Sample records for l-nitroarginine methylester effects

  1. Failure of L-Nitroarginine to Inhibit the Activity of Aortic Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Darblade; Sandor Batkai; Elisabeth Caussé; Pierre Gourdy; Marie-José Fouque; Jacques Rami; Jean-François Arnal

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by a family of three isoenzymes: the endothelial, inducible and neuronal NO synthases. L-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is the most commonly used inhibitor of NO synthase activity. The goal of the present study was to evaluate to what extent L-nitroarginine (L-NA), the in vivo circulating metabolite of L-NAME, blocks NO production in the rat aorta

  2. Effects of Selected Arginine Analogues on Sulphur Mustard Toxicity in Human and Hairless Guinea Pig Skin Keratinocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Sawyer; Darrell Risk

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of sulphur mustard (HD) was characterized in first passage cultures of human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes and then several arginine analogues were investigated to ascertain their efficacies in protecting against HD toxicity in this system. d- and l-nitroarginine methyl ester (d\\/l-NAME), l-phosphoarginine, and l-nitroarginine were all found to confer concentration-related protective effects against HD in confluent cultures. l-NAME was

  3. N?-Nitro-L-Arginine Methylester Ameliorates Myocardial Toxicity Induced by Doxorubicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Ahmed Mansour; Ayman Gamal El-Din; Mahmoud N. Nagi; Othman A. Al-Shabanah; Abdullah M. Al-Bekairi

    2003-01-01

    The effects of N?-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) and L-arginine on cardiotoxicity that is induced by doxorubicin (Dox) were investigated. A single dose of Dox 15 mg\\/kg i.p. induced cardiotoxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity (EC 2.7.3.2). Moreover, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by a significant increase in lipid peroxides, measured as malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) in cardiac

  4. Cocaine, norcocaine, ecgonine methylester and benzoylecgonine pharmacokinetics in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berend Mets; Jaime Diaz; Ed Soo; Subhash Jamdar

    1999-01-01

    We have compared the pharmacokinetics of bolus dose cocaine administration with that of its three most important metabolites; norcocaine, ecgonine methylester, and benzoylecgonine and assessed whether kinetics are dose dependent at two equimolar doses equivalent to cocaine hydrochloride 2.5 and 5mgkg respectively. Forty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups to receive iv either high (14.7 umolkg) (HI)

  5. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with...

  6. Sub-acute effect of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices in rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L

    PubMed Central

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A.; Nwosu, Ifeanyi O.; Farombi, Ebenezer O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kolaviron (KV) (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) and extract of Curcuma longa (CL) are frequently used in folk medicine for treatment of hypertension. One of their mechanisms of action is to enhance antioxidant properties in animals. NG- nitro- l- arginine methyl- ester (L- NAME) is L- arginine analogue, which by binding to Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) may induce hypertension partly due to increase in tissues oxidative stress. Objectives: To investigate the effect of L- NAME on some biochemical indices and the possible protective effect of KV or CL. Materials and Methods: Four groups consisting of 6 rats each were used. One group served as control, second group received L- NAME (40 mg/kg/day). Third and fourth groups were treated with KV and CL, respectively and also received L- NAME. KV and CL were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Results: L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) increase in the levels of serum urea, creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase relative to controls. L- NAME treated rats had markedly decreased hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione- S- transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Precisely, L- NAME decreased CAT, SOD, GST and GSH by 48, 52, 76 and 40%, respectively. L- NAME intoxication significantly decreased (P <0.05) renal GSH and SOD levels. Also, L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the animals. Administration of KV or CL with L- NAME caused significant (P <0.05) inhibition of LPO and augments tissue antioxidant indices. Conclusion: These results confirm the adverse effect of L- NAME on biochemical indices and, the ability of kolaviron or Curcuma longa to ameliorate the alterations. PMID:22923949

  7. Absorption Mechanism of a Physical Complex of Monomeric Insulin and Deoxycholyl-l-lysyl-methylester in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Foyez; Jeon, Ok-Cheol; Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Kweon, Seho; Yang, Victor C; Lee, Dong Soo; Byun, Youngro

    2015-06-01

    Currently, oral administration of insulin still remains the best option to avoid the burden of repeated subcutaneous injections and to improve its pharmacokinetics. The objective of the present investigation was to demonstrate the absorption mechanism of insulin in the physical complexation of deoxycholyl-l-lysyl-methylester (DCK) for oral delivery. The oral insulin/DCK complex was prepared by making a physical complex of insulin aspart with DCK through ion-pair interaction in water. For the cellular uptake study, fluorescein-labeled insulin or DCK were prepared according to a standard protocol and applied to Caco-2 or MDCK cell lines. For the PK/PD studies, we performed intrajejunal administration of different formulation of insulin/DCK complex to diabetic rats. The resulting insulin and DCK complex demonstrated greatly enhanced lipophilicity as well as increased permeation across Caco-2 monolayers. The immunofluorescence study revealed the distribution of the complex in the cytoplasm of Caco-2 cells. Moreover, in the apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) transfected MDCK, the insulin/DCK complex showed interaction with ASBT, and also demonstrated absorption through passive diffusion. We could not find that any evidence of endocytosis in relation to the uptake of insulin complex in vitro. In the rat intestine model, the highest absorption of insulin complex was observed in the jejunum at 1 h and then in the ileum at 2-4 h. In PK/PD study, the complex showed a similar PK profile to that of SC insulin. Overall, the study showed that the effect of DCK on enhancing the absorption of insulin resulted from transcellular processes as well as bile acid transporter activity. PMID:25892399

  8. Effects of ethanol treatment on the neurogenic and endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Aydinoglu, Fatma; Yilmaz, Sakir N; Coskun, Banu; Daglioglu, Nebile; Ogulener, Nuran

    2008-01-01

    The relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle is critical for inducing and maintaining a penile erection. The neurogenic- and endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and the degenerative effect of subacute ethanol treatment on the endothelial cells of corpus cavernosum was investigated in mice. In the cavernous strips contracted with phenylephrine, electrical field stimulation (EFS), acetylcholine and exogenous nitric oxide (NO) induced relaxations in the control group. Ethanol treatment abolished the endothelium-dependent relaxations induced by acetylcholine but failed to alter the relaxation to EFS and NO. L-nitroarginine, a NO synthase inhibitor, reduced relaxations induced by EFS and acetylcholine, but not those induced by NO in control and ethanol-treated mice. L-arginine prevented the response inhibited by L-nitroarginine. ODQ, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, inhibited relaxations in response to EFS, NO and acetylcholine in control and ethanol-treated mice. Corpus cavernosum tissues were investigated using electron microscopy and endothelial damage was observed in ethanol-treated mice. These results suggest that ethanol impairs the endothelial function of corpus cavernosum in mouse, and it may lead to erectile dysfunction through a reduced NO release via endothelial impairment. PMID:19066420

  9. Studies on the enzymatic reduction of N-Boc-4S-amino-3-oxo-5-phenylpentanoic acid methylester.

    PubMed

    Nassenstein, A; Hemberger, J; Schwartz, H; Kula, M R

    1992-11-01

    The enzymatic reduction of N-Boc-4S-amino-3-oxo-5-phenylpentanoic acid methylester, the key intermediate in the stereoselective synthesis of a statinanalogue, was studied with Hansenula anomala and Hansenula silvicola. Using whole cells of H. anomala gives complete conversion and a diastereomeric excess of 88% of the desired 3S, 4S statinanalogue. The strain contains two NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, that can be separated by ion exchange chromatography or gelfiltration, yielding the 3S, 4S or 3R, 4S stereoisomers, respectively, with > 99% diastereomeric excess (DE). In the crude extract the 3S, 4S oxidoreductase is very unstable and could be purified with < 1% yield only. In contrast, H. silvicola, which gave poor conversions using whole cells, exhibited about 80-fold higher specific activity in the crude extract than H. anomala. The NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase was purified 317-fold in 12% yield. A single enzyme of 54 kDa reduces the substrate with 97.4% DE. Besides the statinanalogue a wide range of other compounds could be reduced, most notably diones and chinones such as isatin or campherchinone. It was demonstrated that the enzymes often discussed for the reduction of beta-ketoesters with yeast e.g. L-3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.35), the beta-ketoreductase of the fatty acid synthase complex and also the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.34) are separated during the purification steps from the oxidoreductase acting on N-Boc-4S-amino-3-oxo-5-phenylpentanoic acid methylester. The physiological role of the new enzyme is still unknown. PMID:1369149

  10. Effect of pH in the synthesis of ampicillin by penicillin acylase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Ospina; Eduardo Barzana; Octavio T. Ramírez; Agustín López-Munguía

    1996-01-01

    Recombinant Escherichia coli cells with high penicillin acylase (PA) activity were immobilized by gel entrapment with agar. This biocatalyst was used to study the effect of pH on the synthesis of ampicillin from phenylglycine methylester (PGME) and 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). The parallel hydrolysis reactions of PGME and ampicillin were also studied. A selective inhibition of the hydrolysis of the ester

  11. Biodiesel blend effects on common-rail diesel combustion and emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Kousoulidou; Georgios Fontaras; Leonidas Ntziachristos; Zissis Samaras

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methylesters) blends with fossil diesel at a mixing ratio between 0.5 and 5vol.% are widely offered as automotive fuels in Europe. The target for the future is to bring this ratio to at least 10%, in order to increase the share of renewable energy in transport. There is however limited evidence on the effects of such blends

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Lení?ek, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  13. Effects of nitric oxide on the horizontal cell network and dopamine release in the carp retina.

    PubMed

    Pottek, M; Schultz, K; Weiler, R

    1997-05-01

    In the teleost retina the intercellular messenger nitric oxide can be synthesized by several cell types including cone photoreceptors and H1 horizontal cells, indicating a modulatory role within the outer plexiform layer, the first stage of the visual information processing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of nitric oxide on the physiology of cone horizontal cells in the intact retina. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (0.5-2.5 mM) enhanced the light responsiveness of cone horizontal cells and reduced the degree of electrical coupling in the network. Furthermore, the spread of intracellularly injected Lucifer Yellow was restricted. The effects on light responsiveness and electrical coupling were qualitatively mimicked by 8-bromo-cGMP (0.5 mM) and could not be achieved by ferrocyanide (1 mM), the byproduct of nitric oxide liberation from nitroprusside. The effects of NO on the responsiveness of horizontal cells may be due to an action on green- and red-sensitive cones. Nitroprusside (0.1 mM) diminished the K(+)-stimulated release of endogenous dopamine by 50%, whereas the basal dopamine release was not affected, indicating that the effects on electrotonic horizontal cell coupling were not elicited by an NO-induced release of dopamine. With respect to the morphologic plasticity of the cone-horizontal cell synapse the inhibitor of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis L-nitroarginine (0.1 mM) had no influence on the formation or retraction of spinules. These results show that NO affects the responsiveness and coupling of the horizontal cell network in a dopamine-independent way. PMID:9196728

  14. Differential effect of neocuproine, a copper(I) chelator, on contractile activity in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus.

    PubMed

    Kumcu, Eda Karabal; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem Göktürk; Göçmen, Cemil; Evrüke, Ismail Cüneyt; Onder, Serpil

    2009-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine effects of a selective copper(I) chelator, neocuproine on the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus. Uterus activity was evaluated in tissues obtained from bilaterally ovariectomized non-pregnant rats on the 21st day of the operation (n = 24), pregnant rats on the 19-21st day of gestation (n = 24) and women undergoing caesarean section at 38-42 weeks of pregnancy (n = 15). Neocuproine (100 microM) significantly suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus while this agent facilitated the frequency of the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in the pregnant rat and human uterus without altering the amplitude of these contractions. At high concentration of 200 microM, neocuproine could enhance the amplitude of the contractions in the pregnant uterus. These effects were blocked by a purinergic receptor antagonist, suramin (100 microM) and did not occur following the administration of neocuproine-copper(I) complex or copper(II) chelator cuprizone. alpha, beta-methylene ATP increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in the pregnant uterus, but not affected the contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus, and neocuproine potentiated this facilitation effect. However, the suppressive effect of neocuproine on the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus increased in the presence of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine did not affect the responses to neocuproine. These findings suggest that neocuproine can affect the uterus contractile activity by modulation purinergic excitatory responses and that copper(I)-sensitive mechanisms may play a role in this effect. PMID:19248249

  15. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Anterior Segment Physiology in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Galen W.; Kiland, Julie A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Gabelt, B'Ann T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effect of the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-nitro-arginine-methylester (L-NAME), on IOP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), pupil diameter (PD), refraction (Rfx), aqueous humor formation (AHF), and outflow facility (OF) in monkeys. Methods. Monkeys were treated with single or multiple topical treatments of 500 ?g SNP or L-NAME to one eye. IOP was determined by Goldmann applanation tonometry, PD with vernier calipers in room light, Rfx by Hartinger coincidence refractometry, AHF by fluorophotometry, and MAP with a blood pressure monitor. OF was determined by two-level constant pressure perfusion following anterior chamber exchange. Results. Following four topical treatments with 500 ?g SNP, 30 minutes apart, IOP was significantly decreased from 2 to 6 hours compared with the contralateral control with the maximum IOP reduction of 20% at 3 hours (P < 0.001). PD, Rfx, and AHF were unchanged. Effects on MAP were variable. OF after SNP exchange was significantly increased by 77% (P < 0.05) at 10?3 M. Topical L-NAME had no effect on IOP, PD, Rfx, or MAP. Conclusions. Enhancement of nitric oxide concentration at targeted tissues in the anterior segment may be a useful approach for IOP reduction for glaucoma therapy. Additional studies are warranted before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of NOS inhibition on ocular physiology in nonhuman primates. PMID:23800771

  16. Separation of methanol from methylesters by vapour permeation: experiences of industrial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Maus; Hartmut E. A. Brüschke

    2002-01-01

    Separation of water from its mixtures with organic liquids, especially from those with which it forms azeotropes by means of pervaporation and vapour permeation. has matured during the past 10 years to a state-of-the-art technology. The processes are applied in industrial plants worldwide for the dehydration of binary mixtures of light alcohols such as ethanol or isopropanol, esters such as

  17. Analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin, a flavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yulu; Wu, Debin; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Li; Guo, Yue

    2012-09-01

    Shaoyao-gancao-tang, a Chinese medicinal formula consisting of peony and licorice has been used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea for thousands of years. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the analgesic and uterine relaxant effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (a type of licorice). In vitro, isoliquiritigenin caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contraction of isolated rat uterus and the contraction induced by various types of stimulants, such as acetylcholine (Ach, 10 mM), KCl (40 mM) and oxytocin (1 mU/mL). The uterine contractile response to cumulative concentrations of CaCl? was blocked by 0.1 and 1 mM of isoliquiritigenin. The isoliquiritigenin-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nv-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 100 mM) and the COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mM). In vivo, isoliquiritigenin could cause a significant reduction in the acetic acid-induced writhing response and hot-plate test at the high dose. These results indicate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, not only has a spasmolytic effect on uterine contraction, which is in relation to Ca²? channels, NOS and COX, but also an effective activity in reducing pain. PMID:22389128

  18. Cardioprotective effects of low-dose combination therapy with rosuvastatin and fasudil in the isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Li, Wenna; Lv, Yan; Shu, Wenqi; Jia, Dalin

    2014-09-01

    The cardiovascular pleiotropic effects of statins and a Rho-kinase inhibitor (fasudil) could be of interest to prevent myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). In the present study, we investigated whether low-dose rosuvastatin and fasudil, separately not possessing cardioprotection, express cardioprotective effects when combined. The isolated rat hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Rosuvastatin (3 microM) and fasudil (1 microM) were administered 15 min before ischemia. NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (30 microM) (L-NAME) was given at the onset of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size, apoptosis, myocardial nitric oxide (NO) content and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression were evaluated. The combination treatment significantly decreased infarct size and percentage of apoptosis and increased the content of NO and eNOS expression, whereas treatment with rosuvastatin and fasudil alone at the same doses did not lead to cardioprotection. Furthermore, L-NAME reversed the cardioprotective effect of rosuvastatin/fasudil combination treatment. In summary, rosuvastatin combined with fasudil treatment had synergistic protective effects against MIRI, which were mediated by increasing eNOS and NO production. This new concept could be valuable in MIRI prevention. PMID:25272944

  19. Effects of Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract on formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Saeed-Abadi, S; Ranjbaran, M; Jafari, F; Najafi-Abedi, A; Rahmani, B; Esfandiari, B; Delfan, B; Mojabi, N; Ghahramani, M; Sahraei, H

    2012-11-01

    Stress amelioration can improve its metabolic as well as other side effects. In the present study, the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Papver rhoeas (L.) on formalin-induced pain and inflammation were investigated in male Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g). Formalin injects in the plantar portion of mice hind paw and pain was studied for 60 min. The plant extract and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally 30 min before formalin. Experiments showed that administration of extract (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) could induced analgesia in a dose-response manner in both phases of formalin test. More over, the extract inhibits inflammation induced by formalin injection. Naloxone (4 mg kg(-1)), dextromethorphan (20 mg kg(-1)) and NG-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME; 10 mg kg(-1)) reduced the extract analgesia in first but not late phase. Extract administration also increased plasma corticosterone level in dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract could inhibits acute phase of formalin test in mice by opioidergic, glutamatergic and nitricergic mechanisms. In addition, the extract can induce corticosterone plasma level which may be responsible for inhibition of inflammation and chronic phase of pain induced by formalin. PMID:24163947

  20. Immunohistochemical and functional studies for M? muscarinic receptors and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expressed in the mouse atrium.

    PubMed

    Harada, N; Ochi, K; Yaosaka, N; Teraoka, H; Hiraga, T; Iwanaga, T; Unno, T; Komori, S; Yamada, M; Kitazawa, T

    2012-10-01

    In mouse atrium, M? and M? muscarinic receptors (M?R and M?R) are involved in biphasic (negative and positive) inotropic actions of muscarinic agonists, and the positive inotropic action is reduced by indomethacin. The aim of our study was to determine the localization of M?R, M?R and cyclo-oxygenase (COX) in mouse atrium and to characterize muscarinic receptor-mediated positive inotropy. M?R immunoreactivity was found only on atrial myocardium, but M?R immunoreactivity was localized on both the myocardium and endocardial endothelium. COX-1 and COX-2 immunoreactivities were identified in both myocardial and endocardial endothelium. In electrically stimulated left atria, carbachol caused M?R-mediated negative inotropy followed by M?R-mediated positive inotropy. Removal of atrial endothelium reduced the positive inotropy without affecting the negative inotropy, suggesting that stimulation of endothelial M?R mediates the positive inotropy. N-[2-(cyclohexyloxy)-4-nitrophenyl]-methanesulfonamide (NS398, COX-2 inhibitor) decreased the carbachol-induced positive inotropy; however, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethylpyrazole (SC560, COX-1 inhibitor), 1-[[4,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-thiazolyl]carbonyl]-4-methylpiperazine (FR122047, COX-1 inhibitor) and L-nitroarginine methylester did not affect the inotropic response. M?R activation caused positive chronotropy in spontaneously beating right atria when M?R-mediated negative chronotropy was suppressed and rate of contraction was low, <350 beats min?¹. Our results indicate that although M?Rs are located on both myocardial cells and endocardial endothelial cells, only endothelial M?Rs mediate positive inotropy in response to muscarinic agonists via activation of COX-2 in the mouse atrium. M?R-mediated positive chronotropy counteracting M?R-mediated negative chronotropy was also demonstrated. PMID:22726658

  1. Field-effect transistor-based solution-processed colloidal quantum dot photodetector with broad bandwidth into near-infrared region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengyi; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Haizheng; Liu, Ruibin; Zou, Bingsuo

    2012-06-29

    We demonstrate a solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQDs) photodetector with the configuration of a field-effect transistor (FET), in which the drain and source electrodes are fabricated by a shadow mask. By blending PbS CQDs into the hybrid blend, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methylester (PCBM), the photosensitive spectrum of the nanocomposite blend is extended into the near-infrared region. A FET-based photodetector ITO/PMMA (180 nm)/P3HT:PCBM:PbS (110 nm)/Al, in which PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) acts as the dielectric layer and P3HT:PCBM:PbS (in weight ratio of 1:1:1) as the active layer, shows a broad spectral bandwidth, a responsivity of 0.391 mA W(-1) and a specific detectivity of 1.31 × 10(11) Jones are obtained at V(GS) = 1 V under 600 nm illumination with an intensity of 30 ?W cm(-2). Therefore, it provides an easy way to fabricate such a FET-based photodetector with a channel length of some hundreds of micrometers by a shadow mask. PMID:22652547

  2. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and N?-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, p<0.001). The inhibitory effect of extract on contraction induced by KCl and acetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the ?-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A. millefolium. PMID:24311877

  3. [Effect of ischemia/hypoxia on mesenteric vasomotor function in spontaneously hypertensive rats and its possible mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Hong-Li; Bi, Xue-Yuan; Hu, Hao; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2011-12-25

    Hypertension is a common cardiovascular disease and can induce many complications, such as stroke and coronary heart disease. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ischemia/hypoxia on mesenteric artery vasomotor function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rat mesenteric arterial rings were cultured in modified ischemia-mimetic solution in a hypoxia incubator for a certain time period. Isometric tension changes of isolated mesenteric arterial rings were recorded continuously by a myograph system. The results obtained were as follows: In SHR group, the maximum contractions to KCl and phenylephrine (PE) were increased, and the maximum relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was decreased, compared to those in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats group. Compared with SHR group and WKY with acute ischemia/hypoxia (WKY+H) group, SHR with acute ischemia/hypoxia (SHR+H) increased the maximum contractions induced by KCl and PE and inhibited the maximum relaxations by ACh. In SHR+H and SHR groups, the vasodilation induced by ACh was unaffected by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), whereas in WKY group, the relaxation to ACh was attenuated by L-NAME. CaCl2-induced contraction in depolarized rings in SHR+H group significantly shifted to the left compared with SHR group. In Ca(2+)-free K-H solution, the maximum contractions induced by PE and caffeine were increased in SHR+H group compared to those in WKY+H group; the PE- and caffeine-induced contractions were also enhanced in SHR group versus WKY group; the maximum contraction induced by PE was significantly increased in SHR+H group versus SHR group. These findings suggest that acute ischemia/hypoxia aggravates mesenteric artery dysfunction in SHR. The mechanism may be related to the decreased NO generation and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. PMID:22193449

  4. Nerve mediated relaxation of the human internal anal sphincter: the role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, T; Brading, A; Mortensen, N

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if nitric oxide (NO) is the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitter, released by enteric inhibitory nerves, which mediates relaxation of the human internal anal sphincter. Isolated muscle strips were mounted for isometric tension recording in superfusion organ baths. Sodium nitroprusside, an exogenous donor of NO, relaxed the strips in a concentration dependent manner. In the presence of atropine and guanethidine, transmural field stimulation produced tetrodotoxin sensitive relaxations, which were inhibited in a dose dependent and enantiomer specific manner by antagonists of NO synthase; completely by L-nitroarginine and partially by L-N-monomethyl arginine. The effect of these antagonists was reversed by L-arginine but not D-arginine. Oxyhaemoglobin, a scavenger of nitric oxide, also abolished the relaxations but methaemoglobin had no such effect. These results strongly suggest that NO is, or is very closely associated with, the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitter mediating neurogenic relaxation of the human internal anal sphincter. PMID:7684992

  5. Circulating neutrophils maintain physiological blood pressure by suppressing bacteria and IFN?-dependent iNOS expression in the vasculature of healthy mice

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Jonathan; Coles, Barbara; Wright, Kate; Gallimore, Awen; Morrow, Jason D.; Terry, Erin S.; Anning, Peter B.; Morgan, B. Paul; Dioszeghy, Vincent; Kühn, Hartmut; Chaitidis, Pavlos; Hobbs, Adrian J.; Jones, Simon A.

    2008-01-01

    Whether leukocytes exert an influence on vascular function in vivo is not known. Here, genetic and pharmacologic approaches show that the absence of neutrophils leads to acute blood pressure dysregulation. Following neutrophil depletion, systolic blood pressure falls significantly over 3 days (88.0 ± 3.5 vs 104.0 ± 2.8 mm Hg, day 3 vs day 0, mean ± SEM, P < .001), and aortic rings from neutropenic mice do not constrict properly. The constriction defect is corrected using l-nitroarginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) or the specific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor 1400W, while acetylcholine relaxation is normal. iNOS- or IFN?-deficient mice are protected from neutropenia-induced hypotension, indicating that iNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO) is responsible and that its induction involves IFN?. Oral enrofloxacin partially inhibited hypotension, implicating bacterial products. Roles for cyclooxygenase, complement C5, or endotoxin were excluded, although urinary prostacyclin metabolites were elevated. Neutrophil depletion required complement opsinization, with no evidence for intravascular degranulation. In summary, circulating neutrophils contribute to maintaining physiological tone in the vasculature, at least in part through suppressing early proinflammatory effects of infection. The speed with which hypotension developed provides insight into early changes that occur in the absence of neutrophils and illustrates the importance of constant surveillance of mucosal sites by granulocytes in healthy mice. PMID:18281503

  6. Highly selective anti-cancer properties of ester functionalized enantiopure dinuclear gold(I)-diphosphine.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin-Bin; Jia, Yu-Xiang; Zhu, Peng-Cheng; Chew, Renta Jonathan; Li, Yongxin; Tan, Nguan Soon; Leung, Pak-Hing

    2015-06-15

    Two chiral (-)-diphosphine-digold(I) complexes containing mono- and di-methylester substituted diphosphine ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. Both complexes are highly potent against breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 but showed much lower cytotoxicity against the normal human breast epithelial cells MCF10A. When compared with its mono-substituted analogue, the di-methylester substituted complex caused markedly lower and relatively insignificant damage to the normal breast cells. The analogous mono- and di-ethylester substituted complexes with the same stereochemistry exhibited similar anti-cancer properties but with noticeably higher cytotoxicity against the MCF10A cells. The enantiomeric complex (+)-diphosphine-digold(I) complexes containing the di-methylester substituted diphosphine ligand exhibited clearly different biological properties from its (-)-enantiomer. Furthermore, a structurally similar diphosphine-digold(I) complex but in the absence of an ester substituent, killed both the cancerous and the healthy cells indiscriminately. The current study thus revealed that the introduction of multi-esters, particularly methylesters, is an efficient approach to suppress the side-effects and to improve the efficiency of potential gold-based anti-cancer reagents. When combined with the biological observations, the chirality of gold complexes may serve as a sensitive probe for the future mechanistic studies. PMID:26047407

  7. Functional study on TRPV1-mediated signalling in the mouse small intestine: involvement of tachykinin receptors.

    PubMed

    de Man, J G; Boeckx, S; Anguille, S; de Winter, B Y; de Schepper, H U; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A

    2008-05-01

    Afferent nerves in the gut not only signal to the central nervous system but also provide a local efferent-like effect. This effect can modulate intestinal motility and secretion and is postulated to involve the transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). By using selective TRPV1 agonist and antagonists, we studied the efferent-like effect of afferent nerves in the isolated mouse jejunum. Mouse jejunal muscle strips were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recordings. Jejunal strips contracted to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. Contractions to capsaicin showed rapid tachyphylaxis and were insensitive to tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium, atropine or L-nitroarginine. Capsaicin did not affect contractions to electrical stimulation of enteric motor nerves and carbachol. Tachykinin NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor blockade by RP67580, nepadutant plus SR-142801 reduced contractions to capsaicin to a similar degree as contractions to substance P. The effect of the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, SB-366791, iodo-resiniferatoxin (iodo-RTX) and N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorphyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carbox-amide (BCTC) was studied. Capsazepine inhibited contractions not only to capsaicin but also those to carbachol. SB-366791 reduced contractions both to capsaicin and carbachol. Iodo-RTX partially inhibited the contractions to capsaicin without affecting contractions to carbachol. BCTC concentration-dependently inhibited and at the highest concentration used, abolished the contractions to capsaicin without affecting those to carbachol. From these results, we conclude that activation of TRPV1 in the mouse intestine induces a contraction that is mediated by tachykinins most likely released from afferent nerves. The TRPV1-mediated contraction does not involve activation of intrinsic enteric motor nerves. Of the TRPV1 antagonists tested, BCTC combined strong TRPV1 antagonism with TRPV1 selectivity. PMID:18194153

  8. Magnetoconductance of polymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanlian Lei; Qunliang Song; Yong Zhang; Ping Chen; Rong Liu; Qiaoming Zhang; Zuhong Xiong

    2009-01-01

    The organic magnetoconductance (MC) effects in poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyricacid methylester based bulk heterojunction solar cells were studied in dark and under illumination. The correlations between the MC and current character were revealed in this study. Results show that the dark current always exhibits a negative MC whereas a sign change in MC under illumination occurs at the bias around the open

  9. Triterpenoide. XX. 3beta-acetoxy-12-oxo-18beta-olean- und 3beta-acetoxy-12,19-dioxo-9(11), 13(18)-oleandien-28-saure-methylester

    PubMed

    Gzella

    2000-08-01

    The structures of methyl 3beta-acetoxy-12-oxo-18beta-olean-28-oate [C(33)H(52)O(5), (I)] and methyl 3beta-acetoxy-12, 19-dioxoolean-9(11),13(18)-dien-28-oate [C(33)H(46)O(6), (II)] are described. In (I), all rings are in the chair conformation, rings D and E are cis and the other rings trans-fused. In compound (II), only rings A and E are in the chair conformation, ring B has a distorted chair conformation, ring C a distorted half-boat and ring D an insignificantly distorted half-chair conformation. PMID:10944297

