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The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N G-nitro- l-arginine methylester and l-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The known effects of a novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC157 (10 ?g or 10 ng\\/kg), namely its salutary activity against ethanol (96%, i.g.)-induced gastric lesions (simultaneously applied i.p.) and in blood pressure maintenance (given i.v.), were investigated in rats challenged with a combination of NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME) (5 mg\\/kg i.v.), a competitive inhibitor of endothelium nitric oxide (NO)-generation and NO precursor,

Predrag Sikiri?; Sven Seiwerth; Željko Grabarevi?; Rudolf Ru?man; Marijan Petek; Vjekoslav Jagi?; Branko Turkovi?; Ivo Rotkvi?; Stjepan Miše; Ivan Zori?i?; Paško Konjevoda; Darko Perovi?; Ljubica Jurina; Jadranka Šeparovi?; Miro Hanževa?ki; Branka Artukovi?; Mirna Bratuli?; Marina Tišljar; Miro Gjurašin; Pavao Mikli?; Dinko Stan?i?-Rokotov; Zoran Slobodnjak; Nikola Jelovac; Anton Marovi?



The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester and L-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure.  


The known effects of a novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg), namely its salutary activity against ethanol (96%, i.g.)-induced gastric lesions (simultaneously applied i.p.) and in blood pressure maintenance (given i.v.), were investigated in rats challenged with a combination of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) (5 mg/kg i.v.), a competitive inhibitor of endothelium nitric oxide (NO)-generation and NO precursor, L-arginine (200 mg/kg i.v.) (D-arginine was ineffective). In the gastric lesions assay, NO agents were given 5 min before ethanol injury and BPC 157 medication. Given alone, BPC157 had an antiulcer effect, as did L-arginine, but L-NAME had no effect. L-NAME completely abolished the effect of L-arginine, whereas it only attenuated the effect of BPC 157. After application of the combination of L-NAME + L-arginine, the BPC157 effect was additionally impaired. In blood pressure studies, compared with L-arginine, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (without effect on basal normal values) had both a mimicking effect (impaired L-NAME-blood pressure increase, when applied prophylactically and decreased already raised L-NAME values, given at the time of the maximal L-NAME-blood pressure increase (i.e., 10 min after L-NAME)) and preventive activity (L-arginine-induced moderate blood pressure decrease was prevented by BPC 157 pretreatment). When BPC 157 was given 10 min after L-NAME + L-arginine combination, which still led to a blood pressure increase, its previously clear effect (noted in L-NAME treated rats) disappeared. In vitro, in gastric mucosa from rat stomach tissue homogenates, BPC 157, given in the same dose (100 microM) as L-arginine, induced a comparable generation of NO. But, BPC 157 effect could not be inhibited by L-NAME, even when L-NAME was given in a tenfold (100 versus 1000 microM) higher dose than that needed for inhibition of the L-arginine effect. NO synthesis was blunted when the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and L-arginine were combined. In summary, BPC 157 could interfere with the effects of NO on both gastric mucosal integrity and blood pressure maintenance in a specific way, especially with L-arginine, having a more prominent and/or particularly different effect from that of NO. PMID:9298922

Sikiri?, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevi?, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagi?, V; Turkovi?, B; Rotkvi?, I; Mise, S; Zorici?, I; Konjevoda, P; Perovi?, D; Jurina, L; Separovi?, J; Hanzevacki, M; Artukovi?, B; Bratuli?, M; Tisljar, M; Gjurasin, M; Mikli?, P; Stanci?-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Jelovac, N; Marovi?, A



Modulation of peroxidation in murine melanoma by dietary tyrosine-phenylalanine restriction, levodopa methylester chemotherapy, and sodium ascorbate supplementation.  


Treatment with the drug combination of levodopa methylester and benserazide, supplemental ascorbate, and dietary deficiencies of tyrosine and phenylalanine more than doubled the median survival time of female (C57BL/6 X DBA/2)F1 mice bearing B16 melanoma tumors. The mechanism for this antitumor effect was not well defined. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the antitumor activity of levodopa methylester and ascorbate against B16 melanoma is related to the generation of free radicals of oxygen, which peroxidize lipid constituents of cell membranes leading to cell death. As an indication of lipid peroxidation, the individual and combined effects of drug treatment and ascorbate supplementation on host and tumor malondialdehyde levels were examined in mice fed one of three test diets (commercial, purified, or deficient) containing decreasing amounts of tyrosine and phenylalanine. Malondialdehyde levels were increased in the livers of all untreated tumor-bearing mice, which suggests that the tumor alters host antioxidant defenses. Drug treatment and ascorbate supplementation alone and in combination increased hepatic malondialdehyde levels inversely to the amounts of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the diet, and the effects of drug and ascorbate on malondialdehyde levels were additive. Plasma levels remained unchanged by drug treatment, ascorbate supplementation, or tumors in mice fed the commercial or purified diets. Higher levels were observed only in tumor-bearing mice fed the deficient diet and given both drug treatment and ascorbate supplementation. Changes in tumor malondialdehyde levels generally correlated with the effects of the drug and ascorbate on survival time of mice bearing B16 melanoma. Tumors from mice fed the commercial diet accumulated little malondialdehyde, and therapy was relatively ineffective in this dietary group. In mice fed purified or deficient diets, drug treatment and ascorbate supplementation alone increased survival and tumor malondialdehyde levels, but the level of peroxidation in mice receiving the ascorbate supplementation was low compared to its greater antitumor effect on B16 melanoma. Although ascorbate enhanced the peroxidative activity of the drug on B16 melanoma tumors, the effects of the drug and ascorbate on malondialdehyde levels were not additive. Ascorbate enhanced survival of tumor-bearing mice that were fed the deficient diet and that were treated with drug, which indicated that ascorbate supplementation acted via other mechanisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3861901

Pierson, H F; Meadows, G G



8-O-Acetyl Shanzhiside Methylester Attenuates Cerebral Ischaemia/Reperfusion Injury through an Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Diabetic Rats.  


Inflammatory activation plays a vital role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke and diabetes mellitus (DM), exerts the deleterious effects on the progression of the brain and leads to vascular damage in diabetic stroke. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of 8-O-acetyl shanzhiside methylester (ND01) on tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-stimulated SH-SY5Y cell line in vitro and the experimental ischaemic diabetic stroke model in vivo. TNF-?-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells were pre-incubated with ND01, then analysed protein expression. For in vivo experiment, the diabetic rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min. followed by reperfusion for 23 hr. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with ND01 blocked TNF-?-induced nuclear transcription factor ?B (NF-?B) activation and decreased high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) expression. ND01 40 mg/kg demonstrated significant neuroprotective effect even after delayed administration at 4 hr after I/R. ND01 40 mg/kg attenuated the histopathological damage, decreased brain swelling, inhibited NF-?B activation and reduced HMGB-1 expression in ischaemic brain tissue. These data show that ND01 protects diabetic brain against I/R injury with a favourable therapeutic time-window by alleviating diabetic cerebral I/R injury and attenuating blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and its protective effects may involve HMGB-1 and NF-?B signalling pathway. PMID:24823762

Zhang, Liang; Kan, Ze-Chun; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Fang, Han; Jiang, Wang-Lin



Different nitric oxide synthase inhibitors cause rapid and differential alterations in the ligand-binding capacity of transmitter receptors in the rat cerebral cortex.  


Inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis reduce postlesional neuronal death during reperfusion injury by reducing the NO-mediated increase in excitatory neurotransmitter-release. The protective effects of various NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors differ due to their isoform selectivity. The effects of NO-mediated excessive neurotransmitter supply are transmitted via specific neurotransmitter receptors expressed by the target cells. We report changes in the ligand-binding of different excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter-receptors studied by in vitro receptor autoradiography after in vivo-application of NOS-inhibitors. Since the constitutively expressed neuronal NOS-I is area-specifically distributed within the rat cortex, numerous cortical areas were studied in non-lesioned rats, in order to analyze the area-specific effects of NOS-inhibitors. The results showed that the NOS-I-specific inhibitor 7-nitroindazole increased binding of 3H-muscimol, 3H-pirenzepine and 3H-kainate, whereas the less isoform-specific, general NOS-inhibitor L-nitroarginine increased binding of 3H-muscimol and 3H-AMPA in most cortical areas, leaving 3H-kainate binding almost unchanged. The water soluble L-nitroarginine-methylester caused similar effects to those of L-nitroarginine which changed over a period of chronic treatment. The inhibitory GABAA-receptors were increased after NOS-inhibition in most cortical areas, whereas binding of 3H-Oxotremorine-M (acetylcholine receptors), 3H-MK-801 (NMDA-receptors) and 3H-AMPA (AMPA receptors) was affected differently among the cortical areas. Strongest alterations of ligand-binding capacity after administration of NOS-inhibitors were seen in cortical areas known to contain the highest packing densities of NOS-I-positive interneurons such as the piriform and entorhinal cortices, indicating that, in normal animals, neurotransmission and probably cognitive information processing would be affected by the pharmacological modulation of nitric oxide production. PMID:10427371

Bidmon, H J; Wu, J; Palomero-Gallagher, N; Oermann, E; Mayer, B; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K



Role of N-Nitro-L-Arginine-Methylester as anti-oxidant in transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports assessing the neuroprotective role of nonselective Nitric Oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion are contradictory. The aim of this work was to examine the potential benefits of L-NAME on rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Methods The study involved 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups 10 rats in each: First group was sham-operated and served as a control, a ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group of rats infused with 0.9% normal saline intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to 30?minutes of left common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion and a test group infused with L-NAME intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to ischemia. Neurobehavioral assessments were evaluated and quantitative assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in both serum and the affected cerebral hemisphere were achieved. Results Rats’ neurological deficit and TAC were significantly decreased while NO and MDA were significantly increased in the I/R compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Alternatively in the L-NAME group, neurological deficit and TAC were significantly improved while NO and MDA were significantly decreased compared to I/R group (P < 0.001). Conclusions L-NAME pretreatment for rats undergoing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion significantly improves neurological deficit while reducing oxidative stress biomarkers in the affected cerebral hemisphere. PMID:23289587



Gender differences and antioxidant treatment affect aortic reactivity in short-term diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is associated with gender-specific macrovascular complications arising from increased oxidant stress in the vascular wall. In this study, male and female rats were treated with two structurally unrelated drugs sharing antioxidant properties, lercanidipine and Leucoselect™ (both 3 mg\\/kg\\/day), for 1 week starting 1 day after streptozotocin-diabetes induction. Concentration–response curves to l-nitroarginine methylester (l-NAME), superoxide dismutase and acetylcholine in aortic

Christian Pinna; Andrea Cignarella; Rossella Zanardo; Chiara Bolego; Lina Puglisi



Interaction between specific dietary factors and experimental chemotherapy of metastatic melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single and combined effects of (a) dietary restriction of phenylalanine and tyrosine, (b) levodopa methylester chemotherapy, and (c) megadose sodium ascorbate supplementation on experimental metastasis was determined in B16-BL6 melanoma. Dietary restriction and levodopa methylester therapy inhibited tumor outgrowth, whereas ascorbate alone was inactive. In combination, however, the effect of dietary restriction and levodopa methylester chemotherapy was augmented by

Gary G. Meadows; Rokia M. Abdallah; Jean R. Starkey



Effects of L-arginine in rat adrenal cells: involvement of nitric oxide synthase.  


The effects of L-arginine on corticosterone production, cGMP, and nitrite levels were examined in zona fasciculata adrenal cells. L-Arginine significantly decreased both basal and ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production. This effect was still evident when steroidogenesis was induced by 8-bromo-cAMP and 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, but not in the presence of exogenously added pregnenolone. L-Arginine increased cGMP and nitrite levels,; these effects were blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester. Transport of L-[3H]arginine was rapid, saturable, and monophasic, with an apparent Km of 163+/-14 microM and a maximum velocity of 53+/-6 pmol/min x 10(5) cells. The basic amino acids L-lysine and L-ornithine, but not D-arginine or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, impaired L-arginine uptake. Taken together, these results suggest that steroidogenesis in zona fasciculata adrenal cells may be negatively modulated by L-arginine-derived nitric oxide. PMID:10385387

Cymeryng, C B; Dada, L A; Colonna, C; Mendez, C F; Podestá, E J



In vitro effects of isoprinosine and a dipeptide methyl ester on Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces.  


A protoscoleces/vesicles in vitro maintenance test with assessment of viability by eosin exclusion was used to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative activities of isoprinosine, its active component inosine and the dipeptide methylester L-Phe-Phe-OMe on isolated protoscoleces of Echinococcus multilocularis for 24 and 48 h. Isoprinosine and inosine showed dose- and time-dependent activity, the latter displaying a more rapid effect than the former. A high activity was shown with L-Phe-Phe-OMe, when compared to praziquantel. Ultrastructural alterations were much more striking with L-Phe-Phe-OMe, with an effect similar to that of praziquantel, whereas the chemotherapeutic activity of inosine and isoprinosine appeared to be directed against a metabolic target, with a lethal effect not immediately visible at the ultrastructural level. Thus, the previously reported in vivo activities of these drugs result largely from a direct effect on the parasite. PMID:11551315

Lawton, P; Walchshofer, N; Sarciron, M E



Effects of Film Thickness on the Photocurrent Generation from Polythiophene-Fullerene Thin Films Containing Silver Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of thin films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) as a function of film thickness, in the presence or absence of silver nanoparticles (AgPs) between the films and the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode. The thickness of the film was evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The absorption and photocurrent action spectra of the films were measured to investigate the effect of the thickness of the P3HT:PCBM film. The results show that IPCE increased steeply in thinner films and the optimal range of thicknesses of the P3HT:PCBM film was 50-120 nm. In this optimal range, the IPCEs were 1.5-1.8 times larger in the presence of AgPs.

You, Jing; Takahashi, Yukina; Yonemura, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Sunao



Gender differences and antioxidant treatment affect aortic reactivity in short-term diabetic rats.  


Diabetes is associated with gender-specific macrovascular complications arising from increased oxidant stress in the vascular wall. In this study, male and female rats were treated with two structurally unrelated drugs sharing antioxidant properties, lercanidipine and Leucoselect (both 3 mg/kg/day), for 1 week starting 1 day after streptozotocin-diabetes induction. Concentration-response curves to L-nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME), superoxide dismutase and acetylcholine in aortic rings showed significantly greater nitric oxide-mediated relaxation in female compared with male non-diabetic rats. Diabetes increased contractility to noradrenaline and L-NAME in both genders, whereas relaxation to acetylcholine and iloprost were significantly attenuated in females only. Treatment with lercanidipine and Leucoselect restored, at least in part, responses to noradrenaline, acetylcholine and iloprost without affecting those to L-NAME and sodium nitroprusside. Unexpectedly, both drugs impaired superoxide dismutase response in female tissues. In conclusion, female rat aorta is markedly exposed to short-term diabetic vascular injury, which may be prevented by antioxidant treatment. PMID:11716845

Pinna, C; Cignarella, A; Zanardo, R; Bolego, C; Puglisi, L



Cardioprotective effects of low-dose combination therapy with rosuvastatin and fasudil in the isolated rat heart.  


The cardiovascular pleiotropic effects of statins and a Rho-kinase inhibitor (fasudil) could be of interest to prevent myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). In the present study, we investigated whether low-dose rosuvastatin and fasudil, separately not possessing cardioprotection, express cardioprotective effects when combined. The isolated rat hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Rosuvastatin (3 microM) and fasudil (1 microM) were administered 15 min before ischemia. NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (30 microM) (L-NAME) was given at the onset of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size, apoptosis, myocardial nitric oxide (NO) content and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression were evaluated. The combination treatment significantly decreased infarct size and percentage of apoptosis and increased the content of NO and eNOS expression, whereas treatment with rosuvastatin and fasudil alone at the same doses did not lead to cardioprotection. Furthermore, L-NAME reversed the cardioprotective effect of rosuvastatin/fasudil combination treatment. In summary, rosuvastatin combined with fasudil treatment had synergistic protective effects against MIRI, which were mediated by increasing eNOS and NO production. This new concept could be valuable in MIRI prevention. PMID:25272944

Wu, Nan; Li, Wenna; Lv, Yan; Shu, Wenqi; Jia, Dalin



Effects of Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract on formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.  


Stress amelioration can improve its metabolic as well as other side effects. In the present study, the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Papver rhoeas (L.) on formalin-induced pain and inflammation were investigated in male Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g). Formalin injects in the plantar portion of mice hind paw and pain was studied for 60 min. The plant extract and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally 30 min before formalin. Experiments showed that administration of extract (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) could induced analgesia in a dose-response manner in both phases of formalin test. More over, the extract inhibits inflammation induced by formalin injection. Naloxone (4 mg kg(-1)), dextromethorphan (20 mg kg(-1)) and NG-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME; 10 mg kg(-1)) reduced the extract analgesia in first but not late phase. Extract administration also increased plasma corticosterone level in dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract could inhibits acute phase of formalin test in mice by opioidergic, glutamatergic and nitricergic mechanisms. In addition, the extract can induce corticosterone plasma level which may be responsible for inhibition of inflammation and chronic phase of pain induced by formalin. PMID:24163947

Saeed-Abadi, S; Ranjbaran, M; Jafari, F; Najafi-Abedi, A; Rahmani, B; Esfandiari, B; Delfan, B; Mojabi, N; Ghahramani, M; Sahraei, H



A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–?) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-? levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.



Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization  

SciTech Connect

Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir M. [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Riccio, Massimo [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Squarzoni, Stefano [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail:



Reduction of tyrosine nitration after N ?-nitro- l-arginine-methylester treatment of mice with traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen free radicals and nitric oxide (NO) have been proposed to be involved in the cascade of injury elicited by traumatic brain injury. However, the mechanism(s) of injury remain to be explored. Since superoxide generation is triggered by traumatic brain injury, the cytotoxic peroxynitrite could be formed, but it is not known if this actually occurs. Dot blot and immunohistochemistry

Christian Mésenge; Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue; Catherine Verrecchia; Monique Allix; Roger R Boulu; Michel Plotkine



Combined enzymatic and colorimetric method for determining the uronic acid and methylester content of pectin: Application to tomato products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure for determining the galacturonic acid and methanol contents of soluble and insoluble pectins, relying on enzymatic pectin hydrolysis and colorimetric quantification, is described. Pectin samples are incubated with a commercial pectinase preparation, Viscozyme, then the galacturonic acid content of the hydrolyzed pectin is quantified colorimetrically using a modification of the Cu reduction procedure originally described by Avigad

Gordon E. Anthon; Diane M. Barrett



The effect of piribedil on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: differential role of ?(2) adrenergic mechanisms.  


Piribedil is a non-ergoline, dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist with ?(2) adrenoceptor antagonist properties that has been used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Noradrenergic neurotransmission may be involved in the pathogenesis of dyskinesias induced by chronic treatment with L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, levodopa), but its role in the in vivo action of piribedil or on different subclasses of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) remains unclear. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to investigate the anti-dyskinetic effects of piribedil on L-DOPA-induced contralateral turning behaviour, locomotive dyskinesias (LD), axial dystonia (AD), orolingual dyskinesia (OD) and forelimb dyskinesia (FD) and (2) to compare these effects to the ?(2) adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan, or the ?(2) adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine. Rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and injected intraperitoneally twice daily with L-DOPA methylester (12.5 mg/kg) and benserazide (3.25 mg/kg). After 3 weeks, the effects of piribedil (5, 15, 40 mg/kg), clonidine (0.15 mg/kg), idazoxan (10 mg/kg) and combinations of these drugs were scored during 2 h. Pre-treatment with 5 and 40 mg/kg, but not 15 mg/kg, of piribedil reduced turning behaviour and AD, OD and FD, but piribedil increased LD at the 40 mg/kg doses compared to the L-DOPA group. Idazoxan induced similar effects as piribedil (40 mg/kg), except that it had no effect on LD. Idazoxan blocked the effect of piribedil on AD and FD. Clonidine reduced all AIMs except OD, possibly because of its sedative effect. Clonidine blocked the effect of piribedil on AD, OD and FD. These data suggest a differential involvement of ?(2) adrenergic receptors in the action of piribedil on different subclasses of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. PMID:22592937

Gerlach, Manfred; Halley, Paul; Riederer, Peter; van den Buuse, Maarten



Aspects of the spasmogenic effects of acetate esters on ileal smooth muscle.  


Acetate esters, such as aspirin methylester, aspirin and resorcinol monoacetate, induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum. Their actions were selectively antagonized by atropine, but were not affected by ganglion blocking agents, conduction blockers, aging with cooling, anoxia or antihistaminics. On the other hand, N-acetates, such as acetanilide and p-acetaminophenol, and no contractile action on the ileum. These acetate esters thus seemed to have a cholinergic action, and not a direct action on muscle or other known specific receptors for endogenous active substances. The contractions induced by the acetate esters were selectively potentiated by low concentrations of choline, whereas those induced by acetylcholine, nicotine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine were not. However, N-acetates did not induce the contractions even in the presence of choline. Organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors, such as diisopropyl fluorophosphate and paraoxon, selectively and irreversibly inhibited the actions of aspirin and N,O-diacetyl-p-aminophenol with or without choline. From these results, it is concluded that the acetate esters with or without choline act through the cholinergic system. However, their actions cannot be explained in terms of known mechanisms, such as acetylcholine release, cholinesterase inhibition or a direct muscarinic action. Therefore, the acetate esters, including phenyl acetate which was supposed to be a releaser of acetylcholine, seem to have a hitherto undescribed type of cholinergic action whose mechanism is unknown. It seems that organophosphate-sensitive esterase(s) in the preparation may be essential for initiation of the actions of the acetate esters with or without choline, but the mechanism of the effect of choline is unknown. PMID:856612

Moritoki, H; Ishida, Y



Role of nitric oxide synthases in the infarct size-reducing effect conferred by heat stress in isolated rat hearts  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) donors are known to induce both delayed cardioprotection and myocardial heat stress protein (HSP) expression. Moreover, heat stress (HS), which also protects myocardium against ischaemic damages, is associated with a NO release. Therefore, we have investigated the implication of NO in HS-induced resistance to myocardial infarction, in the isolated rat heart model.Rats were divided in six groups (n=10 in each group), subjected or not to heat stress (42°C internal temperature, 15?min) and treated or not with nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) a non-selective inhibitor of NO synthase isoforms, or L-N6-(1-imino-ethyl)lysine (L-NIL), a selective inhibitor of the inducible NO synthase. Twenty-four hours after heat stress, their hearts were isolated, retrogradely perfused, and subjected to a 30-min occlusion of the left coronary artery followed by 120?min of reperfusion.Infarct-to-risk ratio was significantly reduced in HS (18.7±1.6%) compared to Sham (33.0±1.7%) hearts. This effect was abolished in L-NAME-treated (41.7±3.1% in HS+L-NAME vs 35.2±3.0% in Sham+L-NAME) and L-NIL-treated (36.1±3.4% in HS+L-NIL vs 42.1±4.6% in Sham+L-NIL) groups. Immunohistochemical analysis of myocardial HSP 27 and 72 showed an HS-induced increase of these proteins, which was not modified by L-NAME pretreatment.We conclude that NO synthases, and in particular the inducible isoform, appear to play a role in the heat stress-induced cardioprotection, independently of HSP 27 and 72 levels. Further investigations are required to elucidate the precise role of HSPs in this adaptive response. PMID:11309257

Arnaud, Claire; Laubriet, Aline; Joyeux, Marie; Godin-Ribuot, Diane; Rochette, Luc; Demenge, Pierre; Ribuot, Christophe



The role of nitric oxide in regulation of the cardiovascular system in reptiles.  


The roles that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the cardiovascular system of reptiles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on its effects on central vascular blood flows in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. New data is presented that describes the effects on hemodynamic variables in varanid lizards of exogenously administered NO via the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by l-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Furthermore, preliminary data on the effects of SNP on hemodynamic variables in the tegu lizard are presented. The findings are compared with previously published data from our laboratory on three other species of reptiles: pythons (), rattlesnakes () and turtles (). These five species of reptiles possess different combinations of division of the heart and structural complexity of the lungs. Comparison of their responses to NO donors and NOS inhibitors may reveal whether the potential contribution of NO to vascular tone correlates with pulmonary complexity and/or with blood pressure. All existing studies on reptiles have clearly established a potential role for NO in regulating vascular tone in the systemic circulation and NO may be important for maintaining basal systemic vascular tone in varanid lizards, pythons and turtles, through a continuous release of NO. In contrast, the pulmonary circulation is less responsive to NO donors or NOS inhibitors, and it was only in pythons and varanid lizards that the lungs responded to SNP. Both species have a functionally separated heart, so it is possible that NO may exert a larger role in species with low pulmonary blood pressures, irrespective of lung complexity. PMID:15982914

Skovgaard, Nini; Galli, Gina; Abe, Augusto; Taylor, Edwin W; Wang, Tobias



Silver-Nanoparticle-Assisted Photocurrent Generation in Polythiophene--Fullerene Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgPs) on the photocurrent generation of a polyphiophene-fullerene photovoltaic film. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) were used for the electron donor and acceptor, respectively. First, AgPs were electrostatically deposited upon the surface of an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode via a polycation. Then, a film of P3HT or a mixture

Jing You; Taichi Arakawa; Takatoshi Munaoka; Tsuyoshi Akiyama; Yukina Takahashi; Sunao Yamada



Sphingosine 1-phosphate induces endothelial nitric-oxide synthase activation through phosphorylation in human corpus cavernosum.  


Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is the natural ligand for a specific G protein-coupled receptors. In endothelial cells, S1P has been shown to modulate the activity of the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) through phosphorylation operated by Akt. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal nitric-oxide synthase and eNOS plays a central role in triggering and maintaining penile erection. This study has assessed the possibility of a similar cross-talk between eNOS and S1P in human corpus cavernosum and whether this interaction is connected to penile vascular response. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of S1P(1), S1P(2), and S1P(3) receptors in both the human corpus cavernosum (HCC) and the penile artery. S1P on its own did not relax or contract HCC strips, but on the other hand, incubation with S1P (0.1 microM) caused a 6-fold increase in relaxation induced by a subliminal dose of acetylcholine. This effect is dependent upon eNOS activation through an Akt-dependent phosphorylation, as demonstrated by pharmacological modulation with l-nitroarginine methyl ester and wortmannin and by Western blot studies. In human tissue, S1P seems to be the possible candidate for the activation of the eNOS calcium-independent pathway. This pathway may represent a new therapeutic area of intervention in erectile dysfunction (ED) to develop a way to selectively promote NO production at the endothelial level. This approach could also be used to enhance phosphodiesterase 5 therapy in patients with ED that are poor responders, such as in the case of diabetes. PMID:16234413

di Villa Bianca, Roberta d'Emmanuele; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Imbimbo, Ciro; Palmieri, Alessandro; Fusco, Ferdinando; Maggi, Mario; De Palma, Raffaele; Cirino, Giuseppe; Mirone, Vincenzo



Advertising Effects and Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the application of an integrated econometric time-series model for advertising effectiveness is presented. The model form gives rise to three possible advertising effects: brand loyalty, current effects (both simple and compound) and carryover effects. The inherent nature of these effects is related to the degree of involvement and the affective or cognitive aspects of the purchase decision.

Mike T. Bendixen



Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information on the classical doppler effect, the relativistic doppler effect, aberration, and the transverse doppler effect. It also discusses wave fronts, first-order and second order effect, light-time correction, Galilean transformation, and parallax.

Calvert, J. B.



Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Doppler effect followed from water waves to sound waves to light waves. Red shift of the universe is also explored. What is doppler effect? It is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. What does that mean? Watch this: moving doppler effect video What does the doppler effect look like in a stationary and moving object? dooppler effect views What does doppler effect have to do with stars and galaxies??? View the following ...

Brown, Mrs.



Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Doppler effect followed from water waves to sound waves to light waves. Red shift of the universe is also explored. What is doppler effect? It is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. What does that mean? Watch this: moving doppler effect video What does the doppler effect look like in a stationary and moving object? dooppler effect views What does doppler effect have to do with stars and galaxies??? View the following ...

Clemons, Mrs.



Health Effects  


... significant health impacts on a global scale. Potential Climate Change Health Effects Heat-Related Morbidity and Mortality Asthma, ... Cancer Additional Readings about the Health Effects of Climate Change Frumkin H, Hess J, and Vindigni S. Peak petroleum ...


