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The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N G-nitro- l-arginine methylester and l-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The known effects of a novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC157 (10 ?g or 10 ng\\/kg), namely its salutary activity against ethanol (96%, i.g.)-induced gastric lesions (simultaneously applied i.p.) and in blood pressure maintenance (given i.v.), were investigated in rats challenged with a combination of NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME) (5 mg\\/kg i.v.), a competitive inhibitor of endothelium nitric oxide (NO)-generation and NO precursor,

Predrag Sikiri?; Sven Seiwerth; Željko Grabarevi?; Rudolf Ru?man; Marijan Petek; Vjekoslav Jagi?; Branko Turkovi?; Ivo Rotkvi?; Stjepan Miše; Ivan Zori?i?; Paško Konjevoda; Darko Perovi?; Ljubica Jurina; Jadranka Šeparovi?; Miro Hanževa?ki; Branka Artukovi?; Mirna Bratuli?; Marina Tišljar; Miro Gjurašin; Pavao Mikli?; Dinko Stan?i?-Rokotov; Zoran Slobodnjak; Nikola Jelovac; Anton Marovi?



Effect of gold nanoparticles on the efficiency of poly(3-hexylthiophene): phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methylester solar cells.  


Different surface densities of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were deposited on (3-aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The electrodes were then used in poly(3-hexylthiophene): phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methylester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells. Enhanced photo-conversion efficiency was observed from solar cells containing adsorbed AuNPs with surface density equals to 10 +/- 3 NPs/microm2. For higher surface densities (215 +/- 10 NPs/microm2), the presence of the plasmonic material significantly reduced the efficiency of the solar cell. Impedance spectroscopy (IS) indicates changes of the electrical characteristics, evident by a drastic reduction of the impedance relative to the reference cells, from electrodes modified with high densities of AuNPs. PMID:24758017

Mirzaei, Sedigheh; Jolinat, Pascale; Ablart, Guy



Effect of nitric oxide and NO synthase inhibition on nonquantal acetylcholine release in the rat diaphragm.  


After anticholinesterase treatment, the postsynaptic muscle membrane is depolarized by about 5 mV due to nonquantal release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the motor nerve terminal. This can be demonstrated by the hyperpolarization produced by the addition of curare (H-effect). The magnitude of the H-effect was decreased significantly to 3 mV when the nitric oxide (NO) donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) were applied to the muscle, or when NO production was elevated by adding L-arginine, but not D-arginine, as a substrate. The H-effect was increased to 8-9 mV by inhibition of NO synthase by L-nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME), or by guanylyl cyclase inhibition by methylene blue and 1H-[1,2,4]oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). ODQ increased the H-effect to 7.3 +/- 0.2 mV and diminished the SNP-induced decrease of the H-effect when applied together with SNP. The effects of NO donors and L-arginine were eliminated by adding reduced haemoglobin, an extracellular NO scavenger. The present results, together with earlier evidence for the presence of NO synthase in muscle fibres, indicate that nonquantal release of ACh is modulated by NO production in the postsynaptic cell. PMID:10762328

Mukhtarov, M R; Urazaev, A K; Nikolsky, E E; Vyskocil, F



Cardiac hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation: sensitivity to L-arginine methylester.  

PubMed Central

The effect of L-arginine methylester (L-Arg-Me) was studied in the isolated heart of the guinea-pig perfused with hypoxic substrate-free medium for 30 min and subsequently reoxygenated with normal saline solution for 30 min. The administration of L-Arg-Me in basal conditions decreases dose-dependently heart rate without any changes in the myocardial structure. On the other hand, the administration of L-Arg-Me (5-10 mM) decreases ventricular arrhythmias, especially during reoxygenation; in fact ventricular fibrillation is abolished. L-Arg-Me treatment increases the recovery of normal electrical and mechanical activity at the end of reoxygenation and reduces the increase in basal tone. Treatment with 10 mM L-Arg-Me decreases lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the effluent and lysosomal fragility in cardiac tissue, while it does not influence calcium gain. L-Arginine (L-Arg) does not mimic any of the effects of L-Arg-Me. Images Figure 2

Baccaro, C.; Bennardini, F.; Dini, G.; Franconi, F.; Giotti, A.; Matucci, R.; Minuti, P.



Cardiac hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation: sensitivity to L-arginine methylester.  


The effect of L-arginine methylester (L-Arg-Me) was studied in the isolated heart of the guinea-pig perfused with hypoxic substrate-free medium for 30 min and subsequently reoxygenated with normal saline solution for 30 min. The administration of L-Arg-Me in basal conditions decreases dose-dependently heart rate without any changes in the myocardial structure. On the other hand, the administration of L-Arg-Me (5-10 mM) decreases ventricular arrhythmias, especially during reoxygenation; in fact ventricular fibrillation is abolished. L-Arg-Me treatment increases the recovery of normal electrical and mechanical activity at the end of reoxygenation and reduces the increase in basal tone. Treatment with 10 mM L-Arg-Me decreases lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the effluent and lysosomal fragility in cardiac tissue, while it does not influence calcium gain. L-Arginine (L-Arg) does not mimic any of the effects of L-Arg-Me. PMID:3708203

Baccaro, C; Bennardini, F; Dini, G; Franconi, F; Giotti, A; Matucci, R; Minuti, P



Non-quantal acetylcholine release is increased after nitric oxide synthase inhibition.  


After anticholinesterase treatment, depolarization of the postsynaptic muscle membrane by about 5 mV develops due to non-quantally released acetylcholine from the motor nerve terminal and can be revealed as hyperpolarization by the addition of curare (H-effect). The H-effect increases significantly to 8.7 mV after inhibition of NO-synthase by L-nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME) whilst no changes in the amplitude and frequency of quantal miniature endplate potentials are observed. PMID:10638684

Mukhtarov, M R; Vyskocil, F; Urazaev, A K; Nikolsky, E E



Synthesis of new chiral calix[4]arene diamide derivatives for liquid phase extraction of ?-amino acid methylesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of chiral diamide derivatives of calix[4]arene from the reaction of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene diester 1a and calix[4]arene diester 1b with various amino alcohols were reported. The 1H and 13C NMR, data showed that the compounds synthesized exist in the cone conformation. The extraction study properties of these new compounds 3a,b–4a,b towards some selected ?-amino acid methylesters are also reported.

Erdal Kocabas; Aysegul Karakucuk; Abdulkadir Sirit; Mustafa Yilmaz



Role of N-Nitro-L-Arginine-Methylester as anti-oxidant in transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports assessing the neuroprotective role of nonselective Nitric Oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion are contradictory. The aim of this work was to examine the potential benefits of L-NAME on rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Methods The study involved 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups 10 rats in each: First group was sham-operated and served as a control, a ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group of rats infused with 0.9% normal saline intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to 30?minutes of left common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion and a test group infused with L-NAME intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to ischemia. Neurobehavioral assessments were evaluated and quantitative assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in both serum and the affected cerebral hemisphere were achieved. Results Rats’ neurological deficit and TAC were significantly decreased while NO and MDA were significantly increased in the I/R compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Alternatively in the L-NAME group, neurological deficit and TAC were significantly improved while NO and MDA were significantly decreased compared to I/R group (P < 0.001). Conclusions L-NAME pretreatment for rats undergoing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion significantly improves neurological deficit while reducing oxidative stress biomarkers in the affected cerebral hemisphere.



Muscle NMDA receptors regulate the resting membrane potential through NO-synthase.  


The early postdenervation depolarization of rat diaphragm muscle fibres (8-10 mV) is substantially smaller (3 mV) when muscle strips are bathed with 1 mM L-glutamate (GLU) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). The effects of GLU and NMDA are not seen in the presence of aminophosphonovaleric acid (APV), a blocker of NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptors, 5 mM Mg2+ (which blocks NMDA-controlled ion channels) and L-nitroarginine methylester (NAME), an inhibitor of NO-synthase. This indicates that NMDA-subtype of GLU receptors might be involved in the regulation of the membrane potential in muscle fibres, most probably through the NO-synthase system. PMID:8869279

Urazaev, A K; Magsumov, S T; Poletayev, G I; Nikolsky, E E; Vyskocil, F



Structural, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester and its Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO 2(II) complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO2(II) complexes with the ligand 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester (HL2) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic moment, thermal analysis and spectral data. 1:1 M:HL2 complexes, with the general formula [M(HL2)X2]·nH2O (where M = Co(II) (X = Cl, n = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 3), Cu(II) (grey colour,

Gehad G. Mohamed; Nadia E. A. El-Gamel



Structural, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester and its Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II) complexes.  


Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II) complexes with the ligand 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester (HL(2)) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic moment, thermal analysis and spectral data. 1:1 M:HL(2) complexes, with the general formula [M(HL(2))X(2)].nH(2)O (where M = Co(II) (X = Cl, n = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 3), Cu(II) (grey colour, X = AcO, n = 1), Cu(II) (yellow colour, X = Cl, n = 0) and Zn(II) (X = Br, n = 0). In addition, the Fe(III) and UO(2)(II) complexes of the type 1:2 M:HL(2) and with the formulae [Fe(L(2))(2)]Cl and [UO(2)(HL(2))(2)](NO(3))(2) are prepared. From the IR data, it is seen that HL(2) ligand behaves as a terdentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridyl N, carboxylate O and protonated NH group; except the Fe(III) complex, it coordinates via the deprotonated NH group. This is supported by the molar conductance data, which show that all the complexes are non-electrolytes, while the Fe(III) and UO(2)(II) complexes are 1:1 electrolytes. IR and H1-NMR spectral studies suggest a similar behaviour of the Zn(II) complex in solid and solution states. From the solid reflectance spectral data and magnetic moment measurements, the complexes have a trigonal bipyramidal (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes) and octahedral (Fe(III), UO(2)(II) complexes) geometrical structures. The thermal behaviour of the complexes is studied and the different dynamic parameters are calculated applying Coats-Redfern equation. PMID:15741106

Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Gamel, Nadia E A



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Lení?ek, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan



Anti-aggregating effect of BAY 58-2667, an activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase.  


The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), BAY 58-2667, inhibits platelet aggregation and to clarify its mechanism of action. Blood was collected from anesthetized WKY rats. The aggregation of washed platelet was measured and the production of cAMP and cGMP was determined. BAY 58-2667 produced a partial inhibition of the ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, but did not significantly affect thrombin-induced aggregation. In ADP-induced platelet aggregation, the inhibitory effects of BAY 58-2667 were associated with an increased level of both cGMP and cAMP while that of the prostacyclin analogue, beraprost, was correlated only with an increase in cAMP. The inhibitor of sGC, ODQ, enhanced the effects of BAY 58-2667. The presence of L-nitroarginine, an inhibitor of NO-synthase, hydroxocobalamin, a scavenger of NO, or that of three different NO-donors did not affect the anti-aggregating effect of BAY 58-2667. However, the anti-aggregating effects of beraprost were potentiated by BAY 58-2667. Therefore, the platelet inhibitory effects of BAY 58-2667 are associated with the generation of cGMP and a secondary increase in cAMP, both being totally NO-independent. When the sGC is oxidized, BAY 58-2667 becomes a relevant anti-aggregating agent, which synergizes with the cAMP-dependent pathway. PMID:20933607

Roger, Séverine; Paysant, Jérôme; Badier-Commander, Cécile; Cordi, Alex; Verbeuren, Tony J; Félétou, Michel



Effects of low and high doses of l-Dopa on the tetrabenazine or ?-methyltyrosine-induced suppression of behaviour in a successive discrimination task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the administration of l-Dopa, 10 or 100 mg\\/kg i.p., on the a-methyltyrosine methylester HCl (a-MT; 250+50 mg\\/kg i. p.) or tetrabenazine (TBZ; 2 mg\\/kg i.p.)-induced suppression of a successive discrimination-conditioned avoidance task has been studied. It was found that administration of the high l-Dopa dose resulted in a reversal of the a-MT- or TBZ-induced suppression of the

Sven Ahlenius



Effect of Nitric Oxide on Anterior Segment Physiology in Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the effect of the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-nitro-arginine-methylester (L-NAME), on IOP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), pupil diameter (PD), refraction (Rfx), aqueous humor formation (AHF), and outflow facility (OF) in monkeys. Methods. Monkeys were treated with single or multiple topical treatments of 500 ?g SNP or L-NAME to one eye. IOP was determined by Goldmann applanation tonometry, PD with vernier calipers in room light, Rfx by Hartinger coincidence refractometry, AHF by fluorophotometry, and MAP with a blood pressure monitor. OF was determined by two-level constant pressure perfusion following anterior chamber exchange. Results. Following four topical treatments with 500 ?g SNP, 30 minutes apart, IOP was significantly decreased from 2 to 6 hours compared with the contralateral control with the maximum IOP reduction of 20% at 3 hours (P < 0.001). PD, Rfx, and AHF were unchanged. Effects on MAP were variable. OF after SNP exchange was significantly increased by 77% (P < 0.05) at 10?3 M. Topical L-NAME had no effect on IOP, PD, Rfx, or MAP. Conclusions. Enhancement of nitric oxide concentration at targeted tissues in the anterior segment may be a useful approach for IOP reduction for glaucoma therapy. Additional studies are warranted before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of NOS inhibition on ocular physiology in nonhuman primates.

Heyne, Galen W.; Kiland, Julie A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Gabelt, B'Ann T.



Characterization of the effects of neurokinins on canine antral muscle  

SciTech Connect

The excitation of longitudinal antral muscle by substance P (SP) involves both a myogenic and a cholinergic effect. To examine if these responses are mediated by different neurokinin receptors, the authors studied the mechanical response and the release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine from antral muscle strips in response to SP, substance P methylester (SPME), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), and several nonmammalian tachykinins. All peptides studied showed a dose-dependent inotropic and chronotropic effect on spontaneous phasic contractions. This ionotropic effect in longitudinal muscle was partially atropine sensitive for SPME, SP, and NKB but not for NKA, whereas neither atropine nor tetrodotoxin had an effect in circular muscle. In longitudinal muscle, all three neurokinins were equipotent. In longitudinal muscle treated with atropine and in circular muscle, the rank order of potency for the inotropic response was NKA > NKB > SP > SPME. For the chronotropic response the rank order was SPME, SP > NKA > NKB. NKA, NKB, and SP caused a dose-dependent, tetrodotoxin-sensitive increase in ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine release from strips preincubated with ({sup 3}H)choline. NKA was significantly more potent to release ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine than either NKB or SP. The stimulated release was inhibited by (D-Ala{sup 2},D-Met{sup 5})methionine enkephalinamide and the SP antagonist, spantide. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NKA is the natural ligand mediating the myogenic inotropic response in both muscle layers and the cholinergic response in longitudinal muscle.

Koelbel, C.B.; Mayer, E.A.; Van Deventer, G.; Snape, W.J. Jr.; Patel, A. (Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (USA) Wadsworth Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (USA))



Effects of Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract on formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.  


Stress amelioration can improve its metabolic as well as other side effects. In the present study, the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Papver rhoeas (L.) on formalin-induced pain and inflammation were investigated in male Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g). Formalin injects in the plantar portion of mice hind paw and pain was studied for 60 min. The plant extract and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally 30 min before formalin. Experiments showed that administration of extract (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) could induced analgesia in a dose-response manner in both phases of formalin test. More over, the extract inhibits inflammation induced by formalin injection. Naloxone (4 mg kg(-1)), dextromethorphan (20 mg kg(-1)) and NG-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME; 10 mg kg(-1)) reduced the extract analgesia in first but not late phase. Extract administration also increased plasma corticosterone level in dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract could inhibits acute phase of formalin test in mice by opioidergic, glutamatergic and nitricergic mechanisms. In addition, the extract can induce corticosterone plasma level which may be responsible for inhibition of inflammation and chronic phase of pain induced by formalin. PMID:24163947

Saeed-Abadi, S; Ranjbaran, M; Jafari, F; Najafi-Abedi, A; Rahmani, B; Esfandiari, B; Delfan, B; Mojabi, N; Ghahramani, M; Sahraei, H



Combined enzymatic and colorimetric method for determining the uronic acid and methylester content of pectin: Application to tomato products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure for determining the galacturonic acid and methanol contents of soluble and insoluble pectins, relying on enzymatic pectin hydrolysis and colorimetric quantification, is described. Pectin samples are incubated with a commercial pectinase preparation, Viscozyme, then the galacturonic acid content of the hydrolyzed pectin is quantified colorimetrically using a modification of the Cu reduction procedure originally described by Avigad

Gordon E. Anthon; Diane M. Barrett



Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization  

SciTech Connect

Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir M. [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Riccio, Massimo [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Squarzoni, Stefano [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail:



Effect of water deficit on the cell wall of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet nour', Arecales) fruit during development.  


Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important crop providing a valuable nutrition source for people in many countries including the Middle East and North Africa. In recent years, the amount of rain in North Africa and especially in the Tunisian palm grove areas has dropped significantly. We investigated the growth and cell wall remodelling of fruits harvested at three key development stages from trees grown with or without water supply. During development, cell wall solubilization and remodelling was characterized by a decrease of the degree of methylesterification of pectin, an important loss of galactose content and a reduction of the branching of xylan by arabinose in irrigated condition. Water deficit had a profound effect on fruit size, pulp content, cell wall composition and remodelling. Loss of galactose content was not as important, arabinose content was significantly higher in the pectin-enriched extracts from non-irrigated condition, and the levels of methylesterification of pectin and O-acetylation of xyloglucan were lower than in irrigated condition. The lower levels of hydrophobic groups (methylester and O-acetyl) and the less intensive degradation of the hydrophilic galactan, arabinan and arabinogalactan in the cell wall may be implicated in maintaining the hydration status of the cells under water deficit. PMID:23176574

Gribaa, Ali; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud; Rihouey, Christophe; Burel, Carole; Ferchichi, Ali; Driouich, Azeddine; Mollet, Jean-Claude



Effect of Growth Medium pH of Aeropyrum pernix on Structural Properties and Fluidity of Archaeosomes  

PubMed Central

The influence of pH (6.0; 7.0; 8.0) of the growth medium of Aeropyrum pernix K1 on the structural organization and fluidity of archaeosomes prepared from a polar-lipid methanol fraction (PLMF) was investigated using fluorescence anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence anisotropy of the lipophilic fluorofore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and empirical correlation time of the spin probe methylester of 5-doxylpalmitate revealed gradual changes with increasing temperature for the pH. A similar effect has been observed by using the trimethylammonium-6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, although the temperature changes were much smaller. As the fluorescence steady-state anisotropy and the empirical correlation time obtained directly from the EPR spectra alone did not provide detailed structural information, the EPR spectra were analysed by computer simulation. This analysis showed that the archaeosome membranes are heterogeneous and composed of several regions with different modes of spin-probe motion at temperatures below 70°C. At higher temperatures, these membranes become more homogeneous and can be described by only one spectral component. Both methods indicate that the pH of the growth medium of A. pernix does not significantly influence its average membrane fluidity. These results are in accordance with TLC analysis of isolated lipids, which show no significant differences between PLMF isolated from A. pernix grown in medium with different pH.

Ota, Ajda; Gmajner, Dejan; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar



Effects of misoprostol and omeprazole on basal gastric pH and free acid content in horses.  


The basal gastric pH and free acid contents from five young adult healthy horses were determined at one hour intervals for eight hours. The basal gastric pH and free acid contents varied from 1.63 +/- 0.06 to 1.97 +/- 0.11 and 26.42 +/- 4.14 to 17.92 +/- 5.28 mmol litre-1, respectively. Misoprostol, a methylester analogue of prostaglandin (5 micrograms kg-1, orally) produced a time-dependent increase in the basal gastric pH to above 3.5 (P less than 0.05) at three, four and five hours after administration with a concomitant reduction of 80 to 90 per cent in the basal gastric free acid contents throughout the eight hour period monitored. Omeprazole, a benzimidazole derivative (0.5 mg kg-1, intravenously) increased the basal gastric pH to above 3.5 at two and three hours after administration with a concomitant reduction of 65 to 90 per cent in the basal gastric free acid contents for seven of the eight hour periods monitored. These results confirm that the horse is a basal acid secretor, and both misoprostol and omeprazole are effective inhibitors of the basal gastric acid secretion, thus establishing that both prostaglandins and H+/K+-ATPase play an important role in controlling parietal cell function of the equine gastric mucosa. PMID:2512598

Sangiah, S; MacAllister, C C; Amouzadeh, H R



Field-effect transistor-based solution-processed colloidal quantum dot photodetector with broad bandwidth into near-infrared region.  


We demonstrate a solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQDs) photodetector with the configuration of a field-effect transistor (FET), in which the drain and source electrodes are fabricated by a shadow mask. By blending PbS CQDs into the hybrid blend, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methylester (PCBM), the photosensitive spectrum of the nanocomposite blend is extended into the near-infrared region. A FET-based photodetector ITO/PMMA (180 nm)/P3HT:PCBM:PbS (110 nm)/Al, in which PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) acts as the dielectric layer and P3HT:PCBM:PbS (in weight ratio of 1:1:1) as the active layer, shows a broad spectral bandwidth, a responsivity of 0.391 mA W(-1) and a specific detectivity of 1.31 × 10(11) Jones are obtained at V(GS) = 1 V under 600 nm illumination with an intensity of 30 ?W cm(-2). Therefore, it provides an easy way to fabricate such a FET-based photodetector with a channel length of some hundreds of micrometers by a shadow mask. PMID:22652547

Yang, Shengyi; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Haizheng; Liu, Ruibin; Zou, Bingsuo



Hemodynamic effects of python neuropeptide gamma in the anesthetized python, Python regius.  


The effects of python neuropeptide gamma (NPgamma) on hemodynamic parameters have been investigated in the anesthetized ball python (Python regius). Bolus intra-arterial injections of synthetic python NPgamma (1-300 pmol kg-1) produced a dose-dependent decrease in systemic arterial blood pressure (Psys) concomitant with increases in systemic vascular conductance (Gsys), total cardiac output and stroke volume, but only minor effects on heart rate. The peptide had no significant effect on pulmonary arterial blood pressure (Ppul) and caused only a small increase in pulmonary conductance (Gpul) at the highest dose. In the systemic circulation, the potency of the NK1 receptor-selective agonist [Sar9,Met(0(2))11] substance P was >100-fold greater than the NK2 receptor-selective agonist [betaAla8] neurokinin A-(4-10)-peptide suggesting that the python cardiovascular system is associated with a receptor that resembles the mammalian NK1 receptor more closely than the NK2 receptor. Administration of the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, L-nitro-arginine-methylester (L-NAME; 150 mg kg-1), resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in Psys as well as a decrease in Gsys, but no effect on Ppul and Gpul. Conversely, the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 60 microg kg-1) produced a significant (P<0.05) decrease in Psys along with an increase in Gsys and pulmonary blood flow. However, neither L-NAME nor indomethacin (10 mg kg-1) reduced the cardiovascular responses to NPgamma. Thus, nitric oxide is involved in regulation of basal vascular tone in the python, but neither nitric oxide nor prostaglandins mediate the vasodilatory action of NPgamma. PMID:15721483

Skovgaard, Nini; Galli, Gina; Taylor, Edwin W; Conlon, J Michael; Wang, Tobias



Palm yu kara no yusoyo bio fuel jitsuyoka kanosei chosa. (Research on possibility of utilization of palm methylester for diesel engines).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is expected that palm oil will reduce black smoke/particulates in exhaust gas from the diesel engine. Therefore, an investigation for practical application of palm oil is made on adaptability as a fuel oil and supply potential. For utilization of palm ...



[The synergetic effects of nitric oxide and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on learning and memory of rats].  


The aim of the present study is to explore the interaction of nitric oxide (NO) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) on learning and memory of rats. Rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with L-arginine (L-Arg, the NO precursor) (L-Arg group) or choline chloride (CC, an agonist of ?7nAChR) (CC group), and with combined injection of L-Arg and CC (L-Arg+CC group), and methyllycaconitine (MLA, ?7nAChR antagonist) or N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) i.c.v. injected first and followed by administration of L-Arg combined with CC (MLA+L-Arg+CC group or L-NAME+L-Arg+CC group), respectively, and normal saline was used as control (NS group). The learning and memory ability of rats was tested with Y-maze; the level of NO and the expressions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or ?7nAChR in hippocampus were measured by NO assay kit, immunohistochemistry or Western blot. The results showed that compared with L-Arg group or CC group, the rats' learning and memory behavioral ability in Y-maze was observably enhanced and the level of NO, the optical density of nNOS-like immunoreactivity (LI) or ?7nAChR-LI in hippocampus were significantly increased in L-Arg+CC group; Compared with L-Arg+CC group, the ability of learning and memory and the level of NO as well as the expressions of nNOS-LI or ?7nAChR-LI were obviously decreased in MLA+L-Arg+CC group or in L-NAME+L-Arg+CC group. In conclusion, i.c.v. administration of L-Arg combined with CC significantly improved the action of the L-Arg or CC on the content of NO and the nNOS or ?7nAChR expressions in hippocampus along with the learning and memory behavior of rats; when nNOS or ?7nAChR was interrupted in advance, the effects of L-Arg combined with CC were also suppressed. The results suggest that there are probably synergistic effects between NO and nAChR on learning and memory. PMID:24964848

Jing, Zhi-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shao-Hu; Chen, Yu-Fen; Liu, Li-Xia; Qi, Wen-Xiu



Effects of different potato cropping system approaches and water management on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities.  


Four different potato cropping systems, designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation, soil improvement, disease suppression, and a status quo standard rotation control, were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases of potato and soil microbial community characteristics. The status quo system (SQ) consisted of barley underseeded with red clover followed by potato (2-year). The soil-conserving system (SC) featured an additional year of forage grass and reduced tillage (3-year, barley/timothy-timothy-potato). The soil-improving system (SI) added yearly compost amendments to the SC rotation, and the disease-suppressive system (DS) featured diverse crops with known disease-suppressive capability (3-year, mustard/rapeseed-sudangrass/rye-potato). Each system was also compared with a continuous potato control (PP) and evaluated under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. Data collected over three potato seasons following full rotation cycles demonstrated that all rotations reduced stem canker (10 to 50%) relative to PP. The SQ, SC, and DS systems reduced black scurf (18 to 58%) relative to PP; SI reduced scurf under nonirrigated but not irrigated conditions; and scurf was lower in DS than all other systems. The SQ, SC, and DS systems also reduced common scab (15 to 45%), and scab was lower in DS than all other systems. Irrigation increased black scurf and common scab but also resulted in higher yields for most rotations. SI produced the highest yields under nonirrigated conditions, and DS produced high yields and low disease under both irrigation regimes. Each cropping system resulted in distinctive changes in soil microbial community characteristics as represented by microbial populations, substrate utilization, and fatty acid methyl-ester (FAME) profiles. SI tended to increase soil moisture, microbial populations, and activity, as well result in higher proportions of monounsaturated FAMEs and the FAME biomarker for mycorrhizae (16:1 ?6c) relative to most other rotations. DS resulted in moderate microbial populations and activity but higher substrate richness and diversity in substrate utilization profiles. DS also resulted in relatively higher proportions of FAME biomarkers for fungi (18:2 ?6c), actinomycetes, and gram-positive bacteria than most other systems, whereas PP resulted in the lowest microbial populations and activity; substrate richness and diversity; proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAME classes; and fungal, mycorrhizae, and actinomycete FAME biomarkers of all cropping systems. Overall, soil water, soil quality, and soilborne diseases were all important factors affecting productivity, and cropping systems addressing these constraints improved production. Cropping system approaches will need to balance these factors to achieve sustainable production and disease management. PMID:20839965

Larkin, Robert P; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Griffin, Timothy S; Olanya, O Modesto; Halloran, John M; He, Zhongqi



Atrial natriuretic peptide and oxytocin induce natriuresis by release of cGMP  

PubMed Central

Our hypothesis is that oxytocin (OT) causes natriuresis by activation of renal NO synthase that releases NO followed by cGMP that mediates the natriuresis. To test this hypothesis, an inhibitor of NO synthase, l-nitroarginine methyl ester (NAME), was injected into male rats. Blockade of NO release by NAME had no effect on natriuresis induced by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). This natriuresis presumably is caused by cGMP because ANP also activates guanylyl cyclase, which synthesizes cGMP from GTP. The 18-fold increase in sodium (Na+) excretion induced by OT (1 ?g) was accompanied by an increase in urinary cGMP and preceded by 20 min a 20-fold increase in NO3? excretion. NAME almost completely inhibited OT-induced natriuresis and increased NO3? excretion; however, when the dose of OT was increased 10-fold, a dose that markedly increases plasma ANP concentrations, NAME only partly inhibited the natriuresis. We conclude that the natriuretic action of OT is caused by a dual action: generation of NO leading to increased cGMP and at higher doses release of ANP that also releases cGMP. OT-induced natriuresis is caused mainly by decreased tubular Na+ reabsorption mediated by cGMP. In contrast to ANP that releases cGMP in the renal vessels and the tubules, OT acts on its receptors on NOergic cells demonstrated in the macula densa and proximal tubules to release cGMP that closes Na+ channels. Both ANP- and OT-induced kaliuresis also appear to be mediated by cGMP. We conclude that cGMP mediates natriuresis and kaliuresis induced by both ANP and OT.

Soares, T. J.; Coimbra, T. M.; Martins, A. R.; Pereira, A. G. F.; Carnio, E. C.; Branco, L. G. S.; Albuquerque-Araujo, W. I. C.; de Nucci, G.; Favaretto, A. L. V.; Gutkowska, J.; McCann, S. M.; Antunes-Rodrigues, J.



Histidine Containing Macroporous Affinity Cryogels for Immunoglobulin G Purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supermacroporous cryogel was prepared to obtain an efficient and cost effective purification of IgG from human plasma. N-methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methyl ester (MAH) was chosen as the pseudospecific ligand and\\/or comonomer. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methylester) [PHEMAH] cryogel was produced by free radical polymerization initiated by N,N,N?,N?-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) pair in an ice bath. PHEMAH cryogel had a specific

Nilay Bereli; Gizem Ertürk; Adil Denizli



Effect of botanical composition of silages on rumen fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat of lambs.  


To study the effect of feeding silages with different botanical composition, on rumen and lamb fat, 30 male lambs were assigned to five different silage groups for 11 weeks: botanically diverse silage (BDS); white clover silage (WCS); red clover silage (RCS), intensive English ryegrass silage (IRS) and crushed linseed and maize silage (MSL). Besides the silages, animals received organic wheat and barley and the MSL group additionally received bicarbonate (15 g/day). Silages were sampled when the bales were opened and analysed for fatty acid (FA) content and chemical composition. At slaughter, ruminal contents were sampled and 24 h after slaughter, longissimus muscle and subcutaneous (SC) fat were sampled. All samples were analysed for FA composition. The MSL group ingested the highest amount of FA (35.8 g/day v. 13.5, 19.4, 17.2 and 30.4 g/day for MSL v. BDS, WCS, RCS and IRS, respectively) and the sum of the major polyunsaturated FA, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, was similar for groups BDS, WCS, RCS and MSL (61.3 g/100 g, 62.3 g/100 g, 62.3 g/100 g, 63.7 g/100 g of FA methylesters (FAME), respectively), while group IRS ingested higher proportions of these FA (74.5 g/100 g of FAME). Rumen data showed that animals fed BDS presented higher proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates, particularly C18:1 t11 and CLA c9t11, suggesting partial inhibition of rumen biohydrogenation. In the MSL group, the content of C18:3 n-3 in the rumen was highest, most probably due to reduced lipolysis and hence biohydrogenation through the combined effect of esterified C18:3 n-3 and seed protection. Additionally, C18:3 n-3 proportions were higher in rumen contents of RCS animals compared with WCS animals, which could be due to the activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in the RC silages. Proportions of C18:3 n-3 were similar between treatments both for SC and intramuscular (IM) fat, whereas CLA c9t11 content was higher in the SC fat of BDS animals and lower in the IM fat of IRS animals compared with the other forage groups. No differences were found for C20:4 n-6, C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 in the IM fat of the animals. Nevertheless, indices for desaturation and elongation activity in muscle of BDS animals suggest some stimulation of the first three steps of desaturation and elongation (?6-desaturase, elongase and ?5-desaturase) of long-chain FA. PMID:22444757

Lourenço, M; De Smet, S; Raes, K; Fievez, V



Are Effective Properties Effective?  

SciTech Connect

The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, NM 87131 (United States); Hsiao, S.-C. [Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)



Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information on the classical doppler effect, the relativistic doppler effect, aberration, and the transverse doppler effect. It also discusses wave fronts, first-order and second order effect, light-time correction, Galilean transformation, and parallax.

Calvert, J. B.



Placebo Effect  


... effect This information is current as of August 25, 2008 ... effect This information is current as of August 25, 2008 Services Updated Information & ...


Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a greenhouse-effect-in-a-bottle experiment. The lesson includes readings from and an inquiry lab measuring the effect of carbon dioxide and temperature change in an enclosed environment.

Education, Connecticut E.


Effects of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brainstorming instruction is an effective method for increasing the production of good ideas in a particular type of creative thinking problems, and is even more effective if preceded by extensive training in its use. (5 tables)

Sidney J. Parnes; Arnold Meadow



Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a tuning fork to explore how the Doppler effect works. They strike the tuning fork to produce a sound, then observe as the tone changes as the fork is swung back and forth. Learners also explore applications of the Doppler effect in technology.




Thermal Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the effect of temperature on the biosphere water, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes the effects of temperature on growth, production, and embryonic and larval development. A list of 401 references is also presented. (HM)

Talmage, Sylvia S.; Coutant, Charles C.



Size effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the available results on the size effect on the nominal strength of structures — a fundamental problem of considerable importance to concrete structures, geotechnical structures, geomechanics, arctic ice engineering, composite materials, etc., with applications ranging from structural engineering to the design of ships and aircraft. The history of the ideas on the size effect is briefly outlined

Zden?k P. Bažant



Deterministic effects.  


Deterministic effects are distinguished from stochastic effects for radiation protection purposes by the following characteristics: both incidence and severity increase as a function of dose after a threshold dose is reached. Cell killing is central to all deterministic effects with the exception of radiation-induced cataracts. The understanding of radiation-induced killing of cells has increased greatly in the last decade with an extraordinarily intense interest in apoptosis. Programmed cell death has long been known to developmental biologists and the importance of cell death has been recognized and quantified by tumor biologists and students of cell kinetics but the coining of a new name and the increase of understanding of the molecular aspects of cell death has stimulated interest. Some cells appear to be very sensitive to radiation and undergo apoptosis, whereas others such as fibroblasts do not with equal frequency. This characteristic, like many others, underlines the genetic differences among cell types. We are reaching a time that there are techniques and the knowledge to apply them to clinical and radiation protection problems. In radiotherapy, success depends on the differential effect between tumor and normal tissues that is obtained. To design the optimum therapy, a profile of both the tumor cells and the cells of the normal tissues that may be at risk would help. The profile would characterize the radiosensitivity and the underlying factors, which could help in the choice of adjunct therapy for tumor and normal tissue. Fibrosis, a common unwanted late effect, appears to be influenced by genetic factors, at least in experimental animals. Techniques are available for treating people as individuals more than ever before, and that must be a good thing to do. Protection against deterministic effects would seem an easy matter but we are uncomfortably ignorant of the precise effect of protracted low-dose irradiation on tissues, such as the bone marrow and the testis, important features of risk in space. Entering the new century, it may be timely to classify radiation effects, as Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) has done, into cancer, genetic effects, and noncancer effects. The recognition in the atomic-bomb survivors of noncancer effects at doses on the order of 0.5 Sv (half the dose level considered a threshold in earlier studies) should stimulate interest in deterministic effects. PMID:11281201

Fry, R J



Effective Schools Require Effective Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.



Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

- The Doppler Effect explains why we hear a sonic boom when an airplane flies faster than the speed of sound. - Applying the Doppler Effect is how we have Doppler Radar used to track weather. - The Doppler Effect can be applied to outerspace and it evidence that the universe is expanding. Sound is energy traveling through a medium. A medium can be a gas, liquid, or solid. Therefore sound can not travel in outerspace since it is a vacuum which means there is nothing not even air. Energy traveling through a medium or even a vacuum is considered a wave. ...

Leet, Mr.



[Effective delegation].  


Ninety-seven percent of middle level managers feel they face work overload. The source of this problem may lie in a failure to delegate tasks effectively. If a manager does not effectively delegate, he/she is more likely to report fatigue, stress and depression. Conversely, effectively delegating tasks will improve overall job quality, professional growth in subordinates and cooperation within the team. While it is necessary for managers to delegate tasks effectively, few can be considered to be good natural 'delegators'. Learning and training is necessary for managers to develop the necessary confidence and maturity. This article describes the definitions, purpose and benefits of delegation; factors related to effective delegation; strategies related to successful delegation and skills related to performing cross-cultural delegations. Such issues have seldom been addressed in previous articles. Moreover, nursing implications and suggested applications in nursing practice, education, management and research are mentioned. This article is intended to provide directions to nursing managers and subordinates to promote delegation knowledge and skills. PMID:19051179

Fang, Li; Hung, Chich-Hsiu



Photoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of simulations of aspects of the photoelectric effect. There is an animation of the experiment with four choices of incident radiation - low and high intensity "red", to represent low energy light and low and high intensity "blue" to represent higher energy light. Electron production is animated and there is an ammeter to simulate current flow. Additional simulations show the effect of light frequency and intensity. There is a link to a spreadsheet that allows students to choose a sample from among five metals. The spreadsheet includes several questions to be answered after working through the materials.


Teapot Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

When tea is poured from a teapot it often runs along the under side of the spout rather than falling into the cup. Recent experiments have shown that this ``teapot effect'' is not due to surface tension nor adhesion, as many have supposed. Therefore, a new explanation is presented which is based upon certain exact solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

Joseph B. Keller



Coriolis Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of four animated slides illustrates the Coriolis effect, a manifestation of one of Newton's laws which says that objects move in a straight line, in an "inertial" frame of reference, unless acted upon by a force. The slides use the analogy of a ball thrown on a rotating carousel.


Effective Mentoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective mentoring is essential to the growth and success of librarianship in all types of library. This paper considers the possibilities for fostering mentoring activities among early career librarians, mid-career transitional librarians, and non-professional library workers. First, the paper describes existing studies to illuminate the urgency of mentoring activities to address the diminishing number of librarians and changing librarianship in

Shin Freedman



Slingshot Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page demonstrates the slingshot effect through a Flash simulation. The user places an object at some distance from Jupiter, sets up its initial velocity, then choose the appropriate time to lunch it. Once the simulation begins, the path of the projectile and its speed are shown.

Fowler, Michael; Ching, Jacquie H.



System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL



Identification of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase that do not interact with the endothelial cell L-arginine transporter.  

PubMed Central

The effects of inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and other cationic amino acids on unidirectional L-arginine transport were studied in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in microwell plates or perfused in microcarrier columns. L-Homoarginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine inhibited transport of L-arginine. The NO synthase inhibitors NG-monomethyl-L-arginine and NG-iminoethyl-L-ornithine also reduced L-arginine uptake, whereas NG-nitro-L-arginine and its methyl-ester had no inhibitory effect. The ability to modulate selectively endothelial cell L-arginine transport or NO synthase activity will allow further characterization of the arginine transporter and its role in regulating NO biosynthesis.

Bogle, R. G.; Moncada, S.; Pearson, J. D.; Mann, G. E.



Crystal growth inhibitors for the prevention of L-cystine kidney stones through molecular design.  


Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects. Real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that L-cystine dimethylester (L-CDME) and L-cystine methylester (L-CME) dramatically reduce the growth velocity of the six symmetry-equivalent {100} steps because of specific binding at the crystal surface, which frustrates the attachment of L-cystine molecules. L-CDME and L-CME produce l-cystine crystals with different habits that reveal distinct binding modes at the crystal surfaces. The AFM observations are mirrored by reduced crystal yield and crystal size in the presence of L-CDME and L-CME, collectively suggesting a new pathway to the prevention of L-cystine stones by rational design of crystal growth inhibitors. PMID:20947757

Rimer, Jeffrey D; An, Zhihua; Zhu, Zina; Lee, Michael H; Goldfarb, David S; Wesson, Jeffrey A; Ward, Michael D



Effective Presentations  

PubMed Central

Where the purpose of presentations is to inform, effective delivery is important to ensure that audiences receive the educational message. We offer six suggestions: introduce the topic in an interesting way; speak loudly enough; do not read; involve the audience actively; respect the attention span of the audience; and limit the amount of content. We conclude that the skills of live public presentation can be learned, but that the art of presentation is innate. Imagesp2063-ap2064-a

Spooner, H. James; Swanson, Richard W.



Compton Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Compton Effect model simulates the the scattering of light off of an electron, the Compton effect. Compton used the idea that light behaves like a particle to explain light-electron (photon-electron) scattering. He used the relation for the energy and momentum of the photon and the relativistic expression for the energy of the electron, and applied relativistic energy and momentum conservation for the collision. The wavelength shift of the light depend on the angle of the scattered photon (and the electron). By changing the scattering angle in the simulation, the angle of the scattered photon changes according to Compton's equation. The panel on the left shows the experimental set up, while the panel on the right shows the resulting photon wavelength from the scattering. In a typical Compton experiment, light is scattered off of the electrons in an atom, and there is little scattering due to the more tightly held electrons while there is more scattering due to the less tightly held electrons. This is what is responsible for the two peak distribution shown. The Compton Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_compton.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.



The inhibitory role of methylation on the binding characteristics of dopamine receptors and transporter.  


Excess methylation has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), since the administration of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a biological methyl donor, induces PD-like changes in rodents. It was proposed that SAM-induced PD-like changes might be associated with its ability to react with the dopaminergic system. In the present study the effects of SAM on dopamine receptors and transporters were investigated using rats and cloned dopamine receptor proteins. Autoradiographic examination of SAM indicated its tendency to be localized and accumulated in rat striatal region after the intracerebroventricular injection into rat brain. Moreover, results showed that SAM significantly decreased dopamine D1 and D2 receptor binding activities by decreasing the Bmax and increasing the Kd values. At concentrations of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mM, SAM was able to reduce the Bmax from the control value of 848.1 for dopamine D1-specific ligand [3H] SCH 23390 to 760.1, 702.6 and 443.0 fmol/mg protein, respectively. At the same concentrations, SAM was able to increase the Kd values from 0.91 for the control to 1.06, 3.84 and 7.01 nM of [3H] SCH 23390, respectively. The effects of SAM on dopamine D2 binding were similar to those of dopamine D1 binding. SAM also decreased dopamine transporter activity. The interaction of SAM with dopamine receptor proteins produced methanol from methyl-ester formation and hydrolysis. We propose that the SAM effect might be related to its ability to react with dopamine receptor proteins through methyl-ester formation and methanol production following the hydrolysis of the carboxyl-methylated receptor proteins. PMID:15154679

Lee, Eun-Sook Y; Chen, Hongtao; Shepherd, Kennie R; Lamango, Nazarius S; Soliman, Karam F A; Charlton, Clivel G



Pulmonary Hypertension in Lambs Transfused with Stored Blood is Prevented by Breathing Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

Background During extended storage, erythrocytes undergo functional changes. These changes reduce the viability of erythrocytes leading to release of oxyhemoglobin, a potent scavenger of nitric oxide. We hypothesized that transfusion of ovine packed erythrocytes (PRBC) stored for prolonged periods would induce pulmonary vasoconstriction in lambs, and that reduced vascular nitric oxide concentrations would increase this vasoconstrictor effect. Methods We developed a model of autologous stored blood transfusion in lambs (n=36). Leukoreduced blood was stored for either 2 days (fresh PRBC) or 40 days (stored PRBC). Fresh or stored PRBC were transfused into donors instrumented for awake hemodynamic measurements. Hemodynamic effects of PRBC transfusion were also studied after infusion of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester (25 mg/kg) or during inhalation of nitric oxide (80 ppm). Results Cell-free hemoglobin levels were higher in the supernatant of stored PRBC than in supernatant of fresh PRBC (Mean±SD, 148±20 versus 41±13 mg/dl, respectively, P<0.001). Pulmonary artery pressure during transfusion of stored PRBC transiently increased from 13±1 to 18±1 mmHg (P<0.001) and was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin concentrations. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester potentiated the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure induced by transfusing stored PRBC, whereas inhalation of nitric oxide prevented the vasoconstrictor response. Conclusions Our results suggest that patients with reduced vascular nitric oxide levels due to endothelial dysfunction may be more susceptible to adverse effects of transfusing blood stored for prolonged periods. These patients might benefit from transfusion of fresh PRBC, when available, or inhaled nitric oxide supplementation to prevent the pulmonary hypertension associated with transfusion of stored PRBC.

Baron, David M.; Yu, Binglan; Lei, Chong; Bagchi, Aranya; Beloiartsev, Arkadi; Stowell, Christopher P.; Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.



Enhanced photocurrent from organic polymers-based photodiodes by blending PbS colloidal quantum dots.  


Enhanced photocurrent from organic polymer-based photodiodes by blending PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are presented. The absorption spectra of nanocomposites of PbS CQDs and organic polymers, Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy-pphenylenevinylene)] (MEH-PPV) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM), are the superposition of those of pristine constituents, indicating the absorption of the PbS CQDs contributes to the effective near-infrared light absorption for the photodiodes. The enhanced photocurrent for photodiodes made of MEH-PPV:PCBM:PbS is attributed to the excitons dissociation at the interfaces of PbS/MEH-PPV and PbS/PCBM, as well as charge transport in MEH-PPV and PCBM. PMID:23646594

Zhao, Na; Yang, Shengyi; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Haizheng; Liu, Ruibin; Zou, Bingsuo



Microbial effects  

SciTech Connect

The postulated doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ is not likely to have direct effect on soil microbial activity because during the growing season, the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the soil atmosphere is already ten to fifty times higher than existing atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Based on all available experimental information, it is estimated that a doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ will cause an increase in primary productivity of 10 to 40% depending on locale. The increase in biomass will, in turn, produce a limitation of available soil nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Increased organic carbon together with nitrogen and/or phosphorus limitation will result in a preferential increase in nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizal activities as the expedient means for supplying required nutrients to sustain the predicted increase in primary productivity. Therefore, increased emphasis should be placed on fundamental research related to soil microbiology with special reference to nitrogen-fixing, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, and to the mycorrhizal fungi. 111 references, 2 figures.

Lamborg, M.R.; Hardy, R.W.F.; Paul, E.A.



L-Arginine infusion during resuscitation for hemorrhagic shock: Impact and mechanism  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Our previous work showed a survival advantage with L-arginine (L-Arg) pretreatment in a swine model of severe hemorrhagic shock. This study was designed to evaluating whether the benefit is sustained when L-Arg is given during resuscitation and whether the mechanism is mediated by enzymatic activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. METHODS Adult rats (n =30) underwent 40% blood volume loss and were resuscitated with saline (3×shed blood volume). Animals were divided into five treatment groups of six animals each: (1) Sham, (2) Control (resuscitation alone), (3) L-Arg (300 mg/kg) with resuscitation, (4) L-Arg +L-nitroarginine methyl ester pretreatment, and (5) D-arginine (300 mg/kg) with resuscitation. Animals were observed for 240 minutes postresuscitation or until death. Hemodynamic, metabolic, histologic, and survival outcomes were measured. RESULTS Administration of L-Arg after hemorrhage and before resuscitation significantly improved outcomes, relative to the control group. The L-Arg infusion improved terminal arterial pressures, lowered lactate, improved small bowel histologic signs of reperfusion injury, and increased survival (p <0.05). Endpoints of the L-Arg group were similar to the Sham group. The benefits of L-Arg infusion were abolished or attenuated when animals were pretreated with L-nitroarginine methyl ester and potentiated with D-arginine, suggesting a NO-specific mechanism of L-Arg. Finally, severe shock and resuscitation injury significantly elevated circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine levels, which are potent competitive inhibitors of NO synthetase. CONCLUSION L-Arg infusion during resuscitation offers a significant functional, metabolic, and survival benefit after severe hemorrhagic shock. The mechanism seems to be by activation of NO synthesis with its attendant benefits to local perfusion and inflammation after global reperfusion.

Arora, Tania K.; Malhotra, Ajai K.; Ivatury, Rao; Mangino, Martin J.



Effective Teaching/Effective Urban Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the ways in which 17 novice teachers define and describe effective urban teaching and the stark contrasts that these teachers draw between effective urban teaching and effective teaching. The authors find that descriptions of students played a considerable role when participants made distinctions between effective teaching…

Watson, Dyan; Charner-Laird, Megin; Kirkpatrick, Cheryl L.; Szczesiul, Stacy Agee; Gordon, Pamela J.



Prenylcysteine methylesterase in Arabidopsis thaliana.  


Prenylated proteins undergo a series of post-translational modifications, including prenylation, proteolysis, and methylation. Collectively, these modifications generate a prenylcysteine methylester at the carboxyl terminus and modulate protein targeting and function. Prenylcysteine methylation is the only reversible step in this series of modifications. However, prenylcysteine alpha-carboxyl methylesterase (PCME) activity has not been described in plants. We have detected a specific PCME activity in Arabidopsis thaliana membranes that discriminates between biologically relevant and irrelevant prenylcysteine methylester substrates. Furthermore, we have identified an Arabidopsis gene (At5g15860) that encodes measurable PCME activity in recombinant yeast cells with greater specificity for biologically relevant prenylcysteine methylesters than the activity found in Arabidopsis membranes. These results suggest that specific and non-specific esterases catalyze the demethylation of prenylcysteine methylesters in Arabidopsis membranes. Our findings are discussed in the context of prenylcysteine methylation/demethylation as a potential regulatory mechanism for membrane association and function of prenylated proteins in Arabidopsis. PMID:16870359

Deem, Angela K; Bultema, Rebecca L; Crowell, Dring N



21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a...



Knock-out of the magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on chloroplast development and on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling  

PubMed Central

Protoporphyrin IX is the last common intermediate between the haem and chlorophyll biosynthesis pathways. The addition of Mg directs this molecule toward chlorophyll biosynthesis. The first step downstream from the branchpoint is catalyzed by the Mg chelatase and is a highly regulated process. The corresponding product, Mg protoporphyrin IX, has been proposed to play an important role as a signaling molecule implicated in plastid-to-nucleus communication. In order to get more information on the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and on Mg protoporphyrin IX derivative functions, we have identified an Mg protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (CHLM) knock-out mutant in Arabidopsis in which the mutation induces a blockage downstream from Mg protoporphyrin IX and an accumulation of this chlorophyll biosynthesis intermediate. Our results demonstrate that the CHLM gene is essential for the formation of chlorophyll and subsequently for the formation of photosystems I and II and cyt b6f complexes. Analysis of gene expression in the chlm mutant provides an independent indication that Mg protoporphyrin IX is a negative effector of nuclear photosynthetic gene expression, as previously reported. Moreover, it suggests the possible implication of Mg protoporphyrin IX methylester, the product of CHLM, in chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. Finally, post-transcriptional up-regulation of the level of the CHLH subunit of the Mg chelatase has been detected in the chlm mutant and most likely corresponds to specific accumulation of this protein inside plastids. This result suggests that the CHLH subunit might play an important regulatory role when the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway is disrupted at this particular step.

Pontier, Dominique; Albrieux, Catherine; Joyard, Jacques; Lagrange, Thierry; Block, Maryse



Functional Characterization and Transcriptional Analysis of a Gene Cluster Governing Early and Late Steps in Daunorubicin Biosynthesis inStreptomyces peucetius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence analysis of the Streptomyces peucetius daunorubicin biosynthetic gene cluster revealed a partial (dnrQ) and two complete (dnrD and dnrP) open reading frames flanking dnrK. Bioconversion experiments showed that DnrD converts aklanonic acid methylester to aklaviketone and that DnrC is a methyltransferase that converts aklanonic acid to aklanonic acid methylester. The deduced dnrP gene product, homologous to known esterases, may




Communicating Effectively PDF

Effective communication is essential for the delivery of quality cancer palliative care. And yet, healthcare providers often lack the skills to communicate effectively with their patients and families.


AHSGE Cause and Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cause and Effect practice to build skill knowledge for the reading portion of the graduation exam. Complete the Cause and Effect activities at your pace . Cause and Effect Match , Cause and Effect Mini Lesson and Game , What s the Cause?? Quiz . ...

Ufomadu, Ms.



On Effect Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension, measure\\/index, and value), outline 10 corollaries that

Ken Kelley; Kristopher J. Preacher



On Effect Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.



Polymorphic effect systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach to programming languages for parallel computers that uses an effect system to discover expression scheduling constraints. This effect system is part of a 'kinded' type system with three base kinds: types, which describe the value that an expression may return; effects, which describe the side-effects that an expression may have; and regions, which describe the

John M. Lucassen; David K. Gifford



A random effects model for effect sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in quantitative research synthesis has led to the development of rigorous statistical theory for some of the methods used in meta-analysis. Statistical theory proposed previously has stressed the estimation of fixed but unknown population effect sizes (standardized mean differences). Theoretical considerations often suggest that treatment effects are not fixed but vary across different implementations of a treatment. The

Larry V. Hedges



Kite Pseudo Effect Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a new class of pseudo effect algebras, called kite pseudo effect algebras, which is connected with partially ordered groups not necessarily with strong unit. In such a case, starting even with an Abelian po-group, we can obtain a noncommutative pseudo effect algebra. We show how such kite pseudo effect algebras are tied with different types of the Riesz Decomposition Properties. Kites are so-called perfect pseudo effect algebras, and we define conditions when kite pseudo effect algebras have the least non-trivial normal ideal.

Dvure?enskij, Anatolij



Beyond First Stage Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A first stage effect is something that creates greater efficiency. A Second stage effect impacts how people incorporate technologies into social systems. This incorporation causes changes in traditional organization and thought that result in true revolut...

J. L. Ledoux



Modulational effects in accelerators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffu...

T. Satogata



Side Effects (Management)  


... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...


Aeroelastic Thermal Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adverse effect of increasing temperature on the stability of turbomachinery airfoils was long recognized but remains today one that is not fully understood. The quantitative effect on the reduced frequency parameter, k = omega c/V, which was experimen...

J. D. Jeffers



Effects of Aging  


... and taking steps to counterbalance the effects of aging can help you maintain a young spirit and ... of many age-related changes. The Effects of Aging Aging Muscles: As muscles age, they begin to ...


Medications and Side Effects  




Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military effectiveness is a common goal among military forces, but it is an ill-defined concept. Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect or...

J. J. Bernasconi



Vectorial Photoelectric Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results and their analysis are presented which indicate that the vectorial photoelectric effect originates neither in excitation at the surface nor in pure volume optical absorption, but is a unique combined surface-volume effect which depends only on optical absorption as influenced by the interface. This effect can be phenomenologically regarded as surface-enhanced optical absorption (SEOA) in which, for certain

R. M. Broudy



Arbutus unedo prevents cardiovascular and morphological alterations in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats Part I: cardiovascular and renal hemodynamic effects of Arbutus unedo in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.  


Hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition is associated with functional abnormalities of the heart and kidney. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronic treatment with Arbutus unedo leaf (AuL) or root (AuR) aqueous extracts can prevent these alterations. Six groups of rats were used: control group received tap water; N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) group treated with L-NAME at 40 mg/kg/day; AuL and AuR groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and Au leaves or roots extract at the same concentration 250 mg/kg/day; l-arginine and enalapril groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and l-arginine at 50mg/kg/day or enalapril at 15 mg/kg/day. Treatment of rats during 4 weeks with L-NAME caused an increase of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) accompanied by a ventricular hypertrophy, an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, an increase of the cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and a decrease of water, sodium and potassium excretion. The co-administration of AuL or AuR extracts with L-NAME reduces the development of increased SBP, ameliorates the vascular reactivity as well as the baroreflex sensitivity and normalizes the renal function. AuR reduces the ventricular hypertrophy but AuL do not. Enalapril associated with L-NAME reverses the majority of alterations induced by L-NAME while l-arginine only lightly ameliorates the vascular reactivity. These results show that chronic treatment with Arbutus extract regress the development of hypertension and ameliorate cardiovascular and renal functions in NO deficient hypertension. PMID:18191352

Afkir, Saida; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Aziz, Mohamed; Zoheir, Johar; Cuisinaud, Guy; Bnouham, Mohamed; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Lahlou, Saad; Ziyyat, Abderrahim



Allee effects in ants.  


1. Allee effects occur when the aggregation of individuals result in mutually beneficial intraspecific interactions whereby individual fitness, or per capita growth rate, increases with the number of individuals. Allee effects are common in social species due to their cooperative behaviours, such as breeding, feeding or defence. Allee effects have important implications for many aspects of basic and applied ecology. Over the past decades, the study of Allee effects has influenced population dynamics, community ecology, endangered species management and invasion biology. 2. Despite the fact that cooperation is the basis of their social structure, Allee effects have received little attention among eusocial insects. Extreme cooperation is common, and reproductive specialization of individuals occurs due to division of labour. These life-history traits suggest that the potential contribution of each caste to reproduction and survival may be differential and nonadditive. 3. We studied Allee effects in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In this species, many queens and workers are present in colonies, which allowed us to explore the differential effects of castes on the presence of Allee effects. In the laboratory, we measured brood production and individual survival in experimental colonies that differed in the initial numbers of queens and workers.4. Our results highlight the differential effect of queens and workers on survival and productivity. We found three positive density-dependent relationships indicative of component Allee effects at the colony level: both workers and queens had a positive effect on the productivity of the other caste, and queens had a positive effect on worker survivorship. 5. Our experimental results suggest a potential positive feedback between worker and queen abundance, which may have contributed to the evolution of large colony sizes. Our study provides the first evidence of Allee effects in eusocial insects and highlights the need to consider castes separately in population dynamics. Division of labour and differential reproductive rates are factors that should be integrated into the study of Allee effects. PMID:23672650

Luque, Gloria M; Giraud, Tatiana; Courchamp, Franck



How effective are maternal effects at having effects?  

PubMed Central

The well studied trade-off between offspring size and offspring number assumes that offspring fitness increases with increasing per-offspring investment. Where mothers differ genetically or exhibit plastic variation in reproductive effort, there can be variation in per capita investment in offspring, and via this trade-off, variation in fecundity. Variation in per capita investment will affect juvenile performance directly—a classical maternal effect—while variation in fecundity will also affect offspring performance by altering the offsprings' competitive environment. The importance of this trade-off, while a focus of evolutionary research, is not often considered in discussions about population dynamics. Here, we use a factorial experiment to determine what proportion of variation in offspring performance can be ascribed to maternal effects and what proportion to the competitive environment linked to the size–number trade-off. Our results suggest that classical maternal effects are significant, but that in our system, the competitive environment, which is linked to maternal environments by fecundity, can be a far more substantial influence.

Beckerman, Andrew P; Benton, Tim G; Lapsley, Craig T; Koesters, Nils



The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".  


The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

Dooley, Kevin J



Thermally Driven Josephson Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept is proposed of the thermally driven Josephson effect in superfluid helium. Heretofore, the Josephson effect in a superfluid has been recognized as an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady pressure difference between two superfluid reservoirs separated by an array of submicron-sized orifices, which act in unison as a single Josephson junction. Analogously, the thermally driven Josephson effect is an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady temperature difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect is partly a consequence of a quantum- mechanical effect known as the fountain effect, in which a temperature difference in a superfluid is accompanied by a pressure difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect may have significance for the development of a high-resolution gyroscope based on the Josephson effect in a superfluid: If the pressure-driven Josephson effect were used, then the fluid on the high-pressure side would become depleted, necessitating periodic interruption of operation to reverse the pressure difference. If the thermally driven Josephson effect were used, there would be no net flow and so the oscillatory flow could be maintained indefinitely by maintaining the required slightly different temperatures on both sides of the junction.

Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso



The Hubble effective potential  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)



Dynamic ground effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effect of rate of descent on ground effects. A series of powered models were tested in the Vortex Research Facility under conditions with rate of descent and in the 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel under identical conditions but without rate of descent. These results indicate that the rate of descent can have a significant impact on ground effects particularly if vectored or reversed thrust is used.

Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gilbert, William P.



Volcanic effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

Robock, Alan



Handbook of radiation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book emphasizes radiation effects on solid state devices from exposure to the types of radiation found outside the atmosphere (in space, or in the vicinity of an exploding nuclear device). It contains a basic study of radiation shielding of payload components for payloads in space and specifically covers radiation effects on minority and majority carriers, optical media and organic

A. Holmes-Siedle; L. Adams



Evaluating Effective Management Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A better way to assess the effectiveness of management development is to measure organizational effectiveness rather than individual improvement. Case studies support the Business Excellence Framework model, which assesses enablers (leadership, personnel management, policy, resources, processes) and results (personnel and customer satisfaction,…

Bramley, Peter



[Providing Effective Behavior Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue addresses the provision of behavioral support for students with behavior disorders. The first article, "Providing Effective Behavior Support to All Students: Procedures and Processes" (George Sugai), summarizes the literature on the effectiveness of various interventions and offers several models for examining the teaching of…

SAIL: Technical Assistance Journal, 1996



Named Rules and Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hans Reich, professor of organic chemistry at the University of Wisconsin Madison, created this online handout on named rules and effects in organic chemistry. Concise descriptions and structures of a number of named effects, rules, stereochemical models and hypothesesâÂÂfrom BaldwinâÂÂs rules to the ZimmermanâÂÂTraxler transition stateâÂÂare given.

Reich, Hans J.



Institutional Effectiveness Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first edition of the College of the Canyon's (California) Institutional Effectiveness Report, which is modeled after the statewide report prepared by the Chancellor's Office. The college is measuring 60 effectiveness indicators in four mission areas: student access, student success, staff composition, and fiscal condition. A brief…

College of the Canyons, Santa Clarita, CA.


Comparative Effectiveness Research

Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances.


Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.



Effects of Drug Abuse  


Listen to this page Effects of Drug Abuse Drug abuse hurts the people who take drugs AND the people around them, including families , kids , and ... HIV/AIDS Click here to learn more about effects of specific drugs . VIDEO: Why Are Drugs So ...


Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsible for substantial adverse effects on the public welfare. Such effects include: the acidification of lakes and rivers, with resultant damage to fish and other components of aquatic ecosystems; acidification and demineralization of soils; and possible reductions in crop and forest productivity. Affected areas include Canada and the northeastern US.

Norman R. Glass; Gary E. Glass; Peter J. Rennie



Hall Effect in Ferromagnetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the unusually large magnitude and strong temperature dependence of the extraordinary Hall effect in ferromagnetic materials can be understood as effects of the spin-orbit interaction of polarized conduction electrons. It is shown that the interband matrix elements of the applied electric potential energy combine with the spin-orbit perturbation to give a current perpendicular to both the field and the

Robert Karplus; J. M. Luttinger



Quantum zeno effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misra and Sudarshan pointed out, based on the quantum measurement theory, that repeated measurements lead to a slowing down of the transition, which they called the quantum Zeno effect. Recently, Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger and Wineland have reported that they succeeded in observing that effect. We show that the results of Itano et al. can be recovered through conventional quantum mechanics

T. Petrosky; S. Tasaki; I. Prigogine



A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal



The greenhouse effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect on the Earth is identified by the difference between the effective radiating temperature of the planet and its surface temperature. The difference between the energy emitted by the surface and that emitted upward to space by the upper atmosphere quantifies it; it can therefore be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing

A. Berger; Ch. Tricot



The Greenhouse Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greenhouse Effect is getting a lot of publicity as concern grows about trends in weather and pollution. The midwestern states of the US suffered a drought during 1988 coupled with an unsually hot summer throughout the country. Many people attributed this to the Greenhouse Effect. Palmer and Brankovic (Nature, Vol. 338, page 54, March 2, 1989) tied the drought



Effects on aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding the effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems, recent scientific and public interest has focused on marine primary producers and on the aquatic web, which has resulted in a multitude of studies indicating mostly detrimental effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic organisms. The interest has expanded to include ecologically significant groups and major biomass producers using mesocosm studies, emphasizing

D.-P. Häder; H. D. Kumar; R. C. Smith; R. C. Worrest



Lake Effect Snow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This MPEG shows lake effect precipitation resulting when cold air masses pass over the relatively warm Great Lakes, pick up moisture, and then precipitate when again encountering the cold land surface. Note the bands of lake effect snow apparent over Lake Superior and the lack of snow on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The animation can be replayed to stress important points.



The Chelate Effect Redefined.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ambiguities of the accepted definition of the chelate effect, suggesting that it be defined in terms of experimental observation rather than mathematical abstraction. Indicates that the effect depends on free energy change in reaction, ligand basicity, pH of medium, type of chelates formed, and concentration of ligands in solution. (JN)

da Silva, J. J. R. Frausto



JPL Radiation Effects Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation Effects Group investigates the effects of space radiation on present and future microelectronic and optoelectronic technologies, evaluate the risk of using them in specific space missions, and recommend component and design techniques for JPL and NASA programs to reduce reliability risk from space radiation.

Thorbourn, Dennis



The greenhouse effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse effect on the Earth is identified by the difference between the effective radiating temperature of the planet and its surface temperature. The difference between the energy emitted by the surface and that emitted upward to space by the upper atmosphere quantifies it; it can therefore be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing and the response of the climate system within which climate feedback mechanisms are contained, will be defined in this review. Quantitative examples will illustrate what could happen if the greenhouse effect is perturbed by the human activities, in particular if atmospheric CO2 concentrations would double in the future. Recent measurements by satellites of the greenhouse effect will be given. The net cooling effect of clouds on the Earth and whether or not there will be less cooling by clouds as the planet warms, are discussed following a series of papers recently published by Ramanathan and his collaborators.

Berger, A.; Tricot, Ch.



Effective Frequency Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effective monochromatic frequency technique is described to represent the effects of finite spectral bandwidth for active and passive measurements centered on an absorption line, a trough region, or a slowly varying spectral feature. For Gaussian and rectangular laser line shapes, the effective frequency is shown to have a simple form which depends only on the instrumental line shape and bandwidth and not on the absorption line profile. The technique yields accuracies better than 0.1% for bandwidths less than 0.2 times the atmospheric line width.

Kirk, C. Laurence; Weng, Chi Y.



Improving engineering effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methodologies to improve engineering productivity were investigated. The rocky road to improving engineering effectiveness is reviewed utilizing a specific semiconductor engineering organization as a case study. The organization had a performance problem regarding new product introductions. With the help of this consultant as a change agent the engineering team used a systems approach to through variables that were effecting their output significantly. Critical factors for improving this engineering organization's effectiveness and the roles/responsibilities of management, the individual engineers and the internal consultant are discussed.

Fiero, J. D.



[Cholinergic effects of nootropics].  


With respect to the enhancing effect of nootropics on learning and memory, the influence of some of these drugs on the high affinity choline uptake has been investigated. Meclofenoxate competes with choline uptake in vitro because of its similar side chain; other nootropics are without in vitro effects. A single dose of pramiracetam enhances the choline uptake in cortex and hippocampus. Application of meclofenoxate decreases the uptake of choline. Other nootropics lack acute effects. Possible increases of uptake after repeated dosage disappear within 24 h. PMID:3149192

Funk, K F; Schmidt, J



From effective interactions to effective operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most successful approaches to the nuclear structure of light nuclei is the no-core shell model (NCSM), which describes with very good precision the observed nuclear spectra. In its framework, by means of the Lee Suzuki procedure one derives effective interactions in finite model spaces starting from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials; the low-lying energy spectrum is then obtain through the diagonalization of the ab initio effective interactions in large, translationally invariant, many-body basis. In addition to energy levels, one has to obtain good description of the nuclear wave functions; the latter can be tested by computing observables and transition strengths. With a few exceptions, transition strengths and expectation values of observables have been obtained using bare operators restricted to the model space. We have started recently to apply the Lee-Suzuki procedure to general operators and performed tests in restricted model spaces. In this work, we compute expectation values of selected scalar observables and electromagnetic transition strengths using realistic wave functions for nuclei in the p shell. I.S. and B.R.B acknowledge partial support by NFS grants PHY0070858 and PHY0244389. The work was performed in part under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. P.N. received support from LDRD contract 04-ERD-058.

Stetcu, Ionel; Barrett, Bruce R.; Navratil, Petr



Authoring Effective Demonstrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The changing tactics of asymmetric threats present an ongoing need to disseminate lessons learned from the battlefield to a wide audience of personnel. Interactive virtual environments have been shown to be effective for team training, and distributed gam...

D. Fu E. Salas M. A. Rosen R. Jensen S. Ramachandran



Explore Learning: Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a Shockwave interactive animation used to teach students about the wave motion specific to doppler effect. Users can change frequency, wave speed, as well as source and detector speeds.



Vaccine herd effect  

PubMed Central

Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark



UCAR: The Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) provides an overview of the earth's atmospheric "greenhouse effect." Diagrams and one short video help present the key ideas. Two related activities are also provided.



Aviation Noise Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carri...

J. S. Newman K. R. Beattie



The Gravitational Edge Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The knowledge that a gravity anomaly is due to an edge effect is sufficient to resolve the inherent ambiguity of the inverse potential problem. Thus given the gravity field across the contact between two laterally uniform structures, the density differenc...

L. M. Dorman



[Genetic effects of radiation].  


This paper is a short review of genetic effect of radiation. This includes methods and results of a large-scale genetic study on specific loci in mice and of various studies in the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors. As for the latter, there is no results obtained which suggest the effect of parental exposure to radiation. Further, in recent years, studies are conducted to the offspring born to parents who were survivors of childhood cancers. In several reports, the mean gonad dose is quite large whereas in most instances, the results do not indicate genetic effect following parental exposure to radiation. Possible reasons for the difficulties in detecting genetic effect of radiation are discussed. PMID:22514926

Nakamura, Nori



Human Health Effects Assays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of assays to evaluate and assist in predicting potentially adverse human health effects associated with exposure to pollutants in water (that is, municipal wastewater, sewage sludge, ambient water, and drinking water) is the focus of the review.

L. Fradkin C. Sonich-Mullin M. Cerny C. Kruger F. Cavender



Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.



Substituent Effect in Ketoferrocenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of carbonyl-group on the redox potential and Moessbauer parameters was studied in ketoferrocenes and chalcone analogous ferrocene derivatives. Interaction of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents and the carbonyl-group is disc...

A. G. Nagy



Metabolic Effects of Monomethylhydrazine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metabolic effects of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) were studied in rats using whole body calorimetry and measurements of serum and liver levels of fat and carbohydrate. Biochemical measurements were made in rats sacrificed three hours after injection of n...

H. L. Bitter D. A. Clark W. W. Lackey



Managing for Effective Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 20 schools, surveys of teacher perceptions about management styles and student perceptions of teachers reveals a correlation between effective teaching and "consultative-centralized" management. Consequently, 10 "commandments" for good consultative management are provided. (TE)

Greenblatt, Ruth B.; And Others



Coefficients of Effective Length.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

Edwards, Roger H.



Indicators of Administrative Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten personal characteristics and seven administrative skills that differentiated effective from ineffective university leaders were assessed by multiple discriminate analysis. The personal characteristics identified by previous research (Skipper, 1975, 1977) are: responsibility, integrity, self-control, intellectual efficiency, flexibility,…

Skipper, Charles E.; Hofmann, Richard J.


Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Radiation Effects Facility (REF), funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL), has been constructed at Brookhaven National La...

C. L. Snead P. Grand T. Ward



PPP Effectiveness Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This design note presents a study of the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) effectiveness. The intent of the study is to determine manpower time savings and the improvements in job performance gained through PPP automated techniques. The discussion ...

J. D. Arbet R. L. Benbow



Physiological Effects of Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the evolution of exercise science a vast amount of information concerning the physiological effects of training has been generated. Understanding the basic training responses and adaptations of various modes of conditioning can give the clinician ins...

W. J. Kraemer W. L. Daniels



Health Effects of Tsunamis  


... for Pet Owners Frequently Asked Questions Additional Information Tornadoes Preparing for a Tornado (Part 1 of 2) ... Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Health Effects of ...


Effectiveness of Glare Screens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Available literature on glare screens was reviewed and selected installations were inspected. It was found that glare screens are effective but that warrants have not been established for their use. Expanded metal meshes are the most satisfactory of the a...

J. T. Capelli




Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements were made of surface and subsurface effects of an ; underground explosion of a 1.2-kt nuclear burst. The measurements included free-; field earth and air-blast effects, as well as loading on underground structural ; devices. From the 76 channels installed on TEAPOT Shot 7, 75 usable records were ; obtained. The free-field quantities measured include air-blast pressure, earth ;

D. C. Sachs; L. M. Swift



Nocturnal aircraft noise effects.  


Noise protection associated with the construction and extension of airports in the Federal Republic of Germany has been regulated by the law for protection against aircraft noise since 1971. This legislation is due for revision because of different aspects. One aspect is the growth of air traffic which has led many airports to the limits of their capacity and in search of new ways of adaptation to the increasing demand for flight services. Another aspect is the increasing concern of the population about noise effects which has to be addressed by better protection against the effects of aircraft noise. The framework conditions of policy in terms of society as a whole, its health and economic environment need to be put into effect by political action. Science can contribute to this goal by performing noise effects research and by providing recommendations to the political body. However, it remains controversial, what measures are necessary or adequate to assure effective protection of the population against aircraft noise. This is particularly true for the protection of rest and sleep at night. The problem of finding a common basis for adequate recommendations is associated with (1) the low number of primary studies, which also exhibited highly variable results and assessments, (2) the handling of acoustic or psycho-acoustic dimensions for quantifying psychological or physiological reactions, and (3) the conception of how far preventive measures have to go to prove effective. With this in mind, the DLR Institute for Aerospace Medicine is conducting a large-scale, multi-stage study for investigating the acute effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on human sleep. This enterprise is implemented in the framework of the HGF/DLR project "Quiet Air Traffic" for developing sustainable assessment criteria for human-specific effects of aircraft noise at night. PMID:15070533

Basner, M; Samel, A



Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise



The Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a simulation of the Doppler effect. The user can change the speed of the wave source and can move a microphone to detect the wave frequency at different points relative to the moving source. The resulting wave pattern can be both observed and heard. Instructional notes outlining the details of the Doppler effect are provided. This material is part of a web site for a second semester physics course for majors covering gravity, fluids, waves, and thermodynamics.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather



Pleiotropic effects of pitavastatin  

PubMed Central

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are established first line treatments for hypercholesterolaemia. In addition to the direct effects of statins in reducing concentrations of atherogenic low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), several studies have indicated that the beneficial effects of statins may be due to some of their cholesterol-independent, multiple (pleiotropic) effects which may differ between different members of the class. Pitavastatin is a novel synthetic lipophilic statin that has a number of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties distinct from those of other statins, which may underlie its potential pleiotropic benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. This review examines the principal pleiotropic effects of pitavastatin on endothelial function, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and thrombosis. The article is based on a systematic literature search carried out in December 2010, together with more recent relevant publications where appropriate. The available data from clinical trials and in vitro and animal studies suggest that pitavastatin is not only effective in reducing LDL-C and triglycerides, but also has a range of other effects. These include increasing high density lipoprotein cholesterol, decreasing markers of platelet activation, improving cardiac, renal and endothelial function, and reducing endothelial stress, lipoprotein oxidation and, ultimately, improving the signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. It is concluded that the diverse pleiotropic actions of pitavastatin may contribute to reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality beyond that achieved through LDL-C reduction.

Davignon, Jean



High Burnup Effects Program  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.



Effective Transport Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

Mauri, Roberto


Nebivolol Protects against Myocardial Infarction Injury via Stimulation of Beta 3-Adrenergic Receptors and Nitric Oxide Signaling  

PubMed Central

Nebivolol, third-generation ?-blocker, may activate ?3-adrenergic receptor (AR), which has been emerged as a novel and potential therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases. However, it is not known whether nebivolol administration plays a cardioprotective effect against myocardial infarction (MI) injury. Therefore, the present study was designed to clarify the effects of nebivolol on MI injury and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. MI model was constructed by left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation. Nebivolol, ?3-AR antagonist (SR59230A), Nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) or vehicle was administered for 4 weeks after MI operation. Cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography. Moreover, the fibrosis and the apoptosis of myocardium were assessed by Masson's trichrome stain and TUNEL assay respectively 4 weeks after MI. Nebivolol administration reduced scar area by 68% compared with MI group (p<0.05). Meanwhile, nebivolol also decreased the myocardial apoptosis and improved the heart function after MI (p<0.05 vs. MI). These effects were associated with increased ?3-AR expression. Moreover, nebivolol treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and the expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS). Conversely, the cardiac protective effects of nebivolol were abolished by SR and L-NAME. These results indicate that nebivolol protects against MI injury. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effects of nebivolol may be mediated by ?3-AR-eNOS/nNOS pathway.

Zhang, Zheng; Ding, Liping; Jin, Zhitao; Gao, Guojie; Li, Huijun; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Lina; Lu, Xin; Hu, Lihua; Lu, Bingwei; Yu, Xiongjun; Hu, Taohong



Mitochondrial threshold effects.  

PubMed Central

The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases.

Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry



System Effectiveness Model Formulation  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of system effectiveness has numerous pitfalls. System objectives may be poorly defined, may shift during the system life or may be hard to quantify. Further, individual perceptions of the quantifications may differ. Whatever the cause, system effectiveness has been an elusive term to quantitatively define. The proposed model presents a quantitative system effectiveness model and establishes a utilitarian approach for its use with the illustrative application to a nuclear safeguards system. The model uses the Type I and Type II statistical error rates as input to the component or subsystem effectiveness calculation which, when combined using a utilitarian methodology, quantify the overall system effectiveness. The methodology will use a survey of expert judgment to determine the relative importance of the individual subsystems through a statistically designed web survey. The web based survey will be available to nuclear material protection, control, and accounting experts attending the 2008 INMM conference. This model and methodology will provide a repeatable quantifiable measure for any system but in this case a simple safeguards system is used as an example.

Coates, Cameron W [ORNL; Jackson, Denise F [ORNL



Liner environment effects study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Liner Environment Effects Study Program is aimed at establishing a broad heat transfer data base under controlled experimental conditions by quantifying the effects of the combustion system conditions on the combustor liner thermal loading and on the flame radiation characteristics. Five liner concepts spanning the spectrum of liner design technology from the very simple to the most advanced concepts are investigated. These concepts comprise an uncooled liner, a conventional film cooled liner, an impingement/film cooled liner, a laser drilled liner approaching the concept of a porous wall, and a siliconized silicon carbide ceramic liner. Effect of fuel type is covered by using fuels containing 11.8, 12.8, and 14% hydrogen. Tests at 100, 200, and 300 psia provide a basis for evaluating the effect of pressure on the heat transfer. The effects of the atomization quality and spray characteristics are examined by varying the fuel spray Sauter mean diameter and the spray angle. Additional varied parameters include reference velocity, a wide range of equivalence ratio, cooling flow rate, coolant temperature and the velocity of the coolant stream on the backside of the liner.

Venkataramani, K. S.; Ekstedt, E. E.



Critical effects and exposure limits.  


The use of critical effects in the determination of occupational exposure limits (OELs) in Sweden is subjected to a statistical study. Many of the present OELs are high in relation to known no-effect levels and effect levels, and the degree of protection has a surprisingly weak correlation with the seriousness of the adverse effect. Several proposals for improved procedures are put forward. One of these is to supplement the concept of critical effects with that of dominant effects. A dominant effect of a substance is a health effect that is at some concentration the most serious health effect. PMID:9202490

Hansson, S O



Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.


Aviation noise effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.



Effective Documentation Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quality assurance programs provide a very effective means to monitor and evaluate medical care. Quality assurance involves: (1) Identify a problem; (2) Determine the source and nature of the problem; (3) Develop policies and methods to effect improvement; (4) Implement those polices; (5) Monitor the methods applied; and (6) Evaluate their effectiveness. Because this definition of quality assurance so closely resembles the Nursing Process, the health unit staff was able to use their knowledge of the nursing process to develop many forms which improve the quality of patient care. These forms include the NASA DFRC Service Report, the occupational injury form (Incident Report), the patient survey (Pre-hospital Evaluation/Care Report), the Laboratory Log Sheet, the 911 Run Sheet, and the Patient Assessment Stamp. Examples and steps which are followed to generate these reports are described.

Sleboda, Claire



Heavy rain effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of the effect of heavy rain on airplane performance. Although the effects of heavy rain on airplane systems and engines are generally known, only recently has the potential aerodynamic effect of heavy rain been recognized. In 1977 the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) conducted a study of 25 aircraft accidents and incidents which occurred between 1964 and 1976 in which low-altitude wind shear could have been a contributing factor. Of the 25 cases (23 approach or landing and 2 take-off) in the study, ten cases had occurred in a rain environment, and in five cases these were classified as intense or heavy rain encounters. These results led to the reconsideration of high-intensity, short-duration rainfall as a potential weather-related aircraft safety hazard, particularly in the take-off and/or approach phases of flight.

Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.



Giving effective presentations.  


Apprehension about oral communication, or public speaking is rated as the number one fear among most individuals. Developing skill in, and comfort with, public speaking is important whether we are presenting oral reports and proposals, responding to questions, or training co-workers. Effective speakers are able to communicate information in a way that stimulates interest, helps the audience to understand and remember, and influences attitudes and behaviours. Many of us think that effective speakers are born rather than made. In truth most successful speakers work hard and invest a great deal of time and effort in to improving their speaking capabilities. Effective public speaking is a learned skill and activity that requires lots of practice. Like other learned skills, having a strategy with clear action steps can help you achieve your goal. PMID:15116467

Englehart, Nadine



Disentangling the EMC effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep inelastic scattering cross section for scattering from bound nucleons differs from that of free nucleons. This phenomena, first discovered 30 years ago, is known as the EMC effect and is still not fully understood. Recent analysis of world data showed that the strength of the EMC effect is linearly correlated with the relative amount of Two-Nucleon Short Range Correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in nuclei. The latter are pairs of nucleons whose wave functions overlap, giving them large relative momentum and low center of mass momentum, where high and low is relative to the Fermi momentum of the nucleus. The observed correlation indicates that the EMC effect, like 2N-SRC pairs, is related to high momentum nucleons in the nucleus. This paper reviews previous studies of the EMC-SRC correlation and studies its robustness. It also presents a planned experiment aimed at studying the origin of this EMC-SRC correlation.

Piasetzky, E.; Hen, O.; Weinstein, L. B.



Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.  


In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior. PMID:24409128

Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B



Handbook of radiation effects  

SciTech Connect

This book emphasizes radiation effects on solid state devices from exposure to the types of radiation found outside the atmosphere (in space, or in the vicinity of an exploding nuclear device). It contains a basic study of radiation shielding of payload components for payloads in space and specifically covers radiation effects on minority and majority carriers, optical media and organic materials. It also includes some basic information on radioactivity, monitoring equipment and different types of radiation fields. This book is not oriented toward health physics.

Holmes-Siedle, A.; Adams, L.



Photostimulated even acoustoelectric effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photostimulated photogalvanic (PG) and acoustogalvanic (AG) currents in a semiconductor placed in the field of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves with frequencies Omega sub 1 = 2Omega sub 2 are analyzed. These currents affect the probability of electron scattering and the HF acoustic flux field. Under specified double laser illumination the system comprising an electron gas and photons becomes noncentrosymmetric, which leads to the PG and AG effects. The AG effect represents a contribution to the acoustoelectric current that is linear according to intensity and even according to the acoustic wave vector.

Shmelev, G. M.; Shon, N. Kh.; Tsurkan, G. I.



Health Effects of Noise Pollution  


... effects of noise pollution Health effects of noise pollution People of all ages, including children, teens, young ... noises around them. The health effects of noise pollution include: Hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss usually ...


Lightning Physics and Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of

Richard E. Orville



Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid



Cardiovascular effects of tadalafil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of tadalafil on the cardiovascular system, safety assessments were performed on a database of >4,000 subjects who received tadalafil in >60 clinical pharmacology, phase 2, phase 3, and open-label studies. In healthy subjects, tadalafil resulted in small changes in blood pressure, which are not believed to be clinically relevant. Daily administration of tadalafil 20 mg for

Robert A Kloner; Malcolm Mitchell; Jeffrey T Emmick



Measuring Institutional Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The measurement of institutional effectiveness involves a systematic comparison of organizational purpose and performance. For community colleges, organizational purpose can be defined in terms of providing access to education, realizing student achievement, promoting student development, or addressing social needs. If all four purposes are…

Macomb County Community Coll., Warren, MI.


High Density Fuel Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program was to determine, by combustor rig tests and data evaluation, the effects of the high density fuel properties on the performance and durability of the Allison T56-A-15 combustion system. Four high density fuels in addition to b...

H. C. Mongia N. K. Rizk P. T. Ross V. L. Oechsie



Effective Thinking Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

Hyde, Rod



Effective View Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view navigation a user moves about an information structure by selecting something in the current view of the structure. This paper explores the implications of rudimentary requirements for effective view navigation, namely that, despite the vastness of an information structure, the views must be small, moving around must not take too many steps and the route to any target

George W. Furnas



Commentary: Expanding on Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atkins, Graczyk, Frazier, and Abdul-Adil (2003) make the point that there have been three limitations of mental health services for children and families in low-income, urban settings: (a) accessibility; (b) effectiveness; and (c) sustainability. Their article focuses extensively on improving access and addressing issues of sustainability in…

Pelham, William E., Jr.; Massetti, Greta M.



Interactive Pi Bonding Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application demonstrates the effect of pi bonding on the one-electron ligand field splitting in an octahedral. By clicking on the appropriate buttons students can see how D changes when you move from ligands with no pi bonding capability to pi donor and pi acceptor ligands.


Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

Renville, Gary




EPA Science Inventory

The biological effects of manganese were studied in a town on the coast of Dalmatia in which a ferromanganese plant has been operating since before World War II. The study focused on the question of whether the exposure to manganese can cause a higher incidence of respiratory dis...



EPA Science Inventory

The literature review summarizes current data on the effects of pesticides and metals on marine organisms, aquatic environmental research methods, bioaccumulation of pollutants by estuarine and marine organisms and in water/sediment residues and biota. Results of studies of the e...


Angular Talbot effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We predict the possibility of observing integer and fractional self-imaging (Talbot) phenomena on the discrete angular spectrum of periodic diffraction gratings illuminated by a suitable spherical wave front. Our predictions are experimentally validated, reporting what we believe to be the first observation of self-imaging effects in the far-field diffraction regime.

Azaña, José; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues




EPA Science Inventory

The EPA's OHMSETT facility has developed a rapid field test that includes some of the theoretical aspects and conditions of dispersion at sea. This Field Dispersant Effectiveness Test (FDET) has been used to evaluate the dispersibility of various commonly-transported oils and mak...


Physiological effects of hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many studies indicating that sensory, circulatory, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous functions can be altered by means of hypnosis. There also are many studies indicating that similar physiological effects can be produced by symbolic stimulation without hypnosis. The assumption that hypnotic behavior is a function of the trance state is open to question. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3II90B.

Theodore Xenophon Barber



Cost Effective Prototyping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.



Crossfield effect at fluxgate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic field transverse to the sensing axis may affect the performance of magnetic sensors. In the case of fluxgates, this effect is not as dramatic as it is for AMR sensors, but it still may cause errors up to 40 nT in the Earth's field. We performed measurements on voltage output fluxgate sensors of various constructions. Ring-cores are the

P Ripka; S. W Billingsley



The offline production effect.  


People remember words they say aloud better than ones they do not, a result called the production effect. The standing explanation for the production effect is that producing a word renders it distinctive in memory and thus memorable at test. Whereas it is now clear that motoric production benefits remembering over nonproduction, and that more intense motoric production benefits remembering to a greater extent than less intense motoric production, there has been no comparison of the memorial benefit conferred by motoric versus imagined production. One reason for the gap is that the standard production-by-vocalization procedure confounds the analysis. To make the comparison, we used a production-by-typing procedure and tested memory for words that people typed, imagined typing, and did not type. Whereas participants remembered the words that they typed and imagined typing better than words that they did not, they remembered the words they typed better than the ones they imagined typing; an advantage that was consistent over tests of recognition memory and source discrimination. We conclude that motoric production is a sufficient and facilitative (but not a necessary) condition to observe the production effect. We explain our results by a sensory feedback account of the production effect and sketch a computational framework to implement that approach. PMID:24364810

Jamieson, Randall K; Spear, Jackie



Aviation noise effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical

J. S. Newman; K. R. Beattie



Learning to Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 14 papers which discuss contemporary issues of curriculum change and instructional effectiveness in higher education primarily from a British perspective. Papers address curriculum purpose, curriculum delivery, and curriculum impact on the wider society. In addition, the book covers experiential learning, skills and training,…

Barnett, Ronald, Ed.


Surface Effects Skimmer Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experimental program investigated the use of a Surface Effects Skimmer in removing thin film oil slicks spread over large water areas by fast currents. This new skimmer uses a directed air jet to separate and lift spilled oil from the surface of the ...

N. P. Trentacoste



Tips for Effective Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School business officials' days are filled with numbers and reports--audits, balance sheets, check registers, financial statements, journal entries, vouchers, and warrant reports, just to name a few. Those are all important tools that school business officers use to manage the financial resources of the district effectively. However, they are also…

Supple, Kevin F.



Pleiotropic effects of incretins  

PubMed Central

Drugs that augment the incretin system [glucagon like peptide (GLP) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors] represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have shown to improve the health and survival of beta-cells (improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia) and suppress glucagon (improvement in fasting hyperglycemia). The incretins represent a large family of molecules referred to as the “glucagon superfamily of peptide hormones” of which more than 90% of the physiological effects of incretins are accomplished by GLP-17-37 and GLP17-36 amide and gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 mediates its effects via the GLP-1 receptor, which has a wide tissue distribution [pancreas, lung, heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes, kidney, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine), central nervous system (neoortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius) and peripheral nervous system]. This would imply that the incretin system has effects outside the pancreas. Over time data has accumulated to suggest that therapies that augment the incretin system has beneficial pleiotrophic effects. The incretins have shown to possess a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and safeguard from neuronal degeneration, improve hepatic inflammation and hepatosteatosis, improve insulin resistance, promote weight loss and induce satiety. There is growing evidence that they may also be renoprotective promoting wound healing and bone health.

Gupta, Vishal



Effectiveness of Median Barriers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to ascertain whether the employment of physical barriers within the highway median is effective in promoting highway safety. An uncontrolled before and after study of 54.2 miles of urban freeway in California was conducted ...

R. T. Johnson



Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

Michael Cross, Cal T.


Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

Wood, B. E.



Microcircuit Radiation Effects Databank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single e...



Cardiovascular effects of melanocortins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanocortins (MSH's) are three structurally related peptides derived from proopiomelanocortin. They regulate several physiologic functions including energy metabolism, appetite, and inflammation. Recent work in rodents has also identified important effects of MSH's, particularly ?-MSH, on sodium metabolism and blood pressure regulation. Normal rats and mice respond to a high sodium diet with an increase in the plasma concentration of ?-MSH,

Michael H. Humphreys; Xi-Ping Ni; David Pearce



(Limiting the greenhouse effect)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric COâ Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by




Noise: Effects and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The type and degree of the effects on man of exposure to high-intensity noise is determined primarily by (1) the type of noise, i.e., continuous or interrupted, (2) the spectrum of the noise, i.e., low or high pitch, (3) intensity (loudness), (4) length o...

K. K. Neely



The Contrail Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOVA's The Contrail Effect describes how contrails form and how humidity determines how long they last. The webpage goes on to describe the study during the days of clear skies, without contrails, following 9/11. Three satellite images of contrail patterns are provided.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Documentation: Effective AND Literate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

Paul S. Burdett Jr.



Effects of acoustic sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acoustics on the laminar flow on the side of a nacelle. A flight test was designed to meet this goal and a brief review of the purpose is given. A nacelle with a significant length of laminar flow was mounted on the wing of NASA OV-1. Two noise sources are also

James A. Schoenster; Michael G. Jones



Effective resonance levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on the use of effective resonance integrals or group cross sections with resonance self-shielding factors has come into extensive use in calculations of resonance absorption in homogeneous systems. An attempt is made to extend the subgroup treatment, which was initially formulated for the region of forbidden resonances, to the allowed region as applicable to heterogeneous media. A

B. P. Kochurov



Field effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patent is claimed for an invention relating to Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MISFECTs) in which organic polymers are used as the semiconducting component. The FET has a gate electrode deposited on a substrate and separated from a semiconducting layer by an insulating layer, the semiconducting layer being provided with two terminals to allow passage of an electric

Philip Charles Allen; Richard Henry Friend; Jeremy Henly Burroughes



Exploring the Lotus Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students test and observe the "self-cleaning" lotus effect using a lotus leaf and cloth treated with a synthetic lotus-like superhydrophobic coating. They also observe the Wenzel and Cassie Baxter wetting states by creating and manipulating condensation droplets on the leaf surface. They consider the real-life engineering applications for these amazing water-repellent and self-cleaning properties.

NSF CAREER Award and RET Program, Mechanical Engineering and Material Science,


Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.  

PubMed Central

The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities.

Davidson, D M



DCPS Effective Schools Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DCPS is committed to providing "all" students with the caliber of education they deserve. The goal of the DCPS Effective Schools Framework is to ensure that every child, in every classroom, has access to a high-quality and engaging standards-based instructional program, and that all school supports are aligned to support teaching and learning. The…

District of Columbia Public Schools, 2009



Alexandrite effect spectropyrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alexandrite crystal is commonly used for making alexandrite laser, and it also has a less-known phenomenon called the alexandrite effect that refers to the color change between different light sources. A novel spectropyrometer for temperature measurement of a radiating body utilizing the alexandrite effect is introduced. The alexandrite effect method for temperature measurement is based on the relationship between the temperature of blackbody and the hue-angle in the CIELAB color space. The alexandrite effect spectropyrometer consists of an optical probe, a spectrometer, a computer, and an alexandrite filter. It measures the spectral power distribution of a radiating body through the alexandrite filter, calculates the hue-angle, and determines the temperature. The spectropyrometer is suitable for temperature measurement of any radiating body with or without spectral lines in its spectral power distribution from 1000 K to 100000 K. The spectropyrometer is particularly useful for high to ultrahigh temperature measurement of any radiating bodies with spectral line emissions, such as electric arcs and discharges, plasmas, and high temperature flames.

Liu, Yan



Confirming Testlet Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A testlet is a cluster of items that share a common passage, scenario, or other context. These items might measure something in common beyond the trait measured by the test as a whole; if so, the model for the item responses should allow for this testlet trait. But modeling testlet effects that are negligible makes the model unnecessarily…

DeMars, Christine E.



Effects of New Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This group of articles studies the effects of microelectronics technologies on the world of work and on the social and economic life in general. These studies are related to several industrial nations and are also concerned with the international division of labor. (SSH)

Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983



Effective classical partition functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method by which a quantum-mechanical partition function can be approximated from below by an effective classical partition function. The associated potential is obtained by a simple smearing procedure. For a strongly anharmonic oscillator and a double-well potential, the lowest approximation gives a free energy which is accurate to a few percent, even at zero temperature.

Feynman, R. P.; Kleinert, H.



Determinants of Managerial Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors which contribute to managerial effectiveness can be grouped into four major categories: (1) personal characteristics of the individual manager; (2) managerial functions or the managerial process; (3) the various components of the organizational environment; and (4) the outcomes or results of the managerial process. (Author)

Foxley, Cecelia H.



Knowledge Sharing Effectiveness Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge would be considered as important element in knowledge-based economy and it makes a strong competitive advantage in dynamic business environment. In knowledge management, knowledge sharing is the most critical elements of effective knowledge processing. Several studies have been done to explain why people share knowledge and some of them have been mentioned in this paper. The next issue is

B. Zadjabbari; Pornpit Wongthongtham; Farookh Khadeer Hussain



Stern-Gerlach effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page illustrates the Stern-Gerlach effect on spin 1/2 particles. Movies and an illustration show the time-dependent properties of wavepackets in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Examples are given for silver atoms, ions, and electrons.

De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel



Facilitating Online Discussions Effectively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a synthesis of the theoretical and research literature on facilitating asynchronous online discussions effectively. Online courses need to be designed so that they provide motivation for students to engage in productive discussions and clearly describe what is expected, perhaps in the form of a discussion rubric.…

Rovai, Alfred P.



Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses entrance lotteries to explore heterogeneity in the achievement effects of charter schools across demographic groups and between urban and non-urban areas in Massachusetts. The authors develop a framework for interpreting this heterogeneity using both student- and school-level explanatory variables. (Contains 4 tables.)

Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.; Walters, Christopher R.



Cuing Effect of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally acknowledged that alternatives such as none of the above and all of the above should be used sparingly in multiple-choice (MC) items. But the effect that all of the above has on the reliability and validity of an MC item is unclear This study compared the results of a single-response (SRa) item format that included all of

P. H. Harasym; E. J. Leong; C. Violato; R. Brant; F. L. Lorscheider



Matthew Effects for Whom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which children are most at risk of experiencing a Matthew effect in reading? We investigated this question using population-based methodology. First, we identified children entering kindergarten on socio-demographic factors (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) known to index the relative risks and resources available to them as…

Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hibel, Jacob



Teacher Effectiveness: A Position.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes the highlights of research on teacher effectiveness and concludes with recommendations based on a synthesis of this past work. The various methodologies that have been used are discussed, from rating scales to objective observation techniques, such as OScAR and the ecological studies. The major problems in teacher…

Scott, Myrtle



Brain effects of melanocortins.  


The melanocortins (alpha, beta and gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormones: MSHs; adrenocorticotrophic hormone: ACTH), a family of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides having in common the tetrapeptide sequence His-Phe-Arg-Trp, have progressively revealed an incredibly wide range of extra-hormonal effects, so to become one of the most promising source of innovative drugs for many, important and widespread pathological conditions. The discovery of their effects on some brain functions, independently made by William Ferrari and David De Wied about half a century ago, led to the formulation of the term "neuropeptide" at a time when no demonstration of the actual production of peptide molecules by neurons, in the brain, was still available, and there were no receptors characterized for these molecules. In the course of the subsequent decades it came out that melanocortins, besides inducing one of the most complex and bizarre behavioural syndromes (excessive grooming, crises of stretchings and yawnings, repeated episodes of spontaneous penile erection and ejaculation, increased sexual receptivity), play a key role in functions of fundamental physiological importance as well as impressive therapeutic effects in different pathological conditions. If serendipity had been an important determinant in the discovery of the above-mentioned first-noticed extra-hormonal effects of melanocortins, many of the subsequent discoveries in the pharmacology of these peptides (feeding inhibition, shock reversal, role in opiate tolerance/withdrawal, etc.) have been the result of a planned research, aimed at testing the "pro-nociceptive/anti-nociceptive homeostatic system" hypothesis. The discovery of melanocortin receptors, and the ensuing synthesis of selective ligands with agonist or antagonist activity, is generating completely innovative drugs for the treatment of a potentially very long list of important and widespread pathological conditions: sexual impotence, frigidity, overweight/obesity, anorexia, cachexia, haemorrhagic shock, other forms of shock, myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage, neuropathic pain, rheumathoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, nerve injury, toxic neuropathies, diabetic neuropathy, etc. This review recalls the history of these researches and outlines the pharmacology of the extra-hormonal effects of melanocortins which are produced by an action at the brain level (or mainly at the brain level). In our opinion the picture is still incomplete, in spite of being already so incredibly vast and complex. So, for example, several of their effects and preliminary animal data suggest that melanocortins might be of concrete effectiveness in one of the areas of most increasing concern, i.e., that of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18996199

Bertolini, Alfio; Tacchi, Raffaella; Vergoni, Anna Valeria




EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Residue Effects Database", a searchable database of adverse biological effects associated with tissue concentrations of various contaminants....


Latent effects decision analysis  


Latent effects on a system are broken down into components ranging from those far removed in time from the system under study (latent) to those which closely effect changes in the system. Each component is provided with weighted inputs either by a user or from outputs of other components. A non-linear mathematical process known as `soft aggregation` is performed on the inputs to each component to provide information relating to the component. This information is combined in decreasing order of latency to the system to provide a quantifiable measure of an attribute of a system (e.g., safety) or to test hypotheses (e.g., for forensic deduction or decisions about various system design options).

Cooper, J. Arlin (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Werner, Paul W. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM



Doppler Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Doppler Effect model demonstrates the shift in frequency of a wave that is produced by the motion of either the wave source or the observer of the wave (or both). In this simulation, you can explore the change in the wave that is produced by source and/or observer motion, and you can even view what the situation looks like from the perspective of the medium (the standard reference frame), the source, or the observer. The Doppler Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Doppler.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew



Nonequilibrium effects and baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Possible effects due to nonequilibrium dynamics in the Affleck-Dine mechanism of baryogenesis are examined. Using the closed-time-path formalism, the quantum fluctuation and the backreaction of the Affleck-Dine scalar field are incorporated self-consistently into the dynamical equations of the system by invoking a nonperturbative Hartree approximation. It is found that such nonequilibrium effects can significantly affect the amount of baryon asymmetry that can be generated. In particular, it is possible to generate the observed baryon asymmetry with suitable initial conditions. The methodology described in this paper as well as some of the results obtained are quite general, and can be applied to any complex scalar field in a cosmological background.

Charng, Y.-Y.; Ng, K.-W. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Lee, D.-S. [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hua-Lien, Taiwan 974 (China); Theory Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Leung, C.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)



Postantifungal effect methods.  


Postantifungal effect (PAFE) is the evaluation of antifungal activity after the suppression of fungal growth when the drug is removed from the fungal suspension. In vitro, this effect might simulate the in vivo situation when the concentration of the drug falls to less than the minimum inhibitory concentration values and could be another tool, together with the classic in vitro susceptibility tests, to optimize the interaction of drugs-fungi. In this chapter, two model methods to evaluate the PAFE of yeasts and filamentous fungi are described in which practical advices and tricks are given to help the worker to develop the techniques. The procedures outlined include preparation of stock solutions of the drugs, concentration medium, exposure time colony count determination, and interpretation of the results to quantify the PAFE. PMID:15888941

Vitale, Roxana G



The Energy Diameter Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder. The effective detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

Vitello, Peter; Garza, Raul; Hernandez, Andy; Souers, P. Clark



[Herbs and cardiotoxic effects].  


Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed. PMID:23748541

Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto



Fire Effects Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides up-to-date information about fire effects on plants and animals. It was developed at the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The FEIS database contains synoptic descriptions, taken from current English-language literature of almost 900 plant species, about 100 animal species, and 16 Kuchler plant communities found on the North American continent. The emphasis of each synopsis is fire and how it affects each species. Background information on taxonomy, distribution, basic biology and ecology of each species is also included. Synopses are thoroughly documented, and each contains a complete bibliography. Personnel from several land management agencies (USDA Forest Service, USDI-BIA, NPS, BLM, F&WS) identified the species to be included in the database. Those agencies funded the original work and continue to support maintenance and updating of the database.



Effective Vaccination Policies  

PubMed Central

We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This “importance factor” was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years.

Shaw, L.; Spears, W.; Billings, L.; Maxim, P.



Cardiac effects of thyronamines.  


3-Iodothyronamine (T(1)AM) is an endogenous compound derived from thyroid hormone through decarboxylation and deiodination, which interacts with a novel G protein-coupled receptor, known as trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 and other receptors of this family are expressed in several tissues, including the heart. Functional effects have been observed after administration of exogenous T(1)AM: in the isolated heart, a negative inotropic and chronotropic action was produced, and the resistance to ischemic injury was increased, possibly as a consequence of an action on intracellular calcium homeostasis. Extracardiac effects include reduction of body temperature, increased lipid versus carbohydrate metabolism, and modulation of insulin secretion. T(1)AM might play an important physiological or pathophysiological role, and this signaling system might allow the development of new therapeutical agents. PMID:19016324

Zucchi, Riccardo; Ghelardoni, Sandra; Chiellini, Grazia



The Dufour effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations for the Dufour effect, which is the development of a temperature gradient due to diffusion, have been solved for geometrically well-defined cells which have either all walls adiabatic or adiabatic lateral walls and diathermic ends. Two self-consistent, well-ordered perturbation schemes have been used, and heat of mixing, variability of all properties, and the barycentric velocity are included explicitly. For

Sara E. Ingle; Frederick H. Horne



Power electronics' polluting effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In use far and wide for improved delivery and control of the electricity supply, power electronics systems are both the cause and remedy of the power system harmonic pollution problem. Here, the authors describe how an insidious side-effect of any solution involving power electronics converters is their generation of high-frequency pollution-namely, conducted and radiated noise in the 100 kHz to

R. Redl; P. Tenti; J. Daan van Wyk



The Kaye effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.



Temporary Retinal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN your present week's ``Notes'' you have referred to the curious experiences of MM. Macé de Lepinay and Nicati, in finding the town lights appear green, after five hours among snow-fields. On the Cima di Jazi, some 16,000 feet or more high, I found another effect. On removing my blue snow-glasses, the sky (at about 10 a.m.) appeared of the

J. Rand Capron



SGEMP Geometry Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-consistent, fully dynamic computer calculations were performed using the recently developed arbitrary body-of-revolution code ABORC for complex geometries in SGEMP environments to test the validity of simplifying geometry assumptions previously made in the solutions of these problems. Assumptions such as simple geometry representations of complex bodies and separability of inside and outside problems are tested. Effects of gaps, interior electrical

A. J. Woods; E. P. Wenaas



The Effects of Outliers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Illuminations: Resources for Teaching Mathematics, this lesson is designed to help students understand the significance of outliers. This lesson includes thought questions and an applet to help students visualize the effect of an outlier. The authors divide the lesson into different groups, they include: learning objectives, materials, instructional plans, NCTM standards/expectations, and finally references. This is a great interactive resource for those wanting to learn more about correlation and regression.



Writing Effective TAFs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides an overview of some of the applicable TAF Amendment and Conditional Group usage rules, as presented in the latest version of the National Weather Service Instruction 10-813 on TAF directives. It also presents a methodology for TAF writing and development that will lead to an effective and user-friendly product. The focus is on the ceiling and visibility aspects of the TAF. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus

Spangler, Tim



Extra Housepayments Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How financial institutions use the monthly mortgage payment and mortgage amortization formulas can be a confusing concept to grasp. This lesson asks students to find a current interest mortgage rate for their city and state. This rate is then applied to an Internet based mortgage calculator to discover the effect that paying extra on a monthly house payment has on total interest paid and length of the loan. A student worksheet is included in the document.



Electromechanical Effects in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric fields Can induce mechanical vibratiam in plattar aligned sandwich cells of ferroelectric liquid crystals. L.Measurements on a polysiloxane and a polyacy~aie side chain polymer proved that the rlectromechanical effect also exists in frrroelcctric liquid cystallinc polymers. fie main characteristics of the eiectromed~anical res- ponses of fhese polymers are described and compared to the response of low molecu2ur weight fcrroelectric

Ferroelectric Liquid; Crystalline Polymers; Antal Jbklit; Laios Bafa


Transgenerational Effects of NMs.  


Nanomaterials are present in a number of commercially available products but there are uncertainties as to whether the unique properties that support their commercial use may also pose potential health risks. Information is missing concerning the influence of nanomaterials on the overall reproductive outcome and transgenerational effects in animals and plants. To obtain this information, long-term studies would be required using animal models phylogenetically close to humans and exposure conditions that reflect realistic scenarios with regard to dosages and admission. The nanoreprotoxicology literature published to date is largely descriptive in nature regarding the effects of nanoparticles. The mechanisms, which determine particle reproduction compatibility, are mostly elusive at the moment. Thus, it is recommended that future research explore the interactions between nanomaterials and transgenerational matter on a molecular level. It would, for instance, be of major importance to understand the behaviour of nanoparticles inside the cells but also their genotoxic and epigenetic effects. Recent studies have shown that intravenous and/or intra-abdominal administration of nanoparticles to mice results in their accumulation in the cells of many tissues, including the brain and the testis, suggesting that they easily pass through the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers. In parallel embryo development after exposure to nanoparticles should be comparatively investigated. The majority of studies on embryo toxicology have concentrated on piscine embryos, mostly derived from zebrafish. Plants for human food as an important component of the ecosystem need also to be taken into account when evaluating transgenerational effects of engineered nanomaterials in crops. PMID:24683035

Poma, Anna; Colafarina, Sabrina; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Chichiriccò, Giuseppe



Neuroprotective effects of creatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies\\u000a examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic\\u000a lesions produced by

M. Flint Beal



Lightning effects on aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.



Tasting edge effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

Bocquet, Lydéric



Electromagnetic environmental effects compendium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) program of the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM). The report includes background information on CECOM's role in the Army E3 program, presents the approach used to identify the electromagnetic environment, summarizes E3 criteria (i.e., the CECOM model electromagnetic environment), and provides a sample E3 assessment. The report also discusses electromagnetic trends and their implications.

Brockel, Kenneth H.; Cofield, David; Deallaume, William; Gorr, Lanny; Major, Paul A.



Quantum effects in biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that quantum-mechanical phenomena can play nontrivial roles in biology has fascinated researchers for a century. Here we review some examples of such effects, including light-harvesting in photosynthesis, vision, electron- and proton-tunneling, olfactory sensing, and magnetoreception. We examine how experimental tests have aided this field in recent years and discuss the importance of developing new experimental probes for future

Graham R. Fleming; Gregory D. Scholes; Yuan-Chung Cheng



Cost-Effectiveness Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical research has traditionally focused on comparing health outcome measures of a new technique with accepted practice.\\u000a As health care resources become scarcer and options for newer, more expensive diagnostic tests and surgical interventions\\u000a increase, incorporating cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) into surgical research studies becomes increasingly important. CEA\\u000a provides the information necessary to allow resource allocation decisions to be based on

Lynn Stothers


Relaxation of Rat Aorta by Farrerol Correlates with Potency to Reduce Intracellular Calcium of VSMCs  

PubMed Central

Farrerol, isolated from Rhododendron dauricum L., has been proven to be an important multifunctional physiologically active component, but its vasoactive mechanism is not clear. The present study was performed to observe the vasoactive effects of farrerol on rat aorta and to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Isolated aortic rings of rat were mounted in an organ bath system and the myogenic effects stimulated by farrerol were studied. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]in) was measured by molecular probe fluo-4-AM and the activities of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LVGC) were studied with whole-cell patch clamp in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The results showed that farrerol significantly induced dose-dependent relaxation on aortic rings, while this vasorelaxation was not affected by NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester ester or endothelium denudation. In endothelium-denuded aortas, farrerol also reduced Ca2+-induced contraction on the basis of the stable contraction induced by KCl or phenylephrine (PE) in Ca2+-free solution. Moreover, after incubation with verapamil, farrerol can induce relaxation in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by PE, and this effect can be enhanced by ruthenium red, but not by heparin. With laser scanning confocal microscopy method, the farrerol-induced decline of [Ca2+]in in cultured VSMCs was observed. Furthermore, we found that farrerol could suppress Ca2+ influx via LVGC by patch clamp technology. These findings suggested that farrerol can regulate the vascular tension and could be developed as a practicable vasorelaxation drug.

Qin, Xiaojiang; Hou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Mingsheng; Liang, Taigang; Zhi, Jianmin; Han, Lingge; Li, Qingshan



Ejs Doppler Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Doppler Effect model displays the detection of sound waves from a moving source and the change in frequency of the detected wave via the Doppler effect. In addition to the wave fronts from the source a graph depicting the time of emission and time of detection of each of the wave fronts is given. The speed of sound, the velocity of the source and the position and velocity of the detector can be changed via text boxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Doppler Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_doppler.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan



Effective properties of metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of metamaterials are usually discussed in terms of biaxial anisotropic material parameters. To consider the underlying constitutive relations as valid, it is required that only weak spatial dispersion occurs. At operational frequencies of optical metamaterials this assumption often ceases to be valid. A description using effective material properties tends to be inadequate and new approaches are required. We outline here our latest achievements along this direction and discuss two approaches. The first one assumes that if it is not possible to introduce useful effective properties, a more primary source of information should be used to quantify metamaterials, leading to a characterization of metamaterials in terms of Jones matrices. We discuss the implications of this description and show that all metamaterials can be categorized into five classes, each with distinct properties. The second approach resorts to an effective description but restricts its considerations to a dispersion relation, characterizing the propagation of light in bulk metamaterials, and an impedance, characterizing the coupling between metamaterials and their surroundings. Definitions of both properties linked to a single Bloch mode are discussed and metamaterials are introduced which can be homogenized while considering only this single mode.

Rockstuhl, C.; Menzel, C.; Paul, T.; Pshenay-Severin, E.; Falkner, M.; Helgert, C.; Chipouline, A.; Pertsch, T.; ?migaj, W.; Yang, J.; Lalanne, P.; Lederer, F.



Planetary Electrochemical Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning on a planet other than the Earth was first discovered by Voyager when it flew past Jupiter in 1979. Since then it has been reported on Saturn by Voyager and Cassini, and on Venus from Pioneer Venus and Venus Express. While lightning involves clouds formed from polar molecules such as water, or vulcanism, dusty environments often create electrostatic fields through triboelectric phenomena. In each instance, changes in local chemistry with profound global impact can occur, such as lightning-induced nitrogen fixation on earth. Perhaps the most dramatic effect occurs on Mars within its global dust storms and dust devils. Enhanced production of oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, sulfur and halogen species including perhaps perchlorates from minerals in airborne dust are some of the likely chemical effects. The oxidants may be responsible for the lack of organics on the surface of Mars and rapid destruction of methane in the atmosphere. On Titan, the surface organics may be altered by a different (charged particle) effect, a phenomena that may also operate in the polar regions of Mars and on the Galilean satellites. In this talk, we will discuss possible chemical and astrobiological implications of above electrical processes.

Atreya, S. K.; Mihalka, K. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.



Photoelectric Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Photoelectric Effect model simulates the Photoelectric effect discovered by Hertz in 1887 and described theoretically by Einstein in 1905. Light of a given frequency (energy) shines on a metal in a vacuum tube. If the energy of the photons is greater than the work function of the metal, W, electrons are ejected and can form a current in an external circuit. These photoelectrons will have a kinetic energy if the energy of the light is greater than the work function. If subjected to an electric potential between the plates in the tube, the electrons excited from the metal will be accelerated resulting in an increase, decrease, or stopping of the current. This model provides controls for the frequency of the light source and the external potential on the electron tube. An ammeter allows users to take data for the photo-current. The EJS Photoelectric Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_photoelectric.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.



Metabolic effects of alcohol.  


The metabolic effects of ethanol are due to a direct action of ethanol or its metabolites, changes in the redox state occurring during its metabolism, and modifications of the effects of ethanol by nutritional factors. Ethanol causes hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia depending on whether glycogen stores are adequate, inhibits protein synthesis, and results in fatty liver and in elevations in serum triglyceride levels. Increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after ethanol ingestion may explain the lower risk of myocardial infarction and death from coronary disease after moderate drinking. Increases in serum lactate, resulting from the increased NADH/NAD+ ratio, and hyperuricemia, most likely the result of increased turnover of adenine nucleotides, are common transient effects of ethanol ingestion. Causes of vitamin deficiencies in alcoholism are decreased dietary intake, decreased intestinal absorption, and alterations in vitamin metabolism. Ethanol decreases thiamine absorption and decreases the enterohepatic circulation of folate. Acetaldehyde increases the degradation of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate by displacing it from its binding protein and making it susceptible to hydrolysis by membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. Ethanol decreases hepatic vitamin A concentration and its conversion to active retinal, and modifies renal metabolism of vitamin D. PMID:3881285

Mezey, E



Calculating and Synthesizing Effect Sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect size is a standardized, scale-free measure of the relative size of the effect of an interven- tion, and it has important and practical implications for clinicians in the speech and hearing field who are interested in estimating the effects of interventions. This article develops a conceptual interpretation of the effect size, makes explicit assumptions for its proper use

Herbert M. Turner; Robert M. Bernard



Evolution of Earth's Greenhouse Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors contributing to Earth's greenhouse effect are discussed along with various quantitative methods for determining the greenhouse effect. Earth's greenhouse effect has evolved over geologic time scales and continues to evolve. The magnitude of Earth's greenhouse effect is explored for particular time periods of Earth's evolution from the Neoproterozoic to present. Coupled climate model simulations for these various

J. T. Kiehl




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center


Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.


Verbal response-effect compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideomotor theory states that motor responses are activated by an anticipation of their sensory effects. We assumed that anticipated\\u000a effects would produce response-effect (R-E) compatibility when there is dimensional overlap of effects and responses. In a\\u000a four-choice task, visual digit stimuli called for verbal responses (color names). Each response produced a written response-effect\\u000a on the screen. In different groups, the

Iring Koch; Wilfried Kunde



40 CFR 1508.8 - Effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Effects. Effects include: (a) Direct effects, which are caused by the...foreseeable. Indirect effects may include growth inducing effects and other effects...economic, social, or health, whether direct, indirect, or cumulative....



``The Kesterson effect''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypothesized to be derived from Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks, selenium contamination of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge is traced through irrigation drainage to the source bedrock of the California Coast Ranges. This biogeochemical pathway of selenium is defined here as the “Kesterson effect.” At the refuge ponds, this effect culminated in 1983 in a 64% rate of deformity and death of embryos and hatchlings of wild aquatic birds. From the previous companion paper on irrigation drainage, the Kesterson effect has been implicated in nine of 11 reconnaissance areas studied in the western United States. Deformities have resulted in at least five of these sites. Climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and soil conditions in these reconnaissance areas are similar to those in the area surrounding Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California. In California, selenium, as selenate, was ultimately found weathered with sulfur from marine sources in soluble sodium and magnesium sulfate salts, which are concentrated by evaporation on farmland soils. The Se, mobilized by irrigation drainage, is bioaccumulated to toxic levels in refuge wetland ponds that are located mainly in hydrologically closed basins and thus act as concentrating disposal points. The depositional environment of the ponds may be similar to that of the nutrient-rich continental shelf edge and slope in which Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sediments found to be seleniferous in the California Coast Ranges were deposited. Bioaccumulation may be therefore a primary mechanism of selenium enrichment in ancient sediments in addition to that of the formerly suggested Cretaceous volcanic pathway.

Presser, Theresa S.



Effective Gauge Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global iso-spin invariance of the hadronic interaction, which is areflection of the SU(2) × U(1) QFD and QCD, as well as the U(1) invariance related to the charge of the hadrons, is formulated as an effective gauge theory. The pseudo-gauge fields in this theory are the vector mesons, and these composite fields become massive when the Higgs field at the quark-lepton level and the bar{q}q pair states acquire the vacuum expectation value. The formulation gives a theoretical basis for the vector dominance model and gives some insights to the possible composite structure of quarks and leptons.

Ebata, T.



Photochemical Effects of Sunlight  

PubMed Central

The importance of sunlight in bringing about not only photosynthesis in plants, but also other photochemical effects, is reviewed. More effort should be devoted to photochemical storage of the sun's energy without the living plant. There is no theoretical reason to believe that such reactions are impossible. Ground rules for searching for suitable solar photochemical reactions are given, and a few attempts are described, but nothing successful has yet been found. Future possibilities are suggested. Photogalvanic cells which convert sunlight into electricity deserve further research. Eugene Rabinowitch has been an active pioneer in these fields.

Daniels, Farrington



Radiative Effects of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included pollution haze layer from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core.

Valero, Francisco P. J.



Effect of "terminal explosion"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the entry into the Earth's atmosphere of a cosmic body at hypersonic speeds. Large aerodynamic charges, the forces of inertia, and heat flow to the body surface lead to mass loss or even destruction of the body. The movement of the fragment cloud caused by the destruction of the body is a separate problem. From observations, we know that the flight of a cosmic body often ends with a terminal flare. We present one possible estimate of the energy in the final stages of the destruction of the body, confirming the possibility of the observed effect of the "terminal explosion" of the meteoroid.

Egorova, L.



Butterfly Effect Fractal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new concept of integration of fractal and the butterfly effect is proposed and implemented. A new fractal program was designed and developed to perform such integration. Among many existing fractal and chaos software programs, none of them allow us to achieve the resulting patterns demonstrated in this paper. Moreover, it is the first time that a fractal program provides functional concepts of overlapping results in 3D space and sequential transformations, which allow us to generate a wider variety of patterns. Therefore, potentially an artist can use this program to create 2D digital artworks.

Chang, Yin-Wei; Huang, Fay


Assessments of astronaut effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.



Greenhouse Effect Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simple lab, students collect data to demonstrate basic atmospheric science concepts. Groups of students measure the effect of carbon dioxide on temperature using soda bottles with thermometers inserted. One bottle is filled with air and capped. The second bottle is filled with carbon dioxide using a specific procedure. To conduct the experiment, both bottles are placed under a lamp while students record the increase in temperature over five minutes. The bottle containing carbon dioxide has a greater increase in temperature than the bottle containing air. This lab demonstrates the fundamental concept that underlies climate change science by providing data that are easy for students to interpret.

Larsen, Krista


Microcircuit radiation effects databank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).



On nature's scaling effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches for aircraft were also reviewed for comparison with similitude laws. Finally, some historical evidence for the use of Weibull scaling in composites was reviewed.

Wilkins, Dick J.



Earthquake occurrence and effects.  


Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

Adams, R D



TRAP1 Regulates Proliferation, Mitochondrial Function, and Has Prognostic Significance in NSCLC.  


The TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a mitochondrial HSP that has been related to drug resistance and protection from apoptosis in colorectal and prostate cancer. Here, the effect of TRAP1 ablation on cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function was determined in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, the prognostic value of TRAP1 was evaluated in patients with NSCLC. These results demonstrate that TRAP1 knockdown reduces cell growth and clonogenic cell survival. Moreover, TRAP1 downregulation impairs mitochondrial functions such as ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by TMRM (tetramethylrhodamine methylester) uptake, but it does not affect mitochondrial density or mitochondrial morphology. The effect of TRAP1 silencing on apoptosis, analyzed by flow cytometry and immunoblot expression (cleaved PARP, caspase-9, and caspase-3) was cell line and context dependent. Finally, the prognostic potential of TRAP1 expression in NSCLC was ascertained via immunohistochemical analysis which revealed that high TRAP1 expression was associated with increased risk of disease recurrence (univariate analysis, P = 0.008; multivariate analysis, HR: 2.554; 95% confidence interval, 1.085-6.012; P = 0.03). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that TRAP1 impacts the viability of NSCLC cells, and that its expression is prognostic in NSCLC. Implications: TRAP1 controls NSCLC proliferation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function, and its status has prognostic potential in NSCLC. Mol Cancer Res; 12(5); 660-9. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24567527

Agorreta, Jackeline; Hu, Jianting; Liu, Dongxia; Delia, Domenico; Turley, Helen; Ferguson, David Jp; Iborra, Francisco; Pajares, María J; Larrayoz, Marta; Zudaire, Isabel; Pio, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M; Harris, Adrian L; Gatter, Kevin; Pezzella, Francesco



Bakuchicin induces vascular relaxation via endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP signaling.  


Bakuchicin is a furanocoumarin derived from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bakuchicin on vascular tone in rat aortic tissue. Bakuchicin induced a dose-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine-precontracted rat aorta which was abolished by removal of the endothelium. Pretreatment of the endothelium-intact aortic tissues with NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) or 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-?]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) significantly inhibited the vascular relaxation induced by bakuchicin. Incubation with bakuchicin increased the production of cGMP in a concentration-dependent manner, and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with both L-NAME and ODQ. Vascular relaxation induced by bakuchicin was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with verapamil and diltiazem, but not by several other inhibitors including tetraethylammonium (TEA), glibenclamide, indomethacin, atropine or propranolol. These results suggested that bakuchicin-induced vasodilatation is closely associated with the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway, with the possible involvement of L-type Ca(2+) channels. PMID:21442677

Li, Xiang; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Youn Chul; Jeong, Gil Saeng; Cui, Hao Zhen; Kim, Hye Yoom; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub



Handbook of radiation effects  

SciTech Connect

This handbook is intended to serve as a tool for designers of equipment and scientific instruments in cases where they are required to ensure the survival of the equipment in radiation environments. High-technology materials, especially semiconductors and optics, tend to degrade on exposure to radiation in many different ways. Intense high-energy radiation environments are found in nuclear reactors and accelerators, machines for radiation therapy, industrial sterilization, and space. Some engineers have to build equipment which will survive a nuclear explosion from a hostile source. Proper handling of a disaster with radioactive materials requires equipment which depends utterly on semiconductor microelectronics and imaging devices. Thus the technology of radiation-tolerant electronics is an instrument for good social spheres as diverse as disaster planning and the exploration of Mars. In order to design equipment for intense environments like those described above, then degradation from high-energy irradiation must be seen as a basic design parameter. The aim of this handbook is to assist the engineer or student in that thought; to make it possible to write intelligent specifications; to offer some understanding of the complex variety of effects which occur when high-technology components encounter high-energy radiation; and to go thoroughly into the balance of choices of how to alleviate the effects and hence achieve the design aims of the project. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 chapters of this book.

Holmes-Siedle, A. (ed.) (Radiation Experiments and Monitors, Oxford (United Kingdom) Univ. of West London (United Kingdom)); Adams, L. (ed.) (European Space Agency-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Radiation Effects and Analysis Techniques Unit)



Medication effects on sleep.  


Each person spends one third of his or her life asleep. It is not surprising that such a complex and pervasive cognitive state should be affected by drugs in many different ways. A philosophy that remains cogent for the CNS is that new research almost always shows this system to be more complex than previously thought. Only a few years ago, if patients complained of difficulty sleeping, they were given pills, often dangerous and addictive pills, to induce sleep no matter what the basis of the complaint might be. Sleeping pills may be safer now, and the understanding of the sleep state itself has increased rapidly. Diagnoses are still diffuse, however, and treatments are often poorly directed. Depression is the offspring of the phlegmatic disposition and the melancholia of another era. Clinically, diagnosis is based on a global assessment of symptoms. It is likely that a diagnosis of depression may include a spectrum of underlying diseases that cannot now be clinically differentiated. Medications have multiple effects on sleep and have many side effects. Progress has, however, been made beyond mother's little pills. Insomnia is no longer a diagnosis but a complaint to be addressed--a symptom of 1 of 60 potential sleep disorders. Each of these disorders has specific and appropriate treatments. PMID:11699244

Pagel, J F



Microwave field effect transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrodes of a high power, microwave field effect transistor are substantially matched to external input and output networks. The field effect transistor includes a metal ground plane layer, a dielectric layer on the ground plane layer, a gallium arsenide active region on the dielectric layer, and substantially coplanar spaced source, gate, and drain electrodes having active segments covering the active region. The active segment of the gate electrode is located between edges of the active segments of the source and drain electrodes. The gate and drain electrodes include inactive pads remote from the active segments. The pads are connected directly to the input and output networks. The source electrode is connected to the ground plane layer. The space between the electrodes and the geometry of the electrodes extablish parasitic shunt capacitances and series inductances that provide substantial matches between the input network and the gate electrode and between the output network and the drain electrode. Many of the devices are connected in parallel and share a common active region, so that each pair of adjacent devices shares the same source electrodes and each pair of adjacent devices shares the same drain electrodes. The gate electrodes for the parallel devices are formed by a continuous stripe that extends between adjacent devices and is connected at different points to the common gate pad.

Huang, Ho-Chung



The Check Effect Reconsidered  

PubMed Central

Aims The “check effect” refers to the use of disability payments to purchase illegal drugs or alcohol. This article describes subsequent research concerning three interrelated issues: the check effect, whether receipt of disability payments is associated with more overall substance use, and potential policy responses to misuse of disability payments for substances. Methods Review and synthesis of published articles. Results Increased substance use at the beginning of the month has been described in a variety of settings. The tendency to purchase substances at the beginning of the month is impacted by household wealth, the tendency to discount future rewards, and cyclical economic activity. However, in naturalistic observational cohort studies, beneficiaries who receive disability payments had no greater substance use than those without disability payments. Potential policy responses to misspending of disability checks include financial counseling that discourages spending on drugs, and the assignment of a representative payee to prevent misuse of benefits for substances. Assignment of a representative payee per se has not been associated with reduced substance use but payeeship administered by agencies that integrate payee practice into treatment has been. Conclusion Disability payments impact the timing of substance use, but receipt of disability payments is not associated with more overall substance use than unalleviated poverty. Money management-based clinical interventions, which may involve assignment of a representative payee, can minimize the purchase of substances with disability payments.

Rosen, Marc I.



JPL Test Effectiveness Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1) The pilot study provided meaningful conclusions that are generally consistent with the earlier Test Effectiveness work done between 1992 and 1994: a) Analysis of pre-launch problem/failure reports is consistent with earlier work. b) Analysis of post-launch early mission anomaly reports indicates that there are more software issues in newer missions, and the no-test category for identification of post-launch failures is more significant than in the earlier analysis. 2) Future work includes understanding how differences in Missions effect these analyses: a) There are large variations in the number of problem reports and issues that are documented by the different Projects/Missions. b) Some missions do not have any reported environmental test anomalies, even though environmental tests were performed. 3) Each project/mission has different standards and conventions for filling out the PFR forms, the industry may wish to address this issue: a) Existing problem reporting forms are to document and track problems, failures, and issues (etc.) for the projects, to ensure high quality. b) Existing problem reporting forms are not intended for data mining.

Shreck, Stephanie; Sharratt, Stephen; Smith, Joseph F.; Strong, Edward



Pupillary Stroop effects  

PubMed Central

We recorded the pupil diameters of participants performing the words’ color-naming Stroop task (i.e., naming the color of a word that names a color). Non-color words were used as baseline to firmly establish the effects of semantic relatedness induced by color word distractors. We replicated the classic Stroop effects of color congruency and color incongruency with pupillary diameter recordings: relative to non-color words, pupil diameters increased for color distractors that differed from color responses, while they reduced for color distractors that were identical to color responses. Analyses of the time courses of pupil responses revealed further differences between color-congruent and color-incongruent distractors, with the latter inducing a steep increase of pupil size and the former a relatively lower increase. Consistent with previous findings that have demonstrated that pupil size increases as task demands rise, the present results indicate that pupillometry is a robust measure of Stroop interference, and it represents a valuable addition to the cognitive scientist’s toolbox.

?rbo, Marte; Holmlund, Terje; Miozzo, Michele



Effects of acoustic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acoustics on the laminar flow on the side of a nacelle. A flight test was designed to meet this goal and a brief review of the purpose is given. A nacelle with a significant length of laminar flow was mounted on the wing of NASA OV-1. Two noise sources are also mounted on the wing: one in the center body of the nacelle; the second in a wing mounted pod outboard of the nacelle. These two noise sources allow for a limited study of the effect of source direction in addition to control of the acoustic level and frequency. To determine the range of Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies, a stability analysis using the pressure coefficient distribution along the side of the nacelle was performed. Then by applying these frequencies and varying the acoustic level, a study of the receptivity of the boundary layer to the acoustic signal, as determined by the shortening of the length of laminar flow, was conducted. Results are briefly discussed.

Schoenster, James A.; Jones, Michael G.



Conducting effective tailgate trainings.  


The California Department of Health Services' Occupational Health Branch and others have identified the construction industry as being at high risk for injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. Effective tailgate trainings (brief job site safety meetings) can be a powerful tool to promote hazard awareness and safe work practices. The authors found that many contractors and supervisors conducted ineffective tailgate trainings. They developed the BuildSafe California Project to assist contractors to have more effective programs by holding 25 training-of-trainers sessions reaching 1,525 participants. The needs assessment, intervention, and evaluation results from the first 18 trainings are presented. Eighty-six percent of the participants found the program "very helpful." Participants used the materials and made improvements in the quality and frequency of trainings. Supervisors must be skilled at conducting tailgate trainings as part of their responsibilities. There is a serious need to provide more culturally appropriate safety training in a workforce increasingly made up of Latino workers. PMID:18372431

Harrington, David; Materna, Barbara; Vannoy, Jim; Scholz, Peter



Cavitation induced Becquerel effect.  


The observation of an electrical current upon the ultraviolet (UV) illumination of one of a pair of identical electrodes in liquid water, called the Becquerel effect, was made over 150 years ago. More recently, an electrical current was found if the water surrounding one electrode was made to cavitate by focused acoustic radiation, the phenomenon called the cavitation induced Becquerel effect. Since cavitation is known to produce UV light, the electrode may simply absorb the UV light and produce the current by the photo-emission theory of photoelectrochemistry. But the current was found to be semi-logarithmic with the standard electrode potential which is characteristic of the oxidation of the electrode surface in the photo-decomposition theory, and not the photo-emission theory. High bubble collapse temperatures may oxidize the electrode, but this is unlikely because melting was not observed on the electrode surfaces. At ambient temperature, oxidation may proceed by chemical reaction provided a source of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is available to produce the excited OH* states of water to react with the electrode. The source of VUV radiation is shown to be the spontaneous emission of coherent infrared (IR) radiation from water molecules in particles that form in bubbles because of surface tension, the spontaneous IR emission induced by cavity quantum electrodynamics. The excited OH* states are produced as the IR radiation accumulates to VUV levels in the bubble wall molecules. PMID:12782267

Prevenslik, T V



Astroinfect Effect - Revised Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space activities lead to a lasting pollution of the Solar System. Light pressure, gravitational interaction with the planets, collisions and explosions (similar to spontaneous explosions of Earth satellite) of artefacts in the outer parts of the planetary system can lead to effective, inevitable spontaneous leakage of interplanetary trash into the interstellar medium, even in the absence of interstellar flights. If there are alien artefacts between the stars, some of them are likely to fall down to Earth at times [1,2]. They could be non-sterile, so sporadic interstellar panspermia is possible [3]. The minimum pollution threshold for such panspermia was estimated [2] for 2 m-microartefacts at the level of Galactic cosmic radiation of 4 x 10-7 rad/s [4]. However, C. Mileikowsky showed that, if the X-rays are taken into consideration, the interstellar dose rate is ~3 x 10- 5 rad/s [5]. At this high dose rate the microartefacts must be sterilised at the distances >0.1 pc from the planetary system, hence they cannot be an effective agent of interstellar panspermia. Sufficient protection of microbial spores is possible inside macroartefacts. Therefore, the panspermia model and the corresponding minimum pollution threshold must be re-examined.

Arkhipov, A. V.


Health effects of hawthorn.  


Hawthorn medicinal extract has long been a favored herbal remedy in Europe. The active components of this slow-acting cardiotonic agent are thought to be flavonoids and oligomeric procyanidins. The most studied hawthorn extracts are WS 1442 and LI 132. Reviews of placebo- controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (New York Heart Association classes I through III). Other studies of hawthorn in patients with heart failure have revealed improvement in clinical symptoms, pressure-heart rate product, left ventricular ejection fraction, and patients' subjective sense of well-being. However, there is no evidence of a notable reduction in mortality or sudden death. Hawthorn is well tolerated; the most common adverse effects are vertigo and dizziness. Theoretic interactions exist with antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives, digoxin, and antihyperlipidemic agents. Proven conventional therapies for heart failure are still recommended until the safety and effectiveness of hawthorn has been proven in long-term studies. PMID:20148500

Dahmer, Stephen; Scott, Emilie



Substituent Effects. X. An improved Treatment (FMMF) of Substituent Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved version (FMMF) of the earlier FM(Field-mesomeric method) treatment of substituent effects is described in which explicit allowance is made for the mesomeric-field effect and in which the field effect of neutral substituents is calculated by a ...

J. M. Harris M. J. S. Dewar R. Golden



Magnetoelectric effects in multiferroics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-electric phenomena were investigated in two different multiferroic systems: The strong coupling of dielectric and magnetic properties and the simultaneous occurrence of long-range magnetic and ferroelectric order are discussed for rare earth manganites and sulfo spinels. A phase diagram of Eu1-xYxMnO3 is established, which recovers the main features of the well-known magneto-electric phase diagram for the pure rare earth manganites RMnO3. Here a variety of magnetic and electric phases emerge with varying rare earth ions R. As function of temperature and external magnetic field, also Y doped EuMnO3 compounds undergo a sequence of different magnetic and polar phase transitions for varying effective ionic radii of the rare earth ions. Special attention is paid to the occurrence of fundamentally new hybrid spin-electromagnetic excitations, which we name electromagnons and are characterized as spin waves that can be excited by an ac electric field. These excitations are identified in Eu1-xYxMnO3 with x = 0.2, in GdMnO3, and in TbMnO3. Specifically in GdMnO3 the electromagnons can easily be suppressed by external magnetic fields and allow tuning the index of refraction by moderate fields. In the second part we discuss the simultaneous appearance of colossal magneto-resistance (CMR) and colossal magneto-capacitance (CMC) effects in chromium sulfo spinels. In CdCr2S4 ferromagnetism of localized Cr spins evolves at 85 K, while polar order is established below 130 K. The onset of ferroelectric order is neither accompanied by the occurrence of soft modes nor by structural changes which break the inversion symmetry of the high-temperature cubic phase. HgCr2S4 becomes ferroelectric close to 70 K while a complex antiferromagnetic order is found below 25 K. CMR and CMC effects are specifically strong in the mercury compound, as moderate magnetic fields of only 0.1 T induce ferromagnetism at much higher temperatures. We speculate that the occurrence of ferroelectricity in these multiferroic compounds is rather of electronic than of ionic origin.

Loidl, Alois



Low Temperature Effects on TNT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of low temperature on TNT were determined by subjecting the explosive material to liquid nitrogen and studying the effects through differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermomechanical analysis, impact sensitivity,...

L. Avrami H. J. Jackson W. E. Voreck E. W. Dalrymple



Piezoelectricity: Venerable Effect, Modern Thrusts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A synopsis of the piezoelectric effect is presented in the context of its history, traditional uses, and relation to crystal symmetry. Associated effects are briefly noted. Future prospects, particularly in the area of microelectromechanical systems/struc...

A. Ballato



Side Effects and Their Management  


... leave this field empty Side Effects and their Management SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Home > Treatment and Care > Side Effects and their Management Listen Brain tumors and their treatments bring an ...


Mechanical effects in cookoff modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complete cookoff modeling of energetic material in confined geometries must couple thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focused on the prediction of the onset of combustion behavior based only on thermal-chemistry effects wi...

R. J. Gross M. R. Baer M. L. Hobbs



Evolution of Earth's Greenhouse Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major factors contributing to Earth's greenhouse effect are discussed along with various quantitative methods for determining the greenhouse effect. Earth's greenhouse effect has evolved over geologic time scales and continues to evolve. The magnitude of Earth's greenhouse effect is explored for particular time periods of Earth's evolution from the Neoproterozoic to present. Coupled climate model simulations for these various time periods are used to estimate the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. A comparison is made between the present greenhouse effect and those of past times. The connection between the greenhouse effect and Earth's hydrologic cycle is also discussed. Finally, a comparison is made of between past greenhouse effects and that predicted for the end of the twenty-first century.

Kiehl, J. T.



Flight effects of fan noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

Chestnutt, D. (editor)



Biologic Effects of Microwave Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exact nature of the biological effects of microwaves is not completely understood. Evidence indicates that microwave energy can act as a 'stressor' agent, and has an effect on regulatory and integrative mechanisms of the body with resultant alteration...

J. W. Howland R. A. E. Thomson S. M. Michaelson



Adult Acne: Effective Treatment Available  


... benzoyl peroxide and a topical antimicrobial such as clindamycin or erythromycin can be effective for adults with mild to moderate acne. Combining topical clindamycin with a retinoid also can be effective. These ...


Effective suppressibility of chaos.  


Suppression of chaos is a relevant phenomenon that can take place in nonlinear dynamical systems when a parameter is varied. Here, we investigate the possibilities of effectively suppressing the chaotic motion of a dynamical system by a specific time independent variation of a parameter of our system. In realistic situations, we need to be very careful with the experimental conditions and the accuracy of the parameter measurements. We define the suppressibility, a new measure taking values in the parameter space, that allows us to detect which chaotic motions can be suppressed, what possible new choices of the parameter guarantee their suppression, and how small the parameter variations from the initial chaotic state to the final periodic one are. We apply this measure to a Duffing oscillator and a system consisting on ten globally coupled He?non maps. We offer as our main result tool sets that can be used as guides to suppress chaotic dynamics. PMID:23822472

López, Álvaro G; Seoane, Jesús M; Sanjuán, Miguel A F



Effective suppressibility of chaos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suppression of chaos is a relevant phenomenon that can take place in nonlinear dynamical systems when a parameter is varied. Here, we investigate the possibilities of effectively suppressing the chaotic motion of a dynamical system by a specific time independent variation of a parameter of our system. In realistic situations, we need to be very careful with the experimental conditions and the accuracy of the parameter measurements. We define the suppressibility, a new measure taking values in the parameter space, that allows us to detect which chaotic motions can be suppressed, what possible new choices of the parameter guarantee their suppression, and how small the parameter variations from the initial chaotic state to the final periodic one are. We apply this measure to a Duffing oscillator and a system consisting on ten globally coupled Hénon maps. We offer as our main result tool sets that can be used as guides to suppress chaotic dynamics.

López, Álvaro G.; Seoane, Jesús M.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.



Telestroke: effective networking.  


Although stroke units and systemic thrombolysis are effective, use of these two treatment methods is restricted because of a widespread lack of expertise. New telecommunication technologies can help to overcome the lack of emergency-provider support in neurologically underserved areas. The status of "telestroke" as the application of telemedicine for acute stroke is presently passing from feasibility to routine use. Teleneurological examination is reliable and systemic thrombolysis can be extended with telemedical consultation. Telestroke, however, offers even more potential in overall acute stroke management. On the one hand, it provides rapid access to specialised interventions through initiation of interhospital transfers, and on the other hand, it might lead to major improvements in basic on-site stroke therapy. PMID:16488384

Audebert, Heinrich



Hot chocolate effect  

SciTech Connect

The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

Crawford, F.S.



Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.


Biological effects of ozone  

SciTech Connect

Tropospheric ozone, a classic anthropogenic air pollutant, is going to remain a troublesome byproduct of contemporary civilization for many decades. We have known for some time that the hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles, together with actinic radiation, account for local and regional photochemistry leading to prolonged afternoon ozone peaks. We also now know that agricultural burning and intensive animal husbandry elevate regional and mesoscale concentrations of ozone and its precursors, and that remote background levels of ozone have been rising steadily throughout this century. The changes we will have to make in emission controls to appreciably reduce current tropospheric ozone levels will have profound effects on our transportation systems, consumer products, and lifestyles. As a society, we will have to make difficult choices about the levels of ozone-associated health, welfare, and natural system damage we will tolerate, or conversely, how much we are willing to pay for controls which can minimize the damage.

Lippmann, M. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (USA))



Action languages: Dimensions, effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon



Anthropogenic Effects on Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise focuses on anthropogenic effects on erosion. It could be run as a single lab or as a series of in-class exercises or problem sets. We discussed an article by Hooke and used it as a launching pad for a discussion of back of the envelope calculations. Students then estimate the volume moved by mountain-top removal and how long it might take a river to mobilize that sediment. They estimate the cost for beach nourishment along Florida beaches. They estimate the contribution of local construction projects and road gravel to stream sediment loads. This activity gives students a chance to formulate a problem, make simple measurements, estimate unknowns, and calculate volumes, rates, and costs of various human earth-moving activities. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills Uses geomorphology to solve problems in other fields

Gran, Karen


Grantmakers for Effective Organizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grantmakers for Effective Organizations (GEO) makes it their mission to promote the strategies and practices that contribute to grantee success. To this end, the GEO website contains information about its outreach efforts, peer learning opportunities, conferences, and upcoming events. Within GEO Priorities visitors can learn about the organization's own development plan and long-term goals, while the GEO Publications area contains a raft of useful publications for policy types and others. Noteworthy publications, here, include "Many Hands, More Impact: Philanthropy's Role in Supporting Movements" and "Cracking the Network Code: Four Principles for Grantmakers." The Peer Learning Opportunities section is another great installment, containing links to helpful webinars, speaking engagement possibilities, and other useful resources.


Dynamic effects of combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic effects of combustion are due to the evolution of exothermic energy and its deposition in the compressible medium where the process takes place. The paper examines the dynamics of combustion phenomena, including ignition, turbulent flame propagation (inflammation), explosion, and detonation, with emphasis on their exothermic characteristics. Ignition and explosion are treated as problems of nonlinear mechanics, and their dynamic behavior is described in terms of phase space models and cinematographic laser shear interferograms. The results of a numerical random vortex model of turbulent flame propagation are confirmed in a combustion tunnel experiment, where it was observed that a fresh mixture of burnt and unburnt gases can sustain combustion with a relatively small expenditure of overall mass flow, due to the increasing specific volume of burnt gases inside the flame front. An isentropic pressure wave is found to precede the accelerating flame in the process of detonation, and components of this presssure wave are shown to propagate at local sonic velocities.

Oppenheim, A. K.



Effects of Solcoderm.  


The effects of treatment and depths of penetration of a 5-fluorouracil and salicylic acid preparation (Solcoderm) were studied in 24 patients treated for basal cell carcinoma with this compound. Two thirds of the patients in our study showed islands of residual tumor in the dermis following treatment, whereas total disappearance of the tumor was observed in one third. The depth of the fibrotic changes induced by the drug varied from 0.34 to 0.40 cm for the morphea type of basal cell carcinoma and from 0.52 to 0.88 cm for the conventional types. It is recommended that treatment with this compound be reserved only for superficial basal cell carcinomas and that it be avoided altogether in basal cell carcinomas of the morphea type. PMID:3539836

Engelberg, I S; Ronnen, M; Suster, S; Schewach-Millet, M; Stempler, D; Schibi-Brilliant, G



Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.



Radiative Effects of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

Valero, Francisco P. J.



Gravitational effects from earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of propagating gravitational effects, from the mass redistribution within the Earth due to a large earthquake, are investigated: (i) the velocity of the change of the Newtonian potential field; and (ii) the gravitational luminosity of the seismic source. The mass redistribution caused by an earthquake and the resulting change in the gravitational potential field is computed through application of geophysical dislocation theory. The global mass redistribution is postulated to be progressive, starting at the instant (and location) of the nucleation of the earthquake fault rupture, and then spreading globally at the velocities of various seismic waves. Information about the changes of the gravitational potential is postulated to travel at the velocity of light. Superconducting gravimeters (SG) can resolve changes of the order of 10 nGal, i.e., (10(-9) cm/s(2)) (1 Gal = 0.001 0197g), sufficient to detect the changes in the potential field. The time difference between observation of the change of the potential field and the arrival of the primary seismic wave from the earthquake would allow a crude estimation of the velocity of the gravitational effect. A preliminary search for the preseismic gravitational signal using an SG has given inconclusive results, primarily due to the limitations of the spline curve fitting methods. Despite this, we suggest that the observation of preseismic gravitational potential changes should be feasible, with the existing array of SGs in the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) network, and by detectors designed to observe gravitational radiation (e.g., the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)). We have used published values of the changes in the Earth's inertia tensor due to the Alaska earthquake of 1964 to estimate the magnitude of the metric perturbation of the gravitational wave produced by such an earthquake. The gravitational luminosity is estimated at 1.90 x 10(-10)erg/s (1 erg/s = 10(-7) W D 1 J/s).

Hayes, T. J.; Valluri, S. R.; Mansinha, L.



Dispersant effectiveness: Studies into the causes of effectiveness variations  

SciTech Connect

Effectiveness, a key issue of using dispersants, is affected by many interrelated factors. The principal factors involved are the oil composition, dispersant formulation, sea surface turbulence and dispersant quantity. Oil composition is a very strong determinant. Current dispersant formulation effectiveness correlates strongly with the amount of saturate component in the oil. The other components of the oil, the asphaltenes, resins or polars and aromatic fractions show a negative correlation with the dispersant effectiveness. Viscosity is also a predictor of dispersant effectiveness and may have an effect because it is in turn determined by oil composition. Dispersant composition is significant and interacts with oil composition. Dispersants show high effectiveness at HLB values near 10. Sea turbulence strongly affects dispersant effectiveness.Effectiveness rises with increasing turbulence to a maximum value. Effectiveness for current commercial dispersants is gaussian around a peak salinity value. Peak effectiveness is achieved at very high dispersant quantities--at a ratio of 1:5, dispersant-to-oil volume. Dispersant effectiveness for those oils tested and under the conditions measured, is approximately logarithmic with dispersant quantity and will reach about 50% of its peak value at a dispersant to oil ratio of about 1:20 and near zero at a ratio of about 1:50.

Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tennyson, E. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States)



The effect of seal width on regenerator effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

The effect of axial conduction on regenerator effectiveness has been studied in the past under the assumption of zero seal width. The effect of axial conduction coupled with finite seal width is presented in this paper. A method for calculating effectiveness assuming axial conduction and finite seal width is presented. Results of sample calculations are presented to give the designer a feel for the dependence of seal width effects on system-parameter values. It is shown that for typical regenerator designs, reductions in effectiveness due to axial conduction coupled with finite seal width can be twice as great as those due to axial conduction under the assumption of zero seal width. Also, it is shown that the required regenerator size to achieve a given effectiveness can increase dramatically when finite seal width is considered in design procedures. It is concluded that consideration of axial conduction should include finite seal width.

Beck, D.S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)



The Estimation of School Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The specification and estimation of school effects, the variability of effects across schools, and the proportion of variation in student outcomes attributable to differences in school context and practice are considered. A statistical model is presented that defines school effects for parents choosing a school and for agencies evaluating school…

Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Willms, J. Douglas



Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.



Emotional intelligence and effective leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence has become increasingly popular as a measure for identifying potentially effective leaders, and as a tool for developing effective leadership skills. Despite this popularity, however, there is little empirical research that substantiates the efficacy of emotional intelligence in these areas. The aim of the present paper was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Emotional

Benjamin Palmer; Melissa Walls; Zena Burgess; Con Stough



Probiotics: mechanisms and established effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition for probiotics has gradually changed with increasing understanding of the mechanisms by which they influence human health. Health effects related to changes in the intestinal microflora also accompany or are related to adhesion and immune system effects, competitive exclusion or metabolic and nutritional effects, with an increasing array of other potential modes of action. Most clinically documented and

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Pirkka V. Kirjavainen; Colette Shortt; Seppo Salminen



"No Effects" Studies Raising Eyebrows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like a steady drip from a leaky faucet, the experimental studies being released this school year by the federal Institute of Education Sciences are mostly producing the same results: "No effects," "No effects," "No effects." The disappointing yield is prompting researchers, product developers, and other experts to question the design of the…

Viadero, Debra



Effective Programs for Latino Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents the current state of research on effective instructional programs for Hispanic American students. The 10 chapters are: (1) "Effective Programs for Latino Students in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Olatokunbo S. Fashola, Robert E. Slavin, Margarita Calderon, and Richard Duran); (2) "Effective Dropout Prevention…

Slavin, Robert E., Ed.; Calderon, Margarita, Ed.


Effects of low earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of low earth orbit on the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft are reported. The LDEF spacecraft was deployed in low earth orbit in 1984 and was retrieved in 1990. The structure and design of LDEF is described. The dose of ionizing radiation received, data obtained, and its effects on the satellite are discussed. Atomic oxygen surface effects, oxygen

Lawrence E. Murr; William H. Kinard



Safety and effectiveness of vasectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To recommend further research on vasectomy based on a systematic review of the effectiveness and safety of vasectomy. Design: A systematic MEDLINE review of the literature on the safety and effectiveness of vasectomy between 1964 and 1998. Main Outcome Measure(s): Early failure rates are ,1%; however, effectiveness and complications vary with experience of surgeons and surgical technique. Early complications,

Pamela J. Schwingl; Harry A. Guess



The Enigma of Organizational Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational effectiveness is not a clearly defined concept. The author illustrates how the four most widely used models are not uniformly applicable. He states the evaluator must make explicit certain critical choices when measuring effectiveness. These criteria reveal the definition of effectiveness and what is being measured. (DWH)

Cameron, Kim



Greenhouse effect of NO X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through various processes the nitrogen oxides (NOX) interact with trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere which do absorb in the spectral range relevant to the greenhouse\\u000a effect (infrared wavelengths). The net effect is an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The catalytic role of NOX in the production of tropospheric ozone provides the most prominent contribution. The global waming potential

Gerhard Lammel; Hartmut Grafll



Novel field effects in heterostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis novel electric field effects in thin film heterostructures have been investigated. The heterostructures were grown using the pulsed laser deposition technique and underwent structural, electrical, and in some cases optical characterization before being patterned into field-effect devices. The device properties were explored utilizing a number of standard and newly developed techniques. These field-effect studies reveal information of

Vitaly Talyansky



Faculty Perceptions of Institutional Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined (a) the differences in perceptions of faculty, full-time versus part-time, at a community college in northern Alabama on the importance of institutional effectiveness activities; (b) the factors that affect perceptions of the importance of institutional effectiveness activities; and (c) the effect of academic discipline,…

LoCascio, Susan H.



The Future of Institutional Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forces inside and outside community colleges are changing the context for performance and mandating new conceptions of effectiveness. This article addresses the future of institutional effectiveness in community colleges. Its emphasis is on what is measured and why, beginning with a retrospective look at early efforts in effectiveness, moving to…

Alfred, Richard L.



Gravitomagnetic effects in conformal gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitomagnetic effects are characterized by two phenomena: first, the geodetic effect which describes the precession of the spin of a gyroscope in a free orbit around a massive object, and second the Lense-Thirring effect which describes the precession of the orbital plane about a rotating source mass. We calculate both these effects in the fourth-order theory of conformal Weyl gravity for the test case of circular orbits. We show that for the geodetic effect a linear term arises which may be interesting for high radial orbits, whereas for the Lense-Thirring effect the additional term has a diminishing effect for most orbits. Circular orbits are also considered in general leading up to a generalization of Kepler’s third law.

Said, Jackson Levi; Sultana, Joseph; Adami, Kristian Zarb



Effect sizes in memory research.  


Effect sizes are omitted from many research articles and are rarely discussed. To help researchers evaluate effect sizes we collected values for the more commonly reported effect size measures (partial eta squared and d) from papers reporting memory research published in 2010. Cohen's small, medium, and large generic guideline values for d mapped neatly onto the observed distributions, but his values for partial eta squared were considerably lower than those observed in current memory research. We recommend interpreting effect sizes in the context of either domain-specific guideline values agreed for an area of research or the distribution of effect size estimates from published research in the domain. We provide cumulative frequency tables for both partial eta squared and d enabling authors to report and consider not only the absolute size of observed effects but also the percentage of reported effects that are larger or smaller than those observed. PMID:23350788

Morris, Peter E; Fritz, Catherine O



Specific amino acid (L-arginine) requirement for the microbiostatic activity of murine macrophages.  

PubMed Central

The microbiostatic action of macrophages was studied in vitro employing peritoneal cytotoxic macrophages (CM) from mice acting against Cryptococcus neoformans cultured in Dulbecco's medium with 10% dialyzed fetal bovine serum. Fungistasis was measured using electronic particle counting after lysis of macrophages with detergent. Macrophage fungistasis failed in medium lacking only L-arginine. Complete fungistasis was restored by L-arginine; restoration was concentration dependent, maximal at 200 microM. Deletion of all other essential amino acids did not abrogate fungistasis provided that L-arginine was present. Of twenty guanido compounds, including D-arginine, only three (L-arginine, L-homoarginine, and L-arginine methylester) supported fungistasis. Known activators or mediators of macrophage cytotoxicity (endotoxin, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor) did not replace L-arginine for CM-mediated fungistasis. The guanido analogue NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was a potent competitive inhibitor of CM-mediated fungistasis giving 50% inhibition at an inhibitor/L-arginine ratio of 1:27. Although CM completely blocked fungal reproduction via an L-arginine-dependent mechanism, the majority of the dormant fungi remained viable. Thus, this mechanism is viewed as a microbiostatic process similar or identical to the tumoristatic effect of macrophages. This suggests the production of a broad spectrum biostatic metabolite(s) upon consumption of L-arginine by cytotoxic macrophages.

Granger, D L; Hibbs, J B; Perfect, J R; Durack, D T



Prevention of osteoporosis by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in spontaneous hypertensive rats.  


A recent analysis of clinical studies suggests that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors might reduce bone fractures. In this study, we examined whether an ACE inhibitor might attenuate osteoporosis in a hypertensive rat model. In spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs), estrogen deficiency induced by ovariectomy (OVX) resulted in a significant increase in osteoclast activation as assessed by the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in the tibia, accompanied by a significant decrease in bone density evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and an increase in urinary deoxypyridinoline. Treatment with an ACE inhibitor, imidapril, attenuated OVX-induced decrease in bone density and increase in TRAP activity and urinary deoxypyridinoline. As ACE inhibitors possess the effects of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and activation of the bradykinin-nitric oxide pathway, we examined the contribution of both pathways in an OVX-induced osteoporosis model. Administration of nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) did not alter TRAP activity, urinary deoxypyridinoline or bone density, whereas the administration of a subpressor dose of angiotensin II accelerated the increase in TRAP activity in the tibia, accompanied by a significant decrease in bone density and an increase in urinary deoxypyridinoline. Thus, ACE inhibitors prevented osteoporosis, probably because of the inhibition of RAS, but not of nitric oxide. Overall, ACE inhibitors attenuated osteoporosis in a hypertensive rat model through the blockade of RAS. PMID:19590507

Shimizu, Hideo; Nakagami, Hironori; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Nakagami, Futoshi; Kunugiza, Yasuo; Tomita, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Rakugi, Hiromi; Ogihara, Toshio; Morishita, Ryuichi



Thromboxane A2 Contributes to the Mediation of Flow-Induced Responses of Skeletal Muscle Venules: Role of Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2  

PubMed Central

Background It has been shown that increases in intraluminal flow elicit dilation in venules, but the mediation of response is not yet clarified. We hypothesized that – in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and dilator prostaglandins (PGI2/ PGE2) – thromboxane A2 (TxA2) contributes to the mediation of flow-induced responses of venules. Methods and Results Isolated rat gracilis muscle venules (259 ± 11 ?m at 10 mm Hg) dilated as a function of intraluminal flow, which was augmented in the presence of the TxA2 receptor antagonist SQ 29,548 or the TxA2 synthase inhibitor ozagrel. In the presence of SQ 29,548, indomethacin or N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester decreased flow-induced dilations, whereas in their simultaneous presence dilations were abolished. The selective cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 inhibitor SC 560 reduced, whereas the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398 enhanced flow-induced dilations. Immunohistochemistry showed that both COX-1 and COX-2 are present in the wall of venules. Conclusion In skeletal muscle venules, increases in intraluminal flow elicit production of constrictor TxA2, in addition to the dilator NO and PGI2/PGE2, with an overall effect of limited dilation. These mediators are likely to have important roles in the multiple feedback regulation of wall shear stress in venules during changes in blood flow velocity and/or viscosity.

Racz, A.; Veresh, Z.; Erdei, N.; Bagi, Z.; Koller, A.



Local NOS inhibition impairs vascular and metabolic actions of insulin in rat hindleg muscle in vivo.  


Insulin stimulates microvascular recruitment in skeletal muscle, and this vascular action augments muscle glucose disposal by ?40%. The aim of the current study was to determine the contribution of local nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to the vascular actions of insulin in muscle. Hooded Wistar rats were infused with the NOS inhibitor N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 10 ?M) retrogradely via the epigastric artery in one leg during a systemic hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (3 mU·min(-1)·kg(-1) × 60 min) or saline infusion. Femoral artery blood flow, microvascular blood flow (assessed from 1-methylxanthine metabolism), and muscle glucose uptake (2-deoxyglucose uptake) were measured in both legs. Local L-NAME infusion did not have any systemic actions on blood pressure or heart rate. Local L-NAME blocked insulin-stimulated changes in femoral artery blood flow (84%, P < 0.05) and microvascular recruitment (98%, P < 0.05), and partially blocked insulin-mediated glucose uptake in muscle (reduced by 34%, P < 0.05). L-NAME alone did not have any metabolic effects in the hindleg. We conclude that insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment is dependent on local activation of NOS in muscle and that this action is important for insulin's metabolic actions. PMID:23900417

Bradley, Eloise A; Richards, Stephen M; Keske, Michelle A; Rattigan, Stephen



An Increase in Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Accompanies Dormancy Breakage and Germination of Yellow Cedar Seeds1  

PubMed Central

Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination.

Ren, Chengwei; Kermode, Allison R.



A single activity carboxyl methylates both farnesyl and geranylgeranyl cysteine residues.  


Members of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, gamma-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and nuclear lamin B are subject to a series of post-translational modifications that produce prenylcysteine methylester groups at their carboxyl termini. The thioether-linked polyisoprenoid substituent can be either farnesyl (C15) or geranylgeranyl (C20). Small molecule prenylcysteine derivatives with either the C15 or C20 modification, such as N-acetyl-S-trans,trans-farnesyl-L-cysteine (AFC), S-trans,trans-farnesylthiopropionate (FTP), as well as the corresponding geranylgeranyl derivatives (AGGC and GGTP) are substrates for the carboxyl methyltransferase. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ste14 mutants that lack RAS and a-factor carboxyl methyltransferase activity are also unable to methylate farnesyl and geranylgeranylcysteine derivatives. Moreover, C20-substituted cysteine analogs directly compete for carboxyl methylation with the C15-substituted cysteine analogs and vice versa. Finally, AGGC is even more effective than AFC as an inhibitor of Ras carboxyl methylation, despite the fact that Ras is methylated at a farnesylcysteine rather than a geranylgeranylcysteine residue. PMID:1765152

Volker, C; Lane, P; Kwee, C; Johnson, M; Stock, J



Effective risk management  

SciTech Connect

Most independent power financial proposals contain one or more elements of a non-recourse nature. Traditionally, this means prospective lenders will not have a substantial corporate credit or state guarantee standing behind a project loan, which forces attention to be focused on a single asset as the security and debt repayment source. While this major risk remains present, if properly understood, uncertainty can be mitigated and managed, including financial and development hazards inherent in hydropower projects. The specific risk points that a project developer or sponsor must satisfy from the lender`s purposes are numerous. However, they can be grouped primarily into seven key risk areas: project profile, site securing, power sales agreements, government agreements, in-service management, construction and insurance. While a developer strives for a minimum internal rate of return of at least 20 percent, the lender`s expectations are much more modest. Often, developers need to place themselves in the proverbial shoes of the other entity, namely the independent lender, whose only attraction may be some interest, fee income and placement of capital in a safe investment which provides a return in an orderly and uninterrupted manner. Only then is it possible to objectively view and effectively manage the risks mentioned earlier.

Ball, C.J. [Corpfinance International Ltd., Toronto (Canada)



Paper field effect transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the use of a sheet of cellulose fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide based semiconductor thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach we are using the cellulose fiber-based paper in an "interstrate" structure since the device is build on both sides of the cellulose sheet. Such hybrid FETs present excellent operating characteristics such as high channel saturation mobility (>30 cm2/Vs), drain-source current on/off modulation ratio of approximately 104, near-zero threshold voltage, enhancement n-type operation and sub-threshold gate voltage swing of 0.8 V/decade. The cellulose fiber-based paper FETs characteristics have been measured in air ambient conditions and present good stability. The obtained results outpace those of amorphous Si TFTs and rival with the same oxide based TFTs produced on either glass or crystalline silicon substrates. The compatibility of these devices with large-scale/large-area deposition techniques and low cost substrates as well as their very low operating bias delineates this as a promising approach to attain high-performance disposable electronics like paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, RFID and point-of-care systems for self analysis in bio-applications, among others.

Fortunato, E.; Correia, Nuno; Barquinha, Pedro; Costa, Cláudia; Pereira, Luís; Gonçalves, Gonçalo; Martins, Rodrigo



Anticancer effects of phytosterols.  


Phytosterol and stanol (or phytosterols) consumption reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, leading to decreased blood LDL-cholesterol levels and lowered cardiovascular disease risk. However, other biological roles for plant sterols and stanols have also been proposed. The objective of this review is to critically examine results from recent research regarding the potential effects and mechanisms of action of phytosterols on forms of cancer. Considerable emerging evidence supports the inhibitory actions of phytosterols on lung, stomach, as well as ovarian and breast cancer. Phytosterols seem to act through multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of carcinogen production, cancer-cell growth, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, and through the promotion of apoptosis of cancerous cells. Phytosterol consumption may also increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and thereby reduce oxidative stress. In addition to altering cell-membrane structure and function, phytosterols probably promote apoptosis by lowering blood cholesterol levels. Moreover, consumption of phytosterols by healthy humans at the recommended level of 2 g per day does not cause any major health risks. In summary, mounting evidence supports a role for phytosterols in protecting against cancer development. Hence, phytosterols could be incorporated in diet not only to lower the cardiovascular disease risk, but also to potentially prevent cancer development. PMID:19491917

Woyengo, T A; Ramprasath, V R; Jones, P J H



Psychological effects of stillbirth.  


Despite the high prevalence globally, the death of a baby to stillbirth is an often misunderstood and disenfranchised loss. Mothers, fathers, and families struggle to cope with the immediate and long-lasting effects of a baby's death which can last for years and sometimes decades. In addition, providers can be adversely affected by stillbirth, particularly when met with experiential avoidance and a sense of guilt and failure. There is little evidence on intervention efficacy in acute grief following perinatal death; however, there is a growing body of scientific literature on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in treating anxiety, depression, and other biopsychosocial maladies as well as improving patient satisfaction with psychosocial care. This paper explores one such intervention model, ATTEND (attunement, trust, therapeutic touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education), as a means to improve psychosocial care during both acute and chronic states of bereavement. Whereas the death of a baby to stillbirth is the ultimate paradox for providers and patients - the convergence of life and death and the fundamental contradiction it represents - with proper care and compassion, families stand a better chance in the face of such indescribable loss and they need not suffer alone. PMID:23040157

Cacciatore, Joanne



Scale effects in necking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometrically similar specimens spanning a scale range of 100:1 are tested quasi-statically to failure. Images of neck development are acquired using optical means for large specimens, and in-situ scanning electron microscope testing for small specimens, to examine the dependence of neck geometry on a broad range of specimen sizes. Size effects typically arise when the smallest specimen dimension is on the order of a microstructural length (e.g. grain size, dislocation mean free path, etc.), or in the presence of significant plastic strain gradients, which increase the density of geometrically necessary dislocations. This study was carried out for the purpose of investigating scale dependence in models used for predicting dynamic deformation and damage to very high strains for ballistic impact applications, such as the Goldthorpe path-dependent failure model, which includes temperature and strain-rate dependence but does not account for specimen size or a dependence on microstructural lengths. Although the experiments show that neck geometry does not exhibit a clear dependence on specimen size across the range of length scales tested, the statistical variation due to microstructural variations was found to increase monotonically with decreasing size, becoming significant for the smallest (0.35 mm diameter) size, allowing a limit to be identified for reliable model calibration.

Dunnett, T.; Balint, D.; MacGillivray, H.; Church, P.; Gould, P.



Collective effects in ? photodetachment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the structure and photodetachment of the 0953-4075/30/19/014/img2 negative ion has been performed using many-body theory. An electron affinity for the 0953-4075/30/19/014/img3 of 0.273 eV was calculated within the Dyson equation method. A new approach for concurrent consideration of intrachannel and interchannel interactions and dynamic-core polarization and relaxation (screening) effects has been developed to calculate the total and partial photodetachment cross sections. The 0953-4075/30/19/014/img4 photoabsorption spectrum reveals a complex interference structure due to correlations between the two outer subshells, primarily strong interaction with the 0953-4075/30/19/014/img5 shape resonance. The influence of many-electron dynamic corrections on the photodetachment process is discussed. The resonance and interference profiles have been shown to be very sensitive to the proper account of collective phenomena. Reasonable agreement between the calculations and experimental data has been achieved.

Kashenock, G. Yu; Ivanov, V. K.



The photorefractive effect  

SciTech Connect

When Arthur Ashkin and his colleagues at Bell Laboratories first noticed the photorefractive effect some 25 years ago, they considered the phenomenon a curiosity at best and a complete nuisance at worst. Today photorefractive materials are being shaped into components for a new generation of computers that exploit light instead of electricity. During the past 25 years investigators have discovered a wide variety of photorefractive materials, including insulators, semiconductors and organic compounds. Photorefractive materials, like film emulsions, change rapidly when exposed to bright light, respond slowly when subjected to dim light and capture sharp detail when struck by some intricate pattern of light. Unlike film, photorefractive materials are erasable: images can be stored or obliterated at whim or by design. By virtue of their sensitivity, robustness, and unique optical properties, photorefractive materials have the potential to be fashioned into data-processing elements for optical computers. In theory, these devices would allow optical computers to process information at much faster rates than their electronic counterparts. Employing photorefractive materials, workers have already developed the optical analogue to the transistor: if two laser beams interact within a photorefractive material, one beam can control, switch or amplify the second beam. Photorefractive materials also lie at the heart of devices that trace the edges of images, that connect networks of lasers and that store three-dimensional images.

Pepper, D.M. (Pepperdine Univ., CA (USA)); Kukhtarev, N.V. (Institute of Physics, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR))



Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

Cook, J.



Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

March, Paul



Quantum Wipe Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a model of a spin system under the influence of decoherence such that a system coupled with a dissipating environmental system consisting of either spins or bosonic modes. The dissipation of an environment is governed by a certain probability with which an environmental system localized around a principal system dissipates into a larger bath and a thermal environmental system instead migrates into the place. A certain threshold on the probability is found in the growth of decoherence in a principal system. A larger as well as a smaller dissipation probability than the threshold results in smaller decoherence. This finding is utilized to elucidate a spin relaxation theory of a magnetic resonance spectrometer. In particular, a seamless description of transverse relaxation and motional narrowing is possible. We also numerically evaluate the dynamics of coherence useful for quantum information processing. The bang-bang control and anti-Zeno effect in entanglement and the Oppenheim-Horodecki nonclassical correlation are investigated in the model of spin-boson coupling.

Saitoh, Akira; Rahimi, Robabeh; Nakahara, Mikio



The Second Mössbauer Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The Second Mössbauer Effect" was the headline of the "Spiegel" (a German weekly journal like the "Times") from May 13, 1964 for announcing the foundation of the "Physik-Department" at the Technische Hochschule München (THM), as it was still called at this time. Maier-Leibnitz was irritated by this headline because the article did not mention at all his contribution to the consolidation of the structure of the three physics institutes (Experimental, Technical, and Theoretical Physics) in the beginning of the sixties. Already in the late fifties ML's Institute for Technical Physics was overloaded with students working on their diploma or doctoral theses, because research in the new field of applied nuclear physics was very attractive and ML had for each student who applied an interesting research project. In the average, ML had to supervise between 150-200 diploma students, an impossible task. So, young postdoctoral students had to help him out by taking over the duties of professors. In a letter to the Bavarian Ministry of Education and Arts in 1957 he complained: "The directors of the institutes are hopelessly surcharged and the institutes are overcrowded, the resources for research projects are totally insufficient and lots of time and energy is wasted for finding additional resources."

Kienle, Paul


Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy (XXXX). Results of five experiments show that perceptual sensitivity is strikingly and significantly reduced in the RB condition relative to both baseline control conditions. The data show RB can be obtained under conditions in which memory problems are minimal and where perceptual sensitivity is assessed independently of biases.

Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)



Melatonin anticancer effects: review.  


Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi



Effective sizes for subdivided populations  

SciTech Connect

Many derivations of effective population sizes have been suggested in the literature; however, few account for the breeding structure and none can readily be expanded to subdivided populations. Breeding structures influence gene correlations through their effects on the number of breeding individuals of each sex, the mean number of progeny per female, and the variance in the number of progeny produced by males and females. Additionally, hierarchical structuring in a population is determined by the number of breeding groups and the migration rates of males and females among such groups. This study derives analytical solutions for effective sizes that can be applied to subdivided populations. Parameters that encapsulate breeding structure and subdivision are utilized to derive the traditional inbreeding and variance effective sizes. Also, it is shown that effective sizes can be determined for any hierarchical level of population structure for which gene correlations can accrue. Derivations of effective sizes for the accumulation of gene correlations within breeding groups (coancestral effective size) and among breeding groups (intergroup effective size) are given. The results converge to traditional single population measures when similar assumptions are applied. In particular, inbreeding and intergroup effective sizes are shown to be special cases of the coancestral effective size, and intergroup and variance effective sizes will be equal if the population census remains constant. Instantaneous solutions for effective size, at any time after gene correlation begins to accrue, are given in terms of traditional F statistics or transition equations. All effective sizes are shown to converge upon a common asymptotic value when breeding tactics and migration rates are constant. The asymptotic effective size can be expressed in terms of the fixation indices and the number of breeding groups; however, the rate of approach to the asymptote is dependent upon dispersal rates.

Chesser, R.K. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States) Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)); Rhodes, O.E. Jr.; Sugg, D.W.; Schnabel, A. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States))



The effect of academic inbreeding on scientific effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In academia, the term “inbreeding” refers to a situation wherein PhDs are employed in the very same institution that trained\\u000a them during their doctoral studies. Academic inbreeding has a negative perception on the account that it damages both scientific\\u000a effectiveness and productivity. In this article, the effect of inbreeding on scientific effectiveness is investigated through\\u000a a case study. This problem

Ozlem Inanc; Onur Tuncer


The effect of dipolar interaction on the magnetic isotope effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-channel kinetic description is used to study the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) in zero magnetic field. The maximal isotope effect is equal to the number of channels, two for the hyperfine interaction but four for the electron spin dipole-dipole interaction of the intermediate radical pair. Quantum mechanical calculations agree with these conclusion and show that large MIE may be obtained even in the presence of a strong exchange interaction. The observed magnesium isotope effect on the rate of enzymatic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is approximately 3 implying that the dipolar interaction is responsible for the effect. Our calculations provide support for the proposed mechanism.

Pedersen, J. Boiden; Mojaza, Matin; Lukzen, Nikita N.



Surface plasmon effects on carbon nanotube field effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, we experimentally demonstrate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) induced changes in the conductivity of a carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNT FET). SPP excitation is done via Kretschmann configuration while the measured CNT FET is situated on the opposite side of the metal layer away from the laser, but within reach of the launched SPPs. We observe a shift of ~0.4 V in effective gate voltage. SPP-intermediated desorption of physisorbed oxygen from the device is discussed as a likely explanation of the observed effect. This effect is visible even at low SPP intensities and within a near-infrared range.

Isoniemi, T.; Johansson, A.; Hakala, T. K.; Rinkiö, M.; Törmä, P.; Toppari, J. J.; Kunttu, H.



Health effects of phytoestrogens.  


Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant-derived phytochemicals, whose common biological roles are to protect plants from stress or to act as part of a plant's defense mechanism. Although composed of a wide group of nonsteroidal compounds of diverse structure, phytoestrogens have been shown to bind estrogen receptors and to behave as weak agonist/antagonist in both animals and humans. Phytoestrogens include mainly isoflavones (IF), coumestans, and lignans. These compounds are known to be present in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains commonly consumed by humans. IF are found in legumes--mainly soybeans--whereas flaxseed is a major source of lignans, and coumestans are significantly present in clover, alfalfa and soybean sprouts. 8-Prenyl flavonoids are common in vegetables. Bioavailability of IF requires an initial hydrolysis of the sugar moiety by intestinal beta-glucosidases to allow the following uptake by enterocytes and the flow through the peripheral circulation. Following absorption, IF are then reconjugated mainly to glucuronic acid and to a lesser degree to sulphuric acid. Gut metabolism seems key to the determination of the potency of action. Several epidemiological studies correlated high dose consumptions of soy IF with multiple beneficial effects on breast and prostate cancers, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and stroke, and neurodegeneration. For the relief of menopausal symptoms a consumption of 60 mg aglycones/day has been suggested; for cancer prevention a consumption between 50 and 110 mg aglycones/day is considered beneficial to reduce risks of breast, colon and prostate cancer; to decrease cardiovascular risk a minimum intake of 40-60 mg aglycones/day, together with about 25 g of soy protein has been suggested. For improvement in bone mineral density, 60-100 mg aglycones/day for a period of at least 6-12 months could be beneficial. PMID:15702593

Branca, Francesco; Lorenzetti, Stefano



[Cardiac effects of GH].  


To investigate cardiac effects of excess and deficiency of growth hormone (GH) we studied twenty acromegalic subjects and eleven adult patients with GH deficiency by means of a non invasive method, the Doppler echocardiography. The results obtained in the group of patients were compared with those of two groups of twenty and eleven normal subjects, respectively, age and sex matched. The age of the acromegalic patients ranged from 20 to 62 years. Nineteen patients were considered to have active acromegaly at the time of the study. Mean duration of disease since treatment was 12 +/- 5 years (range 5 to 24 years). The age of GH deficient adults ranged from 21 to 33 years. All these patients have been treated with extractive GH over nine years and the therapy withdrawal was performed at least three years before entering the study. In the group of acromegalic patients, a subgroup including nine patients with mild to moderate hypertension was considered. All subjects gave informed consent and the study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Medical School of Naples. Right ventricular free wall thickness resulted significantly increased in acromegalic patients (8 +/- 2 vs 4 +/- 1 mm; p < 0.001). Left ventricular mass index was augmented both in the whole group and in the subgroups of normotensive and hypertensive acromegalics as compared with normals (134 +/- 33 p < 0.001, 115 +/- 20 p < 0.01 and 156 +/- 31 p < 0.001 vs 80 +/- 18 g.m-2). Ejection phase indices were normal in patient group, while impaired left and right ventricular diastolic filling was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8190051

Fazio, S; Sabatini, D; Cittadini, A; Santomauro, M; Merola, B; Biondi, B; Colao, A; Lombardi, G; Saccà, L



Cardiovascular effects of melanocortins.  


Melanocortins (MSH's) are three structurally related peptides derived from proopiomelanocortin. They regulate several physiologic functions including energy metabolism, appetite, and inflammation. Recent work in rodents has also identified important effects of MSH's, particularly ?-MSH, on sodium metabolism and blood pressure regulation. Normal rats and mice respond to a high sodium diet with an increase in the plasma concentration of ?-MSH, and remain normotensive, while those with genetic or pharmacologic ?-MSH deficiency become hypertensive on a high sodium diet. This hypertension is corrected by exogenous administration of the peptide. Mice lacking the ?-MSH receptor (the melanocortin 3 receptor, Mc3r) also become hypertensive on a high sodium diet but remain so when administered ?-MSH, and infusions of physiologic levels of the peptide stimulate urinary sodium excretion in normal rats and mice, but not in mice with deletion of Mc3r. The salt-sensitive hypertension in rodents with impaired ?-MSH signaling appears due to stimulation of noradrenergic activity, since plasma noradrenaline is increased and the hypertension is rapidly corrected with infusion of the ?-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. In contrast to the antihypertensive property of physiologic levels of ?-MSH, intravenous or intracerebroventricular injections of high levels of the peptide raise blood pressure. This occurs in mice lacking Mc3r, indicating an interaction with some other central receptor. Finally, the salt-sensitive hypertension in rodents with disruption of ?-MSH signaling is accompanied by insulin resistance, an observation which offers a new window into the study of the association of salt-sensitive hypertension with insulin resistance and type II diabetes. PMID:21199648

Humphreys, Michael H; Ni, Xi-Ping; Pearce, David



Cardiovascular effects of melanocortins  

PubMed Central

Melanocortins (MSH’s) are three structurally related peptides derived from proopiomelanocortin. They regulate several physiologic functions including energy metabolism, appetite, and inflammation. Recent work in rodents has also identified important effects of MSH’s, particularly ?-MSH, on sodium metabolism and blood pressure regulation. Normal rats and mice respond to a high sodium diet with an increase in the plasma concentration of ?-MSH, and remain normotensive, while those with genetic or pharmacologic ?-MSH deficiency become hypertensive on a high sodium diet. This hypertension is corrected by exogenous administration of the peptide. Mice lacking the ?-MSH receptor (the melanocortin 3 receptor, Mc3r) also become hypertensive on a high sodium diet but remain so when administered ?-MSH, and infusions of physiologic levels of the peptide stimulate urinary sodium excretion in normal rats and mice, but not in mice with deletion of Mc3r. The salt-sensitive hypertension in rodents with impaired ?-MSH signaling appears due to stimulation of noradrenergic activity, since plasma noradrenaline is increased and the hypertension is rapidly corrected with infusion of the ?-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. In contrast to the antihypertensive property of physiologic levels of ?-MSH, intravenous or intracerebroventircular injections of high levels of the peptide raise blood pressure. This occurs in mice lacking Mc3r, indicating an interaction with some other central receptor. Finally, the salt-sensitive hypertension in rodents with disruption of ?-MSH signaling is accompanied by insulin resistance, an observation which offers a new window into the study of the association of salt-sensitive hypertension with insulin resistance and type II diabetes.

Humphreys, Michael H.; Ni, Xi-Ping; Pearce, David



Paradoxical and bidirectional drug effects.  


A paradoxical drug reaction constitutes an outcome that is opposite from the outcome that would be expected from the drug's known actions. There are three types: 1. A paradoxical response in a condition for which the drug is being explicitly prescribed. 2. Paradoxical precipitation of a condition for which the drug is indicated, when the drug is being used for an alternative indication. 3. Effects that are paradoxical in relation to an aspect of the pharmacology of the drug but unrelated to the usual indication. In bidirectional drug reactions, a drug may produce opposite effects, either in the same or different individuals, the effects usually being different from the expected beneficial effect. Paradoxical and bidirectional drug effects can sometimes be harnessed for benefit; some may be adverse. Such reactions arise in a wide variety of drug classes. Some are common; others are reported in single case reports. Paradoxical effects are often adverse, since they are opposite the direction of the expected effect. They may complicate the assessment of adverse drug reactions, pharmacovigilance, and clinical management. Bidirectional effects may be clinically useful or adverse. From a clinical toxicological perspective, altered pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics in overdose may exacerbate paradoxical and bidirectional effects. Certain antidotes have paradoxical attributes, complicating management. Apparent clinical paradoxical or bidirectional effects and reactions ensue when conflicts arise at different levels in self-regulating biological systems, as complexity increases from subcellular components, such as receptors, to cells, tissues, organs, and the whole individual. These may be incompletely understood. Mechanisms of such effects include different actions at the same receptor, owing to changes with time and downstream effects; stereochemical effects; multiple receptor targets with or without associated temporal effects; antibody-mediated reactions; three-dimensional architectural constraints; pharmacokinetic competing compartment effects; disruption and non-linear effects in oscillating systems, systemic overcompensation, and other higher-level feedback mechanisms and feedback response loops at multiple levels. Here we review and provide a compendium of multiple class effects and individual reactions, relevant mechanisms, and specific clinical toxicological considerations of antibiotics, immune modulators, antineoplastic drugs, and cardiovascular, CNS, dermal, endocrine, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, haematological, respiratory, and psychotropic agents. PMID:22272687

Smith, Silas W; Hauben, Manfred; Aronson, Jeffrey K



Reverse coffee-ring effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a coffee drop dries on a solid surface, it commonly leaves a ring-like deposit along the edge, known as the coffee-ring effect. We present a reverse motion of particles in drying droplets, opposite to the coffee-ring effect. We reveal that the particle motion, initially toward the edge by the typical coffee-ring effect, is reversed to the droplet center owing to the capillary interaction generated by the droplet surface. The reverse coffee-ring effect always occurs whenever the capillary interaction prevails over the net outward force by the coffee- ring effect. The interaction predicts an inverse power-law time growth of moving distance from the edge, depending mostly on particle size and contact angle. The reverse coffee-ring effect may contribute to multiple ring formation by sweeping particles toward the center. We prove the mechanism with real-time optical, confocal, and X-ray microscopic observations of colloidal fluids.

Mook Weon, Byung; Xu, Lei; Je, Jung Ho; Hwu, Yeukuang; Margaritondo, Giorgio; Weitz, David A.



Effects of sea spray geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

Balcerak, Ernie



Genetic Effects of Electromagnetic Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic effects of electromagnetic waves can be detected by different test-systems. The mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation can be developed on the levels of DNA and/or chromosomes. In numerous researches efficiency of micronucleus assay, alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis, chromosomal aberrations test and FISH-technique and their different combinations for the detection of ionizing radiation-induced genotoxic effects are discussed. Also some molecular-biological approaches developed in the last years are presented.

Aroutiounian, Rouben; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Gasparian, Gennady


Thermoelectric effects in magnetic nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model and evaluate the Peltier and Seebeck effects in magnetic multilayer nanostructures by a finite-element theory of thermoelectric properties. We present analytical expressions for the thermopower and the current-induced temperature changes due to Peltier cooling\\/heating. The thermopower of a magnetic element is in general spin polarized, leading to spin-heat coupling effects. Thermoelectric effects in spin valves depend on the

Moosa Hatami; Gerrit E. W. Bauer; Qinfang Zhang; Paul J. Kelly



Gravitational Effect on Internal Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model to estimate the effect of gravitational field produced by an ultracentrifuge on internal-conversion process of radioactive nuclide is presented. The calculation has been made for the 2.17-keV E3 transition of ssmTc. The possibility for experimental detection of this effect is discussed. It is well known that the extranuclear fields produced by environmental effects, such as chemical bonding

Takeshi MUKOYAMA; Rintaro KATANO


Microstructural effects in shock ignition  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic response of explosive microstructures has been explicitly modeled, with the intention of gaining insight into initiation processes from hotspot formation to transition to detonation. In this paper, the authors focus attention upon the inert material response leading to hotspot ignition. Of interest are particle size and shape effects, constitutive effects of both binder and explosive, and their importance to hotspot formation. Effects of chemical reaction are considered elsewhere.

Conley, P.; Benson, D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Howe, P.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



(Theory of relative biological effectiveness)  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on relative biological effectiveness, in the following areas: radial distribution of dose about the path of an energetic heavy ion; the response of E. Coli mutants to ionizing radiations; the application of a fragmentation model to to the calculation of cell survival and mutation with heavy ion beams; biological radiation effects from gamma radiation and heavy ion beams on organisms; cancer induction in the Harderian Gland by HZE particles; and effects of low dose radiations. (CBS)

Katz, R.



Biomedical effects of laser application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews the authors experimental and clinical use of lasers over a 20-year period, during which laser effects on 15 biological systems were studied. Low-energy laser radiation was found to have a stimulating effect on cells, and high-energy radiation had an inhibiting effect. The application of lasers to stimulate wound healing in cases of nonhealing ulcers is recommended.

Endre Mester; Andrew F. Mester; Adam Mester



Twisted mass finite volume effects  

SciTech Connect

We calculate finite-volume effects on the pion masses and decay constant in twisted mass lattice QCD at finite lattice spacing. We show that the lighter neutral pion in twisted mass lattice QCD gives rise to finite-volume effects that are exponentially enhanced when compared to those arising from the heavier charged pions. We demonstrate that the recent two flavor twisted mass lattice data can be better fitted when twisted mass effects in finite-volume corrections are taken into account.

Colangelo, Gilberto; Wenger, Urs; Wu, Jackson M. S. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)



Semiotics and the placebo effect.  


Despite substantial progress in elucidating its neurobiological mechanisms, theoretical understanding of the placebo effect is poorly developed. Application of the semiotic theory developed by the American philosopher Charles Peirce offers a promising account of placebo effects as involving the apprehension and response to signs. The semiotic approach dovetails with the various psychological mechanisms invoked to account for placebo effects, such as conditioning and expectation, and bridges the biological and cultural dimensions of this fascinating phenomenon. PMID:21037405

Miller, Franklin G; Colloca, Luana



Safety and effectiveness of vasectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To recommend further research on vasectomy based on a systematic review of the effectiveness and safety of vasectomy.Design: A systematic MEDLINE review of the literature on the safety and effectiveness of vasectomy between 1964 and 1998.Main Outcome Measure(s): Early failure rates are Conclusion(s): Publications to date continue to support the conclusion that vasectomy is a highly effective form of

Pamela J Schwingl; Harry A Guess



The Thirring-Lense Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thirring-Lense effect is the phenomenon that an observer near a rotating mass, being in a state which is non-rotating with respect to the rest of the universe, experiences extra inertial forces, i.e. becomes dizzy. The first anticipation of the effect goes back to Ernst Mach; its first quantitative prediction on the basis of general relativity was given by Hans Thirring and Joseph Lense. Almost ninety years later, the effect seems to be experimentally verified.

Embacher, Franz


Radiation Effects: Core Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

Dicello, John F.



Magnetocaloric effect in manganites  

SciTech Connect

The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, Sm{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3}, and PrBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} compounds is studied. The maximum values of MCE ({Delta}T{sub max}) determined by a direct method in the second and third compositions and in La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} are found to be much lower than those calculated from the change of the magnetic part of entropy in the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and the Neel temperature (T{sub N}) range. The negative contribution of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) part of a sample in the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} system at 0.1 {<=} x {<=} 0.3 decreases {Delta}T{sub max} and changes the {Delta}T(T) curve shape, shifting its maximum 20-40 K above T{sub C}. Lower values of {Delta}T{sub max} are detected in the range T{sub C} = 130-142 K in polycrystalline and single-crystal Sm{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3} samples cooled in air. If such samples were cooled in an oxygen atmosphere (which restores broken Mn-O-Mn bonds and, thus, increases the volume of CE-type AFM clusters), the maximum in the temperature dependence of MCE is located at T{sub N} (243 K) for CE-type AFM clusters. A magnetic field applied to a sample during the MCE measurements transforms these clusters into a ferromagnetic (FM) state, and both types of clusters decompose at T = T{sub N}. The PrBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} composition undergoes an AFM-FM transition at 231 K, and the temperature dependence of its MCE has a sharp minimum at T = 234 K, where MCE is negative, and a broad maximum covering T{sub C}. The absolute values of MCE at both extrema are several times lower than those calculated from the change in the magnetic entropy. These phenomena are explained by the presence of a magnetically heterogeneous FM-AFM state in these manganites.

Koroleva, L. I., E-mail:; Zashchirinskii, D. M.; Morozov, A. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Szymczak, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Poland)



Massive high density effective theory  

SciTech Connect

I derive an effective theory for dense, cold, and massive quark matter. To this end, I employ a general effective action formalism where antiquarks and quarks far from the Fermi surface, as well as hard gluons, are integrated out explicitly. I show that the resulting effective action depends crucially on the projectors used to separate quarks from antiquarks. If one neglects the quark masses in these projectors, the Feynman rules of the effective theory involve quark mass insertions which connect quark with antiquark propagators. Including the quark masses into these projectors, mass insertions do not appear and the Feynman rules are identical to those found in the zero-mass limit.

Reuter, Philipp T. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada)



Features which separate least effective from most effective science teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-one science supervisors identified 321 teachers, 162 most effective and 159 least effective, in their respective districts. Information was then sought concerning age, gender, teaching field(s), number of preparations, amount of preparation, time, semester hours of undergraduate science preparation, quantity of graduate science preparation, type of teacher education programs, number of weeks of NSF workshop experience, and number of workshops

Robert E. Yager; Eddy M. Hidayat; John E. Penick




EPA Science Inventory

TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSES AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS Benignus, V.A., Research Psychologist, ORD, NHEERL, Human Studies Division, 919-966-6242, Boyes, W.K., Supervisory Health Scientist, ORD, NHEERL, Neurotoxicology Division 919-541-...


The Effect of Information Overlap on Communication Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It makes sense that the more information people share, the better they communicate. To evaluate the effect of knowledge overlap on the effectiveness of communication, participants played a communication game where the "director" identified objects to the "addressee". Pairs either shared information about most objects' names (high overlap), or…

Wu, Shali; Keysar, Boaz



Effects beyond Effectiveness: Teaching as a Performative Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article develops the familiar metaphor of teaching as performance towards a definition of "teaching as performative act," where words and actions aim to effect cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes in learners. To what extent, however, are the consequences of pedagogical actions commensurate with their intended effects? Can a science…

Liew, Warren Mark



The Effect of Homework on Students' Perceptions of Teaching Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison was made of student evaluations of teacher effectiveness following two approaches: classes with no homework (n=110) and classes with daily homework (n=170). Grades were higher and student evaluations of teacher effectiveness were greater in classes with daily homework assignments. (JOW)

Dudley, Sid; Shawver, Donald L.



Extracting contact effects in organic field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact resistances between organic semiconductors and metal electrodes have been shown to play a dominant role in electronic charge injection properties of organic field-effect transistors. These effects are more prevalent in short channel length devices and therefore should not be ignored when examining intrinsic properties such as the mobility and its dependence on temperature or gate voltage. Here we outline

B. H. Hamadani; Douglas Natelson



Effective Potential and Effective Hamiltonian in Quantum Statistical Mechanics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview on the theoretic formalism and up to date applications in quantum condensed matter physics of the effective potential and effective hamiltonian methods is given. The main steps of their unified derivation by the so-called pure-quantum self-con...

A. Cuccoli R. Giachetti V. Tognetti R. Vaia P. Verrucchi



Radiation effects on livestock: physiological effects, dose response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm livestock show no measurable effects from being exposed to ionizing radiation unless the level is greatly in excess of the natural background radiation. Possible sources of ionizing radiation which might affect livestock or contribute to radioactivity in the food chain to humans are reactor accidents, fuel reprocessing plant accidents and thermonuclear explosions. Most data on ionizing radiation effects on




Space charge effect and mirror charge effect in photoemission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We report the observation and systematic investigation of the space charge effect and mirror charge effect in photoemission spectroscopy. When pulsed light is incident on a sample, the photoemitted electrons experience energy redistribution after escaping from the surface because of the Coulomb interaction between them (space charge effect) and between photoemitted electrons and the distribution of mirror charges in the sample (mirror charge effect). These combined Coulomb interaction effects give rise to an energy shift and a broadening which can be on the order of 10 meV for a typical third-generation synchrotron light source. This value is comparable to many fundamental physical parameters actively studied by photoemission spectroscopy and should be taken seriously in interpreting photoemission data and in designing next generation experiments.

Zhou, X.J.; Wannberg, B.; Yang, W.L.; Brouet, V.; Sun, S.; Douglas, J.F.; Dessau, D.; Hussain, Z.; Shen, Z.-X.



A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs  

PubMed Central

The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug–side effect pairs. For 199 drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at

Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer



Effect of orientation anisotropy on calculating effective electrical conductivities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops an analytical effective medium theory (EMT) equation for calculating the effective conductivity of a mixture based on Maxwell's and Maxwell-Garnett's theories, extended to higher volume fractions using Bruggeman's unsymmetrical treatment (BUT), with a long term goal of extending the treatment to mixtures more representative of real materials in order to calculate their effective electrical conductivity. The development accounts for spheroid shaped inclusions of varying degrees of anisotropic orientation. The orientation is described by the introduction of a distribution function. Two methodologies valid for the inclusion dilute limit were used to evaluate the effective conductivity: one based on Maxwell's far field approach, and the other based on the Maxwell-Garnett in the matrix approach. It was found that while the dilute limit equations for the effective conductivity were different, the final EMT equations derived by applying BUT collapsed to the same formula which was generalized for anisotropic orientation based on the distribution function presented.

Myles, Timothy D.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.




Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzing short- and long-term environmental effects of extreme flood events is a young science. Complicated by the obvious difficulties associated with predicting extreme events and the hazards of gathering environmental data during and in the aftermath of these often short-lived and violent events, the accumulation of good field data remains an obstacle to a better understanding of quantitative effects. This

John T. Hickey; Jose D. Salas


The Effective Teacher of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The improvement of teaching characteristics and teacher behavior are important issues when discussing reading programs. Therefore, the following six major questions and conclusions about the effective reading teacher comprise the emphasis of this discussion. (1) What criteria can be used to measure teacher effectiveness? The main criterion used is…

Harris, Albert J.


Age Effects in Information Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to modify or ameliorate the effects of declining cognitive abilities of the elderly have met with limited success. To focus on the effects of age in cognitive processing capacity (CPC), Furukawa's (1977) CPC test was administered individually to 3 age groups (16-30, 31-45, and 45-60) of 15 subjects each. Speed of processing old and new…

Furukawa, James M.; And Others


Ecosystem effects of marine fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most fisheries literature avoids speaking about ecosystem impacts of fishing, either because impacts are not demonstrated or because a causal relationship between impacts and fishing cannot be formally established with the available information. However, there is mounting evidence that fishing has undesired effects in the marine ecosystems. This overview examines the wide ecosystem effects of fishing, describing and illustrating the

R Goñi



The Effective Elementary School Principal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at both practicing administrators and university education professors, this book discriminates among certain "E-words" ("effective,""efficient,""excellent," and "empowerment") in the educational reform lexicon. According to the introductory chapter, levels of effectiveness, efficiency, and excellence operate as interrelated factors within…

Pankake, Anita M.; Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.


Effective Evaluation through Appreciative Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluators in the HPI field can improve their performance program results with effective evaluation through appreciative inquiry. Appreciative inquiry and evaluation have many similarities, and when combined they add value and effectiveness to the measurement of intervention results. Appreciative inquiry is beneficial in many evaluation contexts:…

Dunlap, Cheryl A.



Surface Effect Ships for Commerce.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ships using the surface effect principle have been suggested as a means of improving the transport of U.S. international commerce. The functional principles of the surface effect ships (SES) appear to offer an avenue for developing transoceanic vehicles p...



Polarization effect of electroactive cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The piezoelectric effect of electroactive cellulose has been studied. Hardwood and softwood papers were selected to estimate a bending actuation performance in connection with electromechanical coupling factors. The cantilever unimorph actuators are considered. The results show that the coupling is highly non-linear particularly at high k31 for both papers but not at low k31. The effect of the thickness ratio

Chung-Hwan Je; Kwang J. Kim



Single and Multiple Touschek Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Touschek effect, where the change in the direction of a particle's momentum can lead to a strong variation of its energy due to a relativistic effect, leading to the loss of the particle if the relative energy variation exceeds the energy acceptance o...

J. Le Duff



Cell cycle effects of drugs  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Cell Growth and Division Cycle; Cell Cycle Effects of Alkylating Agents; Biological Effects of Folic Acid Antagonists with Antineoplastic Activity; and Bleomycin-Mode of Action with Particular Reference to the Cell Cycle.

Dethlefsen, L.A.



Fuels research: Combustion effects overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of broadened property fuels on gas turbine combustors were assessed. Those physical and chemical properties of fuels that affect aviation gas turbine combustion were isolated and identified. Combustion sensitivity to variations in particular fuel properties were determined. Advanced combustion concepts and subcomponents that could lessen the effect of using broadened property fuels were also identified.

Haggard, J. B., Jr.



Neighbourhood effects and housing demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we estimate a model of housing demand with neighbourhood effects. We exploit special features of the national sample of the American Housing Survey and properties of housing markets that allow us to create 'natural' instruments and therefore identify the impact of social interactions. We find evidence of both endogenous and contextual neighbourhood effects. We report two alternative

Yannis M. Ioannides; Jeffrey E. Zabel



Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette



Mechanical effects in cookoff modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete cookoff modeling of energetic material in confined geometries must couple thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focused on the prediction of the onset of combustion behavior based only on thermal-chemistry effects with little or no regard to the mechanical behavior of the energetic material. In this paper, an analysis tool is outlined which couples thermal,

R. J. Gross; M. R. Baer; M. L. Hobbs



Passive cooling effects of courtyards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passive cooling effects of a courtyard of a small building were determined numerically, employing an energy-analysis software developed for that purpose. The passive cooling features considered were the shading effects of courtyard walls and two large trees (of various shapes) planted immediately next to the south wall of the building, the presence of a pool, a lawn and flowers

H. Safarzadeh; M. N. Bahadori



Effects of Ritalin on Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of "Ritalin" to calm overactive children. The drug's side effects are reported, and research on the effect of "Ritalin" on reading performance in the classroom is reviewed. It is concluded that use of stimulant drugs to help reading underachievers is not supported by research. (Author/JDD)

Cooter, Robert B., Jr.



Space environment effects (M0006)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of long term exposure to the near Earth space environment on advanced electrooptical and radiation sensor components were examined. The effect of long duration spaceflight on the germination rate of selected terrestrial plant seeds is observed in exobiological experiments.

Angelo, J. A., Jr.; Madonna, R. G.; Altadonna, L. P.; Dagostino, M. D.; Chang, J. Y.; Alfano, R. R.; Caplan, V. L.



Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.



Health effects of diesel emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

f-We have reviewed the literature relating to the health effects of diesel emissions with particular reference to acute and chronic morbidity and to carcinogenici ty. It is apparent that exposure to diesel fumes in sufficient concentrations may lead to eye and nasal irritation but there is no evidence of any permanent effect. A transient decline of ventilatory capacity has been

W. K. C. Morgan; R. B. Regerf; D. M. Tucker



Unemployment effects of climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models the unemployment effects of restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, embodying two of the most significant types of short-term economic imperfections that generate unemployment: sectoral rigidities in labor mobility and sectoral rigidities in wage adjustments. A labor policy is also analyzed that would reduce the direct negative economic effects of the emissions restrictions.The politics of limiting greenhouse gas

Mustafa H. Babiker; Richard S. Eckaus



Effective Advocacy for Staff Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective advocacy for staff development requires actions to develop support from in- and outside the school district. Advocacy involves vision, commitment, outreach, good planning, proof of program quality and effectiveness, alignment of staff development and school district goals, and understanding of client concerns. (SM)

Asayesh, Gelareh



Evaluating Effectiveness in Computing Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal model is appropriate for evaluating effectiveness in complex service organizations because there are measurable outputs. An empirical method is provided for the identification and measurement of organizational goals. Perception of effectiveness could be improved if goals were made to coincide with the desires of user groups. (DWH)

Varanelli, Andrew



Health Effects of Air Pollution  


Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt your health. Sometimes you have control over how clean the air ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...


Hiring Effective Secondary School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's effective school counselors are integral in education reform, school leadership, and student achievement. It is typically the responsibility of building principals to hire effective school counselors. This article builds on previous literature and provides principals with questions to ask and information to gather that may be helpful in…

McGlothlin, Jason M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot



Effect of topiramate on attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired attention is a frequently reported side effect of anti-epileptic medication, as well as a frequent general complaint of epilepsy. It is thus important to evaluate the effect of new medications on attention processes. Attention was assessed weekly in ten subjects receiving topiramate over a 3 month period. Attention was evaluated with digit span, a widely used index of attention.

Leslie A Burton; Cynthia Harden



Correlation effects and bound states  

SciTech Connect

Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

Zinovjev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)



Measuring the Effects of Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple statistical model to measure the effects of innovation and schooling is proposed. Synthesis of 134 meta-analyses revealed that educational innovations can be expected to change average achievement by 0.4 standards deviations and affective outcomes by 0.2 standard deviations. Innovation and feedback appear to enhance effects;…

Hattie, John



The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!  

Microsoft Academic Search

In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper

Jochen Ebel



Superconducting Field-Effect Transistors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Devices offer switching speeds greater than semiconducting counterparts. High-Tc superconducting field-effect transistors (SUPEFETs) investigated for use as electronic switches in delay-line-type microwave phase shifters. Resemble semiconductor field-effect transistors in some respects, but their operation based on different principle; namely, electric-field control of transition between superconductivity and normal conductivity.

Bhasin, Kul; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Tabib-Azar, Massood



Side effects of generic competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that

Jörgen Hellström; Niklas Rudholm



Ablation Effects on Vehicle Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of ablation on re-entry body dynamics is a problem that during recent years has advanced from one of general interest to one of general concern. An exploratory analysis shows that ablation will have opposite effects on static and dynamic stabi...

L. E. Ericsson J. P. Reding



Animation About the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a basic animation/simulation with background information about the greenhouse effect by DAMOCLES. The animation has several layers to it that allow users to drill into more detail about the natural greenhouse effect and different aspects of it, including volcanic aerosols and human impacts from burning fossil fuels.



Stereoelectronic effects in mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple bond dissociations and hydrogen rearrangements in gaseous cation radicals and even-electron cations can be governed by stereoelectronic effects imposed by control elements. Stereoelectronic effects facilitate dissociations of bonds that are aligned with the control orbital of n- or [pi]-type to allow efficient orbital overlap in the transition state. Ions with unfavorably large dihedral angles between the bond to be broken and the control orbital undergo conformational transformations in order to achieve a stereoelectronically assisted transition state. Stereoelectronic effects are likely to be encountered with rigid polycyclic ions in which fixed dihedral angles are imposed by bond connectivity. Nevertheless, striking stereoelectronic effects have been observed in a few conformationally mobile systems. Several examples of stereo- chemical ion dissociation due to stereoelectronic effects are discussed in this review with the help of experimental energy data, and ab initio, semi-empirical, and empirical-potential (MM2) calculations.

Turec[Combining Breve]Ek, Frantis[Combining Breve]Ek



Fetal effects of psychoactive drugs.  


Psychoactive drug use by pregnant women has the potential to effect fetal development; the effects are often thought to be drug-specific and gestational age dependent. This article describes the effects of three drugs with similar molecular targets that involve monoaminergic transmitter systems: cocaine, methamphetamine, and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used to treat maternal depression during pregnancy. We propose a possible common epigenetic mechanism for their potential effects on the developing child. We suggest that exposure to these substances acts as a stressor that affects fetal programming, disrupts fetal placental monoamine transporter expression and alters neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter system development. We also discuss neurobehavioral techniques that may be useful in the early detection of the effects of in utero drug exposure. PMID:19732616

Salisbury, Amy L; Ponder, Kathryn L; Padbury, James F; Lester, Barry M



Peltier effects in Andreev interferometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superconducting proximity effect is known to modify transport properties of hybrid normal-superconducting structures. In addition to changing electrical and thermal transport separately, it alters the thermoelectric effects. Changes to one off-diagonal element L12 of the thermoelectric matrix L have previously been studied via the thermopower, but the remaining coefficient L21 , which is responsible for the Peltier effect, has received less attention. We discuss symmetry relations between L21 and L12 in addition to the Onsager reciprocity, and calculate Peltier coefficients for a specific structure. Similar to the thermopower, for finite phase differences of the superconducting order parameter, the proximity effect creates a Peltier effect significantly larger than the one present in purely normal-metal structures. This results from the fact that a nonequilibrium supercurrent carries energy.

Virtanen, Pauli; Heikkilä, Tero T.



Bayesian cost-effectiveness analysis with two measures of effectiveness: the cost-effectiveness acceptability plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) compares the costs and outcomes of two or more technologies. However, there is no consensus about which measure of effectiveness should be used in each analysis. Clinical researchers have to select an appropriate outcome for their purpose, and this choice can have dramatic consequences on the conclusions of their analysis. In this paper we present a Bayesian

Miguel A. Negrín; Francisco J. Vázquez-Polo




EPA Science Inventory

Animal toxicology studies have demonstrated spermatogenesis and sperm quality effects after exposure to several drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including DCA, BDCM, chloral hydrate and DBA. Population-based field studies to identify human male reproductive risks o...


Late effects from hadron therapy  

SciTech Connect

Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.



Effectiveness-implementation Hybrid Designs  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study proposes methods for blending design components of clinical effectiveness and implementation research. Such blending can provide benefits over pursuing these lines of research independently; for example, more rapid translational gains, more effective implementation strategies, and more useful information for decision makers. This study proposes a “hybrid effectiveness-implementation” typology, describes a rationale for their use, outlines the design decisions that must be faced, and provides several real-world examples. Results An effectiveness-implementation hybrid design is one that takes a dual focus a priori in assessing clinical effectiveness and implementation. We propose 3 hybrid types: (1) testing effects of a clinical intervention on relevant outcomes while observing and gathering information on implementation; (2) dual testing of clinical and implementation interventions/strategies; and (3) testing of an implementation strategy while observing and gathering information on the clinical intervention’s impact on relevant outcomes. Conclusions The hybrid typology proposed herein must be considered a construct still in evolution. Although traditional clinical effectiveness and implementation trials are likely to remain the most common approach to moving a clinical intervention through from efficacy research to public health impact, judicious use of the proposed hybrid designs could speed the translation of research findings into routine practice.

Curran, Geoffrey M.; Bauer, Mark; Mittman, Brian; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Stetler, Cheryl



Respiratory effects of manufactured nanoparticles.  


Nanotechnology is the set of techniques used to engineer, characterize, and produce materials that have at least one dimension within the nanoscale. These nanomaterials, or nanoobjects, include nanoparticles and nanotubes. As dictated by the laws of quantum physics, a size within the nanoscale results in unique physicochemical properties and distinctive behaviors. Nanotechnology has a host of applications in fields ranging from cosmetology to the industry and medicine. The production and use of nanomaterials are expanding at a brisk pace. However, concerns are emerging about the potential health effects of nanoparticles in the short and long terms. These concerns are rooted in data on the harmful health effects of micrometric airborne particulate matter. Conceivably, these adverse effects might be amplified when the particles are within the nanoscale. This article is a nonexhaustive overview of current data on the penetration, deposition, translocation, and elimination of inhaled nanoparticles and on the respiratory effects of metallic nanoparticles (with special attention to titanium dioxide) and carbon nanotubes. Both in vivo and in vitro studies consistently found biological effects of nanoparticles on the respiratory system, including oxidative stress generation, proinflammatory and prothrombotic effects, pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, and DNA damage. Improved knowledge of the potential biological effects of nanoparticles is needed to guide preventive strategies for the workplace and/or general population if needed. PMID:22099416

Andujar, P; Lanone, S; Brochard, P; Boczkowski, J



Alkali–silica reaction, pessimum effects and pozzolanic effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pessimum proportion and pessimum size effects for alkali–silica reaction-induced deterioration of concrete (ASR) and the pozzolanic effect of fine siliceous admixtures in concrete have been explained based on the proposed ASR model [T. Ichikawa, M. Miura, Modified model of alkali–silica reaction, Cem. Concr. Res. 37 (2007) 1291–1297.]. The attack of alkali hydroxide to aggregate particles composed of ASR-reactive minerals

Tsuneki Ichikawa



Stochastic models with memory effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim in this work to derive non-Markovian stochastic models. We generalize the discrete random walk by using the method of conditional arrival probability and different types of time distribution in order to get the memory effect. Similarly, we apply this method in case of continuous time random walk with different time distributions and different jump distributions to get stochastic models with memory effect. Also, we may know the memory effect from the statistical properties of the model, especially the second moment.

Malaikah, Honaida



Novel effects of nitric oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitric oxide (NO), a simple free radical gas, elicits a surprisingly wide range of physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO interacts with soluble guanylate cyclase to evoke many of these effects. However, NO can also interact with molecular oxygen and superoxide radicals to produce reactive nitrogen species that can modify a number of macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. NO can also interact directly with transition metals. Here, we have reviewed the non--3',5'-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-mediated effects of NO including modifications of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

Davis, K. L.; Martin, E.; Turko, I. V.; Murad, F.



Environmental effects on spacecraft materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects on the natural space environments on materials are presented, which may be used for SDI applications. The current state-of-the-art knowledge of those effects was studied, and a literature search, a questionnaire mailing, and some visits to NASA and Air Force research facilities were performed. Phase 2 will be a study of what materials may be used for SDI applications and to what natural space environments they may be vulnerable. Deficiencies in knowledge of the effects of the natural space environments on these materials are to be identified and recommendations are to be made to eliminate these knowledge deficiencies.

Haffner, J. W.



Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena  

PubMed Central

Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers.

Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh



Rotating structures and Bryan's effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1890 Bryan observed that when a vibrating structure is rotated the vibrating pattern rotates at a rate proportional to the rate of rotation. During investigations of the effect in various solid and fluid-filled objects of various shapes, an interesting commonality was found in connection with the gyroscopic effects of the rotating object. The effect has also been discussed in connection with a rotating fluid-filled wineglass. A linear theory is developed, assuming that the rotation rate is constant and much smaller than the lowest eigenfrequency of the vibrating system. The associated physics and mathematics are easy enough for undergraduate students to understand.

Joubert, Stephan V.; Shatalov, Michael Y.; Fay, Temple H.



Calibration effects on orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of charged particle and tropospheric calibrations on the orbit determination (OD) process are analyzed. The calibration process consisted of correcting the Doppler observables for the media effects. Calibrated and uncalibrated Doppler data sets were used to obtain OD results for past missions as well as Mariner Mars 1971. Comparisons of these Doppler reductions show the significance of the calibrations. For the MM'71 mission, the media calibrations proved themselves effective in diminishing the overall B-plane error and reducing the Doppler residual signatures.

Madrid, G. A.; Winn, F. B.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Yip, K. B.



Chlormethiazole: effectiveness against toxic effects of cocaine in mice.  


Chlormethiazole positively modulates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor complex and is primarily used to treat certain life-threatening neurological events (e.g., refractory seizures and ethanol withdrawal syndrome). On account of several experimental and clinical studies reporting effectiveness against the toxic effects of heroin and methamphetamine, chlormethiazole was systematically tested in the present study for its effectiveness against cocaine-induced seizures and lethality in mice. The protective effects of chlormethiazole were evaluated against single, submaximal convulsive (75 mg/kg) or lethal (110 mg/kg) doses of cocaine. Chlormethiazole also was tested against the expression (anticonvulsant effect) and development (antiepileptogenic effect) of cocaine-kindled seizures, and against fully developed kindled seizures. Cocaine-kindled seizures were produced by a total of five daily treatments with 60 mg/kg cocaine. The inverted-screen test was used to assess behavioral side effects of chlormethiazole. Chlormethiazole protected against acute cocaine-induced convulsions (ED(50) = 7.0 mg/kg) and lethality (ED(50)= 21.8 mg/kg) with a robust separation [protective index (PI) = TD(50)/ED(50) = 22.3 and 7.2, respectively] from doses producing behavioral side effects (TD(50) = 156 mg/kg). Chlormethiazole suppressed the behavioral expression of cocaine-kindled seizures and prevented the development of sensitization to the convulsant effects of cocaine. It was also effective in suppressing fully developed kindled seizures. Relative to cocaine seizures in naive mice, chlormethiazole was equieffective, less potent (ED(50) = 22.3 mg/kg), and had a reduced protective index (PI = 3.7) against cocaine-induced seizures in kindled mice. The protective profile and protective index of chlormethiazole were superior to those of the benzodiazepines clonazepam and diazepam, which were of limited efficacy and had low protective indices (PI = approximately 1). The results of this study predict the potential utility of chlormethiazole for the treatment of life-threatening complications of cocaine abuse for which no specific treatment has yet been identified. PMID:10991973

Gasior, M; Ungard, J T; Witkin, J M



Coupled caloric effects in multiferroics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a conception - coupled caloric effect where the enhanced caloric effects originate from the coupling among magnetic, ferroelectric, and structural degrees of freedom. Specifically, as the magneto-electric case, the magnitude of the coupled caloric effect was evaluated for a ferromagnetic-ferroelectric system using a phenomenological calculation based on Landau phase transition theory. The isothermal entropy change is greatly enhanced by increasing the magneto-electric coupling strength. This work indicates that the caloric effect in a ferromagnetic-ferroelectric coupled system consists of pure magnetic entropy change (?SM), pure ferroelectric one (?SE), and coupled one (?SME) that plays a significant part. The counterpart of the last one in magneto-structural coupled system was usually neglected. Our study provides a route to energy-efficient refrigeration via realization of coupling among various ferroic orders.

Meng, Hui; Li, Bing; Ren, Weijun; Zhang, Zhidong



Handgun Control: Effectiveness and Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is strong and widespread disagreement on the effectiveness and costs of handgun control in the United States. This report analyzes these matters in detail and recommends that the Congress enact further legislation to restrict the availability of han...




EPA Science Inventory

Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental Exposures Sherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington, DC) The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...


Rainbow effect in ion channeling  

SciTech Connect

The problem of ion channeling in very thin crystals is considered with use of a method of classical ion-molecule scattering theory complemented with the Monte Carlo method. Special attention is devoted to the rainbow effect. It is shown that this effect is a consequence of the fact that contributions of the atomic strings of the crystal to the probability of ion transmission interfere. In the calculations the projectiles were 7-MeV H/sup +/ ions, and they were being transmitted through the <110> channel of a 21500-A-thick Si crystal; the case in which the incident energy is 10 MeV and crystal thickness 21000 A is also analyzed. The effect of thermal vibrations of the atoms of the crystal and the effect of collisions of the ion with the electrons of the crystal are taken into account.

Nekovic, N.



Genetic effects of ionizing radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ionizing radiation effects on the gem cells, which can result in genetic abnormalities, are described. The basic mechanisms of radiation interactions with chromosomes, or specifically DNA, which can result in radiation induced mutation are discussed. Meth...

P. A. H. Saunders



Geometric Design and Operational Effects,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 14 papers in the report deal with the following areas: operational effects of the longer and wider combination vehicles on the geometry of diamond interchanges; operational and economic considerations in an evaluation of geometric design alternatives;...

B. M. Rajappan A. Polus P. R. Stefaniak W. S. Homburger T. Urbanik



Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke  


... Tobacco Use Share Compartir Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke Secondhand Smoke Fact Sheets Overview Secondhand Smoke Causes ... in the 2014 Surgeon General’s Report 4 Secondhand Smoke Causes Cardiovascular Disease Exposure to secondhand smoke has ...


What makes learning networks effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asynchronous Learning Networks are providing a strong online option to the learning process. Effective ALNs promote student-instructor interaction, emphasize student-to-student collaboration, and generate active participation with appropriate software.

Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Murray Turoff



Organisational Effectiveness in Military Organisations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Australian Army Officers in the ranks of Lieutenant Colonel and Major completed questionnaires about familiarity with management interventions and select management techniques. Responses were compared with perceptions of effectiveness, background and orga...

R. C. Furry



Health Effects Assessment for Cresols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-speci...



Recent Combined Effects Explosives Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eigenvalue detonation theory has been shown to explain the observed behavior of new aluminized combined effects explosives. An analytical cylinder test model has long been used the U.S. Army Armaments Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinn...

C. Capellos, D. Murphy, D. Suarez, E. L. Baker, P. Cook



Creating an Effective Stalking Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Monograph is about ways to enhance police responses to stalking. Its focus is collaborative community partnerships and protocols to help police departments address stalking more effectively and appropriately. Stalking is not a new phenomenon, but has...



Radioprotective effect of edible herbs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic...

Y. Jiang M. Huang G. Zhu J. Fang X. Fan



Thermally-Driven Josephson Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Break-throughs in the study of superfluid He-3 weak links and recent demonstration of Josephson effect in He-4 are a result of significant advances in ultra-sensitive transducer and nanofabrication technology. However, further progress in the performance of superfluid weak links and quantum rotation interferometry devices depends, in part, on reducing the mechanical noise and increasing the effective duty cycle of such devices. In existing devices, the DC Josephson effect is driven by chemical potential difference produced by a pressure applied across the weak link. We propose a novel drive technique, where the chemical potential is due to a controlled temperature difference. This technique promises to eliminate mechanical shock associated with the switch of the direction of applied pressure and to achieve 100% duty cycle. The thermally driven Josephson effect may also answer outstanding questions about dissipation in superfluid weak links.

Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso



Effect of Anger on Families  


... The Effect of Anger on Families" pamphlets to market your practice. Search for a qualified Marriage and ... Consumer Updates are designed to educate consumers and market therapist's services. Conveniently packaged in sets of 25 ...


Health Effects of Black Carbon  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this presentation is to inform the Mid-Atlantic Diesel Collaborative's stakeholders about the health effects of black carbon and convey the relevance of black carbon to their efforts in reducing diesel emissions....


Health Effects of Nitrogen Oxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oxides of nitrogen of possible concern in air pollution are nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen pentoxide, inorganic nitrates, and organic nitrates. Available data on the physiologic and toxicologic effects of gaseous nitrogen oxides shows that N...

R. Ziskind D. Hausknecht



Radiation Therapy Side Effects Sheets

Radiation therapy fact sheets that help patients understand their treatment and manage side effects. The fact sheets (also available in audio) have tips from patients and healthcare providers, and questions to ask providers.


Health effects of smokeless tobacco  

SciTech Connect

Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

Not Available



Health Effects of Organophosphate Insecticides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report identifies the health effects associate with exposure to organosphosphate insecticides. The study was undertaken because organophosphate insecticides are rapidly replacing organochlorines. While the organophosphates are generally less persisten...



Phase-Shift Effect Magnetometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the research project was to determine the feasibility of using phase shift phenomenon as the transducing principal of a magnetometer. The findings show that, not only is a phase shift effect magnetometer possible, but high sensiti...

R. C. Dinsmore



Space Environmental Effects on Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of long life platforms and structures for space is discussed in terms of the space environmental effects on the materials used. Vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and charged particle radiation are among the factors considered. Research oriented to...

R. J. Schwinghmaer



Radiation effects on structural materials  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics on the effect radiation has on thermonuclear reactor materials: Atomic Displacements; Microstructure Evolution; Materials Engineering, Mechanics, and Design; Research on Low-Activation Steels; and Research Motivated by Grant Support.

Ghoniem, N.M.



Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin.

Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus




EPA Science Inventory

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Government Performance Results Act (GPRA, goal number four for Safe Communities), constitute the statutory authority and strategic framework respectively, for Agency research on non-target effects of pestici...


Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids  

PubMed Central

Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance. But what effect does steroid abuse have on the cardiovascular system?

Payne, J R; Kotwinski, P J; Montgomery, H E



Loudness, noisiness, and vibration effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical measurement of noise that determines psychological and physical behavioral effects in real life is investigated. The roles of loudness and noisiness judgement in the development of these measurement procedures are also examined.




EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with Toxaphene. All estimates of acceptable intakes and carcinogenic potency presented in this document should be considered as preliminary and reflec...


Biological Effects Summary Report: Acridine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive review of acridine was conducted to assess the potential health effects of this nitorgen heterocyclic compound and to evaluate the need for recommending an interim occupational exposure limit to protect the health of exposed workers. Acrid...

D. Keimig S. Muff



Thermal Effects of Bluegill Hematology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Temperature effects on hematological responses of adult bluegill were examined for constant vs fluctuating temperature regimes, for ambient vs high temperature, and for intake vs discharge temperatures at an operating power plant. Multivariate statistical...

S. A. Murray



Followship: Preparation for Effective Leadership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conventional approach to improving leadership focuses on the leader himself, his attributes, traits, or situations in which he is involved. This article presents the idea that effective leadership can be the result of better, more active followership....

G. B. Toumbacaris



Unparticle effects in neutrino telescopes  

SciTech Connect

Recently H. Georgi has introduced the concept of unparticles in order to describe the low energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective theory. We investigate its physical effects on the neutrino flux to be detected in a kilometer cubic neutrino telescope such as IceCube. We study the effects, on different observables, of the survival neutrino flux after through the Earth, and the regeneration originated in the neutral currents. We calculate the contribution of unparticle physics to the neutrino-nucleon interaction and, then, to the observables in order to evaluate detectable effects in IceCUbe. Our results are compared with the bounds obtained by other nonunderground experiments. Finally, the results are presented as an exclusion plot in the relevant parameters of the new physics stuff.

Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Martinez, R.; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional, Bogota (Colombia); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)



Possible Side Effects of Streptozocin

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Streptozocin (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Streptozocin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Confusion, depression Nausea, vomiting Tiredness OCCASIONAL, SOME


Reality of the Greenhouse Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Earth's surface absorbs solar radiation, to which the atmosphere is mostly transparent, and re-emits infrared radiation that is absorbed primarily by carbon dioxide and water vapor. Without the consequent warming, or ''greenhouse'' effect, the Earth's...

M. C. MacCracken



The placebo effect in asthma.  


The placebo effect is a complex phenomenon occurring across a variety of clinical conditions. While much placebo research has been conducted in diseases defined by self-report such as depression, chronic pain, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), asthma has been proposed as a useful model because of its easily measured objective outcomes. Studies examining the placebo response in asthma have not only contributed to an understanding of the mechanisms behind the placebo response but also shed an interesting light on the current treatment and diagnosis of asthma. This paper will review current literature on placebos in general and specifically on the placebo response in asthma. It focuses on what we know about the mechanisms behind the placebo effect, whether there is a specific portion of the population who responds to placebos, which patient outcomes are influenced by the placebo effect, and whether the effect can be augmented. PMID:24951239

Dutile, Stefanie; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Wechsler, Michael E



Systemic effects of local radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Radiotherapy is generally used to treat a localized target that includes cancer. Mounting evidence indicates that radiotherapy also recruits biological effectors outside the treatment field, and has systemic effects. The implications of this aspect are discussed in this review, in the context of understanding the role of the host’s immune system in cooperating with standard cytotoxic treatments. Since effects from both chemotherapy and radiotherapy are sensed by the immune system, their combination with immunotherapy presents a new therapeutic opportunity. Radiotherapy carries the advantage of directly interfering with the primary tumor site, and potentially reverting some of the established immuno-supressive barriers present within the tumor microenvironment, ideally recovering the role of the primary tumor as an effective immunogenic hub. Local radiation also triggers systemic effects that can be harnessed in combination with immunotherapy to induce responses outside the radiation field. This review will cover some of the preclinical and clinical evidence in this regard.

Formenti, Silvia C.; Demaria, Sandra



Magnetic effects in anomalous dispersion  

SciTech Connect

Spectacular enhancements of magnetic x-ray scattering have been predicted and observed experimentally. These effects are the result of resonant phenomena closely related to anomalous dispersion, and they are strongest at near-edge resonances. The theory of these resonances will be developed with particular attention to the symmetry properties of the scatterer. While the phenomena to be discussed concern magnetic properties the transitions are electric dipole or electric quadrupole in character and represent a subset of the usual anomalous dispersion phenomena. The polarization dependence of the scattering is also considered, and the polarization dependence for magnetic effects is related to that for charge scattering and to Templeton type anisotropic polarization phenomena. It has been found that the strongest effects occur in rare-earths and in actinides for M shell edges. In addition to the scattering properties the theory is applicable to ``forward scattering`` properties such as the Faraday effect and circular dichroism.

Blume, M.



Insect Repellents: Use and Effectiveness  


Insect Repellents: Use and Effectiveness Quick Resources Search tool for EPA-registered repellents and their protection times Ask ... link for protection times Consumer Survey Results on Insect Repellent Labels Clothing Treated with Insect Repellents Repellency Awareness ...


Metabolic Effects of Monomethyl Hydrazine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pattern of utilization of glucose specifically labeled with 14C at various carbon atoms by animals under subacute Metabolic Effects of Monomethyl Hydrazine (MMH) intoxication indicates that MMH produces a profound depression of glycolytic metabolism, ...

C. H. Wang D. E. Johnson F. N. Dost



Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from

H Reichenbach; P Neuwald; A L Kuhl



Polyurethanes having shape memory effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segmented polyurethanes (PUs) were prepared from polycaprolactone diols (PCLs), 4,4?-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and 1,4-butanediol, and tested for shape memory effects. Effects of soft segment molecular weight (Mn = 2000, 4000 and 8000), soft segment content (50–90%), and maximum strain (?m = 100, 200, and 600%) on the cyclic tensile properties as well as the dynamic mechanical, and mechanical properties below (25°C)

Mao Xu



The cardioprotective effects of statins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to their lipid-modulating properties, statins have a large number of beneficial cardiovascular effects that have\\u000a emerged over time and that were not anticipated during drug development. The lipid and nonlipid effects act in a concerted\\u000a way to reduce the ischemic burden of the myocardium and to protect it against injury. By acting on the vessel wall, statins\\u000a may

Jean Davignon



Workshop summary: Space environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop on Space Environmental Effects is summarized. The underlying concern of the group was related to the question of how well laboratory tests correlate with actual experience in space. The discussion ranged over topics pertaining to tests involving radiation, atomic oxygen, high voltage plasmas, contamination in low earth orbit, and new environmental effects that may have to be considered on arrays used for planetary surface power systems.

Meulenberg, A.; Anspaugh, B. E.



Pressure Effects on Enzyme Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrostatic pressure is a well-known method for studying protein dynamics and hydration. Recent developments in molecular biology allow us to obtain and investigate recombinant proteins from deep-sea organisms living in high-pressure environments. The aims of this review are to give a brief introduction of the thermodynamic principles of pressure effects on proteins and to highlight the effects of hydrostatic pressure

Eiji Ohmae; Chiho Murakami; Kunihiko Gekko; Chiaki Kato



Neurobehavioral effects of interferon therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon (IFN) therapy is associated with neuropsychiatric side effects including cognitive dysfunction and mood syndromes\\u000a of varying severity. These problems are the most common causes of treatment discontinuation. Dose and duration of treatment\\u000a influence risk of IFN-induced side effects. Rates of IFN-induced depression vary, but approach 50% in recent studies. Presence\\u000a and severity of depressive symptoms at or before treatment

Alan D. Valentine; Christina A. Meyers



Novaya Zemlya effect and sunsets.  


Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ effect for the Moon. PMID:12570256

van der Werf, Siebren Y; Können, Gunther P; Lehn, Waldemar H



Casting Alloys: Side-Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side-effects from dental materials are a minor problem, but should be recognized. In recent questionnaire surveys about side-effects, the incidence was estimated to be 1:300 in periodontics and 1:2600 in pedodontics. None of these reactions was related to dental casting alloys. In prosthodontics, the incidence was calculated to be about 1:400, and about 27% were related to base-metal alloys forremovable

Arne Hensten-Pettersen



Health effects of dietary phospholipids  

PubMed Central

Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.



Correlation Effects in Quantum Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlation effects in the quantum crystals He3 and He4 are studied in detail. The single-particle wave function is obtained in the harmonic effective-field approximation; the parameters of the harmonic-oscillator potential are determined self-consistently from the two-body correlation function and the bare interatomic potential. We determine the two-body correlation function by solving numerically an equation derived by decoupling the three-body correlation

C. Ebner; C. C. Sung



QED Effects in H_2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron self-interaction and the vacuum polarization, the two effects predicted by Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), have been accurately calculated for H_2 and its isotopomers. The resulting theoretical predictions will be compared with state of the art measurements of dissociation energies, vibrational and rotational transitions. New developments for the calculation of higher order QED effects will be presented. J. Komasa, K. Piszczatowski, G. Lach, M. Przybytek, B. Jeziorski, and K. Pachucki, JCTC {7}, 3105 (2011)

Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek



Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.



Space environmental effects on materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of long life platforms and structures for space is discussed in terms of the space environmental effects on the materials used. Vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and charged particle radiation are among the factors considered. Research oriented toward the acquisition of long term environmental effects data needed to support the design and development of large low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit space platforms and systems is described.

Schwinghmaer, R. J.



Dilatonic effects near naked singularities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static spherically symmetric solutions of 4d Brans-Dicke theory include a set of naked singularity solutions. Dilatonic effects near the naked singularities result in either a shielding or an antishielding effect from intruding massive test particles. One result is that for a portion of the solution parameter space, no communication between the singularity and a distant observer is possible via massive particle exchanges. Kaluza-Klein gravity is considered as a special case.

Morris, J. R.



Biological Effects of Directed Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Final Report summarizes the biological effects research conducted by Veridian Engineering personnel under contract F41624-96-C-9009 in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Radio Frequency Radiation Branch from April 1997 to April 2002. Biological effects research and consultation were provided in five major areas: Active Denial System (also known as Vehicle Mounted Active Denial System), radio frequency radiation (RFR)

Thomas Dayton; Charles Beason; M. K. Hitt; Walter Rogers; Michael Cook



Overview of global greenhouse effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that COâ, Oâ, NâO, CHâ, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much




Antiatherothrombotic effects of nicotinic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular event reduction in hypercholesterolemic subjects appropriately emphasizes the prominent role of statin therapy; however, niacin (nicotinic acid) is also an effective lipid-altering agent that prevents atherosclerosis and reduces cardiovascular events. Niacin has multifarious lipoprotein and anti-atherothrombosis effects that improve endothelial function, reduce inflammation, increase plaque stability, and diminish thrombosis. Niacin reduces the atherogenicity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by changing

Robert S. Rosenson



Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

Raymond, James P.



Emotional effects of dynamic textures.  


This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo



Side effects of glaucoma medications.  


The safety profile of the different glaucoma medications is an important issue when initiating therapy in glaucomatous patients. The decision on which medication to prescribe depends not only on the type of glaucoma, but also on the patient's medical history and needs a detailed knowledge of the potential side-effects of each medication. Medications side effects may be an important cause of non adherence for the individual patient The properties of the drugs, the composition of the glaucoma eyedrops and the dynamics of ocular drug absorption must be considered. The ocular surface changes induced by long-term antiglaucomatous treatment especially by their preservatives are a major cause of intolerance or poor tolerance to glaucoma eyedrops. Moreover topically applied ophthalmic medications can attain sufficient serum levels through absorption into conjunctival and nasal mucosas to have systemic effects and to potentially interact with other drugs. Then this presentation will deal with the ocular and systemic side-effects which can be encountered with the different classes of the currently available glaucoma topical medications. Recommendations than can be applied to reduce both frequency and severity of side-effects of glaucoma medications will be stressed on. Concurrently patients should be fully informed not only about their disease but also the medications they used and what side-effects they have to expect. PMID:16681086

Detry-Morel, M



[Genotoxic effects of vanadium compounds].  


Vanadium is a metal member of the periodic table VB group, with atomic weight 59.95 and atomic number 23 and it has some oxidizing states from -1 to +5. Vanadium has many industrial uses and its contribution with environmental contamination is growing every day. In the last 10 years research about the vanadium effects on living beings, has been increasing substantially, due to its presence in the environment from different sources. Interest for vanadium and their compounds is because its toxic effects and uses in some biomedical areas: such as antineoplastic, cholesterol and glucose level blood, diuretic, oxygen haemoglobin affinity. Vanadium toxic effects are so due to the fact of its property of inhibiting many enzymatic systems. Vanadate and vanadyl ions make chemical complexes exhibiting the property of inhibiting or increasing the activity of the enzymes participating in the DNA and RNA synthesis. They also induce mutagenic and genotoxic effects. Biochemical assays show cytotoxic effects, increase in the cellular differentiation, gene expression alterations and other biochemical and metabolic alterations. Research has been done with in vitro systems, but few with laboratory animals. It is necessary to carry out more work in the field of genetic toxicology with vanadium compounds. This type of compounds may be considered mutagenic and genotoxic, with cytotoxic and aneuploidogenous effects. PMID:9650459

Altamirano-Lozano, M



Helicity, Reconnection, and Dynamo Effects  

SciTech Connect

The inter-relationships between magnetic helicity, magnetic reconnection, and dynamo effects are discussed. In laboratory experiments, where two plasmas are driven to merge, the helicity content of each plasma strongly affects the reconnection rate, as well as the shape of the diffusion region. Conversely, magnetic reconnection events also strongly affect the global helicity, resulting in efficient helicity cancellation (but not dissipation) during counter-helicity reconnection and a finite helicity increase or decrease (but less efficiently than dissipation of magnetic energy) during co-helicity reconnection. Close relationships also exist between magnetic helicity and dynamo effects. The turbulent electromotive force along the mean magnetic field (alpha-effect), due to either electrostatic turbulence or the electron diamagnetic effect, transports mean-field helicity across space without dissipation. This has been supported by direct measurements of helicity flux in a laboratory plasma. When the dynamo effect is driven by electromagnetic turbulence, helicity in the turbulent field is converted to mean-field helicity. In all cases, however, dynamo processes conserve total helicity except for a small battery effect, consistent with the observation that the helicity is approximately conserved during magnetic relaxation.

Ji, Hantao



Dietary effects on breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

Stevens, R.G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))



Integration of a small biofuel refinery in a rural context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work three scenarios of biomass production, conversion and utilization of different biofuels (sunflower crude oil, sunflower refined oil and sunflower methyl-ester) in a rural context are compared. The analysis is referred to the district of Pisa, in Italy. Technical feasibility was analysed by comparing process schemes and safety issues, while environmental impacts were studied by applying the methodology

M. Simone; M. Bientinesi; C. Nicolella; L. Petarca



Progression of subcellular changes during chemical hypoxia to cultured rat hepatocytes: A laser scanning confocal microscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the subcellular organelles of cultured hepatocytes by laser scanning confocal microscopy during chemical hypoxia with cyanide and iodoacetate, inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, respectively. Parameter-specific fluorophores used were calcein for cell topography and membrane permeability, rhodaminedextran for lysosomes, rhodamine 123 and tetramethylrhodamine methylester (TMRM) for mitochondrial membrane potential (??)

George Zahrebelski; Anna-Liisa Nieminen; Kristin Al-Ghoul; Ting Qian; Brian Herman; John J. Lemasters



Electron microscopic studies on protein films from wheat and other sources at the air\\/water interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Endospermproteine des Weizens bilden an der Luft\\/Wasser-Grenzfläche Filme aus, die unter mechanischer Belastung aufreißen und in ein zweidimensionales Netzwerk aus Proteinfibrillen übergehen. Dieses Verhalten wurde im Transmissionselektronenmikroskop untersucht und auch bei Maisproteinen, Rinderserumalbumin und Poly-l-glutaminsäure-?-methylester beobachtet. Es wird im Hinblick auf die besondere Struktur des Glutens diskutiert.

Thomas Amend; Hans-Dieter Belitz; Christof Kurthen



An Increase in Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Accompanies Dormancy Breakage and Germination of Yellow Cedar Seeds1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided

Chengwei Ren; Allison R. Kermode



Insecticidal and fungicidal compounds from Isatis tinctoria.  


Tryptanthrin (1), indole-3-acetonitrile (2) and p-coumaric acid methylester (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria L. The compounds show insecticidal and anti-feedant activity against termites (Reticulitermis santonensis), insect preventive and control activity against larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus) and fungicidal activity against the brown-rot fungus (Coniophora puteana). PMID:8148009

Seifert, K; Unger, W



Domain effects in Faraday effect sensors based on iron garnets.  


Domain-induced diffraction effects produced by two iron garnet thick films and two bulk crystals are compared. The thick films, characterized by a serpentine magnetic domain structure, produced nonlinear response functions; this is in qualitative agreement with a one-dimensional diffraction model. Bulk iron garnet crystals, which exhibited a complex three-dimensional domain structure, produced qualitatively similar effects that diminished with increasing crystal length. Differential signal processing resulted in a linear signal for the thick films and a primarily sinusoidal response for the bulk crystals. PMID:20963165

Deeter, M N



Effective interactions for light nuclei: an effective (field theory) approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the central open problems in nuclear physics is the construction of effective interactions suitable for many-body calculations. We discuss a recently developed approach to this problem, where one starts with an effective field theory containing only fermion fields and formulated directly in a no-core shell-model space. We present applications to light nuclei and to systems of a few atoms in a harmonic-oscillator trap. Future applications and extensions, as well as challenges, are also considered.

Stetcu, I.; Rotureau, J.; Barrett, B. R.; van Kolck, U.



Reverberation and the Franssen effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Franssen effect, in which the location of a sudden-onset (transient) tone can occlude the location of a contralateral slow-onset (steady-state) tone, has been previously shown to occur only in a reverberant space. The nature of the reverberation required-how much and what kind-for the effect to occur has yet to be determined. To explore the role of reverberation in the Franssen effect, listeners were asked to identify the location(s) of transient/steady-state pure tones with frequencies ranging from 250-4000 Hz in a variety of real and virtual contexts: (a) limited (single reflective panel) reverberant enclosure; (b) discrete reflections in an anechoic room; (c) mannequin recordings of a reverberant enclosure presented over headphones; (d) impulse-response filtered signals presented over headphones; and (e) simulated 3-D reverberation via consumer-grade software. Results indicate that the Franssen effect can be a simple, effective means to judge the verisimilitude of a virtual environment. [Work supported by NIDCD.

Whitmer, William M.; Yost, William A.; Dye, Raymond H.



Biological effects summary report: acridine  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive review of acridine was conducted to assess the potential health effects of this nitorgen heterocyclic compound and to evaluate the need for recommending an interim occupational exposure limit to protect the health of exposed workers. Acridine, formed as a trace pollutant during incomplete combustion of nitrogen-containing materials, has been identified as a constituent of coal tar, coal distillates, and shale oil. Concentrations of acridine in urban and industrial settings were generally one to two orders of magnitude lower than the levels recorded for benzo(a)pyrene. In humnas, acridine is a known irritant of the skin and mocous membranes, but systemic effects attributed to acridine have actually involved exposure to either an acridine derivative or to coal-tar pitch and it is not clear whether these effects can be attributed solely, or even partly, to acridine exposures. At this time, we do not recommend that a standard be set specific to acridine, since available data on biological effects are limited, and since possible effects due to interactions of acridine and the myriad of polynuclear aromatic compounds present during typical exposures have not been assessed. 98 references, 1 figure, 8 tables.

Keimig, D.; Muff, S.



Cytotoxic effects of singlet oxygen.  

PubMed Central

The toxic effects of gas-phase singlet oxygen, 1O2, on the ciliated respiratory epithelium of hamster trachea have been demonstrated. Tracheal explants treated with 1O2 showed a dose-dependent decrease in cilia beating frequency and focal ciliostasis. A statistically significant decrease in ciliary activity occurred at 1O2 concentrations as low as 154 ppb after a 2-hr exposure. Cytological alterations in the mucociliary epithelium were observed in explants exposed to 235 ppb 1O2 or greater. When cytotoxic effects were related to the time of exposure to 1O2, maximum effects occurred after a 4-hr exposure. In vitro recovery studies indicate that ciliary activity returned to normal between 4 and 8 hr after exposure.

Schiff, L J; Eisenberg, W C; Dziuba, J; Taylor, K; Moore, S J



Intraday LeBaron effects  

PubMed Central

We study the relation at intraday level between serial correlation and volatility of the Standard and Poor (S&P) 500 stock index futures returns. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis. We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility.

Bianco, Simone; Corsi, Fulvio; Reno, Roberto



Potent health effects of pomegranate.  


Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo



Immunomodulatory effect of albizzia lebbeck.  


The immunomodulatory effect of the bark of Albizzia lebbeck (Sirisha) was evaluated by studying humoral and cell mediated immune responses. The hot aqueous extract and its butanolic fraction were administered once daily for one week in mice, immunised previously with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). At the dose levels tested (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg, p.o.), A. lebbeck treated mice developed higher serum antibody titres compared to the vehicle treated group and the effect was comparable to the standard drug muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Delayed type hypersensitivity response was suppressed in SRBC immunised mice treated with A. lebbeck extract. The macrophage migration index remained unaltered in both mice and rats. These results are discussed in the light of possible immunopotentiating effects of A. lebbeck. PMID:21214455

Barua, C C; Gupta, P P; Patnaik, G K; Misra-Bhattacharya, S; Goel, R K; Kulshrestha, D K; Dubey, M P; Dhawan, B N



Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects  

SciTech Connect

Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.

Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.



Combustion effects on film cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of: (1) a reactive environment on film cooling effectiveness, and (2) film cooling on rocket engine performance were determined experimentally in a rocket thrust chamber assembly operating with hydrogen and oxygen propellants at 300 psi chamber pressure. Tests were conducted using hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen film coolants in an instrumented, thin walled, steel thrust chamber. The film cooling, performance loss, and heat transfer coefficient data were correlated with the ALRC entrainment film cooling model which relates film coolant effectiveness and mixture ratio at the wall to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. In addition, a comprehensive thermal analysis computer program, HOCOOL, was prepared from previously existing ALRC computer programs and analytical techniques.

Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.



Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional theory of global warming states that heating of atmosphere occurs as a result of accumulation of CO2 and CH4 in atmosphere. The writers show that rising concentration of CO2 should result in the cooling of climate. The methane accumulation has no essential effect on the Earth’s climate. Even significant releases of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide into the atmosphere do not change average parameters of the Earth’s heat regime and the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Moreover, CO2 concentration increase in the atmosphere results in rising agricultural productivity and improves the conditions for reforestation. Thus, accumulation of small additional amounts of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere as a result of anthropogenic activities has practically no effect on the Earth’s climate.

Chilingar, G. V.; Sorokhtin, O. G.; Khilyuk, L.; Gorfunkel, M. V.



Portable convertible blast effects shield  


A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)



Portable convertible blast effects shield  


A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)



Portable convertible blast effects shield  


A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)



Web Browser Security Update Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the effectiveness of different Web browser update mechanisms on various operating systems; from Google Chrome's silent update mechanism to Opera's update requiring a full re-installation. We use anonymized logs from Google's world wide distributed Web servers. An analysis of the logged HTTP user-agent strings that Web browsers report when requesting any Web page is used to measure the daily browser version shares in active use. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first global scale measurement of Web browser update effectiveness comparing four different Web browser update strategies including Google Chrome. Our measurements prove that silent updates and little dependency on the underlying operating system are most effective to get users of Web browsers to surf the Web with the latest browser version.

Duebendorfer, Thomas; Frei, Stefan


The effective neutrino charge radius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that at one-loop order a neutrino charge radius (NCR) may be defined, which is ultraviolet finite, does not depend on the gauge-fixing parameter, nor on properties of the target other than its electric charge. This is accomplished through the systematic decomposition of physical amplitudes into effective self-energies, vertices, and boxes, which separately respect electroweak gauge invariance. In this way the NCR stems solely from an effective proper photon-neutrino one-loop vertex, which satisfies a naive, QED-like Ward identity. The NCR so defined may be extracted from experiment, at least in principle, by expressing a set of experimental electron-neutrino cross-sections in terms of the finite NCR and two additional gauge- and renormalization-group-invariant quantities, corresponding to the electroweak effective charge and mixing angle. PACS: 13.15.+g Neutrino interactions - 13.40.Gp Electromagnetic form factors

Papavassiliou, J.; Bernabéu, J.; Binosi, D.; Vidal, J.


Epigenetic effects of electroconvulsive seizures.  


Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective methods for managing treatment-resistant depression. Although the proposed mechanisms of action have thus far mainly been investigated at the cellular level, recent observations and developments in the field of molecular biology and genomics have provided novel insights in the actual molecular underpinnings of dynamic alterations in gene expression, particularly in response to environmental exposures, and experience-dependent plasticity, both of which are highly relevant to ECT. Here, we provided a brief background on epigenetics and we reviewed the current state of knowledge on epigenetic mediation of ECT-related therapeutic effects. We performed a systematic search on the effects of ECT on epigenetics and found only a limited number on animal studies relevant to our search. These studies, however, support the notion of a robust impact of ECT on epigenetic mechanisms and set the stage for human ECT studies on the epigenetic machinery. PMID:24810773

de Jong, Job O Z; Arts, Baer; Boks, Marco P; Sienaert, Pascal; van den Hove, Daniel L A; Kenis, Gunter; van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P F



Cytotoxic effect of orthodontic appliances.  


The use of orthodontic appliances may contribute to local gingivitis, often attributed to increased plaque retention. Gingivitis of bacterial origin cannot clinically be distinguished from local tissue irritation caused by corrosion products. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the cytotoxic effect of various metallic components used in orthodontics. Multicomponent devices such as facebows, molar bands, and brackets along with single-component brackets and archwires were tested by the agar overlay cytotoxicity test with mouse fibroblast cells. None of the archwires caused any cytotoxic effect, even though some contained 54 per cent nickel. However, the multi-component devices, which were joined with silver- and copper-based brazing alloys were more cytotoxic than the single-component devices. Copper is more cytotoxic than nickel, which could explain the greater cytotoxic effect of the samples with brazing materials. It is speculated that cytotoxic corrosion products from orthodontic appliances might contribute to localized gingivitis. PMID:1563474

Grimsdottir, M R; Hensten-Pettersen, A; Kullmann, A



Sudden death of effective entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Sudden death of entanglement is a well-known effect resulting from the finite volume of separable states. We study the case when the observer has a limited measurement capability and analyze the effective entanglement (i.e., entanglement minimized over the output data). We show that in the well-defined system of two quantum dots monitored by single-electron transistors, one may observe a sudden death of effective entanglement when real, physical entanglement is still alive. For certain measurement setups, this occurs even for initial states for which sudden death of physical entanglement is not possible at all. The principles of the analysis may be applied to other analogous scenarios, such as estimation of the parameters arising from quantum process tomography.

Roszak, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Horodecki, P. [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Horodecki, R. [National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)



Cytotoxic effects of singlet oxygen  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of gas-phase singlet oxygen, /sup 1/O/sub 2/, on the ciliated respiratory epithelium of hamster trachea have been demonstrated. Tracheal explants treated with /sup 1/O/sub 2/ showed a dose-dependent decrease in cilia beating frequency and focal ciliostasis. A statistically significant decrease in ciliary activity occurred at /sup 1/O/sub 2/ concentrations as low as 154 ppb after a 2-hr exposures. Cytological alterations in the mucociliary epithelium were observed in explants exposed to 235 ppb /sup 1/O/sub 2/ or greater. When cytotoxic effects were related to the time of exposure to /sup 1/O/sub 2/, maximum effects occurred after a 4-hr exposure. In vitro recovery studies indicate that ciliary activity returned to normal between 4 an d8 hr after exposure.

Schiff, L.J.; Eisenberg, W.C.; Dziuba, J.; Taylor, K.; Moore, S.J.



Mirage effects on the brane  

SciTech Connect

We discuss features of the brane cosmological evolution that arise through the presence of matter in the bulk. As these deviations from the conventional evolution are not associated with some observable matter component on the brane, we characterize them as mirage effects. We review an example of expansion that can be attributed to mirage nonrelativistic matter (mirage cold dark matter) on the brane. The real source of the evolution is an anisotropic bulk fluid with negative pressure along the extra dimension. We also study the general problem of exchange of real nonrelativistic matter between the brane and the bulk, and discuss the related mirage effects. Finally, we derive the brane cosmological evolution within a bulk that contains a global monopole (hedgehog) configuration. This background induces a mirage curvature term in the effective Friedmann equation, which can cause a brane universe with positive spatial curvature to expand forever.

Apostolopoulos, P.S.; Brouzakis, N.; Saridakis, E.N.; Tetradis, N. [University of Athens, Department of Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos 15771, Athens (Greece)



RAND Corporation: Measuring Teacher Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RAND Corporation provides research on a range of topics, and has long been interested in public school reform and related matters. This website provides access to papers and commentaries produced as part of RAND's initiative on measuring teacher effectiveness. The site is designed for teachers, administrators, policymakers, and anyone else "seeking objective, nonpartisan information on measuring teaching effectiveness." First-time visitors can get started by looking over the fact sheets, which include "Multiple Choices: Options for Measuring Teaching Effectiveness" and "Teachers Matter: Understanding Teachers' Impact on Student Achievement." After considering these items, visitors can move on to click on the "Research & Commentary" area to read the site's blog, take a look at the multimedia section, or