  10. Separation and Direct Detection of Long Chain Fatty Acids and their Methylesters by the NonAqueous Reversed Phase HPLC and Silver Ion Chromatography, Combined with CO Laser Pumped Thermal Lens Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dane Bicanic; Grisa Mocnik; Mladen Franko; Harm A. G. Niederländer; Peter van de Bovenkamp; Jan Cozijnsen; Klift van der E. J. C

    2006-01-01

    The potential of the CO laser pumped dual beam thermal lens spectrometer (TLS) used as the detector of infrared (IR) absorbance in non?aqueous reversed?phase high pressure liquid chromatography (NARP?HPLC) and argentation chromatography (Ag?HPLC?TLS) has been investigated. The linoleic acid C18:2 (9,11) cis, cis, the conjugated linoleic acid C18:2 (9,12) cis, cis, and (9,11) cis, cis and oleic acid C18:1 (9)

  11. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, NM 87131 (United States); Hsiao, S.-C. [Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  12. The triterpenoid quinonemethide pristimerin inhibits induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in murine macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verena M Dirsch; Alexandra K Kiemer; Hildebert Wagner; Angelika M Vollmar

    1997-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase dependent production of nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in inflammation. We investigated whether pristimerin ((20?)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-24-nor-friedela-1(10),3,5,7-tetraen-carboxylic acid-(29)-methylester), an antitumoral, antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory plant compound, has an effect on the inducible NO synthase system in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Pristimerin dose dependently (IC50: 0.2–0.3 ?M) reduces nitrite accumulation, a parameter for NO synthesis, in

  13. Acute impairment of rat renal function by l NAME as measured using dynamic MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid Sari-Sarraf; Silvia Pomposiello; Didier Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To assess the feasibility of utilizing dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI for depicting the effects of N\\u000a G-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in rats. Since Gd-DTPA is mainly cleared\\u000a through the kidneys, a first-order kinetic model was used to estimate GFR based on a clearance index (k\\u000a \\u000a cl\\u000a ) that describes the

  14. Evidence that tachykinin NK2 receptors modulate resting tone in the rat isolated small intestine.

    PubMed

    Maggi, C A; Giuliani, S

    1996-07-01

    1. In the progress of experiments aimed at evaluating the role of tachykinins as enteric nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) transmitters, we noted that certain tachykinin receptor antagonists produce a relaxation of circular muscle strips in the rat small intestine. This study aimed to assess the nature of this response and to determine the receptor type involved. The majority of the experiments were performed in capsaicin- (10 microM for 15 min) pretreated mucosa-free circular muscle strips from the rat small intestine, in the presence of atropine (1 microM), guanethidine (3 microM) and indomethacin (10 microM). 2. Under isometric recording of mechanical activity, the tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist SR 140,333 (0.1 microM) had no effect on resting tone or spontaneous activity in duodenal or ileal circular muscle strips. The NK2 receptor antagonists, MEN 10,627 (0.1 microM) and GR 94,800 (0.1 microM) produced, after a delay of 10-15 min, a relaxation which averaged 61 +/- 3 and 57 +/- 6% (n = 6 and 4, respectively) of the maximal response (Emax) to isoprenaline (1 microM). The effect of maximal concentrations of MEN 10,627 and GR 94,800 when applied together was non-additive. The relaxant effect of MEN 10,627 (0.1 microM) was similar in the absence and presence of apamin (0.3 microM) and L-nitroarginine (100 microM). 3. Under isotonic recording of mechanical activity, MEN 10,627 (10 nM-1 microM) produced a concentration- and time-related relaxation of duodenal strips. The maximal relaxation averaged 72 +/- 4 and 69 +/- 4% (n = 5 each) of Emax to isoprenaline (1 microM) and was achieved 15-20 or 20-30 min after application of 1.0 or 0.1 microM MEN 10,627, respectively. 4. Duodenal strips were relaxed by other NK2 receptor selective antagonists (values in parentheses are % of Emax to isoprenaline at the given concentration of antagonist) GR 94,800 (69 +/- 3% at 1 microM, n = 4), SR 48,968 (60 +/- 3% at 1 microM, n = 4) and MDL 29,913 (66 +/- 4% at 1 microM, n = 4). SR 48,965 (1 microM), the inactive enantiomer of SR 48,968, was without effect. The NK1 receptor selective antagonists, SR 140,333 (0.1 microM), FK 888 (10 microM) RP 67,580 (1 microM) and GR 82,334 (10 microM) were also without effect (n = 4-5). 5. A cocktail of peptidase inhibitors, thiorphan, bestatin and captopril (1 microM each) had no significant effect on tone or spontaneous activity of duodenal strips. In the presence of peptidase inhibitors, MEN 10,627 (1 microM) produced a relaxation of duodenal strips (72 +/- 6% of Emax to isoprenaline, n = 5), whilst GR 82,334 (10 microM, n = 6) had no significant effect. 6. The relaxant response to MEN 10,627 was preserved in mucosa-free strips not pre-exposed to capsaicin. Tetrodotoxin (1 microM), saxitoxin (1 microM), hexamethonium (100 microM) and omega-conotoxin (0.1 microM) had no significant effect on the resting tone of duodenal strips nor did they affect the relaxation to MEN 10,627. L-Nitroarginine (100 microM) increased the tone of the strips but did not affect the response to MEN 10,627. Nifedipine (1 microM) relaxed the strips by 62 +/- 4% (n = 4), but in its presence a small relaxant effect to MEN 10,627 (26 +/- 5%, n = 4) was still evident. 7. Under isotonic recording of mechanical activity along the longitudinal axis, MEN 10,627 (1 microM) produced a slowly developing relaxation (39 +/- 3% of Emax to isoprenaline; n = 6) of whole segments of rat duodenum. When similar experiments were performed on whole segments of rat proximal colon MEN 10,627 had no effect. 8. The present findings document the observation that tachykinin NK2 receptors contribute to the maintenance of resting tone of the rat isolated small intestine. We found no evidence to suggest that this effect follows the blockade of the contractile effect of spontaneously released endogenous tachykinins. The present findings raise the possibility that constitutively active NK2 receptors account for the relaxant effect produced by NK2 receptor ant PMID:8818352

  15. Effective Schools and Effective Principals: Effective Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Greenwood, Scott C.

    1987-01-01

    This article cautions that prescriptive announcements for school improvement currently in vogue are not all clearly justified by research on school effectiveness. An overview of the strong principal factor is used as an example. (MT)

  16. "Further Effects"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinigstein, Steven Michael

    In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.

  17. Greenhouse effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dowd

    1986-01-01

    The greenhouse effect refers to the phenomenon whereby carbon dioxide and other small-molecule gases trap longwave infrared radiation (heat) in the atmosphere, thereby warming the Earth. After several years of relatively low priority, the greenhouse effect is re-emerging as a subject of concern to Congress and regulatory agencies. So also is the sister issue of ozone depletion, the breakdown of

  18. Gauging Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foord, Kathleen A.; Haar, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Books by education experts and speakers at national professional conferences have inspired many school leaders to initiate professional learning communities (PLCs). Sustaining them effectively to raise student achievement is another matter. How can one know whether a PLC is moving toward a desired outcome? Measuring effectiveness requires an…

  19. Deterministic effects.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J

    2001-04-01

    Deterministic effects are distinguished from stochastic effects for radiation protection purposes by the following characteristics: both incidence and severity increase as a function of dose after a threshold dose is reached. Cell killing is central to all deterministic effects with the exception of radiation-induced cataracts. The understanding of radiation-induced killing of cells has increased greatly in the last decade with an extraordinarily intense interest in apoptosis. Programmed cell death has long been known to developmental biologists and the importance of cell death has been recognized and quantified by tumor biologists and students of cell kinetics but the coining of a new name and the increase of understanding of the molecular aspects of cell death has stimulated interest. Some cells appear to be very sensitive to radiation and undergo apoptosis, whereas others such as fibroblasts do not with equal frequency. This characteristic, like many others, underlines the genetic differences among cell types. We are reaching a time that there are techniques and the knowledge to apply them to clinical and radiation protection problems. In radiotherapy, success depends on the differential effect between tumor and normal tissues that is obtained. To design the optimum therapy, a profile of both the tumor cells and the cells of the normal tissues that may be at risk would help. The profile would characterize the radiosensitivity and the underlying factors, which could help in the choice of adjunct therapy for tumor and normal tissue. Fibrosis, a common unwanted late effect, appears to be influenced by genetic factors, at least in experimental animals. Techniques are available for treating people as individuals more than ever before, and that must be a good thing to do. Protection against deterministic effects would seem an easy matter but we are uncomfortably ignorant of the precise effect of protracted low-dose irradiation on tissues, such as the bone marrow and the testis, important features of risk in space. Entering the new century, it may be timely to classify radiation effects, as Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) has done, into cancer, genetic effects, and noncancer effects. The recognition in the atomic-bomb survivors of noncancer effects at doses on the order of 0.5 Sv (half the dose level considered a threshold in earlier studies) should stimulate interest in deterministic effects. PMID:11281201

  20. Doppler Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Control the velocity of two sound sources in which the wave crests are visually represented. As the sound sources move, interference patterns and evidence of the Doppler effect can be observed and measured.

  1. Chemotherapy Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chemotherapy and managing some of its side effects. Chemo Brain The mental cloudiness some people notice before, during, and after chemotherapy is commonly called chemo brain. Here you can find information on chemo brain ...

  2. Health Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/human-health . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

  3. Coriolis Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This animation provides a practical example of the impact of the Coriolis effect on daily life. After examining the animation, students can use a map or globe to locate where the pilots might have landed if they had followed their original flight path. They can then estimate how many miles the pilots have gone off their course. Students can also think about factors that navigators would consider when planning their flights and research the calculations used to account for the Coriolis effect. Although the resource was designed to accompany a specific Earth science textbook, it can be used without that text.

  4. Photoelectric Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a series of simulations of aspects of the photoelectric effect. There is an animation of the experiment with four choices of incident radiation - low and high intensity "red", to represent low energy light and low and high intensity "blue" to represent higher energy light. Electron production is animated and there is an ammeter to simulate current flow. Additional simulations show the effect of light frequency and intensity. There is a link to a spreadsheet that allows students to choose a sample from among five metals. The spreadsheet includes several questions to be answered after working through the materials.

  5. Physiological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pearcy, R.W.; Bjoerkman, O.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the effects of CO/sub 2/ on plants at the physiological level. The authors examine the potential effects of elevated CO/sub 2/ in concert with water, temperature, light, and salinity. They also examine plant allometric growth as it is affected by CO/sub 2/. The relationships between CO/sub 2/ uptake and temperature are examined in some detail. Stomatal function as it is now known is discussed, along with changes in water use efficiency correlated with increased levels of CO/sub 2/. Future research needs are identified. 71 references, 8 figures.

  6. Coriolis Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of four animated slides illustrates the Coriolis effect, a manifestation of one of Newton's laws which says that objects move in a straight line, in an "inertial" frame of reference, unless acted upon by a force. The slides use the analogy of a ball thrown on a rotating carousel.

  7. Blazhko Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teays, Terry

    1996-01-01

    The cause of the Blazhko effect, the long-term modulation of the light and radial velocity curves of some RR Lyr stars, is still not understood. The observational characteristics of the Blazhko effect are discussed. Some preliminary results are presented from two recent campaigns to observe RR Lyr, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer along with ground-based spectroscopy and photometry, throughout a pulsation cycle, at a variety of Blazhko phases. A set of ultraviolet light curves have been generated from low dispersion IUE spectra. In addition, the (visual) light curves from IUE's Fine Error Sensor are analyzed using the Fourier decomposition technique. The values of the parameters Psi(sub 21) and R(sub 21) at different Blazhko phases of RR Lyr span the range of values found for non-Blazhko variables of similar period.

  8. Photoelectric Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R. Wheaton

    When electromagnetic radiation strikes a metal, ? electrons are released. This simple statement hides a considerable history\\u000a stretching back to Galvani and not plumbed entirely to this day.\\u000a \\u000a In its initial form, the effect was discovered by Heinrich Hertz (1857–94) during his path-breaking corroboration of Maxwell's\\u000a laws in 1887. He was using spark-discharges in one part of his laboratory in

  9. Effect of\\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RONALD A. CHEZ; RICHARD R. PALMER; STANLEY G. SCHULTZ; PETER F. CURRAN

    2009-01-01

    The effects of metabolic inhibitors and ouabain on alanine trans- port across rabbit ileum, in vitro, have been investigated. Net transport of alanine and Na across short-circuited segments of ileum is virtually abolished by cyanide, 2,4-dinitrophenol, iodoacetate, and ouabain. However, these inhibitors do not markedly depress alanine influx from the mucosal solution, across the brush border, into the intestinal epithelium,

  10. Piezoelectric Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students explore the piezoelectric effect, which is the conversion between electricity and mechanical motion. The model used in this activity shows this conversion and users can manipulate the model to change the voltage and observe changes to a crystal. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In these activities, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity and central and key concepts.

  11. Erosion Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The impact crater in this THEMIS image is a model illustration to the effects of erosion on Mars. The degraded crater rim and several landslides observed in crater walls is evidence to the mass wasting of materials. Layering in crater walls also suggests the presence of materials that erode at varying rates.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.6, Longitude 44.3 East (315.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  12. Greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    Concerns about global warming stem from mounting scientific evidence that increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace gases produce by man are starting to alter the earth's temperature. This report provides information on the scientific understanding of the global warming phenomenon and DOE's research efforts to fill information gaps on the issue, the nature of program planning and criteria used by DOE for evaluating global warming research and development, DOE leadership on the global warming issue and efforts to integrate its various activities into energy policy and planning considerations, and proposed policy and/or program changes made by responsible agencies or groups for improving energy efficiency and/or reducing energy-related emission with potential climate change effects.

  13. Efficient solution-processed small-molecule solar cells by insertion of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jung Kyu; Jin Kim, Sang; Hee Hong, Byung; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-12-21

    In this work, we have demonstrated the results of several positive effects that arise from the addition of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to solution-processed small molecule bulk-heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cells fabricated from a p-DTS(FBTTh(2))(2)/[6,6]-phenyl C(71) butyric acid methyl-ester (PC(71)BM). The device with an optimized ratio of GQDs exhibits increased current density and fill factor owing to 10% improved external quantum efficiency (EQE) and induction of a favorable SM-BHJ morphology. Additionally, the multiple scattering of the GQDs in the SM-BHJ leads to longer optical pathlengths according to the analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra and UV/Vis absorption spectra. The GQD inserted SM-BHJ film at the optimized concentration exhibits decreased charge transport resistance significantly by impedance measurements with effective charge extraction in the device which contributes to 15% enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE). PMID:25373477

  14. Microbial effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lamborg, M.R.; Hardy, R.W.F.; Paul, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The postulated doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ is not likely to have direct effect on soil microbial activity because during the growing season, the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the soil atmosphere is already ten to fifty times higher than existing atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Based on all available experimental information, it is estimated that a doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ will cause an increase in primary productivity of 10 to 40% depending on locale. The increase in biomass will, in turn, produce a limitation of available soil nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Increased organic carbon together with nitrogen and/or phosphorus limitation will result in a preferential increase in nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizal activities as the expedient means for supplying required nutrients to sustain the predicted increase in primary productivity. Therefore, increased emphasis should be placed on fundamental research related to soil microbiology with special reference to nitrogen-fixing, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, and to the mycorrhizal fungi. 111 references, 2 figures.

  15. Tachykinin receptors mediate atropine-resistant rat duodenal reflex contractions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, S; Tramontana, M; Lecci, A; Maggi, C A

    1996-01-01

    The study aimed to establish the possible role of tachykinins as mediators of atropine-resistant reflex contractions evoked by balloon distension in the proximal duodenum of urethane-anesthetized, guanethidine (34 mumol/kg s.c.)-pretreated rats. Distension of the balloon with a small amount (0.2-0.3 ml) of saline induced the appearance of phasic rhythmic contractions (about 11 mmHg in amplitude) which were promptly suppressed by either atropine (3 mumol/kg i.v.) or hexamethonium (28 mumol/kg i.v.). Despite the continuous i.v. infusion of atropine (2 mumol/h), low-amplitude rhythmic phasic contractions recovered, which were promptly suppressed by hexamethonium, to indicate the involvement of an atropine-resistant excitatory reflex. The amplitude of these atropine-resistant contractions was increased to about 4-5 mmHg by further distension of the balloon (0.4-0.6 ml) : under these conditions, the atropine-resistant contractions undergo a progressive fading. The fading was prevented by i.v. administration of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 55 mumol/h), to provide a suitable baseline (amplitude of contractions was 7-8 mmHg) for studying the effect of tachykinin receptor antagonists. I.v. administration of the selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists, MEN 10,627 (10-100 nmol/kg) and SR 48968 (100-300 nmol/kg) or of the selective NK1 antagonist SR 140333 (100 nmol/kg), at doses which do not affect the duodenal contractions induced by acetylcholine (5.5 mumol/kg i.v.), produced a prompt and long lasting suppression of the atropine-resistant reflex duodenal contractions produced by balloon distension in urethane-anesthetized rats, whilst SR-48965 (300 nmol/kg), the enantiomer of SR-48968 devoid, of NK2 receptor blocking activity, was without effect. I.v. administration of the selective NK1 receptor agonists [Sar9] substance P sulfone and septide or of the NK2 receptor selective agonist, [beta Ala8] neurokinin A(4-10) produced dose-dependent contractions of the duodenum. SR 140333 (100 nmol/kg i.v.) selectively antagonized the duodenal contractions produced by [Sar9] substance P sulfone and septide without affecting those produced by [beta Ala8] neurokinin A(4-10). On the other hand, MEN 10,627 (30-100 nmol/kg i.v.) and SR 48968 (100-300 nmol/kg i.v.) but not SR 48965 (300 nmol/kg i.v.) antagonized, at a comparable extent, duodenal contractions induced by both the selective NK2 and NK1 receptor agonists. We conclude that endogenous tachykinins are involved in mediating atropine-resistant reflex contractions evoked by distension of the rat duodenum in vivo: both NK1 and NK2 receptors are activated by endogenous ligands to produce NANC contractions of rat duodenum in vivo. However, the contractile response to i.v. administered NK1 receptor agonists, [Sar9] substance P sulfone and septide, may involve the release of mediators producing smooth muscle contraction via NK2 receptors. PMID:8878063

  16. Efficient solution-processed small-molecule solar cells by insertion of graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jung Kyu; Jin Kim, Sang; Hee Hong, Byung; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated the results of several positive effects that arise from the addition of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to solution-processed small molecule bulk-heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cells fabricated from a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl-ester (PC71BM). The device with an optimized ratio of GQDs exhibits increased current density and fill factor owing to 10% improved external quantum efficiency (EQE) and induction of a favorable SM-BHJ morphology. Additionally, the multiple scattering of the GQDs in the SM-BHJ leads to longer optical pathlengths according to the analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra and UV/Vis absorption spectra. The GQD inserted SM-BHJ film at the optimized concentration exhibits decreased charge transport resistance significantly by impedance measurements with effective charge extraction in the device which contributes to 15% enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE).In this work, we have demonstrated the results of several positive effects that arise from the addition of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to solution-processed small molecule bulk-heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cells fabricated from a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl-ester (PC71BM). The device with an optimized ratio of GQDs exhibits increased current density and fill factor owing to 10% improved external quantum efficiency (EQE) and induction of a favorable SM-BHJ morphology. Additionally, the multiple scattering of the GQDs in the SM-BHJ leads to longer optical pathlengths according to the analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra and UV/Vis absorption spectra. The GQD inserted SM-BHJ film at the optimized concentration exhibits decreased charge transport resistance significantly by impedance measurements with effective charge extraction in the device which contributes to 15% enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04944f

  17. Feedback Effects 1 Running Head: FEEDBACK EFFECTS

    E-print Network

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Feedback Effects 1 Running Head: FEEDBACK EFFECTS Feedback and Stimulus-Offset Timing Effects We examined how feedback delay and stimulus offset timing affected declarative, rule-based and procedural, information-integration category-learning. We predicted that small feedback delays of several

  18. Ecological Effects in Malaria Vaccine Effectiveness in

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Martin

    Ecological Effects in Malaria Vaccine Effectiveness in Lilongwe, Malawi Cameron Taylor B component to a GlaxoSmithKline phase III trial vaccine trial so that researchers can better understand distribution and the ecological effects of both malaria transmission intensity and vaccine efficacy

  19. Adequacy for Algebraic Effects 

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Gordon; Power, John

    2002-01-01

    Moggi proposed a monadic account of computational effects. He also presented the computational lamda-calculus, c, a core call-by-value functional programming language for effects; the effects are obtained by adding ...

  20. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Bridge 4 Life Clinical Trials Guides Newsletters Nutrition & Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction ...

  1. Sokolov Effect Conclusions

    E-print Network

    Budker, Dmitry

    Dysprosium Nathan Leefer #12;Background Sokolov Effect Conclusions Outline 1 Background Neutral Hydrogen Stark Effect Hydrogen Atom Interferometer 2 Sokolov Effect Pamir Broken Theories Summary Dysprosium 3 Sokolov Effect Conclusions Pamir Broken Theories Summary Dysprosium Measurement of Lamb Shift Pamir Nathan

  2. On Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

  3. Improving School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John, Ed.; Mortimore, Peter, Ed.

    School effectiveness is an issue that has preoccupied researchers and policymakers for 3 decades. To study how ineffective schools become effective and what constitutes an effective school, the Improving School Effectiveness Project was carried out in Scotland from 1995 to 1997. This project forms the basis of discussion in this book, which has 11…

  4. AHSGE Cause and Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Ufomadu

    2013-06-13

    Cause and Effect practice to build skill knowledge for the reading portion of the graduation exam. Complete the Cause and Effect activities at your pace . Cause and Effect Match , Cause and Effect Mini Lesson and Game , What s the Cause?? Quiz . ...

  5. Chelation of 238Pu(IV) in vivo by 3,4,3-LICAM(C): effects of ligand methylation and pH.

    PubMed

    Durbin, P W; White, D L; Jeung, N L; Weitl, F L; Uhlir, L C; Jones, E S; Bruenger, F W; Raymond, K N

    1989-06-01

    The linear tetracarboxycatecholate ligand, 3,4,3-LICAM(C) (N1,N5,N10,N14-tetrakis(2,3-dihydroxy-4-carboxybenzoyl-tetraaza tet radecane, tetra sodium salt) injected within 1 h after injection of Pu(IV) citrate, removes about the same fraction of Pu from animals as CaNa3-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, calcium, sodium salt) but removes less inhaled Pu than CaNa3-DTPA and leaves a Pu residue in the renal cortex. However, the formation constant of the expected Pu-3,4,3-LICAM(C) complexes are orders of magnitude greater than that of Pu-DTPA, and 3,4,3-LICAM(C) is 100 times more efficient than CaNa3-DTPA for removing Pu from transferrin in vitro. Because the formation constants of their actinide complexes are central to in vivo actinide chelation, ligand design strategies are dominated by the search for ligands with large Pu complex stabilities, and it was necessary to explain the failure of 3,4,3-LICAM(C) to achieve its thermodynamic potential in vivo. All the batches of 3,4,3-LICAM(C) prepared at Berkeley or in France [Euro-LICAM(C)] were found by high-pressure liquid chromatography to be mixtures of the pure ligand [55% in Berkeley preparations, 8.5% in Euro-LICAM(C)] and its four methylesters. A revised synthesis for 3,4,3-LICAM(C) is appended to this report. All of the incompletely hydrolyzed 3,4,3-LICAM(C) preparations and the pure ligand were tested for removal of Pu from mice [238Pu(IV) citrate intravenous, 30 mumol kg-1 of ligand at 1 h, kill at 24 h, radioanalyze tissues and separated excretal]. The presence of methylesters did not significantly impair the ability of the ligands to remove Pu from mice, and it did not alter the fraction of injected Pu deposited in kidneys. Temporary elevation (reduction) of plasma and urine pH of mice by 0.5 mL of 0.1 M NaHCO3 (NH4Cl) injected before or simultaneously with pure 3,4,3-LICAM(C) somewhat improved (significantly reduced) Pu excretion but had little influence on Pu deposition in kidneys. Review of the investigations of Pu removal from animals by 3,4,3-LICAM(C) revealed that the fractional renal Pu deposit was characteristic of the species and that it could be reduced by vigorous alkalinization which indicated the need to examine the details of the pH dependence of Pu complexation by 3,4,3-LICAM(C).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2722507

  6. Gravitational Casimir effect

    E-print Network

    James Q. Quach

    2015-02-26

    We derive the gravitonic Casimir effect with non-idealised boundary conditions. This allows the quantification of the gravitonic contribution to the Casimir effect from real bodies. We quantify the meagreness of the gravitonic Casimir effect in ordinary matter. We also quantify the enhanced effect produced by the speculated Heisenberg-Couloumb (H-C) effect in superconductors, thereby providing a test for the validity of the H-C theory, and consequently the existence of gravitons.

  7. On effect size.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2012-06-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension, measure/index, and value), outline 10 corollaries that follow from our definition, and review ideal qualities of effect sizes. Our definition of effect size is general and subsumes many existing definitions of effect size. We define effect size as a quantitative reflection of the magnitude of some phenomenon that is used for the purpose of addressing a question of interest. Our definition of effect size is purposely more inclusive than the way many have defined and conceptualized effect size, and it is unique with regard to linking effect size to a question of interest. Additionally, we review some important developments in the effect size literature and discuss the importance of accompanying an effect size with an interval estimate that acknowledges the uncertainty with which the population value of the effect size has been estimated. We hope that this article will facilitate discussion and improve the practice of reporting and interpreting effect sizes. PMID:22545595

  8. [Placebo and placebo effect].

    PubMed

    Aulas, J-J

    2005-11-01

    The word placebo appeared for the first time in an English medical dictionary in 1785. In French, it appeared much latter in 1958. This word defines an experimental tool used for rigourous evaluation of a specific effect of pharmacological treatment and the non specific effect of any therapy. The placebo effect is the strictly psychological or psychophysiological effect of a placebo. The two principal components of placebo effect as a pain killer, which has been extensively studied in this field, are positive expectancies of both the patient and the physician. Although the mechanisms of action of placebo effect are not well understood, results of several recent works are particularly interesting. PMID:16292233

  9. Kite Pseudo Effect Algebras

    E-print Network

    Anatolij Dvure?enskij

    2013-06-03

    We define a new class of pseudo effect algebras, called kite pseudo effect algebras, which is connected with partially ordered groups not necessarily with strong unit. In such a case, starting even with an Abelian po-group, we can obtain a noncommutative pseudo effect algebra. We show how such kite pseudo effect algebras are tied with different types of the Riesz Decomposition Properties. Kites are so-called perfect pseudo effect algebras, and we define conditions when kite pseudo effect algebras have the least non-trivial normal ideal.

  10. 40 CFR 180.408 - Metalaxyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...methylester, each expressed as metalaxyl, in or on the following raw agricultural commodity: Commodity Parts per million Papaya 0.1 (d) Indirect or inadvertent tolerances. Tolerances are established for indirect or inadvertent...

  11. 40 CFR 180.408 - Metalaxyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...methylester, each expressed as metalaxyl, in or on the following raw agricultural commodity: Commodity Parts per million Papaya 0.1 (d) Indirect or inadvertent tolerances. Tolerances are established for indirect or inadvertent...

  12. 40 CFR 180.408 - Metalaxyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...methylester, each expressed as metalaxyl, in or on the following raw agricultural commodity: Commodity Parts per million Papaya 0.1 (d) Indirect or inadvertent tolerances. Tolerances are established for indirect or inadvertent...

  13. 40 CFR 180.408 - Metalaxyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...methylester, each expressed as metalaxyl, in or on the following raw agricultural commodity: Commodity Parts per million Papaya 0.1 (d) Indirect or inadvertent tolerances. Tolerances are established for indirect or inadvertent...

  14. 40 CFR 180.408 - Metalaxyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...methylester, each expressed as metalaxyl, in or on the following raw agricultural commodity: Commodity Parts per million Papaya 0.1 (d) Indirect or inadvertent tolerances. Tolerances are established for indirect or inadvertent...

  15. Effective 4-H Meetings 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    As a 4-H volunteer, you will have different functions. An especially important task is to prepare interesting and effective meetings where youth can obtain the greatest educational benefit while having fun. This publication outlines effective...

  16. Effective 4-H Meetings

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    As a 4-H volunteer, you will have different functions. An especially important task is to prepare interesting and effective meetings where youth can obtain the greatest educational benefit while having fun. This publication outlines effective...

  17. Effective College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraway, James E.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses other writings on effective college teaching and then presents his list of necessary characteristics for the effective teacher, stressing the interpersonal dimension of the teaching-learning situation. (MF)

  18. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified the effectiveness of Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the e...

  19. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  20. December 2006 MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE

    E-print Network

    December 2006 MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SECURITY THROUGH TEST, TRAINING, AND EXERCISE PROGRAMS MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SECURITY THROUGH TEST, TRAINING, AND EXERCISE PROGRAMS Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security DivisionComputer Security

  1. Unusual effect colourants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Summaries  An unusual effect colourant is one that exhibits a colour change or some other unusual effect outside the traditional colour-imparting\\u000a properties of a colourant. Il also includes novel ways of producing colour.\\u000a \\u000a Many such effects are known and commercialised. For example, holograms and optically-variable pigments, which utilise the\\u000a interference of visible light, and the electrostatic and photoconductive effects used in

  2. Hamiltonians of strain effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2001-12-01

    Hamiltonians that generally describe the effects of strain are proposed. The strain effects can be calculated easily from the unstrained potential using these Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are valid when the strain is spatially modulated, and are also valid when the strain exists in a magnetic field. These Hamiltonians can also be used in the improved effective mass approximation.

  3. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  4. Allee effects in ants.

    PubMed

    Luque, Gloria M; Giraud, Tatiana; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-09-01

    1. Allee effects occur when the aggregation of individuals result in mutually beneficial intraspecific interactions whereby individual fitness, or per capita growth rate, increases with the number of individuals. Allee effects are common in social species due to their cooperative behaviours, such as breeding, feeding or defence. Allee effects have important implications for many aspects of basic and applied ecology. Over the past decades, the study of Allee effects has influenced population dynamics, community ecology, endangered species management and invasion biology. 2. Despite the fact that cooperation is the basis of their social structure, Allee effects have received little attention among eusocial insects. Extreme cooperation is common, and reproductive specialization of individuals occurs due to division of labour. These life-history traits suggest that the potential contribution of each caste to reproduction and survival may be differential and nonadditive. 3. We studied Allee effects in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In this species, many queens and workers are present in colonies, which allowed us to explore the differential effects of castes on the presence of Allee effects. In the laboratory, we measured brood production and individual survival in experimental colonies that differed in the initial numbers of queens and workers.4. Our results highlight the differential effect of queens and workers on survival and productivity. We found three positive density-dependent relationships indicative of component Allee effects at the colony level: both workers and queens had a positive effect on the productivity of the other caste, and queens had a positive effect on worker survivorship. 5. Our experimental results suggest a potential positive feedback between worker and queen abundance, which may have contributed to the evolution of large colony sizes. Our study provides the first evidence of Allee effects in eusocial insects and highlights the need to consider castes separately in population dynamics. Division of labour and differential reproductive rates are factors that should be integrated into the study of Allee effects. PMID:23672650

  5. The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kevin J

    2009-07-01

    The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

  6. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  7. Drivers for Control Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Pfister

    \\u000a Internal control, as introduced in Sect. 2.1, represents the means to achieve organizational objectives. More specifically,\\u000a if internal control is effective, it provides reasonable assurance for the achievement of effective and efficient operations,\\u000a for reliable internal and external reporting, and for compliance with laws, regulations, and internal policies.1 Also, it has been clarified that in order to achieve control effectiveness,

  8. Effective Strategies Brief

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Russell Gersten

    2007-01-01

    In this research brief the authors detail effective teaching strategies for teaching students with difficulties in math. The brief summarizes the work of over fifty research studies and details the practices that were seen as consistently effective across many of them. The brief details six instructional strategies and presents data describing the effectiveness of each on special education students and low-achieving students. The brief can be viewed on the webpage or downloaded as a PDF.

  9. Atomic lighthouse effect.

    PubMed

    Máximo, C E; Kaiser, R; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease in magnetic field efficiency. PMID:25401364

  10. Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Kuo-Chun

    2010-01-14

    The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0...

  11. Effective Internships for Effective New Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey

    One challenge faced by any educational leadership program is how to develop effective entry-level school administrators. Many administrative interns receive no real administrative practice at all through their internship, and yet upon completion of the internship, they are expected to be competent administrators. The internship at Sam Houston…

  12. Volcanic effects on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

  13. Defining Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  14. Relativistic effects in chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Yatsimirskii

    1995-01-01

    Relativistic effects become apparent when the velocity of the electron is arbitrarily close to the speed of light (137 au) without actually attaining it (in heavy atoms of elements at the end of Mendeleev's Periodic Table). At the orbital level, the relativistic effect is apparent in the radial contraction of penetrating s and p shells, expansion of nonpenetrating d and

  15. Hall Effect in Ferromagnetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Karplus; J. M. Luttinger

    1954-01-01

    Both the unusually large magnitude and strong temperature dependence of the extraordinary Hall effect in ferromagnetic materials can be understood as effects of the spin-orbit interaction of polarized conduction electrons. It is shown that the interband matrix elements of the applied electric potential energy combine with the spin-orbit perturbation to give a current perpendicular to both the field and the

  16. Named Rules and Effects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Reich, Hans J.

    Hans Reich, professor of organic chemistry at the University of Wisconsin Madison, created this online handout on named rules and effects in organic chemistry. Concise descriptions and structures of a number of named effects, rules, stereochemical models and hypothesesâ??from Baldwinâ??s rules to the Zimmermanâ??Traxler transition stateâ??are given.

  17. The Chelate Effect Redefined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, J. J. R. Frausto

    1983-01-01

    Discusses ambiguities of the accepted definition of the chelate effect, suggesting that it be defined in terms of experimental observation rather than mathematical abstraction. Indicates that the effect depends on free energy change in reaction, ligand basicity, pH of medium, type of chelates formed, and concentration of ligands in solution. (JN)

  18. [Providing Effective Behavior Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAIL: Technical Assistance Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue addresses the provision of behavioral support for students with behavior disorders. The first article, "Providing Effective Behavior Support to All Students: Procedures and Processes" (George Sugai), summarizes the literature on the effectiveness of various interventions and offers several models for examining the teaching of…

  19. The aid effectiveness literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hristos Doucouliagos; Supmartin Paldam

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by ,\\/3 ofthe aid – the rest is crowded out by a fall

  20. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  1. Resumming the Effective Action

    E-print Network

    A. Leonidov; A. Zelnikov

    1993-10-06

    At the simple example of a massless scalar field propagating in the static background we study the resummed expressions for the effective action at zero and finite temperature that are free from a usual sickness of the effective action induced by massless particles.

  2. Differential school effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DESMOND L. NUTTALL; HARVEY GOLDSTEIN; ROBERT PROSSERT

    1989-01-01

    Studies of school effectiveness are briefly reviewed. pointing to the need to study effectiveness for sub-groups within each school as well as overall. The results of a multilevel analysis of a large dataset covering the years 1985. 1986 and 1987 and using examination performance as the outcome measure are presented, revealing substantial differences between ethnic groups. The findings also show

  3. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Earthquake Effects and Experiences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

  5. Effects of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    Listen to this page Effects of Drug Abuse Drug abuse hurts the people who take drugs AND the people around them, including families , kids , and ... HIV/AIDS Click here to learn more about effects of specific drugs . VIDEO: Why Are Drugs So ...

  6. Cardiovascular Effects Of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1992-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum presents study of effects of weightlessness and simulations upon cardiovascular systems of humans and animals. Reviews research up to year 1987 in United States and Soviet space programs on such topics as physiological changes induced by weightlessness in outer space and by subsequent return to Earth gravity and also reviews deconditioning effects of prolonged bed rest on ground.

  7. Carbon star effective temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Ridgway; G. H. Jacoby; R. R. Joyce; D. C. Wells

    1981-01-01

    Possible methods for measuring the effective temperatures of individual carbon stars are discussed. Since calibrations of broad or narrow-band photometric colors is impractical at present, empirical corrections to narrow band color temperatures is the only valid procedure. The effective temperature of the star TW Oph is estimated, based on preliminary reduction of the occultation and associated photometry

  8. Highly effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, John H.

    2014-01-01

    It is conjectured that the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in an AdS 5 × S 5 background of type IIB superstring theory, with one unit of flux, can be reinterpreted as the exact effective action (or highly effective action) for U(2) = 4 super Yang-Mills theory on the Coulomb branch. An analogous conjecture for U(2) k × U(2)- k ABJM theory is also presented. The main evidence supporting these conjectures is that the brane actions have all of the expected symmetries and dualities. Highly effective actions have general coordinate invariance, even though they describe nongravitational theories.

  9. Measuring Study Effectiveness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page was authored by the CATALST Group at the University of Minnesota, based on an original activity by Richard Lesh at Purdue University.

    This model-eliciting activity challenges students to operationally define a construct (study effectiveness). Students are given a survey to review that rates different aspects of study behaviors. They are then given a set of data for a few students and asked to use their scores to determine an index of study effectiveness. After determining a method, they are then asked to use this index to put five students in rank order according to their scores on study effectiveness. Students write a report explaining the method they used to determine these scores and how they produced their ratings.

  10. The Manhattan Effect 1 Running Head: THE MANHATTAN EFFECT

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    The Manhattan Effect 1 Running Head: THE MANHATTAN EFFECT The Manhattan Effect: When Relationship Wilhelm Hofmann University of Cologne Date: November 20, 2013 #12;The Manhattan Effect 2 Abstract Research in such situations is termed the Manhattan effect. These findings suggest that the partner

  11. Relative Effect Declarations for Lightweight Effect-Polymorphism

    E-print Network

    Diggavi, Suhas

    by the effect annotation e, the effect of a polymorphic function consists of two parts: the concrete effect e might have the topmost effect . However, in the concrete invocation expression f ((x: A) x), we see effects is closely related to the work on anchored ex- ceptions [2]. We break up their connection between

  12. Creating effective character animation 

    E-print Network

    Gerwig, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Several stages are involved in the creation of an graphics. effective, three-dimensional character animation. Before starting any work at the computer, the animator should consider what his characters will look like and how they will move, as well...

  13. Strategies for Effective Outsourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moneta, Larry; Dillon, William L.

    2001-01-01

    Emphasizes strategies that can be employed for effective outsourcing in higher education settings. Several models of outsourcing are identified and described, and examples of institutions using each model are provided. (GCP)

  14. Chesapeake Bay Impact Effects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Abolins

    This PowerPoint show depicts the effects (blast, heat, etc.) of the Chesapeake Bay impact. To emphasize the human consequences of asteroid and comet impacts, the slides show what would happen to East Coast communities if an identical object hit the same place today. (The impact actually happened roughly 35 million years ago.) Impact effects were estimated with the Earth Impact Effects Program (www.lpl.arizona.edu/impacteffects/). Effects shown on these slides are at best very approximate, and, consequently, these slides should only be used to stimulate discussions about impact hazards. Satellite images were obtained through the NASA Earth Observing System Higher Education Alliance (GeoBrain) which provided funding for this work. Graphics were created with the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) family of geographic information system (GIS) products.

  15. Effectiveness Safety Committee

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Increase the Effectiveness of Your Safety Committee Lisa Tobiason An equal opportunity educator 302 Acres. ­ East Campus 338 Acres. #12;UNL Safety Committees · Chancellors University Safety Committee (CUSC). · Unit Safety Committees. ­ Thirty-two active committees representing Lincoln campuses

  16. PROCUREMENT ~ Effective and efficient

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    PROCUREMENT SERVICES ~ Effective and efficient procurement of quality products and services at the best value from reputable vendors ~ Disbursements Division ~ Committed to providing quality financial, advisory, and administrative support to the University and supplier communities ~ Welcome to your directory

  17. Identifying Effective School Principals

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

    2007-01-01

    that teacher retention is also associated with principal effectiveness. Dissatisfaction with administrative support is frequently highly ranked as one of the reasons teachers leave a school (Graziano 2005; Ingersoll 2001; Darling-Hammond 1997). Results...

  18. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePLUS

    Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad-Martin, Jennifer Lister, Candice Ortiz, and ... in our Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in ...

  19. Cytogenetic effects of cyclamates

    SciTech Connect

    Jemison, E.W.; Brown, K.; Rivers, B.; Knight, R.

    1984-01-01

    PHA-stimulated human peripheral lymphocytes were used as a model system for assessing the in vitro effects of calcium cyclamate. Techniques of autoradiography, cytological staining, cell counting, liquid scintillation and karyotyping were used to study the cytogenetic damage and biochemical effects of calcium cyclamate when assayed in 24 hour intervals for 96 hours. The cells were exposed to 10(-2) and 10(-3) molar concentrations of calcium cyclamate in TC 199 medium with fetal calf serum and antibiotics. It was noted that the addition of cyclamate increased mitotic rate of lymphocyte cells in cultures. It was determined that calcium cyclamate impaired the synthesis of deoxribonunucleic acid (as depicted by decreased incorporation of tritiated thymidine), reduced grain counts in autoradiographs and increased chromosome aberrations in cyclamate treated PHA stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Morphological changes and growth rates showed significant effects. These studies indicate that calcium cyclamate has variable significant effects on leucocytes growth and chromosome morphology.

  20. Matthew: Effect or Fable?

    E-print Network

    Azoulay, Pierre

    In a market context, a status effect occurs when actors are accorded differential recognition for their efforts depending on their location in a status ordering, holding constant the quality of these efforts. In practice, ...

  1. Placebo Effects in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-07-01

    Research has revealed placebo effects to be genuine biopsychosocial phenomena representing more than simply spontaneous remission or normal symptom fluctuations. How can this understanding be used to benefit patients? PMID:26132938

  2. Brain effects of melanocortins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfio Bertolini; Raffaella Tacchi; Anna Valeria Vergoni

    2009-01-01

    The melanocortins (?, ? and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormones: MSHs; adrenocorticotrophic hormone: ACTH), a family of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides having in common the tetrapeptide sequence His-Phe-Arg-Trp, have progressively revealed an incredibly wide range of extra-hormonal effects, so to become one of the most promising source of innovative drugs for many, important and widespread pathological conditions.The discovery of their effects on some brain

  3. Acid Rain Effects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-06-30

    Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

  4. Effects of periodic discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.

    1977-01-01

    Periodic capacity checks are assessed as well as the effects of periodic discharges on the cycle life and the performance of cells during the cycle life. Topics discussed include the effect of the amount of electrolyte on cell capacity at 35 C; battery design for spacecraft; electrolyte starvation theory; battery separator degradation; negative electrode stability; voltage regulation; operating temperatures; and integration of reconditioning systems using microprocessors.

  5. Photonic flame effect

    E-print Network

    Tcherniega, N V

    2006-01-01

    We observed new effect which we called photonic flame effect (PFE). Several 3-dimensional photonic crystals (artificial opals) were posed on Cu plate at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77K). Typical distance between them was 1-5 centimeters. Long-continued optical luminescence was excited in one of them by the ruby laser pulse. Analogous visible luminescence manifesting time delay appeared in other samples of the crystals. Experiments were realized for opal crystals and for nanocomposites (opals filled with nonlinear liquids).

  6. [Antinociceptive effects of counterirritants].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Y; Deguchi, Y; Saita, M; Noda, K

    1994-12-01

    Counterirritants such as l-menthol, methyl salicylate, camphor, thymol and capsaicin are widely used in the treatment of mild pains and itches by topical application. However, little experimental research on counterirritants has been reported. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive effects and mechanisms of topically applied counterirritants, especially those of l-menthol. From the formalin test in mice, l-menthol (at a concentration of 1-30% in ethanol) showed a major effect in the early phase of pain response (0-5 min). In contrast, the antinociceptive effects of indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) were found only in the late phase of pain response (15-25 min). Furthermore, morphine (0.75-6 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently inhibited both phases. l-Menthol-induced analgesia during the early phase was significantly blocked by naloxone and potentiated by bestatin. The antinociceptive effects of l-menthol were furthermore examined in dexamethasone-treated mice. l-Menthol also produced antinociceptive effects in the hot plate test of mice and hind paw pressure test of rats. l-Menthol showed mild surface and infiltrating anesthetic effects in guinea pigs. l-Menthol did not inhibit both carrageenin-induced paw edema of rats and the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 in vitro. Based on these findings, we proposed that l-menthol produces antinociceptive effects by activation of the endogenous opioid system and/or partially by local anesthetic actions without anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:7851817

  7. Pleiotropic effects of pitavastatin

    PubMed Central

    Davignon, Jean

    2012-01-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are established first line treatments for hypercholesterolaemia. In addition to the direct effects of statins in reducing concentrations of atherogenic low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), several studies have indicated that the beneficial effects of statins may be due to some of their cholesterol-independent, multiple (pleiotropic) effects which may differ between different members of the class. Pitavastatin is a novel synthetic lipophilic statin that has a number of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties distinct from those of other statins, which may underlie its potential pleiotropic benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. This review examines the principal pleiotropic effects of pitavastatin on endothelial function, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and thrombosis. The article is based on a systematic literature search carried out in December 2010, together with more recent relevant publications where appropriate. The available data from clinical trials and in vitro and animal studies suggest that pitavastatin is not only effective in reducing LDL-C and triglycerides, but also has a range of other effects. These include increasing high density lipoprotein cholesterol, decreasing markers of platelet activation, improving cardiac, renal and endothelial function, and reducing endothelial stress, lipoprotein oxidation and, ultimately, improving the signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. It is concluded that the diverse pleiotropic actions of pitavastatin may contribute to reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality beyond that achieved through LDL-C reduction. PMID:22053916

  8. High Burnup Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Effect lines for specifying animation effects Yoshikazu Kato, Etsuya Shibayama

    E-print Network

    Takahashi, Shin

    in comics and cartoons. They depict information on the effects of an object, such as its speed, length animation effects by drawing effect lines. Ef- fect lines are a popular technique that is used in comics

  10. Anomalous Skin Effect Igor Kaganovich

    E-print Network

    Kaganovich, Igor

    Anomalous Skin Effect Revisited Igor Kaganovich Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory #12 to explain "simply" anomalous skin effect without abusing physics. #12;3 Outline Skin effect (Inductively Coupled Plasmas/ Lasers) ­ Normal skin effect ­ Concept of phase-mixing and scale ­ Anomalous skin effect

  11. Effects of acemannan on macrophages 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Linna

    1994-01-01

    , immune stimulation, anticancer, and antiviral effects. It is unclear how acemannan exerts this wide variety of effects. One common cell, however, that appears to link all the biological effects of acemannan is the macrophage. Macrophages play a wide...

  12. Effects of acemannan on macrophages

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Linna

    1994-01-01

    , immune stimulation, anticancer, and antiviral effects. It is unclear how acemannan exerts this wide variety of effects. One common cell, however, that appears to link all the biological effects of acemannan is the macrophage. Macrophages play a wide...

  13. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Assessment Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified stormwater BMP effectiveness as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater ...

  14. The Generation Effect and Memory

    E-print Network

    Rosner, Zachary Alexander

    2012-01-01

    generation effect: Further tests of the lexical activation hypothesis.generation effect: Some tests of the lexical activation hypothesis.generation effect for item memory was the cognitive effort hypothesis (

  15. Paramagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Pearson, John E.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2015-05-01

    We report the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, we generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. Using this technique at low temperatures (<20 K ), we resolve the paramagnetic spin Seebeck effect in the insulating paramagnets Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and DyScO3 (DSO), using either W or Pt as the spin detector layer. By taking advantage of the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of DSO, we eliminate contributions from the Nernst effect in W or Pt, which produces a phenomenologically similar signal.

  16. Rf radiation: biological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, E.J.

    1980-12-01

    The controversy surrounding the biological effects and health hazards of radio-frequency (RF) radiation (below the infrared frequency of 300 gHz) is examined. The average person is exposed to only extremely low levels of RF radiation. However, a substantial fraction of the population receives higher than average exposures because of increased use of microwave ovens and citizens band radios. Possible effects of exposure to RF radiation on brain function are investigated. Results of limited studies of long-term low-level effects are presented. The question of legal liability concerning exposure of the general public to RF radiation generated by microwave ovens and FM antennas is explored. (4 diagrams, 4 graphs, 1 table)

  17. Paramagnetic spin seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Stephen M; Pearson, John E; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2015-05-01

    We report the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, we generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. Using this technique at low temperatures (<20??K), we resolve the paramagnetic spin Seebeck effect in the insulating paramagnets Gd_{3}Ga_{5}O_{12} (gadolinium gallium garnet) and DyScO_{3} (DSO), using either W or Pt as the spin detector layer. By taking advantage of the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of DSO, we eliminate contributions from the Nernst effect in W or Pt, which produces a phenomenologically similar signal. PMID:26001014

  18. Spin Hall effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Jörg; Park, Byong-Guk; Irvine, Andrew C; Zârbo, Liviu P; Rozkotová, Eva; Nemec, Petr; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomás

    2010-12-24

    The field of semiconductor spintronics explores spin-related quantum relativistic phenomena in solid-state systems. Spin transistors and spin Hall effects have been two separate leading directions of research in this field. We have combined the two directions by realizing an all-semiconductor spin Hall effect transistor. The device uses diffusive transport and operates without electrical current in the active part of the transistor. We demonstrate a spin AND logic function in a semiconductor channel with two gates. Our study shows the utility of the spin Hall effect in a microelectronic device geometry, realizes the spin transistor with electrical detection directly along the gated semiconductor channel, and provides an experimental tool for exploring spin Hall and spin precession phenomena in an electrically tunable semiconductor layer. PMID:21205664

  19. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  20. Effective Documentation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleboda, Claire

    1997-01-01

    Quality assurance programs provide a very effective means to monitor and evaluate medical care. Quality assurance involves: (1) Identify a problem; (2) Determine the source and nature of the problem; (3) Develop policies and methods to effect improvement; (4) Implement those polices; (5) Monitor the methods applied; and (6) Evaluate their effectiveness. Because this definition of quality assurance so closely resembles the Nursing Process, the health unit staff was able to use their knowledge of the nursing process to develop many forms which improve the quality of patient care. These forms include the NASA DFRC Service Report, the occupational injury form (Incident Report), the patient survey (Pre-hospital Evaluation/Care Report), the Laboratory Log Sheet, the 911 Run Sheet, and the Patient Assessment Stamp. Examples and steps which are followed to generate these reports are described.

  1. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Bridge 4 Life Clinical Trials Guides Newsletters Nutrition & Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary ...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL RESIDUE EFFECTS DATABASE (ERED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Residue Effects Database", a searchable database of adverse biological effects associated with tissue concentrations of various contaminants....

  3. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  4. Contamination effects study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The in-situ optical surface measurement system is a facility designed to study the deleterious effects of particulate materials on the surface reflectivities of optical materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). This arrangement is designed to simulate the on-orbit effects of contamination and degradation of optical surfaces. This simulation is accomplished through the use of non-coherent VUV sources illuminating optical surfaces located in a high vacuum chamber. Several sources of contamination are employed. The reflectivity is measured both at the specular reflection as well as at two scattered positions, forward and reverse. The system components are described and an operating procedure is given.

  5. Effects and effect inference for a core Java calculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin M. Bierman; Matthew J. Parkinson

    2003-01-01

    An effects system can be used to delimit the scope of computational effects within a program. This information is not only useful for the programmer, but also can be used in the definition of a number of optimizations. Most effects systems have been defined for functional languages with simple state. Greenhouse and Boyland have recently suggested how an effects system

  6. Effective Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parratt, Smitty

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…

  7. Visualization and Effective Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moonen, Jef

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the potential relationship between visualization and effective instruction. Highlights include the use of graphical user interfaces for enhancing visual communication, integrating visual communication into courseware design, theoretical principles of visual communication, empirical research needs, AIME (amount of invested mental effort),…

  8. Repetition Effects in Grasping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Dixon; Scott McAnsh; Lenore Read

    2012-01-01

    The task in the present experiments was to reach out and grasp a novel object that afforded two possible grips. Different versions of the object were created that biased subjects to use one grip or the other. The dependent variable was the repetition effect, the tendency to repeat the grip that was used on the previous trial. In Experiment 1,

  9. Towards Hall effect spintronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gerber

    2007-01-01

    Major efforts in the current exploration of spintronics are focused on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) phenomenon in metallic, semiconducting and tunnel junction magnetic heterostructures. I wish to present a different approach based on the extraordinary Hall effect (EHE). Since its discovery more than a century ago, the EHE was not considered seriously for technological applications because of its relatively small

  10. Modelling tidal effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary White; Tony Mondragon; David Slaughter; Dorothy Coates

    1993-01-01

    Two models for demonstrating tides and experimenting with various tidal effects are presented. The first takes advantage of the approximately inverse-square nature of the force law for magnetic poles and exhibits symmetric tidal bulges on opposite sides of the planet, analogous to the tides of the earth. The second demonstration apparatus is a realization of the ``rubber sheet'' geometry analogy

  11. Biasing Effects of Experimenters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Explains the types of effects, usually unintentional, that psychologists can have upon the results of their research; describes the "Pygmalion Experiment," in which teachers' expectations for children's behavior proved to be self-fulfilling prophecies; and points to research needs in the area of interpersonal expectations. (GT)

  12. The optoacoustic effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Colles; N. R. Geddes; E. Mehdizadeh

    1979-01-01

    The generation of acoustic signals following optical absorption in gases and solids is described. Important parameters in the design of cells and their relationships to detection sensitivity and limiting noise signals are discussed. Examples are given of important applications of the optoacoustic effect in pollution monitoring, the measurement of lifetimes and gas-phase and solid state spectroscopy.

  13. Barriers to effective HRM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Kane; John Crawford; David Grant

    1999-01-01

    In this study, scales were developed to measure the extent to which organisations exhibited “soft” or “hard” approaches to HRM, and the extent to which potential barriers to the effective operation of HRM were present. The sample comprised 549 employees, managers and HRM staff across a wide range of types of organisations in Australia, New Zealand, the USA, the UK

  14. Designing Effective Posters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeff Radel

    This website presents an online tutorial about creating effective poster presentations. The site guides users through the basics of poster design, which should free the presenter to focus on discussion of essential elements of the work. Decisions about poster format and design which contribute to efficient and accurate transfer of information using this medium are also discussed.

  15. Effective Team Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The Student Study Team (SST) is described as a California intervention model that encourages effective multidisciplinary team participation. The development, training, operation, and evaluation of such teams are discussed, and implementation recommendations are offered. The article includes a flow chart of the SST process, a meeting competency…

  16. Teacher Effectiveness: A Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle

    1969-01-01

    This document summarizes the highlights of research on teacher effectiveness and concludes with recommendations based on a synthesis of this past work. The various methodologies that have been used are discussed, from rating scales to objective observation techniques, such as OScAR and the ecological studies. The major problems in teacher…

  17. Cytotoxic Effect of \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi; Mohammad Reza Safari; Fatemeh Zal

    2006-01-01

    Background: Combination of glycation and oxidation is associated with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of glycated proteins in presence of transition metal ions on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat hepatocyte suspension. Methods: Glycated albumin was prepared by incubation of bovine serum albumin with 100 mM glucose in 0.3 M phosphate

  18. Reading Effects of IBM's \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Slavin

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews evaluations of IBM's Writing to Read program in kindergartens and first grades. In Writing to Read (WTR), students rotate through five learning stations to learn and practice phonics, to write stories, and to listen to recorded books. Two of these stations involve computers. Twenty-one studies of Writing to Read in kindergartens found a median effect size of

  19. EFFECTIVE USE OF PHEROMONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective integrated pest management programs are needed for food processing and storage facilities and this requires improvements in our ability to monitor pest populations and use this information to target management tactics in both time and space. The use of pheromone traps to detect pests is i...

  20. Climatic Effects of Urbanization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Barzyk; J. E. Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas around the world have been increasing in size and population density in recent decades. The United Nations reports that in 1900, urbanites comprised 14% of the world's population. This value has increased to 47% in the year 2000, and is expected to grow to 60% by 2030. The goal of this study is to isolate the effects of

  1. Defining the rebound effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. G. Berkhout; Jos C. Muskens; Jan W. Velthuijsen

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives rigorous definitions of the rebound effect, not only in the well described single commodity case (Khazzoom, 1980. The Energy Journal 1(4), 21–40.), but also for a multiple commodity case. It is shown that the familiar laws for the single case do not hold for the multiple case. The paper describes the state of the art of empirical

  2. FIELD DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's OHMSETT facility has developed a rapid field test that includes some of the theoretical aspects and conditions of dispersion at sea. This Field Dispersant Effectiveness Test (FDET) has been used to evaluate the dispersibility of various commonly-transported oils and mak...

  3. Paper field effect transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fortunato; Nuno Correia; Pedro Barquinha; Cláudia Costa; Luís Pereira; Gonçalo Gonçalves; Rodrigo Martins

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the use of a sheet of cellulose fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide based semiconductor thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach we are using the cellulose fiber-based paper in an \\

  4. Developing Effective Tourism Leadership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Weber; Adele Ladkin

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the development of effective leadership in the tourism industry from the perspective of current industry leaders in Hong Kong, China. The literature reviews the key themes in tourism leadership research, which is followed by an empirical qualitative study of 10 leaders in the tourism industry in Hong Kong. Findings are explored in relation to three key areas:

  5. The nonlinear Fano effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kroner; A. O. Govorov; S. Remi; B. Biedermann; S. Seidl; A. Badolato; P. M. Petroff; W. Zhang; R. Barbour; B. D. Gerardot; R. J. Warburton; K. Karrai

    2008-01-01

    The Fano effect is ubiquitous in the spectroscopy of, for instance, atoms, bulk solids and semiconductor heterostructures. It arises when quantum interference takes place between two competing optical pathways, one connecting the energy ground state and an excited discrete state, the other connecting the ground state with a continuum of energy states. The nature of the interference changes rapidly as

  6. Effects of Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides links to information on the potential damage caused to the environment by acid rain. An introductory paragraph briefly describes the damage to lakes and streams, building materials, and monuments. Each link access additional information on these topics: surface waters and aquatic animals, forests, automotive coatings, soluble building materials such as marble or limestone, atmospheric haze, and human health effects.

  7. MOSSBAUER EFFECT IN FERROCYANIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Ruby; L. M. Epstein; K. H. Sun

    1960-01-01

    Because ferrooyanide has no magnetic moment, it was investigated as an ; absorber in studies of the Mossbaner effect with Fe⁵⁷ as source. The ; source was soft iron plated with Co⁵⁷ and annealed; the 14.4-kev gamma ray ; from the vibrated source was passed through a sodium ferrocyanide absorber at 80 ; and 300 deg K and then analyzed.