The effect of calcium-induced fullerene migration on the performance of thermally stable nanoparticle organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of a calcium interface layer in combination with a thermal annealing treatment on the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-buteric acid methylester (PCBM) nanoparticle photovoltaic devices is investigated. Annealing is found to disrupt the microstructure of the nanoparticle active layer leading to a reduction in fill factor. However, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the calcium interface layer causes PCBM to preferentially migrate to the cathode interface upon annealing, resulting in better charge extraction from the PCBM moiety, an increase in the built-in voltage, open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency. Moreover, the annealing trends could be completely explained by the observed PCBM migration. Unlike P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction devices, the P3HT:PCBM nanoparticle devices showed a remarkable thermal stability up to 120 °C. As such, OPVs fabricated from aqueous nanoparticle inks provide an attractive alternative to conventional organic solvent based bulk heterojunction devices.

Feron, K.; Ulum, S.; Sesa, E.; Gong, B. B.; Belcher, W. J.; Zhou, X.; Fell, C. J.; Dastoor, P. C.



Chelation of /sup 238/Pu(IV) in vivo by 3,4,3-LICAM(C): Effects of ligand methylation and pH  

SciTech Connect

The linear tetracarboxycatecholate ligand, 3,4,3-LICAM(C) N1,N5,N10,N14-tetrakis(2,3-dihydroxy-4-carboxybenzoyl-tetraaza tet radecane, tetra sodium salt) injected within 1 h after injection of Pu(IV) citrate, removes about the same fraction of Pu from animals as CaNa3-DTPA but removes less inhaled Pu than CaNa3-DTPA and leaves a Pu residue in the renal cortex. However, the formation constant of the expected Pu-3,4,3-LICAM(C) complexes are orders of magnitude greater than that of Pu-DTPA, and 3,4,3-LICAM(C) is 100 times more efficient than CaNa3-DTPA for removing Pu from transferrin in vitro. Because the formation constants of their actinide complexes are central to in vivo actinide chelation, ligand design strategies are dominated by the search for ligands with large Pu complex stabilities, and it was necessary to explain the failure of 3,4,3-LICAM(C) to achieve its thermodynamic potential in vivo. All the batches of 3,4,3-LICAM(C) prepared at Berkeley or in France (Euro-LICAM(C)) were found by high-pressure liquid chromatography to be mixtures of the pure ligand (55% in Berkeley preparations, 8.5% in Euro-LICAM(C)) and its four methylesters. A revised synthesis for 3,4,3-LICAM(C) is appended to this report. All of the incompletely hydrolyzed 3,4,3-LICAM(C) preparations and the pure ligand were tested for removal of Pu from mice (238Pu(IV) citrate intravenous, 30 mumol kg-1 of ligand at 1 h, kill at 24 h, radioanalyze tissues and separated excretal). The presence of methylesters did not significantly impair the ability of the ligands to remove Pu from mice, and it did not alter the fraction of injected Pu deposited in kidneys. Temporary elevation (reduction) of plasma and urine pH of mice by 0.5 mL of 0.1 M NaHCO3 (NH4Cl) injected before or simultaneously with pure 3,4,3-LICAM(C) somewhat improved (significantly reduced) Pu excretion but had little influence on Pu deposition in kidneys.

Durbin, P.W.; White, D.L.; Jeung, N.L.; Weitl, F.L.; Uhlir, L.C.; Jones, E.S.; Bruenger, F.W.; Raymond, K.N.



Gauging Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books by education experts and speakers at national professional conferences have inspired many school leaders to initiate professional learning communities (PLCs). Sustaining them effectively to raise student achievement is another matter. How can one know whether a PLC is moving toward a desired outcome? Measuring effectiveness requires an…

Foord, Kathleen A.; Haar, Jean M.



Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a tuning fork to explore how the Doppler effect works. They strike the tuning fork to produce a sound, then observe as the tone changes as the fork is swung back and forth. Learners also explore applications of the Doppler effect in technology.




Chemotherapy Effects  


... our Understanding Chemotherapy guide that discusses chemotherapy side effects. Home Care for the Cancer Patient: Chemotherapy This section of our Home Care guide provides a brief overview of chemotherapy and managing some of its side effects. Chemo Brain The mental cloudiness some people notice ...


Deterministic effects.  


Deterministic effects are distinguished from stochastic effects for radiation protection purposes by the following characteristics: both incidence and severity increase as a function of dose after a threshold dose is reached. Cell killing is central to all deterministic effects with the exception of radiation-induced cataracts. The understanding of radiation-induced killing of cells has increased greatly in the last decade with an extraordinarily intense interest in apoptosis. Programmed cell death has long been known to developmental biologists and the importance of cell death has been recognized and quantified by tumor biologists and students of cell kinetics but the coining of a new name and the increase of understanding of the molecular aspects of cell death has stimulated interest. Some cells appear to be very sensitive to radiation and undergo apoptosis, whereas others such as fibroblasts do not with equal frequency. This characteristic, like many others, underlines the genetic differences among cell types. We are reaching a time that there are techniques and the knowledge to apply them to clinical and radiation protection problems. In radiotherapy, success depends on the differential effect between tumor and normal tissues that is obtained. To design the optimum therapy, a profile of both the tumor cells and the cells of the normal tissues that may be at risk would help. The profile would characterize the radiosensitivity and the underlying factors, which could help in the choice of adjunct therapy for tumor and normal tissue. Fibrosis, a common unwanted late effect, appears to be influenced by genetic factors, at least in experimental animals. Techniques are available for treating people as individuals more than ever before, and that must be a good thing to do. Protection against deterministic effects would seem an easy matter but we are uncomfortably ignorant of the precise effect of protracted low-dose irradiation on tissues, such as the bone marrow and the testis, important features of risk in space. Entering the new century, it may be timely to classify radiation effects, as Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) has done, into cancer, genetic effects, and noncancer effects. The recognition in the atomic-bomb survivors of noncancer effects at doses on the order of 0.5 Sv (half the dose level considered a threshold in earlier studies) should stimulate interest in deterministic effects. PMID:11281201

Fry, R J



Psychopharmaceuticals: effects and side effects  

PubMed Central

Drugs which affect psychological behaviour are being used in vast amounts nowadays, with, in all too many cases, but scant regard for their exact uses or possible side effects. This article contains a clinical classification of these drugs, followed by an account of their principal side effects and the means of obviating them. PMID:14409889

Kline, Nathan S.



Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

- The Doppler Effect explains why we hear a sonic boom when an airplane flies faster than the speed of sound. - Applying the Doppler Effect is how we have Doppler Radar used to track weather. - The Doppler Effect can be applied to outerspace and it evidence that the universe is expanding. Sound is energy traveling through a medium. A medium can be a gas, liquid, or solid. Therefore sound can not travel in outerspace since it is a vacuum which means there is nothing not even air. Energy traveling through a medium or even a vacuum is considered a wave. ...

Leet, Mr.



Health Effects  


... of Cannabis sativa or cannabis indica—the hemp plant Health Effects Acute Heightened sensory perception; euphoria, followed ... addiction. Street Opioids (Heroin, Opium) Processed from poppy plants; a white or brownish powder or black sticky ...


Effective Parenting  


... parents? There is a whole history to your parent-child relationship that began at the moment your youngster was ... effectively, so they will not interfere with your parent-child relationships. For example, if you are like many parents, ...


Effects and Effectiveness of Telemedicine  

PubMed Central

The use of telemedicine has recently undergone rapid growth and proliferation. Although the feasibility of many applications has been tested for nearly 30 years, data concerning the costs, effects, and effectiveness of telemedicine are limited. Consequently, the development of a strategy for coverage, payment, and utilization policy has been hindered. Telemedicine continues to expand, and pressure for policy development increases in the context of Federal budget cuts and major changes in health service financing. This article reviews the literature on the effects and medical effectiveness of telemedicine. It concludes with several recommendations for research, followed by a discussion of several specific questions, the answers to which might have a bearing on policy development. PMID:10153466

Grigsby, Jim; Kaehny, Margaret M.; Sandberg, Elliot J.; Schlenker, Robert E.; Shaughnessy, Peter W.



[Effective delegation].  


Ninety-seven percent of middle level managers feel they face work overload. The source of this problem may lie in a failure to delegate tasks effectively. If a manager does not effectively delegate, he/she is more likely to report fatigue, stress and depression. Conversely, effectively delegating tasks will improve overall job quality, professional growth in subordinates and cooperation within the team. While it is necessary for managers to delegate tasks effectively, few can be considered to be good natural 'delegators'. Learning and training is necessary for managers to develop the necessary confidence and maturity. This article describes the definitions, purpose and benefits of delegation; factors related to effective delegation; strategies related to successful delegation and skills related to performing cross-cultural delegations. Such issues have seldom been addressed in previous articles. Moreover, nursing implications and suggested applications in nursing practice, education, management and research are mentioned. This article is intended to provide directions to nursing managers and subordinates to promote delegation knowledge and skills. PMID:19051179

Fang, Li; Hung, Chich-Hsiu



Interpersonal Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interpersonal Effectiveness provides participants with an opportunity to develop their interpersonal skills through interactive exercises conducted in a team setting. Debriefing these exercises with all members of the class helps ensure that the exercises translate into personal and interpersonal learning for the participants. After completing this module, students should be able to identify the principles of good teamwork and effective communication and demonstrate those skills during a series of interactive exercises. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at

Alston, Michele; King, John



Photoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of simulations of aspects of the photoelectric effect. There is an animation of the experiment with four choices of incident radiation - low and high intensity "red", to represent low energy light and low and high intensity "blue" to represent higher energy light. Electron production is animated and there is an ammeter to simulate current flow. Additional simulations show the effect of light frequency and intensity. There is a link to a spreadsheet that allows students to choose a sample from among five metals. The spreadsheet includes several questions to be answered after working through the materials.


Effective Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals know that effective teachers are the greatest school-based contributors to improved student outcomes. What is not always clear is how principals can help teachers adapt their instructional practices to the increasingly diverse learning styles they find in their classrooms. Teacher evaluation practices are typically not seen as a tool…

Oliva, Michelle; Mathers, Carrie; Laine, Sabrina



Sleeper Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early experience preserves and refines many capabilities that emerge prenatally. Here we describe another role that it plays--establishing the neural substrate for capabilities that emerge at a much later point in development. The evidence comes from sleeper effects: permanent deficits when early experience was absent in capabilities that normally…

Maurer, Daphne; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.



Silver-Nanoparticle-Assisted Photocurrent Generation in Polythiophene-Fullerene Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgPs) on the photocurrent generation of a polyphiophene-fullerene photovoltaic film. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) were used for the electron donor and acceptor, respectively. First, AgPs were electrostatically deposited upon the surface of an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode via a polycation. Then, a film of P3HT or a mixture of P3HT and PCBM was prepared by spin coating. The thickness of the film was evaluated by atomic force microscopy. Absorption and fluorescence spectral measurements were carried out to investigate the effects of AgPs. Photocurrent spectra were also measured, and the effects of AgPs on photocurrent enhancement were verified.

You, Jing; Arakawa, Taichi; Munaoka, Takatoshi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yukina; Yamada, Sunao



System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL



Blazhko Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cause of the Blazhko effect, the long-term modulation of the light and radial velocity curves of some RR Lyr stars, is still not understood. The observational characteristics of the Blazhko effect are discussed. Some preliminary results are presented from two recent campaigns to observe RR Lyr, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer along with ground-based spectroscopy and photometry, throughout a pulsation cycle, at a variety of Blazhko phases. A set of ultraviolet light curves have been generated from low dispersion IUE spectra. In addition, the (visual) light curves from IUE's Fine Error Sensor are analyzed using the Fourier decomposition technique. The values of the parameters Psi(sub 21) and R(sub 21) at different Blazhko phases of RR Lyr span the range of values found for non-Blazhko variables of similar period.

Teays, Terry



Ripple Effects  

E-print Network

policies and practices might have on producers? incomes and water savings, as well as the ripple effects on the regional economy. Drs. Steve Amosson of Texas Cooperative Extension in Amarillo, Lal K. Almas of West Texas A&M University, Jeff Peterson... income and aquifer-saturated thickness for each county in the study. Almas, assistant professor of agricultural business and economics, said the optimization model determines the number of irrigated acres for each crop that maximizes the value...

Wythe, Kathy



Effectiveness performance  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Remote Cache in a NUMA System Don DeSota, Sequent Computers Ruth Forester, Sequent Computers #12; . In NUMA systems remote accesses will degrade performance . A level 3 cache for remote Database cust1 NUMA 8 PPro 32M DB­A cust2 NUMA 8 PPro 32M DB­A cust3­1 NONNUMA 4 PPro 32M DB­A cust3

Zilles, Craig


Effective Presentations  

PubMed Central

Where the purpose of presentations is to inform, effective delivery is important to ensure that audiences receive the educational message. We offer six suggestions: introduce the topic in an interesting way; speak loudly enough; do not read; involve the audience actively; respect the attention span of the audience; and limit the amount of content. We conclude that the skills of live public presentation can be learned, but that the art of presentation is innate. Imagesp2063-ap2064-a PMID:21233951

Spooner, H. James; Swanson, Richard W.



Compton Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Compton Effect model simulates the the scattering of light off of an electron, the Compton effect. Compton used the idea that light behaves like a particle to explain light-electron (photon-electron) scattering. He used the relation for the energy and momentum of the photon and the relativistic expression for the energy of the electron, and applied relativistic energy and momentum conservation for the collision. The wavelength shift of the light depend on the angle of the scattered photon (and the electron). By changing the scattering angle in the simulation, the angle of the scattered photon changes according to Compton's equation. The panel on the left shows the experimental set up, while the panel on the right shows the resulting photon wavelength from the scattering. In a typical Compton experiment, light is scattered off of the electrons in an atom, and there is little scattering due to the more tightly held electrons while there is more scattering due to the less tightly held electrons. This is what is responsible for the two peak distribution shown. The Compton Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_compton.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.



Piezoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students explore the piezoelectric effect, which is the conversion between electricity and mechanical motion. The model used in this activity shows this conversion and users can manipulate the model to change the voltage and observe changes to a crystal. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In these activities, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity and central and key concepts.



Crystal Growth Inhibitors for the Prevention of L-Cystine Kidney Stones Through Molecular Design  

SciTech Connect

Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects. Real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that L-cystine dimethylester (L-CDME) and L-cystine methylester (L-CME) dramatically reduce the growth velocity of the six symmetry-equivalent {l_brace}100{r_brace} steps because of specific binding at the crystal surface, which frustrates the attachment of L-cystine molecules. L-CDME and L-CME produce L-cystine crystals with different habits that reveal distinct binding modes at the crystal surfaces. The AFM observations are mirrored by reduced crystal yield and crystal size in the presence of L-CDME and L-CME, collectively suggesting a new pathway to the prevention of L-cystine stones by rational design of crystal growth inhibitors.

Rimer, Jeffrey D.; An, Zhihua; Zhu, Zina; Lee, Michael H.; Goldfarb, David S.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.; Ward, Michael D. (NY Univ.); (MCW)



Efficient solution-processed small-molecule solar cells by insertion of graphene quantum dots.  


In this work, we have demonstrated the results of several positive effects that arise from the addition of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to solution-processed small molecule bulk-heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cells fabricated from a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl-ester (PC71BM). The device with an optimized ratio of GQDs exhibits increased current density and fill factor owing to 10% improved external quantum efficiency (EQE) and induction of a favorable SM-BHJ morphology. Additionally, the multiple scattering of the GQDs in the SM-BHJ leads to longer optical pathlengths according to the analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra and UV/Vis absorption spectra. The GQD inserted SM-BHJ film at the optimized concentration exhibits decreased charge transport resistance significantly by impedance measurements with effective charge extraction in the device which contributes to 15% enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE). PMID:25373477

Wang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jung Kyu; Jin Kim, Sang; Hee Hong, Byung; Park, Jong Hyeok



Erosion Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The impact crater in this THEMIS image is a model illustration to the effects of erosion on Mars. The degraded crater rim and several landslides observed in crater walls is evidence to the mass wasting of materials. Layering in crater walls also suggests the presence of materials that erode at varying rates.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.6, Longitude 44.3 East (315.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.



Effective committees.  


A committee is a group of people officially delegated to perform a function, such as investigating, considering, reporting, or acting on a matter. Some committees function like task forces and work on specific, time-limited projects. When the work is finished, the committees are no longer needed. These committees are called ad hoc committees. Other committees are standing committees. They are created by the standing orders, rules, by-laws, or regulations of an organization and exist and function indefinitely (eg, finance, membership, education, nomination). Both types of committees can form subcommittees if the workloads are heavy or complex in nature. Committees can be among the most important working forces of an organization. They serve as work units of the organization, taking work and breaking it into meaningful and manageable chunks. They efficiently carry out the work of the organization. Committee work should be a rewarding experience for both the members and the organization. Committees represent, involve, and serve members, as well as provide an important training ground for future leaders of an organization. New or inexperienced members can gain valuable insight into an organization and develop confidence by serving on committees. There are several key elements of effective committees, including (1) a clear, written purpose; (2) an effective committee chair; (3) thoughtfully appointed members; and (4) well-run meetings. PMID:22386164

Collins, Jannette



Pulmonary Hypertension in Lambs Transfused with Stored Blood is Prevented by Breathing Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

Background During extended storage, erythrocytes undergo functional changes. These changes reduce the viability of erythrocytes leading to release of oxyhemoglobin, a potent scavenger of nitric oxide. We hypothesized that transfusion of ovine packed erythrocytes (PRBC) stored for prolonged periods would induce pulmonary vasoconstriction in lambs, and that reduced vascular nitric oxide concentrations would increase this vasoconstrictor effect. Methods We developed a model of autologous stored blood transfusion in lambs (n=36). Leukoreduced blood was stored for either 2 days (fresh PRBC) or 40 days (stored PRBC). Fresh or stored PRBC were transfused into donors instrumented for awake hemodynamic measurements. Hemodynamic effects of PRBC transfusion were also studied after infusion of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester (25 mg/kg) or during inhalation of nitric oxide (80 ppm). Results Cell-free hemoglobin levels were higher in the supernatant of stored PRBC than in supernatant of fresh PRBC (Mean±SD, 148±20 versus 41±13 mg/dl, respectively, P<0.001). Pulmonary artery pressure during transfusion of stored PRBC transiently increased from 13±1 to 18±1 mmHg (P<0.001) and was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin concentrations. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester potentiated the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure induced by transfusing stored PRBC, whereas inhalation of nitric oxide prevented the vasoconstrictor response. Conclusions Our results suggest that patients with reduced vascular nitric oxide levels due to endothelial dysfunction may be more susceptible to adverse effects of transfusing blood stored for prolonged periods. These patients might benefit from transfusion of fresh PRBC, when available, or inhaled nitric oxide supplementation to prevent the pulmonary hypertension associated with transfusion of stored PRBC. PMID:22293717

Baron, David M.; Yu, Binglan; Lei, Chong; Bagchi, Aranya; Beloiartsev, Arkadi; Stowell, Christopher P.; Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.



Malondialdehyde generated from peroxidized linolenic acid causes protein modification in heat-stressed plants.  


When polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in biomembrane are peroxidized, a great diversity of aldehydes is formed, and some of which are highly reactive. Thus they are thought to have biological impacts in stressed plants; however, the detailed mechanism of generation and biochemical effects are unknown. In this study, we show that chloroplasts are major organelles in which malondialdehyde (MDA) generated from peroxidized linolenic acid modifies proteins in heat-stressed plants. First, to clarify the biochemical process of MDA generation from PUFAs and its attachment to proteins, we carried out in vitro experiments using model proteins (BSA and Rubisco) and methylesters of C18 PUFAs that are major components of plant biomembrane. Protein modification was detected by Western blotting using monoclonal antibodies that recognize MDA binding to proteins. Results showed that peroxidation of linolenic acid methylester by reactive oxygen species was essential for protein modification by MDA, and the MDA modification was highly dependent on temperature, leading to a loss of Rubisco activity. When isolated spinach thylakoid membrane was peroxidized at 37 degrees C, oxygen-evolving complex 33kDa protein (OEC33) was modified by MDA. These model experiments suggest that protein modification by MDA preferentially occurs under higher temperatures and oxidative conditions, thus we examined protein modification in heat-stressed plants. Spinach plants were heat-stressed at 40 degrees C under illumination, and modification of OEC33 protein by MDA was detected. In heat-stressed Arabidopsis plants, light-harvesting complex protein was modified by MDA under illumination. This modification was not observed in linolenic acid-deficient mutants (fad3fad7fad8 triple mutant), suggesting that linolenic acid is a major source of protein modification by MDA in heat-stressed plants. PMID:18538576

Yamauchi, Yasuo; Furutera, Ai; Seki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro



Ecological Effects in Malaria Vaccine Effectiveness in  

E-print Network

Ecological Effects in Malaria Vaccine Effectiveness in Lilongwe, Malawi Cameron Taylor B component to a GlaxoSmithKline phase III trial vaccine trial so that researchers can better understand distribution and the ecological effects of both malaria transmission intensity and vaccine efficacy

Doyle, Martin


Mercury: Health Effects  


... toxicological profile for mercury . Top of page Elemental mercury effects Elemental (metallic) mercury primarily causes health effects ... 0370.htm . Top of page Effects of other mercury compounds (inorganic and organic) High exposures to inorganic ...


Side Effects of Chemotherapy  


... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction ... side effects of docetaxel as used to treat prostate cancer are VERY different and less severe than the ...


Communicating Effectively PDF

Effective communication is essential for the delivery of quality cancer palliative care. And yet, healthcare providers often lack the skills to communicate effectively with their patients and families.


Prenylcysteine methylesterase in Arabidopsis thaliana.  


Prenylated proteins undergo a series of post-translational modifications, including prenylation, proteolysis, and methylation. Collectively, these modifications generate a prenylcysteine methylester at the carboxyl terminus and modulate protein targeting and function. Prenylcysteine methylation is the only reversible step in this series of modifications. However, prenylcysteine alpha-carboxyl methylesterase (PCME) activity has not been described in plants. We have detected a specific PCME activity in Arabidopsis thaliana membranes that discriminates between biologically relevant and irrelevant prenylcysteine methylester substrates. Furthermore, we have identified an Arabidopsis gene (At5g15860) that encodes measurable PCME activity in recombinant yeast cells with greater specificity for biologically relevant prenylcysteine methylesters than the activity found in Arabidopsis membranes. These results suggest that specific and non-specific esterases catalyze the demethylation of prenylcysteine methylesters in Arabidopsis membranes. Our findings are discussed in the context of prenylcysteine methylation/demethylation as a potential regulatory mechanism for membrane association and function of prenylated proteins in Arabidopsis. PMID:16870359

Deem, Angela K; Bultema, Rebecca L; Crowell, Dring N



Investigation on Gas-phase Structures of Biomolecules Using Ion Mobility-mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

analysis indicate that the ions backbone structures are similar. Chemical modifications (N-acetyl, methylester, as well as addition of Boc or Fmoc groups) of MIFAGIK alter the distribution of various conformers, the most dramatic changes are observed...

Tao, Lei



AHSGE Cause and Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cause and Effect practice to build skill knowledge for the reading portion of the graduation exam. Complete the Cause and Effect activities at your pace . Cause and Effect Match , Cause and Effect Mini Lesson and Game , What s the Cause?? Quiz . ...

Ufomadu, Ms.



Potential Chemotherapy Side Effects  

PubMed Central

Background In order to determine the number of short-term side effects and late effects discussed during an informed consent conference (ICC) after the diagnosis of acute leukemia, we observed the occurrence(s) and the ratio between short-term side effects versus late effects during an ICC. Procedure ICC(s) of childhood leukemia trials were audio-taped at six different study sites. The side effects mentioned during each of these ICC(s) were coded and analyzed. Results One hundred and forty cases were reviewed, from which we coded a total of 3173 acute side effects and 242 late effects. The mean total side effects mentioned during each ICC was 24 (range 5-47). The number of late effects coded were significantly less than acute side effects. We also found that the duration of ICC(s) was positively correlated with the number of side effects mentioned. In addition, the frequency of total side effects mentioned was independent of patient or parent demographic factors. Conclusions Our results show that acute side effects are often mentioned but the discussion of late effects is much less frequent in the initial ICC(s). Careful consideration regarding the ratio of acute and late effects that are communicated to parents in the context of the informed consent conference may facilitate parental understanding of clinically relevant side effects. PMID:19101994

Ramirez, Lisa Ysela; Huestis, Samantha E; Yi Yap, Tsiao; Zyzanski, Stephen; Drotar, Dennis; Kodish, Eric



Managing Physical Effects

Browse a list of common side effects of cancer or cancer treatment with links to practical information for preventing or relieving these effects. Also find information on maintaining proper nutrition during cancer treatment.


Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Toolkit  

EPA Science Inventory

US EPA has identified the effectiveness of Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the e...


Aeroelastic Thermal Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adverse effect of increasing temperature on the stability of turbomachinery airfoils was long recognized but remains today one that is not fully understood. The quantitative effect on the reduced frequency parameter, k = omega c/V, which was experimen...

J. D. Jeffers



Medications and Side Effects  




Effective 4-H Meetings  

E-print Network

As a 4-H volunteer, you will have different functions. An especially important task is to prepare interesting and effective meetings where youth can obtain the greatest educational benefit while having fun. This publication outlines effective...

Howard, Jeff W.



Prednisone [Possible Side Effects  


Prednisone is a corticosteroid. In contrast to anabolic steroids (used by “bodybuilders”), corticosteroids are used in inflammatory ... Side Effects Many of the side–effects of steroids are predictable. All are related to: 1) the ...


Side Effects (Management)  


... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...


Psychological effects of drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews reports (1912-1913) on the effects of drugs. The influence of alcohol, tea, and coffee on the speed and accuracy of work in type-writing reveals that alcohol decreases speed and increases errors. Tea and caffeine increase the amount of work. In regard to the effects of alcohol on mental and muscular activity, it has a brief stimulating effect which is



Scale effects in transmissivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity accounts for several paradoxes in groundwater flow and solute transport. One of the most striking observations is the emergence of scale effects in transmissivity, that is, the increase in effective transmissivity (or hydraulic conductivity, for that matter) with increasing scale of observation. Traditional stochastic approaches, where transmissivity is treated as a multilog-normal random function, lead to a large-scale effective

Xavier Sánchez-Vila; Jesús Carrera; Jorge P. Girardi



Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

Sartori, Leo



Effective scientific communication  

E-print Network

Effective scientific communication in biomedicine is the basic mechanism of existence and progress of science. For effective written scientific communication it is not enough only to publish report of obtained scientific results. Scientific article must be written in a way to be easily noticed and understand by the reader. Moreover, effective scientific communication includes the response of readers (feedback) to published information. In this article several facts, important for effective scientific communication, are emphasized: publication is an integral part of scientific meted of knowledge, the reasons why the results of scientific research must be published and the way to write and publish to be included in effective scientific communication.

Jovan Saviæ


Allee effects in ants.  


1. Allee effects occur when the aggregation of individuals result in mutually beneficial intraspecific interactions whereby individual fitness, or per capita growth rate, increases with the number of individuals. Allee effects are common in social species due to their cooperative behaviours, such as breeding, feeding or defence. Allee effects have important implications for many aspects of basic and applied ecology. Over the past decades, the study of Allee effects has influenced population dynamics, community ecology, endangered species management and invasion biology. 2. Despite the fact that cooperation is the basis of their social structure, Allee effects have received little attention among eusocial insects. Extreme cooperation is common, and reproductive specialization of individuals occurs due to division of labour. These life-history traits suggest that the potential contribution of each caste to reproduction and survival may be differential and nonadditive. 3. We studied Allee effects in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In this species, many queens and workers are present in colonies, which allowed us to explore the differential effects of castes on the presence of Allee effects. In the laboratory, we measured brood production and individual survival in experimental colonies that differed in the initial numbers of queens and workers.4. Our results highlight the differential effect of queens and workers on survival and productivity. We found three positive density-dependent relationships indicative of component Allee effects at the colony level: both workers and queens had a positive effect on the productivity of the other caste, and queens had a positive effect on worker survivorship. 5. Our experimental results suggest a potential positive feedback between worker and queen abundance, which may have contributed to the evolution of large colony sizes. Our study provides the first evidence of Allee effects in eusocial insects and highlights the need to consider castes separately in population dynamics. Division of labour and differential reproductive rates are factors that should be integrated into the study of Allee effects. PMID:23672650

Luque, Gloria M; Giraud, Tatiana; Courchamp, Franck



The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".  


The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

Dooley, Kevin J



Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

E-print Network

The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0...

Liu, Kuo-Chun



Effective Strategies Brief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this research brief the authors detail effective teaching strategies for teaching students with difficulties in math. The brief summarizes the work of over fifty research studies and details the practices that were seen as consistently effective across many of them. The brief details six instructional strategies and presents data describing the effectiveness of each on special education students and low-achieving students. The brief can be viewed on the webpage or downloaded as a PDF.

Gersten, Russell; Clarke, Benjamin S.



Volcanic effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

Robock, Alan



Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.


The Kaye Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, "The Kaye effect", as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid…

Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.



Comparative Effectiveness Research

Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances.


effectively tax treaty?  

E-print Network

Is income effectively connected to US trade/ business? Is this exempt under the tax treaty? Does- employee comp? Is income "effectively connected"? Is payment subject to a lower tax rate? Is payment for rent or royalty? Individual completes IRS form 1001. Payment will not be taxed. (Code "N") Taxes

Krovi, Venkat


CCTV effectiveness study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of CCTV surveillance is topical and widely used in many different applications. The fundamental part of the CCTV system is a reliable image evaluation by a human observer, whose effectiveness is influenced by many variables. Optimization of the effectiveness is a multidimensional problem related to both technical and human characteristics. In many applied systems, the overall performance is

G. van Voorthuijsen; H. van Hoof; M. Klima; K. Roubik; M. Bernas; P. Pata



Interdependence and Group Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the differential effects of task design and reward system design on group functioning in a large U.S. corporation; the effectiveness of "hybrid" groups (having tasks and rewards with both individual and group elements); and how individuals' autonomy preferences moderate their responses to interdependence. Groups performed best when…

Wageman, Ruth



JPL Radiation Effects Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation Effects Group investigates the effects of space radiation on present and future microelectronic and optoelectronic technologies, evaluate the risk of using them in specific space missions, and recommend component and design techniques for JPL and NASA programs to reduce reliability risk from space radiation.

Thorbourn, Dennis



The polarized EMC effect  

SciTech Connect

We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Cloet, I. C. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Thomas, A. W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)



Adverse effects of Benzodiazepines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing realisation that the benzodiazepines have potential for causing serious harm has caused concern due to their wide and common use. This paper is a review of the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and concentrates on four areas of particular concern; drug dependence with the consequent withdrawal symptoms; psychological effects while on the drugs; use by the elderly; and tolerance

C. Gudex



The polarized EMC effect  

SciTech Connect

We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas



Effects of Drug Abuse  


Listen to this page Effects of Drug Abuse Drug abuse hurts the people who take drugs AND the people around them, including families , kids , and ... HIV/AIDS Click here to learn more about effects of specific drugs . VIDEO: Why Are Drugs So ...


Effects on aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding the effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems, recent scientific and public interest has focused on marine primary producers and on the aquatic web, which has resulted in a multitude of studies indicating mostly detrimental effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic organisms. The interest has expanded to include ecologically significant groups and major biomass producers using mesocosm studies, emphasizing

D.-P. Häder; H. D. Kumar; R. C. Smith; R. C. Worrest



Photovoltaic effect applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photovoltaic effect is examined theoretically with attention given to efficiency as a function of the energy band gap. The properties of a number of solar-cell materials (silicon and gallium arsenide) are discussed, considering energy losses, the effects of doping on mobility, lifetime, and diffusion length, efficiency as a function of junction depth, and the characteristics of surface coatings. Different

F. P. Califano



Generalized gravitomagnetic clock effect  

E-print Network

In General Relativity, the rotation of a gravitating body like the Earth influences the motion of orbiting test particles or satellites in a non-Newtonian way. This causes, e.g., a precession of the orbital plane known as the Lense-Thirring effect and a precession of the spin of a gyroscope known as the Schiff effect. Here, we discuss a third effect first introduced by Cohen and Mashhoon called the gravitomagnetic clock effect. It describes the difference in proper time of counterrevolving clocks after a revolution of $2\\pi$. For two clocks on counterrotating equatorial circular orbits around the Earth, the effect is about $10^{-7}$ seconds per revolution, which is quite large. We introduce a general relativistic definition of the gravitomagnetic clock effect which is valid for arbitrary pairs of orbits. This includes rotations in the same direction and different initial conditions, which are crucial if the effect can be detected with existing satellites or with payloads on nondedicated missions. We also derive the post-Newtonian expansion of the general relativistic expression and calculate the effect for the example of a satellite of a Global Navigation Satellite System compared to a geostationary satellite.

Eva Hackmann; Claus Lämmerzahl



Generalized gravitomagnetic clock effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general relativity, the rotation of a gravitating body like the Earth influences the motion of orbiting test particles or satellites in a non-Newtonian way. This causes, e.g., a precession of the orbital plane known as the Lense-Thirring effect and a precession of the spin of a gyroscope known as the Schiff effect. Here, we discuss a third effect first introduced by Cohen and Mashhoon called the gravitomagnetic clock effect. It describes the difference in proper time of counterrevolving clocks after a revolution of 2?. For two clocks on counterrotating equatorial circular orbits around the Earth, the effect is about 10-7 s per revolution, which is quite large. We introduce a general relativistic definition of the gravitomagnetic clock effect which is valid for arbitrary pairs of orbits. This includes rotations in the same direction and different initial conditions, which are crucial if the effect can be detected with existing satellites or with payloads on nondedicated missions. We also derive the post-Newtonian expansion of the general relativistic expression and calculate the effect for the example of a satellite of a global navigation satellite system compared to a geostationary satellite.

Hackmann, Eva; Lämmerzahl, Claus



Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.



Aharonov-Bohm Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page illustrates the effect of a magnetic flux on the interference of a quantum double-slit experiment. The time-dependent scattering patterns are shown with and without a magnetic field. In addition, the effects of changing the topology of the system are discussed and displayed.

Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans



Effective Learning in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses an important and seldom addressed issue: learning. Not teaching, not performance, not "work": this book really is about learning, what makes learning effective and how it may be promoted in classrooms. The authors take the context of the classroom seriously, not only because of its effects on teachers and pupils, but because…

Watkins, Chris; Carnell, Eileen; Lodge, Caroline M.



Effects of Mobile Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before reviewing some of the key consequences of mobile communication technology, a brief discussion of how they fit within the media effects paradigm is in order. At the risk of oversimplification, we understand the media effects paradigm as a framework for understanding how mass media content influences attitudes and behavior of audience members. To be fair, it is important to

Scott W. Campbell


The Kaye effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface.

J. M. Binder; A. J. Landig



Side effects of antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the side effects of antibiotics in human patients is presented. At least three classes of untoward reactions may be distinguished: development of drug hypersensitivity, toxicological hazards, and microbial effects such as emergence of drug resistance.The intrinsic toxicities of the oldest discoveries, penicillin and sulphonamides, have turned out te be very low for most animals as well as

A. Manten



CAUSE & EFFECT What Is It?  

E-print Network

CAUSE & EFFECT What Is It? Cause and effect analysis answers the questions: "Why did this happen questions: Is there really a cause and effect relationship between these two events? If there really is a cause and effect relationship, what is the exact connection between the cause(s) and the effect(s)? What

Boonstra, Rudy


Cardiovascular Effects of Felypressin  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular effects of felypressin (FEL) were studied in Wistar rats. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure measurements were taken in awake rats treated with vasopressin (AVP), FEL, or epinephrine (EPI). Each group received either an intravenous (IV) or an intracerebroventricular V1 receptor antagonist, saline, area postrema removal, or sham surgery. Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls (P < .05) were applied. Felypressin and AVP induced a pressor effect, and bradycardia was inhibited by IV V1 antagonist. Intracerebroventricular V1 antagonist and area postrema removal enhanced their pressor effects. Epinephrine induced a higher pressor effect and a similar bradycardia that was not affected by the treatments. It was concluded that FEL depends on V1 receptors to induce pressor and bradycardic effects, and that it produces a high relationship between bradycardia and mean arterial pressure variation depending on area postrema and central V1 receptors. These effects are potentially less harmful to the cardiovascular system than the effects of EPI. PMID:17177590

Cecanho, Rodrigo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Ranali, José



Effective Field Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective field theories encode the predictions of a quantum field theory at low energy. The effective theory has a fairly low ultraviolet cutoff. As a result, loop corrections are small, at least if the effective action contains a term which is quadratic in the fields, and physical predictions can be read straight from the effective Lagrangian. Methods will be discussed how to compute an effective low energy action from a given fundamental action, either analytically or numerically, or by a combination of both methods. Basically, the idea is to integrate out the high frequency components of fields. This requires the choice of a "blockspin", i.e. the specification of a low frequency field as a function of the fundamental fields. These blockspins will be the fields of the effective field theory. The blockspin needs not be a field of the same type as one of the fundamental fields, and it may be composite. Special features of blockspins in nonabelian gauge theories will be discussed in some detail. In analytical work and in multigrid updating schemes one needs interpolation kernels A from coarse to fine grid in addition to the averaging kernels C which determines the blockspin. A neural net strategy for finding optimal kernels is presented. Numerical methods are applicable to obtain actions of effective theories on lattices of finite volume. The special case of a "lattice" with a single site (the constraint effective potential) is of particular interest. In a Higgs model, the effective action reduces in this case to the free energy, considered as a function of a gauge covariant magnetization. Its shape determines the phase structure of the theory. Its loop expansion with and without gauge fields can be used to determine finite size corrections to numerical data.

Mack, G.; Kalkreuter, T.; Palma, G.; Speh, M.


Bustling argon: biological effect.  


Argon is a noble gas in group 18 of the periodic table. Certificated to exist in air atmosphere merely one century ago, discovery of argon shows interesting stories of researching and exploring. It was assumed to have no chemical activity. However, argon indeed present its biological effect on mammals. Narcotic effect of argon in diving operation and neur-protective function of argon in cerebral injury demonstrate that argon has crucial effect and be concentrated on is necessary. Furthermore, consider to be harmless to human, argon clinical application in therapy would be another option. PMID:24088583

Ye, Zhouheng; Zhang, Rongjia; Sun, Xuejun



Bustling argon: biological effect  

PubMed Central

Argon is a noble gas in group 18 of the periodic table. Certificated to exist in air atmosphere merely one century ago, discovery of argon shows interesting stories of researching and exploring. It was assumed to have no chemical activity. However, argon indeed present its biological effect on mammals. Narcotic effect of argon in diving operation and neur-protective function of argon in cerebral injury demonstrate that argon has crucial effect and be concentrated on is necessary. Furthermore, consider to be harmless to human, argon clinical application in therapy would be another option. PMID:24088583



[Cholinergic effects of nootropics].  


With respect to the enhancing effect of nootropics on learning and memory, the influence of some of these drugs on the high affinity choline uptake has been investigated. Meclofenoxate competes with choline uptake in vitro because of its similar side chain; other nootropics are without in vitro effects. A single dose of pramiracetam enhances the choline uptake in cortex and hippocampus. Application of meclofenoxate decreases the uptake of choline. Other nootropics lack acute effects. Possible increases of uptake after repeated dosage disappear within 24 h. PMID:3149192

Funk, K F; Schmidt, J



Matthew: Effect or Fable?  

E-print Network

In a market context, a status effect occurs when actors are accorded differential recognition for their efforts depending on their location in a status ordering, holding constant the quality of these efforts. In practice, ...

Azoulay, Pierre


Chesapeake Bay Impact Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint show depicts the effects (blast, heat, etc.) of the Chesapeake Bay impact. To emphasize the human consequences of asteroid and comet impacts, the slides show what would happen to East Coast communities if an identical object hit the same place today. (The impact actually happened roughly 35 million years ago.) Impact effects were estimated with the Earth Impact Effects Program ( Effects shown on these slides are at best very approximate, and, consequently, these slides should only be used to stimulate discussions about impact hazards. Satellite images were obtained through the NASA Earth Observing System Higher Education Alliance (GeoBrain) which provided funding for this work. Graphics were created with the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) family of geographic information system (GIS) products.

Abolins, Mark; Univiversity, Middle T.


Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.



Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)  


... hearing and balance should be recorded by an audiologist. The baseline record should include an audiologic hearing ... be stopped or changed, the patient and the audiologist can take steps to manage the effects of ...


[Profibrotic effects of aldosterone].  


Animal studies have shown that during high sodium intake aldosterone induces cardiac fibrosis and renal nephrosclerosis through activation of mineralocorticoid receptors. In the human heart mineralocorticoid receptors and activity of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2, which is required for the activation of mineralocorticoid receptors by aldosterone, are both present. In clinical medicine the profibrotic effect of aldosterone has been related to diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmia and progression of cardiac and renal failure. The addition of an aldosterone receptor antagonist to optimal treatment in patients with heart failure causes a decrease in serum markers of collagen turnover and a decline in cardiac morbidity and mortality. These findings are a strong indication of a profibrotic effect of aldosterone in cardiac failure. Studies concerning the profibrotic effect of aldosterone in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism are contradictory and at the moment no data are available about a potential antifibrotic effect of aldosterone receptor antagonists in patients with impaired renal function. PMID:15366722

Van Den Meiracker, A H; Huizenga, A T M; Boomsma, F



Training Services Organizational Effectiveness  

E-print Network

ULearn Training Services Organizational Effectiveness 612-626-1373 www/material is available in alternative formats upon request. Please contact University of Minnesota Training Services, 260 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Search for Training

Minnesota, University of


Explore Learning: Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a Shockwave interactive animation used to teach students about the wave motion specific to doppler effect. Users can change frequency, wave speed, as well as source and detector speeds.



[Economical effect of vaccine].  


In Japan, some vaccines are provided partially or only at citizens' own expense, while France and Germany publicly cover immunization on the basis of findings in economical effect on VPD (vaccine preventable disease). Such study recently conducted in Japan by the government was reported. According to cost comparative analysis, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) for both children and adults, mumps, and varicella were found to have certain economical effect, while cervical cancer, hepatitis B, and Hib virus were not. Cost effectiveness analysis found PCV for adults, pertussis, mumps, and cervical cancer to have favorable effect, while not for Hib and PCV for children. These results offer some perspective, but cautious interpretation may be necessary since premises differ among analyses. PMID:21922773

Kawabuchi, Koichi



Conducting Effective Performance Evaluations  

E-print Network

Conducting Effective Performance Evaluations February 2013 #12;Performance Management v probationary employees ­ conduct the discussion immediately upon conclusion of the probationary period is required before considering a supervisor's request to award Flexible Pay Options available through the MUS

Lawrence, Rick L.


Strategies for Effective Outsourcing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes strategies that can be employed for effective outsourcing in higher education settings. Several models of outsourcing are identified and described, and examples of institutions using each model are provided. (GCP)

Moneta, Larry; Dillon, William L.



Doppler Effect JS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Doppler Effect JS Model shows five different animations with different combinations of moving/stationary sources/detectors. The final animation shows what happens when a source exceeds the speed of sound. The Doppler Effect JS Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) version 5. It is distributed as a ready-to-run html page and requires only a browser with JavaScript support. It is also distributed as an ePub.

Kennedy, Matt; Dixon, Rachel



The Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a simulation of the Doppler effect. The user can change the speed of the wave source and can move a microphone to detect the wave frequency at different points relative to the moving source. The resulting wave pattern can be both observed and heard. Instructional notes outlining the details of the Doppler effect are provided. This material is part of a web site for a second semester physics course for majors covering gravity, fluids, waves, and thermodynamics.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather



Effects of periodic discharges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Periodic capacity checks are assessed as well as the effects of periodic discharges on the cycle life and the performance of cells during the cycle life. Topics discussed include the effect of the amount of electrolyte on cell capacity at 35 C; battery design for spacecraft; electrolyte starvation theory; battery separator degradation; negative electrode stability; voltage regulation; operating temperatures; and integration of reconditioning systems using microprocessors.

Ford, F. E.



Modulational effects in accelerators  

SciTech Connect

We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed.

Satogata, T.



[Adverse effects of atazanavir].  


Atazanavir is a drug that inhibits HIV protease. It has many of the characteristics of other protease inhibitors and also some advantages over these, such as the single dose of once per day, low capsule load, less gastrointestinal problems and a very friendly metabolic profile, including carbohydrate metabolism. Secondary high plasma bilirubin and jaundice are its main adverse effect which only on rare occasions requires stopping the drug. Other adverse effects, such as nephrolithiasis or ECG changes are extremely rare. PMID:20116616

Palacios, R; González, M; Ruiz, J; Santos, Jesús



Interpersonal effectiveness training  

E-print Network

, and behavior modification. Conjoint family therapy, the first to treat husband and wife together at the same time, strives to develop techniques for pro- moting expression of one's real feelings and attitudes, thereby reduc- ing barriers to free, genuine...-exploration and that this training is more effective than insight therapy. Steele (1968) designed a workshop for clients with identified needs which demonstrated that stating objectives in behaviorally clear language is more effective than open-ended, non- structured...

DeOtte, Dona Lou Lewis



Vacuum Boundary Effects  

E-print Network

The effect of boundary conditions on the vacuum structure of quantum field theories is analysed from a quantum information viewpoint. In particular, we analyse the role of boundary conditions on boundary entropy and entanglement entropy. The analysis of boundary effects on massless free field theories points out the relevance of boundary conditions as a new rich source of information about the vacuum structure. In all cases the entropy does not increase along the flow from the ultraviolet to the infrared.

M. Asorey; J. M. Munoz-Castaneda



Causes of Effects and Effects of Causes Judea Pearl  

E-print Network

Causes of Effects and Effects of Causes Judea Pearl University of California, Los Angeles Computer "Effect of Causes" (EoC) and "Causes of Effect" (CoE). My aim in this comment is to share with readers a progress report on what has been accomplished on the question of "causes of effects," CoE, how far we have

California at Los Angeles, University of


Effects and side effects of inspections and accountability in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of whether inspection visits have positive causal effects on quality of

Wolff de I; F. Janssens



[Clinical effect and side effect of troglitazone].  


Troglitazone, a PPAR-gamma agonist, is a new drug for type 2 diabetes. The drug decreases blood glucose via enhancing insulin action. Recently Sankyo pharmaceutical company is warning severe hepatotoxicity by troglitazone. It recommends to examine liver function every month in diabetic patients treated with the drug in order early to find drug-induced hepatitis. In Japan 153 diabetic patients treated with the drug developed severe hepatitis and 8 of them died of drug-side effects. Quinone metabolite of troglitazone predominantly in the liver to a sulfate conjugate and activation of PPAR gamma and PXR(pregnane X receptor) by troglitazone are supposed to be factors of hepatotoxic mechanism. PMID:10707561

Toyota, T; Ueno, Y



Effective Transport Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

Mauri, Roberto


A "voice inversion effect?".  


Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an "auditory face" rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a "voice inversion effect," by analogy to the classical "face inversion effect," which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted of a gender identification task on two syllables pronounced by 90 speakers (boys, girls, men, and women). Experiment 2 consisted of a speaker discrimination task on pairs of syllables (8 men and 8 women). Experiment 3 consisted of an instrument discrimination task on pairs of melodies (8 string and 8 wind instruments). In all three experiments, stimuli were presented in 4 conditions: (1) no inversion; (2) temporal inversion (e.g., backwards speech); (3) frequency inversion centered around 4000 Hz; and (4) around 2500 Hz. Results indicated a significant decrease in performance caused by sound inversion, with a much stronger effect for frequency than for temporal inversion. Interestingly, although frequency inversion markedly affected timbre for both voices and instruments, subjects' performance was still above chance. However, performance at instrument discrimination was much higher than for voices, preventing comparison of inversion effects for voices vs. non-vocal stimuli. Additional experiments will be necessary to conclude on the existence of a possible "voice inversion effect." PMID:15177788

Bédard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal



Aviation noise effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.



Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.


Effective Documentation Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quality assurance programs provide a very effective means to monitor and evaluate medical care. Quality assurance involves: (1) Identify a problem; (2) Determine the source and nature of the problem; (3) Develop policies and methods to effect improvement; (4) Implement those polices; (5) Monitor the methods applied; and (6) Evaluate their effectiveness. Because this definition of quality assurance so closely resembles the Nursing Process, the health unit staff was able to use their knowledge of the nursing process to develop many forms which improve the quality of patient care. These forms include the NASA DFRC Service Report, the occupational injury form (Incident Report), the patient survey (Pre-hospital Evaluation/Care Report), the Laboratory Log Sheet, the 911 Run Sheet, and the Patient Assessment Stamp. Examples and steps which are followed to generate these reports are described.

Sleboda, Claire



Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.  


In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior. PMID:24409128

Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B



Health Effects of Noise Pollution  


... effects of noise pollution Health effects of noise pollution People of all ages, including children, teens, young ... noises around them. The health effects of noise pollution include: Hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss usually ...


Health Effects of Wood Smoke  


... Radiation Burn Wise Consumers Health Effects Consumers - Health Effects Subscribe to BurnWise Click image to enlarge Smoke ... exposure can lead to a variety of health effects. For example, numerous studies link particle levels to ...


Side Effects of Hormone Therapy  


... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary ... to evaluate its use in men with advanced prostate cancer. If the approach proves to be as effective ...


Health Effects of Air Pollution  


... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...


Modeling Hofmeister Effects.  


A two dimensional model of water, so-called Mercedes-Benz model, was used to study effects of the size of hydrophobic solute on the insertion thermodynamics in electrolyte solutions. The model was examined by the constant pressure Monte Carlo computer simulation. The results were compared with the experimental data for noble gasses and methane in water and electrolyte solution. The influence of different ions at infinite dilution on the free energy of transfer was explored. Qualitative agreement with the experimental results was obtained. The mechanism of Hofmeister effects was proposed. PMID:20161468

Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Vlachy, Vojko; Dill, Ken A



Anticancer effects of fucoidan.  


Recently, there has been an increased interest in the pharmacologically active natural compounds isolated and used for remedies of various kinds of diseases, including cancer. The great deal of interest has been developed to isolate bioactive compounds from marine resources because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds and has been used as an ingredient in some dietary supplement products. Fucoidan has various biological activities including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antitumor activities. So this chapter deals with anticancer effects of fucoidan. PMID:25081084

Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Kim, Se-Kwon



Modeling Hofmeister Effects  

PubMed Central

A two dimensional model of water, so-called Mercedes-Benz model, was used to study effects of the size of hydrophobic solute on the insertion thermodynamics in electrolyte solutions. The model was examined by the constant pressure Monte Carlo computer simulation. The results were compared with the experimental data for noble gasses and methane in water and electrolyte solution. The influence of different ions at infinite dilution on the free energy of transfer was explored. Qualitative agreement with the experimental results was obtained. The mechanism of Hofmeister effects was proposed. PMID:20161468

Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Vlachy, Vojko; Dill, Ken A.



The constraint effective potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the non-perturbative nature of the conventional effective potential ?(?, ?¯) (for classical Higgs potentials and volume ?) and because of the inconvenience of a Legendre transform for numerical computations, it is proposed to replace ?(?, ?¯) by a "constraint" effective potential U(?, ?¯), which has a direct intuitive meaning, which is very convenient for lattice computations, and from which ?(?, ?¯) can immediately be recovered (as the convex hull). In particular, ?(?, ?¯) = U(?, ?¯). Various properties of U(?, ?¯), such as convexity properties, upper and lower bounds and volume dependence are established. It is computed directly for zero dimensions and by Monte Carlo simulations in one and four dimensions, with up to 160 and 8 4 lattice sites, respectively.

O'Raifeartaigh, L.; Wipf, A.; Yoneyama, H.



Contamination effects study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The in-situ optical surface measurement system is a facility designed to study the deleterious effects of particulate materials on the surface reflectivities of optical materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). This arrangement is designed to simulate the on-orbit effects of contamination and degradation of optical surfaces. This simulation is accomplished through the use of non-coherent VUV sources illuminating optical surfaces located in a high vacuum chamber. Several sources of contamination are employed. The reflectivity is measured both at the specular reflection as well as at two scattered positions, forward and reverse. The system components are described and an operating procedure is given.



Studies in MBO effectiveness.  


Management by objectives (MBO) is a popular management approach the efficacy of which has been seriously questioned recently. I have analyzed 185 studies for the effects of MBO on employee productivity and/or job satisfaction. Research support for MBO was found to be inversely related to the degree of research design sophistication. Although the five well-controlled experiments leaned toward finding MBO to be ineffective, it appears a contingency approach to MBO is more appropriate than a definitive affirmation or rejection of MBO effectiveness. PMID:10298234

Kondrasuk, J N



Extrapyramidal effects of neuroleptics.  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted on 66 psychiatric inpatients who took major tranquilizers for periods of four to 16 years. The frequency of signs of Parkinsonism and the effects of orphenadrine on these were studied in a double-blind crossover method. Sixty-one per cent of the patients showed signs of Parkinsonism. Female patients and those with organic brain pathology more frequently exhibited Parkinsonism (although the difference was not statistically significant). No correlation was found between duration of treatment and extrapyramidal effects. Of the 40 patients who developed Parkinsonism, 25 responded favourably to orphenadrine, while six (15%) had more marked manifestations on orphenadrine than on placebo. PMID:11277

Korczyn, A D; Goldberg, G J



Chiral magnetic effect  

SciTech Connect

Topological charge changing transitions can induce chirality in the quark-gluon plasma by the axial anomaly. We study the equilibrium response of the quark-gluon plasma in such a situation to an external magnetic field. To mimic the effect of the topological charge changing transitions we will introduce a chiral chemical potential. We will show that an electromagnetic current is generated along the magnetic field. This is the chiral magnetic effect. We compute the magnitude of this current as a function of magnetic field, chirality, temperature, and baryon chemical potential.

Fukushima, Kenji [Yukawa Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Warringa, Harmen J. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York 11973 (United States)



Effective Nonlocal Euclidean Gravity  

E-print Network

A nonlocal form of the effective gravitational action could cure the unboundedness of euclidean gravity with Einstein action. On sub-horizon length scales the modified gravitational field equations seem compatible with all present tests of general relativity and post-Newtonian gravity. They induce a difference in the effective Newton's constant between regions of space with vanishing or nonvanishing curvature scalar (or Ricci tensor). In cosmology they may lead to a value $\\Omega<1$ for the critical density after inflation. The simplest model considered here appears to be in conflict with nucleosynthesis, but generalizations consistent with all cosmological observations seem conceivable.

C. Wetterich



Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness A quantitative synthesis of effect size  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a quantitative summary of the relationship between celebrity endorser source effects and effectiveness in advertising. The Kruskal-Wallis non- parametric test is used to identify the most influential celebrity endorser source effects on effectiveness. The role of celebrity\\/product fit, interaction effects, sample type, study setting, and country of study are also included as moderators. Results suggest negative celebrity

Clinton Amos


Documentation: Effective AND Literate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

Paul S. Burdett Jr.



Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid



Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

Michael Cross, Cal T.


Revisiting Effective Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses connections between Madeline Hunter's elements of effective teaching and current brain research. Hunter's emphasis on setting the stage for learning fits precisely with research on the brain's attentional mechanisms. Other Hunter elements, including level of concern (challenge), task analysis, procedural memory, and prior learning, are…

Wolfe, Pat



Psychotropic effects of thymogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of thymogen on the behavior of mice were studied, and the results obtained suggest that this immunomodulator possesses\\u000a psychostimulatory, antidepressive, and stress-protecting properties which open up new prospects for the use of thymic peptides\\u000a in psychiatry.

T. I. Nevidimova; N. I. Suslov



Measuring Institutional Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The measurement of institutional effectiveness involves a systematic comparison of organizational purpose and performance. For community colleges, organizational purpose can be defined in terms of providing access to education, realizing student achievement, promoting student development, or addressing social needs. If all four purposes are…

Macomb County Community Coll., Warren, MI.


Cost Effective Prototyping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.



Reading and Writing Effectively.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, covers effective reading and writing. Introductory materials include objectives, a topical outline, sources, and information on time for the course and continuing education credits. The 16 sessions of the course cover the following topics: job terms; abbreviations, acronyms, and pictorial…

Lewandowski, Carol; Burt, Lorna


Interactive Pi Bonding Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application demonstrates the effect of pi bonding on the one-electron ligand field splitting in an octahedral. By clicking on the appropriate buttons students can see how D changes when you move from ligands with no pi bonding capability to pi donor and pi acceptor ligands.


Measuring Teacher Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that there is a correlation between teacher characteristics (e.g., pedagogical knowledge, teacher preparation/certification) and student achievement. Current political contexts call for the utilization of student achievement data to measure the effectiveness of our education systems. A solid research base of how teacher…

Jacobo, Amber Leann




EPA Science Inventory

The literature review summarizes current data on the effects of pesticides and metals on marine organisms, aquatic environmental research methods, bioaccumulation of pollutants by estuarine and marine organisms and in water/sediment residues and biota. Results of studies of the e...


Tips for Effective Negotiating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negotiation is a valuable skill in every part of your life. When carried out effectively negotiation can produce an outcome that is mutually beneficial for both parties. Negotiation is most enjoyable when both parties think they have gained something and when both parties have developed a positive working relationship. Since many of your negotiations at work and at home involve

Nikisha Williams; Virginia Valian


Courtside: Private Effects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After being accused of sexually harassing a student, a high school math teacher in New York was suspended with pay pending an impartial hearing. The district allowed the teacher to return to his classroom to collect his personal effects, which he had kept in boxes, desk drawers, and three filing cabinets, one of which was locked. He did not…

Zirkel, Perry A.



Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

Renville, Gary



Tracking the Effectiveness of  

E-print Network

of Usability Evaluation Methods Abstract We present a case study that tracks usability problems predictedTracking the Effectiveness of Usability Evaluation Methods Bonnie E. John & Steven J. Marks* 12 contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing


Physiological effects of hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many studies indicating that sensory, circulatory, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous functions can be altered by means of hypnosis. There also are many studies indicating that similar physiological effects can be produced by symbolic stimulation without hypnosis. The assumption that hypnotic behavior is a function of the trance state is open to question. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3II90B.

Theodore Xenophon Barber



Adverse effects of benzodiazepines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing realisation that the benzodiazepines have potential for causing serious harm has caused concern due to their wide and common use. This has stimulated interest in the costs and benefits of their use. This paper is a review of the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and concentrates on four areas of particular concern: drug dependence which the consequent withdrawal symptoms;

Claire Gudex



Reporting Research Results Effectively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

Volkwein, J. Fredericks



Tips for Effective Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School business officials' days are filled with numbers and reports--audits, balance sheets, check registers, financial statements, journal entries, vouchers, and warrant reports, just to name a few. Those are all important tools that school business officers use to manage the financial resources of the district effectively. However, they are also…

Supple, Kevin F.



Effective Online Privacy Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online privacy policies are important mechanisms for informing web site users about the level of information privacy protection afforded when visiting web sites. To date, societal mechanisms and technologies have been the focus of attempts to improve the quality and effectiveness of online privacy policies. Little attention, however, has been given to the development and use of organisational measures for

Sharman Lichtenstein; Paula M C Swatman; Kanchan Babu


Humor and group effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of groups in the workplace and the demand from workers for a fun work environment, there is no model that explains how successful organizational humor can impact work groups. The purpose of this article is to present a model, based on Hackman's framework of group effectiveness, that can be used to understand the relationship between successful organizational

Eric Romero; Anthony Pescosolido



Media effect in commercial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords Brand identity, Brand image, Consumer behaviour, Goodwill, Marketing communications, Sponsorship Abstract Various elements of brand identity contribute to brand image development; however, the role of marketing communications is particularly important in achieving brand image effects. In the case of advertising, two separate elements of communications, a message and a medium, combine to deliver particular brand image values. In the

David Shipley


Defending Double Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the doctrine of double effect(DDE), there is a morally significantdifference between harm that is intended andharm that is merely foreseen and not intended.It is not difficult to explain why it is bad tointend harm as an end (you have a ``badattitude'' toward that harm) but it is hard toexplain why it is bad to intend harm as a

Alison Hills



Conditional Effects in Graphplan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphplan has attracted considerable interest because of its extremely high performance, but the algorithm's inability to handle action representations more expressive than STRIPS is a major limitation. In particular, extending Graphplan to handle conditional effects is a surprisingly subtle enterprise. In this paper, we describe the space of possible alternatives, and then concentrate on one particular approach we call factored

Corin R. Anderson; David E. Smith; Daniel S. Weld



Desert Storm environmental effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that after more than six months of operation of the Patriot launch station in the Saudi Arabian desert no problems that were attributed to high temperature occurred. The environmental anomalies that did occur were cosmetic in nature and related to dust and salt fog. It was concluded that the Desert Storm environmental effects were typical of worldwide

E. W. Kimball



What Effective Schools Do  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has been showing that the most important development in K-12 education over the past decade has been the emergence of a growing number of urban schools that have been convincingly shown to have dramatic positive effects on the achievement of disadvantaged students. Those with the strongest evidence of success are oversubscribed charter…

West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.




E-print Network

SUBJECT: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Effective Date: 4-7-14 Policy Number: 1.14 Supersedes: Policy 4- made, by implementing appropriate emergency management policies, plans, and procedures designed.001. In the absence of specific regulatory mandates for particular situations, best emergency management practices

Fernandez, Eduardo


Effective management through delegation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management is concerned with the pulling together of resources so that jobs are done efficiently and objectives are met within the time-scale laid down. Of prime importance among those resources are the people involved – effective management of people is essential if we are to take full advantage of their skills and aptitudes. It is not just a question of

John Muir



Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.  

PubMed Central

The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

Davidson, D M



Earth Impacts Effects Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive web site estimates the regional environmental consequences of an impact on Earth. The program will estimate the ejecta distribution, ground shaking, atmospheric blast wave, and thermal effects of an impact as well as the size of the crater produced.

Marcus, Robert; Melosh, H. J.


Effects of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

The author reviews the subject rising the following topics and subtopics: I. Nuclear explosions: heat, nuclear radiation, and radioactive fallout; II. Effects: radiation sickness, burns, blast injuries, and equivalent areas of death; III. Nuclear war: battlefield, regional, intercontinental - counterforce, and intercontinental - counter-city and industry. There are two appendices. 34 references, 32 figures.

von Hippel, F.



Effective sample labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-water samples collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for hazardous waste and radiological monitoring programs have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Before these laws were in effect, sample collection consisted mainly of filling a single plastic bottle that was then submitted for limited

J. T. Reiger; R. W. Bryce



The Anrep Effect Reconsidered  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that the positive inotropic effect after an abrupt increase in systolic pressure (Anrep effect) is the recovery from subendocardial ischemia induced by the increase and subsequently corrected by vascular autoregulation of the coronary bed. Major evidence consists of data obtained from an isolated heart preparation showing that the Anrep effect can be abolished with coronary vasodilation, and that with an abrupt increase in systolic pressure there is a significant reduction in the distribution of coronary flow to subendocardial layers of the ventricle. Furthermore, the intracardiac electrocardiogram shows S-T segment and T wave changes after an abrupt increase in ventricular pressure similar to that noted after coronary constriction. Major implications are that normally there may be ischemia of the subendocardial layers tending to reduce myocardial contractility which may account, in part, for the positive inotropic effect of various coronary vasodilators; that with an abrupt increase in ventricular pressure the subendocardium is rendered temporarily ischemic, placing the heart in jeopardy from arrhythmias until this is corrected; and that end-diastolic pressure and the intracardiac electrocardiogram may provide a means of evaluating the adequacy of circulation to subendocardial layers in diseased ventricles when systolic pressure is abruptly increased. PMID:5056656

Monroe, R. G.; Gamble, W. J.; Lafarge, C. G.; Kumar, A. E.; Stark, J.; Sanders, G. L.; Phornphutkul, C.; Davis, M.



Managing the Effective University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from the literature of college administration in a changing environment points to the critical role of academic leadership in maintaining morale, enhancing productivity, and helping staff welcome momentous change. Tomorrow's effective universities will require academic managers whose leadership qualities resemble those of good teachers in…

Ramsden, Paul



Alcohol's Effects on Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring adolescence, many people begin to experi­ ment with alcohol, yet relatively little is known about alcohol's effects on this critical stage of development. We do know that early initiation of alcohol use remains one of the most powerful predictors of later alcohol abuse (Grant 1998). We also know that during adolescence changes occur in the regions of the brain

Linda Patia Spear




EPA Science Inventory

The EPA's OHMSETT facility has developed a rapid field test that includes some of the theoretical aspects and conditions of dispersion at sea. This Field Dispersant Effectiveness Test (FDET) has been used to evaluate the dispersibility of various commonly-transported oils and mak...


Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses entrance lotteries to explore heterogeneity in the achievement effects of charter schools across demographic groups and between urban and non-urban areas in Massachusetts. The authors develop a framework for interpreting this heterogeneity using both student- and school-level explanatory variables. (Contains 4 tables.)

Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.; Walters, Christopher R.



Rainfall Effects Acknowledgements  

E-print Network

and falling water table Constant hydraulic gradient Air Flowlines Displaced Vapor plume Dissolved plume Rain Schulte - Colorado School of Mines Michael Glatthar - US Air Force Academy Effects of Water Table for Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen, Switzerland Introduction Objectives Water Table Fluctuation


Long-term effectiveness and side effects of laser resurfacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser resurfacing have been used for treatment of photoaged facial skin since 1994. Very few long-term follow-up studies regarding the effectiveness and side effects of the laser resurfacing exist. We investigated the long-term effectiveness and side effects of laser resurfacing in our patients who underwent this procedure since our pioneering invention.

Manuskiatti, Woraphong; Fitzpatrick, Richard E.; Goldman, Mitchel P.; Krejci-Papa, Niels



Effectiveness Review Analysis (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) Root Cause  

E-print Network

Effectiveness Review Analysis ­ (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) 1 of 1 Root Cause: Corrective: · Effective (Yes)--Corrective actions are implemented as intended, have addressed the causes of the issue the causes of the issue / finding, does not effectively prevent recurrence of the issue / finding, and does


Effectiveness Review Overview Theresa Triplett  

E-print Network

National Laboratory Office of Contractor Assurance #12;2 Objectives Discuss: ­ What is an Effectiveness Review ­ How to perform an Effectiveness Review #12;3 What is an Effectiveness Review A validation · and prevents recurrence of similar, future events / findings #12;4 What is an Effectiveness Review Key Points



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center


Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.


Pairing correlations and effective mass  

SciTech Connect

We study the effect of effective mass on pairing correlations in the ground states of superfluid nuclei {sup 124}Sn and {sup 136}Sn. Various parameter sets of Skyrme interactions and relativistic Lagrangians are adopted to study pairing correlations across a wide range of effective mass. It is shown that surface-type pairing interaction gives an almost constant pairing gap as a function of the effective mass, while volume-type pairing interaction shows rather strong dependence of the pairing gap upon the effective mass. The local pair potentials of various effective interactions are also examined in relation to the effective mass.

Yoshida, Satoshi [Science Research Center, Hosei University, 2-17-1 Fujimi, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Sagawa, Hiroyuki [Center for Mathematical Sciences, University of Aizu Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan)



Doppler Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Doppler Effect model demonstrates the shift in frequency of a wave that is produced by the motion of either the wave source or the observer of the wave (or both). In this simulation, you can explore the change in the wave that is produced by source and/or observer motion, and you can even view what the situation looks like from the perspective of the medium (the standard reference frame), the source, or the observer. The Doppler Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Doppler.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew



Fire Effects Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides up-to-date information about fire effects on plants and animals. It was developed at the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The FEIS database contains synoptic descriptions, taken from current English-language literature of almost 900 plant species, about 100 animal species, and 16 Kuchler plant communities found on the North American continent. The emphasis of each synopsis is fire and how it affects each species. Background information on taxonomy, distribution, basic biology and ecology of each species is also included. Synopses are thoroughly documented, and each contains a complete bibliography. Personnel from several land management agencies (USDA Forest Service, USDI-BIA, NPS, BLM, F&WS) identified the species to be included in the database. Those agencies funded the original work and continue to support maintenance and updating of the database.



Polarization effects. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

Courant, E.



[Herbs and cardiotoxic effects].  


Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed. PMID:23748541

Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto



Leptophilic Effective WIMPs  

E-print Network

Effective WIMP models are minimal extensions of the standard model that explain the relic density of dark matter by the ``WIMP miracle.'' In this paper we consider the phenomenology of effective WIMPs with trilinear couplings to leptons and a new ``lepton partner'' particle. The observed relic abundance fixes the strength of the cubic coupling, so the parameters of the models are defined by the masses of the WIMP and lepton partner particles. This gives a simple parameter space where collider and direct detection experiments can be compared under well-defined physical minimality assumptions. The most sensitive collider probe is the search for leptons + MET, while the most sensitive direct detection channel is scattering from nuclei arising from loop diagrams. Collider and direct detection searches are highly complementary: colliders give the only meaningful constraint when dark matter is its own antiparticle, while direct detection is generally more sensitive if the dark matter is not its own antiparticle.

Spencer Chang; Ralph Edezhath; Jeffrey Hutchinson; Markus Luty



Leptophilic Effective WIMPs  

E-print Network

Effective WIMP models are minimal extensions of the standard model that explain the relic density of dark matter by the ``WIMP miracle.'' In this paper we consider the phenomenology of effective WIMPs with trilinear couplings to leptons and a new ``lepton partner'' particle. The observed relic abundance fixes the strength of the cubic coupling, so the parameters of the models are defined by the masses of the WIMP and lepton partner particles. This gives a simple parameter space where collider and direct detection experiments can be compared under well-defined physical minimality assumptions. The most sensitive collider probe is the search for leptons + MET, while the most sensitive direct detection channel is scattering from nuclei arising from loop diagrams. Collider and direct detection searches are highly complementary: colliders give the only meaningful constraint when dark matter is its own antiparticle, while direct detection is generally more sensitive if the dark matter is not its own antiparticle.

Chang, Spencer; Hutchinson, Jeffrey; Luty, Markus



AHIS Cost-Effectiveness  

PubMed Central

In 1977, Fairfax Hospital Association (FHA) set out to determine the cost-effectiveness of installing a comprehensive Automated Hospital Information System (AHIS) within its institutions. In order to determine this, FHA developed a formalized staffing impact analysis methodology. The objective of the methodology is to determine the effect that any automated system will have on staffing requirements if the specific functions of the system are known in advance. This methodology was subsequently used in the evaluation of two departments - Radiology and Utilization Review. This paper describes the methodology used so that other institutions can benefit by the experience, and discusses why it is necessary to perform such an analysis, concentrating on determining whether a system is cost beneficial, identifying benefits in advance to ensure that they are in fact achieved later, and satisfying external reporting requirements. The bulk of the paper documents step-by-step how the analysis is performed.

Bunnell, Pamela; Lemons, Lorena F.; Shapin, Paul G.



The uniform rugosity effect  

E-print Network

Relying on the effect of microscopic asperities, one can mathematically justify that viscous fluids adhere completely on the boundary of an impermeable domain. The rugosity effect accounts asymptotically for the transformation of complete slip boundary conditions on a rough surface in total adherence boundary conditions, as the amplitude of the rugosities vanishes. The decreasing rate (average velocity divided by the amplitude of the rugosities) computed on close flat layers is definitely influenced by the geometry. Recent results prove that this ratio has a uniform upper bound for certain geometries, like periodical and ”almost Lipschitz ” boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to prove that such a result holds for arbitrary (non-periodical) crystalline boundaries and general (non-smooth) periodical boundaries.

unknown authors


The Uniform Rugosity Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relying on the effect of microscopic asperities, one can mathematically justify that viscous fluids adhere completely on the boundary of an impermeable domain. The rugosity effect accounts asymptotically for the transformation of complete slip boundary conditions on a rough surface in total adherence boundary conditions, as the amplitude of the rugosities vanishes. The decreasing rate (average velocity divided by the amplitude of the rugosities) computed on close flat layers is definitely influenced by the geometry. Recent results prove that this ratio has a uniform upper bound for certain geometries, like periodical and "almost Lipschitz" boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to prove that such a result holds for arbitrary (non-periodical) crystalline boundaries and general (non-smooth) periodical boundaries.

Bonnivard, Matthieu; Bucur, Dorin



[Hypertensive effects of qat].  


Chewing of Qat leaves which contain amphetamine alkaloids is a traditional drug practice in the horn of Africa. Cathine and cathinone are responsible for the desired psychogenic (suppression of hunger, mind stimulation, euphoria) and sympathicomimetic effects. In this study, we monitored seven volunteers during a traditional qat ritual. An increase in systolic and diastolic pressure was observed in three patients including one presenting predisposing chronic arterial hypertension. Peak pressure was observed approximately seven hours after beginning the ritual. The three patients presenting pressure changes were not significantly different from the four unaffected patients with regard to age or duration of qat use. These findings suggest that qat use by untreated hypertensive patients who react strongly to vasoconstrictive effects can lead to hypertension and resulting cardiovascular complications. PMID:10088104

Mion, G; Oberti, M; Ali, A W



Fuel Vaporization Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the effects of fuel-air preparation characteristics on combustor performance and emissions at temperature and pressure ranges representative of actual gas turbine combustors is discussed. The effect of flameholding devices on the vaporization process and NOx formation is discussed. Flameholder blockage and geometry are some of the elements that affect the recirculation zone characteristics and subsequently alter combustion stability, emissions and performance. A water cooled combustor is used as the test rig. Preheated air and Jet A fuel are mixed at the entrance of the apparatus. A vaporization probe is used to determine percentage of vaporization and a gas sample probe to determine concentration of emissions in the exhaust gases. The experimental design is presented and experimental expected results are discussed.

Bosque, M. A.




PubMed Central

The United States has recently been compelled to acknowledge and to cope with an alarming increase in incidence of drug exposure in newborns owing to a new cocaine epidemic. Perhaps because of the sudden onset of national recognition of the problem, the lack of a firm knowledge base regarding the mechanisms of the effects of cocaine on child development, and the sheer magnitude of the problem in urban areas of the United States, the issue of cocaine exposure in children has been characterized by medical, legal, and social policy controversies. This article focuses on elucidating what is and what is not known about cocaine’s neurodevelopmental effects and aims to inform perinatologists about the complex issues associated with understanding and caring for the cocaine-exposed newborn. PMID:8458168

Singer, Lynn; Arendt, Robert; Minnes, Sonia



The Kaye effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.



Power electronics' polluting effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In use far and wide for improved delivery and control of the electricity supply, power electronics systems are both the cause and remedy of the power system harmonic pollution problem. Here, the authors describe how an insidious side-effect of any solution involving power electronics converters is their generation of high-frequency pollution-namely, conducted and radiated noise in the 100 kHz to

R. Redl; P. Tenti; J. Daan van Wyk



Adipokine Effects on Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adipocyte is an important source of factors that act as circulating regulators of bone metabolism. These include estrogens,\\u000a and the adipokines, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and probably others. Leptin acts directly on bone cells, and in some experimental\\u000a models these effects are modified by its actions on the central nervous system, which impact on appetite, body weight, and\\u000a insulin sensitivity.

Ian R. Reid; J. B. Richards



Preattentive auditory context effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of auditory context on the preattentive and perceptual organization of tone sequences were investigated. Two sets\\u000a of experiments were conducted in which the pitch of contextual tones was varied, bringing about two different contextual manipulations.\\u000a Preattentive auditory organization was indexed by the mismatch negativity event-related potential, which is elicited by violations\\u000a of auditory regularities even when participants ignore

István Winkler; Elyse Sussman; Mari Tervaniemi; János Horváth; Walter Ritter; Risto Näätänen



Toward Effective Conversational Messaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquity of the telephone suggests it as an ideal messaging tool. The slow, serialoutput of speech, however, makes it difficult to find important messages quickly.MailCall, a telephone-based messaging system using speech recognition, takes a steptoward effective conversational messaging with a combination of filtering, randomaccess, and recognition error handling. Incoming voice and text messages are categorizedand prioritized based on the

Matthew Talin Marx



Incubated reminiscence effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reminiscence, the recall of material that was not successfully recalled on a previous attempt, was examined in three experiments\\u000a as a function of the intertest (incubation) interval. Incubation intervals inserted between successive recall tests resulted\\u000a in increased reminiscence, but the effect was seen primarily in the first retested minute. Neither the duration of the initial\\u000a test (1–4 mm), nor the

Steven M. Smith; Edward Vela



Transgenerational effects of NMs.  


Nanomaterials are present in a number of commercially available products but there are uncertainties as to whether the unique properties that support their commercial use may also pose potential health risks. Information is missing concerning the influence of nanomaterials on the overall reproductive outcome and transgenerational effects in animals and plants. To obtain this information, long-term studies would be required using animal models phylogenetically close to humans and exposure conditions that reflect realistic scenarios with regard to dosages and admission. The nanoreprotoxicology literature published to date is largely descriptive in nature regarding the effects of nanoparticles. The mechanisms, which determine particle reproduction compatibility, are mostly elusive at the moment. Thus, it is recommended that future research explore the interactions between nanomaterials and transgenerational matter on a molecular level. It would, for instance, be of major importance to understand the behaviour of nanoparticles inside the cells but also their genotoxic and epigenetic effects. Recent studies have shown that intravenous and/or intra-abdominal administration of nanoparticles to mice results in their accumulation in the cells of many tissues, including the brain and the testis, suggesting that they easily pass through the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers. In parallel embryo development after exposure to nanoparticles should be comparatively investigated. The majority of studies on embryo toxicology have concentrated on piscine embryos, mostly derived from zebrafish. Plants for human food as an important component of the ecosystem need also to be taken into account when evaluating transgenerational effects of engineered nanomaterials in crops. PMID:24683035

Poma, Anna; Colafarina, Sabrina; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Chichiriccò, Giuseppe



Hall Effect Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this Web site is twofold: (1) to describe the Hall measurement technique for determining the carrier density and mobility in semiconductor materials and (2) to initiate an electronic interaction forum where workers interested in the Hall effect can exchange ideas and information. It includes an introductory description of the Hall measurement technique and covers basic principles, equipment, and recommended procedures. Keywords: Conductance, conductivity, resistance, resistivity



Tips for Effective Webinars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giving an effective webinar requires some presentation redesign and technology skills that you don't necessarily need in a face-to-face presentation. A great speaker in a face-to-face environment can easily crash and burn in a webinar setting if he or she isn't prepared for the unique challenges and needs of that environment. Here are some tips to help you pull off

Maria H. Andersen



Magnetic effects on thermocouples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermometers in laboratory environment and industrial applications are often subject to extraneous, usually unwanted and uncontrolled magnetic fields. Magnetic field influence can be minimized, but cannot be fully cancelled out. Even more, in most cases, there is no awareness of the existence of magnetic fields, let alone their effect on measurement instrumentation. In the past, sensitivity to high dc magnetic fields has been investigated in cryogenics and at high temperatures. More recently, the magnetic effect on weak dc magnetic fields was presented. The goal of this paper was to analyse and empirically and experimentally prove the magnetic sensitivity of thermocouples exposed to low magnetic fields: both dc and ac. Precision and uniform alternating and direct magnetic flux densities were generated by means of permanent magnets and power amplifiers with air-cored coils. The magnetic effect on ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic thermocouples at liquid-nitrogen-boiling point (-196 °C), ice point (0 °C), in water (17 °C) and at melting point of gallium fixed point cell (29.7646 °C) was investigated. Magnetic-field-dependent temperature errors of up to 700 mK (at 5.3 mT: dc) and up to 1 °C (at 10 mT: ac 50 Hz magnetic fields) were detected. From the results, it can be concluded that, ideally for temperature measurements of the highest accuracy in the above-cryogenic temperature range, magnetic sensitivity should be estimated and taken into account either as the correction of an error and/or as an additional source of measurement uncertainty. Special consideration should be given to thermocouple orientation relative to the magnetic field direction, influence of metal enclosures and magnetization effects on ferromagnetic components of thermocouples.

Beguš, Samo; Bojkovski, Jovan; Drnovšek, Janko; Geršak, Gregor



Neuroprotective effects of creatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies\\u000a examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic\\u000a lesions produced by

M. Flint Beal



Identifying Effective School Principals  

E-print Network

focus on three dimensions: student performance, teacher retention, and financial management. Data is derived from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to develop a total of seven specific indicators to measure success in these three areas for Texas... tests and school accountability ratings. TEA data is used from 1996-2005 to develop indicators for these two measures. Since our goal was to capture the improvements in student performance attributable to principal effectiveness, we used a value...

Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber



Effects on Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter will review the effects produced on neural development by maternal consumption of cannabinoids during gestation\\u000a and lactation, with emphasis in thematuration of several neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, serotonin, opioids, cannabinoids,\\u000a etc.) and possible modifications in their functional expression at the behavioral or neuroendocrine levels. In addition, we\\u000a have analyzed the possible existence of a sexual dimorphism in these ontogenic

J. A. Ramos; M. Gómez; R. de Miguel


Quantum Effects In Cosmology  

E-print Network

Contents: Introduction. The Present State of the Universe. What Can We Expect From a Complete Cosmological Theory? An Overview of Quantum Effects in Cosmology. Parametric (Superadiabatic) Amplification of Classical Waves. Graviton Creation in the Inflationary Universe. Quantum States of a Harmonic Oscillator. Squeezed Quantum States of Relic Gravitons and Primordial Density Perturbations. Quantum Cosmology, Minisuperspace Models and Inflation. From the Space of Classical Solutions to the Space of Wave Functions. On the Probability of Quantum Tunneling From "Nothing". Duration of Inflation

L. P. Grishchuk



Center for Effective Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this chapter, we closely examine one set of factors that are critical for knowledge work team effectiveness --how organizations set and communicate,direction for teams. The variables we examine encompass,several related elements in the organization's direction-setting context: the clarity of the organization's strategy, the alignment of individual team, and organizational goals, and the measurability and specificity of those goals.



The Effects of Outliers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Illuminations: Resources for Teaching Mathematics, this lesson is designed to help students understand the significance of outliers. This lesson includes thought questions and an applet to help students visualize the effect of an outlier. The authors divide the lesson into different groups, they include: learning objectives, materials, instructional plans, NCTM standards/expectations, and finally references. This is a great interactive resource for those wanting to learn more about correlation and regression.



Lightning effects on aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.



Treatment Side Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mothers of children referred for psychological services at a community-based, outpatient psychiatric facility completed an assessment of side effects following termination of treatment. The children and their families were randomly assigned to therapists and treatment model (i.e., behavioral or strategic family therapy). A research assistant blind to treatment assignment contacted the mothers following termination and conducted an in-home interview to

Thomas V. Sayger; Steven A. Szykula; Curtis Sudweeks



Writing Effective TAFs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides an overview of some of the applicable TAF Amendment and Conditional Group usage rules, as presented in the latest version of the National Weather Service Instruction 10-813 on TAF directives. It also presents a methodology for TAF writing and development that will lead to an effective and user-friendly product. The focus is on the ceiling and visibility aspects of the TAF. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus.




Ejs Doppler Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Doppler Effect model displays the detection of sound waves from a moving source and the change in frequency of the detected wave via the Doppler effect. In addition to the wave fronts from the source a graph depicting the time of emission and time of detection of each of the wave fronts is given. The speed of sound, the velocity of the source and the position and velocity of the detector can be changed via text boxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Doppler Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_doppler.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan



Cascading Effects Following Intervention  

PubMed Central

Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.



SAD effects on grantmanship  

E-print Network

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a state of depression induced by a lack of sufficient sunlight that occurs at high latitudes during the fall and winter. One effect of SAD is that causes people to be more risk-adverse, an effect that should be considered by granting agencies of high latitude countries. Funding agencies often have programmes aimed at high-risk, innovative research. However, the time of the year during which these purposefully high-risk proposals are evaluated usually does not take into consideration the effects of SAD. In high-latitude countries (e.g., Canada, UK, Nordic and Baltic countries), evaluating proposals for high-risk programmes during the late fall might significantly detract from the very purpose of such programmes. At this time of the year, grant evaluators might be in a darkness-induced state of mild depression. As such, evaluators might be more likely to opt for safe investments, more of the same, the well established, which is the antithesis of innovative research.

Lozano, George A



Photoelectric Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Photoelectric Effect model simulates the Photoelectric effect discovered by Hertz in 1887 and described theoretically by Einstein in 1905. Light of a given frequency (energy) shines on a metal in a vacuum tube. If the energy of the photons is greater than the work function of the metal, W, electrons are ejected and can form a current in an external circuit. These photoelectrons will have a kinetic energy if the energy of the light is greater than the work function. If subjected to an electric potential between the plates in the tube, the electrons excited from the metal will be accelerated resulting in an increase, decrease, or stopping of the current. This model provides controls for the frequency of the light source and the external potential on the electron tube. An ammeter allows users to take data for the photo-current. The EJS Photoelectric Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_photoelectric.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.



Quantum Effects in Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Man?al; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.



'The Kesterson effect'  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hypothesized to be derived from Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks, selenium contamination of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge is traced through irrigation drainage to the source bedrock of the California Coast Ranges. This biogeochemical pathway of selenium is defined here as the 'Kesterson effect.' At the refuge ponds, this effect culminated in 1983 in a 64% rate of deformity and death of embryos and hatchlings of wild aquatic birds. From the previous companion paper on irrigation drainage, the Kesterson effect has been implicated in nine of 11 reconnaissance areas studied in the western United States. Deformities have resulted in at least five of these sites. Climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and soil conditions in these reconnaissance areas are similar to those in the area surrounding Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California, in California, selenium as selenate, was ultimately found weathered with sulfur from marine sources in soluble sodium and magnesium sulfate salts, which are concentrated by evaporation on farmland soils. The Se, mobilized by irrigation drainage, is bioaccumulated to toxic levels in refuge wetland ponds that are located mainly in hydrologically closed basins and thus act as concentrating disposal points. The depositional environment of the ponds may be similar to that of the nutrient-rich continental shelf edge and slope in which Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sediments found to be seleniferous in the California Coast Ranges were deposited. Bioaccumulation may be therefore a primary mechanism of selenium enrichment in ancient sediments in addition to that of the formerly suggested Cretaceous volcanic pathway.

Presser, T.S.



Interfacial effects in multilayers  

SciTech Connect

Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general.

Barbee, T.W., Jr.



Effective Gauge Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global iso-spin invariance of the hadronic interaction, which is areflection of the SU(2) × U(1) QFD and QCD, as well as the U(1) invariance related to the charge of the hadrons, is formulated as an effective gauge theory. The pseudo-gauge fields in this theory are the vector mesons, and these composite fields become massive when the Higgs field at the quark-lepton level and the bar{q}q pair states acquire the vacuum expectation value. The formulation gives a theoretical basis for the vector dominance model and gives some insights to the possible composite structure of quarks and leptons.

Ebata, T.



TEACHING PHYSICS: Capillary effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine capillary tubes with a variable cross section, in which there is a column of fully wetting or fully non-wetting liquid. The direction in which the liquid moves when the tubes are placed horizontally is determined by means of Pascal's law. We promote the idea that the conical capillary tube is a hydraulic machine, whose two pistons are the liquid column's free surfaces, which have different radii. We propose a new way of demonstrating the described capillary effects by means of flat models of capillary tubes, constructed from glass plates. The demonstrations are presented in front of a large audience using an overhead projector.

Ivanov, Dragia; Petrova, Hristina



Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.  


The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts. PMID:23884116

Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina



Transistors: The Field Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transistors are the building blocks of modern electronic devices. Your cell phones, iPods, and computers all depend on them to operate. Thanks to today's microfabrication technology, transistors can be made very tiny and be massively produced. You are probably using billions of them while working with this activity now--as of 2006, a dual-core Intel microprocessor contains 1.7 billion transistors. The field effect transistor is the most common type of transistor. So we will focus on it in this activity.

Consortium, The C.



Effective string theory simplified  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note we simplify the formulation of the Poincaré-invariant effective string theory in D dimensions by adding an intrinsic metric and embedding its dynamics into the Polyakov formalism. We use this formalism to classify operators order-by-order in the inverse physical length of the string, in a fully gauge-invariant framework. We then use this classification to analyze the universality and nonuniversality of observables, up to and including the second sub-leading order in the long string expansion.

Hellerman, Simeon; Maeda, Shunsuke; Maltz, Jonathan; Swanson, Ian



Isotopic trans effect  

SciTech Connect

D is found to have a higher trans influence than H, as reflected in /sup 1/J(Pt,P) and /sup 1/J(Pt,C) coupling constants in trans-(HPt(PEt/sub 3/)/sub 2/L)/sup +/ (L = /sup 13/CO or PEt/sub 3/) and the PtD analogues. The isotopic effect on trans ligand labilization is also discussed in the case of (IrH/sub 2/(Me/sub 2/CO)/sub 2/(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sup +/. Molecular H/sub 2/ (D/sub 2/) complexes are proposed as intermediates in the deuteration of the iridium complex.

Crabtree, R.H.; Habib, A.



Assessments of astronaut effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.



75 FR 10411 - Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 617 RIN 3052-AC45 Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration...publicized external index receive appropriate disclosure of interest rate changes in accordance with statutory requirements...



Nitric oxide and catalase-sensitive relaxation by scutellarin in the mouse thoracic aorta.  


The vascular activity of scutellarin (SCU), a flavonoid isolated from a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, was investigated in isolated thoracic aortic rings of mice. SCU-induced dose-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (1 microM) stimulated contractions. This relaxation was reduced by endothelium removal, significantly reduced by both the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester, 300 microM) and slightly limited by the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1 H-[1,2,4] oxidazolol [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, 100 microM). The catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 50 mM) augmented the constriction and blocked the lowest SCU concentration relaxation, whereas catalase addition was without effect. Preincubation with 300 and 1000 microM SCU significantly suppressed the contractile dose-response to phenylephrine, causing both a significant rise in half maximal effective concentration and a decrease in the maximal developed force. Western blot analysis showed that SCU inhibition of contraction was independent of reductions in myosin light chain phosphorylation. These results suggested that SCU relaxation was predominantly endothelium dependent and likely involved the catalase-sensitive nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway, without loss of myosin phosphorylation. The potential clinical use of SCU may prove to be effective in increasing vasoreactivity, independently of smooth muscle contractile activity that is mediated by the 20-kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation. PMID:19129733

Yang, Weimin; Lust, Robert M; Bofferding, April; Wingard, Christopher J



Electrical properties of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells with ultrathin titania nanosheet blocking layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of ultrathin titanium oxide nanosheet (TN) crystallites to the electrical properties and the diffusion of metal atoms were studied in a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) cell in indium-tin oxide (ITO)/MoO3/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) active layer/titania nanosheet (TN)/metal multilayered photovoltaic devices. The insertion of only two or three layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and TN multilayered film prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique effectively decreased the leakage current and increased the open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (?) nearly two fold. Although the active layer has a hydrophobic surface, the active layer was fully covered by the insertion of only two or three layers of the PDDA/TN multilayered film and the ultrathin TN layer effectively prevented the metal atoms from diffusing into the polymer film. The impedance analysis and the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the TN layer effectively separated the organic layer/metal interface and blocked holes at the organic/TN interface resulting in the reduction in leakage current by nearly three orders of magnitude and the increase in the capacitance at a voltage around VOC.

Itoh, Eiji; Maruyama, Yasutake; Fukuda, Katsutoshi



Key to effective video retrieval: effective cataloging and browsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

-—— ——— — : 1. ABSTRACT Mukirnedia data is an increasingly important information medium today. Providing intelligent access for effective use of this information continues to offer challenges in digital Iibrary research. As computer vision, image processing and speech recognition research continue to progress, we examine the effectiveness of these fully automated techniques in architecting effective video retrieval systems. We

Dulce B. Ponceleon; Savitha Srinivasan; Arnon Amir; Dragutin Petkovic; Dan Diklic



Lake Effect Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE



Predicting Earthquake Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the earth sciences and information technology have lead to dramatic improvements in our ability to respond to, as well as anticipate and mitigate, earthquake effects in our communities. The development of Geographic Information System (GIS) based tools such as ShakeMap and HAZUS have ushered in a new era of risk and emergency management. Real-time maps of strong ground motion, coupled with engineering-based descriptions of building and infrastructure inventory and vulnerability enable more accurate determinations of the location and severity of earthquake damage and the socio-economic consequences for emergency managers and officials following significant earthquakes. The ability to map the distribution and growth of seismic risk in the United States has long-term benefits for public policy as well. Long-term forecasts of seismic risk based on varying mitigation strategies can provide guidance for developing national and local earthquake policy. The successful performance of the Trans-Alaska pipeline during the 2002 Denali earthquake illustrates the dependence of performance-based engineering on the ability to predict earthquake effects (e.g., levels of strong ground motion, amounts of fault displacement or ground deformation). Being able to reduce the uncertainty in predicting these parameters has significant economic consequences and enables decision makers to more efficiently prioritize risk management strategies.

Nishenko, S.



Astroinfect Effect - Revised Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space activities lead to a lasting pollution of the Solar System. Light pressure, gravitational interaction with the planets, collisions and explosions (similar to spontaneous explosions of Earth satellite) of artefacts in the outer parts of the planetary system can lead to effective, inevitable spontaneous leakage of interplanetary trash into the interstellar medium, even in the absence of interstellar flights. If there are alien artefacts between the stars, some of them are likely to fall down to Earth at times [1,2]. They could be non-sterile, so sporadic interstellar panspermia is possible [3]. The minimum pollution threshold for such panspermia was estimated [2] for 2 m-microartefacts at the level of Galactic cosmic radiation of 4 x 10-7 rad/s [4]. However, C. Mileikowsky showed that, if the X-rays are taken into consideration, the interstellar dose rate is ~3 x 10- 5 rad/s [5]. At this high dose rate the microartefacts must be sterilised at the distances >0.1 pc from the planetary system, hence they cannot be an effective agent of interstellar panspermia. Sufficient protection of microbial spores is possible inside macroartefacts. Therefore, the panspermia model and the corresponding minimum pollution threshold must be re-examined.

Arkhipov, A. V.


Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models  

SciTech Connect

One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

Suter, G.W. II



Topological phase effects  

E-print Network

Quantum eigenstates undergoing cyclic changes acquire a phase factor of geometric origin. This phase, known as the Berry phase, or the geometric phase, has found applications in a wide range of disciplines throughout physics, including atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, optics, and classical dynamics. In this article, the basic theory of the geometric phase is presented along with a number of representative applications. The article begins with an account of the geometric phase for cyclic adiabatic evolutions. An elementary derivation is given along with a worked example for two-state systems. The implications of time-reversal are explained, as is the fundamental connection between the geometric phase and energy level degeneracies. We also discuss methods of experimental observation. A brief account is given of geometric magnetism; this is a Lorenz-like force of geometric origin which appears in the dynamics of slow systems coupled to fast ones. A number of theoretical developments of the geometric phase are presented. These include an informal discussion of fibre bundles, and generalizations of the geometric phase to degenerate eigenstates (the nonabelian case) and to nonadiabatic evolution. There follows an account of applications. Manifestations in classical physics include the Hannay angle and kinematic geometric phases. Applications in optics concern polarization dynamics, including the theory and observation of Pancharatnam's phase. Applications in molecular physics include the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. In condensed matter physics, we discuss the role of the geometric phase in the theory of the quantum Hall effect.

J. M. Robbins



Flight effects of fan noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

Chestnutt, D. (editor)



Atomistic and orthoatomistic effect algebras  

SciTech Connect

We characterize atomistic effect algebras, prove that a weakly orthocomplete Archimedean atomic effect algebra is orthoatomistic and present an example of an orthoatomistic orthomodular poset that is not weakly orthocomplete.

Tkadlec, Josef [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, 166 27 Praha (Czech Republic)



Atomistic and orthoatomistic effect algebras  

E-print Network

We characterize atomistic effect algebras, prove that a weakly orthocomplete Archimedean atomic effect algebra is orthoatomistic and present an example of an orthoatomistic orthomodular poset that is not weakly orthocomplete.

Josef Tkadlec



Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain  


... services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Pain “I was worried about getting addicted to ... to pay for pain medicine. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain Keep track of the pain. Each day, ...


Hall Effect in a Plasma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus and procedure for conducting an undergraduate laboratory experiment to quantitatively study the Hall effect in a plasma. Includes background information on the Hall effect and rationale for conducting the experiment. (JN)

Kunkel, W. B.



HIV Medicines and Side Effects  


... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ... What are common short-term side effects from HIV medicines? When starting an HIV medicine for the ...


Magnetoelectric effects in multiferroics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-electric phenomena were investigated in two different multiferroic systems: The strong coupling of dielectric and magnetic properties and the simultaneous occurrence of long-range magnetic and ferroelectric order are discussed for rare earth manganites and sulfo spinels. A phase diagram of Eu1-xYxMnO3 is established, which recovers the main features of the well-known magneto-electric phase diagram for the pure rare earth manganites RMnO3. Here a variety of magnetic and electric phases emerge with varying rare earth ions R. As function of temperature and external magnetic field, also Y doped EuMnO3 compounds undergo a sequence of different magnetic and polar phase transitions for varying effective ionic radii of the rare earth ions. Special attention is paid to the occurrence of fundamentally new hybrid spin-electromagnetic excitations, which we name electromagnons and are characterized as spin waves that can be excited by an ac electric field. These excitations are identified in Eu1-xYxMnO3 with x = 0.2, in GdMnO3, and in TbMnO3. Specifically in GdMnO3 the electromagnons can easily be suppressed by external magnetic fields and allow tuning the index of refraction by moderate fields. In the second part we discuss the simultaneous appearance of colossal magneto-resistance (CMR) and colossal magneto-capacitance (CMC) effects in chromium sulfo spinels. In CdCr2S4 ferromagnetism of localized Cr spins evolves at 85 K, while polar order is established below 130 K. The onset of ferroelectric order is neither accompanied by the occurrence of soft modes nor by structural changes which break the inversion symmetry of the high-temperature cubic phase. HgCr2S4 becomes ferroelectric close to 70 K while a complex antiferromagnetic order is found below 25 K. CMR and CMC effects are specifically strong in the mercury compound, as moderate magnetic fields of only 0.1 T induce ferromagnetism at much higher temperatures. We speculate that the occurrence of ferroelectricity in these multiferroic compounds is rather of electronic than of ionic origin.

Loidl, Alois



Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) refers to the generation of a spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in magnetic materials [1-7]. Here, a spin voltage is a potential for electron spins to drive a nonequilibrium spin current; when a conductor is attached to a magnet with a finite spin voltage, it induces a spin injection into the conductor. The SSE is of crucial importance in spintronics and spin caloritronics, since it enables simple and versatile generation of a spin current from heat. The simplest and most straightforward setup of the SSE is the longitudinal configuration [4], in which a spin current flowing parallel to a temperature gradient is measured via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The longitudinal SSE device consists of a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic insulator (FI, e.g. YIG) covered with a paramagnetic metal (PM, e.g. Pt) film. When a temperature gradient is applied perpendicular to the FI/PM interface, an ISHE-induced voltage is generated in the PM layer. In this talk, we report the observation of the longitudinal SSE in various FI/PM systems and provide evidence that the longitudinal SSE is free from thermoelectric artefact [7], i.e., the anomalous Nernst effect caused by extrinsic magnetic proximity [8]. Then, we discuss the longitudinal SSE from an application point of view [6]. We thank E. Saitoh, S. Maekawa, G. E. W. Bauer, X.-F. Jin, H. Adachi, D. Hou, D. Tian, T. Kikkawa, A. Kirihara, and M. Ishida for their support and valuable discussions. [4pt] [1] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008).[0pt] [2] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 9, 894 (2010).[0pt] [3] C. M. Jaworski et al., Nature Mater. 9, 898 (2010).[0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 172505 (2010).[0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 10, 737 (2011).[0pt] [6] A. Kirihara et al., Nature Mater. 11, 686 (2012).[0pt] [7] T. Kikkawa et al., arXiv:1211.0139 (2012). [0pt] [8] S. Y. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107204 (2012).

Uchida, Ken-Ichi



Numerical calculation of effective action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to calculate the effective action for scalar theories. This is an extension of the constraint effective potential method, so it is easily applied to lattice calculations. We apply this method to lattice Z2 symmetric ?? 4 theory and discuss the effectiveness of this method.

Tominaga, S.



Faculty Perceptions of Institutional Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined (a) the differences in perceptions of faculty, full-time versus part-time, at a community college in northern Alabama on the importance of institutional effectiveness activities; (b) the factors that affect perceptions of the importance of institutional effectiveness activities; and (c) the effect of academic discipline,…

LoCascio, Susan H.



Probiotics: mechanisms and established effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition for probiotics has gradually changed with increasing understanding of the mechanisms by which they influence human health. Health effects related to changes in the intestinal microflora also accompany or are related to adhesion and immune system effects, competitive exclusion or metabolic and nutritional effects, with an increasing array of other potential modes of action. Most clinically documented and

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Pirkka V. Kirjavainen; Colette Shortt; Seppo Salminen



The rugosity effect Dorin Bucur  

E-print Network

The rugosity effect Dorin Bucur Abstract This paper surveys the series of lectures given-Murat, Babuska's paradox, the Courant-Hilbert example and the rugosity effect in fluid dynamics. Some classical conditions are presented. In particular we describe different ways to deal with the rugosity effect in fluid

Bucur, Dorin


Assessing and Improving Institutional Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information to promote assessment of organizational effectiveness in colleges and universities is presented, along with an exercise to rank the effectiveness of 10 institutions. The exercise uses three types of criteria to indicate effectiveness: subjective ratings, data about students and activities, and institutional capacity and financial…

Cameron, Kim S.


The Enigma of Organizational Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational effectiveness is not a clearly defined concept. The author illustrates how the four most widely used models are not uniformly applicable. He states the evaluator must make explicit certain critical choices when measuring effectiveness. These criteria reveal the definition of effectiveness and what is being measured. (DWH)

Cameron, Kim



Hall effect in spinor condensates  

SciTech Connect

We consider a neutral spinor condensate moving in a periodic magnetic field. The spatially dependent magnetic field induces an effective spin-dependent Lorentz force, which in turn gives rise to a spin-dependent Hall effect. Simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation quantify the Hall effect. We discuss possible experimental realizations.

Taillefumier, Mathieu; Dahl, Eskil K.; Brataas, Arne [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Hofstetter, Walter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)



Solar Neutrino Matter Effects Redux  

E-print Network

Following recent low-threshold analysis of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and asymmetry measurements of the BOREXINO Collaboration of the solar neutrino flux, we revisit the analysis of the matter effects in the Sun. We show that solar neutrino data constrains the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ poorly and that subdominant Standard Model effects can mimic the effects of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

A. B. Balantekin; A. Malkus



Side effects with amiodarone therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amiodarone hydrochloride is increasingly being used in the treatment of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Although a highly effective anti-arrhythmic agent, its use is restricted by the high incidence of side effects. To elucidate the value of monitoring serum level of both the parent drug and its active metabolite in predicting the occurrence of side effects, the investigators examined 109 patients

R. Shukla; N. I. Jowett; D. R. Thompson; J. E. Pohl



Orbital magnetic ratchet effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic ratchets—two-dimensional systems with superimposed noncentrosymmetric ferromagnetic gratings—are considered theoretically. It is demonstrated that excitation by radiation results in a directed motion of two-dimensional carriers due to the pure orbital effect of the periodic magnetic field. Magnetic ratchets based on various two-dimensional systems such as topological insulators, graphene, and semiconductor heterostructures are investigated. The mechanisms of the electric current generation caused by both radiation-induced heating of carriers and by acceleration in the radiation electric field in the presence of a space-oscillating Lorentz force are studied in detail. The electric currents sensitive to the linear polarization plane orientation as well as to the radiation helicity are calculated. It is demonstrated that the frequency dependence of the magnetic ratchet currents is determined by the dominant elastic-scattering mechanism of two-dimensional carriers and differs for the systems with linear and parabolic energy dispersions.

Budkin, G. V.; Golub, L. E.



Grantmakers for Effective Organizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grantmakers for Effective Organizations (GEO) makes it their mission to promote the strategies and practices that contribute to grantee success. To this end, the GEO website contains information about its outreach efforts, peer learning opportunities, conferences, and upcoming events. Within GEO Priorities visitors can learn about the organization's own development plan and long-term goals, while the GEO Publications area contains a raft of useful publications for policy types and others. Noteworthy publications, here, include "Many Hands, More Impact: Philanthropy's Role in Supporting Movements" and "Cracking the Network Code: Four Principles for Grantmakers." The Peer Learning Opportunities section is another great installment, containing links to helpful webinars, speaking engagement possibilities, and other useful resources.


The hot chocolate effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

Crawford, Frank S.



[Side effects of caffeine].  


Caffeine is one of the most commonly ingested alkaloids worldwide. It is present in coffee, tea, soft and energy drinks, chocolate, etc. Currently published data has been stressed that the metyloxantine consumption increases the risk of coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, arterial stiffness, and an elevation of cholesterol and homocysteine plasma concentration. The acute high consumption may also modulate insulin sensitivity and glucose blood level. However, the long-term consumption reduces the incidence of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. When administered in high doses the substance may cause various side effects, related to abnormal stimulation of the central nervous system, decrease tonus of the lower esophageal sphincter, as well as increase risk of miscarriage and intrauterine growth retardation. The final manifestation of side reactions is dependent on the genotype, especially polymorphisms of genes associated with caffeine metabolism, i.e., cytochrome P450-CYP1A2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). PMID:19999796

Dworza?ski, Wojciech; Opielak, Grzegorz; Burdan, Franciszek



Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.


The Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama. The goal of the site is to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. In this unit students learn about what the greenhouse effect is and what causes it. By looking at greenhouse gas rates and amounts, students can propose reasons for trends and solutions to global warming. Parts of the unit include gathering information from other websites, applying the data gathered, and performing enrichment exercises. This site contains a downloadable teachers guide, student guide, and all activity sheets to make the unit complete.


Effective monitoring of agriculture.  


An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E



40 CFR 1508.8 - Effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ecosystems. Effects and impacts as used in these regulations are synonymous. Effects includes ecological (such as the effects on natural resources...or cumulative. Effects may also include...believes that the effect will be...



Photovoltaic Properties of Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell with Ultrathin Titanium Oxide Nanosheet as Electron Selective Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of ultrathin titania nanosheet (TN) crystallites were studied in both an inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) cell in indium tin oxide (ITO)/titania nanosheet (TN)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) active layer/MoO3/Ag and a conventional BHJ cell in ITO/MoO3/P3HT:PCBM active layer/TN/Al multilayered photovoltaic devices. The insertion of only one or two layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and TN multilayered film prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique effectively decreased the leakage current and increased the open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (?). The abnormal S-shaped curves observed in the inverted BHJ cell above VOC disappeared with the reduction in the work function of the bottom electrode in the inverted cells. The power conversion efficiency was increased nearly twofold, and better photovoltaic performance was observed in the conventional BHJ cells. Although the active layer has a hydrophobic surface, the active layer was fully covered by the insertion of only two or three layers of PDDA/TN multilayered film. The TN layer effectively decreased the leakage current by a factor of 100, and increased the open circuit voltage by 0.25 V probably owing to the complete hole blocking at the P3HT/TN/Al interface.

Itoh, Eiji; Maruyama, Yasutake; Fukuda, Katsutoshi



Gravitomagnetic effects in conformal gravity  

E-print Network

Gravitomagnetic effects are characterized by two phenomena: first, the geodetic effect which describes the precession of the spin of a gyroscope in a free orbit around a massive object, second, the Lense-Thirring effect which describes the precession of the orbital plane about a rotating source mass. We calculate both these effects in the fourth-order theory of conformal Weyl gravity for the test case of circular orbits. We show that for the geodetic effect a linear term arises which may be interesting for high radial orbits, whereas for the Lense-Thirring effect the additional term has a diminishing effect for most orbits. Circular orbits are also considered in general leading up to a generalization of Kepler's third law.

Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb



Gravitomagnetic effects in conformal gravity  

E-print Network

Gravitomagnetic effects are characterized by two phenomena: first, the geodetic effect which describes the precession of the spin of a gyroscope in a free orbit around a massive object, second, the Lense-Thirring effect which describes the precession of the orbital plane about a rotating source mass. We calculate both these effects in the fourth-order theory of conformal Weyl gravity for the test case of circular orbits. We show that for the geodetic effect a linear term arises which may be interesting for high radial orbits, whereas for the Lense-Thirring effect the additional term has a diminishing effect for most orbits. Circular orbits are also considered in general leading up to a generalization of Kepler's third law.

Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami



Public Opinion on Mass Media Effects: Perceived Societal Effects and Perceived Personal Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The questionnaire in a study of perceived mass media effects included nine statements about the possible negative effects of the mass media, to which respondents could agree, disagree, or indicate "no opinion," and an open-ended question that asked the subjects what effects the mass media had on them personally. Most of the 340 respondents showed…

Tiedge, James T.


(Limiting the greenhouse effect)  

SciTech Connect

Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

Rayner, S.



Landslides - Cause and effect  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D. J.



The Second Mössbauer Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The Second Mössbauer Effect" was the headline of the "Spiegel" (a German weekly journal like the "Times") from May 13, 1964 for announcing the foundation of the "Physik-Department" at the Technische Hochschule München (THM), as it was still called at this time. Maier-Leibnitz was irritated by this headline because the article did not mention at all his contribution to the consolidation of the structure of the three physics institutes (Experimental, Technical, and Theoretical Physics) in the beginning of the sixties. Already in the late fifties ML's Institute for Technical Physics was overloaded with students working on their diploma or doctoral theses, because research in the new field of applied nuclear physics was very attractive and ML had for each student who applied an interesting research project. In the average, ML had to supervise between 150-200 diploma students, an impossible task. So, young postdoctoral students had to help him out by taking over the duties of professors. In a letter to the Bavarian Ministry of Education and Arts in 1957 he complained: "The directors of the institutes are hopelessly surcharged and the institutes are overcrowded, the resources for research projects are totally insufficient and lots of time and energy is wasted for finding additional resources."

Kienle, Paul


The Ratchet Effect  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the previously unexamined association between admissions to hospital with chronic disease and changes in all-cause health service utilization over time. Research Design: A cohort study examining the population of Western Australia with hospitalizations for chronic disease from 2002 to 2010. A “rolling” clearance period is used to define “cardinal events,” that is, a disease-specific diagnosis upon hospital admission, where such an event has not occurred in the previous 2 years. Changes in the rate of cardinal events associated with diagnoses of heart failure, type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cataract with diabetes, asthma, and dialysis are examined. Health service utilization (defined as inpatient days or emergency department presentations) 6 years preceding and 4 years following such events is presented. Results: Cardinal events make up 40%–60% of all chronic disease admissions. A previously undescribed ratchet effect following cardinal events specifically associated with type 2 diabetes, heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is observed. This involves a 2- to 3-fold increase in inpatient days and emergency department presentations that are sustained for at least 4 years. Conclusions: Cardinal events represent an important reference point to understand the impact of chronic disease on health service utilization. Events that herald such a marked transition in health service demand have not been previously described. PMID:25054825

Tenneti, Raji; Marsh, Julie; Bolt, Sarah E.; Kemp, Anna; Firth, Laura; Murray, Kevin; Turlach, Berwin; Vickery, Alistair



Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

Cook, J.



Effective training methodology  

SciTech Connect

Training has become an important part of facility operation in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Ongoing changes in DOE requirements dictate that facilities must react to those changes promptly and effectively. This paper presents training techniques particularly suited to training adults, as contrasted with the educational process that most of the authors are familiar with as a result of their primary, secondary and perhaps college educations. DOE has established the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque for the purpose of providing specialized training to persons throughout the complex. However, much of the training for facility operating personnel must necessarily be conducted at those facilities, either by dedicated trainers or by persons who conduct training as a part-time activity. Techniques outlined in this paper should be of particular interest to persons involved in training at DOE facilities. Training should be designed with recognition that adults have real life experiences, which they often like to share; they also like to actively participate in the learning process. Participatory lecture, demonstration and practical exercise instructional methods are particularly suited to training of adults. Proper questioning techniques can be used to increase involvement and to obtain the feedback required to determine if learning has taken place. Setup of the room used for training and properly designed training aids can enhance the learning experience. Finally, testing should be used at the proper time and should always be designed around training objectives.

Crain, B. Jr. [Science Applications International Corp., Aiken, SC (United States)



Compartment effects in hemodialysis.  


Compartment effects in hemodialysis are important because they reduce the efficiency of removal of the compartmentalized solute during dialysis. The dialyzer can only remove those waste products that are presented to it, and then only in proportion to the concentration of the solute in the blood. Classically a two-compartment system has been modeled, with the compartments arranged in series. Because modeling suggests that the sequestered compartment is larger than the accessible compartment, an assumption has been made that the sequestered compartment is the intracellular space. For urea and other solutes that move easily across many cell membranes, compartmentalization may be flow related, that is, related to sequestration in organs (muscle, skin, bone). Although mathematically urea rebound and mass balance can be described with either model, the flow-related model best explains data showing that urea rebound after dialysis is increased during ultrafiltration, diminished during high cardiac output states, and also reduced during exercise. Whether compartmentalization is increased in vasoconstricted intensive care unit patients receiving acute dialysis remains an open question. PMID:11489202

Schneditz, D; Daugirdas, J T



Paper field effect transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the use of a sheet of cellulose fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide based semiconductor thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach we are using the cellulose fiber-based paper in an "interstrate" structure since the device is build on both sides of the cellulose sheet. Such hybrid FETs present excellent operating characteristics such as high channel saturation mobility (>30 cm2/Vs), drain-source current on/off modulation ratio of approximately 104, near-zero threshold voltage, enhancement n-type operation and sub-threshold gate voltage swing of 0.8 V/decade. The cellulose fiber-based paper FETs characteristics have been measured in air ambient conditions and present good stability. The obtained results outpace those of amorphous Si TFTs and rival with the same oxide based TFTs produced on either glass or crystalline silicon substrates. The compatibility of these devices with large-scale/large-area deposition techniques and low cost substrates as well as their very low operating bias delineates this as a promising approach to attain high-performance disposable electronics like paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, RFID and point-of-care systems for self analysis in bio-applications, among others.

Fortunato, E.; Correia, Nuno; Barquinha, Pedro; Costa, Cláudia; Pereira, Luís; Gonçalves, Gonçalo; Martins, Rodrigo



The photorefractive effect  

SciTech Connect

When Arthur Ashkin and his colleagues at Bell Laboratories first noticed the photorefractive effect some 25 years ago, they considered the phenomenon a curiosity at best and a complete nuisance at worst. Today photorefractive materials are being shaped into components for a new generation of computers that exploit light instead of electricity. During the past 25 years investigators have discovered a wide variety of photorefractive materials, including insulators, semiconductors and organic compounds. Photorefractive materials, like film emulsions, change rapidly when exposed to bright light, respond slowly when subjected to dim light and capture sharp detail when struck by some intricate pattern of light. Unlike film, photorefractive materials are erasable: images can be stored or obliterated at whim or by design. By virtue of their sensitivity, robustness, and unique optical properties, photorefractive materials have the potential to be fashioned into data-processing elements for optical computers. In theory, these devices would allow optical computers to process information at much faster rates than their electronic counterparts. Employing photorefractive materials, workers have already developed the optical analogue to the transistor: if two laser beams interact within a photorefractive material, one beam can control, switch or amplify the second beam. Photorefractive materials also lie at the heart of devices that trace the edges of images, that connect networks of lasers and that store three-dimensional images.

Pepper, D.M. (Pepperdine Univ., CA (USA)); Kukhtarev, N.V. (Institute of Physics, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR))



The gap between effect of drugs and effectiveness of treatments.  


Despite profound effects on the immune system, drugs for multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy have shown only moderate treatment effectiveness. The approved drugs, interferon (IFN)-beta and glatiramer acetate, have a number of effects on the immune system that could interfere with the disease processes in MS but are only able to reduce the relapse rate by 30% and have little or no effect on disease progression. The new targeted immune therapies, campath-1H and natalizumab, have shown immense treatment effectiveness as for inflammation-related disease manifestations, i.e. relapses and MRI activity, but an effect on long-term disease progression has not yet been demonstrated. There are several explanations of the gap between drug effects and treatment effectiveness of which some are related to the properties of the immune system and some are related to the properties of drugs used for treatment of MS. To fill the gap we need to have drugs that both effectively and safely eliminate the inflammation and in addition have neuroprotective properties. However, this may not be obtained from a single drug but may require combinations of drugs with different actions on the disease processes. PMID:17362994

Sorensen, Per Soelberg



Bronchodilating effect and anabolic effect of inhaled procaterol.  


While the use of oral beta (2)-agonists by athletes is prohibited because of their anabolic effects, some inhaled beta (2)-agonists can be used in accordance with the World Anti-Doping Agency regulations. We examined the dose disparity between the bronchodilating effect and anabolic effect of inhaled procaterol, a selective beta (2)-agonist, to determine if the drug might be effective for athletes with asthma. Intact rats were given nebulized procaterol at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/mL by inhalation, and its inhibitory effect on carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction was evaluated. Castrated rats were given nebulized procaterol at 0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/mL by inhalation 3 times a day for 14 days, and anabolic markers (body weight gain, weight of the levator ani muscle and gastrocnemius muscle) were measured. At 0.01 mg/mL and higher, procaterol dose-dependently inhibited carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction with a significant effect. At doses of up to 0.3 mg/mL, there were no signs indicating an anabolic effect of procaterol. At 1 mg/mL, however, a slight but statistically significant increase in the weight of the levator ani muscle was observed with no significant changes in other anabolic markers. It was suggested that inhaled procaterol might be useful for athletes with asthma because of the big dose disparity between its bronchodilating effect and anabolic effect in rats. PMID:18461498

Ikezono, K; Maeda, T; Kamata, M; Mori, T; Yabuuchi, Y



Effective Sizes for Subdivided Populations  

PubMed Central

Many derivations of effective population sizes have been suggested in the literature; however, few account for the breeding structure and none can readily be expanded to subdivided populations. Breeding structures influence gene correlations through their effects on the number of breeding individuals of each sex, the mean number of progeny per female, and the variance in the number of progeny produced by males and females. Additionally, hierarchical structuring in a population is determined by the number of breeding groups and the migration rates of males and females among such groups. This study derives analytical solutions for effective sizes that can be applied to subdivided populations. Parameters that encapsulate breeding structure and subdivision are utilized to derive the traditional inbreeding and variance effective sizes. Also, it is shown that effective sizes can be determined for any hierarchical level of population structure for which gene correlations can accrue. Derivations of effective sizes for the accumulation of gene correlations within breeding groups (coancestral effective size) and among breeding groups (intergroup effective size) are given. The results converge to traditional, single population measures when similar assumptions are applied. In particular, inbreeding and intergroup effective sizes are shown to be special cases of the coancestral effective size, and intergroup and variance effective sizes will be equal if the population census remains constant. Instantaneous solutions for effective sizes, at any time after gene correlation begins to accrue, are given in terms of traditional F statistics or transition equations. All effective sizes are shown to converge upon a common asymptotic value when breeding tactics and migration rates are constant. The asymptotic effective size can be expressed in terms of the fixation indices and the number of breeding groups; however, the rate of approach to the asymptote is dependent upon dispersal rates. For accurate assessment of effective sizes, initial, instantaneous or asymptotic, the expressions must be applied at the lowest levels at which migration among breeding groups is nonrandom. Thus, the expressions may be applicable to lineages within socially structured populations, fragmented populations (if random exchange of genes prevails within each population), or combinations of intra- and interpopulation discontinuities of gene flow. Failure to recognize internal structures of populations may lead to considerable overestimates of inbreeding effective size, while usually underestimating variance effective size. PMID:8307332

Chesser, R. K.; Rhodes-Jr., O. E.; Sugg, D. W.; Schnabel, A.



Electron Effective Mass in Graphene  

E-print Network

The particle effective mass in graphene is a challenging concept because the commonly used theoretical expression is mathematically divergent. In this paper, we use basic principles to present a simple theoretical expression for the effective mass that is suitable for both parabolic and non-parabolic isotropic materials. We demonstrate that this definition is consistent with the definition of the cyclotron effective mass, which is one of the common methods for effective mass measurement in solid state materials. We apply the proposed theoretical definition to graphene and demonstrate linear dependence of the effective mass on momentum, as confirmed by experimental cyclotron resonance measurements. Therefore, the proposed definition of the effective mass can be used for non-parabolic materials such as graphene.

Viktor Ariel; Amir Natan



Hybridization effect in coupled metamaterials  

E-print Network

Although the invention of the metamaterials has stimulated the interest of many researchers and possesses many important applications, the basic design idea is very simple: composing effective media from many small structured elements and controlling its artificial EM properties. According to the effective-media model, the coupling interactions between the elements in metamaterials are somewhat ignored; therefore, the effective properties of metamaterials can be viewed as the "averaged effect" of the resonance property of the individual elements. However, the coupling interaction between elements should always exist when they are arranged into metamaterials. Sometimes, especially when the elements are very close, this coupling effect is not negligible and will have a substantial effect on the metamaterials' properties. In recent years, it has been shown that the interaction between resonance elements in metamaterials could lead to some novel phenomena and interesting applications that do not exist in conventi...

Liu, Hui; Wang, Shu-ming; Zhu, Shi-ning



Effects of sea spray geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

Balcerak, Ernie



Twisted Mass Finite Volume Effects  

E-print Network

We calculate finite volume effects on the pion masses and decay constant in twisted mass lattice QCD (tmLQCD) at finite lattice spacing. We show that the lighter neutral pion in tmLQCD gives rise to finite volume effects that are exponentially enhanced when compared to those arising from the heavier charged pions. We demonstrate that the recent two flavour twisted mass lattice data can be better fitted when twisted mass effects in finite volume corrections are taken into account.

Gilberto Colangelo; Urs Wenger; Jackson M. S. Wu



Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation  

E-print Network

CATARACTOGENIC EFFECTS OF PROTON RADIATION A Thesis by James Ronald Kyzar Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject...: Veterinary Physiology CATARACTOGENIC EFFECTS OF PROTON RADIATION A Thesis by James Ronald Kyzar Approved as to style and content by: (Char of Committee) (Head of Depar ent) (Membei / (Member (Member ) May 1972 ABSTRACT Cataractogenic Effects...

Kyzar, James Ronald



The Sagnac effect in superfluids  

E-print Network

We comment on the interpretation of absolute rotation measurements with superfluids, which involve the Sagnac effect. This effect, first observed in rotating optical interferometers, has now been seen in a host of different physical systems, ranging from atomic clocks to electrons, neutrons, atomic beams, ... We show that the time-honored explanation of this effect based on general relativity provides a common explanation for all these systems, including superfluids, in contradistinction with the views expressed in a recent review article.

E. Varoquaux; G. Varoquaux



(Theory of relative biological effectiveness)  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on relative biological effectiveness, in the following areas: radial distribution of dose about the path of an energetic heavy ion; the response of E. Coli mutants to ionizing radiations; the application of a fragmentation model to to the calculation of cell survival and mutation with heavy ion beams; biological radiation effects from gamma radiation and heavy ion beams on organisms; cancer induction in the Harderian Gland by HZE particles; and effects of low dose radiations. (CBS)

Katz, R.



Genetic Effects of Electromagnetic Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic effects of electromagnetic waves can be detected by different test-systems. The mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation can be developed on the levels of DNA and/or chromosomes. In numerous researches efficiency of micronucleus assay, alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis, chromosomal aberrations test and FISH-technique and their different combinations for the detection of ionizing radiation-induced genotoxic effects are discussed. Also some molecular-biological approaches developed in the last years are presented.

Aroutiounian, Rouben; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Gasparian, Gennady


Biomedical effects of laser application  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews the authors experimental and clinical use of lasers over a 20-year period, during which laser effects on 15 biological systems were studied. Low-energy laser radiation was found to have a stimulating effect on cells, and high-energy radiation had an inhibiting effect. The application of lasers to stimulate wound healing in cases of nonhealing ulcers is recommended.

Mester, E.; Mester, A.F.; Mester, A.



The Effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Marketing.  

E-print Network

??Pharmaceutical marketing effectiveness comprises the measurement of marketing efforts of pharmaceutical firms towards doctors and patients. These firms spend billions of dollars yearly to promote… (more)

Kappe, E.R.




E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY CONGRUENCY EFFECTS WITH DYNAMIC AUDITORY STIMULI by BRUCE N. WALKER A THESIS of Psychology ____________________________________ David M. Lane, Associate Professor Department of Psychology


Extracting contact effects in organic field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact resistances between organic semiconductors and metal electrodes have been shown to play a dominant role in electronic charge injection properties of organic field-effect transistors. These effects are more prevalent in short channel length devices and therefore should not be ignored when examining intrinsic properties such as the mobility and its dependence on temperature or gate voltage. Here we outline

B. H. Hamadani; Douglas Natelson



Stimulant Treatment over Five Years: Adherence, Effectiveness, and Adverse Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the impact of adherence and medication status on effectiveness and adverse effects of stimulant use in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over 5 years. Method: Seventy-nine of 91 participants in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of methylphenidate and parent groups enrolled in a follow-up…

Charach, Alice; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell



Features which separate least effective from most effective science teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-one science supervisors identified 321 teachers, 162 most effective and 159 least effective, in their respective districts. Information was then sought concerning age, gender, teaching field(s), number of preparations, amount of preparation, time, semester hours of undergraduate science preparation, quantity of graduate science preparation, type of teacher education programs, number of weeks of NSF workshop experience, and number of workshops

Robert E. Yager; Eddy M. Hidayat; John E. Penick




EPA Science Inventory

TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSES AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS Benignus, V.A., Research Psychologist, ORD, NHEERL, Human Studies Division, 919-966-6242, Boyes, W.K., Supervisory Health Scientist, ORD, NHEERL, Neurotoxicology Division 919-541-...


The Effect of Information Overlap on Communication Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It makes sense that the more information people share, the better they communicate. To evaluate the effect of knowledge overlap on the effectiveness of communication, participants played a communication game where the "director" identified objects to the "addressee". Pairs either shared information about most objects' names (high overlap), or…

Wu, Shali; Keysar, Boaz



Reconsidering the Effect of Market Experience on the "Endowment Effect"  

E-print Network

Reconsidering the Effect of Market Experience on the "Endowment Effect" Dirk Engelmann their endow- ment less frequently than standard demand theory would predict. List (2003a) finds that the most conjecture, we find that "forcing" subjects to give away their endowment in a series of exchanges eliminates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



E-print Network

SMITH AND BARGHNONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE TENDENCIES Pamela K. Smith Radboud University Nijmegen John A. Bargh Yale University According-24 Address for correspondence: Pamela K. Smith, Department of Social Psychology, Behavioural Science

Bargh, John A.



SciTech Connect

The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

Flach, G.



Local NOS inhibition impairs vascular and metabolic actions of insulin in rat hindleg muscle in vivo.  


Insulin stimulates microvascular recruitment in skeletal muscle, and this vascular action augments muscle glucose disposal by ?40%. The aim of the current study was to determine the contribution of local nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to the vascular actions of insulin in muscle. Hooded Wistar rats were infused with the NOS inhibitor N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 10 ?M) retrogradely via the epigastric artery in one leg during a systemic hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (3 mU·min(-1)·kg(-1) × 60 min) or saline infusion. Femoral artery blood flow, microvascular blood flow (assessed from 1-methylxanthine metabolism), and muscle glucose uptake (2-deoxyglucose uptake) were measured in both legs. Local L-NAME infusion did not have any systemic actions on blood pressure or heart rate. Local L-NAME blocked insulin-stimulated changes in femoral artery blood flow (84%, P < 0.05) and microvascular recruitment (98%, P < 0.05), and partially blocked insulin-mediated glucose uptake in muscle (reduced by 34%, P < 0.05). L-NAME alone did not have any metabolic effects in the hindleg. We conclude that insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment is dependent on local activation of NOS in muscle and that this action is important for insulin's metabolic actions. PMID:23900417

Bradley, Eloise A; Richards, Stephen M; Keske, Michelle A; Rattigan, Stephen



A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs  

PubMed Central

The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug–side effect pairs. For 199 drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at PMID:20087340

Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer



Effects of Small Oscillations on the Effective Area  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the effective area of the Simbol-X mirrors as a function of the off-axis angle for small oscillations. A reduction is expected due to: 1) geometrical effects, because some of the photons miss the secondary mirror surface; 2) reflectivity effects, caused by the variation of the coating reflectivity with the incidence angle. The former are related to the length of the two mirror surfaces, and can be reduced by making the secondary mirror longer. The second ones are energy-dependent, and strongly related to the characteristics of the reflecting coating. These effects are analyzed by means of ray-tracing simulations in order to optimize the mirror and coating design, aiming to improve the effective area stability.

Cotroneo, V. [Brera Astronomical Observatory/INAF (Italy); Universita degli Studi Milano (Italy); Conconi, P.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G. [Brera Astronomical Observatory/INAF (Italy); Cusumano, G. [IASF-Pa Palermo (Italy)



Radiation Effects: Core Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

Dicello, John F.



Effects of Medications on Voice  


Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/F can ... . Could Your Medication Be Affecting Your Voice? Some medications including prescription, over-the-counter, and ...


Aid Allocation and Aid Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper performs aid allocation analysis using OECD-DAC data covering 20 aid donors and 176 recipients over the period 1980-2003. We improve upon earlier work in this area by employing inter alia the variable 'past outcome' measuring aid effectiveness in order to link together aid allocation and aid effectiveness. In line with previous work, we also account for both altruistic

Alessia Isopi; George Mavrotas



In Vitro Antiviral Effect of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered

Soleimani Estyar R



Effect of topiramate on attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired attention is a frequently reported side effect of anti-epileptic medication, as well as a frequent general complaint of epilepsy. It is thus important to evaluate the effect of new medications on attention processes. Attention was assessed weekly in ten subjects receiving topiramate over a 3 month period. Attention was evaluated with digit span, a widely used index of attention.

Leslie A Burton; Cynthia Harden



Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.



Original article Effect of dehydration  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of dehydration on ruminal degradability of lucerne José Luis REPETTO 28 October 1999; accepted 17 February 2000) Abstract -- The effects of industrial dehydration obtained at harvest or after the process of dehydration and compression of this forage. Rumen degradability

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Advertising Effects in Presidential Elections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate advertising effects in the context of presidential elections. This setting overcomes many data challenges in previous advertising studies, while arguably providing one of the most interesting empirical settings to study advertising's effects. The four-year presidential election cycle facilitates measurement in two ways. First, the gap between elections depreciates past advertising stocks such that large advertising investments are concentrated

Brett R. Gordon; Wesley R. Hartmann



Memory Processes in Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

Kellermann, Kathy



Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching…

Nielsen, Lance D.



Mediating Effects of Social Presence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked interactivity is one of the essential factors that differentiate recent online educational games from traditional stand-alone games. However, despite the growing popularity of online educational games, empirical studies about the effects of the networked interactivity are relatively rare. This study tests the effects of networked interactivity on game users' subjective evaluation of learning (sense of competition, satisfaction, and perceived

Kwan Min Lee; Eui Jun Jeong; Seoungho Ryu


Project Title: Prisoner Counselling Effectiveness  

E-print Network

to be evaluated. Based on a review of literature surrounding designing self- assessment survey methods, a review methods and applications of survey methods to evaluate a programmes effectiveness (comparison across review on applications of survey methods to evaluate a programme's effectiveness 12 March ­ 5 April

Hickman, Mark


Isotope Effect in Intermetallic Diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten measurements of the isotope effect for diffusion of Fe55 and Fe59 in pure single crystals of silver and copper have been made over approximately a 300°C temperature interval below the melting point. The measured isotope effect was found to be about 23, significantly less than the value of unity expected from conventional reaction rate theory. It is shown from

James G. Mullen



Expectancy Climate and School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness

Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan


Indian Work on Organizational Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational effectiveness is a multi-dimensional construct. It may also be an important systemic variable which is both an outcome of organizational structures and processes and also their determinant. The multi-dimensionality of organizational effectiveness may reflect the multiple perspectives on organizations, of being purposive collectivities, human ecologies, living systems, and social entities. Of particular significance for the developing world is the

Khandwalla P N


Work Teams: Applications and Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores applications of work teams and proposes an analytic framework for team effectiveness. Presents the following applications: (1) advice and involvement; (2) production and service; (3) projects and development; and (4) action and negotiation. Depicts team effectiveness as interdependent with organizational context, boundaries, and team…

Sundstrom, Eric; And Others



Large effective-area fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refractive-index nonlinearities have negligible effect on the performance of short-haul fiber-optic communication links utilizing electronic repeaters. However, in long optical fiber links, nonlinearities can cause severe signal degradations. To mitigate nonlinear effects, new generation of fibers, referred to as large effective-area fibers, have been introduced in recent years. This paper reviews the latest research and development work on these fibers conducted by several research groups around the world. Attention is focused on a class of large effective-area fibers that are based on a depressed-core multiple-cladding design. Transmission properties, including dispersion, dispersion slope, effective area, mode-field diameter, bending loss, polarization-mode dispersion, and cutoff wavelength are discussed. Dispersion-shifted, non-zero dispersion-shifted, and dispersion-flattened designs are addressed. Design optimization, particularly with regard to effective area, bending loss, and polarization-mode dispersion, is elaborated upon. The trade-off between effective-area and bending loss is emphasized. Results for dispersion-shifted and non-zero dispersion-shifted large effective-area fibers with zero polarization-mode dispersion and low bending loss at 1.55 micrometer wavelength are presented.

Safaai-Jazi, Ahmad; Hattori, H. T.; Baghdadi, J. A.



Effects of Ritalin on Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of "Ritalin" to calm overactive children. The drug's side effects are reported, and research on the effect of "Ritalin" on reading performance in the classroom is reviewed. It is concluded that use of stimulant drugs to help reading underachievers is not supported by research. (Author/JDD)

Cooter, Robert B., Jr.




E-print Network

Defining middle management Role issues: employee's vs. supervisor's expectations Achieving greatness through effective leadership and management Professional growth and career advancement Work/Life balance in order to be a leader #12;ACHIEVING GREATNESS THROUGH EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT "The charisma


Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant…

Gutierrez, Andrew Paul



Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette



Immediate Neurocognitive Effects of Concussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively measure the immediate neurocognitive effects and early course of recovery from concussion and to examine the effects of loss of consciousness (LOC) and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) on the severity of neurocognitive impairment immediately after concussion. METHODS: A sports-related concussion research model was used to allow prospective immediate evaluation of concussion. A total of 2385 high school and

Michael McCrea; James P. Kelly; Christopher Randolph; Ron Cisler; Lisa Berger



Natural organic fibers - health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Natural organic fibers are used in large quantities in the production of paper products and textiles. They are also constituents of food and added to food to promote health. The objective of this review is to evaluate the health effects of natural organic fibers. The health effects of dietary fibers are excluded from the review. Methods: This is a

B. Järvholm



Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods  


Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device ( ... Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzing short- and long-term environmental effects of extreme flood events is a young science. Complicated by the obvious difficulties associated with predicting extreme events and the hazards of gathering environmental data during and in the aftermath of these often short-lived and violent events, the accumulation of good field data remains an obstacle to a better understanding of quantitative effects. This

John T. Hickey; Jose D. Salas


Physiologic Effects of Bowel Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12 healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake

Kathrine Holte; Kristine Grubbe Nielsen; Jan Lysgård Madsen; Henrik Kehlet



Roughness effect on heterojunction photovoltaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

well studied in resonant tunneling diodes, a thorough study of the interface junction roughness effect on PV devices is still in its infancy. Therefore in this work, we will investigate the effect of random roughness interface morphology on the open circuit voltage ~Voc!. It is expected that the presence of junction interface roughness will degrade the electrical prop- erties ~lower

G. Palasantzas; E. Koumanakos



Exercise effects on mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review examines the effects of exercise on mucosal immunity in recreational and elite athletes and the role of mucosal immunity in respiratory illness. Habitual exercise at an intense level can cause suppression of mucosal immune parameters, while moderate exercise may have positive effects. Saliva is the most commonly used secretion for measurement of secretory antibodies in the assessment

Maree Gleeson; David B Pyne



Remote Lab Effectiveness Assessment Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses current attempts to model the effectiveness assessment of distant labs. Distant labs, specifically remote labs (RL), are systems which are accessed through a web browser, which allow users from all over the world, anytime to perform the experiments with real devices. They increase teaching efficiency, provide time and money savings. Consequently, remote lab effectiveness influence the course

G. Tokdemir; S. Bilgen




Microsoft Academic Search

Memory mediates the effects of mass media on the individual. The nature of memory is such that encoding, storage, and retrieval of episodic (context-dependent) information from mass media messages is often inhibited whereas semantic (thematic, procedural, structural) information retention is often promoted. Therefore, mass media effects are better defined in terms of structural information transmission than in terms of specific





E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter 343 237 237 254K 390

Schwartz, Stephen E.


Classroom Composition and Peer Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter examines the extent to which the composition of classes affects learning outcomes. The aim is to explore peer effects when students are organized into classes on the basis of ability, ethnicity, or gender, as well as the effects of multigrade and multi-age classes and class size. The argument is defended that these composition factors…

Hattie, John A. C.



A Perspective on Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address provides a historical perspective on the concept of school effectivenss and argues for an enlightened synthesis of normative and empirical values. The first part, "Early Images of Effective Schooling," reviews the evolution of discourse on school effectiveness since the turn of the century. Although the early discussions were…

Shulman, Lee S.


Respiratory Effects of Passive Smoking  

PubMed Central

The acute and chronic respiratory effects of environmental cigarette smoke (other than lung cancer) are reviewed. Effects observed are not easily explained. There is strong evidence for an increased incidence of chronic respiratory disease in children of smokers and mounting evidence that occupational and domestic exposure increases the risk of chronic obstructive lung disease in adults. Imagesp962-a PMID:21229076

Shephard, Roy J.



Models for Determining School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major purpose of the Search for Effective Schools Project has been to explore the truth of the following two propositions: that both pupil response to instruction and the delivery of instruction are functions of pupil background, prior knowledge and level of achievement. That is, the project sought to demonstrate the existence of effective

Frederiksen, John R.


Student Success Effective Seminar Participation  

E-print Network

See over Student Success Effective Seminar Participation Seminars are effective learning in the seminar and on whether comments made in class by students can be passed on to non-seminar members. o Respect the norms set by the class or instructor on these matters. Attendance, punctuality, and staying


Side effects of generic competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that

Jörgen Hellström; Niklas Rudholm



Neighbourhood effects and endogeneity issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent body of research suggests that the spatial structure of cities might influence the socioeconomic characteristics and outcomes of their residents. In particular, the literature on neighbourhood effects emphasizes the potential influence of the socioeconomic composition of neighbourhoods in shaping individual’s behaviours and outcomes, through social networks, peer influences or socialization effects. However, empirical work still has not reached

Claire DUJARDIN; Dominique PEETERS; Isabelle THOMAS



Effective doses, guidelines & regulations.  


A number of countries have developed regulations or guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacteria in drinking water, and in some cases in water used for recreational activity and agriculture. The main focus internationally has been upon microcystin toxins, produced predominantly by Microcystis aeruginosa. This is because microcystins are widely regarded as the most significant potential source of human injury from cyanobacteria on a world-wide scale. Many international guidelines have taken their lead from the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional guideline of 1 microg L(-1) for microcystin-LR in drinking-water released in 1998 (WHO 2004). The WHO guideline value is stated as being 'provisional', because it covers only microcystin-LR, for reasons that the toxicology is limited and new data for toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins are being generated. The derivation of this guideline is based upon data that there is reported human injury related to consumption of drinking water containing cyanobacteria, or from limited work with experimental animals. It was also recognised that at present the human evidence for microcystin tumor promotion is inadequate and animal evidence is limited. As a result the guideline is based upon the model of deriving a Tolerable Daily intake (TDI) from an animal study No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL), with the application of appropriate safety or uncertainty factors. The resultant WHO guideline by definition is the concentration of a toxin that does not result in any significant risk to health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption. Following the release of this WHO provisional guideline many countries have either adopted it directly (e.g., Czech Republic, France, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Brazil and Spain), or have adopted the same animal studies, TDI and derivation convention to arrive at slight variants based upon local requirements (e.g., Australia, Canada). Brazil currently has the most comprehensive federal legislation which includes a mandatory standard of 1 microg L-(1) for microcystins, and also recommendations for saxitoxins (3 microg L(-1)) and for cylindrospermopsin (15 microg L(-1)). Although guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacterial cell numbers for recreational waters are in place in a number of countries, it is consid ered that there is currently insufficient information to derive sound guidelines for the use of water contaminated by cyanobacteria or toxins for agricultural production, fisheries and ecosystem protection. In relation to the need for specific regulations for toxins for the US, the surveys that have been carried out to date would indicate that the priority compounds for regulation, based upon their incidence and distribution, are microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and Anatoxin-a. Additional research is required to support guideline development, including whole-of-life animal studies with each of the known cyanotoxins. In view of the animal studies that indicate that microcystins may act as tumor promoters, and also some evidence of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity for cylindrospermopsin, it may be appropriate to carry out whole-of-life animal studies with both toxicity and carcinogenicity as end-points. In relation to microcystins, it is known that there a large number of congeners, and the toxico-dynamics and kinetics of these variants are not well understood. Further research is needed to consider the approach to take in formulating health advisories or regulations for toxin mixtures, i.e. multiple microcystins, or mixtures of toxin types. An important requirement for regulation is the availability of robust monitoring and analytical protocols for toxins. Currently rapid and economical screening or quantitative analytical methods are not available to the water industry or natural resource managers, and this is a priority before the release of guidelines and regulations. There is insufficient information available in a range of the categories usually required to satisfy comprehensive risk assessment process for the major tox

Burch, Michael D



14 CFR 1203.304 - Internal effect.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Internal effect. 1203.304 Section...1203.304 Internal effect. The effect of security protection...considered. Impeditive effects and added costs inherent...interests which would result from failure to...



40 CFR 62.9171 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 62.9171 Section 62.9171 Protection...DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Oklahoma Effective Date. § 62.9171 Effective date. The effective date for the...



40 CFR 62.4634 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 62.4634 Section 62.4634 Protection...DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Louisiana Effective Date § 62.4634 Effective date. The effective date for the...



Mass-independent isotope effects.  


Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions. PMID:23301791

Buchachenko, Anatoly L



Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect Free from the Proximity Nernst Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter provides evidence for intrinsic longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) that are free from the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) caused by an extrinsic proximity effect. We report the observation of LSSEs in Au/Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, showing that the LSSE appears even when the mechanism of the proximity ANE is clearly removed. In the conventional Pt/YIG structure, furthermore, we separate the LSSE from the ANE by comparing the voltages in different magnetization and temperature-gradient configurations; the ANE contamination was found to be negligibly small even in the Pt/YIG structure.

Kikkawa, T.; Uchida, K.; Shiomi, Y.; Qiu, Z.; Hou, D.; Tian, D.; Nakayama, H.; Jin, X.-F.; Saitoh, E.




EPA Science Inventory

Animal toxicology studies have demonstrated spermatogenesis and sperm quality effects after exposure to DCA, BDCM, chloral hydrate and DBA. Population-based field studies to identify human male reproductive risks of DBPs require preliminary work to develop specific epidemiologi...



EPA Science Inventory

Animal toxicology studies have demonstrated spermatogenesis and sperm quality effects after exposure to several drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including DCA, BDCM, chloral hydrate and DBA. Population-based field studies to identify human male reproductive risks o...


Wohlleben Effect (paramagnetic Meissner Effect) in high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Recently a quite unexpected phenomenon was observed during the study of the magnetic properties of High-T{sub c} superconductors: In the field-cooled regime the magnetic response of some HTSC at very low fields ({le} 1 Oe), instead of being diamagnetic, becomes paramagnetic. Such behavior is perfectly reproducible and stable. This effect is now called the Wohlleben Effect. The samples showing the Wohlleben effect also display anomalous behavior in some other properties (microwave absorption, second harmonic of magnetic susceptibility). In this paper a survey is given of the experimental studies of this and related phenomena, carried out in different laboratories. Corresponding theoretical models are also discussed. The effect is attributed to the formation of spontaneous currents (spontaneous orbital magnetic moments) in the ground state of the weak link network in case when Josephson coupling between certain grains is negative ({pi}-contacts). Microscopic mechanisms of inverse Josephson coupling are discussed especially in connection with the possible unconventional pairing in HTSC.

Khomskii, D. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands)]|[Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)



Effective interactions and fluctuation effects in spin-singlet superfluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive and evaluate one-loop functional flow equations for the effective interactions, self-energy, and gap function in spin-singlet superfluids. The flow is generated by a fermionic frequency cutoff, which is supplemented by an external pairing field to treat divergencies associated with the Goldstone boson. To parametrize the singular momentum and frequency dependencies of the effective interactions, the Nambu interaction vertex is decomposed in charge, magnetic, and normal and anomalous pairing channels. The one-loop flow solves reduced (mean-field) models for superfluidity exactly, and captures also important fluctuation effects. The Ward identity from charge conservation is generally violated, but can be enforced by projecting the flow. Applying the general formalism to the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model, we obtain detailed results on the momentum and frequency dependencies of the effective interactions for weak and moderate bare interactions. The gap is reduced by fluctuations, with a stronger reduction at weaker interactions, as expected.

Eberlein, Andreas; Metzner, Walter




PubMed Central

The ultimate goal of comparative effectiveness research (CER) is to develop and disseminate evidence-based information about which interventions are most effective for which patients under what circumstances. To achieve this goal it is crucial that researchers in methodology development find appropriate methods for detecting the presence and sources of heterogeneity in treatment effect (HTE). Comparing with the typically reported average treatment effect (ATE) in randomized controlled trials and non-experimental (i.e., observational) studies, identifying and reporting HTE better reflect the nature and purposes of CER. Methodologies of CER include meta-analysis, systematic review, design of experiments that encompasses HTE, and statistical correction of various types of estimation bias, which is the focus of this review.

Luo, Zhehui



Clinical effectiveness of Traditional Medicines  

E-print Network

There is a general conception that, herbs are natural therefore, they are completely safe. In fact, herbs or herbal preparations also can cause toxic adverse effects, serious allergic reactions and adverse drug /diet interactions 19. The efficacy of a drug substance is its capacity to produce a desired therapeutic effect, or the relative ability of a drug receptor complex to produce maximum functional response. Nowadays, in health care systems the term 'clinical effectiveness' or 'clinical governance ' is preferred instead of efficacy, though both are having similar meanings. The term clinical effectiveness includes the sum total of the pharmacological and the non medical effects of bioactive compounds that may act synergistically, otherwise termed as placebo effect, or sometimes antagonistically or the nocebo effect. The meaning response 5 The non therapeutic function of medicines plays a major role in executing the 'meaning response'. The 'meaning response ' mainly arise from the physiological or psychological perception of mind in the treatment of illness 8. This includes mainly the brain mechanisms like- expectation, anxiety, and reward, in addition to other learning

unknown authors



Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

Atwell, William



A generalized gravitomagnetic clock effect  

E-print Network

In General Relativity the rotation of a gravitating body like the Earth influences the motion of orbiting test particles or satellites in a non-Newtonian way. This causes e.g. a precession of the orbital plane, known as the Lense-Thirring effect, and a precession of the spin of a gyroscope, known as the Schiff effect. Here we discuss a third effect, first introduced by Cohen and Mashhoon, called the gravitomagnetic clock effect. It describes the difference in proper time of counter revolving clocks after a revolution of $2\\pi$. For two clocks on counter rotating equatorial circular orbits around the Earth the effect is about $10^{-7}$ seconds per revolution, which is quite large. We introduce a general relativistic definition of the gravitomagnetic clock effect which is valid for arbitrary pairs of orbits. This includes rotations in the same direction and different initial conditions, which is crucial if the effect can be detected with existing satellites or with payloads on non-dedicated missions. We also de...

Hackmann, Eva



Late effects from hadron therapy  

SciTech Connect

Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.



17 CFR 230.462 - Immediate effectiveness of certain registration statements and post-effective amendments.  

...effectiveness of certain registration statements and post-effective amendments. 230.462 ...effectiveness of certain registration statements and post-effective amendments. (a) A registration... (b) A registration statement and any post-effective amendment thereto shall...



Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions  

E-print Network

naturally occurring reinforcement systems (e.g. money) with the developmentally disabled and autism population. (See Table B-1 for an inclusive summary). Although there is agreement of the effectiveness of TE in published research, it is crucial... with intellectual disabilities and 8% with autism. Matson and Boisjoli (2009) found that TE was associated with an 13 increase in social, behavioral, and academic outcomes; however, no effect size (ES), confidence intervals (CI), or quality of research were...

Soares, Denise



Canonical derivation of effective potentials  

E-print Network

A canonical formulation of effective equations describes quantum corrections by the back-reaction of moments on the dynamics of expectation values of a state. As a first step toward an extension to quantum-field theory, these methods are applied here to the derivation of effective potentials around a homogeneous vacuum expectation value of scalar fields. A comparison with the standard Coleman-Weinberg potential shows that the new methods correctly include all relevant quantum corrections. At the same time, the effective potential is shown to be correct also for non-Fock and mixed states. Several explicit results are derived in models of interacting scalars and fermions.

Bojowald, Martin



Calibration effects on orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of charged particle and tropospheric calibrations on the orbit determination (OD) process are analyzed. The calibration process consisted of correcting the Doppler observables for the media effects. Calibrated and uncalibrated Doppler data sets were used to obtain OD results for past missions as well as Mariner Mars 1971. Comparisons of these Doppler reductions show the significance of the calibrations. For the MM'71 mission, the media calibrations proved themselves effective in diminishing the overall B-plane error and reducing the Doppler residual signatures.

Madrid, G. A.; Winn, F. B.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Yip, K. B.



Spotting effect in microarray experiments  

PubMed Central

Background Microarray data must be normalized because they suffer from multiple biases. We have identified a source of spatial experimental variability that significantly affects data obtained with Cy3/Cy5 spotted glass arrays. It yields a periodic pattern altering both signal (Cy3/Cy5 ratio) and intensity across the array. Results Using the variogram, a geostatistical tool, we characterized the observed variability, called here the spotting effect because it most probably arises during steps in the array printing procedure. Conclusions The spotting effect is not appropriately corrected by current normalization methods, even by those addressing spatial variability. Importantly, the spotting effect may alter differential and clustering analysis. PMID:15151695

Mary-Huard, Tristan; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Robin, Stephane; Bitton, Frederique; Cabannes, Eric; Hilson, Pierre



Depolarization Effects At The ILC  

SciTech Connect

Spin polarization will play an important role in the International Linear Collider (ILC) physics program. The 'heLiCal' collaboration aims to provide a foil analysis of all depolarization effects at the ILC. As expected intuitively, the depolarization in damping rings with carefully corrected orbits is shown to be negligible. No noticeable depolarization is observed in the beam delivery system. The major depolarization effects are expected from the beam-beam interaction. These effects have been evaluated by the 'heLiCal' collaboration for a range of ILC parameter sets.

Malysheva, L. I.; Bailey, I. R.; Cooke, P.; Dainton, J. B.; Jenner, L. J. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St., Liverpool, L69 6ZE, U.K (United Kingdom); Barber, D. P. [DESY, Deutsches Electronen Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22606 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St., Liverpool, L69 6ZE, U.K (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brummitt, A.; Carr, S.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Lintern, A.; Rochford, J. [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Birch, A.; Malyshev, O. B. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); CCLRC ASTeC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Clarke, J. A.; Scott, D. J. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St., Liverpool, L69 6ZE, U.K (United Kingdom); CCLRC ASTeC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Moortgat-Pick, G. A. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute of Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schmid, P. [DESY, Deutsches Electronen Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22606 Hamburg (Germany)



Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena  

PubMed Central

Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers. PMID:23493250

Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh



Volcanic Gases and Their Effects  


Volcanic Gases and Their Effects Magma contains dissolved gases that are released into the atmosphere during eruptions. Gases are also released from magma that either remains below ground (for example, as ...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...


Radiation Therapy Side Effects Sheets

Radiation therapy fact sheets that help patients understand their treatment and manage side effects. The fact sheets (also available in audio) have tips from patients and healthcare providers, and questions to ask providers.


Effective Fall 2011 HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-print Network

1 Effective Fall 2011 HIGHER EDUCATION DOCTORATE PROGRAMS INTERNSHIP HANDBOOK.D.) Doctorate of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Higher Education Administration College of Education Program of Higher Education Texas Tech University Box 41071 Lubbock, TX 794091071 (806) 7421997 Fax (806

Rock, Chris


Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus



Health effects of smokeless tobacco  

SciTech Connect

Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

Not Available



Systemic effects of local radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Radiotherapy is generally used to treat a localized target that includes cancer. Mounting evidence indicates that radiotherapy also recruits biological effectors outside the treatment field, and has systemic effects. The implications of this aspect are discussed in this review, in the context of understanding the role of the host’s immune system in cooperating with standard cytotoxic treatments. Since effects from both chemotherapy and radiotherapy are sensed by the immune system, their combination with immunotherapy presents a new therapeutic opportunity. Radiotherapy carries the advantage of directly interfering with the primary tumor site, and potentially reverting some of the established immuno-supressive barriers present within the tumor microenvironment, ideally recovering the role of the primary tumor as an effective immunogenic hub. Local radiation also triggers systemic effects that can be harnessed in combination with immunotherapy to induce responses outside the radiation field. This review will cover some of the preclinical and clinical evidence in this regard. PMID:19573801

Formenti, Silvia C.; Demaria, Sandra



Quantum Effects and Cluster Formation  

E-print Network

The causal interpretation of quantum mechanics is applied to the universe as a whole and the problem of cluster formation is studied in this framework. It is shown that the quantum effects be the source of the cluster formation.

Ali Shojai; Fatimah Shojai



Thermalized Vacuum and Vacuum Effects  

E-print Network

Some of the well-known effects regarding the vacuum are revisited under the formalism of the imaginary-time field theory. From these effects, they could imply the existence of one thermal vacuum in different circumstances. The imaginary-time hamiltonian of the vacuum is found to provide not only exact distribution functions in the calculations of the Casimir effect and the Van der Waals force but also cutoff functions. The thermal bath for the Unruh effect is constructed from the imaginary-time Green function. From the field theory in the curved space-time, field quantizations are defined according to different vacuum states and lead to the Hawking radiation; the introduced conformal invariance agree with the formalism of the imaginary-time field theory. The induced Green functions in the curved space-time are in accordance with those from the picture given from the thermal vacuum.

Yi-Cheng Huang




EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...



EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...


IL-1 Effects in Brain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research explored the effect of cytokines and neurosteroids on the GABAergic and I glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the CNS. lnterleukin-1 (IL-1) augmented GABAA receptor function in behavioral, neurochemical and electrophysiological paradig...

L. G. Miller, J. M. Fahey



Antiartherosclerotic effects of plant flavonoids.  


Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shukor, Mohd Yunus



Effective contracts in supply chains  

E-print Network

In the past decade, we have seen significant increase in the level of outsourcing in many industries. This increase in the level of outsourcing increases the importance of implementing effective contracts in supply chains. ...

Shum, Wanhang



Transforming Content into Effective Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates key concepts of transformational generative grammar that can be applied to a discussion of the composing process. Discusses relevant linguistic concepts and selected transformational processes to illustrate how writers achieve certain effects. (RL)

Esau, Helmut




EPA Science Inventory

Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental Exposures Sherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington, DC) The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...


Side Effects and Their Management  


Donate Donate One Time Monthly Event Tribute For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) ... Now Menu Care and Treatment Continuum of Care Brain Tumor Treatments Treatment Side Effects & their Management Fatigue Memory & ...


Species doubling and effective Lagrangians  

E-print Network

Coupling gauge fields to the chiral currents from an effective Lagrangian for pseudoscalar mesons naturally gives rise to a species doubling phenomenon similar to that seen with fermionic fields in lattice gauge theory.

Michael Creutz; Michel Tytgat



Effective toughness of heterogeneous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a versatile approach to computing the effective toughness of heterogeneous media. This approach focusses on the material property independent of the details of the boundary condition. The key idea is what we call a surfing boundary condition, where a steadily propagating crack opening displacement is applied as a boundary condition to a large domain while the crack set is allowed to evolve as it chooses. The approach is verified and used to study examples in brittle fracture. We demonstrate that effective toughness is different from effective or weighted surface area of the crack set. Furthermore, we demonstrate that elastic heterogeneity can have a profound effect on fracture toughness: it can be a significant toughening mechanism and it can lead to toughness asymmetry wherein the toughness depends not only on the direction but also on the sense of propagation. The role of length-scale is also discussed.

Hossain, M. Z.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Bourdin, B.; Bhattacharya, K.



Possible Side Effects of Cabazitaxel

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Cabazitaxel (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Cabazitaxel, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Vomiting, nausea, diarrhea Bruising, bleeding Infection, especially


Solar Wind's Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NASA describes solar storms and their effects on Earth. Animations of coronal mass ejections and solar cycles help explain what we know, and what we can predict, about solar activity.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existing work on gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries is summarized, certain conclusions are drawn, and recommendations are made for future activities in this field. The effects of sustained high-G environments on cycle silver-zinc and nickel-cadmium cells have been evaluated over four complete cycles in the region of 10 to 75 G. Although no effects on high current discharge performances or on ampere-hour capacity were noted, severe zinc migration and sloughing of active material from the zinc electrode were observed. This latter effect constitutes real damage, and over a long period of time would result in loss of capacity. It is recommended that a zero-G battery experiment be implemented. Both an orbiting satellite and a sounding rocket approach are being considered.

Meredith, R. E.; Juvinall, G. L.; Uchiyama, A. A.



Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection  


... Side Effects Infection ? Check with your doctor or nurse before you take any medicine. This includes aspirin, ... such as Advil®). ? Check with your doctor or nurse before you get any shot or vaccine. Call ...


Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Anemia  


... National Institutes of Health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Anemia Call your doctor or nurse if you feel: ? ... tired ? Your heart beating very fast What is anemia? Anemia is when your body doesn’t have ...


Antidepressants and the Placebo Effect  

PubMed Central

Antidepressants are supposed to work by fixing a chemical imbalance, specifically, a lack of serotonin in the brain. Indeed, their supposed effectiveness is the primary evidence for the chemical imbalance theory. But analyses of the published data and the unpublished data that were hidden by drug companies reveals that most (if not all) of the benefits are due to the placebo effect. Some antidepressants increase serotonin levels, some decrease it, and some have no effect at all on serotonin. Nevertheless, they all show the same therapeutic benefit. Even the small statistical difference between antidepressants and placebos may be an enhanced placebo effect, due to the fact that most patients and doctors in clinical trials successfully break blind. The serotonin theory is as close as any theory in the history of science to having been proved wrong. Instead of curing depression, popular antidepressants may induce a biological vulnerability making people more likely to become depressed in the future.

Kirsch, Irving



Possible Side Effects of Temozolomide

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Temozolomide (Table Version Date: January 29, 2014) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Temozolomide, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Constipation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Dizziness Muscle weakness,


The emotional effects of disruption  

E-print Network

Disruption is something that we must negotiate as part of our everyday lives. The context of disruption can vary in nature from being positive to being negative in nature. However, the emotional effects of the disruption have not been investigated...

Adcock, Christina Annie Lee



Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

Shapiro, Charles S.



Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

Raymond, James P.



Classical and quantum effective theories  

E-print Network

A generalization of the action principle of classical mechanics, motivated by the Closed Time Path (CTP) scheme of quantum field theory, is presented to deal with initial condition problems and dissipative forces. The similarities of the classical and the quantum cases are underlined. In particular, effective interactions which describe classical dissipative forces represent the system-environment entanglement. The relation between the traditional effective theories and their CTP extension is briefly discussed and few qualitative examples are mentioned.

Polonyi, Janos



Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.



Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from

H Reichenbach; P Neuwald; A L Kuhl



Dember effect: Problems and solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the existing theory of Dember effect research community understands that the photo-electromotive force is the voltage difference arising between the illuminated and dark surfaces of a semiconductor. In this work it is shown that the latter is incorrect. A new formulation of the linear theory of Dember effect is presented. Conclusions of this new theory are essentially different from the ones of conventional theory. Proposed theory is applied to both open- and closed-circuit conditions.

Gurevich, Yu. G.; Meriuts, A. V.



Classical and quantum effective theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalization of the action principle of classical mechanics, motivated by the closed time path scheme of quantum field theory, is presented to deal with initial condition problems and dissipative forces. The similarities of the classical and the quantum cases are underlined. In particular, effective interactions that describe classical dissipative forces represent the system-environment entanglement. The relation between the traditional effective theories and their closed time path extension is briefly discussed, and a few qualitative examples are mentioned.

Polonyi, Janos



Workshop summary: Space environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop on Space Environmental Effects is summarized. The underlying concern of the group was related to the question of how well laboratory tests correlate with actual experience in space. The discussion ranged over topics pertaining to tests involving radiation, atomic oxygen, high voltage plasmas, contamination in low earth orbit, and new environmental effects that may have to be considered on arrays used for planetary surface power systems.

Meulenberg, A.; Anspaugh, B. E.



The evidence for Allee effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allee effects are an important dynamic phenomenon believed to be manifested in several population processes, notably extinction\\u000a and invasion. Though widely cited in these contexts, the evidence for their strength and prevalence has not been critically\\u000a evaluated. We review results from 91 studies on Allee effects in natural animal populations. We focus on empirical signatures\\u000a that are used or might

Andrew M. Kramer; Brian Dennis; Andrew M. Liebhold; John M. Drake



Investigation of dynamic ground effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of dynamic ground effect was conducted in the Univ. of Kansas wind tunnel using delta wings of 60, 70, 75 deg sweep; the XB-70 wing; and the F-104A wing. Both static and dynamic tests were made. Test data were compared to other test data, including dynamic flight test data of the XB-70 and F-104A. Limited flow visualization test were conducted. A significant dynamic effect was found for highly swept delta wings.

Chang, Ray Chung; Muirhead, Vincent U.



Effective Leadership for Multicultural Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on effective multicultural teams identifies leadership as an important factor in effectiveness. In some instances\\u000a it has pointed out that there is a need for cohesion and a shared vision, while in others it has shown a need for a collaborative\\u000a environment and expert coaching. This literature on the role of leadership does not agree on a coherent

Ken Williams


Space environmental effects on materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of long life platforms and structures for space is discussed in terms of the space environmental effects on the materials used. Vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and charged particle radiation are among the factors considered. Research oriented toward the acquisition of long term environmental effects data needed to support the design and development of large low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit space platforms and systems is described.

Schwinghmaer, R. J.



Novaya Zemlya effect and sunsets.  


Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ effect for the Moon. PMID:12570256

van der Werf, Siebren Y; Können, Gunther P; Lehn, Waldemar H



Casimir effect in swimmer suspensions.  


We show that the Casimir effect can emerge in microswimmer suspensions. In principle, two effects conspire against the development of Casimir effects in swimmer suspensions. First, at low Reynolds number, the force on any closed volume vanishes, but here the relevant effect is the drag by the flow produced by the swimmers, which can be finite. Second, the fluid velocity and the pressure are linear on the swimmer force dipoles, and averaging over the swimmer orientations would lead to a vanishing effect. However, being that the suspension is a discrete system, the noise terms of the coarse-grained equations depend on the density, which itself fluctuates, resulting in effective nonlinear dynamics. Applying the tools developed for other nonequilibrium systems to general coarse-grained equations for swimmer suspensions, the Casimir drag is computed on immersed objects, and it is found to depend on the correlation function between the rescaled density and dipolar density fields. By introducing a model correlation function with medium-range order, explicit expressions are obtained for the Casimir drag on a body. When the correlation length is much larger than the microscopic cutoff, the average drag is independent of the correlation length, with a range that depends only on the size of the immersed bodies. PMID:25122386

Parra-Rojas, C; Soto, R



[Therapeutic hypothermia: effects beyond neuroprotection].  


In the past 10 years there have been major advances in the treatment of cardiac arrest by the application of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). TH is a safe treatment option, providing the physiological effects are taken into consideration and providing the potential pitfalls of application of hypothermia are avoided. TH (32-34°C) is just as safe and effective as cooling to 36°C ('near-normal temperature'). The benefit of TH is thus probably derived from the effective suppression of fever. The broad spectrum of pathophysiological mechanisms by which therapeutic hypothermia exerts its effect on organism in a hypoxic situation suggests a potential wider role for this therapy than in current daily clinical practice. Cardiogenic shock is no longer regarded as a contraindication for TH; in the past few years the safety and effectiveness of this treatment have been proven in patients with cardiogenic shock. In fact, the anti-ischaemic and positive inotropic effects of TH suggest that this treatment could be a potential treatment specifically for patients with cardiogenic shock. PMID:25204444

Palmers, Pieter-Jan; Ameloot, Koen; Hiltrop, Nick; Timmermans, Philippe; Ferdinande, Bert; Sinnaeve, Peter



Helicity, Reconnection, and Dynamo Effects  

SciTech Connect

The inter-relationships between magnetic helicity, magnetic reconnection, and dynamo effects are discussed. In laboratory experiments, where two plasmas are driven to merge, the helicity content of each plasma strongly affects the reconnection rate, as well as the shape of the diffusion region. Conversely, magnetic reconnection events also strongly affect the global helicity, resulting in efficient helicity cancellation (but not dissipation) during counter-helicity reconnection and a finite helicity increase or decrease (but less efficiently than dissipation of magnetic energy) during co-helicity reconnection. Close relationships also exist between magnetic helicity and dynamo effects. The turbulent electromotive force along the mean magnetic field (alpha-effect), due to either electrostatic turbulence or the electron diamagnetic effect, transports mean-field helicity across space without dissipation. This has been supported by direct measurements of helicity flux in a laboratory plasma. When the dynamo effect is driven by electromagnetic turbulence, helicity in the turbulent field is converted to mean-field helicity. In all cases, however, dynamo processes conserve total helicity except for a small battery effect, consistent with the observation that the helicity is approximately conserved during magnetic relaxation.

Ji, Hantao



Acoustoelastic effect in stressed heterostructures.  


Mechanical stresses influence the phase velocity of acoustic waves, known as the AE (acoustoelastic) effect. In order to calculate the AE effect of biaxially stressed layered systems, we extended the transfer matrix method for acoustic wave propagation by considering the change of the density, the influence of residual stress, and the modification of the elastic stiffness tensor by residual strain and by third-order constants. The generalized method is applied to the calculation of the angular dispersion of the AE effect for transverse bulk modes and surface acoustic waves on Ge(001). Our calculations reveal that the AE effect significantly depends on the propagation direction and can even change sign. The maximal velocity change occurs for transversally polarized waves propagating parallel to the [110] direction. For the layered Ge/Si(001) system, the AE effect is investigated for Love modes propagating in the [100] and [110] directions. The AE effect increases rapidly with increasing layer thickness and almost reaches its maximal value when the wave still penetrates into the unstressed substrate. PMID:11833895

Osetrov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Fröhlich, Heinz-Jürgen; Koch, Reinhold; Chilla, Eduard



Hypergravity effects on osteoclasts activity.  


The long-term space flight induces a loss of bone density. However, the mechanism has not been well understood, especially about gravity effect on osteoclast. To elucidate the gravitational effect on osteoclasts, we examined the rabbit primary osteoclasts applied to hypergravity and compared the mRNA expression of two kinds of osteoclast marker enzymes, TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) and cathepsin K at the transcription level. Rabbit osteoclasts isolated according to the modified method of Kakudo et al. were cultured on ivory and exposed to 30 x g for 2 hr or 18 hr by placing the culture tubes in a swinging bucket rotor. Results by RT-PCR suggested that hypergravity enhanced the mRNA expression of both enzymes with different manner; the expression of the TRAP showed a smaller increase, that of the cathepsin K showed a non-monotonous time course with maximum hypergravity effect for 2 hr incubation. Moreover we examined the hypergravity effect on actin ring formation in osteoclasts; however, we got no hypergravity effect on the numbers of activated osteoclasts with actin ring formation. These results might suggest that hypergravity has no effect on the number of osteoclasts with resorption activity, but enhances the resorption activity of activated osteoclasts. PMID:12697500

Nemoto, A; Uemura, T



Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies  

PubMed Central

Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork. PMID:17284324

Leggat, Sandra G



A fan effect in anaphor processing: effects of multiple distractors  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that the presence of a non-referent from the same category as the referent interferes with anaphor resolution. In five experiments, the hypothesis that multiple non-referents would produce a cumulative interference effect (i.e., a fan effect) was examined. This hypothesis was supported in Experiments 1A and 1B, with subjects being less accurate and slower to recognize referents (1A) and non-referents (1B) as the number of potential referents increased from two to five. Surprisingly, the number of potential referents led to a decrease in anaphor reading times. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B replicated the probe-recognition results in a completely within-subjects design and ruled out the possibility that a speeded-reading strategy led to the fan-effect findings. The results of Experiment 3 provided evidence that subjects were resolving the anaphors. These results suggest that multiple non-referents do produce a cumulative interference effect; however, additional research is necessary to explore the effect on anaphor reading times. PMID:25120519

Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.



Shaped hole effects on film cooling effectiveness and a comparison of multiple effectiveness measurement techniques  

E-print Network

This experimental study consists of two parts. For the first part, the film cooling effectiveness for a single row of seven cylindrical holes with a compound angle is measured on a flat surface using five different measurement techniques: steady...

Varvel, Trent Alan



Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.  


Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica



Space Environment Effects on Materials : An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general overview on the space environment and its effects on materials is presented. The topics include: 1) Impact of Space Effects on Spacecraft Costs; 2) Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft by Source; 3) Primary Source of Space Effects: The Sun; 4) The Earth's Environment; 5) Trapped Radiation Belts; 6) Aurora Are Everywhere; 7) Spacecraft Interactions; 8) Atmospheric Effects; 9) Contaminant Effects on Materials; 10) Meteoroid/Debris Effects on Materials; 11) Spacecraft Surface Charging; 12) Surface Discharge Effects; 13) Internal Electrostatic Discharge--Satellite Killer; 14) Plasma Interactions DS-1 Ion Engines; 15) Radiation Effects on Spacecraft Systems and Materials; 16) Total Ionizing Dose Effects Total Ionizing Dose Effects; 17) Man-Made Sources of Space Effects Man-Made Sources of Space Effects; and 18) Space Environments Versus Interactions.

Garrett, Henry B.



Effective educators are culturally competent communicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective formal education or schooling is not simply a matter of teaching and learning curriculum content. It is also about values, assumptions, feelings, perceptions and relationships. No education can take place without interpersonal communication. Effective teaching can thus be qualié ed in terms of relating effectively in the classroom. Effective education thus also presupposes effective communication skills. Communication as the

Johann le Roux



Effects of alcohol on hemostasis.  


Several epidemiologic studies have shown that moderate intake of alcohol is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanism is not fully elucidated. One of the proposed mechanisms of the protective effect of moderate alcohol intake is its beneficial effect on hemostasis. The aim of this review is to summarize the effect of ethanol intake on platelet aggregation and activation, coagulation factors including von Willebrand factor (vWF), and the fibrinolytic system. With regard to the effect of alcohol on platelet function, evidence in the literature suggests both platelet activation and platelet inhibition by ethanol. A unifying hypothesis is that platelets are partially activated by ethanol, with partial degranulation allowing for continued circulation of platelets with impaired function. Evidence also exists showing that ethanol intake decreases fibrinogen, factor VII, and vWF levels. In addition, alcohol intake has been found to increase fibrinolysis by increasing tissue plasminogen activator activity. The effect of ethanol on platelets, coagulation factors, and the fibrinolytic system is likely to contribute to protection against CVD. PMID:16100871

Salem, Raneem O; Laposata, Michael



Memory effects in turbulent transport  

E-print Network

In the mean-field theory of magnetic fields, turbulent transport, i.e. the turbulent electromotive force, is described by a combination of the alpha effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion, which are usually assumed to be proportional respectively to the mean field and its spatial derivatives. For a passive scalar there is just turbulent diffusion, where the mean flux of concentration depends on the gradient of the mean concentration. However, these proportionalities are approximations that are valid only if the mean field or the mean concentration vary slowly in time. Examples are presented where turbulent transport possesses memory, i.e. where it depends crucially on the past history of the mean field. Such effects are captured by replacing turbulent transport coefficients with time integral kernels, resulting in transport coefficients that depend effectively on the frequency or the growth rate of the mean field itself. In this paper we perform numerical experiments to find the characteristic timescale (or memory length) of this effect as well as simple analytical models of the integral kernels in the case of passive scalar concentrations and kinematic dynamos. The integral kernels can then be used to find self-consistent growth or decay rates of the mean fields. In mean-field dynamos the growth rates and cycle periods based on steady state values of alpha effect and turbulent diffusivity can be quite different from the actual values.

Alexander Hubbard; Axel Brandenburg



Neighborhood Effects in Temporal Perspective  

PubMed Central

Theory suggests that neighborhood effects depend not only on where individuals live today, but also on where they lived in the past. Previous research, however, usually measured neighborhood context only once and did not account for length of residence, thereby understating the detrimental effects of long-term neighborhood disadvantage. This study investigates the effects of duration of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on high school graduation. It follows 4,154 children in the PSID, measuring neighborhood context once per year from age 1 to 17. The analysis overcomes the problem of dynamic neighborhood selection by adapting novel methods of causal inference for time-varying treatments. In contrast to previous analyses, these methods do not “control away” the effect of neighborhood context operating indirectly through time-varying characteristics of the family, and thus they capture the full impact of a lifetime of neighborhood disadvantage. We find that sustained exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods has a severe impact on high school graduation that is considerably larger than effects reported in prior research. Growing up in the most (compared to the least) disadvantaged quintile of neighborhoods is estimated to reduce the probability of graduation from 96% to 76% for black children, and from 95% to 87% for nonblack children. PMID:22879678

Wodtke, Geoffrey T.; Harding, David J.; Elwert, Felix



Quantum Effects in Biological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

Roy, Sisir



Radiation Effects Research at IUCF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the radiation effects research program at IUCF is to make available precisely calibrated doses of protons, neutrons, or other light ions for the study of radiation effects on technical hardware to be used in radiation environments. This work may include such studies as the observation of single event upsets in computer logic intended for space flight or satellite applications. Beam lines used in this work contain hardware to spread and collimate the beam, and to monitor low doses. Access for outside users is facilitated by joining the Indiana Radiation Effects Research Alliance. Applications of radiation effects also exist in materials science, involving, for example, the creation of pinning centers in superconducting material that trap and hold magnetic field. Radiation effects are studied in biological systems, such as Xenopus embryos, the mushroom Coprinus cinereus, RNase-P enzyme molecules, and human HeLa cells. Here damage and repair mechanisms are compared with comparable doses of gamma and neutron irradiation. Applications exist for this information in the areas of cancer research, radiation safety, and human space travel.

Cameron, J. M.



Reverberation and the Franssen effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Franssen effect, in which the location of a sudden-onset (transient) tone can occlude the location of a contralateral slow-onset (steady-state) tone, has been previously shown to occur only in a reverberant space. The nature of the reverberation required-how much and what kind-for the effect to occur has yet to be determined. To explore the role of reverberation in the Franssen effect, listeners were asked to identify the location(s) of transient/steady-state pure tones with frequencies ranging from 250-4000 Hz in a variety of real and virtual contexts: (a) limited (single reflective panel) reverberant enclosure; (b) discrete reflections in an anechoic room; (c) mannequin recordings of a reverberant enclosure presented over headphones; (d) impulse-response filtered signals presented over headphones; and (e) simulated 3-D reverberation via consumer-grade software. Results indicate that the Franssen effect can be a simple, effective means to judge the verisimilitude of a virtual environment. [Work supported by NIDCD.

Whitmer, William M.; Yost, William A.; Dye, Raymond H.



Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects  

SciTech Connect

Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.

Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.



Sudden death of effective entanglement  

E-print Network

Sudden death of entanglement is a well-known effect resulting from the finite volume of separable states. We study the case when the observer has a limited measurement capability and analyse the effective entanglement, i.e. entanglement minimized over the output data. We show that in the well defined system of two quantum dots monitored by single electron transistors, one may observe a sudden death of effective entanglement when real, physical entanglement is still alive. For certain measurement setups, this occurs even for initial states for which sudden death of physical entanglement is not possible at all. The principles of the analysis may be applied to other analogous scenarios, such as etimation of the parameters arising from quantum process tomography.

K. Roszak; P. Horodecki; R. Horodecki



Sudden death of effective entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Sudden death of entanglement is a well-known effect resulting from the finite volume of separable states. We study the case when the observer has a limited measurement capability and analyze the effective entanglement (i.e., entanglement minimized over the output data). We show that in the well-defined system of two quantum dots monitored by single-electron transistors, one may observe a sudden death of effective entanglement when real, physical entanglement is still alive. For certain measurement setups, this occurs even for initial states for which sudden death of physical entanglement is not possible at all. The principles of the analysis may be applied to other analogous scenarios, such as estimation of the parameters arising from quantum process tomography.

Roszak, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Horodecki, P. [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Horodecki, R. [National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)



Health effects of hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen sulfide is a product of a number of natural processes, such as bacterial decomposition of organic matter and geothermal activity. It is a component of crude petroleum, natural gas and volcanic gases. Although high concentrations of H{sub 2}S are acutely toxic, exposure to low concentrations is not generally associated with adverse health effects. Epidemiological studies overall have not demonstrated significant health effects or increased risk of cancer among workers or residents exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S and other reduced sulfur gases, and based on known mechanisms of H{sub 2}S toxicity, any such effects are unlikely. However, some individuals have associated minor, subjective-type physical symptoms with exposure to low levels of reduced sulfur gases. The potential mechanism(s) for, or significance of, these responses is not well understood.

Tatum, V.L. [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)



What Makes an Icon Effective?  

SciTech Connect

Several criteria like conspicuity, legibility, and comprehension must be met for an icon to be effective. Previous studies found that visual and cognitive features of icons have significant influence on meeting the criteria for icon effectiveness. The aim of this paper is to present a review on visual features (color, shape, size) and cognitive features (familiarity, concreteness, complexity, meaningfulness, semantic distance). The influence of these features on icon effectiveness was studied. The relationships amongst cognitive features and ways to quantify cognitive features were identified. Suggestions regarding opportunities for future research on icons were also highlighted. Such a review would be helpful in formulating research plans and methodologies for icon studies in the future. In addition, this review would facilitate graphic designers to create more user-friendly icons in various contexts.

Ng, Annie Wy; Chan, Alan Hs [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)



Combustion effects on film cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of: (1) a reactive environment on film cooling effectiveness, and (2) film cooling on rocket engine performance were determined experimentally in a rocket thrust chamber assembly operating with hydrogen and oxygen propellants at 300 psi chamber pressure. Tests were conducted using hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen film coolants in an instrumented, thin walled, steel thrust chamber. The film cooling, performance loss, and heat transfer coefficient data were correlated with the ALRC entrainment film cooling model which relates film coolant effectiveness and mixture ratio at the wall to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. In addition, a comprehensive thermal analysis computer program, HOCOOL, was prepared from previously existing ALRC computer programs and analytical techniques.

Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.



[Undesirable effects of gold therapy].  


In about 20 to 30% of patients receiving intramuscular gold salts untoward side-effects of variable severity are known to occur with resultant discontinuation of treatment in a high percentage of cases to be on the safe side. Among the most common, albeit harmless side-effects are those affecting the skin and the mucous membranes. These are followed by renal symptoms. Grave complications affecting the hemopoietic system (leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anaemia) are rarely seen. Other potential side effects (pulmonary fibrosis, liver damage, neuropathies, vasomotor reactions, loss of hair, nail changes) are extremely uncommon or no more than anecdotal). Meticulous follow-ups at regular intervals are imperative to minimize the associated risks. PMID:6442056

Rainer, F



Estimation of effective wind speed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind speed has a huge impact on the dynamic response of wind turbine. Because of this, many control algorithms use a measure of the wind speed to increase performance, e.g. by gain scheduling and feed forward. Unfortunately, no accurate measurement of the effective wind speed is online available from direct measurements, which means that it must be estimated in order to make such control methods applicable in practice. In this paper a new method is presented for the estimation of the effective wind speed. First, the rotor speed and aerodynamic torque are estimated by a combined state and input observer. These two variables combined with the measured pitch angle is then used to calculate the effective wind speed by an inversion of a static aerodynamic model.

Østergaard, K. Z.; Brath, P.; Stoustrup, J.



Effective health care corporate compliance.  


The pace and intensity of oversight and investigation of health care organizations has greatly increased at all levels. Well run organizations with ethical management committed to following all laws and regulations are still at risk for compliance violations and punitive penalties. Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, organizations with an "effective" corporate compliance program may receive reduced penalties. The seven components of an effective program as defined in the guidelines are: (1) Standards and procedures; (2) oversight responsibilities; (3) employee training; (4) monitoring and auditing; (5) reporting systems; (6) enforcement and discipline; and (7) response and prevention. Lack of a compliance program needlessly exposes the organization to an avoidable risk of damage from non-compliance--whether intentional or not. Moreover, an effective program can contribute to the efficient operation of the organization and be a key piece of its corporate culture. PMID:10947465

Saum, T B; Byassee, J



Overview of global greenhouse effects  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

Reck, R.A.



Epigenetic effects of electroconvulsive seizures.  


Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective methods for managing treatment-resistant depression. Although the proposed mechanisms of action have thus far mainly been investigated at the cellular level, recent observations and developments in the field of molecular biology and genomics have provided novel insights in the actual molecular underpinnings of dynamic alterations in gene expression, particularly in response to environmental exposures, and experience-dependent plasticity, both of which are highly relevant to ECT. Here, we provided a brief background on epigenetics and we reviewed the current state of knowledge on epigenetic mediation of ECT-related therapeutic effects. We performed a systematic search on the effects of ECT on epigenetics and found only a limited number on animal studies relevant to our search. These studies, however, support the notion of a robust impact of ECT on epigenetic mechanisms and set the stage for human ECT studies on the epigenetic machinery. PMID:24810773

de Jong, Job O Z; Arts, Baer; Boks, Marco P; Sienaert, Pascal; van den Hove, Daniel L A; Kenis, Gunter; van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P F



Neuroprotective effects of marine algae.  


The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon



Greenhouse-effect spurs legislation  

SciTech Connect

Senator Timothy E. Wirth (D-Colo.) reintroduced legislation on February 1, 1989, to establish a national energy policy that would slow down the emission of pollutants contributing to the greenhouse effect. Wirth's comprehensive bill to combat the greenhouse effect includes initiatives to: increase energy-efficiency in all sectors of the US economy; expand research and development of nonfossil fuel sources such as solar; encourage technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emission from coal-fired power plants and other sources; direct the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to develop policies to stop tropical deforestation; and research the greenhouse effect, its causes, and the steps needed to cope with a changing climate.

Not Available



RAND Corporation: Measuring Teacher Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RAND Corporation provides research on a range of topics, and has long been interested in public school reform and related matters. This website provides access to papers and commentaries produced as part of RAND's initiative on measuring teacher effectiveness. The site is designed for teachers, administrators, policymakers, and anyone else "seeking objective, nonpartisan information on measuring teaching effectiveness." First-time visitors can get started by looking over the fact sheets, which include "Multiple Choices: Options for Measuring Teaching Effectiveness" and "Teachers Matter: Understanding Teachers' Impact on Student Achievement." After considering these items, visitors can move on to click on the "Research & Commentary" area to read the site's blog, take a look at the multimedia section, or consider the available full reports, which include "Incorporating Student Performance Measures into Teacher Evaluation Systems."



Potent health effects of pomegranate  

PubMed Central

Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo



Preschoolers and the Endowment Effect  

PubMed Central

We show that preschoolers exhibit the endowment effect as evidenced by experiments where children generally chose to keep their own toys rather than trading them for similar ones. Furthermore, we relate the emergence of this effect to children's innate psychobiological traits—emotional state, gender, handedness, and digit ratio. The trials were conducted with 141 children across 6 kindergartens. We also found support that children, like adults, exhibit a preference for physical possession as opposed to ownership. As with adults, emotions also seem to matter, as children who were described as quiet and calm were more likely to present the endowment effect. Also of note, right-handed children described as quiet were more likely to exhibit the phenomenon. Furthermore, female children were generally found to be calmer than males, while males tended to be more fearful than females. This result was also previously found in teenagers. PMID:25299430

Da Silva, Sergio; Moreira, Bruno; Da Costa, Newton



Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon



Microwave radiation absorption: Behavioral effects  

SciTech Connect

The literature contains much evidence that absorption of microwave energy will lead to behavioral changes in man and laboratory animals. The changes include simple perturbations or outright stoppage of ongoing behavior. On one extreme, intense microwave absorption can result in seizures followed by death. On the other extreme, man and animals can hear microwave pulses at very low rates of absorption. Under certain conditions of exposure, animals will avoid microwaves, while under other conditions, they will actively work to obtain warmth produced by microwaves. Some research has shown behavioral effects during chronic exposure to low-level microwaves. The specific absorption rates that produce behavioral effects seem to depend on microwave frequency, but controversy exists over thresholds and mechanism of action. In all cases, however, the behavioral disruptions cease when chronic microwave exposure is terminated. Thermal changes in man and animals during microwave exposure appear to account for all reported behavioral effects. 66 refs.

D'Andrea, J.A. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL (USA))



The Effects of Timbering on Plethodon hubrichti: Short Term Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of two types of timbering on populations of the Peaks of Otter salamander (Plethodon hubrichti) were determined using average numbers found during multiple night collections. Sampling was done prior to, and for two years after, timbering on four sites in each of three treatments (clearcut, shelterwood cuts, and reference). The average numbers of P. hubrichti at the reference and

Norman Reichenbach; Paul Sattler



Assessing Teacher, Classroom, and School Effects, Including Fiscal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we argue that too much previous research has tended to assess the effects of student, classroom, and school variables in isolation from other variables and has often used statistical techniques that ignored the nested na- ture of the 3 classes of factors. We then argue that a more educationally ori- ented framework should be used to assess

Allan Odden; Geoffrey Borman; Mark Fermanich



Effectiveness of Blog Response Strategies to Minimize Crisis Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of four post-crisis responses on five different variables using a blog tool. The four post-crisis responses are information only, compensation, apology, and sympathy. The five dependent variables are reputation, anger (negative emotion), negative word-of-mouth, account acceptance and state of the publics based on…

Tomsic, Louis P.



Proportion Congruent Effects in the Absence of Sequential Congruent Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A debated question in the cognitive control field is whether cognitive control is best conceptualized as a collection of distinct control mechanisms or a single general purpose mechanism. In an attempt to answer this question, previous studies have dissociated two well-known effects related to cognitive control: sequential congruence and…

Torres-Quesada, Maryem; Milliken, Bruce; Lupiáñez, Juan; Funes, María Jesús



Mood influences on helping: Direct effects or side effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature concerning the promotive influence of experimentally generated happiness and sadness on helping suggests that (a) increased helping among saddened Ss is an instrumental response designed to dispel the helper's negative mood state, and (b) increased helping among elated Ss is not an instrumental response to (maintain) the heightened effect but is a concomitant of elevated

Gloria K. Manucia; Donald J. Baumann; Robert B. Cialdini



Retrieval Mode Distinguishes the Testing Effect from the Generation Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…

Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M.



The Effect of Conjugate Heat Transfer on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The film cooling effectiveness of a two-dimensional gas turbine endwall is compared for the cases of conjugate heat transfer and an adiabatic wall condition using five common turbulence models. The turbulence models employed in this study are: the RNG k–? model, the realizable k–? model, the standard k–? model, the SST k–? model, and the RSM model. The computed flow

Mahmood Silieti; Eduardo Divo; Alain J. Kassab



Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects  

PubMed Central

Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1), the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2), the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1). Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters. PMID:24278698

Ciarimboli, Giuliano



A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a

Michael Kuhn; Monica Campillos; Ivica Letunic; Lars Juhl Jensen; Peer Bork



Steric effects and solvent effects on SN2 reactions.  


We present quantum mechanical calculations designed to disentangle the influences of solvent effects and substituent effects on ionic nucleophilic substitution reactions. In particular, we compare the SN2 reactions of Cl- with CH3CH(X)Cl and (CH3)3CCH(X)Cl for X = H and CN in the gas phase and aqueous solution. We find that, for all of these reactions, transition state distortion and dielectric descreening effects are quantitatively larger in magnitude than hydrophobic effects or exchange repulsion, but they also roughly cancel one another so that differential solvation contributes little to differences in the free energies of activation associated with a CH3 versus a (CH3)3C group as a substituent at the reacting position. Differential solvation of the transition-state structures relative to the reactants is less unfavorable for X = H than for X = CN because of the greater charge separations in the X = H case, and this separation places more positive charge on the reacting carbon center. The smaller deceleration associated with aqueous solvation for X = H roughly balances the gas-phase acceleration predicted for X = CN so that the aqueous activation free energies for the substrates are predicted to be similar for these two substituents. PMID:19719294

Kim, Yongho; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G



Optical Magnetoelectric Effects in Multiferroics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroics show peculiar magneto-optical properties: Optical refractive index and absorption change with the reversal of the propagation vector k of the electromagnetic wave. This magneto-optic effect is clearly distinct from the conventional magneto-optics like Faraday effect and named optical magneto-electric effect, because it can be considered as the high-frequency extension of the linear magneto-electric effect in multiferroics. We have recently succeeded in detecting the optical/x-ray magneto-electric effect in a polar ferrimagnet GaFeO3, where spontaneous polarization P0 and magnetization M0 are parallel to the b and c axes, respectively. Optical magneto-electric effects are expected to show up for the electromagnetic wave with k//a, as the difference in absorption and refractive index with the sign reversal of the triple product of P0, M0, and k. X-ray magneto-electric absorption shows large enhancement at Fe 1s-3d transition.^1 The obtained spectra are well explained by the interference between electric dipole and electric quadrupole transitions of Fe 1s electrons in an FeO6 cluster. Optical magneto-electric absorption of the order of 10-3 was observed at around Fe intra-atomic d-d transition.^2 *Measurements of x-ray spectroscopy were performed at BL-1A, KEK-PF, Japan. ^1M. Kubota et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004) 137401. ^2J. H. Jung et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 037403.

Arima, Taka-Hisa



What makes an effective executive.  


An effective executive does not need to be a leader in the typical sense of the word. Peter Drucker, the author of more than two dozen HBR articles, says some of the best business and nonprofit CEOs he has worked with over his 65-year consulting career were not stereotypical leaders. They ranged from extroverted to nearly reclusive, from easygoing to controlling, from generous to parsimonious. What made them all effective is that they followed the same eight practices: They asked, "What needs to be done?" They also asked, "What is right for the enterprise?" They developed action plans. They took responsibility for decisions. They took responsibility for communicating. They were focused on opportunities rather than problems. They ran productive meetings. And they thought and said "we" rather than "I." The first two practices provided them with the knowledge they needed. The next four helped them convert this knowledge into effective action, for knowledge is useless to executives until it has been translated into deeds. The last two ensured that the whole organization felt responsible and accountable. Effective executives know that they have authority only because they have the trust of the organization. This means they must think of the needs and opportunities of the organization before they think of their own needs and opportunities. The author also suggests a ninth practice that's so important, he elevates it to the level of a rule: Listen first, speak last. The demand for effective executives is much too great to be satisfied by those few people who are simply born to lead. Effectiveness is a discipline. And, like every discipline, it can be learned and must be earned. PMID:15202287

Drucker, Peter F



15 CFR 970.506 - Environmental effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Environmental effects. 970.506 Section 970...970.506 Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring...cannot reasonably be expected to result in a significant adverse effect on the quality of the...



Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects  


... effects of radiation therapy Preventing and managing side effects of radiation therapy When the radiation damages nearby ... radiation therapy ” section for more on this. Side effects can vary. Your doctor and nurse are the ...


ANEMONE: An effective minimal ontology negotiation environment  

E-print Network

ANEMONE: An effective minimal ontology negotiation environment Jurriaan van Diggelen, Robbert Jan minimal and effective shared ontologies. We tested our approach, called anemone, on a number anemone: AN Effective Minimal Ontology Negotiation Environment. We illustrate our approach with a case

Dignum, Frank


ANEMONE: An Effective Minimal Ontology Negotiation Environment  

E-print Network

ANEMONE: An Effective Minimal Ontology Negotiation Environment Jurriaan van Diggelen, Robbert minimal and effective shared ontologies. We tested our approach, called anemone, on a number anemone: AN Effective Minimal Ontology Negotiation Environment. We illustrate our approach with a case

Diggelen, Jurriaan van


Estimating Marginal Treatment Effects in Heterogeneous Populations  

E-print Network

Estimating Marginal Treatment Effects in Heterogeneous Populations Robert Moffitt Johns Hopkins in heterogeneous populations. Building upon an insight of Heckman and Vytlacil, the conventional treatment effects model with heterogeneous effects is shown to imply that outcomes are a nonlinear function

Niebur, Ernst


7 CFR 946.62 - Effective time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 946.62 Section 946.62 Agriculture...WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Effective Time and Termination § 946.62 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart...



7 CFR 947.70 - Effective time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 947.70 Section 947.70 Agriculture...MALHEUR COUNTY Order Regulating Handling Effective Time and Termination § 947.70 Effective time. (a) The provisions of this...



7 CFR 953.65 - Effective time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 953.65 Section 953.65 Agriculture...SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Effective Time and Termination § 953.65 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart...



Novel Isotope Effects and Organic Reaction Mechanisms  

E-print Network

to account for the observed isotope effects. In the dimerization of cyclopentadiene, novel "dynamic" isotope effects are observed on the 13C distribution in the product, and a method for the prediction of these isotope effects is developed here...

Kelly, Kelmara K.



Ridge effect and alignment phenomenon  

SciTech Connect

It is assumed that the ridge effect observed by the CMS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and the phenomenon observed by the Pamir Collaboration in emulsion experiments with cosmic rays and characterized by the alignment of spots on a film is a manifestation of the same as-yet-unknown mechanism of the emergence of a coplanar structure of events. A large coplanar effect at the LHC in the region of forward rapidities is predicted on the basis of this hypothesis and an analysis of experimental data.

Lokhtin, I. P., E-mail:; Managadze, A. K., E-mail:; Snigirev, A. M., E-mail: [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)



Ridge effect and alignment phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is assumed that the ridge effect observed by the CMS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and the phenomenon observed by the Pamir Collaboration in emulsion experiments with cosmic rays and characterized by the alignment of spots on a film is a manifestation of the same as-yet-unknown mechanism of the emergence of a coplanar structure of events. A large coplanar effect at the LHC in the region of forward rapidities is predicted on the basis of this hypothesis and an analysis of experimental data.

Lokhtin, I. P.; Managadze, A. K.; Snigirev, A. M.



Space Physics and Terrestrial Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum guide is intended for high school teachers who are teaching solar physics, especially the effects of solar activity on terrestrial planets. The chapters discuss stellar evolution, the structure of the sun, studying the sun, and solar and terrestrial interactions. Lab activities provided include: building a spectroscope, energy transport within the sun, measuring the solar constant, luminosity of the sun and stars, seeing different wavelengths, the Earth-Sun orientation, the effect of the solar wind on the geomagnetic field, determining the rotation period of the sun, and radiation hazards in space.



Effective potentials for folding proteins.  


A coarse-grained off-lattice model that is not biased in any way to the native state is proposed to fold proteins. To predict the native structure in a reasonable time, the model has included the essential effects of water in an effective potential. Two new ingredients, the dipole-dipole interaction and the local hydrophobic interaction, are introduced and are shown to be as crucial as the hydrogen bonding. The model allows successful folding of the wild-type sequence of protein G and may have provided important hints to the study of protein folding. PMID:16606145

Chen, Nan-Yow; Su, Zheng-Yao; Mou, Chung-Yu




SciTech Connect

Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H. [MS J566, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lee, R. J. [Lndian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States)



Effective Theory of the Triton  

E-print Network

We apply the effective field theory approach to the three-nucleon system. In particular, we consider S=1/2 neutron-deuteron scattering and the triton. We show that in this channel a unique nonperturbative renormalization takes place which requires the introduction of a single three-body force at leading order. With one fitted parameter we find a good description of low-energy data. Invariance under the renormalization group explains some universal features of the three-nucleon system ---such as the Thomas and Efimov effects and the Phillips line--- and the origin of SU(4) symmetry in nuclei.

Bedaque, P F; Van Kolck, U L



Antituberculous effect of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in vitro experiment, involving 1164 strains of the tuberculosis mycobacteria, exhibited a potentiating effect of silver nanoparticles on known antituberculous preparations in respect of overcoming drug-resistance of the causative agent. The in vitro experiment, based on the model of resistant tuberculosis, was performed on 65 white mice. An evident antituberculous effect of the nanocomposite on the basis of silver nanoparticles and isoniazid was proved. Toxicological assessment of the of nanopreparations was carried out. The performed research scientifically establishes efficacy and safety of the nanocomposite application in combination therapy of patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Kreytsberg, G. N.; Gracheva, I. E.; Kibrik, B. S.; Golikov, I. V.



Solar Wind's Effect on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sun produces 'solar wind', a continuous flow of charged particles that can affect us on Earth. It may also release huge storms of charged particles, called coronal mass ejections, that can disrupt communications, navigation systems, and satellites; and cause power outages, such as the extensive Canadian blackout in 1989. This video segment introduces viewers to coronal mass ejections, their effects on Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere, and their potentially damaging effects on satellites, power grids, and other human infrastructure. The segment is four minutes forty-four seconds in length.



Ground Effect - Theory and Practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conclusion of a previous article by Pistolesi is that the increment of lift due to ground effect is largely attributable to the effect of induction of the free vortices, and is practically equivalent to a virtual increase in aspect ratio. The ground clearance was of the order of magnitude comparable to the wing chord. New reports by Le Seur and Datwyler treat the case of minimum distance from the ground and is confined to the plane problem only. The author briefly reviews these reports and also one by Timotika. References to all the reviewed reports are in the attached bibliography.

Pistolesi, E



[Side effects of hormonal contraception].  


Female sex hormones have an influence not only on the reproductive process, but on nearly all organs and functional systems. This explains their broad spectre of side-effects, which by their degree of subjective annoyance may impair the acceptability of hormonal contraception or--through a suggested risk to the patient--even enforce discontinuation of medication. The significance of quite a number of alterations in biochemical and metabolic parameters cannot yet be fully elucidated. The author offers a summary of the principal side-effects of present-day hormonal contraceptives. PMID:7025479

Carol, W; Göretzlehner, G; Klinger, G



Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-print Network

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang



Plasma effects on subcellular structures  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure helium plasma treated human hepatocytes exhibit distinctive zones of necrotic and live cells separated by a void. We propose that plasma induced necrosis is attributed to plasma species such as oxygen radicals, charged particles, metastables and/or severe disruption of charged cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, uncharged cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are only minimally disturbed by plasma, elucidating the possibility of plasma induced electrostatic effects selectively destroying charged proteins. These bona fide plasma effects, which inflict alterations in specific subcellular structures leading to necrosis and cellular detachment, were not observed by application of helium flow or electric field alone.

Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daeyeon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)



Plasma effects on subcellular structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure helium plasma treated human hepatocytes exhibit distinctive zones of necrotic and live cells separated by a void. We propose that plasma induced necrosis is attributed to plasma species such as oxygen radicals, charged particles, metastables and/or severe disruption of charged cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, uncharged cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are only minimally disturbed by plasma, elucidating the possibility of plasma induced electrostatic effects selectively destroying charged proteins. These bona fide plasma effects, which inflict alterations in specific subcellular structures leading to necrosis and cellular detachment, were not observed by application of helium flow or electric field alone.

Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Daeyeon; Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Shin, Jennifer H.



17 CFR 230.462 - Immediate effectiveness of certain registration statements and post-effective amendments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certain registration statements and post-effective amendments. 230.462 Section 230...SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Filings; Fees; Effective Date § 230.462 Immediate effectiveness...certain registration statements and post-effective amendments. (a) A...



Effective magnetoelectric effect in multicoated circular fibrous multiferroic Hsin-Yi Kuo1,a)  

E-print Network

Effective magnetoelectric effect in multicoated circular fibrous multiferroic composites Hsin for the evaluation of the effective material properties in multicoated circular fibrous multiferroic composites property" causes the ME effect in multiferroic composites: an applied electric field creates a strain

Pan, Ernie


15 CFR 908.20 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR