in the spore core, while dormant spores accumulated very low berberine levels primarily in spore coats; and (5) during germination, uptake of berberine began at the time of commitment (T1) and reached a maximum after the completion of CaDPA release (Trelease) and spore cortex lysis (Tlysis). PMID:26636757

  13. D-cycloserine transport in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells: mediation by a H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, D. T.; Armstrong, G.; Hirst, B. H.; Simmons, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    1. The ability of D-cycloserine to act as a substrate for H+/amino acid symport has been tested in epithelial layers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells. 2. In Na(+)-free media with the apical bathing media held at pH 6.0, D-cycloserine (20 mM) is an effective inhibitor of net transepithelial transport (Jnet) of L-alanine (100 microM) and its accumulation (across the apical membrane) in a similar manner to amino acid substrates (L-alanine, beta-alanine, L-proline and glycine). In contrast L-valine was ineffective as an inhibitor for H+/amino acid symport. Both inhibition of L-alanine Jnet and its accumulation by D-cycloserine were dose-dependent, maximal inhibition being achieved by 5-10 mM. 3. Both D-cycloserine and known substrates for H+/amino acid symport stimulated an inward short circuit current (Isc) when voltage-clamped monolayers of Caco-2 epithelia, mounted in Ussing chambers, were exposed to apical substrate in Na(+)-free media, with apical pH held at 6.0. The D-cycloserine dependent increase in Isc was dose-dependent with an apparent Km = 15.8 +/- 2.0 (mean +/- s.e. mean) mM, and Vmax = 373 +/- 21 nmol cm-2h-1. 4. D-Cycloserine (20 mM) induced a prompt acidification of Caco-2 cell cytosol when superfused at the apical surface in both Na+ and Na(+)-free conditions. Cytosolic acidification in response to D-cycloserine was dependent upon superfusate pH, being attenuated at pH 8 and enhanced in acidic media. 5. The increment in Isc with 20 mM D-cycloserine was non-additive with other amino acid substrates for H+/amino acid symport. PMID:8548174

  14. Organometallic complexes of bulky, optically active, C3-symmetric tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songchen; Magoon, Yitzhak; Reinig, Regina R.; Schmidt, Bradley M.; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-07-16

    A bulky, optically active monoanionic scorpionate ligand, tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*), is synthesized from the naturally occurring amino acid l-valine as its lithium salt, Li[ToP*] (1). That compound is readily converted to the thallium complex Tl[ToP*] (2) and to the acid derivative H[ToP*] (3). Group 7 tricarbonyl complexes ToP*M(CO)3 (M = Mn (4), Re (5)) are synthesized by the reaction of MBr(CO)5 and Li[ToP*] and are crystallographically characterized. The νCO bands in their infrared spectra indicate that π back-donation in the rhenium compounds is greater with ToP* than with non-methylated tris(4S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP). The reaction of H[ToP*] and ZnEt2 gives ToP*ZnEt (6), while ToP*ZnCl (7) is synthesized from Li[ToP*] and ZnCl2. The reaction of ToP*ZnCl and KOtBu followed by addition of PhSiH3 provides the zinc hydride complex ToP*ZnH (8). In this study, compound 8 is the first example of a crystallographically characterized optically active zinc hydride. We tested its catalytic reactivity in the cross-dehydrocoupling of silanes and alcohols, which provided Si-chiral silanes with moderate enantioselectivity.

  15. The GerW Protein Is Not Involved in the Germination of Spores of Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Mora, Jose; Prez-Valdespino, Abigail; Gupta, Srishti; Withange, Nilumi; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Christie, Graham; Setlow, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germination of dormant spores of Bacillus species is initiated when nutrient germinants bind to germinant receptors in spores inner membrane and this interaction triggers the release of dipicolinic acid and cations from the spore core and their replacement by water. Bacillus subtilis spores contain three functional germinant receptors encoded by the gerA, gerB, and gerK operons. The GerA germinant receptor alone triggers germination with L-valine or L-alanine, and the GerB and GerK germinant receptors together trigger germination with a mixture of L-asparagine, D-glucose, D-fructose and KCl (AGFK). Recently, it was reported that the B. subtilis gerW gene is expressed only during sporulation in developing spores, and that GerW is essential for L-alanine germination of B. subtilis spores but not for germination with AGFK. However, we now find that loss of the B. subtilis gerW gene had no significant effects on: i) rates of spore germination with L-alanine; ii) spores levels of germination proteins including GerA germinant receptor subunits; iii) AGFK germination; iv) spore germination by germinant receptor-independent pathways; and v) outgrowth of germinated spores. Studies in Bacillus megaterium did find that gerW was expressed in the developing spore during sporulation, and in a temperature-dependent manner. However, disruption of gerW again had no effect on the germination of B. megaterium spores, whether germination was triggered via germinant receptor-dependent or germinant receptor-independent pathways. PMID:25790435

  16. Microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of combustion synthesized Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinatha, N.; Nair, K. G. M.; Angadi, Basavaraj

    2015-10-01

    We report on the microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline Zn1-xCoxO (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) particles prepared by solution combustion technique using L-Valine as fuel. The detailed structural and micro-structural studies were carried out by XRD, HRTEM and TEM-SAED respectively, which confirms the formation of single phased, nano-sized particles. The electronic structure was determined through NEXAFS and atomic multiplet calculations/simulations performed for various symmetries and valence states of 'Co' to determine the valance state, symmetry and crystal field splitting. The correlations between the experimental NEXAFS spectra and atomic multiplet simulations, confirms that, 'Co' present is in the 2+ valence state and substituted at the 'Zn' site in tetrahedral symmetry with crystal field splitting, 10Dq =-0.6 eV. The optical properties and 'Co' induced defect formation of as-synthesized materials were examined by using diffuse reflectance and Photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. Red-shift of band gap energy (Eg) was observed in Zn1-xCoxO samples due to Co (0.58 Å) substitution at Zn (0.60 Å) site of the host ZnO. Also, in PL spectra, a prominent pre-edge peak corresponds to ultraviolet (UV) emission around 360-370 nm was observed with Co concentration along with near band edge emission (NBE) of the wide band gap ZnO and all samples show emission in the blue region.

  17. Complexation equilibria and coordination aspects of Zn(II) complexes contain 2-aminobenzamide and some bioactive amino acid mixed ligands: pH-metric, spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Subbaraj, Paramasivam; Esakkidurai, Thirugnanasamy; Shobana, Sutha; Raji, Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Mixed ligand complexation of 2-aminobenzamide (2AB) as ligand [L] with Zn(II) in the presence of some bio-relevant amino acid constituents like glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala), L-valine (val) and L-phenylalanine (phe) as ligand [B] have been investigated using pH-metric measurements with a combined pH electrode at different temperatures (300, 310, 320 and 330 ± 0.1 K) in 50% (v/v) ethanol-water mixture containing I = 0.15 M NaClO(4) as supporting electrolyte. Computer assisted analysis of the experimental titration data showed the presence of ZnLB and ZnLB2 species as mixed ligand complexes in addition to various binary species. In ZnLB/ZnLB(2) species, both primary and secondary ligands act as bidentate to form a stable six, five membered chelate ring. The calculated stabilization parameter Deltalog K, log X, log X' and % R.S. values clearly show the mixed ligand complexes have higher stabilities than their binary. Thermodynamic parameters DeltaG, DeltaH and DeltaS have been derived from the temperature dependence of the stability constants. The complexation behavior of ZnLB species has been studied by means of electronic spectra. The percentage distribution of various binary and mixed ligand species of each type of the complexes in solution depending on pH and the ratio of Zn(II) to 2-aminobenzamide/amino acid of the systems. PMID:25551720

  18. Assessing backbone solvation effects in the conformational propensities of amino acid residues in unfolded peptides.

    PubMed

    Ilawe, Niranjan V; Raeber, Alexandra E; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Toal, Siobhan E; Wong, Bryan M

    2015-10-14

    Conformational ensembles of individual amino acid residues within model GxG peptides (x representing different amino acid residues) are dominated by a mixture of polyproline II (pPII) and ?-strand like conformations. We recently discovered rather substantial differences between the enthalpic and entropic contributions to this equilibrium for different amino acid residues. Isoleucine and valine exceed all other amino acid residues in terms of their rather large enthalpic stabilization and entropic destabilization of polyproline II. In order to shed light on these underlying physical mechanisms, we performed high-level DFT calculations to explore the energetics of four representative GxG peptides where x = alanine (A), leucine (L), valine (V), and isoleucine (I) in explicit water (10 H2O molecules with a polarizable continuum water model) and in vacuo. We found that the large energetic contributions to the stabilization of pPII result, to a major extent, from peptide-water, water-water interactions, and changes of the solvent self-energy. Differences between the peptide-solvent interaction energies of hydration in pPII and ?-strand peptides are particularly important for the pPII ? ? equilibria of the more aliphatic peptides GIG and GLG. Furthermore, we performed a vibrational analysis of the four peptides in both conformations and discovered a rather substantial mixing between water motions and peptide vibrations below 700 cm(-1). We found that the respective vibrational entropies are substantially different for the considered conformations, and their contributions to the Gibbs/Helmholtz energy stabilize ?-strand conformations. Taken together, our results underscore the notion of the solvent being the predominant determinant of peptide (and protein) conformations in the unfolded state. PMID:26343224

  19. Bidirectional increase in permeability of nuclear envelope upon poliovirus infection and accompanying alterations of nuclear pores.

    PubMed

    Belov, George A; Lidsky, Peter V; Mikitas, Olga V; Egger, Denise; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Bienz, Kurt; Agol, Vadim I

    2004-09-01

    Poliovirus and some other picornaviruses trigger relocation of certain nuclear proteins into the cytoplasm. Here, by using a protein changing its fluorescence color with time and containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS), we demonstrate that the poliovirus-triggered relocation is largely due to the exit of presynthesized nuclear protein into the cytoplasm. The leakiness of the nuclear envelope was also documented by the inability of nuclei from digitonin-permeabilized, virus-infected (but not mock-infected) cells to retain an NLS-containing derivative of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The cytoplasm-to-nucleus traffic was also facilitated during infection, as evidenced by experiments with GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), cyclin B1, and an NLS-lacking derivative of GFP, which are predominantly cytoplasmic in uninfected cells. Electron microscopy demonstrated that a bar-like barrier structure in the channel of the nuclear pores, seen in uninfected cells, was missing in the infected cells, giving the impression of fully open pores. Transient expression of poliovirus 2A protease also resulted in relocation of the nuclear proteins. Lysates from poliovirus-infected or 2A-expressing cells induced efflux of 3xEGFP-NLS from the nuclei of permeabilized uninfected cells. This activity was inhibited by the elastase inhibitors elastatinal and N-(methoxysuccinyl)-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-valine chloromethylketone (drugs known also to be inhibitors of poliovirus protease 2A), a caspase inhibitor zVAD(OMe), fmk, and some other protease inhibitors. These data suggest that 2A elicited nuclear efflux, possibly in cooperation with a zVAD(OMe).fmk-sensitive protease. However, poliovirus infection facilitated nuclear protein efflux also in cells deficient in caspase-3 and caspase-9, suggesting that the efflux may occur without the involvement of these enzymes. The biological relevance of nucleocytoplasmic traffic alterations in infected cells is discussed. PMID:15331749

  20. 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanate systems: Synthesis and characterization of three new polymeric 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Mohamed R.; Abu-Youssef, Morsy A. M.; Goher, Mohamed A. S.; Sabra, Berry A.; Hafez, Afaf K.; Badr, Ahmed M.-A.; Mautner, Franz A.

    2012-01-01

    Three new cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes, [{Cd(NCS) 2(val)}H 2O] n1, [Cd(NCS) 2(3-ampy) 2] n2, and [Cd(NCS) 2(pyrazolinone)] n3, (val = D, L-valine, 3-ampy = 3-aminopyridine and pyrazolinone = 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The X-ray structure analysis revealed di-?-N,S thiocyanato bridges connecting cadmium centers in a 1D chain with the co-ligand blocking the remaining coordination sites. The structure of complex 1 features six coordinate Cd(II) centers, each cadmium is surrounded by two N atoms and two S atoms from two bridging N,S-thiocyanato groups giving rise to a zigzag 1D chain and two oxygen atoms of the alternating chelating ?-O,O'-valine that coordinates as zwitterionic terminal amino acid. The structure of complex 2 consists of octahedral Cd(II) centers, connected by di-?-N,S-bridging NCS groups, thus forming a 1D chain system along the [1 0 1] direction. The amino-groups are forming one intra-chain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond and one interchain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond to N-atoms of adjacent chains. The structure of 3 reveals di-?-N,S-NCS doubly bridged unusual penta-coordinated cadmium centers with the alternating monodentate pyrazolinone ligand blocking the fifth coordination site. IR spectra and thermal properties of complexes are reported.

  1. Characterization of the complex pdxH-tyrS operon of Escherichia coli K-12 and pleiotropic phenotypes caused by pdxH insertion mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, H M; Winkler, M E

    1992-01-01

    We report the first molecular genetic analysis of a pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase, the PdxH gene product of Escherichia coli K-12. Chromosomal insertions in and around pdxH were generated with various transposons, and the resulting phenotypes were characterized. The DNA sequence of pdxH was determined, and the promoters of pdxH and the downstream gene tyrS, which encodes tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, were mapped by RNase T2 protection assays of chromosomal transcripts. These combined approaches led to the following conclusions: (i) pdxH is transcribed from a sigma 70-type promoter and shares its transcript with tyrS; (ii) tyrS is additionally transcribed from a relatively strong, nonconventional internal promoter that may contain an upstream activating sequence but whose expression is unaffected by a fis mutation; (iii) PdxH oxidase is basic, has a molecular mass of 25,545 Da, and shares striking homology (greater than 40% identity) with the developmentally regulated FprA protein of Myxococcus xanthus; (iv) mild pyridoxal 5'-phosphate limitation of pdxH mutants inhibits cell division and leads to formation of unsegregated nucleoids; (v) E. coli PdxH oxidase is required aerobically and anaerobically, but second-site suppressors that replace pdxH function entirely can be isolated; and (vi) pdxH mutants excrete significant amounts of L-glutamate and a compound, probably alpha-ketoisovalerate, that triggers L-valine inhibition of E. coli K-12 strains. These findings extend earlier observations that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthetic and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes are often members of complex, multifunctional operons. Our results also show that loss of pdxH function seriously disrupts cellular metabolism in unanticipated ways. Images PMID:1356963

  2. Tepidibacter mesophilus sp. nov., a mesophilic fermentative anaerobe isolated from soil polluted by crude oil, and emended description of the genus Tepidibacter.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hai-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Yue; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-Fen

    2012-01-01

    A mesophilic, aerotolerant, endospore-forming, fermentative bacterium, designated strain B1(T), was isolated from soil polluted by crude oil in the Karamay Oil Field, China. Cells were Gram-positive, rod-shaped, 1.1-1.6 m wide and 2.3-4.7 m long, and were motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Growth occurred at 10-40 C and pH 6.0-8.9; optimal growth occurred at 28-32 C and pH 7.3. The optimal concentrations of NaCl and sea salts for growth were 0.5 and 1% (w/v), respectively. The strain was halotolerant and grew in the presence of NaCl or sea salts up to a concentration of 9% (w/v). Substrates utilized as sole carbon sources were beef extract, yeast extract, peptone, tryptone, casein, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-xylose, D-ribose, D-galactose, maltose, L-rhamnose, trehalose, L-valine, DL-alanine plus L-proline and DL-alanine plus L-glycine. The main products of glucose fermentation were ethanol and acetate. iso-C(15:0), iso-C(14:0), C(16:0) and iso-C(13:0) were the major fatty acids. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Tepidibacter, showing 94.7 and 94.1% similarity to the type strains of Tepidibacter formicigenes and Tepidibacter thalassicus, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain B1(T) was 29.8 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain B1(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Tepidibacter, for which the name Tepidibacter mesophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B1(T) (=CGMCC 1.5148(T) =JCM 16806(T)). PMID:21335504

  3. Integrative analysis of transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens induced by low temperature.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shourong; Shen, Yiru; Zhao, Zhenhua; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Huaijun; Zou, Jianmin; Guo, Yuming

    2014-11-01

    Ascites syndrome (AS) still has an unacceptably high incidence rate in both humans and animals although there have been many studies on AS. To continue our previous pathological and biochemical investigation on the underlying mechanisms of AS incidence in broiler chickens, cutting-edge technologies including RNA-seq and metabolimics were used by directly comparing AS chickens and healthy controls. The RNA-seq analysis in the liver identified 390 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which 212 genes were up-regulated and 178 genes were down-regulated in the AS group compared to the control. For the down-regulated DEGs, further gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that lipid metabolism, cell differentiation, enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway and steroid biosynthesis pathway were significantly enriched. For up-regulated DEGs, the cholesterol metabolic process has the lowest p value (0.000966) of fold enrichment while the cholesterol biosynthetic process has the highest fold enrichment (46.67). The metabolomic analysis of serum revealed statistically significant changes in the concentrations of LysoPC(20?:?4), LysoPC(16?:?0), LysoPC(18?:?0), LysoPC(18?:?1), LysoPC(18?:?2), PC(14?:?1/20?:?1), PC(20?:?4/18?:?0), PC(14?:?1/22?:?1), dihydroxyacetone, indoleacrylic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, l-valine, and l-tryptophan. The integrative analysis of transcriptome and metabolome indicated that two biological pathways of tryptophan biosynthesis and metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism may contribute to the induction of AS in broilers. These findings have provided novel insights into our understanding of molecular mechanisms of AS incidence in broilers. PMID:25178933

  4. The Effects of Heat Activation on Bacillus Spore Germination, with Nutrients or under High Pressure, with or without Various Germination Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E.; Doona, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the l-asparagineglucosefructoseK+ mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation. PMID:25681191

  5. Chiral changes of simple amino acids in early Earth's ocean by meteorite impacts: Experimental simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, A.; Sekine, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Kakegawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    It has been recognized that meteorite impacts on early Earth ocean may have contributed significantly for molecules related to the origin of life to originate and evolve. We have already established the formation of simple biomolecules from inorganic materials through oceanic impacts that may have occurred at late heavy bombardment. These simple molecules including amino acids need to be subjected to further developments to initiate life on the Earth. The chirality of terrestrial amino acids constructing proteins is only L-type. In order to make clear the the point that biomolecules are formed by oceanic impacts of meteorites, it wll be crucial to determine how they select the chirality. In order to investigate the basic chemistry on chirality of simple amino acids, we tried to simulate experimentally the chiral change of some amino acids present in ocean at that time under shock loading. Each aqueous solution (0.1 M) of L- and D-valine was prepared and used as mixtures of olivine powders and solutions in sealed steel containers. We performed shock recovery experiments at an impact condition where samples were compressed at ~5 GPa. The analytical results of shock recovered solutions indicate that valine survives significantly (~10%) and that L- and D-valines transform partially to D- and L-valine, respectively. The transformation rate varied with the chemical species present in solutions. These results imply that meteorite impacts as well as the surrounding conditions play important roles to control the chirality of simple amino acids that may have been formed at that time.

  6. Zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Tycko, Robert

    2012-09-01

    We present the theoretical description and experimental demonstration of a zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling (ZQ-SDR) technique for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 13C-labeled molecules, including proteins, under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The ZQ-SDR technique combines zero-quantum recoupling pulse sequence blocks with randomly varying chemical shift precession periods to create randomly amplitude- and phase-modulated effective homonuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. To a good approximation, couplings between different 13C spin pairs become uncorrelated under ZQ-SDR, leading to spin dynamics (averaged over many repetitions of the ZQ-SDR sequence) that are fully described by an orientation-dependent N N polarization transfer rate matrix for an N-spin system, with rates that are inversely proportional to the sixth power of internuclear distances. Suppression of polarization transfers due to non-commutivity of pairwise couplings (i.e., dipolar truncation) does not occur under ZQ-SDR, as we show both analytically and numerically. Experimental demonstrations are reported for uniformly 13C-labeled L-valine powder (at 14.1 T and 28.00 kHz MAS), uniformly 13C-labeled protein GB1 in microcrystalline form (at 17.6 T and 40.00 kHz MAS), and partially labeled 13C-labeled protein GB1 (at 14.1 T and 40.00 kHz MAS). The experimental results verify that spin dynamics under ZQ-SDR are described accurately by rate matrices and suggest the utility of ZQ-SDR in structural studies of 13C-labeled solids.

  7. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultrasound on Biomass Reduction and Toxin Release in the Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lürling, Miquel; Meng, Debin; Faassen, Elisabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are expected to increase, and the toxins they produce threaten human health and impair ecosystem services. The reduction of the nutrient load of surface waters is the preferred way to prevent these blooms; however, this is not always feasible. Quick curative measures are therefore preferred in some cases. Two of these proposed measures, peroxide and ultrasound, were tested for their efficiency in reducing cyanobacterial biomass and potential release of cyanotoxins. Hereto, laboratory assays with a microcystin (MC)-producing cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) were conducted. Peroxide effectively reduced M. aeruginosa biomass when dosed at 4 or 8 mg L−1, but not at 1 and 2 mg L−1. Peroxide dosed at 4 or 8 mg L−1 lowered total MC concentrations by 23%, yet led to a significant release of MCs into the water. Dissolved MC concentrations were nine-times (4 mg L−1) and 12-times (8 mg L−1 H2O2) higher than in the control. Cell lysis moreover increased the proportion of the dissolved hydrophobic variants, MC-LW and MC-LF (where L = Leucine, W = tryptophan, F = phenylalanine). Ultrasound treatment with commercial transducers sold for clearing ponds and lakes only caused minimal growth inhibition and some release of MCs into the water. Commercial ultrasound transducers are therefore ineffective at controlling cyanobacteria. PMID:25513892

  8. Development of budesonide nanocluster dry powder aerosols: preformulation.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Selvam, Parthiban; Soni, Pravin; Berkland, Cory

    2012-09-01

    Wet milling was previously demonstrated as a simple process for producing agglomerates of budesonide nanoparticles (also known as NanoClusters) for use in dry powder aerosol formulation. The resulting budesonide NanoCluster powders exhibited a large emitted fraction and a high fine particle fraction (FPF) from a Monodose dry powder inhaler. In this work, excipients were added premilling or postmilling and the performance of budesonide NanoCluster dry powders was investigated. Sodium chloride, Pluronic, or ethanol was added prior to milling due to their ability to modify surface tension or ionic strength and thereby affect the attrition/agglomeration process. Lactose or l-leucine was added after milling because these are known to modify powder flow and dispersion. The chemical stability of budesonide was maintained in all cases, but the physical aerosol properties changed substantially with the addition of excipients. In all cases, the addition of excipients led to an increase in the size of the budesonide NanoClusters and tended to reduce the emitted fraction and FPF. Titrating excipients may provide a means to discretely modify the aerosol properties of budesonide NanoClusters but did not match the performance of excipient-free NanoCluster powder. PMID:22623018

  9. Development of Biodegradable Polycation-Based Inhalable Dry Gene Powders by Spray Freeze Drying.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Ishii, Takehiko; Uchida, Satoshi; Itaka, Keiji; Kataoka, Kazunori; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two types of biodegradable polycation (PAsp(DET) homopolymer and PEG-PAsp(DET) copolymer) were applied as vectors for inhalable dry gene powders prepared by spray freeze drying (SFD). The prepared dry gene powders had spherical and porous structures with a 5~10-?m diameter, and the integrity of plasmid DNA could be maintained during powder production. Furthermore, it was clarified that PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder could more sufficiently maintain both the physicochemical properties and in vitro gene transfection efficiencies of polyplexes reconstituted after powder production than PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder. From an in vitro inhalation study using an Andersen cascade impactor, it was demonstrated that the addition of l-leucine could markedly improve the inhalation performance of dry powders prepared by SFD. Following pulmonary delivery to mice, both PAsp(DET)- and PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powders could achieve higher gene transfection efficiencies in the lungs compared with a chitosan-based dry gene powder previously reported by us. PMID:26343708

  10. Choline transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, K; Yamashita, S

    1980-07-01

    Choline transport of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was measured by the filtration method with the use of glass microfiber paper. The uptake was time and temperature dependent. The kinetics of choline transport showed Michaelis behavior; an appearent Km for choline was 0.56 microM. N-Methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, and beta-methylcholine were competitive inhibitors of choline transport, with Ki values of 40.1, 3.1, and 6.9 microM, respectively. Ethanolamine, phosphorylcholine, and various amino acids examined had no effect. Choline transport required metabolic energy; removal of glucose resulted in a great loss of transport activity, and the remaining activity was abolished by 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone, arsenate, and cyanide. External Na+ was not required, and the transport was not effected by ionophores, valinomycin, and gramicidin D. These results indicate that S. cerevisiae possess an active choline transport system mediated by a specific carrier. This view is further supported by the isolation and characterization of a choline transport mutant. The choline transport activity in this mutant was very low, whereas the transport of L-leucine, L-methionine, D-glucose, and myo-inositol was normal. Together with the choline transport mutant, mutants defective in choline kinase were also isolated. PMID:6995427

  11. Effect of phenylpyruvate on enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Deery, D. J.; Taylor, K. W.

    1973-01-01

    1. The effects of azaserine and nicotinamide, agents which inhibit and stimulate hepatic NAD synthesis respectively, on the content of NAD+ and NADH in isolated rat islets of Langerhans incubated in vitro were studied. The effects of these compounds on the rates of insulin release, from isolated islets incubated in vitro, in response to various secretagogues were also measured. 2. Preincubation of islets in the presence of azaserine (0.3mm) caused a marked depletion of the normal islet-cell content of both NAD+ and NADH and prevented the secretion of insulin in response to stimulatory concentrations of d-glucose, xylitol, d-xylulose, l-arginine hydrochloride and l-leucine. 3. Preincubation of islets in the presence of nicotinamide (2mm) increased the islet content of NAD+ and enhanced the rate of release of insulin in response to d-glucose. Also when nicotinamide was present the inhibitory effect of azaserine on insulin release and the azaserine-induced depletion of the islet content of NAD+ and NADH was prevented. 4. Preincubation with azaserine was without effect on the stimulation of insulin release caused by theophylline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. 5. It is suggested that insulin release caused by sugars and amino acids is dependent on the maintenance of NAD concentrations, though this may not be the case for release due to theophylline and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. PMID:16742817

  12. Suppression of mTORC1 activation in acid-?-glucosidase-deficient cells and mice is ameliorated by leucine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, Adi; Wang, Yichen; Yang, Yingjuan; Yang, Gong-She; Johnson, Danielle E; Backer, Jonathan M; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Zong, Haihong

    2014-11-15

    Pompe disease is due to a deficiency in acid-?-glucosidase (GAA) and results in debilitating skeletal muscle wasting, characterized by the accumulation of glycogen and autophagic vesicles. Given the role of lysosomes as a platform for mTORC1 activation, we examined mTORC1 activity in models of Pompe disease. GAA-knockdown C2C12 myoblasts and GAA-deficient human skin fibroblasts of infantile Pompe patients were found to have decreased mTORC1 activation. Treatment with the cell-permeable leucine analog L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester restored mTORC1 activation. In vivo, Pompe mice also displayed reduced basal and leucine-stimulated mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle, whereas treatment with a combination of insulin and leucine normalized mTORC1 activation. Chronic leucine feeding restored basal and leucine-stimulated mTORC1 activation, while partially protecting Pompe mice from developing kyphosis and the decline in muscle mass. Leucine-treated Pompe mice showed increased spontaneous activity and running capacity, with reduced muscle protein breakdown and glycogen accumulation. Together, these data demonstrate that GAA deficiency results in reduced mTORC1 activation that is partly responsible for the skeletal muscle wasting phenotype. Moreover, mTORC1 stimulation by dietary leucine supplementation prevented some of the detrimental skeletal muscle dysfunction that occurs in the Pompe disease mouse model. PMID:25231351

  13. Study of Biological Degradation of New Poly(Ether-Urethane-Urea)s Containing Cyclopeptide Moiety and PEG by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Isolated from Soil.