  8. Rainfall Effects Acknowledgements

    E-print Network

    Reduced AirflowInfiltration front Displaced vapor plume Dissolved plume as source Stable, open atmosphere Effects The intrusion of contaminated vapor originating from groundwater plumes and source zones this knowledge gap, an experimental and modeling study was initiated at the Colorado School of Mines to determine

  9. Improving Glove Barrier Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Rabussay; Denise M. Korniewicz

    1997-01-01

    Perioperative staff members depend on surgical gloves to prevent disease transmission between themselves and patients, but these gloves frequently fail during use. Three approaches can make surgical gloves more effective barriers: preventing glove failures, monitoring glove integrity, and improving glove quality. Failure prevention includes modifying surgical techniques, improving instruments and equipment, streamlining teamwork, selecting the most appropriate gloves, double gloving,

  10. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  11. The Lake Wobegon Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary W.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, a survey report by J. Cannell was published criticizing state reports based on national standardized testing of elementary school students that indicated that all 50 states were above the national average. This phenomenon--known as the "Lake Wobegon Effect"--is analyzed. Technical problems with the study are considered. (TJH)

  12. Documentation: Effective AND Literate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Burdett Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

  13. Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Michael Cross, Cal Tech

    The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

  14. Cost Effective Buying

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan will help students learn to evaluate energy-related purchases in terms of cost-effectiveness. How long will it take for the new purchase to "pay for itself" in terms of energy savings? The lesson involves both sustainability and economics concepts. The lesson should take two or three class periods to complete.

  15. Cost Effective Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1996-01-01

    This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

  16. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  17. Medications and Side Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EFFECT 5 = EXTREMELY)SUGGESTIONS FOR COPING Lack of energy/ I Change time of day medication fatigue/ sleepiness is taken. I Exercise. I Change diet. Dry mouth I Drink water. I Take care of teeth and mouth. Weight gain I Eat low fat foods. I Reduce food portions. I Avoid junk food. ...

  18. Reporting Research Results Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

  19. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MANGANESE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effects of manganese were studied in a town on the coast of Dalmatia in which a ferromanganese plant has been operating since before World War II. The study focused on the question of whether the exposure to manganese can cause a higher incidence of respiratory dis...

  20. Environmental Effects on Advanced Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.; Henager, C. H.; Trzaskoma, Patricia P.; Stoloff, N. S.; Moffat, T. P.; Lichter, B. D.

    1988-12-01

    This in-depth overview examines a number of key considerations relating to environmental effects on today's advanced materials. While certainly not inclusive of all environmental issues, the article does investigate high-temperature corrosion and crack growth in ceramics and ceramic composites, hydrogen effects on ceramics, hydrogen effects on fracture of intermetallics, and corrosion and hydroen effects in amorphous or glassy metals.

  1. Verbal response-effect compatibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iring Koch; Wilfried Kunde

    2002-01-01

    Ideomotor theory states that motor responses are activated by an anticipation of their sensory effects. We assumed that anticipated\\u000a effects would produce response-effect (R-E) compatibility when there is dimensional overlap of effects and responses. In a\\u000a four-choice task, visual digit stimuli called for verbal responses (color names). Each response produced a written response-effect\\u000a on the screen. In different groups, the

  2. Limited list: limited effects?

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J; Bond, C M

    1985-08-24

    During the first month after the limited National Health Service drug list came into effect 17 cooperative general practitioners recorded the actions taken when a now prohibited drug would formerly have been prescribed. An average of 6% of direct surgery contacts with patients and 8% of indirect contacts with patients were affected by the new regulations, but in 2% and 4% of cases respectively the patient received the same pharmacological substance under a different (generic or approved) name. Where a real change in pharmacological constitution or formulation had been required four fifths of these substitutes were considered by the doctors to result in less effective treatment. In 1% of contacts no drug was issued or recommended where one would formerly have been given. PMID:3928035

  3. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  4. Fatigue and Barkhausen effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Wei

    Piezomagnetism designates a change in the magnetization of materials induced by mechanical actions such as tension or compression. The type of Barkhausen effect that occurs in this work consists of sudden, discontinuous jumps in a material's magnetization that appear in response to smooth (continuous) stress variations. A series of strain controlled fatigue tests with an alternating sinusoidal waveform were carried out to study the relationship between the endurance limit and the Barkhausen effect. Results of fatigue tests on steel specimens exhibiting Barkhausen pulses at various stages are reported and a threshold-crossing analysis is applied to the test results. These studies show that when the fatigue limit is approached, the Barkhausen pulses become, in general, more intense in amplitude and quantity than at other stress levels. A hypothetical mechanism is proposed that relates the intensity of the Barkhausen response to the inception of micro-cracking and rearrangements of the mechanical lattice at the microscopic level.

  5. Cardiac effects of thyronamines.

    PubMed

    Zucchi, Riccardo; Ghelardoni, Sandra; Chiellini, Grazia

    2010-03-01

    3-Iodothyronamine (T(1)AM) is an endogenous compound derived from thyroid hormone through decarboxylation and deiodination, which interacts with a novel G protein-coupled receptor, known as trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 and other receptors of this family are expressed in several tissues, including the heart. Functional effects have been observed after administration of exogenous T(1)AM: in the isolated heart, a negative inotropic and chronotropic action was produced, and the resistance to ischemic injury was increased, possibly as a consequence of an action on intracellular calcium homeostasis. Extracardiac effects include reduction of body temperature, increased lipid versus carbohydrate metabolism, and modulation of insulin secretion. T(1)AM might play an important physiological or pathophysiological role, and this signaling system might allow the development of new therapeutical agents. PMID:19016324

  6. Electrocardiographic effects of rivastigmine.

    PubMed

    Morganroth, Joel; Graham, Stephen; Hartman, Richard; Anand, Ravi

    2002-05-01

    The electrocardiographic (ECG) effects of rivastigmine treatment were assessed in mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) by analysis of four 26-week, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical trials. Of an initial 2791 patients, 77% completed treatment. Seventy-one percent required at least one concomitant medication for conditions other than AD, with 34% requiring cardiovascular medications. Safety assessments included ECGs, adverse events, vital signs, and clinical laboratory parameters. Pooled 12-lead ECG data were analyzed by an independent cardiologist blinded to treatment group and clinical information. Heart rate, PR, QRS, and QTc intervals did not differ significantly between treatment and placebo groups. Percentage change from baseline for PR, QRS, and QTc intervals was also no different. In conclusion, rivastigmine appears not to produce adverse effects on cardiac function assessed by ECG. PMID:12017350

  7. Towards Hall effect spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, A.

    2007-03-01

    Major efforts in the current exploration of spintronics are focused on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) phenomenon in metallic, semiconducting and tunnel junction magnetic heterostructures. I wish to present a different approach based on the extraordinary Hall effect (EHE). Since its discovery more than a century ago, the EHE was not considered seriously for technological applications because of its relatively small value in bulk magnetic materials. Several techniques were recently developed to significantly enhance the effect. Field sensitivity of tens to hundreds ?/T has been obtained. We argue that EHE-based sensors and memory devices promise a number of valuable advantages, including high sensitivity, thermal stability and simplicity and low cost manufacture, and can become an alternative to the GMR.

  8. Relativistic Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2012-03-23

    We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin-Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices and mechanical flywheels and also discuss various fundamental aspects of this phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales, from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black holes. PMID:22540559

  9. Relativistic Hall Effect

    E-print Network

    Konstantin Y. Bliokh; Franco Nori

    2012-02-03

    We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the correct Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices, and mechanical flywheels, and also discuss various fundamental aspects of this phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales: from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black-holes.

  10. Relativistic Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco

    2012-03-01

    We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin-Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices and mechanical flywheels and also discuss various fundamental aspects of this phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales, from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black holes.

  11. Interpersonal effectiveness training 

    E-print Network

    DeOtte, Dona Lou Lewis

    1976-01-01

    , Shoulders & Fair, 1974; Zlegler & Mazen, 1975). Johnson (1972) has suggested a combination of techniques, includ- ing insight, behavior training and transactional analysis, to help clients learn more effective methods of living together. Such a com..., 1975; Stuart, 1969; Weiss et al. , 1972; Wieman et al. , 1974; Ziegler & Mazen, 1975). The contingency contract is a means of circumventing the initial phase of resistance in couples where dys- functional patterns of relating are firmly established...

  12. Hall Effect Measurements

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The objective of this Web site is twofold: (1) to describe the Hall measurement technique for determining the carrier density and mobility in semiconductor materials and (2) to initiate an electronic interaction forum where workers interested in the Hall effect can exchange ideas and information. It includes an introductory description of the Hall measurement technique and covers basic principles, equipment, and recommended procedures. Keywords: Conductance, conductivity, resistance, resistivity

  13. Magnetic effects on thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguš, Samo; Bojkovski, Jovan; Drnovšek, Janko; Geršak, Gregor

    2014-03-01

    Thermometers in laboratory environment and industrial applications are often subject to extraneous, usually unwanted and uncontrolled magnetic fields. Magnetic field influence can be minimized, but cannot be fully cancelled out. Even more, in most cases, there is no awareness of the existence of magnetic fields, let alone their effect on measurement instrumentation. In the past, sensitivity to high dc magnetic fields has been investigated in cryogenics and at high temperatures. More recently, the magnetic effect on weak dc magnetic fields was presented. The goal of this paper was to analyse and empirically and experimentally prove the magnetic sensitivity of thermocouples exposed to low magnetic fields: both dc and ac. Precision and uniform alternating and direct magnetic flux densities were generated by means of permanent magnets and power amplifiers with air-cored coils. The magnetic effect on ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic thermocouples at liquid-nitrogen-boiling point (-196 °C), ice point (0 °C), in water (17 °C) and at melting point of gallium fixed point cell (29.7646 °C) was investigated. Magnetic-field-dependent temperature errors of up to 700 mK (at 5.3 mT: dc) and up to 1 °C (at 10 mT: ac 50 Hz magnetic fields) were detected. From the results, it can be concluded that, ideally for temperature measurements of the highest accuracy in the above-cryogenic temperature range, magnetic sensitivity should be estimated and taken into account either as the correction of an error and/or as an additional source of measurement uncertainty. Special consideration should be given to thermocouple orientation relative to the magnetic field direction, influence of metal enclosures and magnetization effects on ferromagnetic components of thermocouples.

  14. Asking Effective Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 8-page monograph offers strategies for effective questioning that engages students and that deepens their conceptual understanding in mathematics. It suggests questions and prompts that help students progress through various stages of the problem solving process and that help teachers assess the thinking of students. The article describes the purposes of questions at different stages of a lesson and describes situations when it is appropriate to convey information to students. A list of references is included.

  15. Cardiac effects of thyronamines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Zucchi; Sandra Ghelardoni; Grazia Chiellini

    2010-01-01

    3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) is an endogenous compound derived from thyroid hormone through decarboxylation and deiodination, which interacts with\\u000a a novel G protein-coupled receptor, known as trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 and other receptors of this\\u000a family are expressed in several tissues, including the heart. Functional effects have been observed after administration of\\u000a exogenous T1AM: in the isolated heart, a negative

  16. Side effects of benoxaprofen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Diffey; Colin Hindson; F Lawlor

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of adverse dermatological reactions to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent benoxaprofen. Photosensitivity was seen in several patients, confined to wavelengths less than 340 nm. Other cutaneous side effects were erythema multiforme, the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, milia, and onycholysis. One case of pancytopenia and toxic epidermal necrolysis was reported. patients were not rechallenged with the drug, but these reactions

  17. The Effects of Outliers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by Illuminations: Resources for Teaching Mathematics, this lesson is designed to help students understand the significance of outliers. This lesson includes thought questions and an applet to help students visualize the effect of an outlier. The authors divide the lesson into different groups, they include: learning objectives, materials, instructional plans, NCTM standards/expectations, and finally references. This is a great interactive resource for those wanting to learn more about correlation and regression.

  18. The Kaye effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

    2009-11-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

  19. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  20. A novel butyrolactone derivative inhibited smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and maintained endothelial cell functions through selectively affecting Na, K-ATPase activity and mitochondria membrane potential during in vitro angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ning; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Baoxiang; Cheng, Yizhe; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying

    2008-08-15

    We have found that 3-benzyl-5-((2-nitrophenoxy) methyl)-dihydrofuran -2(3H)-one (3BDO), could effectively suppress human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) apoptosis induced by deprivation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and serum. Here, our purpose was to investigate whether 3BDO could modulate angiogenesis and its possible acting mechanism. The effect of 3BDO on angiogenesis was investigated by capillary-like tubule formation and rat aortic ring assay. Proliferation and migration of cells were detected by counting living cell number and scraping cell monolayer, respectively. Na, K-ATPase activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed using tetramethylrhodamine methylester fluorescence by confocal microscopy. Our results showed that 3BDO inhibited migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but maintained migration and tubule formation of HUVECs. In HUVECs, 3BDO inhibited Na, K-ATPase activity, but had no effect on mitochondria membrane potential. In VSMCs, it did not affect Na, K-ATPase activity, but depressed mitochondria membrane potential obviously. The data showed that 3BDO had selective effects on HUVECs and VSMCs, it might perform its role through the selective effects on the activity of Na, K-ATPase and the mitochondria membrane potential in HUVECs and VSMCs. PMID:18393353

  1. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  2. Julia's placebo effect.

    PubMed

    Bachiocco, Valeria; Mondardini, Maria Cristina

    2010-09-01

    Placebo analgesia is the occurrence of an analgesic drug effect without drugs. The response is learned through conditioning and mediated by expectancy. It lies on the up-regulation of the pain-modulating areas and the down-regulation of the pain-encoding regions. A further mechanism is the retrieval of the brain circuit activity previously excited by drugs. We describe the case of an infant affected by a tracheal agenesis who underwent a series of operative and diagnostic bronchoscopies for which she received midazolam and fentanyl. After 61 procedures the infant showed a somatosensory response which in our interpretation reflected a placebo effect. Ontogenetic considerations and specific observations indicate that the infant had the appropriate competences in her learning and memory systems and nociceptive and antinociceptive circuits for the placebo effect to take place. Generalizing, the introduction of placebo manipulation in infant pain management may be taken into consideration; its approach through observational and experimental studies is the preliminary target. PMID:20705216

  3. Neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Feng-yan; Yang, Le; Tian, Zhen; Zhao, Ming-gao; Liu, Shui-bing; An, Jia-ze

    2014-01-01

    In the central nervous system, Asiaticoside has been shown to attenuate in vitro neuronal damage caused by exposure to ?-amyloid. In vivo studies demonstrated that Asiaticoside could attenuate neurobehavioral, neurochemical and histological changes in transient focal middle cerebral artery occlusion animals. In addition, Asiaticoside showed anxiolytic effects in acute and chronic stress animals. However, its potential neuroprotective properties in glutamate-induced excitotoxicity have not been fully studied. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons exposed to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity invoked by N-methyl-D-aspartate. Pretreatment with Asiaticoside decreased neuronal cell loss in a concentration-dependent manner and restored changes in expression of apoptotic-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax. Asiaticoside pretreatment also attenuated the upregulation of NR2B expression, a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, but did not affect expression of NR2A subunits. Additionally, in cultured neurons, Asiaticoside significantly inhibited Ca2+ influx induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate. These experimental findings provide preliminary evidence that during excitotoxicity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate exposure in cultured cortical neurons, the neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside are mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Aside from its anti-oxidant activity, down-regulation of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may be one of the underlying mechanisms in Asiaticoside neuroprotection. PMID:25221579

  4. Environmental effects of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Rosseland, B O; Eldhuset, T D; Staurnes, M

    1990-03-01

    Aluminium (Al), when present in high concentrations, has for long been recognised as a toxic agent to aquatic freshwater organisms,i.e. downstream industrial point sources of Al-rich process water. Today the environmental effects of aluminium are mainly a result of acidic precipitation; acidification of catchments leads to increased Al- concentrations in soil solution and freshwaters. Large parts of both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are affected.In the aquatic environment, aluminium acts as a toxic agent on gill-breathing animals such as fish and invertebrates, by causing loss of plasma- and haemolymph ions leading to osmoregulatory failure. In fish, the inorganic (labile) monomeric species of aluminium reduce the activities of gill enzymes important in the active uptake of ions. Aluminium seems also to accumulate in freshwater invertebrates. Dietary organically complexed aluminium, maybe in synergistic effects with other contaminants, may easily be absorbed and interfere with important metabolic processes in mammals and birds.The mycorrhiza and fine root systems of terrestrial plants are adversely affected by high levels of inorganic monomeric aluminium. As in the animals, aluminium seems to have its primary effect on enzyme systems important for the uptake of nutrients. Aluminium can accumulate in plants. Aluminium contaminated invertebrates and plants might thus be a link for aluminium to enter into terrestrial food chains. PMID:24202562

  5. Effective mass in quantum effects of radiation pressure

    E-print Network

    M. Pinard; Y. Hadjar; A. Heidmann

    1999-09-02

    We study the quantum effects of radiation pressure in a high-finesse cavity with a mirror coated on a mechanical resonator. We show that the optomechanical coupling can be described by an effective susceptibility which takes into account every acoustic modes of the resonator and their coupling to the light. At low frequency this effective response is similar to a harmonic response with an effective mass smaller than the total mass of the mirror. For a plano-convex resonator the effective mass is related to the light spot size and becomes very small for small optical waists, thus enhancing the quantum effects of optomechanical coupling.

  6. Effective Learning and Effective Learners: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Studies

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Effective Learning and Effective Learners: Behavioral and Neuroimaging of subsequent learning opportunities-- a phenomenon known as test-potentiated learning. This phenomenon will be explored in a series of experiments that use behavioral

  7. Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions 

    E-print Network

    Soares, Denise

    2012-02-14

    EFFECT SIZE AND MODERATORS OF EFFECTS FOR TOKEN ECONOMY INTERVENTIONS A Dissertation by DENISE A. SOARES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... EFFECT SIZE AND MODERATORS OF EFFECTS FOR TOKEN ECONOMY INTERVENTIONS A Dissertation by DENISE A. SOARES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

  8. The effective equation method

    E-print Network

    Sergei Kuksin; Alberto Maiocchi

    2015-01-17

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behaviour of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behaviour of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three-- and four--wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. In the case of the NLS equation we use next some heuristic approximation from the arsenal of wave turbulence to show that under the iterated limit "the volume goes to infinity", taken after the limit "the amplitude of oscillations goes to zero", the energy spectrum of solutions for the effective equation is described by a Zakharov-type kinetic equation. Evoking the Zakharov ansatz we show that stationary in time and homogeneous in space solutions for the latter equation have a power law form. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanology.

  9. 'The Kesterson effect'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, T.S.

    1994-01-01

    Hypothesized to be derived from Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks, selenium contamination of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge is traced through irrigation drainage to the source bedrock of the California Coast Ranges. This biogeochemical pathway of selenium is defined here as the 'Kesterson effect.' At the refuge ponds, this effect culminated in 1983 in a 64% rate of deformity and death of embryos and hatchlings of wild aquatic birds. From the previous companion paper on irrigation drainage, the Kesterson effect has been implicated in nine of 11 reconnaissance areas studied in the western United States. Deformities have resulted in at least five of these sites. Climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and soil conditions in these reconnaissance areas are similar to those in the area surrounding Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California, in California, selenium as selenate, was ultimately found weathered with sulfur from marine sources in soluble sodium and magnesium sulfate salts, which are concentrated by evaporation on farmland soils. The Se, mobilized by irrigation drainage, is bioaccumulated to toxic levels in refuge wetland ponds that are located mainly in hydrologically closed basins and thus act as concentrating disposal points. The depositional environment of the ponds may be similar to that of the nutrient-rich continental shelf edge and slope in which Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sediments found to be seleniferous in the California Coast Ranges were deposited. Bioaccumulation may be therefore a primary mechanism of selenium enrichment in ancient sediments in addition to that of the formerly suggested Cretaceous volcanic pathway.

  10. Metallicity Effects in PDRs

    E-print Network

    Markus Roellig

    2008-01-30

    Almost all properties of a photodissociation region (PDR) depend on its metallicity. The heating and cooling efficiencies that determine the temperature of the gas and dust, the dust composition, as well as the elemental abundances that influence the chemical structure of the PDR are just three examples that demonstrate the importance of metallicity effects in PDRs. PDRs are often associated with sites of star formation. If we want to understand the star formation history of our own Galaxy and of distant low-metallicity objects we need to understanding how metallicity acts on PDR physics and chemistry.

  11. The Greenhouse Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carol McLaren

    2000-01-01

    This site provides an overview of the Earth's atmospheric greenhouse effect by briefly exploring the atmospheres of nearby planets and discussing the greenhouse gases of our atmosphere, such as, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and nitrous oxide. Students will learn that the heat-trapping ability of a greenhouse is influenced by a number of factors, including the transparency of the greenhouse cover, and color and texture of the planet's surfaces. This site serves as a resource for and includes links to two classroom activities.

  12. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  13. Transistors: The Field Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Transistors are the building blocks of modern electronic devices. Your cell phones, iPods, and computers all depend on them to operate. Thanks to today's microfabrication technology, transistors can be made very tiny and be massively produced. You are probably using billions of them while working with this activity now--as of 2006, a dual-core Intel microprocessor contains 1.7 billion transistors. The field effect transistor is the most common type of transistor. So we will focus on it in this activity.

  14. Assessments of astronaut effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2013-01-01

    The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts. PMID:23884116

  16. Direct effects protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Protection of an aircraft and each of its various systems against the direct effects of lightning were analyzed. Components located in different sections of the aircraft were individually examined since they are likely to experience different degrees of susceptibility to lightning, and may be vulnerable to different components of the lightning flash. The basic steps to be followed in establishing lightning protection were presented by discussing the varieties of arc entry and current flow-through damage. The lightning-strike zones and lightning current environments are established, since environmental conditions in the zones are those under which specific protective measures must perform. Airworthiness regulations which apply to lightning protection are cited.

  17. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W., Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general.

  18. Proximity effect correction optimization considering fogging and loading effects compensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Hune Yang; Yo-Han Choi; Jong R. Park; Yong-Hoon Kim; Seong-Woon Choi; Jung-Min Sohn

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the interest in enhancement of critical dimension (CD) accuracy has been significantly increased to satisfy requirements of sub 100nm devices. Proximity effect correction becomes an indispensable choice to improve CD accuracy within local area, and fogging and loading effects compensation has been tried to enhance global CD uniformity. However, proximity effect correction (PEC) parameters obtained without considering additional exposure

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anD human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Pain “I was worried about getting ... need help to pay for pain medicine. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain Keep track of the pain. ...

  20. Flight effects of fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chestnutt, D. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

  1. Atomistic and orthoatomistic effect algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Tkadlec, Josef [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University, 166 27 Praha (Czech Republic)

    2008-05-15

    We characterize atomistic effect algebras, prove that a weakly orthocomplete Archimedean atomic effect algebra is orthoatomistic and present an example of an orthoatomistic orthomodular poset that is not weakly orthocomplete.

  2. IMPROVED LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a program to evaluate an Improved Laboratory Dispersant Effectiveness Test (ILDET) which was developed to replace EPA's Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test (RSDET). The report summarizes the development of the IL...

  3. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people with ... are common short-term side effects from HIV medicines? When starting an HIV medicine for the first ...

  4. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  5. Spin-galvanic effect.

    PubMed

    Ganichev, S D; Ivchenko, E L; Bel'kov, V V; Tarasenko, S A; Sollinger, M; Weiss, D; Wegscheider, W; Prettl, W

    2002-05-01

    There is much recent interest in exploiting the spin of conduction electrons in semiconductor heterostructures together with their charge to realize new device concepts. Electrical currents are usually generated by electric or magnetic fields, or by gradients of, for example, carrier concentration or temperature. The electron spin in a spin-polarized electron gas can, in principle, also drive an electrical current, even at room temperature, if some general symmetry requirements are met. Here we demonstrate such a 'spin-galvanic' effect in semiconductor heterostructures, induced by a non-equilibrium, but uniform population of electron spins. The microscopic origin for this effect is that the two electronic sub-bands for spin-up and spin-down electrons are shifted in momentum space and, although the electron distribution in each sub-band is symmetric, there is an inherent asymmetry in the spin-flip scattering events between the two sub-bands. The resulting current flow has been detected by applying a magnetic field to rotate an optically oriented non-equilibrium spin polarization in the direction of the sample plane. In contrast to previous experiments, where spin-polarized currents were driven by electric fields in semiconductor, we have here the complementary situation where electron spins drive a current without the need of an external electric field. PMID:12000954

  6. Effects of acoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenster, James A.; Jones, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acoustics on the laminar flow on the side of a nacelle. A flight test was designed to meet this goal and a brief review of the purpose is given. A nacelle with a significant length of laminar flow was mounted on the wing of NASA OV-1. Two noise sources are also mounted on the wing: one in the center body of the nacelle; the second in a wing mounted pod outboard of the nacelle. These two noise sources allow for a limited study of the effect of source direction in addition to control of the acoustic level and frequency. To determine the range of Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies, a stability analysis using the pressure coefficient distribution along the side of the nacelle was performed. Then by applying these frequencies and varying the acoustic level, a study of the receptivity of the boundary layer to the acoustic signal, as determined by the shortening of the length of laminar flow, was conducted. Results are briefly discussed.

  7. Quantum Zeno Effect

    E-print Network

    Mikhail Lemeshko; Bretislav Friedrich

    2009-03-26

    We present the physics of the quantum Zeno effect, whose gist is often expressed by invoking the adage "a watched pot never boils". We review aspects of the theoretical and experimental work done on the effect since its inception in 1977, and mention some applications. We dedicate the article - with our very best wishes - to Rudolf Zahradnik at the occasion of his great jubilee. Perhaps Rudolf's lasting youthfulness and freshness are due to that he himself had been frequently observed throughout his life: until the political turn-around in 1989 by those who wished, by their surveillance, to prevent Rudolf from spoiling the youth by his personal culture and his passion for science and things beautiful and useful in general. This attempt had failed. Out of gratitude, the youth has infected Rudolf with its youthfulness. Chronically. Since 1989, Rudolf has been closely watched by the public at large. For the same traits of his as before, but with the opposite goal and for the benefit of all generations. We relish keeping him in sight ...

  8. An effective Z'

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fox, Patrick J.; Liu, Jia; Tucker-Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2011-12-01

    We describe a method to couple Z' gauge bosons to the standard model (SM), without charging the SM fields under the U(1)', but instead through effective higher-dimension operators. This method allows complete control over the tree-level couplings of the Z' and does not require altering the structure of any of the SM couplings, nor does it contain anomalies or require introduction of fields in nonstandard SM representations. Moreover, such interactions arise from simple renormalizable extensions of the SM—the addition of vectorlike matter that mixes with SM fermions when the U(1)' is broken. We apply effective Z' models as explanations ofmore »various recent anomalies: the D0 same-sign dimuon asymmetry, the CDF W+di-jet excess and the CDF top forward-backward asymmetry. In the case of the W+di-jet excess we also discuss several complementary analyses that may shed light on the nature of the discrepancy. We consider the possibility of non-Abelian groups, and discuss implications for the phenomenology of dark matter as well.« less

  9. JPL Test Effectiveness Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreck, Stephanie; Sharratt, Stephen; Smith, Joseph F.; Strong, Edward

    2008-01-01

    1) The pilot study provided meaningful conclusions that are generally consistent with the earlier Test Effectiveness work done between 1992 and 1994: a) Analysis of pre-launch problem/failure reports is consistent with earlier work. b) Analysis of post-launch early mission anomaly reports indicates that there are more software issues in newer missions, and the no-test category for identification of post-launch failures is more significant than in the earlier analysis. 2) Future work includes understanding how differences in Missions effect these analyses: a) There are large variations in the number of problem reports and issues that are documented by the different Projects/Missions. b) Some missions do not have any reported environmental test anomalies, even though environmental tests were performed. 3) Each project/mission has different standards and conventions for filling out the PFR forms, the industry may wish to address this issue: a) Existing problem reporting forms are to document and track problems, failures, and issues (etc.) for the projects, to ensure high quality. b) Existing problem reporting forms are not intended for data mining.

  10. Effectively Stable Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    We study dark matter (DM) which is cosmologically long-lived because of standard model (SM) symmetries. In these models an approximate stabilizing symmetry emerges accidentally, in analogy with baryon and lepton number in the renormalizable SM. Adopting an effective theory approach, we classify DM models according to representations of $SU(3)_C\\times SU(2)_L\\times U(1)_Y \\times U(1)_B\\times U(1)_L$, allowing for all operators permitted by symmetry, with weak scale DM and a cutoff at or below the Planck scale. We identify representations containing a neutral long-lived state, thus excluding dimension four and five operators that mediate dangerously prompt DM decay into SM particles. The DM relic abundance is obtained via thermal freeze-out or, since effectively stable DM often carries baryon or lepton number, asymmetry sharing through the very operators that induce eventual DM decay. We also incorporate baryon and lepton number violation with a spurion that parameterizes hard breaking by arbitrary units. Howev...

  11. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shoucheng

    2008-12-01

    Search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become a prime goal for condensed matter physics. Recently, a new class of topological insulators has been proposed. These topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. We show that the QSH state can be realized in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells. By varying the thickness of the quantum well, the electronic state changes at a critical thickness. This is a topological quantum phase transition between a conventional insulating phase and a phase exhibiting the QSH effect with a single pair of helical edge states. This theoretical proposal has been tested in a recent experiment carried out at University of Wuerzburg, and the distinct signatures of the QSH state have been experimentally observed. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  12. Acrolein health effects.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

    2008-08-01

    Acrolein is a chemical used as an intermediate reactive aldehyde in chemical industry. It is used for synthesis of many organic substances, methionine production, and methyl chloride refrigerant. The general population is exposed to acrolein via smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to wood and plastic smoke. Firefighters and population living or working in areas with heavy automotive traffic may expose to higher level of acrolein via inhalation of smoke or automotive exhaust. Degradation of acrolein in all environmental media occurs rapidly, therefore, environmental accumulation is not expected. Acrolein degrade in 6A days when applied to surface water, and it has not been found as a contaminant in municipal drinking water. Acrolein vapor may cause eye, nasal and respiratory tract irritations in low level exposure. A decrease in breathing rate was reported by volunteers acutely exposed to 0.3A ppm of acrolein. At similar level, mild nasal epithelial dysplasia, necrosis, and focal basal cell metaplasia have been observed in rats. The acrolein effects on gastrointestinal mucosa in the animals include epithelial hyperplasia, ulceration, and hemorrhage. The severity of the effects is dose dependent. Acrolein induces the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal irritations by inducing the release of peptides in nerve terminals innervating these systems. Levels of acrolein between 22 and 249 ppm for 10 min induced a dose-related decrease in substance P (a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator). PMID:19028774

  13. Transformation of QTL genotypic effects to allelic effects

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    The genotypic and allelic effect models are equivalent in terms of QTL detection in a simple additive model, but the QTL allelic model has the advantage of providing direct information for marker-assisted selection. However, the allelic matrix is four times as large as the genotypic IBD matrix, causing computational problems, especially in genome scans examining multiple positions. Transformation from genotypic to allelic effects, after estimating the genotypic effects with a smaller IBD matrix, can solve this problem. Although the validity of transformation from genotypic to allelic effects has been disputed, this work proves that transformation can successfully yield unique allelic effects when genotypic and allelic IBD matrixes exist. PMID:16093016

  14. Effects of harmonics on equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Wagner; J. C. Balda; T. M. Barnes; A. E. Emannuel; R. J. Ferraro; D. C. Griffith; D. P. Hartmann; W. F. Horton; W. T. Jewell; A. McEachern; D. J. Phileggi; W. E. Reid

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the state-of-knowledge of the effects of power system harmonics on equipment. The general mechanisms presented are thermal overloading, disruption, and dielectric stressing. Quantitative effects are presented or referenced whenever possible. However, many of the effects can only be qualitatively described. The equipment considered are adjustable speed drives, capacitors, circuit breakers, fuses, conductors,

  15. Antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GENJI IMOKAWA; HARUO SHIMIZU

    Synopsis The antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione has been studied with healthy scalps in relation to its ANTIDANDRUFF effect. Use of zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo sharply reduced the CORNEOCYTE COUNTS, while the similarly active antimicrobial agent, Irgasan DP-300 © had no effect on the corneocyte counts. Quantitative estimation of scalp microorganisms revealed that corresponding to the decrease in dandruff, Pityrospbrum ovale

  16. Solar Neutrino Matter Effects Redux

    E-print Network

    A. B. Balantekin; A. Malkus

    2011-12-19

    Following recent low-threshold analysis of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and asymmetry measurements of the BOREXINO Collaboration of the solar neutrino flux, we revisit the analysis of the matter effects in the Sun. We show that solar neutrino data constrains the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ poorly and that subdominant Standard Model effects can mimic the effects of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

  17. Effects Of Radiation On Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Report provides data on effects of radiation on elastomers. Quantifies effects by giving minimum radiation levels to induce changes of 1 percent and 25 percent in given properties. Electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties included in data. Combined effects of heat and radiation briefly considered. Data summarized in graphic form useful to designers.

  18. Emotional intelligence and effective leadership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Palmer; Melissa Walls; Zena Burgess; Con Stough

    2001-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has become increasingly popular as a measure for identifying potentially effective leaders, and as a tool for developing effective leadership skills. Despite this popularity, however, there is little empirical research that substantiates the efficacy of emotional intelligence in these areas. The aim of the present paper was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Emotional

  19. "No Effects" Studies Raising Eyebrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Like a steady drip from a leaky faucet, the experimental studies being released this school year by the federal Institute of Education Sciences are mostly producing the same results: "No effects," "No effects," "No effects." The disappointing yield is prompting researchers, product developers, and other experts to question the design of the…

  20. Assessing and Improving Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    Information to promote assessment of organizational effectiveness in colleges and universities is presented, along with an exercise to rank the effectiveness of 10 institutions. The exercise uses three types of criteria to indicate effectiveness: subjective ratings, data about students and activities, and institutional capacity and financial…

  1. Cost Effectiveness NW Energy Coalition

    E-print Network

    1 Action 8 Cost Effectiveness Manual Kim Drury NW Energy Coalition Context · Inconsistent understanding of cost effectiveness contributed to under performing conservation E.g: individual measures vs at end of 2009 #12;2 The thinking was . . . That a Cost Effectiveness Guide could: · Increase regionally

  2. The Future of Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Forces inside and outside community colleges are changing the context for performance and mandating new conceptions of effectiveness. This article addresses the future of institutional effectiveness in community colleges. Its emphasis is on what is measured and why, beginning with a retrospective look at early efforts in effectiveness, moving to…

  3. Probiotics: mechanisms and established effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur C. Ouwehand; Pirkka V. Kirjavainen; Colette Shortt; Seppo Salminen

    1999-01-01

    The definition for probiotics has gradually changed with increasing understanding of the mechanisms by which they influence human health. Health effects related to changes in the intestinal microflora also accompany or are related to adhesion and immune system effects, competitive exclusion or metabolic and nutritional effects, with an increasing array of other potential modes of action. Most clinically documented and

  4. [Side effects of caffeine].

    PubMed

    Dworza?ski, Wojciech; Opielak, Grzegorz; Burdan, Franciszek

    2009-11-01

    Caffeine is one of the most commonly ingested alkaloids worldwide. It is present in coffee, tea, soft and energy drinks, chocolate, etc. Currently published data has been stressed that the metyloxantine consumption increases the risk of coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, arterial stiffness, and an elevation of cholesterol and homocysteine plasma concentration. The acute high consumption may also modulate insulin sensitivity and glucose blood level. However, the long-term consumption reduces the incidence of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. When administered in high doses the substance may cause various side effects, related to abnormal stimulation of the central nervous system, decrease tonus of the lower esophageal sphincter, as well as increase risk of miscarriage and intrauterine growth retardation. The final manifestation of side reactions is dependent on the genotype, especially polymorphisms of genes associated with caffeine metabolism, i.e., cytochrome P450-CYP1A2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). PMID:19999796

  5. Pulmonary effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Patel, D R; Homnick, D N

    2000-10-01

    The problems of tobacco addiction have evolved over centuries. The possible relationship between smoking and oral cancer was recognized as early as the 19th century. The use of tobacco results in an estimated 4 million deaths each year worldwide. Approximately 3,000 adolescents start smoking every day; 4.5 million children and adolescents smoke cigarettes; 1 million use smokeless tobacco. This article reviews the effects of environmental tobacco smoke and primary smoking on lung health and maturation and the pathophysiology of smoking-related pulmonary disease. Smoking prevention and timely smoking cessation will significantly reduce the risk of not only lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, chronic bronchitis, asthma, etc.) but also suboptimal lung growth during preadolescent and adolescent years. PMID:11060554

  6. Hot chocolate effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  7. 'Special effects' burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1991-02-01

    Three patients are presented with significant flame burns, resulting from accidents occurring during 'special effects' situations in the entertainment industry. These occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of various materials, during events in live theatre (gun powder), a television commercial (artificial 'rocket fuel'), and a video presentation (magnesium oxide). All three patients sustained flash burns to the face and hands. One patient sustained a significant bilateral corneal injury, a gamekeeper's thumb, and a permanent continuous right-sided high frequency tinnitus, in addition to his burn injury. Photographic documentation of all three patients is presented. The total loss of time from work for all patients was 6 months. All these injuries were potentially preventable. PMID:2031675

  8. THE HOT CHOCOLATE EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1980-12-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  9. The hot chocolate effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  10. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  11. Effectiveness of price regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.A.; Leland, H.E.

    1980-11-01

    That it is easier to measure the costs of price regulation than the benefits is evident in the conflicting results of studies made to determine welfare gains. An econometric study based on a simple theory of demand by customer class concludes that: (1) the effectiveness of regulation across states is irregular, which suggests that state regulatory agencies confront firms with highly variable political climates and may serve customers with an uneven quality of benefits; (2) the pattern of cross-subsidization of prices that penalized residential customers in 1969 was gone or shifted to favor residential customers by 1974; (3) a more-detailed re-evaluation of the presumed benefits and costs of nonuniform pricing may be warranted; and (4) welfare improvements appear to be possible. The dominant question that emerges is how to explain what underlying forces contribute to the substantial state-to-state and between-customer variations in regulatory impact. 13 references, 6 tables.

  12. Biological effects of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    In general, clay materials exhibit a range of biological activities, from apparently inactive or slightly active, such as hematite, to highly fibrogenic and carcinogenic, such as fibrous brucite (nemalite). The zeolites also exhibit such as range, with some mordenite being slightly active and erionite being highly active; however, erionite is the only zeolite that has been studied extensively. The diversity of mineral species holds great potential for probing these mechanisms, especially when mineralogical data are integrated with biological data. Unfortunately, many of the studies reporting data on the biological effects of clays and zeolites fail to report detailed mineralogical information; hence, it is difficult at present to interpret the biological activities of minerals in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Important mineralogical data that are only rarely considered in biological research include exact mineralogy of the specimen (i.e., identification and abundance of contaminants), physical and chemical properties of minerals, and surface properties of minerals. 141 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  13. Trapping effects on inflation

    E-print Network

    Wolung Lee; Kin-Wang Ng; I-Chin Wang; Chun-Hsien Wu

    2011-08-23

    We develop a Lagrangian approach based on the influence functional method so as to derive self-consistently the Langevin equation for the inflaton field in the presence of trapping points along the inflaton trajectory. The Langevin equation exhibits the backreaction and the fluctuation-dissipation relation of the trapping. The fluctuation is induced by a multiplicative colored noise that can be identified as the the particle number density fluctuations and the dissipation is a new effect that may play a role in the trapping with a strong coupling. In the weak coupling regime, we calculate the power spectrum of the noise-driven inflaton fluctuations for a single trapping point and studied its variation with the trapping location. We also consider a case with closely spaced trapping points and find that the resulting power spectrum is blue.

  14. Orbital magnetic ratchet effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budkin, G. V.; Golub, L. E.

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic ratchets—two-dimensional systems with superimposed noncentrosymmetric ferromagnetic gratings—are considered theoretically. It is demonstrated that excitation by radiation results in a directed motion of two-dimensional carriers due to the pure orbital effect of the periodic magnetic field. Magnetic ratchets based on various two-dimensional systems such as topological insulators, graphene, and semiconductor heterostructures are investigated. The mechanisms of the electric current generation caused by both radiation-induced heating of carriers and by acceleration in the radiation electric field in the presence of a space-oscillating Lorentz force are studied in detail. The electric currents sensitive to the linear polarization plane orientation as well as to the radiation helicity are calculated. It is demonstrated that the frequency dependence of the magnetic ratchet currents is determined by the dominant elastic-scattering mechanism of two-dimensional carriers and differs for the systems with linear and parabolic energy dispersions.

  15. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    SciTech Connect

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  16. lambda. N effective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Millener, D.J.

    1984-05-23

    A combination of theoretical estimates, based on a ..lambda..N potential model, and phenomenological analysis of hypernuclear data is used to determine a set of four P/sub N/s/sub ..lambda../ two-body matrix elements which characterize the spin dependence of the ..lambda..N interaction in the p shell. The central spin-spin and the ..lambda.. spin-orbit matrix elements are most strongly constrained by existing data. The spin dependence is weak in the sense that s/sub ..lambda../ doublet splittings are predicted to be of order 100 keV except for the special case of /sub ..lambda..//sup 7/Li where the central spin-spin interaction dominates and the ground-state doublet separation is likely to be about 600 keV. The results of recent (K/sup -/, ..pi../sup -/..gamma..) experiments at the Brookhaven AGS are interpreted in terms of the ..lambda..N effective interaction.

  17. Effective monitoring of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E

    2011-06-01

    An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

  18. The nonlinear Fano effect.

    PubMed

    Kroner, M; Govorov, A O; Remi, S; Biedermann, B; Seidl, S; Badolato, A; Petroff, P M; Zhang, W; Barbour, R; Gerardot, B D; Warburton, R J; Karrai, K

    2008-01-17

    The Fano effect is ubiquitous in the spectroscopy of, for instance, atoms, bulk solids and semiconductor heterostructures. It arises when quantum interference takes place between two competing optical pathways, one connecting the energy ground state and an excited discrete state, the other connecting the ground state with a continuum of energy states. The nature of the interference changes rapidly as a function of energy, giving rise to characteristically asymmetric lineshapes. The Fano effect is particularly important in the interpretation of electronic transport and optical spectra in semiconductors. Whereas Fano's original theory applies to the linear regime at low power, at higher power a laser field strongly admixes the states and the physics becomes rich, leading, for example, to a remarkable interplay of coherent nonlinear transitions. Despite the general importance of Fano physics, this nonlinear regime has received very little attention experimentally, presumably because the classic autoionization processes, the original test-bed of Fano's ideas, occur in an inconvenient spectral region, the deep ultraviolet. Here we report experiments that access the nonlinear Fano regime by using semiconductor quantum dots, which allow both the continuum states to be engineered and the energies to be rescaled to the near infrared. We measure the absorption cross-section of a single quantum dot and discover clear Fano resonances that we can tune with the device design or even in situ with a voltage bias. In parallel, we develop a nonlinear theory applicable to solid-state systems with fast relaxation of carriers. In the nonlinear regime, the visibility of the Fano quantum interferences increases dramatically, affording a sensitive probe of continuum coupling. This could be a unique method to detect weak couplings of a two-level quantum system (qubits), which should ideally be decoupled from all other states. PMID:18202652

  19. Aldol Reactions - Isotope Effects, Mechanism and Dynamic Effects 

    E-print Network

    Vetticatt, Mathew J.

    2011-02-22

    The mechanism of three important aldol reactions and a biomimetic transamination is investigated using a combination of experimental kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), standard theoretical calculations and dynamics ...

  20. Perfusion effects and hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Peattie, Robert A; Fisher, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes within living systems are significantly influenced by the motion of the liquids and gases to which those tissues are exposed. Accordingly, tissue engineers must not only understand hydrodynamic phenomena, but also appreciate the vital role of those phenomena in cellular and physiologic processes both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, understanding the fundamental principles of fluid flow underlying perfusion effects in the organ-level internal environment and their relation to the cellular microenvironment is essential to successfully mimicking tissue behavior. In this work, the major principles of hemodynamic flow and transport are summarized, to provide readers with a physical understanding of these important issues. In particular, since quantifying hemodynamic events through experiments can require expensive and invasive techniques, the benefits that can be derived from the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) packages and neural networking (NN) models are stressed. A capstone illustration based on analysis of the hemodynamics of aortic aneurysms is presented as a representative example of this approach, to stress the importance of tissue responses to flow-induced events. PMID:17195462

  1. The photorefractive effect

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.M. (Pepperdine Univ., CA (USA)); Kukhtarev, N.V. (Institute of Physics, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR))

    1990-10-01

    When Arthur Ashkin and his colleagues at Bell Laboratories first noticed the photorefractive effect some 25 years ago, they considered the phenomenon a curiosity at best and a complete nuisance at worst. Today photorefractive materials are being shaped into components for a new generation of computers that exploit light instead of electricity. During the past 25 years investigators have discovered a wide variety of photorefractive materials, including insulators, semiconductors and organic compounds. Photorefractive materials, like film emulsions, change rapidly when exposed to bright light, respond slowly when subjected to dim light and capture sharp detail when struck by some intricate pattern of light. Unlike film, photorefractive materials are erasable: images can be stored or obliterated at whim or by design. By virtue of their sensitivity, robustness, and unique optical properties, photorefractive materials have the potential to be fashioned into data-processing elements for optical computers. In theory, these devices would allow optical computers to process information at much faster rates than their electronic counterparts. Employing photorefractive materials, workers have already developed the optical analogue to the transistor: if two laser beams interact within a photorefractive material, one beam can control, switch or amplify the second beam. Photorefractive materials also lie at the heart of devices that trace the edges of images, that connect networks of lasers and that store three-dimensional images.

  2. The Second Mössbauer Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienle, Paul

    "The Second Mössbauer Effect" was the headline of the "Spiegel" (a German weekly journal like the "Times") from May 13, 1964 for announcing the foundation of the "Physik-Department" at the Technische Hochschule München (THM), as it was still called at this time. Maier-Leibnitz was irritated by this headline because the article did not mention at all his contribution to the consolidation of the structure of the three physics institutes (Experimental, Technical, and Theoretical Physics) in the beginning of the sixties. Already in the late fifties ML's Institute for Technical Physics was overloaded with students working on their diploma or doctoral theses, because research in the new field of applied nuclear physics was very attractive and ML had for each student who applied an interesting research project. In the average, ML had to supervise between 150-200 diploma students, an impossible task. So, young postdoctoral students had to help him out by taking over the duties of professors. In a letter to the Bavarian Ministry of Education and Arts in 1957 he complained: "The directors of the institutes are hopelessly surcharged and the institutes are overcrowded, the resources for research projects are totally insufficient and lots of time and energy is wasted for finding additional resources."

  3. Genotoxic effects of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kornuta, N; Bagley, E; Nedopitanskaya, N

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic data showed an increase in the number of cancer cases in persons involved in agricultural production using pesticides. According to IARC, more than 25% of pesticides are classified as oncogens. In recent years, the concept of malignant tumors developing after environmental contamination with chemicals has been accepted. Changes in genetic material are at the basis of this process because many environmental pollutants are chemical carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity of causing DNA damage. DNA damage was proposed as a useful parameter for assessing the genotoxic properties of environmental pollutants. The correlation between exposure to carcinogenic substance and the level of DNA damage is essential. Pesticides are highly biologically active chemicals. They may interact with DNA and damage its structure. Such interaction may be critical for the manifestation of carcinogenic properties of different chemicals. We report on the organotropic genotoxic effects of different chemical classes of pesticides (decis, cypermetrin, 2,4-D, polyram) studied by means of alkaline unwinding assay DNA. PMID:9216788

  4. Paper field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, E.; Correia, Nuno; Barquinha, Pedro; Costa, Cláudia; Pereira, Luís; Gonçalves, Gonçalo; Martins, Rodrigo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we report the use of a sheet of cellulose fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide based semiconductor thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach we are using the cellulose fiber-based paper in an "interstrate" structure since the device is build on both sides of the cellulose sheet. Such hybrid FETs present excellent operating characteristics such as high channel saturation mobility (>30 cm2/Vs), drain-source current on/off modulation ratio of approximately 104, near-zero threshold voltage, enhancement n-type operation and sub-threshold gate voltage swing of 0.8 V/decade. The cellulose fiber-based paper FETs characteristics have been measured in air ambient conditions and present good stability. The obtained results outpace those of amorphous Si TFTs and rival with the same oxide based TFTs produced on either glass or crystalline silicon substrates. The compatibility of these devices with large-scale/large-area deposition techniques and low cost substrates as well as their very low operating bias delineates this as a promising approach to attain high-performance disposable electronics like paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, RFID and point-of-care systems for self analysis in bio-applications, among others.

  5. Health effects from fallout.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Land, Charles E; Simon, Steven L

    2002-05-01

    This paper primarily discusses health effects that have resulted from exposures received as a result of above-ground nuclear tests, with emphasis on thyroid disease from exposure to 131I and leukemia and solid cancers from low dose rate external and internal exposure. Results of epidemiological studies of fallout exposures in the Marshall Islands and from the Nevada Test Site are summarized, and studies of persons with exposures similar to those from fallout are briefly reviewed (including patients exposed to 131I for medical reasons and workers exposed externally at low doses and low dose rates). Promising new studies of populations exposed in countries of the former Soviet Union are also discussed and include persons living near the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan, persons exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and persons exposed as a result of operations of the Mayak Nuclear Plant in the Russian Federation. Very preliminary estimates of cancer risks from fallout doses received by the United States population are presented. PMID:12003021

  6. Harmful effects of nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Aseem; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Datta, Sourav; Sinukumar, Snita; Joshi, Poonam; Garg, Apurva

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of nicotine replacement therapy, the consumption of the nicotine is on the rise. Nicotine is considered to be a safer alternative of tobacco. The IARC monograph has not included nicotine as a carcinogen. However there are various studies which show otherwise. We undertook this review to specifically evaluate the effects of nicotine on the various organ systems. A computer aided search of the Medline and PubMed database was done using a combination of the keywords. All the animal and human studies investigating only the role of nicotine were included. Nicotine poses several health hazards. There is an increased risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders. There is decreased immune response and it also poses ill impacts on the reproductive health. It affects the cell proliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, DNA mutation by various mechanisms which leads to cancer. It also affects the tumor proliferation and metastasis and causes resistance to chemo and radio therapeutic agents. The use of nicotine needs regulation. The sale of nicotine should be under supervision of trained medical personnel. PMID:25810571

  7. Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

  8. Context effects on choice.

    PubMed Central

    Goldshmidt, J N; Lattal, K M; Fantino, E

    1998-01-01

    Four pigeons responded on a concurrent-chains schedule in four experiments that examined whether the effectiveness of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer is best described by a global approach, as measured by the average interreinforcement interval, or by a local contextual approach, as measured by the onset of the stimulus preceding the conditioned reinforcer. The interreinforcement interval was manipulated by the inclusion of an intertrial interval, which increased the overall time to reinforcement but did not change the local contingencies on a given trial A global analysis predicted choice for the richer alternative to decrease with the inclusion of an intertrial interval, whereas a local analysis predicted no change in preference. Experiment 1 examined sensitivity to intertrial intervals when each was signaled by the same houselight that operated throughout the session. In Experiment 2, the intertrial interval always was signaled by the stimulus correlated with the richer terminal link. In Experiment 3, the intertrial interval was signaled by the keylights correlated with the initial links and two novel houselights. Experiment 4 provided free food pseudorandomly during the intertrial interval. In all experiments, subjects' preferences were consistent with a local analysis of choice in concurrent chains. These results are discussed in terms of delay-reduction theory, which traditionally has failed to distinguish global and local contexts. PMID:9821681

  9. Electron Effective Mass in Graphene

    E-print Network

    Viktor Ariel; Amir Natan

    2012-08-12

    The particle effective mass in graphene is a challenging concept because the commonly used theoretical expression is mathematically divergent. In this paper, we use basic principles to present a simple theoretical expression for the effective mass that is suitable for both parabolic and non-parabolic isotropic materials. We demonstrate that this definition is consistent with the definition of the cyclotron effective mass, which is one of the common methods for effective mass measurement in solid state materials. We apply the proposed theoretical definition to graphene and demonstrate linear dependence of the effective mass on momentum, as confirmed by experimental cyclotron resonance measurements. Therefore, the proposed definition of the effective mass can be used for non-parabolic materials such as graphene.

  10. S100 beta stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and mRNA levels in rat cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Castets, F; Guevara, J L; Van Eldik, L J

    1996-02-01

    The glia-derived, neurotrophic protein S100 beta has been implicated in development and maintenance of the nervous system. However, S100 beta has also been postulated to play a role in mechanisms of neuropathology, because of its specific localization and selective overexpression in Alzheimer's disease. To begin to address the question of whether S100 beta can induce potentially toxic signaling pathways, we examined the effects of the protein on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in cultures of rat cortical astrocytes. S100 beta treatment of astrocytes induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in accumulation of the NO metabolite, nitrite, in the conditioned medium. The S100 beta- stimulated nitrite production was blocked by cycloheximide and by the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methylester, but not by the inactive D-isomer of the inhibitor. Direct measurement of NOS enzymatic activity in cell extracts and analysis of NOS mRNA levels showed that the NOS activated by S100 beta addition is the calcium-independent, inducible isoform. Furthermore, the specificity of the effects of S100 beta on activation of NOS was demonstrated by the inability of S100 alpha and calmodulin to induce an increase in nitrite levels. Our data indicate that S100 beta can induce a potent activation of inducible NOS in astrocytes, an observation that might have relevance to the role of S100 beta in neuropathology. PMID:8576219

  11. Optical Properties and Photoelectric Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng S. Li

    This chapter presents the fundamental optical properties and bulk photoelectric effects in a semiconductor. The optical properties\\u000a associated with the fundamental and free-carrier absorption processes and the internal photoelectric effects such as photoconductive\\u000a (PC), photovoltaic (PV), and photomagnetoelectric (PME) effects in a semiconductor are described. Important fundamental physical\\u000a and electronic properties such as energy band structures, excess carrier phenomena, and

  12. Magnetodielectric effect without multiferroic coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Catalan

    2005-01-01

    The existence of a magnetodielectric (magnetocapacitance) effect is often\\u000aused as a test for multiferroic behavior in new material systems. However,\\u000astrong magnetodielectric effects can also be achieved through a combination of\\u000amagnetoresistance and the Maxwell-Wagner effect, unrelated to multiferroic\\u000acoupling. The fact that this resistive magnetocapacitance does not require\\u000amultiferroic materials may be advantageous for some practical applications.\\u000aConversely,

  13. Elastocaloric effect in ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Aditya; Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    Elastocaloric effect has been experimentally demonstrated in bulk (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 polycrystalline ferroelectric material. Predictions were made using Maxwell's relationship for elastocaloric effect. A maximum elastocaloric effect of 1.55 K was observed for an initial material temperature of 340 K and applied compressive stress of 0-250 MPa (under a constant electric field of 2 MV m-1). The reported value is several times larger than the peak electrocaloric effect for the same material. The results indicate that ferroelectric materials possess a huge potential for elastocaloric refrigeration.

  14. Neuroendocrine effects of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Russel J.

    1991-09-01

    The light/dark cycle to which animals, and possibly humans, are exposed has a major impact on their physiology. The mechanisms whereby specific tissues respond to the light/dark cycle involve the pineal hormone melatonin. The pineal gland, an end organ of the visual system in mammals, produces the hormone melatonin only at night, at which time it is released into the blood. The duration of elevated nightly melatonin provides every tissue with information about the time of day and time of year (in animals that are kept under naturally changing photoperiods). Besides its release in a circadian mode, melatonin is also discharged in a pulsatile manner; the physiological significance, if any, of pulsatile melatonin release remains unknown. The exposure of animals including man to light at night rapidly depresses pineal melatonin synthesis and, therefore, blood melatonin levels drop precipitously. The brightness of light at night required to depress melatonin production is highly species specific. In general, the pineal gland of nocturnally active mammals, which possess rod-dominated retinas, is more sensitive to inhibition by light than is the pineal gland of diurnally active animals (with cone-dominated retinas). Because of the ability of the light/dark cycle to determine melatonin production, the photoperiod is capable of influencing the function of a variety of endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Indeed, melatonin is a ubiquitously acting pineal hormone with its effects on the neuroendocrine system having been most thoroughly investigated. Thus, in nonhuman photoperiodic mammals melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction; in humans also, the indole has been implicated in the control of reproductive physiology.

  15. SMITH AND BARGHNONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER

    E-print Network

    Bargh, John A.

    SMITH AND BARGHNONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE TENDENCIES Pamela K. Smith Radboud University Nijmegen John A. Bargh Yale University According-24 Address for correspondence: Pamela K. Smith, Department of Social Psychology, Behavioural Science

  16. Mitigating cyanobacterial blooms: how effective are 'effective microorganisms'?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. L. L. W. Lürling; Y. Tolman; M. Euwe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 'Effective Microorganisms (EM)' on the growth of cyanobacteria, and their ability to terminate cyanobacterial blooms. The EM was tested in the form of 'mudballs' or 'Bokashi-balls', and as a suspension (EM-A) in laboratory experiments. No growth inhibition was observed for a laboratory strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and for M. aeruginosa from the field at

  17. Costs of antibiotic resistance - separating trait effects and selective effects.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alex R; Angst, Daniel C; Schiessl, Konstanze T; Ackermann, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance can impair bacterial growth or competitive ability in the absence of antibiotics, frequently referred to as a 'cost' of resistance. Theory and experiments emphasize the importance of such effects for the distribution of resistance in pathogenic populations. However, recent work shows that costs of resistance are highly variable depending on environmental factors such as nutrient supply and population structure, as well as genetic factors including the mechanism of resistance and genetic background. Here, we suggest that such variation can be better understood by distinguishing between the effects of resistance mechanisms on individual traits such as growth rate or yield ('trait effects') and effects on genotype frequencies over time ('selective effects'). We first give a brief overview of the biological basis of costs of resistance and how trait effects may translate to selective effects in different environmental conditions. We then review empirical evidence of genetic and environmental variation of both types of effects and how such variation may be understood by combining molecular microbiological information with concepts from evolution and ecology. Ultimately, disentangling different types of costs may permit the identification of interventions that maximize the cost of resistance and therefore accelerate its decline. PMID:25861384

  18. Costs of antibiotic resistance – separating trait effects and selective effects

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Alex R; Angst, Daniel C; Schiessl, Konstanze T; Ackermann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can impair bacterial growth or competitive ability in the absence of antibiotics, frequently referred to as a ‘cost’ of resistance. Theory and experiments emphasize the importance of such effects for the distribution of resistance in pathogenic populations. However, recent work shows that costs of resistance are highly variable depending on environmental factors such as nutrient supply and population structure, as well as genetic factors including the mechanism of resistance and genetic background. Here, we suggest that such variation can be better understood by distinguishing between the effects of resistance mechanisms on individual traits such as growth rate or yield (‘trait effects’) and effects on genotype frequencies over time (‘selective effects’). We first give a brief overview of the biological basis of costs of resistance and how trait effects may translate to selective effects in different environmental conditions. We then review empirical evidence of genetic and environmental variation of both types of effects and how such variation may be understood by combining molecular microbiological information with concepts from evolution and ecology. Ultimately, disentangling different types of costs may permit the identification of interventions that maximize the cost of resistance and therefore accelerate its decline. PMID:25861384

  19. Nonlocal effects in effective-medium response of nanolayered metamaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Elser; Viktor A. Podolskiy; Ildar Salakhutdinov; Ivan Avrutsky

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyze electromagnetic modes in multilayered nanocomposites and demonstrate that the response of a majority of realistic layered structures is strongly affected by the nonlocal effects originating from strong field oscillations across the system, and is not described by conventional effective-medium theories. They develop the analytical description of the relevant phenomena and confirm their results with numerical solutions of

  20. The Scottish physiotherapy clinical effectiveness network : Supporting clinical effectiveness activity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley K. Holdsworth; Valerie A. Blair; Jenny Miller

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Physiotherapists throughout the UK have a professional obligation to keep up to date and practice effectively. The Scottish Physiotherapists Clinical Effectiveness Network (SPCEN) was established in 1999 with the aim of providing a mechanism through which physiotherapists could share and learn from experiences, avoid duplication of effort and undertake proactive activities. The purpose of this paper is to

  1. TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSIS AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSES AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS Benignus, V.A., Research Psychologist, ORD, NHEERL, Human Studies Division, 919-966-6242, benignus.vernon@epa.gov Boyes, W.K., Supervisory Health Scientist, ORD, NHEERL, Neurotoxicology Division 919-541-...

  2. The effects of innovativeness on effectiveness and efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayhan Tajeddini

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Whilst researchers have explored the relationship between innovativeness and business performance in different organizations, such studies in services such as restaurants are scarce. The purpose of this paper is to examine potential influences of innovativeness on effectiveness and efficiency and their subsequent effects on restaurant business performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data for this study were collected through personal interviews

  3. EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.

    2012-02-27

    The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

  4. Effect of Dynamic Pruning Safety on Learning to Rank Effectiveness

    E-print Network

    Jose, Joemon M.

    Effect of Dynamic Pruning Safety on Learning to Rank Effectiveness Craig Macdonald1 , Nicola obtain the set of documents to be re-ranked by the application of a learned model in a learning to rank & Retrieval General Terms: Performance, Experimentation Keywords: Dynamic Pruning, Learning to Rank 1

  5. Stimulant Treatment over Five Years: Adherence, Effectiveness, and Adverse Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of adherence and medication status on effectiveness and adverse effects of stimulant use in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over 5 years. Method: Seventy-nine of 91 participants in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of methylphenidate and parent groups enrolled in a follow-up…

  6. Thermoelectric effects in spin field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Ping Niu

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the thermoelectric effects in a spin field-effect transistor with ferromagnetic leads held at different temperatures. The thermopower S and thermoelectric figure of merit ZT oscillate with the increase of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling strength. The oscillation amplitude of ZT decreases with increasing the spin polarization. S and ZT are strongly influenced by the interfacial barrier strength Z, exhibiting

  7. Thermoelectric effects in spin field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Ping Niu

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the thermoelectric effects in a spin field-effect transistor with ferromagnetic leads held at different temperatures. The thermopower S and thermoelectric figure of merit ZT oscillate with the increase of the Rashba spin–orbit coupling strength. The oscillation amplitude of ZT decreases with increasing the spin polarization. S and ZT are strongly influenced by the interfacial barrier strength Z, exhibiting

  8. 40 CFR 62.9171 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 62.9171 Section 62.9171 Protection of...FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Oklahoma Effective Date. § 62.9171 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of...

  9. 40 CFR 62.4634 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 62.4634 Section 62.4634 Protection of...FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Louisiana Effective Date § 62.4634 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of...

  10. Geologic effects of hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coch, Nicholas K.

    1994-08-01

    Hurricanes are intense low pressure systems of tropical origin. Hurricane damage results from storm surge, wind, and inland flooding from heavy rainfall. Field observations and remote sensing of recent major hurricanes such as Hugo (1989), Andrew (1992) and Iniki (1992) are providing new insights into the mechanisms producing damage in these major storms. Velocities associated with hurricanes include the counterclockwise vortex winds flowing around the eye and the much slower regional winds that steer hurricane and move it forward. Vectorial addition of theseof these two winds on the higher effective wind speed than on the left side. Coast-parallel hurricane tracks keep the weaker left side of the storm against the coast, whereas coast-normal tracks produce a wide swath of destruction as the more powerful right side of the storm cuts a swath of destruction hundreds of kilometers inland. Storm surge is a function of the wind speed, central pressure, shelf slope, shoreline configuration, and anthropogenic alterations to the shoreline. Maximum surge heights are not under the eye of the hurricane, where the pressure is lowest, but on the right side of the eye at the radius of maximum winds, where the winds are strongest. Flood surge occurs as the hurricane approaches land and drives coastal waters, and superimposed waves, across the shore. Ebb surge occurs when impounded surface water flows seaward as the storm moves inland. Flood and ebb surge damage have been greatly increased in recent hurricanes as a result of anthropogenic changes along the shoreline. Hurricane wind damage occurs on three scales — megascale, mesoscale and microscale. Local wind damage is a function of wind speed, exposure and structural resistance to velocity pressure, wind drag and flying debris. Localized extreme damage is caused by gusts that can locally exceed sustained winds by a factor of two in areas where there is strong convective activity. Geologic changes occuring in hurricanes include beach erosion, dune erosion, inlet formation from flood and ebb surge, landscape changes through tree destruction by wind and nearshore channeling and sedimentation resulting from ebb surge. Multi-decadal wet and dry cycles in West Africa seem to be associated with increases (wet periods) and decreases (dry periods) in the frequency of Atlantic Coast landfalling hurricanes. Coastalzone population and development has increased markedly in a time of low hurricane frequency in the 24 year dry cycle from1970 to the present. However, no previous climatic cycle in this century has exceeded 26 years. We may entering a multi-decadal cycle of greater hurricane activity, placing these highly urbanized shorelines in considerable danger.

  11. The wow effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Pagnotta, Paola; Trentini, Gabriella; Cirotti, Tiziana; Parrettini, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Teaching science at elementary school is a hard work for scientists since we usually use to talk to colleagues by using technical and specific words not understandable by general public and school students. Finding plain language for explaining what is the research and for describing scientific topics was the objective of this work. In collaboration with the school teachers, I organized a series of meetings describing the same subject with different approaches and, at the end of the test-period, we did a survey within the 60 students (10-11 years old) for understanding which was the most attractive approach for them. The survey asked to the students the 3 topics (which could be a sentence, an activity or simply a picture) that they remember at most from all the meetings. Later on we asked why they have chosen those topics. The common topic was atmospheric and space science and it was approached by using, books, videos, frontal lectures with the support of pictures and other material, and with direct hands-on lab such as 3D puzzles for building a satellite. Nobody highlights having read a book. The majority of the students (male and female) really appreciated having built their own satellite (wow, I have done it!) and how's the life into the International Space Station (wow, everything flies there and they drink the pee!). Many female students were fascinated by the stars and by the Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti (wow, an Italian woman is there!) while many boys were attracted by the technology evolution (wow, how a mobile phone could be that big?!). Surprisingly 3 students remember a quick (showed for just a few seconds) and blurred picture showing the glory effect by aircraft (wow, a circular rainbow!). The survey shows how the students mostly appreciate the hands-on labs and being active and creative, their attention decreases but it is still active with frontal lectures or videos showing them real examples or something impacting their day-life.

  12. Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant…

  13. Correlation effects and bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovjev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

  14. Memory Processes in Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kathy

    1985-01-01

    Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

  15. The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all (Wein's Law). Our atmosphere is not completely transparent at these wavelengths, because the greenhouse

  16. The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks

    E-print Network

    The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks #12;Three Pillars Behind Climate Change! #12;1. Global. Greenhouse Gases have been on the increase. #12;3. The Greenhouse effect is a powerful theory that explains absorbed=rate emitted 30% reflected to space! #12;Computing T! no-greenhouse planet,! e.g., 78% N2, 21% O2

  17. Herbicide Effects on Plant Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of herbicides on plant disease is an important, but generally overlooked, aspect of integrated pest management. Furthermore, these interactions can be crucial contributors to the success or failure of the biocontrol of weeds with microbes. Indirectly, through their strong effects on pla...

  18. Side effects of generic competition?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörgen Hellström; Niklas Rudholm

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that

  19. Effective Scientific Posters Quick Reference

    E-print Network

    Movileanu, Liviu

    Effective Scientific Posters Quick Reference George R. Hess An effective poster will help you. A poster is a visual communication tool. Posters serve as ... » a source of information » a conversation starter » a summary of your work » an advertisement of your work Resources for Poster Presenters George

  20. The Effects of Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.

    In this paper, selected evidence on the effects of Japanese schools is presented. The author believes that Japan is one modern society where the schools have fostered individual and social development. The primary focus is on the effects for individuals in the area of cognitive skills, motivation, educational and occupational attainments, and…

  1. Immediate Neurocognitive Effects of Concussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael McCrea; James P. Kelly; Christopher Randolph; Ron Cisler; Lisa Berger

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively measure the immediate neurocognitive effects and early course of recovery from concussion and to examine the effects of loss of consciousness (LOC) and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) on the severity of neurocognitive impairment immediately after concussion. METHODS: A sports-related concussion research model was used to allow prospective immediate evaluation of concussion. A total of 2385 high school and

  2. Superconducting Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1995-01-01

    Devices offer switching speeds greater than semiconducting counterparts. High-Tc superconducting field-effect transistors (SUPEFETs) investigated for use as electronic switches in delay-line-type microwave phase shifters. Resemble semiconductor field-effect transistors in some respects, but their operation based on different principle; namely, electric-field control of transition between superconductivity and normal conductivity.

  3. Predicting the Educational Bias Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Glen G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reporting a significant relationship between teacher acceptance of diverse behavior and their resistance to the biasing influence of a deviancy label, this article indicates academic performance of at least some children may be affected by the bias effect and suggests five ways to reduce the negative effects of bias. (Author/SB)

  4. Effects of World War I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Kilpatrick

    2012-04-10

    Determine the effects of World War I on countries involved in the war. In this activity, read the links and use the information given to determine the effects of World War I on the major players in the war. Fill out the graphic organizer with the information you find. Organizer Casualties - Use this site to determine how many soldiers each country lost in ...

  5. Electrophoretically Assessing Polyelectrolyte Effective Charge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey Popov; David Hoagland

    2006-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis revealed how polyelectrolyte effective charge density varies with backbone charge spacing and solvent dielectric constant. The study focused on ionenes, polyelectrolytes that possess regularly spaced quaternary ammonium groups in the backbone. Complete ionization of functional units and good solvency in water and mixtures of water with methanol or acetonitrile enabled measurements of ionene effective charge density as solvent

  6. Switchgrass biochar effects two aridisols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biochar has received growing attention with regards to improving the physico-chemical properties of highly weathered Ultisols and Oxisols, yet very little research has focused on effects in Aridisols. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of either low or high tempera...

  7. Hadronization Effects in Inclusive ? Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    It is shown that the nonperturbative effects due to hadronization play a crucial role in low-energy strong interaction processes. Specifically, such effects impose a stringent constraint on the infrared behavior of the Adler function and play an essential role in the theoretical analysis of inclusive ? lepton decay.

  8. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel G Pickar

    2002-01-01

    Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the apparent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery of

  9. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel G. Pickar

    2002-01-01

    Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the appar- ent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery

  10. Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

  11. Effects of Ritalin on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, Robert B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes the use of "Ritalin" to calm overactive children. The drug's side effects are reported, and research on the effect of "Ritalin" on reading performance in the classroom is reviewed. It is concluded that use of stimulant drugs to help reading underachievers is not supported by research. (Author/JDD)

  12. Mechanical effects in cookoff modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Gross; M. R. Baer; M. L. Hobbs

    1994-01-01

    Complete cookoff modeling of energetic material in confined geometries must couple thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focused on the prediction of the onset of combustion behavior based only on thermal-chemistry effects with little or no regard to the mechanical behavior of the energetic material. In this paper, an analysis tool is outlined which couples thermal,

  13. An Investigation into Instructor Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Claxton, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Describes development of the Instructor Effectiveness Questionnaire (IEQ). Survey of 234 students participating in canoeing and kayaking at the Nantahala Outdoor Center (North Carolina) found that all 17 teachers received high scores, that the IEQ was able to discriminate between more- and less-effective instructors, and that female instructors…

  14. Student Perceptions of University Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemann, Gary L.; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    Student perceptions of the effectiveness of three state universities was studied: Arizona State University, University of Arizona, and Northern Arizona University. An operational definition of effectiveness was proposed based on the literature, and a list of organizational activities was validated by administrators, faculty, community…

  15. Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective rangeland management requires careful consideration of the possible cumulative effects of different management options prior to making major management decisions. State-and-transition (S/T) models, based on ecological sites, capture our understanding ecosystem functioning and can be used t...

  16. Magnetic Effects in Chemical Reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatolii L Buchachenko

    1976-01-01

    The Review discusses in what elementary chemical reactions the intrinsic angular momentum of electrons and nuclei is conserved and in what reactions it is not conserved, how weak electron-nuclear magnetic interaction and an external magnetic field influence the conservation of angular momentum and what are the consequences of this effect, and what magnetic effects occur in chemical reactions, as well

  17. Humidity effects in magnetic recording

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Karis; B. Marchon; M. D. Carter; P. R. Fitzpatrick; J. P. Oberhauser

    2005-01-01

    Humidity effects in magnetic recording are reviewed. We highlight the progress made toward quantifying water adsorption on lubricated overcoats, leading up to the present understanding of humidity effects on magnetic recording tribology. Recently, it was found that moisture is also absorbed by hygroscopic atmospheric contaminants to form liquid nanodroplets on the overcoat. Rheological and dielectric measurements were performed to investigate

  18. Cell cycle effects of drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Cell Growth and Division Cycle; Cell Cycle Effects of Alkylating Agents; Biological Effects of Folic Acid Antagonists with Antineoplastic Activity; and Bleomycin-Mode of Action with Particular Reference to the Cell Cycle.

  19. Effective theory for quantum gravity

    E-print Network

    Calmet, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an effective theory for quantum gravity and discuss the bounds on the parameters of this effective action. In particular we show that measurement in pulsars binary systems are unlikely to improve the bounds on the coefficients of the $R^2$ and $R_{\\mu\

  20. Effect of topiramate on attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie A Burton; Cynthia Harden

    1997-01-01

    Impaired attention is a frequently reported side effect of anti-epileptic medication, as well as a frequent general complaint of epilepsy. It is thus important to evaluate the effect of new medications on attention processes. Attention was assessed weekly in ten subjects receiving topiramate over a 3 month period. Attention was evaluated with digit span, a widely used index of attention.

  1. Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Sung Kim; Eunye Kuk; Kyeong Nam Yu; Jong-Ho Kim; Sung Jin Park; Hu Jang Lee; So Hyun Kim; Young Kyung Park; Yong Ho Park; Cheol-Yong Hwang; Yong-Kwon Kim; Yoon-Sik Lee; Dae Hong Jeong; Myung-Haing Cho

    2007-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of silver (Ag) ion or salts are well known, but the effects of Ag nanoparticles on microorganisms and antimicrobial mechanism have not been revealed clearly. Stable Ag nanoparticles were prepared and their shape and size distribution characterized by particle characterizer and transmission electron microscopic study. The antimicrobial activity of Ag nanoparticles was investigated against yeast, Escherichia coli,

  2. Talmi integrals and effective interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Hasse; Y. R. Waghmare

    1972-01-01

    Contributions due to central, spin-orbit, and tensor forces to various two particle effective interactions are separated and expressed as a sum of Talmi integrals. From the approximate knowledge of these integrals the radial dependence of the effective interactions of light nuclei is extracted. Permanent address: Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur-16 (U.P.), India.

  3. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  4. Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Lance D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching…

  5. Thermo-super-hydrophobic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2012-02-01

    Super-hydrophobic effect involves capture of gas bubbles in pores of solid wall. These bubbles separate moving liquid from the solid surface resulting in a substantial reduction of shear drag experienced by the liquid. The super-hydrophobic effect requires presence of two phases and thus drag reduction can be accomplished only for liquids. Thermo-super-hydrophobic effect takes advantage of the localized heating to create separation bubbles and thus can work with single phase flow systems. Analysis of a simple model problem shows that this effect is very strong in the case of small Re flows such as those found in micro-channels and can reduce pressure drop down to 50% of the reference value if the heating pattern as well as the heating intensity are suitable chosen. The thermo-super-hydrophobic effect becomes marginal when Re increases above a certain critical value.

  6. Side effects of generic competition?

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jörgen; Rudholm, Niklas

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that increased generic market share increases the number of reported side effects for all estimated models. When studying the relationship at the substance level, increasing generic market shares increases the number of side effects for 7 of the 15 substances. Generic substitution laws and measures to increase generic competition may thus have unintended consequences since these results show a positive relationship between generic market shares and reported side effects. PMID:15714340

  7. Mass-independent isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L

    2013-02-28

    Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions. PMID:23301791

  8. Modulation of effective damping constant using spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Shinya, E-mail: KASAI.Shinya@nims.go.jp; Kondou, Kouta [Magnetic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Mitani, Seiji [Magnetic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Otani, Yoshichika [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We have investigated modulation of the effective damping constant ?{sub eff} via spin currents through the spin Hall effect for Permalloy/Pt bilayer films with various thicknesses. The observed linear and sinusoidal dependences of current density and field direction on ?{sub eff} are in agreement with the analytical model. By comparing the thickness dependence of spin Hall angle obtained from the damping modulation with that previously obtained by spin-torque-induced ferromagnetic resonance, we show that there is no clear extrinsic contribution in the present method. We also show the large modulation of the effective damping constant (down to ?20%) in the high-current-density region.

  9. Effective theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect: Hierarchy construction

    SciTech Connect

    Blok, B.; Wen, X.G. (School of Natural Sciences, Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The effective theories for the hierarchical fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) are proposed. We obtain the quantum numbers of the quasiparticles and the structure of the edge excitations for the general hierarchical FQHE state. It is shown that at the filling fractions {nu}={ital k}/(2{ital km}{plus minus}1) the Jain states and the hierarchical FQHE states give rise to the same quasiparticles and edge excitations and have the same effective theories (in the dual form). This suggests that these FQHE states are equivalent despite having been obtained from two different schemes.

  10. Climatic Effects of Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzyk, T. M.; Frederick, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    Urban areas around the world have been increasing in size and population density in recent decades. The United Nations reports that in 1900, urbanites comprised 14% of the world's population. This value has increased to 47% in the year 2000, and is expected to grow to 60% by 2030. The goal of this study is to isolate the effects of urbanization on surface radiation balance components and meteorology. Data are recorded from urban and rural locations with a net radiometer and weather station. Instruments record incoming and outgoing solar and thermal radiation, and meteorological variables such as air temperature and pressure, relative humidity and wind speed. Data are incorporated into an energy balance model for urban and natural surfaces to compute heat fluxes due to solar and thermal infrared (longwave) radiation (QSOL and QLW); sensible heat transport (QSENS); evaporation (QEVAP); and conduction (QCONDUC). These fluxes comprise the heating and cooling elements for the different sites. After sunset, the urban surface to air temperature differential (TS - TA) is lower than that in the rural area, and wind speed is decreased due to increased surface roughness, so QSENS is lower. This value decreases even more in an urban canyon environment. Wind speeds in urban canyons are recorded to be up to 15 mph less than regional ones. Urban heat islands are generally assumed to be constant phenomena, existing as much during daytime as at night, but this is not always the case. Rural air temperatures can be greater than or equal to urban ones during the day, which is a reflection of the low specific heats of rural surfaces, but cooling rates are lower in urban areas after sunset, due to their surfaces' high heat capacities, causing these areas to be warmer at night, resulting in the formation of an urban heat island (UHI). UHIs in this respect are cyclical phenomena that occur diurnally. Results show that urban cooling rates can be half as much as rural ones, resulting in nighttime UHI intensities of over 8°C in early August in metropolitan Chicago. Incoming thermal radiation values are largely a function of atmospheric characteristics such as optical depth and cloudiness. They are also a function of the vertical build-up of urban areas. Incoming thermal radiation values in a low-rise urban environment are nearly the same as those in a rural one; however, a high-rise (urban canyon) site with a large aspect ratio (building height to street width) and low sky-view factor shows consistently higher incoming thermal values through time, being an average of ~25 Wm-2 higher, and as much as 60 Wm-2 during some periods, so downwelling QLW will increase with increased building height. This also decreases urban cooling rates.

  11. Shaped hole effects on film cooling effectiveness and a comparison of multiple effectiveness measurement techniques

    E-print Network

    Varvel, Trent Alan

    2005-02-17

    ...................................................................................................50 Figure 23. Laterally averaged effectiveness versus the x/D parameter of Plate 1 using the thermocouple method .....................................................................51 Figure 24. Calibration curve of the IR camera system... ...........................................................................38 Figure 14. Calibration curve of the two bandwidths used for the transient liquid crystal method ................................................................................................39 Figure 15. Local effectiveness plots of Plate...

  12. Effective 1.0: An Analytic Effective Action Analysis Library

    E-print Network

    James P. J. Hetherington; Philip Stephens

    2006-05-12

    Effective is a C++ library which provides the user a toolbox to study the effective action of an arbitrary field theory. From the field content, gauge groups and representations an appropriate action is generated symbolically. The effective potential, mass spectrum, field couplings and vacuum expectation values are then obtained automatically; tree level results are obtained analytically while many tools, both numeric and analytic, provide a variety of approaches to deal with the one-loop corrections. This article provides a guide for users to who wish to analyze their own models using Effective. This is done by presenting the code required and describing the physics assumptions behind the code. The library can be extended in many ways and discussion of several such extensions is also provided.

  13. Effects of therapists nonverbal communication on rated skill and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sherer, M; Rogers, R W

    1980-07-01

    A therapist's nonverbal behavior may communicate emotion and feelings toward a client. Thus, skilled utilization of appropriate nonverbal cues should facilitate many nonbehavioral therapies. A 2 X 2 X 2 factorial experiment investigated the therapy-facilitating effects of three theoretical dimensions of nonverbal communication: Immediacy, potency or status, and responsivity. A reenacted client-centered therapy session was videotaped. Verbal content was held constant, but all combinations of the three nonverbal dimensions were portrayed. A total of 118 male and female nonparticipant observers rated the therapist's interpersonal skills (empathy, warmth, and genuineness) and effectiveness. The results disclosed that the nonverbal cues of immediacy (close therapist-client distance and eye contact) significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. Thus, the study demonstrated that a therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuiness, and effectiveness. These findings were interpreted in terms of the therapist's nonverbal cues communicating liking and acceptance of the client. PMID:7410567

  14. Effect of time horizon on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios

    E-print Network

    Sondhi, Manu

    2005-01-01

    Background: Estimation of cost-effectiveness of a therapy as compared with another, in healthcare, is often based on a single perspective and a single time horizon. In this thesis, I explored methods of extrapolating the ...

  15. A generalized gravitomagnetic clock effect

    E-print Network

    Hackmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In General Relativity the rotation of a gravitating body like the Earth influences the motion of orbiting test particles or satellites in a non-Newtonian way. This causes e.g. a precession of the orbital plane, known as the Lense-Thirring effect, and a precession of the spin of a gyroscope, known as the Schiff effect. Here we discuss a third effect, first introduced by Cohen and Mashhoon, called the gravitomagnetic clock effect. It describes the difference in proper time of counter revolving clocks after a revolution of $2\\pi$. For two clocks on counter rotating equatorial circular orbits around the Earth the effect is about $10^{-7}$ seconds per revolution, which is quite large. We introduce a general relativistic definition of the gravitomagnetic clock effect which is valid for arbitrary pairs of orbits. This includes rotations in the same direction and different initial conditions, which is crucial if the effect can be detected with existing satellites or with payloads on non-dedicated missions. We also de...

  16. Cadmium and Its Neurotoxic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Du, Yanli

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that has received considerable concern environmentally and occupationally. Cd has a long biological half-life mainly due to its low rate of excretion from the body. Thus, prolonged exposure to Cd will cause toxic effect due to its accumulation over time in a variety of tissues, including kidneys, liver, central nervous system (CNS), and peripheral neuronal systems. Cd can be uptaken from the nasal mucosa or olfactory pathways into the peripheral and central neurons; for the latter, Cd can increase the blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, mechanisms underlying Cd neurotoxicity remain not completely understood. Effect of Cd neurotransmitter, oxidative damage, interaction with other metals such as cobalt and zinc, estrogen-like, effect and epigenetic modification may all be the underlying mechanisms. Here, we review the in vitro and in vivo evidence of neurotoxic effects of Cd. The available finding indicates the neurotoxic effects of Cd that was associated with both biochemical changes of the cell and functional changes of central nervous system, suggesting that neurotoxic effects may play a role in the systemic toxic effects of the exposure to Cd, particularly the long-term exposure. PMID:23997854

  17. Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, William

    2012-02-01

    During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

  18. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  19. The effect of the tortoise coordinates on the tunnel effect

    E-print Network

    Tian Gui-hua; Zhao Zheng; Shi-kun Wang

    2006-08-09

    The tunnel process of the quantum wave from the light cone is carefully discussed. They are applied in the massive quantum particles from the Schwarzschild black hole in the Kruskal metric. The tortoise coordinates prevent one from understanding the tunnel process, and are investigated with care. Furthermore, the massive particles could come out of the black hole either by the Hawking radiation or by the tunnel effect; the tunnel effect might give more information about the black hole.

  20. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-08-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates. PMID:19536806

  1. The photovoltaic efficiency of the fabrication of copolymer P3HT:PCBM on different thickness nano-anatase titania as solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazim, Haidar Gazy; Ajeel, Khalid I.; Badran, Hussain A.

    2015-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) with an inverted structure have been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) as their electron transport layer, which was prepared on the indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO-glass), silicon wafer and glass substrates by sol-gel method at different spin speed by using spin-coating (1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm) for nano-thin film 58, 75 and 90 nm respectively. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and optical properties of TiO2 layer were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The optical band gap of the films has been found to be in the range 3.63-3.96 eV for allowed direct transition and to be in the range 3.23-3.69 eV for forbidden direct transition to the different TiO2 thickness. The samples were examined to feature current and voltages darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell where they were getting the highest open-circuit voltage, Voc, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39% fabricated with 90 nm respectively.

  2. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C{sub 1}?C{sub 4} oxidation and NO{sub x} formation kinetics.

  3. An Increase in Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Accompanies Dormancy Breakage and Germination of Yellow Cedar Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chengwei; Kermode, Allison R.

    2000-01-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC 3.1.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination. PMID:10982438

  4. Synthesis of chiral triazine coupling reagents based on esters of N-alkylproline and their application in the enantioselective incorporation of D or L amino acid residue directly from racemic substrate.

    PubMed

    Kasperowicz-Frankowska, Katarzyna; Gzik, Anna; Dziemidkiewicz, Micha?; Kolesi?ska, Beata; Kami?ski, Zbigniew J

    2014-01-01

    Esters of N-methylproline and N-allylproline were prepared and used as component for synthesis of chiral triazine based coupling reagents. N-Triazinylammonium tetrafluoroborate obtained from methylester of L-N-methylproline, 2-chloro-4,6-dimethozxy-1,3,5-triazine and tetrafluoroboric acid in the coupling of rac-Z- A1a-OH with glycine methylester preferred formation of D-Z-AlaGly-OMe with L/D ratio 21/79. Coupling reagent prepared from D enantiomer of N-methylproline gave L-Z-AlaGly-OMe with L/D ratio 75/25. PMID:25745772

  5. Novel effects of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, K. L.; Martin, E.; Turko, I. V.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a simple free radical gas, elicits a surprisingly wide range of physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO interacts with soluble guanylate cyclase to evoke many of these effects. However, NO can also interact with molecular oxygen and superoxide radicals to produce reactive nitrogen species that can modify a number of macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. NO can also interact directly with transition metals. Here, we have reviewed the non--3',5'-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-mediated effects of NO including modifications of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

  6. Weekend effect in seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, O. D.

    2007-12-01

    An attempt is made to discover the so-called weekend effect in seismic activity variations, which is supposedly related to human activities. Using the statistical analysis of the world catalog of earthquakes, it is shown that this effect probably exists. Application of the synchronous detection method revealed that the sevenday variation in the number of earthquakes of magnitudes M ? 5.0 has a Sunday maximum with a relative amplitude of the variation of about 5%. We failed to find a convincing physical interpretation of the effect supposedly related to the seven-day cycle of industrial activity.

  7. On the gravitomagnetic clock effect

    E-print Network

    Bahram Mashhoon; Lorenzo Iorio; Herbert Lichtenegger

    2001-10-10

    General relativity predicts that two freely counter-revolving test particles in the exterior field of a central rotating mass take different periods of time to complete the same full orbit; this time difference leads to the gravitomagnetic clock effect. The effect has been derived for circular equatorial orbits; moreover, it has been extended via azimuthal closure to spherical orbits around a slowly rotating mass. In this work, a general formula is derived for the main gravitomagnetic clock effect in the case of slow motion along an arbitrary {\\it elliptical} orbit in the exterior field of a slowly rotating mass. Some of the implications of this result are briefly discussed.

  8. Repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, S.-Y.

    1990-03-13

    I show that two spin rotators 180{degree} apart may be desirable for the repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect. I also calculate the effect of depolarization resonance on the repetitive Stern-Gerlach effect. It is shown that to first order in resonance strength, we can avoid the imperfection resonance if the energy of the beam is at G{gamma} = n + 1/2. The time available for accumulating the Stern-Gerlach kick is then limited by the intrinsic resonance. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers. PMID:23493250

  10. Effective Theories of Quantum Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Xinquan Wu; Yongge Ma

    2012-12-24

    We introduce two possible ways of defining effective constraints of quantum systems and applied this effective constraint method to models of WDW Quantum Cosmology and Loop Quantum Cosmology. We analyze effective Hamiltonian constraint on both second and third order and calculate Hubble parameter as well as modified Friedmann equation of each model. Then we compare with a special case using coherent state. It shows that this method is reasonable and as before the classical Big Bang singularity is replaced by a quantum bounce in Loop Quantum Cosmology.

  11. Gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, R. E.; Juvinall, G. L.; Uchiyama, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    The existing work on gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries is summarized, certain conclusions are drawn, and recommendations are made for future activities in this field. The effects of sustained high-G environments on cycle silver-zinc and nickel-cadmium cells have been evaluated over four complete cycles in the region of 10 to 75 G. Although no effects on high current discharge performances or on ampere-hour capacity were noted, severe zinc migration and sloughing of active material from the zinc electrode were observed. This latter effect constitutes real damage, and over a long period of time would result in loss of capacity. It is recommended that a zero-G battery experiment be implemented. Both an orbiting satellite and a sounding rocket approach are being considered.

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Side Effects Infection ? Check with your doctor or nurse before you take any medicine. This includes aspirin, ... such as Advil®). ? Check with your doctor or nurse before you get any shot or vaccine. Call ...

  13. Semiparametric measurement of environmental effects

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Diego

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives the results of a semiparametric analysis of pollution effects on housing prices using the Boston Housing Data. The exposition introduces the basic ideas of modeling pollution impacts with hedonic price ...

  14. Predictability effects in language acquisition 

    E-print Network

    Pate, John Kenton

    2013-07-02

    Human language has two fundamental requirements: it must allow competent speakers to exchange messages efficiently, and it must be readily learned by children. Recent work has examined effects of language predictability ...

  15. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACROLEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  16. Unparticle effects in neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Martinez, R.; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional, Bogota (Colombia); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2009-03-01

    Recently H. Georgi has introduced the concept of unparticles in order to describe the low energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective theory. We investigate its physical effects on the neutrino flux to be detected in a kilometer cubic neutrino telescope such as IceCube. We study the effects, on different observables, of the survival neutrino flux after through the Earth, and the regeneration originated in the neutral currents. We calculate the contribution of unparticle physics to the neutrino-nucleon interaction and, then, to the observables in order to evaluate detectable effects in IceCUbe. Our results are compared with the bounds obtained by other nonunderground experiments. Finally, the results are presented as an exclusion plot in the relevant parameters of the new physics stuff.

  17. ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Government Performance Results Act (GPRA, goal number four for Safe Communities), constitute the statutory authority and strategic framework respectively, for Agency research on non-target effects of pestici...

  18. The emotional effects of disruption 

    E-print Network

    Adcock, Christina Annie Lee

    2004-11-15

    Disruption is something that we must negotiate as part of our everyday lives. The context of disruption can vary in nature from being positive to being negative in nature. However, the emotional effects of the disruption have not been investigated...

  19. Effective contracts in supply chains

    E-print Network

    Shum, Wanhang

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, we have seen significant increase in the level of outsourcing in many industries. This increase in the level of outsourcing increases the importance of implementing effective contracts in supply chains. ...

  20. Nonlinear effects in kinetic resolutions

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Derrell W.

    1999-01-01

    resolved catalysts, and this is supported by experimental observations with the Jacobsen hydrolytic kinetic resolution (HKR) of epoxides. The criterion for a nonlinear effect in asymmetric catalysis--a nonlinear correlation between the enantiomeric excess...

  1. Effects of the Scopes Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabiner, Judith V.; Miller, Peter D.

    1974-01-01

    Considered are the effects of the Scopes trial on textbook publishers, textbook writers, and textbooks used in schools. The authors question whether it was a victory for evolutionists or for other groups. (RH)

  2. After Effects and Camera Mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry J. Kelly

    \\u000a Chapter 9 compared Flash to After Effects. In this chapter, we will go through the process of importing Flash animation into\\u000a After Effects and using the After Effects toolset to push the potential of your animation. We will hit on the following points:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a ? Exporting out of Flash\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a ? Importing into After Effects\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a ? Setting up your

  3. Wall effects in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevallier, J. P.; Vaucheret, X.

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis of current trends in the reduction and computation of wall effects is presented. Some of the points discussed include: (1) for the two-dimensional, transonic tests, various control techniques of boundary conditions are used with adaptive walls offering high precision in determining reference conditions and residual corrections. A reduction in the boundary layer effects of the lateral walls is obtained at T2; (2) for the three-dimensional tests, the methods for the reduction of wall effects are still seldom applied due to a lesser need and to their complexity; (3) the supports holding the model of the probes have to be taken into account in the estimation of perturbatory effects.

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Institutes of Health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Anemia Call your doctor or nurse if you feel: ? ... tired ? Your heart beating very fast What is anemia? Anemia is when your body doesn’t have ...

  5. Radiation effects on structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    1991-06-28

    This report discusses the following topics on the effect radiation has on thermonuclear reactor materials: Atomic Displacements; Microstructure Evolution; Materials Engineering, Mechanics, and Design; Research on Low-Activation Steels; and Research Motivated by Grant Support.

  6. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  7. Effective toughness of heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. Z.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Bourdin, B.; Bhattacharya, K.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a versatile approach to computing the effective toughness of heterogeneous media. This approach focusses on the material property independent of the details of the boundary condition. The key idea is what we call a surfing boundary condition, where a steadily propagating crack opening displacement is applied as a boundary condition to a large domain while the crack set is allowed to evolve as it chooses. The approach is verified and used to study examples in brittle fracture. We demonstrate that effective toughness is different from effective or weighted surface area of the crack set. Furthermore, we demonstrate that elastic heterogeneity can have a profound effect on fracture toughness: it can be a significant toughening mechanism and it can lead to toughness asymmetry wherein the toughness depends not only on the direction but also on the sense of propagation. The role of length-scale is also discussed.

  8. Effective Schools: Accumulating Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses what effective schools do to raise achievement levels. Cites the problems and misinterpretations that have arisen about the Equality of Educational Opportunity Report done by James Coleman in 1966. (JOW)

  9. Investigation of dynamic ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ray Chung; Muirhead, Vincent U.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of dynamic ground effect was conducted in the Univ. of Kansas wind tunnel using delta wings of 60, 70, 75 deg sweep; the XB-70 wing; and the F-104A wing. Both static and dynamic tests were made. Test data were compared to other test data, including dynamic flight test data of the XB-70 and F-104A. Limited flow visualization test were conducted. A significant dynamic effect was found for highly swept delta wings.

  10. Effective description of axion defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Townsend

    1993-01-01

    Axion strings and domain walls exhibit a number of novel effects in the\\u000apresence of gauge fields, in particular the electromagnetic field. It is shown\\u000ahow these effects are reproduced in a model of Nambu-Goto-type strings and open\\u000aor closed membranes coupled to gauge fields. The generalization to `axionic\\u000ap-branes' is considered and it is shown how worldvolume gauge fields

  11. Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

  12. Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

  13. Volumetric effects in a Snap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Hegarty; Denis Teplyashin; Peter Georges; Daniel Heckenberg

    2011-01-01

    Volumetric effects have become a mainstay of the visual effects community over the past decade. With many third-party solutions available, what are the benefits and challenges of creating a proprietary system? We outline Snap, Animal Logic's grid-based simulation and volumetric rendering framework used in Legend of the Guardians: The Owls of Ga'Hoole (LotG) and Sucker Punch (SP).

  14. Effective masses and conformal mappings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kargaev; E. Korotyaev

    1995-01-01

    LetGn,N?N, denote the set of gaps of the Hill operator. We solve the following problems: 1) find the effective massesMn±, 2) compare the effective massMn± with the length of the gapGn, and with the height of the corresponding slit on the quasimomentum plane (both with fixed numbern and their sums), 3) consider the problems 1), 2) for more general cases

  15. Novaya Zemlya effect and sunsets.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, Siebren Y; Können, Gunther P; Lehn, Waldemar H

    2003-01-20

    Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ effect for the Moon. PMID:12570256

  16. Captodative substituent effects in radical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz G. Viehe; Robert Merbnyi; Zdenek Janousek

    1988-01-01

    Polar substituents are gen'erally more efficient for the stabil.isation of ions than for radicals. These last species are more and more recognised as inmortant intermediates in chemistry and in biochemistry. The cumulative effect of two substituents of the same polarity shows antagonism for radical. stabilisation whereas - captodative (cd) substituents show synergy. Synthetic applications of the cd-effect use the breaking

  17. Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Reichenbach; P Neuwald; A L Kuhl

    2010-01-01

    The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from

  18. Space environmental effects on materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghmaer, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of long life platforms and structures for space is discussed in terms of the space environmental effects on the materials used. Vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and charged particle radiation are among the factors considered. Research oriented toward the acquisition of long term environmental effects data needed to support the design and development of large low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit space platforms and systems is described.

  19. The Anti-Unruh Effect

    E-print Network

    Wilson G. Brenna; Robert B. Mann; Eduardo Martin-Martinez

    2015-04-09

    We find that a uniformly accelerated particle detector coupled to the vacuum can cool down as its acceleration increases, due to relativistic effects. We show that in (1+1)-dimensions, a detector coupled to the scalar field vacuum for finite timescales (but long enough to satisfy the KMS condition) has a KMS temperature that decreases with acceleration, in certain regimes. This contrasts with the heating that one would expect from the Unruh effect.

  20. Casimir effect in swimmer suspensions

    E-print Network

    C. Parra-Rojas; R. Soto

    2014-07-02

    We show that the Casimir effect can emerge in microswimmer suspensions. In principle, two effects conspire against the development of Casimir effects in swimmer suspensions. First, at low Reynolds number, the force on any closed volume vanishes, but here the relevant effect is the drag by the flow produced by the swimmers, which can be finite. Second, the fluid velocity and the pressure are linear on the swimmer force dipoles, and averaging over the swimmer orientations would lead to a vanishing effect. However, being the suspension a discrete system, the noise terms of the coarse grained equations depend on the density, which itself fluctuates, resulting in effective non-linear dynamics. Applying the tools developed for other non-equilibrium systems to general coarse grained equations for swimmer suspensions, the Casimir drag is computed on immersed objects, and it is found to depend on the correlation function between the rescaled density and dipolar density fields. By introducing a model correlation function with medium range order, explicit expressions are obtained for the Casimir drag on a body. When the correlation length is much larger than the microscopic cutoff, the average drag is independent of the correlation length, with a range that depends only on the size of the immersed bodies.

  1. Casimir effect in swimmer suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rojas, C.; Soto, R.

    2014-07-01

    We show that the Casimir effect can emerge in microswimmer suspensions. In principle, two effects conspire against the development of Casimir effects in swimmer suspensions. First, at low Reynolds number, the force on any closed volume vanishes, but here the relevant effect is the drag by the flow produced by the swimmers, which can be finite. Second, the fluid velocity and the pressure are linear on the swimmer force dipoles, and averaging over the swimmer orientations would lead to a vanishing effect. However, being that the suspension is a discrete system, the noise terms of the coarse-grained equations depend on the density, which itself fluctuates, resulting in effective nonlinear dynamics. Applying the tools developed for other nonequilibrium systems to general coarse-grained equations for swimmer suspensions, the Casimir drag is computed on immersed objects, and it is found to depend on the correlation function between the rescaled density and dipolar density fields. By introducing a model correlation function with medium-range order, explicit expressions are obtained for the Casimir drag on a body. When the correlation length is much larger than the microscopic cutoff, the average drag is independent of the correlation length, with a range that depends only on the size of the immersed bodies.

  2. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation. PMID:25258703

  3. A fan effect in anaphor processing: effects of multiple distractors.

    PubMed

    Autry, Kevin S; Levine, William H

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the presence of a non-referent from the same category as the referent interferes with anaphor resolution. In five experiments, the hypothesis that multiple non-referents would produce a cumulative interference effect (i.e., a fan effect) was examined. This hypothesis was supported in Experiments 1A and 1B, with subjects being less accurate and slower to recognize referents (1A) and non-referents (1B) as the number of potential referents increased from two to five. Surprisingly, the number of potential referents led to a decrease in anaphor reading times. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B replicated the probe-recognition results in a completely within-subjects design and ruled out the possibility that a speeded-reading strategy led to the fan-effect findings. The results of Experiment 3 provided evidence that subjects were resolving the anaphors. These results suggest that multiple non-referents do produce a cumulative interference effect; however, additional research is necessary to explore the effect on anaphor reading times. PMID:25120519

  4. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation. PMID:25258703

  5. A fan effect in anaphor processing: effects of multiple distractors

    PubMed Central

    Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the presence of a non-referent from the same category as the referent interferes with anaphor resolution. In five experiments, the hypothesis that multiple non-referents would produce a cumulative interference effect (i.e., a fan effect) was examined. This hypothesis was supported in Experiments 1A and 1B, with subjects being less accurate and slower to recognize referents (1A) and non-referents (1B) as the number of potential referents increased from two to five. Surprisingly, the number of potential referents led to a decrease in anaphor reading times. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B replicated the probe-recognition results in a completely within-subjects design and ruled out the possibility that a speeded-reading strategy led to the fan-effect findings. The results of Experiment 3 provided evidence that subjects were resolving the anaphors. These results suggest that multiple non-referents do produce a cumulative interference effect; however, additional research is necessary to explore the effect on anaphor reading times. PMID:25120519

  6. Shaped hole effects on film cooling effectiveness and a comparison of multiple effectiveness measurement techniques 

    E-print Network

    Varvel, Trent Alan

    2005-02-17

    This experimental study consists of two parts. For the first part, the film cooling effectiveness for a single row of seven cylindrical holes with a compound angle is measured on a flat surface using five different measurement techniques: steady...

  7. Matrix effective theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, Andrea; Rodriguez, Ivan D.

    2009-07-01

    The present understanding of nonperturbative ground states in the fractional quantum Hall effect is based on effective theories of the Jain 'composite fermion' excitations. We review the approach based on matrix variables, i.e. D0 branes, originally introduced by Susskind and Polychronakos. We show that the Maxwell-Chern-Simons matrix gauge theory provides a matrix generalization of the quantum Hall effect, where the composite-fermion construction naturally follows from gauge invariance. The matrix ground states obtained by suitable projections of higher Landau levels are found to be in one-to-one correspondence with the Laughlin and Jain hierarchical states. The matrix theory possesses a physical limit for commuting matrices that could be reachable while staying in the same phase.

  8. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  9. Estimating Noncommutative Effects From the Quantum Hall Effect

    E-print Network

    Gamboa-Rios, J; Méndez, F; Rojas, J C

    2001-01-01

    For the lowest Landau level, noncommutative quantum mechanics and the Landau Hamiltonian are equivalent theories. Using this fact, we find that the parameter that measures the noncommutative effects is given by $\\theta = \\frac{4\\hbar^2 c^2}{eH_0}$. From this formula we can infer a numerical estimate for $\\theta$ using the data for the magnetic field used in the quantum Hall effect ($H_0 \\sim 12T$) and we getting that the $\\theta = 0.6 nb$. Note that this value corresponds to a typical cros section in neutrino interactions.

  10. Neighborhood Effects in Temporal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.; Harding, David J.; Elwert, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Theory suggests that neighborhood effects depend not only on where individuals live today, but also on where they lived in the past. Previous research, however, usually measured neighborhood context only once and did not account for length of residence, thereby understating the detrimental effects of long-term neighborhood disadvantage. This study investigates the effects of duration of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on high school graduation. It follows 4,154 children in the PSID, measuring neighborhood context once per year from age 1 to 17. The analysis overcomes the problem of dynamic neighborhood selection by adapting novel methods of causal inference for time-varying treatments. In contrast to previous analyses, these methods do not “control away” the effect of neighborhood context operating indirectly through time-varying characteristics of the family, and thus they capture the full impact of a lifetime of neighborhood disadvantage. We find that sustained exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods has a severe impact on high school graduation that is considerably larger than effects reported in prior research. Growing up in the most (compared to the least) disadvantaged quintile of neighborhoods is estimated to reduce the probability of graduation from 96% to 76% for black children, and from 95% to 87% for nonblack children. PMID:22879678

  11. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sisir

    2014-07-01

    The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

  12. [Effects of antidepressants on sleep].

    PubMed

    Aszalós, Zsuzsa

    2006-04-30

    Insomnia and depression are widespread diseases causing deterioration of life's quality and increasing morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Both of them and certain antidepressants adversely affect physiological structure of sleep, while others restore it. The latter drugs must be preferred in therapy of depression accompanying insomnia, and some of them may be effective in treatment of insomnias without depression. Most antidepressants cause REM-reduction, generally with increased serotonin-function. Selective H1-antagonists readily induce sleep, and also the inhibition of cholinergic neurons in the general arousal networks promotes sleep. Sleep continuity is improved by the rise of synaptic level of serotonin. Among tricyclic antidepressants trimipramine and amitriptyline are the best to improve sleep. However, the former has low antidepressant effect and the latter has many adverse side effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, except paroxetine, improve sleep only at the time and to the extent of restoring depression. Paroxetine has beneficial effect on sleep at the beginning of the treatment. Mirtazapine is the first-line sleep promoter among atypical antidepressants, however, its effect on increasing appetite markedly limits its application. Trazodone causes hangover, and mianserin may induce restless legs. Insomnias without depression demand lower dose of antidepressants than depression. PMID:16780185

  13. Focus on the Rashba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  14. Reverberation and the Franssen effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmer, William M.; Yost, William A.; Dye, Raymond H.

    2002-05-01

    The Franssen effect, in which the location of a sudden-onset (transient) tone can occlude the location of a contralateral slow-onset (steady-state) tone, has been previously shown to occur only in a reverberant space. The nature of the reverberation required-how much and what kind-for the effect to occur has yet to be determined. To explore the role of reverberation in the Franssen effect, listeners were asked to identify the location(s) of transient/steady-state pure tones with frequencies ranging from 250-4000 Hz in a variety of real and virtual contexts: (a) limited (single reflective panel) reverberant enclosure; (b) discrete reflections in an anechoic room; (c) mannequin recordings of a reverberant enclosure presented over headphones; (d) impulse-response filtered signals presented over headphones; and (e) simulated 3-D reverberation via consumer-grade software. Results indicate that the Franssen effect can be a simple, effective means to judge the verisimilitude of a virtual environment. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  15. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a)...

  16. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a)...

  17. LIMNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FERTILIZING BARE 'LAKE, 'ALASKA

    E-print Network

    LIMNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FERTILIZING BARE 'LAKE, 'ALASKA I By PHILIP R. NELSON and W. T. EDMONDSON, Director LIMNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FERTILIZING BARE LAKE, ALASKA By PHILIP R. NELSON and W. T. EDMONDSON Literature cited_ __________________________________________________ 434 D #12;LIMNOLOGICAL EFFECTS

  18. Planning Effective Lessons Participant Materials for Notebook

    E-print Network

    UNIT 4: Planning Effective Lessons Participant Materials for Notebook #12;Navigating for Success Planning Effective Lessons p1 Copyright 2007. Do not reproduce or distribute without author permission. Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University. Planning Effective Lessons Nutrition educators

  19. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a)...

  20. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a)...

  1. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a)...

  2. EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON FRESHWATER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive literature review is presented which is concerned with the effects of pollutants (metals, pesticides, detergents, industrial wastes) on freshwater fish; chemical and biological methods for identifying and determining the effects of such pollutants; and the effects of...

  3. Sera from patients with sepsis induce nitric oxide production in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, H; Tomiyama, J; Kudo, H; Morita, I; Murota, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important physiological mediator of vascular tone and is involved in pathophysiology of septic shock. Although plasma nitrite is a stable end product of NO oxidation derived from endogenous NO, the plasma nitrite level is also easily affected by the intake of various foods, bacterial products and renal functional status. AIMS: We propose an excellent alternative assay technique for measuring endogenous NO production. METHODS: We measured the nitrite level in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) treated with serum obtained from patients with sepsis (4 patients), by means of a chemiluminescence detector. RESULTS: The nitrite concentrations in such cells were significantly higher as compared to those in the cells treated with normal serum. Moreover, the increased nitrite levels in the SMC treated with the sera obtained from patients with sepsis were completely inhibited by L-nitroarginine (1 mmol/L), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that this assay method enable us to know the ability of endogenous NO production in each patient. PMID:11213912

  4. Interaction between excitatory and inhibitory metabotropic pathways in the guinea-pig antrum

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, N; Hirst, G D S

    2003-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from isolated bundles of the circular muscle layer of guinea-pig gastric antrum and the responses evoked by stimulating nitrergic nerve fibres were examined. Nitrergic inhibitory junction potentials (nitrergic-IJPs), evoked by trains of stimuli, had small amplitudes and were associated with a reduction in the rate of occurrence and amplitude of spontaneously occurring depolarizing potentials, termed unitary potentials. Nitrergic-IJPs were abolished either by membrane hyperpolarization or by 4,4?-diisothiocyano-2,2?-stilbene disulfonic acid (DIDS); both of these abolished the discharge of unitary potentials. Membrane depolarization increased the rate of discharge of unitary potentials so that they summed to give rise to a regenerative potential. Nitrergic nerve stimulation abolished regenerative potentials; this inhibition did not result from a change in threshold for the initiation of regenerative potentials, rather it occurred at some stage after the gating process. Inhibitory nitrergic nerve responses were blocked by L-nitroarginine (NOLA) and oxadiazolo quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. The observations suggest that the inhibition of regenerative potentials results from an interaction between an inhibitory and an excitatory metabotropic pathway. PMID:12879868

  5. An analysis of inhibitory junction potentials in the guinea-pig proximal colon

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, GDS; Bywater, RAR; Teramoto, N; Edwards, FR

    2004-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from either sheets or isolated bundles of the circular muscle layer of guinea-pig proximal colon and the responses evoked by stimulating inhibitory nerve fibres were analysed. Inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs), evoked by single stimuli, had two components which could be separated on their pharmacological and temporal characteristics and their voltage sensitivities. The initial component, which was abolished by apamin and reduced in amplitude by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulphonic acid (PPADS), had a brief time course: its amplitude was changed when the external concentration of potassium ions ([K+]o) was changed. The second component of the IJP had a slower onset than the first component, was abolished by l-nitroarginine (NOLA) and oxadiazolo quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase: its amplitude was little affected by changing [K+]o and was increased when the membrane potential of the circular layer was hyperpolarized. The observations suggest that the initial component of the IJP results from the release of ATP which triggers an increase in membrane conductance to K+ and that the second component results from the release of nitric oxide which suppresses a background inward current. PMID:15194738

  6. What makes distributed practice effective?

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The advantages provided to memory by the distribution of multiple practice or study opportunities are among the most powerful effects in memory research. In this paper, we critically review the class of theories that presume contextual or encoding variability as the sole basis for the advantages of distributed practice, and recommend an alternative approach based on the idea that some study events remind learners of other study events. Encoding variability theory encounters serious challenges in two important phenomena that we review here: superadditivity and nonmonotonicity. The bottleneck in such theories lies in the assumption that mnemonic benefits arise from the increasing independence, rather than interdependence, of study opportunities. The reminding model accounts for many basic results in the literature on distributed practice, readily handles data that are problematic for encoding variability theories, including superadditivity and nonmonotonicity, and provides a unified theoretical framework for understanding the effects of repetition and the effects of associative relationships on memory. PMID:20580350

  7. Cytotoxic effect of orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Grimsdottir, M R; Hensten-Pettersen, A; Kullmann, A

    1992-02-01

    The use of orthodontic appliances may contribute to local gingivitis, often attributed to increased plaque retention. Gingivitis of bacterial origin cannot clinically be distinguished from local tissue irritation caused by corrosion products. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the cytotoxic effect of various metallic components used in orthodontics. Multicomponent devices such as facebows, molar bands, and brackets along with single-component brackets and archwires were tested by the agar overlay cytotoxicity test with mouse fibroblast cells. None of the archwires caused any cytotoxic effect, even though some contained 54 per cent nickel. However, the multi-component devices, which were joined with silver- and copper-based brazing alloys were more cytotoxic than the single-component devices. Copper is more cytotoxic than nickel, which could explain the greater cytotoxic effect of the samples with brazing materials. It is speculated that cytotoxic corrosion products from orthodontic appliances might contribute to localized gingivitis. PMID:1563474

  8. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  9. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  10. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

  11. What Makes an Icon Effective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Annie Wy; Chan, Alan Hs

    2009-01-01

    Several criteria like conspicuity, legibility, and comprehension must be met for an icon to be effective. Previous studies found that visual and cognitive features of icons have significant influence on meeting the criteria for icon effectiveness. The aim of this paper is to present a review on visual features (color, shape, size) and cognitive features (familiarity, concreteness, complexity, meaningfulness, semantic distance). The influence of these features on icon effectiveness was studied. The relationships amongst cognitive features and ways to quantify cognitive features were identified. Suggestions regarding opportunities for future research on icons were also highlighted. Such a review would be helpful in formulating research plans and methodologies for icon studies in the future. In addition, this review would facilitate graphic designers to create more user-friendly icons in various contexts.

  12. Potent health effects of pomegranate.

    PubMed

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

  13. Sudden death of effective entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Roszak, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Horodecki, P. [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Horodecki, R. [National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Sudden death of entanglement is a well-known effect resulting from the finite volume of separable states. We study the case when the observer has a limited measurement capability and analyze the effective entanglement (i.e., entanglement minimized over the output data). We show that in the well-defined system of two quantum dots monitored by single-electron transistors, one may observe a sudden death of effective entanglement when real, physical entanglement is still alive. For certain measurement setups, this occurs even for initial states for which sudden death of physical entanglement is not possible at all. The principles of the analysis may be applied to other analogous scenarios, such as estimation of the parameters arising from quantum process tomography.

  14. Sudden death of effective entanglement

    E-print Network

    K. Roszak; P. Horodecki; R. Horodecki

    2010-04-20

    Sudden death of entanglement is a well-known effect resulting from the finite volume of separable states. We study the case when the observer has a limited measurement capability and analyse the effective entanglement, i.e. entanglement minimized over the output data. We show that in the well defined system of two quantum dots monitored by single electron transistors, one may observe a sudden death of effective entanglement when real, physical entanglement is still alive. For certain measurement setups, this occurs even for initial states for which sudden death of physical entanglement is not possible at all. The principles of the analysis may be applied to other analogous scenarios, such as etimation of the parameters arising from quantum process tomography.

  15. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    PubMed Central

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

  16. Effective magnetoelectric effect in multicoated circular fibrous multiferroic Hsin-Yi Kuo1,a)

    E-print Network

    Pan, Ernie

    Effective magnetoelectric effect in multicoated circular fibrous multiferroic composites Hsin for the evaluation of the effective material properties in multicoated circular fibrous multiferroic composites property" causes the ME effect in multiferroic composites: an applied electric field creates a strain

  17. 17 CFR 230.462 - Immediate effectiveness of certain registration statements and post-effective amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immediate effectiveness of certain registration statements and post-effective...Filings; Fees; Effective Date § 230.462 Immediate effectiveness of certain registration statements and...

  18. Retrieval Mode Distinguishes the Testing Effect from the Generation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…

  19. Stack effect in tall buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lovatt, J.E.; Wilson, A.G. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd. Consulting Engineers, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Building Science Services

    1994-12-31

    Buoyancy forces due to the density difference between cold outdoor air and warm indoor air are known to cause problems in tall buildings in cold climates. Such problems as elevator doors that do not close and prevent the car from moving, unbalanced ventilation and exhaust airflows in vertical shafts, lobby entrance doors that are difficult to open in cold weather, and discomfort on lower floors due to large quantities of cold infiltrating air are usually a direct result of buoyancy forces acting on these elements of the building during cold weather. The ASHRAE Task Group on Tall Buildings commissioned Research Project 661, ``Field Verification of Problems Caused by Stack Effect in Tall Buildings,`` with the objectives of measuring the magnitude of specific problems related to stack effect in a tall building exposed to cold weather and testing the effect of modifications to the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system designed to reduce these problems. The measurements indicated that stack effect caused few observable problems in the specific building measured. Simulations showed that these problems were strongly dependent on the envelope air leakage area. Stack-induced pressures across fire exit doors in leaky tall buildings could exceed the limits for force required to open the doors. Maintaining an airtight envelope above the lobby level minimizes all the problems related to stack effect. Differential pressurization of floors to counteract stack effect was found to be inappropriate for the great majority of buildings. Airtight vestibules around entrance, elevator, and stairwell doors or automatic door openers can reduce door-opening problems due to high stack pressures where envelope leakage is difficult to address.

  20. Overhauser effects in insulating solids.

    PubMed

    Can, T V; Caporini, M A; Mentink-Vigier, F; Corzilius, B; Walish, J J; Rosay, M; Maas, W E; Baldus, M; Vega, S; Swager, T M; Griffin, R G

    2014-08-14

    We report magic angle spinning, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments at magnetic fields of 9.4 T, 14.1?T, and 18.8 T using the narrow line polarizing agents 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) dispersed in polystyrene, and sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA) and trityl OX063 in glassy glycerol/water matrices. The (1)H DNP enhancement field profiles of the BDPA radicals exhibit a significant DNP Overhauser effect (OE) as well as a solid effect (SE) despite the fact that these samples are insulating solids. In contrast, trityl exhibits only a SE enhancement. Data suggest that the appearance of the OE is due to rather strong electron-nuclear hyperfine couplings present in BDPA and SA-BDPA, which are absent in trityl and perdeuterated BDPA (d21-BDPA). In addition, and in contrast to other DNP mechanisms such as the solid effect or cross effect, the experimental data suggest that the OE in non-conducting solids scales favorably with magnetic field, increasing in magnitude in going from 5 T, to 9.4 T, to 14.1?T, and to 18.8 T. Simulations using a model two spin system consisting of an electron hyperfine coupled to a (1)H reproduce the essential features of the field profiles and indicate that the OE in these samples originates from the zero and double quantum cross relaxation induced by fluctuating hyperfine interactions between the intramolecular delocalized unpaired electrons and their neighboring nuclei, and that the size of these hyperfine couplings is crucial to the magnitude of the enhancements. Microwave power dependent studies show that the OE saturates at considerably lower power levels than the solid effect in the same samples. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of the Overhauser effect, and also provide a new approach to perform DNP experiments in chemical, biophysical, and physical systems at high magnetic fields. PMID:25134564

  1. Abuse and Its Effect on Women

    E-print Network

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    Substance Abuse and Its Effect on Women #12;#12;Substance Abuse and Its Effect on Women Contents................................................................................................................................................9 Substance Abuse and Women: An Overview

  2. Order effects in dynamic semantics.

    PubMed

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2014-01-01

    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from the crucial non-commutativity of mental operations upon the belief state of a cognitive agent. PMID:24259268

  3. Overview of lead remediation effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Elias, Robert W; Gulson, Brian

    2003-02-15

    A Symposium on Lead Remediation Effectiveness, sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, USA from 22-25 May, 2000. International participants from various levels of government, educational institutions, industry, and community representatives presented papers and posters on themes that ranged from engineering practices through community participation in the remediation processes. The papers in this volume represent a global distribution of sites, especially those outside the USA. In providing an overview of the symposium and the theme of Lead Remediation Effectiveness we have drawn on information from some presentations at the symposium, besides those described in this volume. PMID:12568760

  4. Plasma effects on subcellular structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daeyeon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-08

    Atmospheric pressure helium plasma treated human hepatocytes exhibit distinctive zones of necrotic and live cells separated by a void. We propose that plasma induced necrosis is attributed to plasma species such as oxygen radicals, charged particles, metastables and/or severe disruption of charged cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, uncharged cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are only minimally disturbed by plasma, elucidating the possibility of plasma induced electrostatic effects selectively destroying charged proteins. These bona fide plasma effects, which inflict alterations in specific subcellular structures leading to necrosis and cellular detachment, were not observed by application of helium flow or electric field alone.

  5. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS IN EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H. [MS J566, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lee, R. J. [Lndian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 (United States)

    2009-12-28

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

  6. Magnetoelastic effects in noncollinear antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.; Vitebskii, I.M.; Yablonskii, D.A.

    1985-07-01

    The static and dynamic manifestations of magnetoelastic coupling in the noncollinear antiferromagnet UO2 are investigated theoretically. It is shown that only optical magnons interact effectively with sound, whereas all three acoustic magnon modes are weakly coupled to the elastic subsystem. The existence of a linear piezomagnetic effect in this compound is predicted. A method of calculating the magnon spectrum in the vicinity of symmetric Brillouin-zone points is demonstrated. The method takes full account of the crystallographic and magnetic symmetry of the system.

  7. Solar Wind's Effect on Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Sun produces 'solar wind', a continuous flow of charged particles that can affect us on Earth. It may also release huge storms of charged particles, called coronal mass ejections, that can disrupt communications, navigation systems, and satellites; and cause power outages, such as the extensive Canadian blackout in 1989. This video segment introduces viewers to coronal mass ejections, their effects on Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere, and their potentially damaging effects on satellites, power grids, and other human infrastructure. The segment is four minutes forty-four seconds in length.

  8. Effective forces in saturated clays

    E-print Network

    Teetes, George Ray

    1993-01-01

    Time, 38 Oedometer Test Sample - Bentonite Sample: B2 260 op o Samp 260 wo-th i s Approximation 240 220 Ca ulated Ave age essure ottom o ample 200 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Time (min) Figure 11. Pore Pressures versus Time. 39 In order... Engineering EFFECTIVE FORCES IN SATURATED CLAYS A Thesis GEORGE RAY TEETES Approved as to style and content by: Lou J. Thomps n (Chair of Committee) William R. Bry t (Member) Wayne A. Dunlap (Member) J e Yao (Head of partment) May 1993 Effective...

  9. Effects of Microglia on Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kaoru

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes and organizes the literature concerning the effects of microglia on neurogenesis, particularly focusing on the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles, in which the neurogenic potential is progressively restricted during the life of the organism. A comparison of microglial roles in neurogenesis in these two regions indicates that microglia regulate neurogenesis in a temporally and spatially specific manner. Microglia may also sense signals from the surrounding environment and have regulatory effects on neurogenesis. We speculate microglia function as a hub for the information obtained from the inner and outer brain regions for regulating neurogenesis. GLIA 2015;63:1394-1405. PMID:26010551

  10. Magnetoelectric effect in sputtered composites

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Simon; Wuttig, Manfred; Viehland, Dwight; Quandt, Eckhard [Smart Materials, Caesar Research Center, 53175 Bonn (Germany); Smart Materials, Caesar Research Center, 53175 Bonn, Germany and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Smart Materials, Caesar Research Center, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2005-05-15

    The magnetoelectric effect in millimeter size PMN-PT/Terfenol-D composites is known. In an effort towards miniaturization, we report on the magnetoelectric effect in micrometer-size sputtered composites. Multilayers of TbFe/FeCo with a thickness of 4 {mu}m were sputter deposited on both sides of PMN-PT piezoelectric single crystals. The magnetoelectric voltage of samples was measured and reached values of 13 mV/(Oe cm) at dc bias fields of 2 mT, a linear dependence of magnetoelectric voltage on ac amplitude was detected in the range from 1 mT to 1 nT.

  11. Needle visualization using photoacoustic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Jae; Guo, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Alexis; Choti, Michael A.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    We investigated a novel needle visualization using the PA effect to enhance needle-tip tracking. An optical fiber and laser source are used to generate acoustic waves inside the needle with the PA effect. Acoustic waves are generated along the needle. Some amount of acoustic energy leaks into the surrounding material. The leakage of acoustic waves is captured by a conventional US transducer and US channel data collection system. Then, the collected data are converted to a PA image. The needle-tip can be visualized more clearly in this PA image than a general US brightness mode image.

  12. Plasma effects on subcellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Daeyeon; Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2010-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure helium plasma treated human hepatocytes exhibit distinctive zones of necrotic and live cells separated by a void. We propose that plasma induced necrosis is attributed to plasma species such as oxygen radicals, charged particles, metastables and/or severe disruption of charged cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, uncharged cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are only minimally disturbed by plasma, elucidating the possibility of plasma induced electrostatic effects selectively destroying charged proteins. These bona fide plasma effects, which inflict alterations in specific subcellular structures leading to necrosis and cellular detachment, were not observed by application of helium flow or electric field alone.

  13. Dissipative Effects in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Nacir, Diana; /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Buenos Aires U.; Porto, Rafael A.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /ISCAP, New York /Columbia U.; Senatore, Leonardo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Zaldarriaga, Matias; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-09-14

    We generalize the effective field theory of single clock inflation to include dissipative effects. Working in unitary gauge we couple a set of composite operators, {Omicron}{sub {mu}{nu}}..., in the effective action which is constrained solely by invariance under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms. We restrict ourselves to situations where the degrees of freedom responsible for dissipation do not contribute to the density perturbations at late time. The dynamics of the perturbations is then modified by the appearance of 'friction' and noise terms, and assuming certain locality properties for the Green's functions of these composite operators, we show that there is a regime characterized by a large friction term {gamma} >> H in which the {zeta}-correlators are dominated by the noise and the power spectrum can be significantly enhanced. We also compute the three point function <{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}> for a wide class of models and discuss under which circumstances large friction leads to an increased level of non-Gaussianities. In particular, under our assumptions, we show that strong dissipation together with the required non-linear realization of the symmetries implies |f{sub NL}| {approx} {gamma}/c{sub s}{sup 2} H >> 1. As a paradigmatic example we work out a variation of the 'trapped inflation' scenario with local response functions and perform the matching with our effective theory. A detection of the generic type of signatures that result from incorporating dissipative effects during inflation, as we describe here, would teach us about the dynamics of the early universe and also extend the parameter space of inflationary models.

  14. A Meta Analytical Approach Regarding School Effectiveness: The True Size of School Effects and the Effect Size of Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, Roel J.; Witziers, Bob

    School-effectiveness research has not yet been able to identify the factors of effective and noneffective schools, the real contribution of the significant factors, the true sizes of school effects, and the generalizability of school-effectiveness results. This paper presents findings of a meta analysis, the Dutch PSO programme, that was used to…

  15. Testing backreaction effects with observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Larena; Jean-Michel Alimi; Thomas Buchert; Martin Kunz; Pier-Stefano Corasaniti

    2009-01-01

    In order to quantitatively test the ability of averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies to correctly describe observations of the large-scale properties of the Universe, we introduce a smoothed template metric corresponding to a constant spatial curvature model at any time, but with an evolving curvature parameter. This metric is used to compute quantities along an approximate effective light cone of the averaged

  16. Testing Effectiveness of Algorithm Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith S. Gurka; Wayne Citrin

    1996-01-01

    Studies designed to demonstrate the pedagogic effectiveness of algorithm animation programs have been markedly unsuccessful, in spite of high expectations. We present a framework for future experiments based upon design issues particular to algorithm animation, plus pertinent educational considerations. Guidelines are drawn from a meta-analysis of previous work and experiments we have performed

  17. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACENAPHTHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the lack of data for the carcinogenicity and threshold toxicity of acenaphthene risk assessment values cannot be derived. The ambient water quality criterion of 0.2 mg/l is based on organoleptic data, which has no known relationship to potential human health effects. A...

  18. School Effectiveness in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nazir; Shalem, Yael

    1999-01-01

    Draws on the findings from the School Effectiveness in South Africa Project (SESA) and the Committee for a Culture of Learning and Teaching (CCOLT) conducted with schools located within Johannesburg (South Africa). Explains that both the SESA and CCOLT point to ways in which black schooling in South Africa is occurring. (CMK)

  19. Radiation Effects on NERVA Instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Gilles

    1968-01-01

    The NERVA program presented the instrumentation engineer with difficult radiation-effects problems. Gamma fluxes reach 109 rads(C)\\/hr and neutron fluences approach 1018 n\\/cm2 (E>l.0 Mev). These Problems and some of their solutions and test results are presented.

  20. Environmental effects of radiation emergencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    This document described the potential environmental effects of large radioactive releases such as a reactor accident. Tables list information on important fission products and induced radionuclides from the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. The author discussed subsequent radioactivity in air, water, soil, and food chains that lead to man. Radionuclides reach man through one or more of four standard

  1. Possible Side Effects of Pegfilgrastim

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Pegfilgrastim (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Pegfilgrastim, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Pain in bone OCCASIONAL, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people

  2. Temperature Stable Hall Effect Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Partin; J. P. Heremans; T. Schroeder; C. M. Thrush; L. A. Flores

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic field sensors are needed for high accuracy position, angle, force, strain, torque, and current flow measurements. Molecular beam epitaxy was used to grow tellurium-doped indium gallium antimonide thin films. Hall effect sensors made from these films have been studied for their magnetic sensitivity and thermal stability. For a range of alloy composition and n-type doping levels, high magnetic sensitivity

  3. Toxicological effects of malachite green

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivaji Srivastava; Ranjana Sinha; D. Roy

    2004-01-01

    This review summarises the wide range of toxicological effects of malachite green (MG), a triarylmethane dye on various fish species and certain mammals. MG is widely used in aquaculture as a parasiticide and in food, health, textile and other industries for one or the other purposes. It controls fungal attacks, protozoan infections and some other diseases caused by helminths on

  4. TV's Effect on American Voters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Television's only effect on the American voter is to cheapen his conception of the campaign process and to stuff his head full of nonsense and trivia", Thomas E. Patterson and Robert D. McClure, two Syracuse University political scientists, have concluded in a major study of television's role in the 1972 presidential campaign. (Editor)

  5. GEOHORIZONS Correction of invasion effects

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    and quantify the effects of mud-filtrate invasion on apparent resistivity, nuclear, and magnetic resonance logs petrophysical interpretation methods yield abnormally high estimates of water saturation in some of the reservoir units that produce gas with null water influx. Such an anomalous behavior is caused by relatively

  6. MALARIA MODELS WITH SPATIAL EFFECTS

    E-print Network

    Ruan, Shigui

    CHAPTER 1 MALARIA MODELS WITH SPATIAL EFFECTS Daozhou Gao1 and Shigui Ruan2 1 Francis I. Proctor provide a brief review about some recent studies on mathematical modeling of malaria transmission and reaction-diffusion equations are used to investigate the spatial spread of malaria be- tween humans

  7. The Sachs-Wolfe Effect

    E-print Network

    Martin White; Wayne Hu

    1996-09-16

    We present a pedagogical derivation of the Sachs-Wolfe effect, specifically the factor 1/3 relating the temperature fluctuations to gravitational potentials. The result arises from a cancellation between gravitational redshifts and intrinsic temperature fluctuations which can be derived from a coordinate transformation of the background.

  8. Pulsed optoacoustic effect in aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V P Zharov; A E Negin; Ya O Simanovski?

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the optoacoustic effect in water aerosols interacting with CO2 laser pulses. Saturation of the optoacoustic signal was observed when the energy density exceeded 5 J\\/cm2. This was attributed to a change in the particle size distribution of the aerosol during a laser pulse.

  9. Caloric Restriction and Antiaging Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan Xiang; Guoqing He

    2011-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is widely used to study aging processes. It is a simple and highly reproducible method for delaying the aging process, preventing the onset of aging-related diseases and extending average or maximum lifespan. However, the mechanism underlying these effects of CR is still not clear. CR can inhibit growth, reduce body size and maintain a low body temperature.

  10. Possible Side Effects of Oxaliplatin

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 2Possible Side Effects of Oxaliplatin (Table Version Date: October 8, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Oxaliplatin, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Anemia which may require blood transfusion Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting,

  11. Saturation Effects in Paramagnetic Resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Eschenfelder; R. T. Weidner

    1953-01-01

    Saturation effects have been observed in the paramagnetic resonance absorption of 3.2-cm microwaves by diluted samples of iron ammonium alum and chromium potassium alum at 2 to 4°K. For all samples the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 was found to vary inversely with the temperature, in agreement with theoretical expectation that the direct rather than the \\

  12. Considerations on the Flynn Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Lawrence G.

    2010-01-01

    Flynn has proposed a grand integrative theory, which he calls "scientific spectacles," to explain the phenomenon of rising IQ scores across multiple decades known as the Flynn effect (FE). In his theory, he purports that modern society has placed increasing value and emphasis on the application and education of scientific principles--which include…

  13. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zagorski

    1984-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of

  14. Effective School Management. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everard, K.B.; Morris, Geoffrey; Wilson, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. It is a book by practitioners for practitioners. They authors believe their book is unique, because there are so few people who have had enough management responsibility and training…

  15. Radiation effects on power MOSFETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolfo O. Gutierrez

    1999-01-01

    Power MOSFETs are the most widely used semiconductor power device due to their large current handling capability, low on-resistance and large blocking voltage. These devices are known to present several failure modes associated with their operation in radiation environments such as device performance degradation due to accumulated total dose effects, to transient disruptions or even to catastrophic burnout failures resulting

  16. Neighborhood Effects on Felony Sentencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldredge, John

    2007-01-01

    The relatively high imprisonment rates of African American men from poor neighborhoods raise a question of whether felony sentences are influenced by ecological factors, separately from or in conjunction with a defendant's race. To provide insight on the topic, both legal and extralegal effects on imprisonment and sentence length were modeled for…

  17. Rhetorical Dimensions of Teaching Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Linda E. L.

    An overlooked framework that allows for clearer understanding of effective teaching is the field of rhetoric. Although the concept has changed over time, Aristotle defines rhetoric as observing the available means of persuasion. These means include ethos, a speaker's credibility; pathos, appeal to emotions; and logos, appeal to reason or…

  18. The Effects of Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David

    Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…

  19. Possible Side Effects of Cetuximab

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Cetuximab (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Cetuximab, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Change in nails Swelling and redness of the area of radiation Rash, itching,

  20. Possible Side Effects of Methylprednisolone

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Methylprednisolone (Table Version Date: June 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Methylprednisolone, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: In children and adolescents: decreased height Loss of

  1. Possible Side Effects of Dexamethasone

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Dexamethasone (Table Version Date: June 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Dexamethasone, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: High blood pressure which may cause headaches, dizziness Skin

  2. Possible Side Effects of Sirolimus

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Sirolimus (Table Version Date: October 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Sirolimus, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Anemia, kidney problems which may cause tiredness, may require blood

  3. Possible Side Effects of Prednisone

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Prednisone (Table Version Date: June 24, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Prednisone, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: In children and adolescents: decreased height Loss of bone tissue Mood

  4. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  5. The Effectiveness of Price Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A Meyer; Hayne E. Leland

    1980-01-01

    That it is easier to measure the costs of price regulation than the benefits is evident in the conflicting results of studies made to determine welfare gains. An econometric study based on a simple theory of demand by customer class concludes that: (1) the effectiveness of regulation across states is irregular, which suggests that state regulatory agencies confront firms with

  6. Entropy Effects in Chelation Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chung-Sun

    1984-01-01

    The entropy change for a reaction in aqueous solution can be evaluated as a combination of entropy factors. Valuable insight or understanding can be obtained from a detailed examination of these factors. Several entropy effects of inorganic chemical reactions are discussed as examples. (Author/JN)

  7. The Effectiveness of Infant Simulators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott W.; McCowan, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using infant simulators with a structured, competency-based curriculum by examining the infant care behavior of adolescents and their attitudes toward parenting and sexual behavior. The sample of 236 students included 112 males and 124 females ranging in age from 14 to 18 years. This sample was randomly…

  8. Biochar effects on crop yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From a strictly agronomic point of view, the potential benefit of biochar application must be considered as a consequence of its effect on enhancing soil productivity, which is determined by the entire spectrum of soil properties. Among these properties are: physical attributes, such as the size and...

  9. Security force effectiveness and technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seaton

    1988-01-01

    No one would propose ineffective security forces. Applied technology always has, as its purpose, to increase effectiveness. Evidence exists, however, that poorly conceived or executed technological solutions can actually do more harm than good. The author argues for improved human factor considerations in physical security applied technology -- especially in the area of security console operations.

  10. Cultivating effectiveness in your organization.

    PubMed

    Haney, L; Amann, M C

    2001-08-01

    To be truly effective, the occupational and environmental health nurse must possess skills as both a manager and a leader. Effective management results in programs and projects that are likely to be successful, achieve established goals, and meet expectations of the intended recipients. Effective leadership results in individuals who feel valued for their opinions, empowered to act independently, and accountable for setting and achieving personal goals. When these individuals come together to form teams, they create an organization in which the group benefits from the commitment and mutual desire to work toward a shared mission and vision. The nursing process provides an excellent framework for the occupational and environmental health nurse to approach the tasks associated with leading and managing in a rapidly changing, challenging environment. Techniques to be employed are those acquired in formal management training programs and those passed down from experienced mentors. It is incumbent on all occupational and environmental health nurse managers to perfect and use leadership and management skills to positively contribute to organizational effectiveness and, ultimately, employee health and well being. PMID:11760631

  11. School Effectiveness and Nongraded Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavan, Barbara Nelson

    Findings from a study that examined the relationship between two educational movements--effective schools and nongradedness--are presented in this paper. Methodology involved: (1) a research review of studies conducted from January 1968 to June 1991 that compared graded and nongraded student performance using standardized objective measures; and…

  12. Autodyne effect in gas lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. N. Tumanov; B. I. Levit; A. S. Babich

    1978-01-01

    The autodyne effect in single-mode gas lasers is theoretically and experimentally studied. The significant dependence of the autodyne signal on the rate of motion of the reflector is demonstrated. The autodetection process is studied. The autodyne signal is used to determine the unsaturated amplification coefficient and resonator Q of an LG-75 He-Ne laser in the lasing mode.

  13. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  14. Module 7-AA: Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  15. The Effects of Mentoring Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of At-Risk Issues, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Two tables summarize effects of mentoring in 10 middle schools in De Kalb County (Georgia) and from mentoring programs sponsored by the Big Brothers/Big Sisters organization. Both sets of programs show improved attendance and improved conduct, and the Georgia programs were associated with better grades. (SLD)

  16. COST-EFFECTIVE PRETREATMENT PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is developed for planning cost-effective control programs for toxic pollutants in municipal treatment systems. It chooses the levels of industrial pretreatment and type of municipal sewage treatment a city can use so that all applicable standards and criteria on sewer di...

  17. Faraday effect in silica glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Z. Tan; J. Arndt

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to study the Faraday effect of condensed matter. This is a dynamic method to monitor the polarization rotation of a polarized He?Ne laser beam propagating through a medium placed in an alternating magnetic field in the direction of the light propagation. The Verdet constant can be evaluated by means of Fourier transformation of the oscillating laser

  18. Dynamic effects in thermoviscoplastic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrom, Ted G.; Allen, David H.; Thornton, Earl A.; Kolenski, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm for three-dimensional thermoviscoplasticity with inertial effects is presented. The algorithm utilizes a unified thermoviscoplastic constitutive model with directional hardening (Bodner-Partom). An example problem is shown in which thermally induced vibrations lead to material yielding at elevated temperatures. Significant dampening caused by inelastic strain is shown to take place in the structure.

  19. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  20. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    Forces of societal change have placed new demands on school administrators for skills to manage schools. The result has been an increasing realization of the need for improved university preparation programs and for more effective Human Resource Development (HRD) for practicing administrators. A growing body of research shows a very positive…

  1. Electronic effects on iron porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, M. De La; Lopez, M.A. [California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We have inserted iron into a series of substituted iron tetraphenylporphyrins for the purposes of investigating electronic effects on properties of the iron porphyrins. The properties of interest are the CO stretching frequencies of the ferrous porphyrins, the rates of CO dissociation from the ferrous porphyrins, and the UV-visible spectra of the iron porphyrins. We will present our results to date.

  2. Effects of Exercise on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rarick, G. Lawrence

    Exercise is generally held to be a significant factor in the growth, development, and health of children and adolescents. The effects of physical activity regimens on general growth, as well as quantitative and qualitative changes, in animal muscle and bone tissue have been clearly demonstrated. Less is known about the role of exercise and related…

  3. Climatic Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Hansen; Andrew A. Lacis; Pauthon Lee; Wei-Chyung Wang

    1980-01-01

    It is shown quantitatively how radiative climatic forcing by aerosols depends on the physical properties of the aerosols. The special case of atmospheric aerosols produced by volcanic explosions is considered, and evidence is presented which indicates that even the simple climate models available today may be able to capture some of the basic effects of aerosols on global climate. Possible

  4. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  5. Novaya Zemlya Effect and Sunsets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siebren Y. van der Werf; Gunther P. Konnen; Waldemar H. Lehn

    2003-01-01

    Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya NZ effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ

  6. Novaya Zemlya effect and sunsets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siebren Y. van der Werf; Günther P. Können; Waldemar H. Lehn

    2003-01-01

    Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ

  7. Automation's Effect on Library Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakshinamurti, Ganga

    1985-01-01

    Reports on survey studying the human-machine interface in Canadian university, public, and special libraries. Highlights include position category and educational background of 118 participants, participants' feelings toward automation, physical effects of automation, diffusion in decision making, interpersonal communication, future trends,…

  8. Vibration analysis utilizing Mossbauer effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughton, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Measuring instrument analyzes mechanical vibrations in transducers at amplitudes in the range of a few to 100 angstroms. This instrument utilizes the Mossbauer effect, the phenomenon of the recoil-free emission and resonant absorption of nuclear gamma rays in solids.

  9. Improving Instruction and Cost Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Scripts of the three presentations made during Forum 12 of the AACJC conference are presented here. The introductory remarks, made by James O. Hammons, deal with the need for accountability and cost effectiveness and the development of these concepts. Sharon Jaggard presents a comparison of three courses at Bulington County College on the basis of…

  10. Possible Side Effects of Mesna

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Mesna (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Mesna, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Nausea, vomiting Tiredness, headache Pain in arms, legs Unpleasant taste OCCASIONAL,

  11. The Lake Wobegon Effect Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, John Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Four publishers responding to the previous discussion agreed that American elementary achievement has improved, but evidence presented by the Secretary of Education confirms that few real improvements have occurred since "Nation at Risk." Commercial achievement tests provide falsely high scores (the Lake Wobegon Effect). (SLD)

  12. Radiation effects on video imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Bujnosek, J.J.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Walton, R.B.; Martinez, T.M.; Black, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of several photoconductive, photoemissive, and solid state silicon-based video imagers was measured by analyzing stored photocharge induced by irradiation with continuous and pulsed sources of high energy photons and neutrons. Transient effects as functions of absorbed dose, dose rate, fluences, and ionizing particle energy are presented.

  13. Action effects in saccade control.

    PubMed

    Huestegge, Lynn; Kreutzfeldt, Magali

    2012-04-01

    According to the ideomotor principle, action preparation involves the activation of associations between actions and their effects. However, there is only sparse research on the role of action effects in saccade control. Here, participants responded to lateralized auditory stimuli with spatially compatible saccades toward peripheral targets (e.g., a rhombus in the left hemifield and a square in the right hemifield). Prior to the imperative auditory stimulus (e.g., a left tone), an irrelevant central visual stimulus was presented that was congruent (e.g., a rhombus), incongruent (e.g., a square), or unrelated (e.g., a circle) to the peripheral saccade target (i.e., the visual effect of the saccade). Saccade targets were present throughout a trial (Experiment 1) or appeared after saccade initiation (Experiment 2). Results showed shorter response times and fewer errors in congruent (vs. incongruent) conditions, suggesting that associations between oculomotor actions and their visual effects play an important role in saccade control. PMID:22246724

  14. Cognitive Effects of Multimedia Learning

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    Cognitive Effects of Multimedia Learning Robert Z. Zheng University of Utah, USA Hershey · New York of multimedia learning / Robert Zheng, editor. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Summary: "This book identifies the role and function of multimedia in learning through a collection of research

  15. Lava Flows and Their Effects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lava flows and their effects on areas surrounding volcanoes are explained in this United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication. Examples are sited from the Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes in Hawaii, and the Unzen volcano in Japan. The site also links to specific case studies of lava flow destruction.

  16. Mathematical model for gyroscope effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usubamatov, Ryspek

    2015-05-01

    Gyroscope effects are used in many engineering calculations of rotating parts, and a gyroscope is the basic unit of numerous devices and instruments used in aviation, space, marine and other industries. The primary attribute of a gyroscope is a spinning rotor that persists in maintaining its plane of rotation, creating gyroscope effects. Numerous publications represent the gyroscope theory using mathematical models based on the law of kinetic energy conservation and the rate of change in angular momentum of a spinning rotor. Gyroscope theory still attracts many researchers who continue to discover new properties of gyroscopic devices. In reality, gyroscope effects are more complex and known mathematical models do not accurately reflect the actual motions. Analysis of forces acting on a gyroscope shows that four dynamic components act simultaneously: the centrifugal, inertial and Coriolis forces and the rate of change in angular momentum of the spinning rotor. The spinning rotor generates a rotating plane of centrifugal and Coriols forces that resist the twisting of the spinning rotor with external torque applied. The forced inclination of the spinning rotor generates inertial forces, resulting in precession torque of a gyroscope. The rate of change of the angular momentum creates resisting and precession torques which are not primary one in gyroscope effects. The new mathematical model for the gyroscope motions under the action of the external torque applied can be as base for new gyroscope theory.

  17. Serious Doubts about School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the model of school effectiveness (SE) currently dominant in research, policy and practice in England (although the concerns it raises are international). It shows, principally through consideration of initial and propagated error, that SE results cannot be relied upon. By considering the residual difference between the…

  18. Teacher Effectiveness and Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Howard P.

    During the last few years, a number of economists have studied the effects of employing different teaching resources on the performance of economics students. Despite widespread interest in the impact of various inputs on the amount learned by students, little attention has been devoted to the choice of output measure. This paper argues in favor…

  19. The surface effect of dentifrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Meyers; M. J. McQueen; D. Harbrow; G. J. Seymour

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically three commercially available dentifrices and to determine any surface effects on tooth or gingival surfaces. Sixty-four participants were included in this study and were allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups by an independent person to ensure the investigators were unaware of the brushing material used. All toothbrushes and dentifrices

  20. The Effective Teacher. Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Conference Board, Albany, NY.

    Effective teachers not only remain abreast of new developments in their fields, but strive toward increased mastery of teaching skills by continually extending and refining the specialized knowledge acquired prior to entering the profession. Teachers are expected to lead active intellectual lives and to evince a breadth of erudition that will…