    PubMed

    Rafiemanzelat, Fatemeh; Jafari, Mahboobeh; Emtiazi, Giti

    2015-10-01

    The present work for the first time investigates the effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, M3, on a new poly(ether-urethane-urea) (PEUU). PEUU was synthesized via reaction of 4,4'-methylenebis(4-phenylisocyanate) (MDI), L-leucine anhydride cyclopeptide (LACP) as a degradable monomer and polyethylene glycol with molecular weight of 1000 (PEG-1000). Biodegradation of the synthesized PEUU as the only source for carbon and nitrogen for M3 was studied. The co-metabolism biodegradation of the polymer by this organism was also investigated by adding mannitol or nutrient broth to the basic media. Biodegradation of the synthesized polymer was followed by SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and XRD techniques. It was shown that incubation of PEUU with M3 resulted in a 30-44 % reduction in polymer's weight after 1 month. This study indicates that the chemical structure of PEUU significantly changes after exposure to M3 due to hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation of polymer chains. The results of this work supports the idea that this poly(ether-urethane) is used as a sole carbon source by M3 and this bacterium has a good capability for degradation of poly(ether-urethane)s. PMID:26242387

  14. Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase Regulates Lactation and Cell Proliferation via mTOR Signaling in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lina; Lin, Ye; Bian, Yanjie; Liu, Lili; Shao, Li; Lin, Lin; Qu, Bo; Zhao, Feng; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2014-01-01

    The role of LeuRS, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, as an intracellular l-leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway has been the subject of much research recently. Despite this, the association between LeuRS and lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) remains unknown. In this study, we found that LeuRS expression in mammary gland tissue was significantly higher during lactation than pregnancy. Moreover, our data demonstrates that LeuRS is localized in the cytoplasm. Treatment with leucine increased DCMECs viability and proliferation, as well as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), p-S6K1, ?-Casein, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression. Secretion of lactose and triglyceride were also increased. siRNA-mediated knockdown of LeuRS led to reduction in all of these processes. Based on these data, LeuRS up-regulates the mTOR pathway to promote proliferation and lactation of DCMECs in response to changes in the intracellular leucine concentration. PMID:24722568

  15. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NAADP) Degradation by Alkaline Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Frederike; Fliegert, Ralf; Westphal, Tim; Bauche, Andreas; Guse, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a ubiquitous second messenger providing a Ca2+ trigger in a wide range of cell types. However, its metabolism is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate the presence of endogenous NAADP in HeLa cells. CD38, a promiscuous enzyme described to be involved in NAADP metabolism, was not detectable in HeLa cells. In cell-free extracts of HeLa cells, NAADP was degraded to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD). The enzyme was enriched in membranes (10,000 g pellet) and displayed characteristics typical of alkaline phosphatase (AP), e.g. pH optimum at 89 and sensitivity to the inhibitors l-homoarginine and l-leucine. Importantly, NAADP at physiological concentrations (50100 nm) was degraded to NAAD. Expression of AP isoenzymes was analyzed in HeLa cells. Based on the results together with inhibitor studies, the placental AP isoform emerged as the best candidate for NAADP degradation in HeLa cells. In contrast to HeLa cells, Jurkat T cells or HEK293 cells did not express any AP isoenzymes and did not display any NAADP 2?-phosphatase activity. Finally, the placental AP isoform was expressed heterologously in HEK293 cells, resulting in reconstitution of NAADP 2?-phosphatase activity in cell-free extracts. On the basis of the results, we provide evidence for AP as the metabolizing enzyme of NAADP in cells that do not express CD38. PMID:22851169

  16. Protein synthetic patterns in immature and mature human oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, G.A.; Gifford, D.J.; Mahadevan, M.M.; Fleetham, J.A.; Taylor, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary study of protein synthesis and amino acid transport in human oocytes was initiated. Qualitative patterns or protein synthesis were examined in individual oocytes cultured in medium containing radiolabeled methionine. The protein synthetic profile of immature oocytes, resolved by one-dimensional electrophoresis and fluorography, was observed to change markedly following germinal vesicle breakdown and oocyte maturation. No further differences in the one-dimensional protein synthetic patterns were observed in mature oocytes maintained in culture from 10 hours up to as long as 50 hours. The protein synthetic pattern of follicular cells was observed to be distinct from that of oocytes and was characterized by the predominant synthesis of a polypeptide with Mr = 44,000. Based on the specific activity of the methionine precursor, the absolute rate of synthesis was calculated to be about 50 pg protein/oocyte/hour. Total protein content was measured to be about 150 ng/egg. Competition of methionine uptake by leucine, efflux of radiolabeled methionine from preloaded oocytes into medium containing methionine and uptake of methionine in medium with low sodium ion concentration was observed. These findings are consistent with the presence of an L (leucine-preferring) system for neutral amino acid transport, similar to that in mouse and rabbit eggs. These studies provide basic data for further analysis of oocytes and perhaps preimplantation-stage embryos in the future.

  17. Combination Chemotherapeutic Dry Powder Aerosols via Controlled Nanoparticle Agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Berkland, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop an aerosol system for efficient local lung delivery of chemotherapeutics where nanotechnology holds tremendous potential for developing more valuable cancer therapies. Concurrently, aerosolized chemotherapy is generating interest as a means to treat certain types of lung cancer more effectively with less systemic exposure to the compound. Methods Nanoparticles of the potent anticancer drug, paclitaxel, were controllably assembled to form low density microparticles directly after preparation of the nanoparticle suspension. The amino acid, L-leucine, was used as a colloid destabilizer to drive the assembly of paclitaxel nanoparticles. A combination chemotherapy aerosol was formed by assembling the paclitaxel nanoparticles in the presence of cisplatin in solution. Results Freeze-dried powders of the combination chemotherapy possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. In addition, the dissolution rates of dried nanoparticle agglomerate formulations (~60% to 66% after 8 h) were significantly faster than that of micronized paclitaxel powder as received (~18% after 8 h). Interestingly, the presence of the water soluble cisplatin accelerated the dissolution of paclitaxel. Conclusions Nanoparticle agglomerates of paclitaxel alone or in combination with cisplatin may serve as effective chemotherapeutic dry powder aerosols to enable regional treatment of certain lung cancers. PMID:19415471

  18. A molecular dynamics simulation study of the association of 1,1";-binaphthyl-2,2";-diyl hydrogenphosphate enantiomers with a chiral molecular micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Kevin F.; Billiot, Eugene J.; Billiot, Fereshteh H.; Gladis, Ashley A.; Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Southerland, William M.; Fang, Yayin

    2014-08-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the binding of 1,1";-binaphthyl-2,2";-diyl hydrogenphosphate (BNP) enantiomers to the molecular micelle poly-(sodium undecyl-(L,L)-leucine-valine) (poly(SULV)). Poly(SULV) is used as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis separations. Four poly(SULV) binding pockets were identified and either (R)-BNP or (S)-BNP were docked into each pocket. MD simulations were then used to identify the preferred BNP binding site. Within the preferred site, both enantiomers formed hydrogen bonds with poly(SULV) and penetrated into the poly(SULV) core. Comparisons of BNP enantiomer binding to the preferred poly(SULV) pocket showed that (S)-BNP formed stronger hydrogen bonds, moved deeper into the binding site, and had a lower poly(SULV) binding free energy than the (R) enantiomer. Finally, MD simulation results were in agreement with capillary electrophoresis and NMR experiments. Each technique showed (S)-BNP interacted more strongly with poly(SULV) than (R)-BNP and that the site of chiral recognition was near the poly(SULV) leucine chiral center.

  19. Electrochemical Imprinted Polycrystalline Nickel-Nickel Oxide Half-Nanotube-Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode for the Detection of L-Serine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Li, Hongji; Li, Mingji; Li, Cuiping; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe

    2015-10-21

    This paper presents a novel and versatile method for the fabrication of half nanotubes (HNTs) using a flexible template-based nanofabrication method denoted as electrochemical imprinting. With use of this method, polycrystalline nickel and nickel(II) oxide (Ni-NiO) HNTs were synthesized using pulsed electrodeposition to transfer Ni, deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene template, onto a boron-doped diamond (BDD) film. The Ni-NiO HNTs exhibited semicircular profiles along their entire lengths, with outer diameters of 50-120 nm and inner diameters of 20-50 nm. The HNT walls were formed of Ni and NiO nanoparticles. A biosensor for the detection of L-serine was fabricated using a BDD electrode modified with Ni-NiO HNTs, and the device demonstrated satisfactory analytical performance with high sensitivity (0.33 ?A ?M(-1)) and a low limit of detection (0.1 ?M). The biosensor also exhibited very good reproducibility and stability, as well as a high anti-interference ability against amino acids such as L-leucine, L-tryptophan, L-cysteine, L-phenylalanine, L-arginine, and L-lysine. PMID:26421883

  20. Development of a novel dry powder inhalation formulation for the delivery of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate.

    PubMed

    Simon, Alice; Amaro, Maria Inês; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Healy, Anne Marie; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to prepare engineered particles of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate (RHT) and to characterize the physicochemical and aerodynamic properties, in comparison to a lactose carrier formulation (LCF). Microparticles were prepared from ethanol/water solutions containing RHT with and without the incorporation of l-leucine (Leu), using a spray dryer. Dry powder inhaler formulations prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction particle sizing, ATR-FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, bulk and tapped density, dynamic vapour sorption and in vitro aerosol deposition behaviour using a next generation impactor. The smooth-surfaced spherical morphology of the spray dried microparticles was altered by adding Leu, resulting in particles becoming increasingly wrinkled with increasing Leu. Powders presented low densities. The glass transition temperature was sufficiently high (>90°C) to suggest good stability at room temperature. As Leu content increased, spray dried powders presented lower residual solvent content, lower particle size, higher fine particle fraction (FPF<5μm), and lower mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). The LCF showed a lower FPF and higher MMAD, relative to the spray dried formulations containing more than 10% Leu. Spray dried RHT powders presented better aerodynamic properties, constituting a potential drug delivery system for oral inhalation. PMID:26836711

  1. Secretory, enzymatic, and morphological characterization of rat pancreatic endocrine tumours induced by streptozotocin and nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, S; Klppel, G; Zielmann, S; Panten, U

    1985-07-01

    Rat pancreatic endocrine tumours were induced by administration of streptozotocin plus nicotinamide. Fifteen to eighteen months later tumours with wet weights of 0.1 to 224 mg were isolated. These tumours were compared with normal rat pancreatic islets. Insulin release from perifused tumours was stimulated by D-glucose, L-leucine, 2-ketoisocaproate, and D-glyceraldehyde, potentiated by theophylline and inhibited by norepinephrine. Compared with isolated rat pancreatic islets, however, insulin secretory responsiveness to glucose stimulation and insulin content were reduced in tumour tissue. Hypoglycaemia in tumour bearing rats and impaired diffusion of insulin out of the tumours may explain this difference. The pattern of enzyme activities observed in tumour tissue was typical for pancreatic endocrine tissue. The activities of succinate dehydrogenase, the two types of the monoamine oxidase, and alpha-glucosidase were in the normal range in tumour tissue. Only the activities of 5'nucleotidase and glutamate dehydrogenase were decreased. Immunocytochemical analysis of the tumours revealed that they contained an average of 91% B-cells. In addition 8% of D-cells were encountered. Proportions of A-cells and PP-cells ranged below 1%. Thus this endocrine tumour of the pancreas with a high proportion of functionally intact B-cells is an interesting model for studying regulation of secretion and endocrine tumour development. PMID:2992205

  2. Effect of dietary iron on the turnover rate of rat liver xanthine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, D.M.; Amy, N.K.

    1986-03-05

    Previous studies in this lab have shown that hepatic xanthine oxidase (XO), a molybdo-enzyme, increases in response to a low iron diet. In addition, molybdenum-deficient and low protein diets cause non-heme iron accumulation in the liver. In order to determine whether iron affects the turnover rate of hepatic XO the authors used the double isotope technique of Arias et al to measure the turnover of XO. They fed two groups of rats complete AIN semi-purified diets containing either 5 or 35 ppm iron for 14 days. The rats remained on their respective diets 10 additional days, during which time the two isotopic forms of L-leucine were administered. Although the XO activity was 25% higher in the rats fed the low iron diet, there were no differences in either the amounts of cross reacting material or the turnover rates of the hepatic XO between the two groups. Thus, the difference they see in heptatic XO activity is not due to changes in turnover rate or enzyme concentration as measured by cross reacting material.

  3. Effect of Alanine, Leucine, and Fructose on Lysyl-Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Ligase Activity in a Mutant of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Hirshfield, Irvin N.; Buklad, Naomi E.

    1973-01-01

    A mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 was examined which has growth medium-dependent lysyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) ligase activity. In minimal medium or 0.5% yeast extract, the activity of the enzyme in the mutant strain was 5 to 10% of wild type. However, when the mutant was grown in a highly enriched medium, such as AC broth (Difco), the activity of the mutant ligase increased 10- to 20-fold. We found that the supplementation of 0.5% yeast extract by l-alanine plus d-fructose replaces the need for the highly enriched medium. Fructose plus l-leucine and fructose plus l-?-amino-n-butyric acid were also stimulatory, but not as effective as fructose and alanine. With minimal medium, a combination of carbohydrate (fructose or glucose) plus alanine and leucine was required to replace the enriched medium. The most effective combination was fructose, glucose, alanine, and leucine. Lysyl-tRNA ligase was stimulated 1.5 to 2-fold in the wild-type strain or Hfr H (Hayes) by fructose plus alanine when these strains were cultured in 0.5% yeast extract. Experiments employing the combined technique of density labeling with D2O and isopycnic centrifugation in cesium chloride indicated that the increased activity of lysyl-tRNA ligase observed in AC broth or in the presence of fructose, glucose, alanine, and leucine is due to the synthesis of new enzyme. PMID:4569400

  4. Metabolomics-Based Study of Logarithmic and Stationary Phases of Promastigotes in Leishmania major by 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arjmand, Mohammad; Madrakian, Azadeh; Khalili, Ghader; Najafi, Ali; Zamani, Zahra; Akbari, Ziba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in humans. In this disease, one of the responsible organisms is Leishmania major, which is transmitted by sandfly vector. There are specific differences in biochemical profiles and metabolite pathways in logarithmic and stationary phases of Leishmania parasites. In the present study, 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to examine the metabolites outliers in the logarithmic and stationary phases of promastigotes in L. major to enlighten more about the transmission mechanism in metacyclogenesis of L. major. Methods: Promastigote was cultured, logarithmic and stationary phases were separated by the peanut agglutinin, and cell metabolites were extracted. 1H NMR spectroscopy was applied, and outliers were analyzed using principal component analysis. Results: The most altered metabolites in stationary and logarithmic phases were limited to citraconic acid, isopropylmalic acid, L-leucine, ornithine, caprylic acid, capric acid, and acetic acid. Conclusion: 1H NMR spectroscopy could play an important role in the characterization of metabolites in biochemical pathways during a metacyclogenesis process. These metabolites and their pathways can help in exploiting a transmission mechanism in metacyclogenesis, and outcoming data might be used in the metabolic network reconstruction of L. major modeling. PMID:26592771

  5. Inhibition of mu and delta opioid receptor ligand binding by the peptide aldehyde protease inhibitor, leupeptin.

    PubMed

    Christoffers, Keith H; Khokhar, Arshia; Chaturvedi, Kirti; Howells, Richard D

    2002-04-15

    We reported recently that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in agonist-induced down regulation of mu and delta opioid receptors [J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 12345]. While evaluating the effects of various protease inhibitors on agonist-induced opioid receptor down regulation, we observed that while the peptide aldehyde, leupeptin (acetyl-L-Leucyl-L-Leucyl-L-Arginal), did not affect agonist-induced down regulation, leupeptin at submillimolar concentrations directly inhibited radioligand binding to opioid receptors. In this study, the inhibitory activity of leupeptin on radioligand binding was characterized utilizing human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell lines expressing transfected mu, delta, or kappa opioid receptors. The rank order of potency for leupeptin inhibition of [3H]bremazocine binding to opioid receptors was mu > delta > kappa. In contrast to the effect of leupeptin, the peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitor, MG 132 (carbobenzoxy-L-Leucyl-L-Leucyl-L-Leucinal), had significantly less effect on bremazocine binding to mu, delta, or kappa opioid receptors. We propose that leupeptin inhibits ligand binding by reacting reversibly with essential sulfhydryl groups that are necessary for high-affinity ligand/receptor interactions. PMID:11853866

  6. Insulin binding and stimulation of hexose and amino acid transport by normal and receptor-defective human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, N.; Nagata, N.; Danner, D.; Priest, J.; Elsas, L.

    1986-05-01

    The authors analyzed insulin receptors in cells cultured from a sibship of related parents who had two offspring with severe insulin resistance (Leprechaunism). /sup 124/I-Insulin (1 ng/ml) binding to skin fibroblasts from the proband, mother, and father was 9, 60 and 62% of control cells, respectively, at equilibrium, Non-linear regression analysis, utilizing a two receptors model, of curvilinear Scatchard plots indicated a reduced number of high-affinity binding sites in both parents. Influx of L-Proline (System A), L-Serine (ASC) and L-Leucine (L) was similar in control and mutant cells. Similarly, during the depletion of intracellular amino acid pools, there was a release from transinhibition for System A and a decrease of transstimulation of Systems ASC and L in both cell lines. Surprisingly, insulin augmented, normally, A system influx with an ED/sub 50/ = 70 ng/ml at 24/sup 0/C and 7 ng/ml at 37/sup 0/C. By contrast insulin failed to simulated 3-0-methyl-D-glucose influx into the proband's cells, while normal cells were stimulated 30% with an ED/sub 50/ of 6 ng/ml. These results indicate that defective high-affinity insulin binding is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; that general membrane functions are intact; that insulin regulates A system amino acid and hexose transport by two different mechanisms; and, that the latter mechanism is impaired by this family's receptor mutation.

  7. Direct manipulation of insect reproduction by agents of parasite origin

    PubMed Central

    Webb, T. J.; Hurd, H.

    1999-01-01

    Reproductive output of female Tenebrio molitor beetles is reduced upon infection with metacestodes of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. We are using this as a model to investigate the adaptive significance of parasite-induced curtailment of insect reproduction. Production of the yolk protein vitellogenin (Vg) in the insect fat body is significantly reduced both in vitro and in vivo by metacestodes. Synthesis can be measured by using [14C]L-leucine incorporation, followed by immunoprecipitation. In this paper we demonstrate that a significant decrease in [14C]Vg can be produced by an acetic acid extract of the parasite. Conclusive evidence is presented that the active component(s) originate from the metacestodes: an extract of parasites grown entirely axenically has similar deleterious effects. The developmental stage of the metacestode is important: immature (stage I to II) parasites had greater capacity to suppress Vg synthesis than mature ones (stage V to VI). Examination of the chemical nature of the effector molecule(s) revealed that acetic-acid-extractable, boiling-resistant, pronase-sensitive agents in the molecular mass range 10 to 50 kDa reduced Vg synthesis by 47.4%. These data suggest that metacestodes produce a modulator molecule that directly affects insect vitellogenesis and, therefore, that reduction of host fitness may confer a selective advantage upon the parasite.

  8. Structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome and mechanism of inhibition by a peptidyl boronate

    SciTech Connect

    Hu,G.; Lin, G.; Wang, M.; Dick, L.; Xu, R.; Nathan, C.; Li, H.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has the remarkable ability to resist killing by human macrophages. The 750 kDa proteasome, not available in most eubacteria except Actinomycetes, appears to contribute to Mtb's resistance. The crystal structure of the Mtb proteasome at 3.0 Angstroms resolution reveals a substrate-binding pocket with composite features of the distinct {beta}1, {beta}2 and {beta}5 substrate binding sites of eukaryotic proteasomes, accounting for the broad specificity of the Mtb proteasome towards oligopeptides described in the companion article [Lin et al. (2006), Mol Microbiol doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.05035.x]. The substrate entrance at the end of the cylindrical proteasome appears open in the crystal structure due to partial disorder of the a-subunit N-terminal residues. However, cryo-electron microscopy of the core particle reveals a closed end, compatible with the density observed in negative-staining electron microscopy that depended on the presence of the N-terminal octapeptides of the a-subunits in the companion article, suggesting that the Mtb proteasome has a gated structure. We determine for the first time the proteasomal inhibition mechanism of the dipeptidyl boronate N-(4-morpholine)carbonyl-{beta}-(1-naphthyl)-l-alanine-l-leucine boronic acid (MLN-273), an analogue of the antimyeloma drug bortezomib. The structure improves prospects for designing Mtb-specific proteasomal inhibitors as a novel approach to chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

  9. In vitro stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis by leucine and insulin

    SciTech Connect

    Hatlestad, C.L.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential of leu to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the presence or absence of insulin or insulin plus a mixture of the other plasma amino acids. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 75 g were fasted for 24 hrs, sacrificed, and the soleus muscle isolated from the hind limb. Protein synthesis was determined in isolated muscles incubated for 2 hrs at 37/sup 0/C in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 ..mu..Ci of /sup 14/C-tyrosine and supplemented with either 10 mM glucose (G), glucose plus 0.1 IU/m. insulin (I), or glucose, insulin and plasma levels of amino acids (IAA). Contralateral muscles were incubated in the respective media with the addition of 0.5 mM L-leucine. Insulin stimulated protein synthesis by 51% above the G group, and IAA produced a 110% stimulation. Leu stimulated protein synthesis by an additional 15-20% in each of the medias. These results confirm the ability of leu to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in vitro and establish that the effect is additive with stimulations by insulin and other amino acids.

  10. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Guimares-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de S, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports. PMID:24751198

  11. Pharmaconutrition for the obese, critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; Frazier, Thomas H; McClave, Stephen A; Cave, Matt C

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is an epidemic that affects approximately 30% of the adult population in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in the critically ill seems to correlate with the rise in obesity in the general population. Delivery of standard enteral nutrition (EN) to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been shown to decrease infectious complications. Obese ICU patients may be at increased risk for infections, ICU length of stay, and ventilation requirements compared to the nonobese. Pharmaconutrition has been shown to decrease many of these negative ICU outcomes. Because of obesity-associated increased ICU risk, provision of certain pharmaconutrients should be considered in obese patients requiring EN therapy. This review examines the evidence for specific nutrients such as green tea, curcumin, sulforaphane, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-leucine, protein, probiotics, magnesium, medium-chain triglycerides, and zinc for the treatment of obesity. These nutrients could potentially be added to current EN formulas or provided as supplements. PMID:21881016

  12. Comparison of Alkalizing Solutions Used in Extracellular Enzyme Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Kuehn, K. A.; Francoeur, S. N.

    2005-05-01

    Extracellular enzymatic activity plays an important role in microbial nutrient cycling, and is commonly studied through the use of fluorogenic substrates. Samples are generally alkalized to maximize fluorescence yield and to prevent among sample variability in pH from affecting sample fluorescence. It is also frequently assumed that the alkaline solutions stop enzymatic reactions. Different alkalizing agents (pH 10 sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, 0.05M glycine-ammonium hydroxide buffer, 40mM sodium hydroxide solution, and 2M sodium hydroxide solution) were explored for their ability to halt periphytic enzymatic activity without degrading the fluorescent product. L-Leucine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin hydrochloride (LAMC) and 4-Methylumbeliferyl phosphate disodium salt (MUF-P) were used as fluorogenic substrates. Although 2M NaOH solution appeared to stop enzymatic reactions, it completely degraded both the AMC and MUF flurochromes, rendering it unsuitable for use as an alkalizing agent. The remaining three buffers did not greatly erode either fluorochrome, however, they were unable to halt enzymatic activity reliably. This brings into question the method of using alkalizing agents as a means of halting enzymatic reactions for later analysis.

  13. Biochemical characterization of the soluble alkaline phosphatase isolated from the venomous snake W. aegyptia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Saad S M

    2002-12-01

    A soluble form of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been identified and purified from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using an HPLC system Gold 126/1667 equipped with Protein PAK 125 and Protein PAK 60 columns. The enzyme was purified 3.4 fold over crude venom with a yield of 37.3%. On SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions the purified enzyme showed three bands of 212 kD, 80 kD, and 55 kD. However, under reducing conditions, the enzyme showed two bands of 80 kD and 55 kD. The specific activity of ALP was 24 U/mg with p-nitrophenylephosphate as the substrate. During isoelectric focusing experiments the ALP exhibited two bands focused at pH 6.2 and 6.8, which suggests that either the enzyme exists as two different isoforms or the two bands in IEF may be two subunits of 80 kD and 55 kD. The kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and IC50 of ALP inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, imidazole, caffeine, orthophosphate and permanganate were also investigated in the present study. Zinc and cyanide ions at a concentration of 15 mM and 10 mM, respectively, completely inhibited the activity of W. aegyptia ALP. PMID:12503880

  14. Molecular Dynamics of Peptide Folding at Aqueous Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Chipot, Christophe; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Even though most monomeric peptides are disordered in water they can adopt sequence-dependent, ordered structures, such as a-helices, at aqueous interfaces. This property is relevant to cellular signaling, membrane fusion, and the action of toxins and antibiotics. The mechanism of folding nonpolar peptides at the water-hexane interface was studied in the example of an 11-mer, of poly-L-leucine. Initially placed as a random coil on the water side of the interface, the peptide folded into an a-helix in 36 ns. Simultaneously, the peptide translocated into the hexane side of the interface. Folding was not sequential and involved a 3/10-helix as an intermediate. The folded peptide was either parallel to the interface or had its C-terminus exposed to water. An 11-mer, LQQLLQQLLQL, composed of leucine (L) and glutamine (G), was taken as a model amphiphilic peptide. It rapidly adopted an amphiphilic, disordered structure at the interface. Further folding proceeded through a series of amphiphilic intermediates.

  15. Rapid screening of aminopeptidase N inhibitors by capillary electrophoresis with electrophoretically mediated microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hairong; Xu, Wenfang; Cao, Jiangying; Wang, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA) method with a partial-filling technique was setup to evaluate the inhibitory potency of novel compounds toward aminopeptidase N (APN). It was necessary to optimize the electrophoretic conditions with respect to the kinetic constraints and for attaining high sensitivity. In our setup, a part of the capillary was filled with the incubation buffer for the enzyme reaction, whereas the rest was filled with a suitable BGE for the separation of substrates and products. To monitor the performance of the newly developed method, the kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for the catalyzed dissociation of L-Leucine-p-nitroanilide in the presence of APN as well as the inhibition constant (IC50 ) of a known competitive inhibitor, that is bestatin, were determined and these results were compared with those obtained by a classical spectrophotometric assay. The developed EMMA method was subsequently applied to the screening of 30 APN inhibitors. Whereas the inhibition potency of these inhibitors (expressed in IC50 values) were significantly underestimated by the EMMA method, the order of the inhibitory potential of these various compounds was found in agreement with the literature. PMID:25348092

  16. Pulmonary dry powder vaccine of pneumococcal antigen loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kunda, Nitesh K; Alfagih, Iman M; Miyaji, Eliane N; Figueiredo, Douglas B; Gonalves, Viviane M; Ferreira, Daniela M; Dennison, Sarah R; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Saleem, Imran Y

    2015-11-30

    Pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, mainly affects the immunocompromised, the very young and the old, and remains one of the leading causes of death. A steady rise in disease numbers from non-vaccine serotypes necessitates a new vaccine formulation that ideally has better antigen stability and integrity, does not require cold-chain and can be delivered non-invasively. In this study, a dry powder vaccine containing an important antigen of S. pneumoniae, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) that has shown cross-reactivity amongst serotypes to be delivered via the pulmonary route has been formulated. The formulation contains the antigen PspA adsorbed onto the surface of polymeric nanoparticles encapsulated in L-leucine microparticles that can be loaded into capsules and delivered via an inhaler. We have successfully synthesized particles of ?150 nm and achieved ?20 ?g of PspA adsorption per mg of NPs. In addition, the spray-dried powders displayed a FPF of 74.311.32% and MMAD of 1.700.03 ?m suggesting a broncho-alveolar lung deposition facilitating the uptake of the nanoparticles by dendritic cells. Also, the PspA released from the dry powders maintained antigen stability (SDS-PAGE), integrity (Circular dichroism) and activity (lactoferrin binding assay). Moreover, the released antigen also maintained its antigenicity as determined by ELISA. PMID:26387622

  17. Dietary L-Lysine Suppresses Autophagic Proteolysis and Stimulates Akt/mTOR Signaling in the Skeletal Muscle of Rats Fed a Low-Protein Diet.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomonori; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2015-09-23

    Amino acids, especially L-leucine, regulate protein turnover in skeletal muscle and have attracted attention as a means of increasing muscle mass in people suffering from malnutrition, aging (sarcopenia), or a bedridden state. We previously showed that oral administration of L-lysine (Lys) by gavage suppressed proteolysis in skeletal muscles of fasted rats. However, the intake of Lys in the absence of other dietary components is unlikely in a non-experimental setting, and other dietary components may interfere with the suppressive effect of Lys on proteolysis. We supplemented Lys to a 10% casein diet and investigated the effect of Lys on proteolysis and autophagy, a major proteolytic system, in the skeletal muscle of rats. The rate of proteolysis was evaluated from 3-methylhisitidine (MeHis) released from isolated muscles, in plasma, and excreted in urine. Supplementing lysine with the 10% casein diet decreased the rate of proteolysis induced by intake of a low-protein diet. The upregulated autophagy activity [light chain 3 (LC3)-II/total LC3] caused by a low-protein diet was reduced, and the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was activated by Lys. Importantly, continuous feeding of a Lys-rich 10% casein diet for 15 days increased the masses of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. Taken together, supplementation of Lys to a low-protein diet suppresses autophagic proteolysis through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, and continuous feeding of a Lys-rich diet may increase skeletal muscle mass. PMID:26366928

  18. Simultaneous chiral separation of ephedrine alkaloids by MEKC-ESI-MS using polymeric surfactant II: application in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingguo; Zheng, Jie; Shamsi, Shahab A

    2007-05-01

    Chiral MEKC-MS method was utilized for separation, identification, and quantitation of ten enantiomers of ephedrine and related compounds. Enantioselective separations of all ephedrine alkaloids were accomplished through a combination of polysodium N-undecenoxycarbonyl-L-leucinate (poly-L-SUCL) with 30% v/v ACN. Interestingly, the more hydrophilic stereoisomers were eluted later than the hydrophobic ones indicating that hydrogen bonding interactions are much stronger than hydrophobic interactions in the presence of ACN in chiral MEKC. The method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision and robustness. The method was finally used in the analysis of three standard reference materials (SRMs). Results of (-)-ephedrine ranged from 12.49 to 0.24 mg/g, for (+)-pseudoephedrine from 4.04 to 0.019 mg/g, for (-)-norephedrine from 0.36 to 0.0031 mg/g, for (+)-norpseudoephedrine from 0.68 to 0.0052 mg/g, for (-)-methylephedrine from 1.18 to 0.0092 mg/g and for (+)-methylpseudoephedrine from 0.086 to 0.00037 mg/g in the SRMs. PMID:17465418

  19. Pulmonary targeting potential of rosuvastatin loaded nanostructured lipid carrier: Optimization by factorial design.

    PubMed

    Patil-Gadhe, Arpana; Pokharkar, Varsha

    2016-03-30

    Rosuvastatin (RSVS), an anti-lipidemic agent suggested for the treatment of airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It shows a pleiotropic effect on airway smooth muscles and inhibits proliferative activities of physiological mitogens. The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the targeting potential of rosuvastatin (RSVS) to lung as loaded in nanostructured lipid carrier dry powder for inhalation (RNLC-DPI). RNLC dispersion was converted into respirable particle by lyophilization using 5% mannitol as cryoprotectant-carrier. Targeting efficiency of RNLC-DPI was evaluated in vitro for aerosol performance using 8-stage cascade impactor as well in vivo in Wistar rats for pulmokinetics. In vitro aerosol performance demonstrated mass median aerodynamic diameter of <3μm with fine particle fraction of >90% at 60L/min. Improved aerosol performance was observed for RNLC-DPI prepared using l-leucin as anti-static agent. Modified in vivo performance with higher Cmax (1.14-fold), improvement in t1/2 (5-fold) and 35-fold improvement in AUC0-∞ indicated significant improvement in bioavailability of RNLC-DPI. Lipidic nature and smaller size of particles helped in bypassing macrophage clearance leading to higher targeting factor. Thus, study demonstrated potential of RNLC-DPI for lung targeting and further for COPD treatment. PMID:26844785

  20. Synthesis of a stable isotopically labeled universal surrogate peptide for use as an internal standard in LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of human IgG and Fc-fusion protein drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Voronin, Kimberly; Allentoff, Alban J; Bonacorsi, Samuel J; Mapelli, Claudio; Gong, Sharon X; Lee, Ving; Riexinger, Douglas; Sanghvi, Nishith; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of a 16-residue, stable isotopically labeled peptide is described for use as a LC-MS/MS (Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry) internal standard in bioanalytical studies. This peptide serves as a single universal surrogate peptide capable of quantifying a wide variety of immunoglobulin G and Fc-fusion protein drug candidates in animal species used in pre-clinical drug development studies. An efficient synthesis approach for this peptide was developed using microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) techniques, which included the use of a pseudoproline dipeptide derivative. The corresponding conventional room temperature SPPS was unsuccessful and gave only mixtures of truncated products. Stable-labeled leucine was incorporated as a single residue via manual coupling of commercially available Fmoc-[(13) C6 , (15) N]-l-leucine onto an 11-unit segment followed by automated microwave-assisted elaboration of the final four residues. Using this approach, the desired labeled peptide was prepared in high purity and in sufficient quantities for long-term supplies as a bioanalytical internal standard. The results strongly demonstrate the importance of utilizing both microwave-assisted peptide synthesis and pseudoproline dipeptide techniques to allow the preparation of labeled peptides with highly lipophilic and sterically hindered side-chains. PMID:25089024

  1. Eritadenine from Edible Mushrooms Inhibits Activity of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Sadia; Rakib, Md Abdur; Kim, Boh Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ok; Ha, Yeong Lae

    2016-03-23

    The inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was determined in vitro by mushroom-derived eritadenine (EA), which was analyzed in 11 principal Korean edible mushrooms. EA inhibited ACE activity with 0.091 μM IC50, whereas the IC50 of captopril (CP), which is a reference compound, was 0.025 μM. Kinetic measurements of ACE reaction in the substrate of hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine (HHL) with or without EA revealed that the Vmax (0.0465 O.D/30 min) was unchanged, but the the Km increased from 2.063 to 3.887 mM, indicating that EA competes with HHL for the active site. When EA was analyzed by HPLC, Lentinus edodes with a soft cap contained the highest amount EA (642.8 mg%); however, Phellinus linteus with a hard cap contained the least amount of EA (9.4 mg%). These results indicate that EA was a strong competitive inhibitor for ACE, and edible mushrooms with soft caps contained a significant amount of EA. PMID:26938194

  2. Differentiation of microcystin, nodularin, and their component amino acids by drop-coating deposition Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Rebecca A; Leng, Weinan; Vikesland, Peter J

    2011-12-15

    Raman spectra of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), MC-RR, MC-LA, MC-LF, MC-LY, MC-LW, MC-YR, and nodularin collected by drop-coating deposition Raman (DCDR) spectroscopy are sufficiently unique for variant identification. Amino acid spectra of L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-alanine, D-alanine, L-glutamic acid, L-arginine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid were collected in crystalline, DCDR, and aqueous forms to aid in cyanotoxin Raman peak assignments. Both peak ratio analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) properly classified 72 DCDR spectra belonging to the eight toxins. Loading plots for the first three principal components (PCs) most heavily weighted the peaks highlighted in the peak ratio analysis, specifically the 760 cm(-1) tryptophan peak, 853 cm(-1) tyrosine peak, and 1006 cm(-1) phenylalanine peak. Peak ratio analyses may be preferred under some circumstances because of the ease and speed with which the ratios can be computed, even by untrained lab technicians. A set of rules was created to mathematically classify toxins using the peak ratios. DCDR methods hold great potential for future application in routine monitoring because portable and hand-held Raman spectrometers are commercially available, DCDR spectra can be collected in seconds for biomolecule mixtures as well as samples containing impurities, and the method requires far fewer consumables than conventional cyanotoxin detection methods. PMID:22035262

  3. Effect of Klebsiella pneumoniae enterotoxin on intestinal transport in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Klipstein, F A; Horowitz, I R; Engert, R F; Schnenk, E A

    1975-01-01

    The effects on intestinal transport of either a semipurified preparation of enterotoxin elaborated by Klebsiella pneumoniae or similaryly prepared control material were tested by marker perfusion studies in the small intestine of rats. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, the enterotoxin produced net secretion of water, Na, and Cl in both jejunal and ileal segments; HCO3 transport was not affected. Net secretion was evident within 30 min after intorduction of the toxin and was maximal after 90 min. The addition of 56 mM glucose to the enterotoxin-containing perfusion fluid resulted in reversal of water and Na transport to net absorption in both intestinal segments. The enterotoxin also produced a significant depression of xylose absorption in both the jejunum and ileum but did not affect the absorption of either glucose or L-leucine. Intestinal structure was not altered after perfusion of the toxin but insillation of approximately one-quarter of the total perfusion dose into a ligated jejunal loop for 18 h produced fluid secretion and structural abnormalities. These observations confirm the fact that other species of coliform bacteria in addition to tescherichia coli are capable of elaborating an enterotoxin. Such species commonly contaminate the small intestine of persons with tropical sprue and it is suggested that chronic exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the enterotoxin elaborated by these bacteria may be a factor in the pathogenesis of intestinal abnormalities in thid disorder. Images PMID:169297

  4. Protein phosphatase type 1 regulates ion homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Hart, Tara; Wu, Xiaolin; Tatchell, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) is encoded by the essential gene GLC7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. glc7-109 (K259A, R260A) has a dominant, hyperglycogen defect and a recessive, ion and drug sensitivity. Surprisingly, the hyperglycogen phenotype is partially retained in null mutants of GAC1, GIP2, and PIG1, which encode potential glycogen-targeting subunits of Glc7. The R260A substitution in GLC7 is responsible for the dominant and recessive traits of glc7-109. Another mutation at this residue, glc7-R260P, confers only salt sensitivity, indicating that the glycogen and salt traits of glc7-109 are due to defects in distinct physiological pathways. The glc7-109 mutant is sensitive to cations, aminoglycosides, and alkaline pH and exhibits increased rates of l-leucine and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide uptake, but it is resistant to molar concentrations of sorbitol or KCl, indicating that it has normal osmoregulation. KCl suppresses the ion and drug sensitivities of the glc7-109 mutant. The CsCl sensitivity of this mutant is suppressed by recessive mutations in PMA1, which encodes the essential plasma membrane H(+)ATPase. Together, these results indicate that Glc7 regulates ion homeostasis by controlling ion transport and/or plasma membrane potential, a new role for Glc7 in budding yeast. PMID:11973298

  5. A levodopa dry powder inhaler for the treatment of Parkinson's disease patients in off periods.

    PubMed

    Luinstra, Marianne; Grasmeijer, Floris; Hagedoorn, Paul; Moes, Jan Reindert; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2015-11-01

    Adequate treatment of Parkinson's patients in off periods with orally administered levodopa is hindered by a poor bioavailability and a slow onset of action. Hence, there is a need for a fast and reliable alternative as for instance via pulmonary administration of the drug. We developed a levodopa containing powder formulation for pulmonary delivery by a recently presented high dose dry powder inhaler (Cyclops). The objective was to produce the drug formulation by means of simple techniques such as micronization, either as pure active substance or with a minimum amount of excipients. After an initial screening on dispersion behaviour, the most promising formulation in the Cyclops was characterized in vitro over a range of pressure drops (2-6kPa) and doses (20, 30 and 40mg), representative of those to be expected in practice. A co-micronized levodopa formulation with 2% l-leucine appeared to yield the best aerosol properties for inhalation and highest delivered dose reproducibility. The combination of this particular formulation and the Cyclops inhaler seems to meet the basic requirements for satisfactory deposition in the airways. This formulation is therefore expected to be a promising candidate for the treatment of Parkinson's patients in an off period. PMID:26453913

  6. BETAview: a digital /?-imaging system for dynamic studies of biological phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolucci, E.; Conti, M.; Mettivier, G.; Montesi, M. C.; Russo, P.

    2002-02-01

    We present a digital autoradiography (DAR) system, named BETA view, based on semiconductor pixel detectors and a single particle counting chip, for quantitative analysis of ?-emitting radioactive tracers in biological samples. The system is able to perform a real time monitoring of time-dependent biological phenomena. BETA view could be equipped either with GaAs or with Si semiconductor pixellated detectors. In this paper, we describe the results obtained with an assembly based on a Si detector, 300 ?m thick, segmented into 6464 170 ?m size square pixels. The detector is bump-bonded to the low threshold, single particle counting chip named Medipix1, developed by a CERN-based European collaboration. The sensitive area is about 1 cm 2. Studies of background noise and detection efficiency have been performed. Moreover, time-resolved cellular uptake studies with radiolabelled molecules have been monitored. Specifically, we have followed in vivo and in real time, the [ 14C] L-leucine amino acid uptake by eggs of Octopus vulgaris confirming the preliminary results of a previous paper. This opens the field of biomolecular kynetic studies with this new class of semiconductor DAR systems, whose evolution (using the Medipix2 chip, 256256 pixels, 55 ?m pixel size) is soon to come.

  7. Delivery of DNAzyme targeting aurora kinase A to inhibit the proliferation and migration of human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Zhen; Gao, Sai; Duan, Yan; Han, Haobo; Li, Li; Yang, Yan; Li, Quanshun

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a polyethylenimine derivative N-acetyl-l-leucine-polyethylenimine (N-Ac-l-Leu-PEI) was employed as a carrier to achieve the delivery of DNAzyme targeting aurora kinase A using PC-3 cell as a model. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the derivative could realize the cellular uptake of nanoparticles in an energy-dependent and clathrin-mediated pathway and obtain a high DNAzyme concentration in the cytoplasm through further endosomal escape. After DNAzyme transfection, expression level of aurora kinase A would be downregulated at the protein level. Meanwhile, the inhibition of cell proliferation was observed through 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell colony formation assay, attributing to the activation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Through flow cytometric analysis, an early apoptotic ratio of 25.93% and G2 phase of 22.58% has been detected after N-Ac-l-Leu-PEI-mediated DNAzyme transfection. Finally, wound healing and Transwell migration assay showed that DNAzyme transfection could efficiently inhibit the cell migration. These results demonstrated that N-Ac-l-Leu-PEI could successfully mediate the DNAzyme delivery and downregulate the expression level of aurora kinase A, triggering a significant inhibitory effect of excessive proliferation and migration of tumor cells. PMID:26425080

  8. Enzymatic in situ determination of stereospecificity of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Esaki, N.; Shimoi, H.; Nakajima, N.; Ohshima, T.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, K.

    1989-06-15

    Amino acid racemases inherently catalyze the exchange of alpha-hydrogen of amino acids with deuterium during racemization in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O. When the reactions catalyzed by alanine racemase and L-alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1), which is pro-R specific for the C-4 hydrogen transfer of NADH, are coupled in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O, (4R-2H)NADH is exclusively produced. Similarly, (4S-2H)NADH is made in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O with amino-acid racemase with low substrate specificity and L-leucine dehydrogenase, which is pro-S specific. We have established a simple procedure for the in situ analysis of stereospecificity of C-4 hydrogen transfer of NADH by an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase by combination with either of the above two couples of enzymes in the same reaction mixture. When the C-4 hydrogen of NAD+ is fully retained after sufficient incubation, the stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer by a dehydrogenase is the same as that of alanine dehydrogenase or leucine dehydrogenase. However, when the C-4 hydrogen of NAD+ is exchanged with deuterium, the enzyme to be examined shows the different stereospecificity from alanine dehydrogenase or leucine dehydrogenase. Thus, we can readily determine the stereospecificity by /sup 1/H NMR measurement without isolation of the coenzymes and products.

  9. Enantioselectivity of alcohol-modified polymeric surfactants in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tarus, Jepkoech; Agbaria, Rezik A; Morris, Kevin; Billiot, Fereshteh H; Williams, Alicia A; Chatman, Trenderlyn; Warner, Isiah M

    2003-08-01

    A novel method of modifying sodium undecanoyl-L-leucinate (SUL) micelles employed in chiral separation of analytes in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) to enhance selectivity toward specific analytes is discussed. The current study aimed at modifying the SUL micelles by introducing different alcohols into the mono-SUL micelles. The micellar solutions were then polymerized in the presence of alcohols followed by postpolymerization extraction of the alcohols to yield alcohol-free polymeric surfactants (poly-L-SUL). The effects of hexanol (C(6)OH) and undecylenyl alcohol (C(11)OH) on micellar properties of this surfactant were investigated by use of surface tensiometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient-nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR), and MEKC. The surface tension and PFG-NMR studies indicated an increase in the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and micellar size upon increasing the alcohol concentration. Fluorescence measurements suggested that alcohols induce closely packed micellar structures. Coumarinic and benzoin derivatives, as well as (+/-)-1, 1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dihydrogen phosphate (BNP) were used as test analytes for MEKC experiments. Examination of MEKC data showed remarkable resolutions and capacity factors of coumarinic derivatives obtained with modified poly-L-SUL as compared to the unmodified poly-L-SUL. Evaluation of fluorescence, PFG-NMR, and MEKC data suggest a strong correlation between the polarity and hydrodynamic radii of alcohol-modified micelles and the resolution of the test analytes. PMID:12900861

  10. Development of Biodegradable Polycation-Based Inhalable Dry Gene Powders by Spray Freeze Drying

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Ishii, Takehiko; Uchida, Satoshi; Itaka, Keiji; Kataoka, Kazunori; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two types of biodegradable polycation (PAsp(DET) homopolymer and PEG-PAsp(DET) copolymer) were applied as vectors for inhalable dry gene powders prepared by spray freeze drying (SFD). The prepared dry gene powders had spherical and porous structures with a 5~10-μm diameter, and the integrity of plasmid DNA could be maintained during powder production. Furthermore, it was clarified that PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder could more sufficiently maintain both the physicochemical properties and in vitro gene transfection efficiencies of polyplexes reconstituted after powder production than PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powder. From an in vitro inhalation study using an Andersen cascade impactor, it was demonstrated that the addition of l-leucine could markedly improve the inhalation performance of dry powders prepared by SFD. Following pulmonary delivery to mice, both PAsp(DET)- and PEG-PAsp(DET)-based dry gene powders could achieve higher gene transfection efficiencies in the lungs compared with a chitosan-based dry gene powder previously reported by us. PMID:26343708

  11. Technological characterization of lactococci isolated from traditional Chinese fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Ma, C L; Zhang, L W; Yi, H X; Du, M; Han, X; Zhang, L L; Feng, Z; Zhang, Y C; Li, Q

    2011-04-01

    To screen lactic acid bacteria for starter cultures in cheese production, 21 Lactococcus strains previously isolated from natural fermented milk and koumiss made by herdsman families in the Xinjiang, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces of China were evaluated for optimal growth temperature, acidification activity, proteolytic activity, aminopeptidase activity, and autolytic activity. All isolates presented low acidification rates, and the pH value did not reach 5.3 after 6 h of inoculation in sterile reconstituted skim milk at 30°C. Strains X9C2 and T7C showed the highest proteolytic activity of 24.67 and 23.58 mg of glycine/L of milk, respectively. For aminopeptidase activity, strains X9C2 and T1C2 displayed the highest activities of 30.56 and 27.70 U/mg of protein using L-leucine-p-nitroanilide as substrate, respectively. Autolytic activity in simulated cheese-like buffer ranged from 7.45 to 34.76%, and strains Q14C2 and Q16C showed the highest values of 34.76 and 34.20%, respectively. Collectively, one main finding is that some technological characteristics of Lactococcus isolates from Chinese traditional fermented products varied greatly. Some isolates with potentially important properties could be valuable for application as starter cultures of cheese or could constitute a mixed culture. PMID:21426956

  12. Serum metabolomics in rats models of ketamine abuse by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiling; Wen, Congcong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Fa; Wang, Shuanghu; Ma, Jianshe; Lin, Kezhi; Wang, Xianqin; Lin, Guanyang; Hu, Lufeng

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of ketamine on rats by examining the differences in serum metabolites between ketamine abuse group (Ket-group) and control group (Con-group). Compared to the Con-group, the level of phosphate, propanoic acid, ribitol and d-fructose of the Ket-group increased after continuous intraperitoneal administration of ketamine for 7 days, while the level of alanine, glycine, butanoic acid, valine, l-serine, l-proline, mannonic acid, octadecanoic acid and cholesterol decreased. After 14 days' administration, the level of alanine, butanoic acid, valine, l-leucine, phosphate, l-serine, l-threonine, propanetricarboxylic acid, hexadecanoic acid and oleic acid of the ketamine group increased while the level of mannonic acid, octadecanoic acid and cholesterol decreased. After stopping ketamine administration for 2 days, the level of butanoic acid, phosphate, aminomalonic acid, gluconic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid and arachidonic acid of Ket-group increased, while the level of glycine, l-lysine and cholesterol decreased. This study can provide invaluable information for the metabolites changes due to ketamine abuse. PMID:26540436

  13. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, mitochondrial biogenesis, and skeletal muscle health.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Duan, Yehui; Yao, Kang; Li, Fengna; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-01

    The metabolic roles of mitochondria go far beyond serving exclusively as the major producer of ATP in tissues and cells. Evidence has shown that mitochondria may function as a key regulator of skeletal muscle fiber types and overall well-being. Maintaining skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function is important for sustaining health throughout the lifespan. Of great importance, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB, a metabolite of L-leucine) has been proposed to enhance the protein deposition and efficiency of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, as well as muscle strength in both exercise and clinical settings. Specifically, dietary supplementation with HMB increases the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), which represents an upstream inducer of genes of mitochondrial metabolism, coordinates the expression of both nuclear- and mitochondrion-encoded genes in mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, PGC-1α plays a key role in the transformation of skeletal muscle fiber type, leading to a shift toward type I muscle fibers that are rich in mitochondria and have a high capacity for oxidative metabolism. As a nitrogen-free metabolite, HMB holds great promise to improve skeletal muscle mass and function, as well as whole-body health and well-being of animals and humans. PMID:26573541

  14. Kokumi-active glutamyl peptides in cheeses and their biogeneration by Penicillium roquefortii.

    PubMed

    Toelstede, Simone; Hofmann, Thomas

    2009-05-13

    Recently, a group of gamma-glutamyl dipeptides, but not the alpha-glutamyl dipeptides, were found to induce the attractive kokumi flavor of matured Gouda cheese. In the present investigation, the spatial distribution of alpha- and gamma-glutamyl dipeptides in Gouda cheese wheels and the concentration of these peptides in other cheese types were determined by means of HPLC-MS/MS. Among all cheeses investigated, by far the highest gamma-glutamyl peptide concentration (3590 mumol/kg) was found for Blue Shropshire, a blue-veined cheese. To check whether the gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) from Penicillium roquefortii is involved in gamma-glutamyl peptide production in this cheese, the GGT activity was measured and gamma-glutamyl peptides were analyzed in liquid cultures of mold isolated from Blue Shropshire as well as single P. roquefortiii strains incubated with the gamma-glutamyl donor l-glutamine and the candidate substrates l-glutamic acid, l-histidine, l-leucine, and l-methionine. Being well in line with the GGT activity found in Blue Shropshire, P. roquefortii was found for the first time to produce and secrete gamma-glutamyl peptides. Among the amino acids tested, l-methionine was found as a preferred gamma-glutamyl acceptor; for example, gamma-Glu-Met was produced in yields of about 50 mmol/mol and [(2)H(3)]-gamma-Glu-Met was obtained when [(2)H(3)]-l-methionine was used as substrate amino acid. PMID:19338275

  15. [Late onset 3-HMG-CoA lyase deficiency: a rare but treatable disorder].

    PubMed

    Pierron, S; Giudicelli, H; Moreigne, M; Khalfi, A; Touati, G; Caruba, C; Rolland, M-O; Acquaviva, C

    2010-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to a deficiency of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylCoA lyase (HMG-CoA lyase), a mitochondrial enzyme involved in ketogenesis and in the final step of l-leucine catabolism. HMG-CoA lyase deficiency can lead, in particular circumstances, such as fever, prolonged fasting or digestive disorders, to brutal and severe hypoglycemia with metabolic acidosis and sometimes fatal coma. We report on a new case of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria particular by its late onset in a 3-year-old patient. Molecular investigation identified two new sequence modifications in the HMGCL gene: c.494G>A (p.Arg165Gln) and c.820G>A (p.Gly274Arg). We remind about this case report that the therapeutical is mainly preventive and allows a very good prognosis for this disease. Long-term treatment consists in limited fasting time, continuous low protein diet and l-carnitine supplementation. Preventive measures are essential: prevention of fasting and emergency treatment during intercurrent infections. PMID:19932602

  16. Recent Advances in the 5q- Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The 5q- syndrome is the most distinct of the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and patients with this disorder have a deletion of chromosome 5q [del(5q)] as the sole karyotypic abnormality. Several genes mapping to the commonly deleted region of the 5q- syndrome have been implicated in disease pathogenesis in recent years. Haploinsufficiency of the ribosomal gene RPS14 has been shown to cause the erythroid defect in the 5q- syndrome. Loss of the microRNA genes miR-145 and miR-146a has been associated with the thrombocytosis observed in 5q- syndrome patients. Haploinsufficiency of CSNK1A1 leads to hematopoietic stem cell expansion in mice and may play a role in the initial clonal expansion in patients with 5q- syndrome. Moreover, a subset of patients harbor mutation of the remaining CSNK1A1 allele. Mouse models of the 5q- syndrome, which recapitulate the key features of the human disease, indicate that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of this disorder. Importantly, activation of p53 has been demonstrated in the human 5q- syndrome. Recurrent TP53 mutations have been associated with an increased risk of disease evolution and with decreased response to the drug lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS patients. Potential new therapeutic agents for del(5q) MDS include the translation enhancer L-leucine. PMID:26075044

  17. dcp gene of Escherichia coli: cloning, sequencing, transcript mapping, and characterization of the gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, B; Becker, S; Schroeder, U; Plapp, R

    1993-01-01

    Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase is a C-terminal exopeptidase of Escherichia coli. We have isolated the respective gene, dcp, from a low-copy-number plasmid library by its ability to complement a dcp mutation preventing the utilization of the unique substrate N-benzoyl-L-glycyl-L-histidyl-L-leucine. Sequence analysis of a 2.9-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 2,043 nucleotides which was assigned to the dcp gene by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and electrophoretic molecular mass determination of the purified dcp product. Transcript mapping by primer extension and S1 protection experiments verified the physiological significance of potential initiation and termination signals for dcp transcription and allowed the identification of a single species of monocistronic dcp mRNA. The codon usage pattern and the effects of elevated gene copy number indicated a relatively low level of dcp expression. The predicted amino acid sequence of dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, containing a potential zinc-binding site, is highly homologous (78.8%) to the corresponding enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium. It also displays significant homology to the products of the S. typhimurium opdA and the E. coli prlC genes and to some metalloproteases from rats and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No potential export signals could be inferred from the amino acid sequence. Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase was enriched 80-fold from crude extracts of E. coli and used to investigate some of its biochemical and biophysical properties. Images PMID:8226676

  18. Multiplexed peptide analysis for kinetic measurements of major human apolipoproteins by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Croyal, Mikaël; Fall, Fanta; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Chétiveaux, Maud; Zaïr, Yassine; Ouguerram, Khadija; Krempf, Michel; Nobécourt, Estelle

    2016-03-01

    A multiplexed assay was developed by MS to analyze, in a single run, six major human Apos involved in lipoprotein metabolism: ApoA-I, ApoA-II, ApoB100, ApoC-II, ApoC-III, and ApoE. This method was validated in vivo in six subjects who received a 14 h constant infusion of [5,5,5-(2)H3]L-leucine at 10 μM/kg/h. Plasma lipoprotein fractions were isolated from collected blood samples and were digested with trypsin. Proteotypic peptides were subsequently analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Enrichment measurement data were compared with those obtained by the standard method using GC/MS. The required time to obtain the LC/MS/MS data was less than that needed for GC/MS. The enrichments from both methods were correlated for ApoA-I (r = 0.994; P < 0.0001) and ApoB100 (r = 0.999; P < 0.0001), and the Bland-Altman plot confirmed the similarity of the two methods. Intra- and inter-assay variability calculated for the six Apos of interest did not exceed 10.7 and 12.5%, respectively, and kinetic parameters were similar and/or in agreement with previously reported data. Therefore, LC/MS/MS can be considered as a useful tool for human Apo kinetic studies using stable isotopes. PMID:26773160

  19. Development of New Formulation Dry Powder for Pulmonary Delivery Using Amino Acids to Improve Stability.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yumiko; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2016-03-01

    Cationic polymers are being studied as non-viral gene delivery vectors. Poly{N-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} (PAsp(DET)) and their block copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol), PEG-PAsp(DET), have been reported as efficient biodegradable non-viral vectors which form a polyplex with plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the polyplexes are not stable because PAsp(DET) and PEG-PAsp(DET) are easily subjected to hydrolysis; therefore, they need to be prepared on site. In this study, using the biodegradable polycations as non-viral vectors, PAsp(DET) and PEG-PAsp(DET), we investigated the effects of L-leucine (Leu) on the polyplex. We prepared solutions and dry powders with and without Leu. Both dry powders had large and porous particles and Leu acted as a dispersing agent. The transfection activity of the sample solutions decreased within a month. However, the decrease in the transfection activity was partially suppressed by the dry powder with Leu at 5 and 25C at 3 months. Furthermore, transfection experiments revealed that Leu exhibited a pDNA-stabilizing effect in the solution and dry powder. Similar results were observed for pDNA integrity, where a polyplex was formed in the dry powder. The results suggest that Leu is a candidate stabilizer to protect pDNA from degradation. PMID:26725531

  20. Polypeptide cationic micelles mediated co-delivery of docetaxel and siRNA for synergistic tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cuifang; Zheng, Mingbin; Gong, Ping; Deng, Jizhe; Yi, Huqiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Yijuan; Liu, Peng; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2013-04-01

    Combination of two or more therapeutic strategies with different mechanisms can cooperatively impede tumor growth. Co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drug and small interfering RNA (siRNA) within a single nanoparticle (NP) provides a rational strategy for combined cancer therapy. Here, we prepared polypeptide micelle nanoparticles (NPs) of a triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-leucine) (PEG-PLL-PLLeu) to systemically codeliver docetaxel (DTX) and siRNA-Bcl-2 for an effective drug/gene vector. The hydrophobic PLLeu core entrapped with anticancer drugs, while the PLL polypeptide cationic backbone allowed for electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged siRNA. The resulting micelle NP exhibited very stable, good biocompatible and excellent passive targeted properties. The micelle complexes with siRNA-Bcl-2 effectively knocked down the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein. Moreover, the co-delivery system of DTX and siRNA-Bcl-2 (DTX-siRNA-NPs) obviously down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene and enhanced antitumor activity with a smaller dose of DTX, resulting the significantly inhibited tumor growth of MCF-7 xenograft murine model as compared to the individual siRNA and only DTX treatments. Our results demonstrated well-defined PEG-PLL-PLLeu polypeptide cationic micelles with the excellent synergistic effect of DTX and siRNA-Bcl-2 in combined cancer therapy. PMID:23375952

  1. Nanoparticle agglomerates of indomethacin: The role of poloxamers and matrix former on their dissolution and aerosolisation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Malamatari, Maria; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Bloxham, Mark; Buckton, Graham

    2015-11-10

    Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and assembled to microsized agglomerates with and without matrix formers (mannitol and L-leucine) by coupling wet milling and spray drying to harmonise the advantages of NPs with handling and aerodynamics of microparticles without induction of amorphisation. Indomethacin was selected as poorly water-soluble drug and poloxamers with different ratios of hydrophilic to hydrophobic domains were evaluated as stabilisers comparatively to D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene-glycol succinate (TPGS). Particle size of nanosuspensions and morphology, size, crystal form, drug loading, redispersibility, in vitro dissolution, and in vitro aerosolisation of NP-agglomerates were determined. Molecular weight of stabilisers affected the rate but not the limit of NP size reduction and the length of hydrophilic segment in poloxamers was found important for the nanosuspension stabilisation. SEM revealed the structure of agglomerates consisting of nanocrystal assemblies. XRPD with DSC proved that NP agglomerates retained their crystallinity. NP-agglomerates exhibited enhanced dissolution compared to physical mixtures of drug and stabilisers while incorporation of matrix formers enabled redispersibility upon hydration and further increased the drug dissolution. Also, matrix formers resulted in significantly improved aerosolisation with higher fine particle fractions (49-62%) and smaller mass median aerodynamic diameters (<3.5 μm), compared to cases without matrix formers (34-43% and <4.5 μm). PMID:26364709

  2. Engineering of Glarea lozoyensis for exclusive production of the pneumocandin B0 precursor of the antifungal drug caspofungin acetate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yue, Qun; Li, Yan; Niu, Xuemei; Xiang, Meichun; Wang, Wenzhao; Bills, Gerald F; Liu, Xingzhong; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-03-01

    Pneumocandins produced by the fungus Glarea lozoyensis are acylated cyclic hexapeptides of the echinocandin family. Pneumocandin B0 is the starting molecule for the first semisynthetic echinocandin antifungal drug, caspofungin acetate. In the wild-type strain, pneumocandin B0 is a minor fermentation product, and its industrial production was achieved by a combination of extensive mutation and medium optimization. The pneumocandin biosynthetic gene cluster was previously elucidated by a whole-genome sequencing approach. Knowledge of the biosynthetic cluster suggested an alternative way to produce exclusively pneumocandin B0. Disruption of GLOXY4, encoding a nonheme, ?-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenase, confirmed its involvement in l-leucine cyclization to form 4S-methyl-l-proline. The absence of 4S-methyl-l-proline abolishes pneumocandin A0 production, and 3S-hydroxyl-l-proline occupies the hexapeptide core's position 6, resulting in exclusive production of pneumocandin B0. Retrospective analysis of the GLOXY4 gene in a previously isolated pneumocandin B0-exclusive mutant (ATCC 74030) indicated that chemical mutagenesis disrupted the GLOXY4 gene function by introducing two amino acid mutations in GLOXY4. This one-step genetic manipulation can rationally engineer a high-yield production strain. PMID:25527531

  3. Alterations of insulin secretion following long-term manipulation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels by diazoxide and nateglinide.

    PubMed

    Ball, Andrew J; Flatt, Peter R; McClenaghan, Neville H

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that prolonged exposure to drugs, which act via blocking KATP channels, can desensitize the insulinotropic effects of drugs and nutrients acting via KATP channels. In this study, effects of prolonged exposure to diazoxide, a KATP channel opener, on beta cell function were examined using clonal BRIN-BD11 cells. The findings were compared to the long-term effects of KATP channel blockers nateglinide and tolbutamide. Following 18 h exposure to 200 microM diazoxide, the amounts of insulin secreted in response to glucose, amino acids and insulinotropic drugs were increased. Secretory responsiveness to a variety of agents acting via KATP channels was retained following prolonged diazoxide exposure. In contrast, 18 h exposure to 100 microM nateglinide significantly attenuated the insulin secretory responses to tolbutamide, nateglinide and BTS 67 582. Glucose- and L-alanine-stimulated insulin release were unaffected by prolonged nateglinide exposure, however responsiveness to L-leucine and L-arginine was diminished. Prolonged exposure to nateglinide had no effect on forskolin- and PMA-stimulated insulin release, and the overall pattern of desensitization was similar to that induced by 100 microM tolbutamide. We conclude that in contrast to chronic long-term KATP channel blockade, long-term diazoxide treatment is not harmful to KATP channel mediated insulin secretion and may have beneficial protective effects on beta cell function. PMID:15588714

  4. Effects of amino acids on membrane potential and 86Rb+ fluxes in pancreatic beta-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Henquin, J.C.; Meissner, H.P.

    1981-03-01

    The membrane potential of beta-cells was studied with microelectrodes in mouse islets and their potassium permeability was evaluated by measuring 86Rb+ fluxes in rat islets. In the absence of glucose, L-leucine, its metabolite ketoisocaproate, and its nonmetabolized analogue 2-aminonorbornane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) depolarized beta-cells and triggered bursts of electrical activity like glucose. The effect of leucine was weak, but was potentiated by a low concentration of glucose or by theophylline; the effect of ketoisocaproate was stronger and faster than that of an equimolar concentration of glucose. Arginine alone produced only a fast depolarization of beta-cells, insufficient to trigger electrical activity. Leucine and arginine potentiated the activity induced by glucose. In a glucose-free medium, alanine only slightly depolarized beta cells, whereas isoleucine and phenylalanie had no effect. Leucine, ketoisocaproate, and BCH reversibly decreased 86Rb+ efflux from islets perifused in the absence of glucose and increased 86Rb+ uptake. By contrast, both in the absence or presence of glucose, arginine increased 86Rb+ efflux and decreased 86Rb+ uptake. It is proposed that leucine, ketoisocaproate, and BCH, as glucose, deplolarize beta-cells by decreasing their potassium permeability, whereas arginine acts differently. The appearance of bursts of electrical activity with secretagogues unrelated to glucose suggests that they reflect an intrinsic property of the beta-cell membrane.

  5. Evidence that synaptosomal high-affinity carriers for amino acid neurotransmitters are glycosylated

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleska, M.M.; Erecinska, M.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of removal of surface sialic acid from synaptosomes on the high-affinity, Na/sup +/-dependent uptake systems for amino acid neurotransmitters was evaluated. Synaptosomes from rat forebrain were preincubated with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae for 20 min at 34/sup 0/. After washing and resuspension, their ability to transport /sup 14/C-GABA and the acidic amino acid, /sup 3/H-aspartate was studied. Pretreatment with neuraminidase resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of the uptake of both amino acids while the influx of /sup 3/H-L-leucine was unaffected. Inhibition was a function of the amount of sialic acid released from membranes. The analysis of the kinetic parameters of amino acid uptake revealed that inhibition resulted from a decrease of Vmax without any change in the Km. Neither the synaptosomal energy levels nor the internal concentration of potassium ions was affected by the pretreatment with neuraminidase. The maximum accumulation ratios for both amino acids remained largely unaltered. It is concluded that the GABA and acidic amino acid transporters are glycosylated and that sialic acid is involved in the operation of carrier proteins directly and not through modification of the driving forces responsible for amino acid transport.

  6. The targeted delivery of doxorubicin with transferrin-conjugated block copolypeptide vesicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian S; Yip, Allison T; Thach, Alison V; Rodriguez, April R; Deming, Timothy J; Kamei, Daniel T

    2015-12-30

    We previously investigated the intracellular trafficking properties of our novel poly(l-glutamate)60-b-poly(l-leucine)20 (E60L20) vesicles (EL vesicles) conjugated to transferrin (Tf). In this study, we expand upon our previous work by investigating the drug encapsulation, release, and efficacy properties of our novel EL vesicles for the first time. After polyethylene glycol (PEG) was conjugated to the vesicles for steric stability, doxorubicin (DOX) was successfully encapsulated in the vesicles using a modified pH-ammonium sulfate gradient method. Tf was subsequently conjugated to the vesicles to provide active targeting to cancer cells and a mode of internalization into the cells. These Tf-conjugated, DOX-loaded, PEGylated EL (Tf-DPEL) vesicles exhibited colloidal stability and were within the allowable size range for passive and active targeting. A mathematical model was then derived to predict drug release from the Tf-DPEL vesicles by considering diffusive and convective mass transfer of DOX. Our mathematical model reasonably predicted our experimentally measured release profile with no fitted parameters, suggesting that the model could be used in the future to manipulate drug carrier properties to alter drug release profiles. Finally, an in vitro cytotoxicity assay was used to demonstrate that the Tf-DPEL vesicles exhibited enhanced drug carrier efficacy in comparison to its non-targeted counterpart. PMID:26456252

  7. Nanocluster budesonide formulations enhance drug delivery through endotracheal tubes.

    PubMed

    Pornputtapitak, Warangkana; El-Gendy, Nashwa; Berkland, Cory

    2012-03-01

    The pulmonary system is an attractive route for drug delivery because the lungs have a large accessible surface area for treatment. For ventilated patients, an endotracheal tube is required for delivering drugs into the lungs. Such tubes are generally poor conduits for delivering traditional aerosol formulations. Both the formulation and the properties of the endotracheal tube are important effectors of delivery efficiency. In this study, agglomerates of budesonide nanoparticles (NanoClusters) were formulated with or without l-leucine or lactose. Teflon tubing was compared with commercial endotracheal tubes as a conduit for delivering budesonide powders into a cascade impactor. The effects of volumetric flow rate, tube size, and humidity were also investigated. NanoCluster budesonide (NC-Bud) formulations had a considerably higher emitted dose and fine particle fraction compared with stock budesonide and the commercial Flexhaler powder when applied through endotracheal tubes. Tubing material did not significantly affect powder performance, but decreasing tubing diameter or increasing volumetric flow rates yielded a smaller mass median aerodynamic diameter for NC-Bud. Engineered NC-Bud powders may dramatically improve drug delivery through endotracheal tubes when using proper ventilator settings. PMID:22095757

  8. Inhibition of Sporulation and Ultrastructural Alterations of Grapevine Downy Mildew by the Endophytic Fungus Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Musetti, R; Vecchione, A; Stringher, L; Borselli, S; Zulini, L; Marzani, C; D'Ambrosio, M; di Toppi, L Sanit; Pertot, I

    2006-07-01

    ABSTRACT One hundred twenty-six endophytic microorganisms isolated from grapevine leaves showing anomalous symptoms of downy mildew were tested on grapevine leaf disks as biocontrol agents against Plasmopara viticola. Among the 126 microorganisms, only five fungal isolates completely inhibited the sporulation of P. viticola; all of them were identified as Alternaria alternata. Ultrastructural analyses were carried out by transmission electron microscopy to observe cellular interactions between P. viticola and A. alternata in the grapevine leaf tissue. Cytological observations indicated that, even without close contact with A. alternata, the P. viticola mycelium showed severe ultrastructural alterations, such as the presence of enlarged vacuoles or vacuoles containing electron-dense precipitates. Haustoria appeared necrotic and irregularly shaped or were enclosed in callose-like substances. Therefore, a toxic action of A. alternata against P. viticola was hypothesized. To examine the production of toxic low-molecular-weight metabolites by A. alternata, we analyzed the fungal liquid culture by thin layer chromatography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The main low-molecular-weight metabolites produced by the endophyte were three diketopiperazines: cyclo(l-phenylalanine-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline), cyclo(l-leucine-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline), and cyclo(l-alanine-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline). When applied at different concentrations to both grapevine leaf disks and greenhouse plants, a mixture of the three diketopiperazines was very efficacious in limiting P. viticola sporulation. PMID:18943142

  9. Synthesis and renewal of proteins in duck anterior hypophysis in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Tixier-Vidal, A; Gourdji, D

    1970-07-01

    In cultures of duck anterior pituitaries, the synthesis and renewal of the specific secretory protein prolactin and of total newly synthesized tissue proteins were studied. As concerns prolactin, assay of the tissue and culture media hormone content demonstrates de novo synthesis of prolactin in vitro at a constant rate during at least 2 wk. The prolactin content after 1 wk and after 2 wk of culture is the same and is similar to the initial content. The renewal time of this prolactin can be estimated at 28 or 48 hr. As concerns total proteins, the use of a chase after a short pulse of 5 min in the presence of tritiated L-leucine demonstrated that newly synthesized proteins are excreted into the culture medium from 30 min to 1 hr after the beginning of the chase. Therefore, the synthesis and excretion of proteins are two discontinuous phenomena. The migration rate of the total proteins was slower than that of prolactin, indicating that this hormone does not represent more than about half of the newly synthesized proteins. These conclusions are in good agreement with those based on high resolution radioautographic data previously obtained on the same material. PMID:5460460

  10. Rotavirus infection impairs intestinal brush-border membrane Na(+)-solute cotransport activities in young rabbits.

    PubMed

    Halaihel, N; Livin, V; Alvarado, F; Vasseur, M

    2000-09-01

    The mechanism of rotavirus diarrhea was investigated by infecting young, specific pathogen-free, New Zealand rabbits with a lapine rotavirus, strain La/RR510. With 4-wk-old animals, virus shedding into the intestinal lumen peaked at 72 h postinfection (hpi), and a mild, watery diarrhea appeared at 124 hpi. No intestinal lesions were seen up to 144 hpi, indicating that diarrhea does not follow mucosal damage but can precede it, as if cell dysfunction were the cause, not the consequence, of the histological lesions. Kinetic analyses with brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from infected rabbits revealed strong inhibition of both Na(+)-D-glucose (SGLT1) and Na(+)-L-leucine symport activities. For both symporters, only maximum velocity decreased with time. The density of phlorizin-binding sites and SGLT1 protein antigen in the membrane remained unaffected, indicating that the virus effect on this symporter is direct. Because SGLT1 supports water reabsorption under physiological conditions, the mechanism of rotavirus diarrhea may involve a generalized inhibition of Na(+)-solute symport systems, hence, of water reabsorption. Massive water loss through the intestine may eventually overwhelm the capacity of the organ for water reabsorption, thereby helping the diarrhea to get established. PMID:10960359

  11. Functional characterization of two M42 aminopeptidases erroneously annotated as cellulases.

    PubMed

    Dutoit, Raphal; Brandt, Nathalie; Legrain, Christianne; Bauvois, Cdric

    2012-01-01

    Several aminopeptidases of the M42 family have been described as tetrahedral-shaped dodecameric (TET) aminopeptidases. A current hypothesis suggests that these enzymes are involved, along with the tricorn peptidase, in degrading peptides produced by the proteasome. Yet the M42 family remains ill defined, as some members have been annotated as cellulases because of their homology with CelM, formerly described as an endoglucanase of Clostridium thermocellum. Here we describe the catalytic functions and substrate profiles CelM and of TmPep1050, the latter having been annotated as an endoglucanase of Thermotoga maritima. Both enzymes were shown to catalyze hydrolysis of nonpolar aliphatic L-amino acid-pNA substrates, the L-leucine derivative appearing as the best substrate. No significant endoglucanase activity was measured, either for TmPep1050 or CelM. Addition of cobalt ions enhanced the activity of both enzymes significantly, while both the chelating agent EDTA and bestatin, a specific inhibitor of metalloaminopeptidases, proved inhibitory. Our results strongly suggest that one should avoid annotating members of the M42 aminopeptidase family as cellulases. In an updated assessment of the distribution of M42 aminopeptidases, we found TET aminopeptidases to be distributed widely amongst archaea and bacteria. We additionally observed that several phyla lack both TET and tricorn. This suggests that other complexes may act downstream from the proteasome. PMID:23226342

  12. Suppression of mTORC1 activation in acid-?-glucosidase-deficient cells and mice is ameliorated by leucine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, Adi; Wang, Yichen; Yang, Yingjuan; Yang, Gong-She; Johnson, Danielle E.; Backer, Jonathan M.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2014-01-01

    Pompe disease is due to a deficiency in acid-?-glucosidase (GAA) and results in debilitating skeletal muscle wasting, characterized by the accumulation of glycogen and autophagic vesicles. Given the role of lysosomes as a platform for mTORC1 activation, we examined mTORC1 activity in models of Pompe disease. GAA-knockdown C2C12 myoblasts and GAA-deficient human skin fibroblasts of infantile Pompe patients were found to have decreased mTORC1 activation. Treatment with the cell-permeable leucine analog l-leucyl-l-leucine methyl ester restored mTORC1 activation. In vivo, Pompe mice also displayed reduced basal and leucine-stimulated mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle, whereas treatment with a combination of insulin and leucine normalized mTORC1 activation. Chronic leucine feeding restored basal and leucine-stimulated mTORC1 activation, while partially protecting Pompe mice from developing kyphosis and the decline in muscle mass. Leucine-treated Pompe mice showed increased spontaneous activity and running capacity, with reduced muscle protein breakdown and glycogen accumulation. Together, these data demonstrate that GAA deficiency results in reduced mTORC1 activation that is partly responsible for the skeletal muscle wasting phenotype. Moreover, mTORC1 stimulation by dietary leucine supplementation prevented some of the detrimental skeletal muscle dysfunction that occurs in the Pompe disease mouse model. PMID:25231351

  13. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour (/sup 203/Hg)-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total /sup 203/Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood /sup 203/Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater /sup 203/Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals /sup 203/Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain /sup 203/Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing /sup 203/Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system.

  14. Dynamic proteome analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under constant light

    SciTech Connect

    Aryal, Uma K.; Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Jacobs, Jon M.

    2012-02-03

    Understanding the dynamic nature of protein abundances provides insights into protein turnover not readily apparent from conventional, static mass spectrometry measurements. This level of data is particularly informative when surveying protein abundances in biological systems subjected to large perturbations or alterations in environment such as cyanobacteria. Our current analysis expands upon conventional proteomic approaches in cyanobacteria by measuring dynamic changes of the proteome using a 13C15N-L-leucine metabolic labeling in Cyanothece ATCC51142. Metabolically labeled Cyanothece ATCC51142 cells grown under nitrogen sufficient conditions in continuous light were monitored longitudinally for isotope incorporation over a 48 h period, revealing 422 proteins with dynamic changes in abundances. In particular, proteins involved in carbon fixation, pentose phosphate pathway, cellular protection, redox regulation, protein folding, assembly and degradation showed higher levels of isotope incorporation suggesting that these biochemical pathways are important for growth under non-diazotrophic conditions. Calculation of relative isotope abundances (RIA) values allowed to measure actual active protein synthesis over time for different biochemical pathways under non-diazotrophic conditions. Overall results demonstrated the utility of 'non-steady state' pulsed metabolic labeling for systems-wide dynamic quantification of the proteome in Cyanothece ATCC51142 that can also be applied to other cyanobacteria.

  15. Optimization of the experimental parameters of fluticasone propionate microparticles for pulmonary delivery using a box behenken design.

    PubMed

    Patel, P V; Soni, T G; Thakkar, V T; Gandhi, T R

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine extensively the influences of formulation and process variables on the microparticles. The microparticles were generated by the spray-drying technique using polymer chitosan, mannitol along with L-leucine. The effects of various experimental parameters such as polymer concentration, inlet temperature, and feed flow rate on particle size and production yields were evaluated by means of experimental box-behnken design. Multiple regression analysis was carried out and response surfaces were obtained. Optimized formulation and check points batches were selected by feasibility and grid search. Experimental design it was evaluated that inlet temperature and polymer concentration influence on the production yield. Feed flow rate impact on particle size. Results showed that spray drying technique yield 985 to 4060 nm indicate micro size range and production yield was found in between 27.01-52.96%. The selection of appropriate parameters yielded spray-dried microparticles characterized by narrow dimensional distribution. In our present work, prepared microparticles using the spray-drying technique and systematically estimated their feasibility for the pulmonary delivery of microparticles by careful investigations of their characteristics and aerosolization properties. Spray drying technique yield optimum size for deposition beyond the narrow airway into the alveoli and suitable for respiratory deposition. PMID:23066204

  16. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Obtained from Sugar-Cane Juice Fermentations and Their Impact in Cachaa Production?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Valdinia Aparecida; Vicente, Maristela Arajo; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; de Miranda Castro, Ieso; Coutrim, Maurcio Xavier; Schller, Dorit; Alves, Henrique; Casal, Margarida; de Oliveira Santos, Juliana; Arajo, Leandro Dias; da Silva, Paulo Henrique Alves; Brando, Rogelio Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were isolated and characterized aiming at the selection of starter yeasts to be used in the production of cachaa, the Brazilian sugar cane spirit. The methodology established took into account the screening for biochemical traits desirable in a yeast cachaa producer, such as no H2S production, high tolerance to ethanol and high temperatures, high fermentative capacity, and the abilities to flocculate and to produce mycocins. Furthermore, the yeasts were exposed to drugs such as 5,5?,5"-trifluor-d,l-leucine and cerulenin to isolate those that potentially overproduce higher alcohols and esters. The utilization of a random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR method with primers based on intron splicing sites flanking regions of the COX1 gene, as well as microsatellite analysis, was not sufficient to achieve good differentiation among selected strains. In contrast, karyotype analysis allowed a clear distinction among all strains. Two selected strains were experimentally evaluated as cachaa producers. The results suggest that the selection of strains as fermentation starters requires the combined use of biochemical and molecular criteria to ensure the isolation and identification of strains with potential characteristics to produce cachaa with a higher quality standard. PMID:18065624

  17. New inhibitors of renin that contain novel phosphostatine Leu-Val replacements.

    PubMed

    Dellaria, J F; Maki, R G; Stein, H H; Cohen, J; Whittern, D; Marsh, K; Hoffman, D J; Plattner, J J; Perun, T J

    1990-02-01

    A novel series of renin inhibitors based on the Phe8-His9-Leu10-Val11 substructure of renin's natural substrate, angiotensinogen, is reported. These inhibitors retain the Phe8-His9 portion of the native substructure and employ novel phosphostatine Leu10-Val11 replacements (LVRs). The phosphostatine LVRs were prepared by condensing a dialkyl phosphonate ester stabilized anion with either N-t-Boc-amino aldehydes or N-tritylamino aldehydes (derived from the corresponding amino acid). Structure-activity relationships at the Leu10 side chain revealed that the LVR derived from L-cyclohexylalanine provided a 130-fold boost in potency over the LVR derived from L-leucine. The dialkyl ester moiety was varied and a loss in potency was incurred when the alkyl ester was chain extended or alpha-branched; dimethyl esters provided optimum potency. The phosphonate moiety was replaced by a half-acid half-ester phosphonate and dimethylphosphinate; both replacements lead to a loss in potency. The more potent inhibitors (IC50 = 20-50 nM) were found to be selective inhibitors for renin over porcine pepsin and bovine cathepsin D (little or no inhibition was observed at 10(-5) M). PMID:2105396

  18. Microplasma discharge ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Joshua M; Galhena, Asiri S; Fernández, Facundo M; Orlando, Thomas M

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of a microplasma ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry. This device is a robust, easy-to-operate microhollow discharge that enables ambient direct analysis of gaseous, liquid, and solid-phase samples with minimum requirements in terms of operating power and high purity gas consumption. The initial performance of the microplasma device has been evaluated by ionizing samples containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF), methyl salicylate, caffeine, l-leucine, l-histidine, loratadine, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and cocaine in various forms. These molecules are diverse in nature, but almost all have relatively high proton affinities. Thus, the major species observed in all obtained mass spectra corresponded to protonated molecules. Though these microplasmas are known to produce significant densities of metastable species and electrons with mean energies greater than several electronvolt, minimal fragmentation was observed. Background spectra showed prominent signals corresponding to H(+)(H(2)O)(2) ions and a distinct lack of H(3)O(+). Small water cluster ions are likely the dominant proton transfer agents, giving rise to mass spectral data very similar to that obtained using other plasma-based ambient ionization techniques. The simplicity, low cost, low power, low rate of gas consumption, and possibility of being batch-fabricated, makes these microplasma devices attractive candidates as ion sources for miniaturized mass spectrometry and other field detection applications. PMID:20020764

  19. Cell surface glycoproteins of CHO cells. I. Internalization and rapid recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Raub, T.J.; Denny, J.B.; Roberts, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The major cell surface proteins of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been investigated after reacting cells at 4/sup 0/C with the membrane-impermeant reagent, trinitrobenzenesulfonate (TNBS). Immunoprecipitation and subsequent two-dimensional, sodiumdodecyl sulfate, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of proteins from derivatized cells that had been labelled previously with (/sup 3/H)D-glucosamine or (/sup 3/H)L-leucine showed that TNBS reacted with most of the high molecular weight (HMW) acidic glycoproteins that became labelled with iodine by the lactoperoxidase technique and that bind the lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). After warming the cells to allow endocytosis to proceed, molecule haptenized with trinitrophenol (TNP) groups were followed radio-chemically by means of (/sup 125/I)anti-DNP antibodies. Within 15 min at 37/sup 0/C, a steady-state between surface and cytoplasmic label was reached, with about 65% of the hapten located internally. Recycling of internalized TNP groups back to the cell surface also occurred rapidly (t/sub 1/2/ approx. 5 min). Our results are consistent with the view that the majority of plasma membrane glycoproteins are continuously being internalized and recycled at a high rate.

  20. An efficient biosurfactant-producing bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium CT2, isolated from mangrove sediment in south of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saimmai, Atipan; Onlamool, Theerawat; Sobhon, Vorasan; Maneerat, Suppasil

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria, isolate CT2, was isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene from isolate CT2 showed 100 % similarity with Selenomonas ruminantium. The highest biosurfactant production (5.02 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on minimal salt medium containing 15 g/l molasses and 1 g/l commercial monosodium glutamate supplemented with 1 g/l NaCl, 0.1 g/l leucine, 5 % (v/v) inoculum size at 30 C and 150 rpm after 54 h of cultivation. The biosurfactant obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate showed high surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m), a small CMC value (8 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction and emulsification activity and a high level of salt tolerance. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a lipopeptide by using a biochemical test, FT-IR, MNR and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance PAHs solubility. PMID:22932808

  1. Beta-decay, Bremsstrahlen, and the origin of molecular chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Yi, L.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the Vester-Ulbricht beta-decay Bremsstrahlen hypothesis for the origin of optical activity, and of subsequent experiments designed to test it. Certain experiments along these lines, begun in 1974 and involving the irradiation of racemic and optically active amino acids in a 61.7 KCi Sr-90-Y-90 Bremsstrahlen source, have now been completed and are described. After 10.89 years of irradiation with a total Bremsstrahlen dose of 2.5 x 10 to the 9th rads, crystalline DL-leucine, norleucine, and norvaline suffered 47.2, 33.6, and 27.4 percent radiolysis, respectively, but showed no evidence whatsoever of asymmetric degradation. Dand L-Leucine underwent about 48 percent radiolysis and showed 2.4-2.9 percent radioracemization. Other samples in solution were too severely degraded to analyze. Probable intrinsic reasons for the failure of the Vester-Ulbricht mechanism to afford asymmetric radiolysis in the present and related experiments involving beta-decay Bremsstrahlen are enumerated.

  2. Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-08-19

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after ECMO remains high.Cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown and may impact recovery. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Fourteen immature piglets (7.8-15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8 hour-ECMO (UNLOAD) and post-wean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused [2-13C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]-L-leucine, as a tracer of amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis into the coronary artery. RELOAD showed marked elevations in myocardial oxygen consumption above baseline and UNLOAD. Pyruvate uptake was markedly increased though RELOAD decreased pyruvate contribution to oxidative CAC metabolism.RELOAD also increased absolute concentrations of all CAC intermediates, while maintaining or increasing 13C-molar percent enrichment. RELOAD also significantly increased cardiac fractional protein synthesis rates by >70% over UNLOAD. Conclusions: RELOAD produced high energy metabolic requirement and rebound protein synthesis. Relative pyruvate decarboxylation decreased with RELOAD while promoting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and amino acid incorporation into protein rather than to the CAC for oxidation. These perturbations may serve as therapeutic targets to improve contractile function after ECMO.

  3. Nutritional and regulatory roles of leucine in muscle growth and fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Liu, Hongnan; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Yuzhe; Deng, Dun; Tang, Yulong; Feng, Zemeng; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic roles for L-leucine, an essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), go far beyond serving exclusively as a building block for de novo protein synthesis. Growing evidence shows that leucine regulates protein and lipid metabolism in animals. Specifically, leucine activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, including the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and to promote mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in enhanced cellular respiration and energy partitioning. Activation of cellular energy metabolism favors fatty acid oxidation to CO2 and water in adipocytes, lean tissue gain in young animals, and alleviation of muscle protein loss in aging adults, lactating mammals, and food-deprived subjects. As a functional amino acid, leucine holds great promise to enhance the growth, efficiency of food utilization, and health of animals and humans.  PMID:25553480

  4. Formulation of pyrazinamide-loaded large porous particles for the pulmonary route: avoiding crystal growth using excipients.

    PubMed

    Pham, Dinh-Duy; Fattal, Elias; Ghermani, Noureddine; Guiblin, Nicolas; Tsapis, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    We have designed a novel formulation of pyrazinamide (PZA), an antitubercular drug within large porous particles intended for deep lung delivery. By simply spray-drying PZA, we have obtained crystalline particles of the ? polymorph of PZA that were unstable and not adapted for lung administration. Several excipients were added to the formulation to obtain stable large porous particles with a median size above 5 ?m and a low tap density. Although a combination of leucine and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) allowed to reduce tap density and to increase particle size, these excipients were not sufficient to prevent crystallization and promote stability. The addition of hyaluronic acid (HA) in combination with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) allowed to obtain stable partially crystalline spherical particles adapted for deep lung delivery. The optimized formulation obtained by spray-drying 0.9 g/L PZA, 0.6g/L leucine, 0.2g/L HA, 0.3g/L DPPC and 2g/L AB in a mixture of ethanol-water (70/30, v/v) possesses a median size of 5.8 0.1 ?m and a tap density around 0.09 0.01 g/cm(3). The estimated aerodynamic diameter is around 1.75 ?m and the powder is stable for more than 4 weeks of storage. PMID:23603099

  5. Direct spectrophotometric measurement of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity for screening bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Guan-Hong; Liu, Huan; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei

    2005-02-23

    A direct, extraction-free spectrophotometric assay was developed for determination of angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity (ACE) in the presence of ACE inhibitors using hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine (HHL) as the ACE-specific substrate. This method relies on previously published spectrophotometric determination of hippuric acid (HA) content in the urine, the method of which was based on the specific colorimetric reaction of HA with benzene sulfonyl chloride (BSC) in the presence of quinoline. The proposed ACE inhibition assay was applied to the measurement of the ACE inhibitory activity of Captopril. IC(50) value of Captopril corresponded well with literature data. Furthermore, Alcalase hydrolysates of mung bean and rice protein isolates were assessed for ACE inhibitory activity by this method. These two hydrolysates showed high ACE inhibitory activity. This method proposed here was shown to be direct, sensitive, accurate, reproducible, and less expensive without separation of HA from ACE reaction mixture, and can be used for the screening of ACE inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins. PMID:15708660

  6. Effects of lead on viability and intracellular metal content of C6 rat glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffany-Castiglioni, E.; Garcia, D.M.; Wu, J.N.; Zmudzki, J.; Bratton, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Cultured C6 rat glioma cells were exposed to lead (Pb) acetate (0, 1, 10, or 100 ..mu..M) for 3-4 d. Cells were analyzed for changes in viability and intracellular lead, iron, and copper concentrations after Pb treatment was discontinued. The results were compared with previous findings on astroglia and oligodendroglia in culture in order to evaluate C6 cultures as a model for Pb toxicity in glia. Viability was measured by three methods on the day Pb was removed from the cells (designated d 0), and 2 and 9 d after Pb treatment was discontinued (designated d 2 and 9). The methods used were trypan blue dye exclusion, total cell counts, and incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-L-leucine into proteins. With respect to Pb and Fe uptake, C6 cells closely resembled immature astroglia in culture. Unlike C6 cells, however, astroglia showed elevations of intracellular Fe and Cu after treatment. Thus, Pb effects on C6 cells resembled those on cultured oligodendroglia and astroglia in some respects but not in others. C6 cells appear to be an adequate model for selected events in glial toxicosis, such as PB-stimulated protein synthesis in oligodendroglia and Pb uptake in astroglia, but not Pb-induced alterations of intracellular Cu and Fe in astroglia. Their use as a model for glial progenitor cells in Pb toxicity studies remains to be determined.

  7. Fabrication of chiral amino acid ionic liquid modified magnetic multifunctional nanospheres for centrifugal chiral chromatography separation of racemates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yating; Tian, Ailin; Wang, Xiong; Qi, Jing; Wang, Fengkang; Ma, Ying; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun

    2015-06-26

    As the rapid development of nanotechnology, the magnetic nanospheres modified with special chiral selective ligands show a great potentiality in enantiomeric separation. In this study, magnetic nanospheres modified with task-specific chiral ionic liquid were designed for the separation of chiral amino acids. These modified magnetic nanospheres were effective in a direct chiral separation of five racemic amino acids (D- and L-cysteine, D- and L-arginine, D- and L-leucine, D- and L-glutamine and D- and L-tryptophan). Furthermore, a new online method for complete separation of the enantiomers via the magnetic nanospheres was established with centrifugal chiral chromatography using a spiral tube assembly mounted on a type-J coil planet centrifuge. One kind of chiral compounds, D- and L-tryptophan was resolved well using this method. These results demonstrated that the modified nanospheres display a good chiral recognition ability, and can be used as a potential material for chiral separation of various racemates. PMID:25976126

  8. Quaternary stratigraphy of Bermuda: A high-resolution pre-Sangamonian rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Paul J.; Vacher, H. Leonard

    Carbonate islands such as Bermuda are created by climatic change. Warm climates and high sea levels stimulate carbonate sediment production that may ultimately result in island growth, while cold glacials expose the platforms to weathering, dissolution and soil formation. Of great importance in Quaternary studies is the ability to decipher this climatic history. Mapping and geochronologic studies have established that Bermuda may have one of the most continuous and detailed Quaternary interglacial depositional records on a carbonate platform. Advances in racemization dating (AAR) have offered a means of deciphering this climatic history and generating a high-resolution stratigraphic and age framework for the Quaternary. Bermudian interglacial units consist predominantly of eolianites, with less voluminous occurrences of beach deposits and calcarenite protosols (Entisols). Glacial or stadial-age terra rossa (aluminous laterite) paleosols, whose degree of development is a function of time of exposure, form boundaries between interglacial units. D-alloiso-leucine/ L-isoleucine ( {A}/{I}) ratios have been determined on marine pelecypods, land snails and whole-rock samples from mapped sections; aminozones have been defined for two Sangamonian and at least five pre-Sangamonian depositional intervals. From kinetic models based on calibration with previously published U-series coral dates, estimated ages of middle Pleistocene and older aminozones are: F = 190,000-265,000 years; G = 300,000-400,000 years; H = 400,000-500,000 years; J = >700,000 years; and K = > 900,000 years. Aminozone G, which is correlated with the upper Town Hill Formation and Isotope Stage 9, is volumetrically the most important depositional event of the middle Pleistocene. The great mass of sediment deposited during this period suggests an interglacial of significant duration and prolonged shelf submergence, during which the island grew to over half its present size. Only the Sangamonian ( sensu lato) rivals Stage 9 in volume of eolianite deposited on the island. Sea-level amplitude, as determined from dated outcrops, appears to correlate well with amplitudinal variations in the oxygen isotope record.

  9. Combining cosmogenic radionuclides and amino acid racemization to date late Pliocene glacial deposits exposed on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsnider, K. A.; Miller, G. H.

    2009-12-01

    Sequences of glacial deposits spanning the Quaternary are valuable archives recording the effects of glaciation on landscapes through time, but determining the age of such deposits has long challenged geologists. The recent advances in cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) measurement has made it possible to date some of these deposits, but dating buried glacial sediments in most settings remains problematic. Here we explore a new approach to date the oldest glacial deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene Clyde Foreland Formation of Baffin Island. This formation, approximately 40 m thick, includes interlayered shell-bearing marine, glaciomarine, and glacial sediments deposited along the northern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and earlier continental ice sheets. Previous work on foraminifera assemblages suggests that the deposits span the last ?2 Ma. By combining CRN measurements (10Be and 26Al) from the glacial units and measurements of the D-alloisoleucine:L-isoleucine ratios (A/I) in valves of the mollusk Hiatella arctica in the marine units overlying a particular glacial deposit, we can calculate the age of the glacial deposit. Because the post-burial temperature history for the mollusks preserved in the Clyde Foreland Formation is poorly constrained, A/I ratios alone cannot be used to determine absolute ages. Instead, we use A/I ratios to identify sediment packages of discrete ages and define a step-wise burial history function for glacial units. A/I ratios of all packages (<0.3 for the total hydrolysate fraction) fall within the A/I interval characterized by linear racemization kinetics, so the age of each package in the burial history function can simply be defined as a fractional age with respect to the total burial age for the glacial deposit of interest. The long duration of burial (26Al/10Be as low as 1.60.6 at 2?) and low initial CRN inventories require that post-burial muogenic production is accounted for using the burial history function. We apply a numerical model to calculate the duration of burial from the measured CRN concentrations for a given inherited CRN inventory. But because this initial inventory is unknown, a single CRN sample/burial history combination will not provide a unique age solution. Instead, measurements from multiple localities where a particular glacial deposit has differing burial histories (i.e., the thickness of overlying units or ages of overlying units differ) are required to statistically determine the total burial age that most closely matches the observed CRN inventories and burial histories.

  10. The enigma of 3400 years BP coastal oolites in tropical northwest Western Australia why then, why there?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Paul; O'Leary, Michael; Donald, Andrew; Lachlan, Terry

    2006-05-01

    Oolites crop out along the northwestern coast of Western Australia at Port Smith, about 80 km SW of Broome. An oolitic coastal ridge truncated by marine erosion exposes subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal (aeolian) facies. The deposits are firmly indurated and composed of about 75% tangentially and moderately thickly layered, aragonitic ooid grains with over 90% quartz nuclei. Subtidal sedimentary structures are exposed about a metre above the present high tide mark, hinting that sea level may have been somewhat higher when the shoreline was formed. However, the macrotidal range of up to 7 m, and the possibility of cyclonic surges along the coast, precludes unequivocal determinations on this point. Whole-rock amino acid racemisation (AAR) geochronology (epimerisation of isoleucine: D-alloisoleucine/ L-isoleucine or A/I) on each facies of the oolite outcrop averaged 0.106 0.013 ( N = 10). The modern beach contains fewer ooids ( 30%), and nearly half of these are stained brown, grey, or black, perhaps as a result of burial, reduction and/or mineralization. A higher (older) mean and large standard deviation in whole-rock amino acid ratio of 0.145 0.067 ( N = 2) supports our inference that ooids on the modern beach were reworked from fossil deposits. Reverse phase chronostratigraphy (RPC) on individual ooid grains holds tremendous promise in this preliminary study. RPC results show a narrow variation of D/ L values (CV = 6-11%), and yield nearly identical D/ L Asp means from light coloured fossil ooids (0.307 0.018 ( N = 17)); light (0.323 0.026 ( N = 12)) and dark coloured ooids (0.298 0.027 ( N = 10)) from the active beach face. When compared to A/I ratios from 14C dated mid-Holocene ooids in the Bahamas, the mean A/I from Port Smith reflects an age of ca. 3500-4500 years that is in agreement with a calibrated AMS 14C age of 3370 50 calendar years BP on the same material. Thus, the ooids were formed, transported, emplaced, strongly cemented, and largely eroded from the beach ridge in only 3400 years. The environmental conditions that underlie a pulse of ooid deposition during a brief period of the mid-Holocene almost certainly involve extensive tidal inlets in the area, a possible mid-Holocene oscillation 1-2 m above present, and a subsequent fall to present level that terminated the process. Apparently, a unique combination of factors produced ooids here, and in only a handful of other sites in Australia and the Indian Ocean.

  11. Anaerosolibacter carboniphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic iron-reducing bacterium isolated from coal-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeji; Kim, So-Jeong; Min, Ui-Gi; Lee, Yong-Jae; Kim, Song-Gun; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Jong-Geol; Na, Jeong-Geol; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2015-05-01

    A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, iron-reducing bacterial strain, IRF19(T), was isolated from coal-contaminated soil in the Republic of Korea. IRF19(T) cells were straight, rod-shaped, Gram-staining-negative and motile by means of flagella. The optimum pH and temperature for their growth were determined to be pH 7.5-8.0 and 40 °C, while the optimum range was pH 6.5-10.0 and 20-45 °C, respectively. Strain IRF19(T) did not require NaCl for growth but it tolerated up to 2% (w/v). Growth was observed with yeast extract, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-ribose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, L-serine, L-alanine and L-isoleucine. Fe(III), elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and sulfate were used as electron acceptors. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain IRF19(T) is affiliated to the family Clostridiaceae and is most closely related to Salimesophilobacter vulgaris Zn2(T) (93.5% similarity), Geosporobacter subterraneus VNs68(T) (93.2%) and Thermotalea metallivorans B2-1(T) (92.3%). The major cellular fatty acids of strain IRF19(T) were C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0, and the profile was distinct from those of the closely related species. The major respiratory quinone of strain IRF19(T) was menaquinone MK-5 (V-H2). The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain IRF19(T) was determined to be 37.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic results, strain IRF19(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a novel genus of the family Clostridiaceae , for which we propose the name Anaerosolibacter carboniphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., with the type strain IRF19(T) ( =KCTC 15396(T) =JCM 19988(T)). PMID:25701849

  12. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans Using Modern Analytical Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Brinton, Karen L.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only alpha-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced great-er preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a steady state concentration dependent on ocean circulation through hydrothermal systems and synthetic input processes. We are presently trying to estimate this concentration.

  13. Mixed ligand complex formation of 2-aminobenzamide with Cu(II) in the presence of some amino acids: synthesis, structural, biological, pH-metric, spectrophotometric and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Esakkidurai, Thirugnanasamy; Subbaraj, Paramasivam; Shobana, Sutha

    2013-10-01

    Mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of 2-aminobenzamide (2AB) and amino acids viz., glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala), L-valine (val) and L-phenylalanine (phe) have been synthesised and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectral techniques. The calculated g-tensor values for Cu(II) complexes at 77 K and 300 K, show the distorted octahedral geometry which has been confirmed from the absorption studies. Consequently, the thermal studies illustrate that the loss of water and acetate molecules in the initial stage which are followed by the decomposition of organic residues. The powder X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis reflect that all the complexes have well-defined crystallinity nature with homogeneous morphology. The binding activities of CT DNA with CuAB complexes have been examined by absorption studies. Further, the oxidative cleavage interactions of 2-aminobenzamide and CuAB complexes with DNA were studied by gel electrophoresis method in H2O2 medium. Also, the complex formation of Cu(II) involving 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids were carried out by a combined pH-metric and spectrophotometric techniques in 50% (v/v) water-ethanol mixture at 300, 310, 320 and 3300.1 K with I=0.15 mol dm(-3) (NaClO4). In solution, CuAB and CuAB2 species has been detected and the binding modes of 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids in both binary and mixed ligand complexes are same. The calculated stabilization value of ?logK, log X and log X' indicates higher stabilities for the mixed ligand complexes rather than their binary species. The thermodynamic parameters like ?G, ?H and ?S have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant. In vitro biological activities of 2-aminobenzamide, CuA and CuAB complexes show remarkable activities against some bacterial and fungal strains. The percentage distribution of various binary and mixed ligand species in solution at dissimilar pH intervals were also evaluated. PMID:23811147

  14. Global Regulation of Food Supply by Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E?

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Craig; Godoy, Patricia; Duque, Estrella; Molina-Henares, M. Antonia; de la Torre, Jess; del Arco, Jos Mara; Herrera, Carmen; Segura, Ana; Guazzaroni, M. Eugenia; Ferrer, Manuel; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E was used as a model to develop a phenomics platform to investigate the ability of P. putida to grow using different carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur sources and in the presence of stress molecules. Results for growth of wild-type DOT-T1E on 90 different carbon sources revealed the existence of a number of previously uncharted catabolic pathways for compounds such as salicylate, quinate, phenylethanol, gallate, and hexanoate, among others. Subsequent screening on the subset of compounds on which wild-type DOT-TIE could grow with four knockout strains in the global regulatory genes ?crc, ?crp, ?cyoB, and ?ptsN allowed analysis of the global response to nutrient supply and stress. The data revealed that most global regulator mutants could grow in a wide variety of substrates, indicating that metabolic fluxes are physiologically balanced. It was found that the Crc mutant did not differ much from the wild-type regarding the use of carbon sources. However, certain pathways are under the preferential control of one global regulator, i.e., metabolism of succinate and d-fructose is influenced by CyoB, and l-arginine is influenced by PtsN. Other pathways can be influenced by more than one global regulator; i.e., l-valine catabolism can be influenced by CyoB and Crp (cyclic AMP receptor protein) while phenylethylamine is affected by Crp, CyoB, and PtsN. These results emphasize the cross talk required in order to ensure proper growth and survival. With respect to N sources, DOT-T1E can use a wide variety of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources. As with the carbon sources, more than one global regulator affected growth with some nitrogen sources; for instance, growth with nucleotides, dipeptides, d-amino acids, and ethanolamine is influenced by Crp, CyoB, and PtsN. A surprising finding was that the Crp mutant was unable to flourish on ammonium. Results for assayed sulfur sources revealed that CyoB controls multiple points in methionine/cysteine catabolism while PtsN and Crc are needed for N-acetyl-l-cysteamine utilization. Growth of global regulator mutants was also influenced by stressors of different types (antibiotics, oxidative agents, and metals). Overall and in combination with results for growth in the presence of various stressors, these phenomics assays provide multifaceted insights into the complex decision-making process involved in nutrient supply, optimization, and survival. PMID:20139187

  15. Mixed ligand complex formation of 2-aminobenzamide with Cu(II) in the presence of some amino acids: Synthesis, structural, biological, pH-metric, spectrophotometric and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Esakkidurai, Thirugnanasamy; Subbaraj, Paramasivam; Shobana, Sutha

    2013-10-01

    Mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of 2-aminobenzamide (2AB) and amino acids viz., glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala), L-valine (val) and L-phenylalanine (phe) have been synthesised and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectral techniques. The calculated g-tensor values for Cu(II) complexes at 77 K and 300 K, show the distorted octahedral geometry which has been confirmed from the absorption studies. Consequently, the thermal studies illustrate that the loss of water and acetate molecules in the initial stage which are followed by the decomposition of organic residues. The powder X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis reflect that all the complexes have well-defined crystallinity nature with homogeneous morphology. The binding activities of CT DNA with CuAB complexes have been examined by absorption studies. Further, the oxidative cleavage interactions of 2-aminobenzamide and CuAB complexes with DNA were studied by gel electrophoresis method in H2O2 medium. Also, the complex formation of Cu(II) involving 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids were carried out by a combined pH-metric and spectrophotometric techniques in 50% (v/v) water-ethanol mixture at 300, 310, 320 and 330 0.1 K with I = 0.15 mol dm-3 (NaClO4). In solution, CuAB and CuAB2 species has been detected and the binding modes of 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids in both binary and mixed ligand complexes are same. The calculated stabilization value of ? log K, log X and log X' indicates higher stabilities for the mixed ligand complexes rather than their binary species. The thermodynamic parameters like ?G, ?H and ?S have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant. In vitro biological activities of 2-aminobenzamide, CuA and CuAB complexes show remarkable activities against some bacterial and fungal strains. The percentage distribution of various binary and mixed ligand species in solution at dissimilar pH intervals were also evaluated.

  16. Solid-state NMR studies of aminocarboxylic salt bridges in L-lysine modified cellulose.

    PubMed

    Manrquez, Ricardo; Lpez-Dellamary, Fernando A; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Emmler, Thomas; Breitzke, Hergen; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Shenderovich, Ilja G

    2009-01-29

    LysCel is a cellulose-based material in which l-lysine molecules are grafted with their amino side chains to the cellulose hydroxyl groups. This modification increases considerably the mechanical strength and resistance of cellulosic structures toward water. It has been attributed to the formation of double salt bridges between lysine aminocarboxyl groups in the zwitterionic state. In order to characterize this unusual structure, we have performed high-resolution solid-state (15)N and (13)C CPMAS NMR experiments on LysCel samples labeled with (15)N in the alpha-position or epsilon-position. Furthermore, (13)C-(15)N REDOR experiments were performed on LysCel where half of the aminocarboxyl groups were labeled in 1-position with 13C and the other half in alpha-position with (15)N. The comparison with the 13C and 15N chemical shifts of l-leucine lyophilized at different pH shows that the aminocarboxyl groups of LysCel are indeed zwitterionic. The REDOR experiments indicate distances of about 3.5 A between the carboxyl carbon and the nitrogen atoms of different aminocarboxyl groups, indicating that the latter are in close contact with each other. However, the data are not compatible with isolated aminocarboxyl dimers but indicate the assembly of zwitterionic aminocarboxyl dimers either in a flat ribbon or as tetramers, exhibiting similar intra- and interdimer (13)C...(15)N distances. This interaction of several aminocarboxyl groups is responsible for the zwitterionic state, in contrast to the gas phase, where amino acid dimers exhibiting two OHN hydrogen bonds are neutral. PMID:19117475

  17. Characterization of the placental alkaline phosphatase-like (Nagao) isozyme on the surface of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jemmerson, R; Shah, N; Takeya, M; Fishman, W H

    1985-01-01

    A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells monophenotypically express the placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP)-like enzyme shown by its catalytic and antigenic characteristics, properties which are shared by the Nagao isozyme. More specifically, it is L-leucine sensitive just as is the rare placental D-variant of PLAP and the testicular heat-stable enzyme. Collectively, these are all referred to as PLAP-like enzymes. The enzyme was localized to the surface of the plasma membrane since it was released in an active form by bromelain treatment of cells. The number of molecules per A431 cell was estimated by radioimmunoassay at 7.5 X 10(5), a value significantly higher than that observed for HeLa TCRC-1 cells (5 X 10(4) which express the S-variant of PLAP, also referred to as the Regan isozyme. The quantity of the enzyme was increased significantly (10-fold) by treating the cells with modulating agents including sodium butyrate, prednisolone, and hyperosmolar sodium chloride. The identification of a cell line such as A431 with enhanced expression in the amount of the PLAP-like enzyme and which can be further enhanced by modulating agents will facilitate studies of the differences and the similarities between this protein and other variants of PLAP. The A431 cell line now takes its place with other cell lines which are phenotypically restricted in their expression of alkaline phosphatase. Finally, the A431 cell line is also shown here to be a suitable model system for in vivo tumor studies such as immunolocalization. PMID:2578098

  18. Insulin-driven translational capacity is impaired in primary fibroblasts of Prader Willi

    PubMed Central

    Meneghello, Cristiana; Segat, Daniela; Fortunati, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Summary Prader-Willi (PW) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities and severe hypotonia, hyperphagia, behavioural and psychiatric problems. Absence of satiety leads to severe obesity and frequently to diabetes. Furthermore, adult patients suffer from a severe loss of muscle mass, which severely impacts their quality of life. The mechanisms underlying alterations in muscle growth in PW remain to be clarified. In this study we explored the hypothesis that, in PW cells, alterations of protein synthesis are determined by dysfunctions in the promotion of cell growth. In order to study the molecular changes leading to dysfunction in protein translation, primary fibroblasts derived from four PW patients and five control subjects were used to study the insulin-mediated signaling pathway implicated in the control of protein synthesis by immunoblotting. Here we present, for the first time, evidences that the protein translation response to insulin is impaired in PW fibroblasts. Insulin alone has a major upregulatory effect on protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3beta), while phosphorylation of p70S6K1 protein elongation factor controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) is reduced. In addition, we provide data that the response to insulin in PW cells can be restored by previous treatment with the amino acid L-Leucine (L-Leu). Our experiments in primary cell cultures demonstrate an impairment of insulin signaling that can be rescued by supplementation with the branched aminoacid L-Leu, indicating a possible therapeutic approach for alleviating muscle mass loss in PW patients. PMID:26989644

  19. RNA interference targeting leucine aminopeptidase blocks hatching of Schistosoma mansoni eggs

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Morales, Maria E.; Alrefaei, Yousef N.; Cancela, Martn; Castillo, Estela; Dalton, John P.; Tort, Jos F.; Brindley, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is thought to play a central role in hatching of the miracidium from the schistosome egg. We identified two discrete LAPs genes in the Schistosoma mansoni genome, and their orthologs in S. japonicum. The similarities in sequence and exon/intron structure of the two genes, LAP1 and LAP2, suggest that they arose by gene duplication and that this occurred before separation of the mansoni and japonicum lineages. The SmLAP 1 and 2 genes have different expression patterns in diverse stages of the cycle; whereas both are equally expressed in the blood dwelling stages (schistosomules and adult), SmLAP 2 expression was higher in free living larval (miracidia) and in parasitic intra-snail (sporocysts) stages. We investigated the role of each enzyme in hatching of schistosome eggs and the early stages of schistosome development by RNA interference (RNAi). Using RNAi, we observed marked and specific reduction of mRNAs, along with a loss of exopeptidase activity in soluble parasite extracts against the diagnostic substrate L-leucine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin hydroxide. Strikingly, knockdown of either SmLAP1 or SmLAP2, or both together, was accompanied by ? 80% inhibition of hatching of schistosome eggs showing that both enzymes are important to the escape of miracidia from the egg. The methods employed here refine the utility of RNAi for functional genomics studies in helminth parasites and confirm these can be used to identify potential drug targets, in this case schistosome aminopeptidases. PMID:19463860

  20. Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism and Protein Synthesis during Mechanical Circulatory Support by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, MD, Colleen M.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support essential for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative. We focused on the amino acid leucine, and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart (i) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate (FCpyruvate) to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and (ii) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 hours of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [13C6,15N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-13C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (~ 40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. Conclusion: The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining (i) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate, and (ii) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis, suggesting an improved protein balance.

  1. Evaluation and Modification of Commercial Dry Powder Inhalers for the Aerosolization of a Submicrometer Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and modify commercial dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for the aerosolization of a submicrometer excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation. The optimized device and formulation combination was then tested in a realistic in vitro mouth-throat - tracheobronchial (MT-TB) model. An optimized EEG submicrometer powder formulation, consisting of albuterol sulfate (drug), mannitol (hygroscopic excipient), L-leucine (dispersion enhancer) and poloxamer 188 (surfactant) in a ratio of 30:48:20:2 was prepared using a Büchi Nano spray dryer. The aerosolization performance of the EEG formulation was evaluated with 5 conventional DPIs: Aerolizer, Novolizer, HandiHaler, Exubera and Spiros. To improve powder dispersion, the HandiHaler was modified with novel mouth piece (MP) designs. The aerosol performance of each device was assessed using a next generation impactor (NGI) at airflow rates generating a pressure drop of 4 kPa across the DPI. In silico and in vitro deposition and hygroscopic growth of formulations was studied using a MT-TB airway geometry model. Both Handihaler and Aerolizer produced high emitted doses (ED) together with a significant submicrometer aerosol fraction. A modified HandiHaler with a MP including a three-dimensional (3D) array of rods (HH-3D) produced a submicrometer particle fraction of 38.8% with a conventional fine particle fraction (% <5µm) of 97.3%. The mass median diameter (MMD) of the aerosol was reduced below 1 µm using this HH-3D DPI. The aerosol generated from the modified HandiHaler increased to micrometer size (2.8 µm) suitable for pulmonary deposition, when exposed to simulated respiratory conditions, with negligible mouth-throat (MT) deposition (2.6 %). PMID:23608613

  2. Physiological characterization of the human EndoC-βH1 β-cell line.

    PubMed

    Gurgul-Convey, Ewa; Kaminski, Martin T; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2015-08-14

    In the new human EndoC-βH1 β-cell line, a detailed analysis of the physiological characteristics was performed. This new human β-cell line expressed all target structures on the gene and protein level, which are crucial for physiological function and insulin secretion induced by glucose and other secretagogues. Glucose influx measurements revealed an excellent uptake capacity of EndoC-βH1 β-cells by the Glut1 and Glut2 glucose transporters. A high expression level of glucokinase enabled efficient glucose phosphorylation, increasing the ATP/ADP ratio along with stimulation of insulin secretion in the physiological glucose concentration range. The EC50 value of glucose for insulin secretion was 10.3 mM. Mannoheptulose, a specific glucokinase inhibitor, blocked glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS). The nutrient insulin secretagogues l-leucine and 2-ketoisocaproate also stimulated insulin secretion, with a potentiating effect of l-glutamine. The Kir 6.2 potassium channel blocker glibenclamide and Bay K 8644, an opener of the voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel significantly potentiated GSIS. Potentiation of GSIS by IBMX and forskolin went along with a strong stimulation of cAMP generation. In conclusion, the new human EndoC-βH1 β-cell line fully mirrors the analogous physiological characteristics of primary mouse, rat and human β-cells. Thus, this new human EndoC-βH1 β-cell line is very well suited for physiological β-cell studies. PMID:26028562

  3. Dry powder inhalation of macromolecules using novel PEG-co-polyester microparticle carriers.

    PubMed

    Tawfeek, Hesham M; Evans, Andrew R; Iftikhar, Abid; Mohammed, Afzal R; Shabir, Anjum; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Saleem, Imran Y

    2013-01-30

    This study investigated optimizing the formulation parameters for encapsulation of a model mucinolytic enzyme, ?-chymotrypsin (?-CH), within a novel polymer; poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(glycerol adipate-co-?-pentadecalactone), PEG-co-(PGA-co-PDL) which were then applied to the formulation of DNase I. ?-CH or DNase I loaded microparticles were prepared via spray drying from double emulsion (w(1)/o/w(2)) utilizing chloroform (CHF) as the organic solvent, L-leucine as a dispersibility enhancer and an internal aqueous phase (w(1)) containing PEG4500 or Pluronic() F-68 (PLF68). ?-CH released from microparticles was investigated for bioactivity using the azocasein assay and the mucinolytic activity was assessed utilizing the degradation of mucin suspension assay. The chemical structure of PEG-co-(PGA-co-PDL) was characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR with both analyses confirming PEG incorporated into the polymer backbone, and any unreacted units removed. Optimum formulation ?-CH-CHF/PLF68, 1% produced the highest bioactivity, enzyme encapsulation (20.083.91%), loading (22.314.34 ?g/mg), FPF (fine particle fraction) (37.630.97%); FPD (fine particle dose) (179.889.43 ?g), MMAD (mass median aerodynamic diameter) (2.951.61 ?m), and the mucinolytic activity was equal to the native non-encapsulated enzyme up to 5h. DNase I-CHF/PLF68, 1% resulted in enzyme encapsulation (17.443.11%), loading (19.313.27 ?g/mg) and activity (81.92.7%). The results indicate PEG-co-(PGA-co-PDL) can be considered as a potential biodegradable polymer carrier for dry powder inhalation of macromolecules for treatment of local pulmonary diseases. PMID:23124106

  4. The Ribosome Biogenesis Protein Nol9 Is Essential for Definitive Hematopoiesis and Pancreas Morphogenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Lauren; Fleischmann, Tobias; Weis, Félix; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Harvey, Steven A.; Wali, Neha; Warren, Alan J.; Barroso, Inês; Stemple, Derek L.; Cvejic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a ubiquitous and essential process in cells. Defects in ribosome biogenesis and function result in a group of human disorders, collectively known as ribosomopathies. In this study, we describe a zebrafish mutant with a loss-of-function mutation in nol9, a gene that encodes a non-ribosomal protein involved in rRNA processing. nol9sa1022/sa1022 mutants have a defect in 28S rRNA processing. The nol9sa1022/sa1022 larvae display hypoplastic pancreas, liver and intestine and have decreased numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as definitive erythrocytes and lymphocytes. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed signs of pathological processes occurring in endothelial cells of the caudal vein, emphasizing the complexity of the phenotype observed in nol9sa1022/sa1022 larvae. We further show that both the pancreatic and hematopoietic deficiencies in nol9sa1022/sa1022 embryos were due to impaired cell proliferation of respective progenitor cells. Interestingly, genetic loss of Tp53 rescued the HSPCs but not the pancreatic defects. In contrast, activation of mRNA translation via the mTOR pathway by L-Leucine treatment did not revert the erythroid or pancreatic defects. Together, we present the nol9sa1022/sa1022 mutant, a novel zebrafish ribosomopathy model, which recapitulates key human disease characteristics. The use of this genetically tractable model will enhance our understanding of the tissue-specific mechanisms following impaired ribosome biogenesis in the context of an intact vertebrate. PMID:26624285

  5. Participation of endogenous fatty acids in the secretory activity of the pancreatic B-cell.

    PubMed Central

    Malaisse, W J; Malaisse-Lagae, F; Sener, A; Hellerstrm, C

    1985-01-01

    The pancreatic B-cell may represent a fuel-sensor organ, the release of insulin evoked by nutrient secretagogues being attributable to an increased oxidation of exogenous and/or endogenous substrates. The participation of endogenous fatty acids in the secretory response of isolated rat pancreatic islets was investigated. Methyl palmoxirate (McN-3716, 0.1 mM), an inhibitor of long-chain-fatty-acid oxidation, suppressed the oxidation of exogenous [U-14C]palmitate and inhibited 14CO2 output from islets prelabelled with [U-14C]palmitate. Methyl palmoxirate failed to affect the oxidation of exogenous D-[U-14C]glucose or L-[U-14C]glutamine, the production of NH4+ and the output of 14CO2 from islets prelabelled with L-[U-14C]glutamine. In the absence of exogenous nutrient and after a lag period of about 60 min, methyl palmoxirate decreased O2 uptake to 69% of the control value. Methyl palmoxirate inhibited insulin release evoked by D-glucose, D-glyceraldehyde, 2-oxoisohexanoate, L-leucine, 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate or 3-phenylpyruvate. However, methyl palmoxirate failed to affect insulin release when the oxidation of endogenous fatty acids was already suppressed, e.g. in the presence of pyruvate or L-glutamine. These findings support the view that insulin release evoked by nutrient secretagogues tightly depends on the overall rate of nutrient oxidation, including that of endogenous fatty acids. PMID:3924031

  6. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling. PMID:26336074

  7. L-Citrulline Protects Skeletal Muscle Cells from Cachectic Stimuli through an iNOS-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Daniel J.; Gleeson, Benjamin G.; Chee, Annabel; Baum, Dale M.; Caldow, Marissa K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Koopman, René

    2015-01-01

    Dietary L-citrulline is thought to modulate muscle protein turnover by increasing L-arginine availability. To date, the direct effects of increased L-citrulline concentrations in muscle have been completely neglected. Therefore, we determined the role of L-citrulline in regulating cell size during catabolic conditions by depriving mature C2C12 myotubes of growth factors (serum free; SF) or growth factors and nutrients (HEPES buffered saline; HBS). Cells were treated with L-citrulline or equimolar concentrations of L-arginine (positive control) or L-alanine (negative control) and changes in cell size and protein turnover were assessed. In myotubes incubated in HBS or SF media, L-citrulline improved rates of protein synthesis (HBS: +63%, SF: +37%) and myotube diameter (HBS: +18%, SF: +29%). L-citrulline treatment substantially increased iNOS mRNA expression (SF: 350%, HBS: 750%). The general NOS inhibitor L-NAME and the iNOS specific inhibitor aminoguanidine prevented these effects in both models. Depriving myotubes in SF media of L-arginine or L-leucine, exacerbated wasting which was not attenuated by L-citrulline. The increased iNOS mRNA expression was temporally associated with increases in mRNA of the endogenous antioxidants SOD1, SOD3 and catalase. Furthermore, L-citrulline prevented inflammation (LPS) and oxidative stress (H2O2) induced muscle cell wasting. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel direct protective effect of L-citrulline on skeletal muscle cell size independent of L-arginine that is mediated through induction of the inducible NOS (iNOS) isoform. This discovery of a nutritional modulator of iNOS mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells could have substantial implications for the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. PMID:26513461

  8. Utilization of chymotrypsin as a sole carbon and (or) nitrogen source by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Brecher, A S; Moehlman, T A; Hann, W

    1992-04-01

    alpha-Chymotrypsin serves as a sole carbon source, sole nitrogen source, and as sole carbon plus nitrogen source for wild-type Escherichia coli in a totally defined medium. Hence, a mammalian host for E. coli may supply the necessary carbon and nitrogen nutrients for the microorganism. Growth is most rapid when chymotrypsin is a sole nitrogen source and least rapid with chymotrypsin as a carbon source. The approximate doubling times for E. coli utilizing chymotrypsin as a nitrogen source, carbon plus nitrogen source, and carbon source are 1.6, 4.6, and 11.3 h, respectively. The activity of the residual enzyme in the culture supernates falls off asymptotically over the source of time, as followed by cleavage of glutaryl-L-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide. Chymotrypsin hydrolyzes succinyl-L-ala-L-ala-p-nitroanilide, the elastase substrate, to some extent. Peptidases do not appear to be secreted that hydrolyze such model substrates as benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide, the tryptic and cathepsin B substrate, L-leucine-p-nitroanilide, the leucine amino-peptidase substrate, or L-lysine-p-nitroanilide, the aminopeptidase B substrate. Growth of E. coli is generally directly related to the loss of chymotryptic activity in the medium. Hence, autolysis of chymotrypsin, i.e., self-degradation, is an important factor for the availability of degradation products of the enzyme to the bacterium for growth purposes. Accordingly, the degradation of a host protein by autolysis presents an opportunity for E. coli to survive during periods of host nutritional crisis by utilization of the degradation peptides that are produced during autolysis. PMID:1611554

  9. Dry powder pulmonary delivery of cationic PGA-co-PDL nanoparticles with surface adsorbed model protein.

    PubMed

    Kunda, Nitesh K; Alfagih, Iman M; Dennison, Sarah R; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Merchant, Zahra; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Saleem, Imran Y

    2015-08-15

    Pulmonary delivery of macromolecules has been the focus of attention as an alternate route of delivery with benefits such as; large surface area, thin alveolar epithelium, rapid absorption and extensive vasculature. In this study, a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adsorbed onto cationic PGA-co-PDL polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by a single emulsion solvent evaporation method using a cationic surfactant didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) at 2% w/w (particle size: 128.6406.01 nm and zeta-potential: +42.3202.70 mV). The optimum cationic NPs were then surface adsorbed with BSA, NP:BSA (100:4) ratio yielded 10.011.19 ?g of BSA per mg of NPs. The BSA adsorbed NPs (5 mg/ml) were then spray-dried in an aqueous suspension of L-leucine (7.5 mg/ml, corresponding to a ratio of 1:1.5/NP:L-leu) using a Bchi-290 mini-spray dryer to produce nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs) containing cationic NPs. The aerosol properties showed a fine particle fraction (FPF, dae<4.46 ?m) of 70.674.07% and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 2.800.21 ?m suggesting a deposition in the respiratory bronchiolar region of the lungs.The cell viability was 75.7603.55% (A549 cell line) at 156.25 ?g/ml concentration after 24 h exposure. SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism (CD) confirmed that the primary and secondary structure of the released BSA was maintained. Moreover, the released BSA showed 78.761.54% relative esterolytic activity compared to standard BSA. PMID:26169146

  10. Molecular Imaging of Urogenital Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Steve Y.; Szabo, Zsolt; Morgan, Russell H.

    2013-01-01

    There is an expanding and exciting repertoire of PET imaging radiotracers for urogenital diseases, particularly in prostate cancer, renal cell cancer, and renal function. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. With growing therapeutics options for the treatment of metastatic and advanced prostate cancer, improved functional imaging of prostate cancer beyond the limitations of conventional computed tomography (CT) and bone scan (BS) is becoming increasingly important for both clinical management and drug development. PET radiotracers beyond 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for prostate cancer include 18F-Sodium Fluoride, 11C-Choline and 18F-Fluorocholine and 11C-Acetate. Other emerging and promising PET radiotracers include a synthetic L-leucine amino acid analog (anti-18F-FACBC), dihydrotestosterone analog (18F-FDHT) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) based PET radiotracers (ex. 18F-DCFBC, 89Zr-DFO-J591, 68Ga(HBED-CC)). Larger prospective and comparison trials of these PET radiotracers are needed to establish the role of PET/CT in prostate cancer. Renal cell cancer imaging with FDG PET/CT although available can be limited, especially for detection of the primary tumor. Improved renal cell cancer detection with carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) based antibody (124I-girentuximab) and radioimmunotherapy targeting with 177Lu-cG250 appear promising. Evaluation of renal injury by imaging renal perfusion and function with novel PET radiotracers include p-18F-fluorohippurate (18F-PFH) and hippurate m-cyano-p-18F-fluorohippurate (18F-CNPFH) and Rubidium-82 chloride (typically used for myocardial perfusion imaging). Renal receptor imaging of the renal renin angiotensin system with a variety of selective PET radioligands are also becoming available for clinical translation. PMID:24484747

  11. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Kamolrat, Torkamol; Gray, Stuart R.

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► EPA can enhance protein synthesis and retard protein breakdown in muscle cells. ► These effects were concurrent with increases in p70s6k and FOXO3a phosphorylation. ► EPA may be a useful tool in the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. -- Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to stimulate protein synthesis with little information regarding their effects on protein breakdown. Furthermore whether there are distinct effects of EPA and DHA remains to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein synthesis, protein breakdown and signalling pathways in C2C12 myotubes. Fully differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated for 24 h with 0.1% ethanol (control), 50 μM EPA or 50 μM DHA prior to experimentation. After serum (4 h) and amino acid (1 h) starvation cells were stimulated with 2 mM L-leucine and protein synthesis measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine. Protein breakdown was measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine and signalling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, 4EBP1, rps6 and FOXO3a) via Western blots. Data revealed that after incubation with EPA protein synthesis was 25% greater (P < 0.05) compared to control cells, with no effect of DHA. Protein breakdown was 22% (P < 0.05) lower, compared to control cells, after incubation with EPA, with no effect of DHA. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed that both EPA and DHA incubation increased (P < 0.05) p70s6k phosphorylation, EPA increased (P < 0.05) FOXO3a phosphorylation, with no alteration in other signalling proteins. The current study has demonstrated distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein metabolism with EPA showing a greater ability to result in skeletal muscle protein accretion.

  12. Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Serum Withdrawal on Branched-Chain Amino Acid Pathway Gene and Protein Expression in Mouse Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vivar, Juan C.; Knight, Megan S.; Pointer, Mildred A.; Gwathmey, Judith K.; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2014-01-01

    The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, valine and isoleucine, are traditionally associated with skeletal muscle growth and maintenance, energy production, and generation of neurotransmitter and gluconeogenic precursors. Recent evidence from human and animal model studies has established an additional link between BCAA levels and obesity. However, details of the mechanism of regulation of BCAA metabolism during adipogenesis are largely unknown. We interrogated whether the expression of genes and proteins involved in BCAA metabolism are sensitive to the adipocyte differentiation process, and responsive to nutrient stress from starvation or BCAA excess. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes under control conditions and under conditions of L-leucine supplementation or serum withdrawal. RNA and proteins were isolated at days 0, 4 and 10 of differentiation to represent pre-differentiation, early differentiation and late differentiation stages. Expression of 16 BCAA metabolism genes was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the protein levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 2 (Bcat2) and branched-chain alpha keto acid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) was quantified by immunoblotting. Under control conditions, all genes displayed induction of gene expression during early adipogenesis (Day 4) compared to Day 0. Leucine supplementation resulted in an induction of Bcat2 and Bckdha genes during early and late differentiation. Western blot analysis demonstrated condition-specific concordance between gene and protein expression. Serum withdrawal resulted in undetectable Bcat2 and Bckdha protein levels at all timepoints. These results demonstrate that the expression of genes related to BCAA metabolism are regulated during adipocyte differentiation and influenced by nutrient levels. These results provide additional insights on how BCAA metabolism is associated with adipose tissue function and extends our understanding of the transcriptomic response of this pathway to variations in nutrient availability. PMID:25050624

  13. Effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes on soil microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Chung, H.; Son, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are novel materials that have the potential to be used in various commercial fields due to their unique physicochemical properties. As a result of commercial development of nanotechnology, SWCNTs may be discharged to the soil environment with unknown consequences. However, there are as yet no data in the scientific literature that demonstrate the effects of SWCNTs on microbial function in soils. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of SWCNTs on soil microbial activity through a 2-week incubation study on urban soils supplemented with different concentrations of SWCNTs ranging from 0 to 1000 μg CNT/g soil. Fluorometric test using fluorogenic substrates were employed for the measurement of several enzyme activities in soil samples. More specifically, we determined the changes in the activities of cellobiohydrolase, β-1,4-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylosidase, β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, L-leucine aminopeptidase and acid phosphatase which play important roles in the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in response to the addition of SWCNTs. We found that microbial enzyme activities decreased as the concentrations of SWCNT added increased. The lowest enzyme activities were observed under 1000 μg CNT/g soil. The overall pattern shows that enzyme activities decreased slightly in the first 2-3 days and increased in the later stage of the incubation. Our results suggest that relatively high concentrations of SWCNTs can inhibit microbial activities, and this may be due to microbial cell membrane damage caused by SWCNTs. However, further study needs to be conducted to determine the mechanism responsible for inhibitory effect of SWCNTs on soil microbial activity. It can be concluded that changes in the activities of extracellular enzymes can indicate the effect of SWCNTs on soil microorganisms and nutrient cycling.

  14. Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hitzfeld, B C; Hger, S J; Dietrich, D R

    2000-03-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future. PMID:10698727

  15. Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Hitzfeld, B C; Höger, S J; Dietrich, D R

    2000-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future. PMID:10698727

  16. Dry powder inhalers of gentamicin and leucine: formulation parameters, aerosol performance and in vitro toxicity on CuFi1 cells.

    PubMed

    Aquino, R P; Prota, L; Auriemma, G; Santoro, A; Mencherini, T; Colombo, G; Russo, P

    2012-04-15

    The high hygroscopicity of gentamicin (G) as raw material hampers the production of respirable particles during aerosol generation and prevents its direct use as powder for inhalation in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Therefore, this research aimed to design a new dry powder formulation of G studying dispersibility properties of an aminoacid, L-leucine (leu), and appropriate process conditions. Spray-dried powders were characterized as to water uptake, particle size distribution, morphology and stability, in correlation with process parameters. Aerodynamic properties were analyzed both by Single Stage Glass Impinger and Andersen Cascade Impactor. Moreover, the potential cytotoxicity on bronchial epithelial cells bearing a CFTR F508/F508 mutant genotype (CuFi1) were tested. Results indicated that leu may improve the aerosol performance of G-dried powders. The maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of about 58.3% was obtained when water/isopropyl alcohol 7:3 system and 15-20% (w/w) of leu were used, compared to a FPF value of 13.4% for neat G-dried powders. The enhancement of aerosol efficiency was credited both to the improvement of the powder flowability, caused by the dispersibility enhancer (aminoacid), and to the modification of the particle surface due to the influence of the organic co-solvent on drying process. No significant degradation of the dry powder was observed up to 6 months of storage. Moreover, particle engineering did not affect either the cell viability or cell proliferation of CuFi1 over a 24 h period. PMID:22301426

  17. Characterization of angiotensin converting enzyme by (3H)captopril binding

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, S.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-02-01

    We demonstrate that (3H)captopril selectively labels angiotensin converting enzyme (EC 3.14.15.1) (ACE) and employ this technique to probe enzyme-inhibitor interactions. (3H)Captopril binding sites copurify with ACE activity from rat lung or rat brain. At each stage of the purification the Vmax/Bmax ratio, or kcat is 17,000 min-1 with hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine as substrate. The specificity of (3H)captopril binding is apparent in the similar pharmacologic profile of inhibition in crude and pure enzyme preparations. Furthermore, binding sites and enzyme activity comigrate in gel filtration and sucrose gradient sedimentation experiments. Equilibrium analysis of (3H)captopril binding to purified ACE reveals a Bmax of 6 nmol/mg of protein (KD = 2 nM), demonstrating the presence of one inhibitor binding site per polypeptide chain. The kinetics of (3H)captopril binding are characterized by monophasic association and dissociation rate constants of 0.026 nM-1 min-1 and 0.034 min-1, respectively. The affinity of ACE for both (3H) captopril and enalaprilat is greater at 37 degrees than at 0 degree, demonstrating that these interactions are entropically driven, perhaps by an isomerization of the enzyme molecule. The ionic requirements for (3H)captopril binding and substrate catalysis differ. Chloride and bromide ion, but not fluoride, are about 100-fold more potent stimulators of binding than catalysis. When the active site Zn2+ ion is replaced by Co2+, catalysis was stimulated 2-fold, whereas binding activity was decreased by 70%.

  18. Benzo[a]pyrene Uptake by Bacteria and Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Moore, B. G.; Harrison, Arthur P.

    1965-01-01

    Moore, B. G. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.), and Arthur P. Harrison, Jr. Benzo[a]pyrene uptake by bacteria and yeast. J. Bacteriol. 90:989–1000. 1965.—Various Enterobacteriaceae and yeast incubated in a medium containing 25 μg/ml of H3-benzo[a]pyrene (30% serum in the medium dissolves the hydrocarbon) retain radioactivity after washings with fresh 30% serum-medium. This radioactivity is defined as bound and represents intact benzo[a]pyrene. Factors relating to the binding of benzo[a]pyrene (benzo[a]pyrene uptake) have been studied in detail with Escherichia coli Ma, a triple auxotroph requiring l-leucine, uracil, and thymine. In defined medium, benzo[a]pyrene uptake by normally growing cells is 10−10 to 2 × 10−10 μg per cell. Uptake is the same in suspensions lacking leucine and containing chloramphenicol where there is neither measurable protein synthesis nor cell division. Uptake is diminished, but not eliminated, by autoclaving the cells; thus, some uptake occurs in the absence of enzymatic activity. Uptake is enhanced by heat shock, thymine deprivation, uracil deprivation, and exposure to penicillin. Thus, uptake is affected by the physiological state of the cells. Either the cells play a direct (enzymatic) role in uptake, or they affect uptake indirectly by increasing or altering the benzo[a]pyrene-binding structure. Physical fractionation of cells demonstrates that this structure is associated with the cell wall-membrane complex. All but 1% of the bound radioactivity is extracted with ethyl alcohol-ether. This residual radioactivity is defined as fixed, and may be associated with cell protein. The extracted radioactivity is identified as benzo[a]pyrene. Very little hydrocarbon is metabolized. Adverse photodynamic effects, increase in mutation, and dimunition in bacteriophage replication (in whole cells) have not been observed in the benzo[a]pyrene cultures. PMID:5321405

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Inhalable Verapamil-Rifapentine Particles for Tuberculosis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parumasivam, T; Chan, J G Y; Pang, A; Quan, D H; Triccas, J A; Britton, W J; Chan, H K

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) provide a crucial mechanism in the development of drug resistant to antimycobacterial drugs. Drugs that inhibit these efflux pumps, such as verapamil, have shown the potential in enhancing the treatment success. We therefore hypothesized that the combined inhaled administration of verapamil and a first-line rifamycin antibiotic will further improve the treatment efficacy. An inhalable dry powder consisting of amorphous verapamil and crystalline rifapentine with l-leucine as an excipient was produced by spray drying. The in vitro aerosol characteristic of the powder, its microbiological activity and stability were assessed. When the powder was dispersed by an Osmohaler, the total fine particle fraction (FPFtotal, wt % of particles in aerosol <5 ?m) of verapamil and rifapentine was 77.4 1.1% and 71.5 2.0%, respectively. The combination drug formulation showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) similar to that of rifapentine alone when tested against both M. tb H37Ra and M. tb H37Rv strains. Importantly, the combination resulted in increased killing of M. tb H37Ra within the infected macrophage cells compared to either verapamil or rifapentine alone. In assessing cellular toxicity, the combination exhibited an acceptable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values (62.5 ?g/mL) on both human monocytic (THP-1) and lung alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cell lines. Finally, the powder was stable after 3 months storage in 0% relative humidity at 20 3 C. PMID:26808409

  20. Efficient fermentation of an improved synthetic grape must by enological and laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Grape must or freshly pressed grape juice is a complex chemical matrix that impacts the efficiency of yeast fermentation. The composition of natural grape must (NGM) can be variable; thus, to ensure reproducibility, a synthetic grape must (SGM) with defined composition is commonly used. The aim of this work was to create conditions to advance the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains for wine fermentation studies, considering previous results obtained for enological strains fermenting NGM under simulated winery conditions. We designed a new SGM formulation, ISA-SGM, by introducing specific modifications to a commonly used formulation, putting together previous reports. We added glucose and fructose in equal amounts (125g/l) and 50 parts per million (ppm) sulfur dioxide (SO2, corresponding to standard enological treatment), and we optimized the concentrations of malic acid (3g/l), citric acid (0.3g/l), and tartaric acid (3g/l). Using ISA-SGM, we obtained similar fermentative profiles for the wine strain ISA1000, the prototrophic strain S288C, and its auxotrophic derivative BY4741. In this case, the concentrations of supplements were optimized to 120mg/lL-uracil, 80mg/lL-methionine, 400mg/lL-leucine, and 100mg/lL-histidine. All these strains tested in ISA-SGM presented a similar fermentative performance as ISA1000 in NGM. ISA-SGM formulation is a promising new tool to allow the use of the auxotrophic BY strains in the detailed assessment of the alcoholic fermentation process under simulated winery conditions, and it provides a foundation to extract relevant physiological conclusions in future research on enological yeast traits. PMID:24949253

  1. Isolation and functional characterization of a novel organic solute carrier protein, hOSCP1.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yasuna; Shibusawa, Akiko; Saito, Hironori; Ohshiro, Naomi; Ohbayashi, Masayuki; Kohyama, Noriko; Yamamoto, Toshinori

    2005-09-16

    We succeeded in isolating a novel organic solute carrier from a human placenta cDNA library. The isolated cDNA consisted of 1137 base pairs that encoded a 379-amino acid protein, hOSCP1. Northern blot and reverse transcription PCR analyses revealed that the hOSCP1 mRNA is expressed in the placenta and testis and weakly expressed in the thymus and small intestine. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, hOSCP1 mediated the high affinity transport of p-aminohippurate (PAH) (K(m) = 35.0 +/- 7.5 microm) and tetraethylammonium (K(m) = 62.3 +/- 12.2 microm) in a sodium-independent manner. However, the hOSCP1-expressing oocyte did not mediate the transport of L-carnitine. The transport of PAH by hOSCP1 was sensitive to pH, but the tetraethylammonium was not transported at the high pH examined. hOSCP1 transported prostaglandin E(2), prostaglandin F(2alpha), estrone sulfate, glutarate, L-leucine, L-ascorbic acid, and tetracycline. Thus, hOSCP1 also showed broad substrate specificity. A wide range of structurally unrelated organic compounds inhibited the hOSCP1-mediated PAH uptake. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the hOSCP1 protein is localized in the basal membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast in the human placenta. Our results suggest that hOSCP1 is a novel polyspecific organic solute carrier protein responsible for drug clearance from the human placenta. PMID:16006562

  2. Synthetic Galectin-3 Inhibitor Increases Metastatic Cancer Cell Sensitivity to Taxol-Induced Apoptosis In Vitro and In Vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Vladislav V; Kiriakova, Galina; Glinskii, Olga V; Mossine, Valeri V; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Turk, James R; Glinskii, Anna B; Huxley, Virginia H; Price, Janet E; Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2009-01-01

    At present, there is no efficient curative therapy for cancer patients with advanced metastatic disease. Targeting of antiapoptotic molecules acting on the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway could potentially augment antimetastatic effect of cytotoxic drugs. Similarly to Bcl-2 family members, ?-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3 protects cancer cells from apoptosis induced by cytotoxic drugs through the mitochondrial pathway. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting galectin-3 antiapoptotic function using a synthetic low-molecular weight carbohydrate-based compound lactulosyl-l-leucine (Lac-l-Leu) will augment apoptosis induced in human cancer cells by paclitaxel and increase its efficacy against established metastases. Treatment with synthetic glycoamine Lac-l-Leu alone reduced the number of established MDA-MB-435Lung2 pulmonary metastases 5.5-fold (P = .032) but did not significantly affect the incidence of metastasis. Treatment with paclitaxel alone (10 mg/kg three times with 3-day intervals) had no significant effect on the incidence or on the number of MDA-MB-435Lung2 metastases. Treatment with Lac-l-Leu/paclitaxel combination decreased both the number (P = .02) and the incidence (P = .001) of pulmonary metastases, causing a five-fold increase in the number of metastasis-free animals from 14% in the control group to 70% in the combination therapy group. The median number of lung metastases dropped to 0 in the combination therapy group compared with 11 in the control (P = .02). Synergistic inhibition of clonogenic survival and induction of apoptosis in metastatic cells by Lac-l-Leu/paclitaxel combination was functionally linked with an increase in mitochondrial damage and was sufficient for the antimetastatic activity that caused a reversal and eradication of advanced metastatic disease in 56% of experimental animals. PMID:19724684

  3. Synthetic galectin-3 inhibitor increases metastatic cancer cell sensitivity to taxol-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Glinsky, Vladislav V; Kiriakova, Galina; Glinskii, Olga V; Mossine, Valeri V; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Turk, James R; Glinskii, Anna B; Huxley, Virginia H; Price, Janet E; Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2009-09-01

    At present, there is no efficient curative therapy for cancer patients with advanced metastatic disease. Targeting of antiapoptotic molecules acting on the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway could potentially augment antimetastatic effect of cytotoxic drugs. Similarly to Bcl-2 family members, beta-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3 protects cancer cells from apoptosis induced by cytotoxic drugs through the mitochondrial pathway. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting galectin-3 antiapoptotic function using a synthetic low-molecular weight carbohydrate-based compound lactulosyl-L-leucine (Lac-L-Leu) will augment apoptosis induced in human cancer cells by paclitaxel and increase its efficacy against established metastases. Treatment with synthetic glycoamine Lac-L-Leu alone reduced the number of established MDA-MB-435Lung2 pulmonary metastases 5.5-fold (P = .032) but did not significantly affect the incidence of metastasis. Treatment with paclitaxel alone (10 mg/kg three times with 3-day intervals) had no significant effect on the incidence or on the number of MDA-MB-435Lung2 metastases. Treatment with Lac-L-Leu/paclitaxel combination decreased both the number (P = .02) and the incidence (P = .001) of pulmonary metastases, causing a five-fold increase in the number of metastasis-free animals from 14% in the control group to 70% in the combination therapy group. The median number of lung metastases dropped to 0 in the combination therapy group compared with 11 in the control (P = .02). Synergistic inhibition of clonogenic survival and induction of apoptosis in metastatic cells by Lac-L-Leu/paclitaxel combination was functionally linked with an increase in mitochondrial damage and was sufficient for the antimetastatic activity that caused a reversal and eradication of advanced metastatic disease in 56% of experimental animals. PMID:19724684

  4. Pulmonary immunization of guinea pigs with diphtheria CRM-197 antigen as nanoparticle aggregate dry powders enhance local and systemic immune responses.

    PubMed

    Muttil, Pavan; Pulliam, Brian; Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Fallon, John Kevin; Wang, Chenchen; Hickey, Anthony James; Edwards, David A

    2010-12-01

    This study establishes the immune response elicited in guinea pigs after pulmonary and parenteral immunizations with diphtheria CRM-197 antigen (CrmAg). Several spray-dried powders of formalin-treated/untreated CrmAg nanoaggregates with L-leucine were delivered to the lungs of guinea pigs. A control group consisting of alum with adsorbed CrmAg in saline was administered by intramuscular injection. Animals received three doses of powder vaccines containing 20 or 40 ?g of CrmAg. The serum IgG titers were measured for 16 weeks after the initial immunization; IgA titers were measured at the time of sacrifice in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. Further, toxin neutralization tests in nave guinea pigs were performed for a few select serum samples. Histopathology of the lung tissues was conducted to evaluate inflammation or injury to the lung tissues. While the highest titer of serum IgG antibody was observed in guinea pigs immunized by the intramuscular route, those animals immunized with dry powder formulation by the pulmonary route, and without the adjuvant alum, exhibited high IgA titers. A pulmonary administered dry powder, compared to parenteral immunization, conferred complete protection in the toxin neutralization test. Mild inflammation was observed in lung tissues of animals receiving dry powder vaccines by the pulmonary route. Thus, administering novel CrmAg as dry powders to the lungs may be able to overcome some of the disadvantages observed with the existing diphtheria vaccine which is administered by the parenteral route. In addition, these powders will have the advantage of eliciting a high mucosal immune response in the lungs without using traditional adjuvants. PMID:20878294

  5. Bacterial translocation is reduced by a specific nutritional combination in mice with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Faber, Joyce; van Limpt, Kees; Kegler, Diane; Luiking, Yvette; Garssen, Johan; van Helvoort, Ardy; Vos, Arjan Paul; Knol, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Immune function is compromised in many cancer patients, leading to an increased risk of (infectious) complications. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a common cause of treatment-induced immune suppression. In the present study, the effect of a specific nutritional combination (SNC) on bacterial translocation was studied in a model of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in C3H/HeN mice colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1. Dietary intervention started after stable colonization with P. aeruginosa to compare the SNC containing high protein, l-leucine, fish oil, and specific oligosaccharides to an isoenergetic control diet. After 3 wk, the mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to induce neutropenia. This rendered the mice susceptible to Pseudomonas translocation, which was quantified 5 d later. Intervention with the SNC resulted in a reduced incidence and intensity of bacterial translocation to the liver (P < 0.05) and a similar trend in the lungs (P ≤ 0.057). In addition, the SNC reduced the fecal pH (P < 0.05) and decreased P. aeruginosa counts in fecal samples (P < 0.05). Moreover, plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were correlated with the reduced bacterial translocation to the liver (ρ > 0.78; P < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary intervention with the SNC significantly reduced the incidence and severity of P. aeruginosa translocation in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced immune suppression. Several mechanisms might have played a role, including the modulation of the intestinal microbiota, an improved gut barrier function, immune function, and a reduced inflammatory state. These results suggest an opportunity to develop new applications in cancer patients, with the aim to reduce infectious and other complications. PMID:21562235

  6. Nano-liposomal dry powder inhaler of tacrolimus: Preparation, characterization, and pulmonary pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-01-01

    The studies were undertaken to evaluate feasibility of pulmonary delivery of liposomaly encapsulated tacrolimus dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as rescue therapy to prevent refractory rejection of lungs after transplantation. Tacrolimus encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. Tacrolimus nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different additives like lactose, sucrose, and trehalose, and L-leucine as antiadherent. The dispersion was spray dried and spray dried powders were characterized. In vitro and in vivo pulmonary deposition was performed using Andersen Cascade Impactor and intratracheal instillation in rats respectively. NLs were found to have average size of 140 nm, 96% 1.5% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 1.107 mV. Trehalose based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 9.46 0.8 ?m, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 71.1 2.5%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 0.1 ?m, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.7 0.2. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 18 hours, following Higuchis Controlled Release model. In vivo studies revealed maximal residence of tacrolimus within lungs of 24 hours, suggesting slow clearance from the lungs. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of tacrolimus encapsulated in NLs for controlled and prolonged retention at the site of action. It may play a promising role as rescue therapy in reducing the risk of acute rejection and chronic rejection. PMID:18203434

  7. Effects of leucine supplementation and serum withdrawal on branched-chain amino acid pathway gene and protein expression in mouse adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kitsy, Abderrazak; Carney, Skyla; Vivar, Juan C; Knight, Megan S; Pointer, Mildred A; Gwathmey, Judith K; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2014-01-01

    The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, valine and isoleucine, are traditionally associated with skeletal muscle growth and maintenance, energy production, and generation of neurotransmitter and gluconeogenic precursors. Recent evidence from human and animal model studies has established an additional link between BCAA levels and obesity. However, details of the mechanism of regulation of BCAA metabolism during adipogenesis are largely unknown. We interrogated whether the expression of genes and proteins involved in BCAA metabolism are sensitive to the adipocyte differentiation process, and responsive to nutrient stress from starvation or BCAA excess. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes under control conditions and under conditions of L-leucine supplementation or serum withdrawal. RNA and proteins were isolated at days 0, 4 and 10 of differentiation to represent pre-differentiation, early differentiation and late differentiation stages. Expression of 16 BCAA metabolism genes was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the protein levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 2 (Bcat2) and branched-chain alpha keto acid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) was quantified by immunoblotting. Under control conditions, all genes displayed induction of gene expression during early adipogenesis (Day 4) compared to Day 0. Leucine supplementation resulted in an induction of Bcat2 and Bckdha genes during early and late differentiation. Western blot analysis demonstrated condition-specific concordance between gene and protein expression. Serum withdrawal resulted in undetectable Bcat2 and Bckdha protein levels at all timepoints. These results demonstrate that the expression of genes related to BCAA metabolism are regulated during adipocyte differentiation and influenced by nutrient levels. These results provide additional insights on how BCAA metabolism is associated with adipose tissue function and extends our understanding of the transcriptomic response of this pathway to variations in nutrient availability. PMID:25050624

  8. The TonB3 System in the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus Is under the Control of the Global Regulators Lrp and Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Crosa, Jorge H.

    2012-01-01

    TonB systems transduce the proton motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane to energize substrate transport through a specific TonB-dependent transporter across the outer membrane. Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic marine pathogen that can cause a fatal septicemic disease in humans and eels, possesses three TonB systems. While the TonB1 and TonB2 systems are iron regulated, the TonB3 system is induced when the bacterium grows in human serum. In this work we have determined the essential roles of the leucine-responsive protein (Lrp) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) in the transcriptional activation of this system. Whereas Lrp shows at least four very distinctive DNA binding regions spread out from position ?59 to ?509, cAMP-CRP binds exclusively in a region centered at position ?122.5 from the start point of the transcription. Our results suggest that both proteins bind simultaneously to the region closer to the RNA polymerase binding site. Importantly, we report that the TonB3 system is induced not only by serum but also during growth in minimal medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source and low concentrations of Casamino Acids. In addition to catabolite repression by glucose, l-leucine acts by inhibiting the binding of Lrp to the promoter region, hence preventing transcription of the TonB3 operon. Thus, this TonB system is under the direct control of two global regulators that can integrate different environmental signals (i.e., glucose starvation and the transition between feast and famine). These results shed light on new mechanisms of regulation for a TonB system that could be widespread in other organisms. PMID:22307757

  9. Metabolomics analysis and biomarker identification for brains of rats exposed subchronically to the mixtures of low-dose cadmium and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Yuan; Sun, Ying-Jian; Wang, Pan; Xu, Hai-Yang; Chen, Li-Ping; Zhu, Li; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2015-06-15

    Cadmium (Cd) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widespread harmful environmental pollutants with neurotoxicity to mammals. Although the exposure to Cd and CPF at the same time may pose a significant risk to human health, the subchronic combined neurotoxicity of these two chemicals at low levels in the brain is poorly understood. In this study, we treated rats with three doses (low, middle, and high) of Cd, CPF, or their mixture for 90 days. No obvious symptom was observed in the treated animals except those treated with high-dose CPF. Histological results showed that middle and high doses of the chemicals caused neuronal cell damage in brains. GC-MS-based metabonomics analysis revealed that energy and amino acid metabolism were disturbed in the brains of rats exposed to the two chemicals and their combinations even at low doses. We further identified the unique brain metabolite biomarkers for rats treated with Cd, CPF, or both. Two amino acids, tyrosine and l-leucine, were identified as the biomarkers for Cd and CPF treatment, respectively. In addition, a set of five unique biomarkers (1,2-propanediol-1-phosphate, d-gluconic acid, 9H-purine, serine, and 2-ketoisovaleric acid) was identified for the mixtures of Cd and CPF. Therefore, the metabolomics analysis is more sensitive than regular clinical observation and pathological examination for detecting the neurotoxicity of the individual and combined Cd and CPF at low levels. Overall, these results identified the unique biomarkers for Cd and CPF exposure, which provide new insights into the mechanism of their joint toxicity. PMID:25856237

  10. Molecular characterization of L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii with special reference to platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, H; Sakurai, Y; Yoshioka, A; Kokubo, T; Usami, Y; Suzuki, M; Matsui, T; Titani, K; Yagi, H; Matsumoto, M; Fujimura, Y

    2001-01-12

    L-Amino acid oxidase (LAO, EC 1.4.3.2) is widely distributed in snake venom, and induces apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells, causing prolonged bleeding from vessel walls at bite sites. The effect of snake venom LAOs on platelet function is controversial. Further, we have little information on their structural characterization. We purified M (mamushi)-LAO, a single-chain glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 60 kDa and a pI of 4.9, from Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi) venom, and determined the N-terminal and several internal amino acid sequences of this enzyme. Molecular cloning based on these data was conducted to elucidate its full-length cDNA structure (2192 nucleotides), which includes a putative 18 amino acid residue signal peptide and a 504 residue mature subunit. The predicted M-LAO translation product shares 87.3% identity with that of Crotalus adamanteus (Southeastern diamondback rattlesnake) LAO. M-LAO, up to a final concentration of 2.6 microM, inhibited both agonist- and shear stress-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA) dose-dependently. In agonist-induced platelet aggregation, M-LAO predominantly inhibited the second aggregation, but with a marginal inhibition of the first. In SIPA, the inhibition was more dramatic under low-shear stress than high-shear stress, and was enhanced by the presence of L-leucine, a substrate of this enzyme. Catalase, a H2O2 scavenger, totally quenched such enhancement. These results suggest that M-LAO inhibits the interaction between activated platelet integrin alphaIIb/beta3 and fibrinogen through the continuous generation of H2O2, and may contribute to prolonged bleeding from the vessels at snake bite sites. PMID:11341935

  11. Efficient fermentation of an improved synthetic grape must by enological and laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Viana, Tiago; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Prista, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Grape must or freshly pressed grape juice is a complex chemical matrix that impacts the efficiency of yeast fermentation. The composition of natural grape must (NGM) can be variable; thus, to ensure reproducibility, a synthetic grape must (SGM) with defined composition is commonly used. The aim of this work was to create conditions to advance the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains for wine fermentation studies, considering previous results obtained for enological strains fermenting NGM under simulated winery conditions. We designed a new SGM formulation, ISA-SGM, by introducing specific modifications to a commonly used formulation, putting together previous reports. We added glucose and fructose in equal amounts (125g/l) and 50 parts per million (ppm) sulfur dioxide (SO2, corresponding to standard enological treatment), and we optimized the concentrations of malic acid (3g/l), citric acid (0.3g/l), and tartaric acid (3g/l). Using ISA-SGM, we obtained similar fermentative profiles for the wine strain ISA1000, the prototrophic strain S288C, and its auxotrophic derivative BY4741. In this case, the concentrations of supplements were optimized to 120mg/lL-uracil, 80mg/lL-methionine, 400mg/lL-leucine, and 100mg/lL-histidine. All these strains tested in ISA-SGM presented a similar fermentative performance as ISA1000 in NGM. ISA-SGM formulation is a promising new tool to allow the use of the auxotrophic BY strains in the detailed assessment of the alcoholic fermentation process under simulated winery conditions, and it provides a foundation to extract relevant physiological conclusions in future research on enological yeast traits. PMID:24949253

  12. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle’ adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized. PMID:26914608

  13. Abrin Immunotoxin: Targeted Cytotoxicity and Intracellular Trafficking Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gadadhar, Sudarshan; Karande, Anjali A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy is fast emerging as one of the leading modes of treatment of cancer, in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. Use of immunotoxins, proteins bearing a cell-surface receptor-specific antibody conjugated to a toxin, enhances the efficacy of cancer treatment. The toxin Abrin, isolated from the Abrus precatorius plant, is a type II ribosome inactivating protein, has a catalytic efficiency higher than any other toxin belonging to this class of proteins but has not been exploited much for use in targeted therapy. Methods Protein synthesis assay using 3[H] L-leucine incorporation; construction and purification of immunotoxin; study of cell death using flow cytometry; confocal scanning microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation with immunoblot analysis of localization of proteins. Results We used the recombinant A chain of abrin to conjugate to antibodies raised against the human gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor. The conjugate inhibited protein synthesis and also induced cell death specifically in cells expressing the receptor. The conjugate exhibited differences in the kinetics of inhibition of protein synthesis, in comparison to abrin, and this was attributed to differences in internalization and trafficking of the conjugate within the cells. Moreover, observations of sequestration of the A chain into the nucleus of cells treated with abrin but not in cells treated with the conjugate reveal a novel pathway for the movement of the conjugate in the cells. Conclusions This is one of the first reports on nuclear localization of abrin, a type II RIP. The immunotoxin mAb F1G4-rABRa-A, generated in our laboratory, inhibits protein synthesis specifically on cells expressing the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor and the pathway of internalization of the protein is distinct from that seen for abrin. PMID:23472175

  14. Facile electrochemical detection of botulinum neurotoxin type E using a two-step proteolytic cleavage.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonhwa; Shin, Yu Mi; Song, Ji-Joon; Yang, Haesik

    2015-10-15

    Facile electrochemical methods for measuring protease concentration or protease activity are essential for point-of-care testing of toxic proteases. However, electrochemical detection of proteases, such as botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E), that cleave a peptide bond between two specific amino acid residues is challenging. This study reports a facile and sensitive electrochemical method for BoNT/E detection. The method is based on a two-step proteolytic cleavage using a target BoNT/E light chain (BoNT/E-LC) and an externally supplemented exopeptidase, L-leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP). BoNT/E-LC cleaves a peptide bond between arginine and isoleucine in IDTQNRQIDRI-4-amino-1-naphthol (oligopeptide-AN) to generate isoleucine-AN. Subsequently, LAP cleaves a bond between isoleucine and AN to liberate a free electroactive AN species. The liberated AN participates in electrochemical-chemical-chemical (ECC) redox cycling involving Ru(NH3)6(3+), AN, and a reducing agent, which allows a high signal amplification. Electrochemical detection is carried out without surface modification of indium-tin oxide electrodes. We show that dithiothreitol is beneficial for enhancing the enzymatic activity of BoNT/E-LC and also for achieving a fast ECC redox cycling. An incubation temperature of 37°C and the use of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer resulted in optimal signal-to-background ratios for efficient BoNT/E detection. BoNT/E-LC could be detected at concentrations of approximately 2.0 pg/mL, 0.2, and 3 ng/mL after 4h, 2h, and 15 min incubation in PBS buffer, respectively, and approximately 0.3 ng/mL after 2-h incubation in bottled water. The method developed could be applied in fast, sensitive, and selective detection of any protease that cleaves a peptide bond between two specific amino acid residues. PMID:25982730

  15. Isolation and characterization of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae peptide transport gene.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, J R; Basrai, M A; Steiner, H Y; Naider, F; Becker, J M

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a Saccharomyces cerevisiae peptide transport gene (PTR2) isolated from a genomic DNA library by directly selecting for functional complementation of a peptide transport-deficient mutant. Deletion and frameshift mutageneses were used to localize the complementing activity to a 3.1-kbp region on the transforming plasmid. DNA sequencing of the complementing region identified an open reading frame spanning 1,803 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence predicts a hydrophobic peptide consisting of 601 amino acids, having a molecular mass of 68.1 kDa, composed in part of 12 hydrophobic segments, and sharing significant similarities with a nitrate transport protein encoded by the CHL1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Northern (RNA) hybridization experiments demonstrated a single transcript that was 1.8 kb in length and that was transiently induced by the addition of L-leucine to the growth medium. The PTR2 gene was localized to the right arm of chromosome XI by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel chromosome blotting and by hybridization to known chromosome XI lambda phage clones of S. cerevisiae DNA. PTR2 was tightly linked to the UBI2 gene, with the coding sequences being separated by a 466-bp region and oriented so that the genes were transcribed convergently. A chromosomal disruption of the PTR2 gene in a haploid strain was not lethal under standard growth conditions. The cloning of PTR2 represents the first example of the molecular genetic characterization of a eucaryotic peptide transport gene. Images PMID:8264579

  16. Non-adiabatic tapered optical fiber sensor for measuring the interaction between α-amino acids in aqueous carbohydrate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Karami, M.; Gholami, M.; Hosseini, S. M.; Ghezelayagh, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    A single-mode non-adiabatic tapered optical fiber (NATOF) sensor was utilized for sensing the variation in refractive index (RI) with concentration of d-glucose in deionized water and measurement of the RI of amino acids (AAs) in carbohydrate solutions. This method showed a rewarding ability in understanding the basis of biomolecular interactions in biological systems. Due to high sensitivity, ease of application, low cost and real-time measurement, this method is more efficient in comparison with other techniques, such as calorimetric titration, NMR, UV absorption spectroscopy, x-ray crystallography, computer calculations, kinetic studies and chromatography data. The NATOF is fabricated by the heat pulling method, utilizing a CO2 laser. The limit of detection of the NATOF was 55 ppm for a d-glucose concentration ranging from 0 to 80 mg ml-1, and the limit of detection of the RI measurement corresponding to these concentrations in the range from 1.3330 to 1.3447 was 8.2 × 10-6 as a refractometer sensor. The response of the NATOF shows that different kinds of interactions of various groups of AAs, such as l-alanine, l-leucine and l-cysteine with d-glucose, sucrose and water molecules, depend on functional groups in AAs such as OH, SH, CH2, NH+3 and COO-. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making/breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. Such a study helps in the better understanding of the interactions occurring between AA molecules and entities present in biological matrices.

  17. Light-Activated Amino Acid Transport Systems in Halobacterium halobium Envelope Vesicles: Role of Chemical and Electrical Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Russell E.; Greene, Richard V.; Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of 20 commonly occurring L-amino acids by cell envelope vesicles of Halobacterium halobium, in response to light-induced membrane potential and an artificially created sodium gradient, has been studied. Nineteen of these amino acids are actively accumulated under either or both of these conditions. Glutamate is unique in that its uptake is driven only by a chemical gradient for sodium. Amino acid concentrations at half-maximal uptake rates (Km) and maximal transport rates (V(sub max) have been determined for the uptake of all 19 amino acids. The transport systems have been partially characterized with respect to groups of amino acids transported by common carriers, cation effects, and relative response to the electrical and chemical components of the sodium gradient, the driving forces for uptake. The data presented clearly show that the carrier systems, which are responsible for uptake of individual amino acids, are as variable in their properties as those found in other organisms, i. e., some are highly specific for individual amino acids, some transport several amino acids competitively, some are activated by a chemical gradient of sodium only, and some function also in the complete absence of such a gradient. For all amino acids, Na(+) and K(+) are both required for maximal rate of uptake. The carriers for L-leucine and L-histidine are symmetrical in that these amino acids are transported in both directions across the vesicle membrane. It is suggested that coupling of substrate transport to metabolic energy via transient ionic gradients may be a general phenomenon in procaryotes.

  18. Leptin and leucine synergistically regulate protein metabolism in C2C12 myotubes and mouse skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Zeng, Xiangfang; Huang, Zhimin; Wang, Junjun; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-07-28

    Leucine and leptin play important roles in regulating protein synthesis and degradation in skeletal muscles in vitro and in vivo. However, the objective of the present study was to determine whether leptin and leucine function synergistically in regulating protein metabolism of skeletal muscles. In the in vitro experiment, C2C12 myotubes were cultured for 2 h in the presence of 5 mm-leucine and/or 50 ng/ml of leptin. In the in vivo experiment, C57BL/6 and ob/ob mice were randomly assigned to be fed a non-purified diet supplemented with 3 % L-leucine or 204 % L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 14 d. Ob/ob mice were injected intraperitoneally with sterile PBS or recombinant mouse leptin (01 ?g/g body weight) for 14 d. In C57BL/6 mice, dietary leucine supplementation increased (P< 005) plasma leptin, leptin receptor expression and protein synthesis in skeletal muscles, but reduced (P< 005) plasma urea and protein degradation in skeletal muscles. Dietary leucine supplementation and leptin injection increased the relative weight of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in ob/ob mice. Moreover, leucine and leptin treatments stimulated (P< 005) protein synthesis and inhibited (P< 005) protein degradation in C2C12 myotubes and skeletal muscles of ob/ob mice. There were interactions (P< 005) between the leucine and leptin treatments with regard to protein metabolism in C2C12 myotubes and soleus muscles of ob/ob mice but not in the gastrocnemius muscles of ob/ob mice. Collectively, these results suggest that leptin and leucine synergistically regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscles both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23211060

  19. Solid state radiolysis of amino acids in an astrochemical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; Iglesias-Groth, Susana; Manchado, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The aliphatic amino acids L-alanine and L-leucine and the aromatic amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. The degree of decomposition was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore the degree of radioracemization was measured by optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectroscopy. From the DSC measurement a radiolysis rate constant k and the half life T1/2 for each amino acid have been determined and extrapolated to a dose of 14 MGy, which corresponds to the expected total dose delivered by the decay of radionuclides to the organic molecules present in comets and asteroids in 4.6109 years, the age of the Solar System. It is shown that all the amino acids studied can survive a radiation dose of 14 MGy although they are reduced to 1/4-1/5 of their original value they had at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. Consequently, the amount of alanine or leucine found today in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites is just 1/4-1/5 of the amount originally present at the epoch of the formation of the Solar System 4.6109 years ago. Among the amino acids studied, tyrosine shows the highest radiation resistance while tryptophan does not combine its relatively high radiation resistance with an elevated level of radioracemization resistance. Apart from the exception of tryptophan, it is shown that the radiolysis rate constants k of all the amino acids studied are in reasonable agreement with the radioracemization rate constant krac.

  20. Genotype to phenotype: identification of diagnostic vibrio phenotypes using whole genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Gilda Rose S; Dias, Graciela M; Wellington-Oguri, Michiyo; Chimetto, Luciane; Campeo, Mariana E; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane C

    2014-02-01

    Vibrios are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and can be found in association with animal or plant hosts. The range of ecological relationships includes pathogenic and mutualistic associations. To gain a better understanding of the ecology of these microbes, it is important to determine their phenotypic features. However, the traditional phenotypic characterization of vibrios has been expensive, time-consuming and restricted in scope to a limited number of features. In addition, most of the commercial systems applied for phenotypic characterization cannot characterize the broad spectrum of environmental strains. A reliable and possible alternative is to obtain phenotypic information directly from whole genome sequences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole genome sequences as a source of phenotypic information. We performed a comparison of the vibrio phenotypes obtained from the literature with the phenotypes obtained from whole genome sequences. We observed a significant correlation between the previously published phenotypic data and the phenotypic data retrieved from whole genome sequences of vibrios. Analysis of 26 vibrio genomes revealed that all genes coding for the specific proteins involved in the metabolic pathways responsible for positive phenotypes of the 14 diagnostic features (Voges-Proskauer reaction, indole production, arginine dihydrolase, ornithine decarboxylase, utilization of myo-inositol, sucrose and L-leucine, and fermentation of D-mannitol, D-sorbitol, L-arabinose, trehalose, cellobiose, D-mannose and D-galactose) were found in the majority of the vibrios genomes. Vibrio species that were negative for a given phenotype revealed the absence of all or several genes involved in the respective biochemical pathways, indicating the utility of this approach to characterize the phenotypes of vibrios. The absence of the global regulation and regulatory proteins in the Vibrio parahaemolyticus genome indicated a non-vibrio phenotype. Whole genome sequences represent an important source for the phenotypic identification of vibrios. PMID:24505074

  1. Metabolic and digestive response to food ingestion in a binge-feeding lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum).

    PubMed

    Christel, C M; DeNardo, D F; Secor, S M

    2007-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract possesses the capacity to change in form and function in response to fasting and feeding. Such plasticity can be dramatic for species that naturally experience long episodes of fasting between large meals (e.g. sit-and-wait foraging snakes, estivating anurans). By contrast, for active foraging species that feed more frequently on smaller meals, gastrointestinal responses are more modest in magnitude. The Gila monster Heloderma suspectum is an active foraging lizard that feeds infrequently on meals weighing up to one-third of its body mass. Additionally, Gila monsters possess a species-specific salivary peptide, exendin-4, which may be involved in the regulation of metabolic and digestive performance. To investigate the adaptive postprandial response of Gila monsters and the potential regulatory role of exendin-4, we measured metabolic and intestinal responses to feeding in the presence or absence of circulating exendin-4. Following the consumption of rodent or egg meals equivalent to 10% of lizard body mass, metabolic rates peaked at 4.0- to 4.9-fold of standard metabolic rates and remained elevated for 5-6 days. Specific dynamic action of these meals (43-60 kJ) was 13-18% of total meal energy. Feeding triggered significant increases in mucosal mass, enterocyte width and volume, and the upregulation of D-glucose uptake rates and aminopeptidase-N activity. Total intestinal uptake capacity for L-leucine, L-proline and D-glucose were significantly elevated within 1-3 days after feeding. Whereas the absence of circulating exendin-4 had no impact on postprandial metabolism or the postprandial response of intestinal structure and nutrient uptake, it significantly increased intestinal aminopeptidase-N activity. Within the continuum of physiological responses to feeding and fasting, Gila monsters occupy an intermediate position in experiencing moderate, though significant, regulation of intestinal performance with feeding. PMID:17872997

  2. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle' adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stl) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELIS