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1

Effects of Selected Arginine Analogues on Sulphur Mustard Toxicity in Human and Hairless Guinea Pig Skin Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of sulphur mustard (HD) was characterized in first passage cultures of human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes and then several arginine analogues were investigated to ascertain their efficacies in protecting against HD toxicity in this system. d- and l-nitroarginine methyl ester (d\\/l-NAME), l-phosphoarginine, and l-nitroarginine were all found to confer concentration-related protective effects against HD in confluent cultures. l-NAME was

Thomas W. Sawyer; Darrell Risk

2000-01-01

2

40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with...

2014-07-01

3

Sub-acute effect of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices in rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L  

PubMed Central

Background: Kolaviron (KV) (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) and extract of Curcuma longa (CL) are frequently used in folk medicine for treatment of hypertension. One of their mechanisms of action is to enhance antioxidant properties in animals. NG- nitro- l- arginine methyl- ester (L- NAME) is L- arginine analogue, which by binding to Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) may induce hypertension partly due to increase in tissues oxidative stress. Objectives: To investigate the effect of L- NAME on some biochemical indices and the possible protective effect of KV or CL. Materials and Methods: Four groups consisting of 6 rats each were used. One group served as control, second group received L- NAME (40 mg/kg/day). Third and fourth groups were treated with KV and CL, respectively and also received L- NAME. KV and CL were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Results: L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) increase in the levels of serum urea, creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase relative to controls. L- NAME treated rats had markedly decreased hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione- S- transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Precisely, L- NAME decreased CAT, SOD, GST and GSH by 48, 52, 76 and 40%, respectively. L- NAME intoxication significantly decreased (P <0.05) renal GSH and SOD levels. Also, L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the animals. Administration of KV or CL with L- NAME caused significant (P <0.05) inhibition of LPO and augments tissue antioxidant indices. Conclusion: These results confirm the adverse effect of L- NAME on biochemical indices and, the ability of kolaviron or Curcuma longa to ameliorate the alterations. PMID:22923949

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A.; Nwosu, Ifeanyi O.; Farombi, Ebenezer O.

2012-01-01

4

Scabronine G-methylester enhances secretion of neurotrophic factors mediated by an activation of protein kinase C-zeta.  

PubMed

Glial cells release neurotrophic factors that maintain neurons functionally. Previously, we have shown that the scabronines isolated from Sarcodon scabrosus enhanced the secretion of neurotrophic factors from 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of newly synthesized scabronine G-methylester (ME)-induced secretion of neurotrophic factors from 1321N1 cells. The dramatic neuronal differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12) was observed by scabronine G-ME-conditioned medium of 1321N1 cells. Scabronine G-ME increased the secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) from 1321N1 cells with the enhancement of their mRNA expressions. Scabronine G-ME concentration-dependently inhibited the carbachol-induced inositol phosphate accumulation in 1321N1 cells, which was reversed by GF109203X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. Furthermore, GF109203X inhibited the scabronine G-ME-induced mRNA expressions of both NGF and IL-6 and the differentiation of PC-12 cells, showing that scabronine G-ME activated PKC. Although scabronine G-ME enhanced activities of neither conventional nor novel types of PKCs, it translocated PKC-zeta to membranes in intact cells and cell-free condition. Furthermore, recombinant PKC-zeta activity was also increased by scabronine G-ME, suggesting the involvement of PKC-zeta in the effect of scabronine G-ME. Concerning the downstream effectors of the PKC-zeta, scabronine G-ME translocated nuclear factor-kappaB to nucleus, and enhanced its transcriptional activity. In addition, scabronine G-ME caused the degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB concentration-dependently, which was inhibited by GF109203X. These results suggest that scabronine G-ME potentially enhances the secretion of neurotrophic factors from 1321N1 cells mediated via the activation of PKC-zeta. PMID:11306714

Obara, Y; Kobayashi, H; Ohta, T; Ohizumi, Y; Nakahata, N

2001-05-01

5

A new drug carrier, N ? -deoxycholyl- l -lysyl-methylester, for enhancing insulin absorption in the intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The development of an orally active insulin formulation will offer great advantages over conventional injectable insulin therapy in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Since insulin absorption in the intestine is restricted by the natural physiological characteristics of insulin, we developed a small synthetic compound, N-deoxycholyl-l-lysyl-methylester (DCK), as an insulin carrier to enhance oral delivery.Methods  Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats orally received

S. Lee; J. Lee; D. Y. Lee; S. K. Kim; Y. Lee; Y. Byun

2005-01-01

6

Superoxide modulates myogenic contractions of mouse afferent arterioles.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species enhance or impair autoregulation. Because superoxide is a vasoconstrictor, we tested the hypothesis that stretch generates superoxide that mediates myogenic responses. Increasing perfusion pressure of mouse isolated perfused renal afferent arterioles from 40 to 80 mm Hg reduced their diameter by 13.3±1.8% (P<0.001) and increased reactive oxygen species (ethidium: dihydroethidium fluorescence) by 9.8±2.3% (P<0.05). Stretch-induced fluorescence was reduced significantly (P<0.05) by incubation with Tempol (3.7±0.8%), pegylated superoxide dismutase (3.2±1.0%), or apocynin (3.5±0.9%) but not by pegylated catalase, L-nitroarginine methylester, or Ca(2+)-free medium, relating it to Ca(2+)-independent vascular superoxide. Compared with vehicle, basal tone and myogenic contractions were reduced significantly (P<0.05) by pegylated superoxide dismutase (5.4±0.8), Tempol (4.1±1.0%), apocynin (1.0±1.3%), and diphenyleneiodinium (3.9±0.9%) but not by pegylated catalase (10.1±1.6%). L-Nitroarginine methylester enhanced basal tone, but neither it (15.8±3.3%) nor endothelial NO synthase knockout (10.2±1.8%) significantly changed myogenic contractions. Tempol had no further effect after superoxide dismutase but remained effective after catalase. H(2)O(2) >50 ?mol/L caused contractions but at 25 ?mol/L inhibited myogenic responses (7.4±0.8%; P<0.01). In conclusion, increasing the pressure within afferent arterioles led to Ca(2+)-independent increased vascular superoxide production from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, which enhanced myogenic contractions largely independent of NO, whereas H(2)O(2) impaired pressure-induced contractions but was not implicated in the normal myogenic response. PMID:21859962

Lai, En Yin; Wellstein, Anton; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

2011-10-01

7

Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of carotenoids and dietary palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four carotenoids, canthaxanthin, ? ?carotene, 8'?apo? ? ?carotenal, and 8'?apo? ? ?carotene methylester were tested for their ability to suppress the mutagenicity of 1?methyl?3?nitro?1?nitrosoguanidine and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) in Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA 100. The anticarcinogenic efficacy of the four carotenoids was further assessed in the BP?induced forestomach tumor model in female Swiss mice. The effect of dietary palm oil

Magnus A. Azuine; Umesh C. Goswami; Jyoti J. Kayal; Sumati V. Bhide

1992-01-01

8

Inductive Effects on the Energetics of Prolyl Peptide Bond Isomerization: Implications for Collagen Folding and Stability  

PubMed Central

The hydroxylation of proline residues in collagen enhances the stability of the collagen triple helix. Previous X-ray diffraction analyses had demonstrated that the presence of an electron-withdrawing substituent on the pyrrolidine ring of proline residues has significant structural consequences [Panasik, N., Jr.; Eberhardt, E. S.; Edison, A. S.; Powell, D. R.; Raines, R. T. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 1994, 44, 262–269]. Here, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy were used to ascertain kinetic and thermodynamic properties of N-acetyl-[?,?-13C]D,L-proline methylester (1); N-acetyl-4(R)-hydroxy-L-proline [13C]methylester (2); and N-acetyl-4(R)-fluoro-L-proline methylester (3). The pKa’s of the nitrogen atom in the parent amino acids decrease in the order: proline (10.8) > 4(R)-hydroxy-L-proline (9.68) > 4(R)-fluoro-L-proline (9.23). In water or dioxane, amide I vibrational modes decrease in the order: 1 > 2 > 3. At 37 °C in dioxane, the rate constants for amide bond isomerization are greater for 3 than 1. Each of these results is consistent with the traditional picture of amide resonance coupled with an inductive effect that results in a higher bond order in the amide C=O bond and a lower bond order in the amide C–N bond. Further, at 37 °C in water or dioxane equilibrium concentrations of the trans isomer increase in the order: 1 < 2 < 3. Inductive effects may therefore have a significant impact on the folding and stability of collagen, which has a preponderance of hydroxyproline residues, all with peptide bonds in the trans conformation. PMID:21451735

Eberhardt, Eric S.; Panisik, Nicholas; Raines, Ronald T.

2010-01-01

9

Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of carotenoids and dietary palm oil.  

PubMed

Four carotenoids, canthaxanthin, beta-carotene, 8H-apo-beta-carotenal, and 8'-apo-beta-carotene methylester were tested for their ability to suppress the mutagenicity of 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) in Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA 100. The anticarcinogenic efficacy of the four carotenoids was further assessed in the BP-induced forestomach tumor model in female Swiss mice. The effect of dietary palm oil was also examined in BP-induced neoplasia in the female Haffkine Swiss mouse strain. Canthaxanthin, beta-carotene, 8'-apo-beta-carotenal, and 8'-apo-beta-carotene methylester showed a dose-dependent decrease in the mutagenicity compared with 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine and BP in strain TA 100. In the BP-induced forestomach tumor model, all four carotenoids showed a similar significant anticarcinogenic effect. Dietary administration of palm oil showed a dose-dependent antitumor activity in the animals. Our results show that the intrinsic antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties of the carotenoids are not significantly influenced by their conversion to vitamin A. PMID:1437647

Azuine, M A; Goswami, U C; Kayal, J J; Bhide, S V

1992-01-01

10

In vitro effects of isoprinosine and a dipeptide methyl ester on Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces.  

PubMed

A protoscoleces/vesicles in vitro maintenance test with assessment of viability by eosin exclusion was used to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative activities of isoprinosine, its active component inosine and the dipeptide methylester L-Phe-Phe-OMe on isolated protoscoleces of Echinococcus multilocularis for 24 and 48 h. Isoprinosine and inosine showed dose- and time-dependent activity, the latter displaying a more rapid effect than the former. A high activity was shown with L-Phe-Phe-OMe, when compared to praziquantel. Ultrastructural alterations were much more striking with L-Phe-Phe-OMe, with an effect similar to that of praziquantel, whereas the chemotherapeutic activity of inosine and isoprinosine appeared to be directed against a metabolic target, with a lethal effect not immediately visible at the ultrastructural level. Thus, the previously reported in vivo activities of these drugs result largely from a direct effect on the parasite. PMID:11551315

Lawton, P; Walchshofer, N; Sarciron, M E

2001-09-01

11

Effect of Nitric Oxide on Anterior Segment Physiology in Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the effect of the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-nitro-arginine-methylester (L-NAME), on IOP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), pupil diameter (PD), refraction (Rfx), aqueous humor formation (AHF), and outflow facility (OF) in monkeys. Methods. Monkeys were treated with single or multiple topical treatments of 500 ?g SNP or L-NAME to one eye. IOP was determined by Goldmann applanation tonometry, PD with vernier calipers in room light, Rfx by Hartinger coincidence refractometry, AHF by fluorophotometry, and MAP with a blood pressure monitor. OF was determined by two-level constant pressure perfusion following anterior chamber exchange. Results. Following four topical treatments with 500 ?g SNP, 30 minutes apart, IOP was significantly decreased from 2 to 6 hours compared with the contralateral control with the maximum IOP reduction of 20% at 3 hours (P < 0.001). PD, Rfx, and AHF were unchanged. Effects on MAP were variable. OF after SNP exchange was significantly increased by 77% (P < 0.05) at 10?3 M. Topical L-NAME had no effect on IOP, PD, Rfx, or MAP. Conclusions. Enhancement of nitric oxide concentration at targeted tissues in the anterior segment may be a useful approach for IOP reduction for glaucoma therapy. Additional studies are warranted before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of NOS inhibition on ocular physiology in nonhuman primates. PMID:23800771

Heyne, Galen W.; Kiland, Julie A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Gabelt, B'Ann T.

2013-01-01

12

Effects of Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract on formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

Stress amelioration can improve its metabolic as well as other side effects. In the present study, the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Papver rhoeas (L.) on formalin-induced pain and inflammation were investigated in male Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g). Formalin injects in the plantar portion of mice hind paw and pain was studied for 60 min. The plant extract and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally 30 min before formalin. Experiments showed that administration of extract (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) could induced analgesia in a dose-response manner in both phases of formalin test. More over, the extract inhibits inflammation induced by formalin injection. Naloxone (4 mg kg(-1)), dextromethorphan (20 mg kg(-1)) and NG-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME; 10 mg kg(-1)) reduced the extract analgesia in first but not late phase. Extract administration also increased plasma corticosterone level in dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract could inhibits acute phase of formalin test in mice by opioidergic, glutamatergic and nitricergic mechanisms. In addition, the extract can induce corticosterone plasma level which may be responsible for inhibition of inflammation and chronic phase of pain induced by formalin. PMID:24163947

Saeed-Abadi, S; Ranjbaran, M; Jafari, F; Najafi-Abedi, A; Rahmani, B; Esfandiari, B; Delfan, B; Mojabi, N; Ghahramani, M; Sahraei, H

2012-11-01

13

Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization  

SciTech Connect

Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir M. [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Riccio, Massimo [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Squarzoni, Stefano [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: lattanzi@jolly.bo.cnr.it

2008-02-01

14

Different effects of 7-nitroindazole and L-NAME administered both individually and together on the cardiovascular system of the rat.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) (50 mg/kg/day) and 7-nitroindazole (7NI) (10 mg/kg/day) administered from 10th-16th week of age either individually or together on cardiovascular system of Wistar rats and SHR. Systolic blood pressure (sBP) was measured weekly by the plethysmographic method. For morphological studies, the animals (n=10) were perfused with a fixative (120 mm Hg), and thoracic aorta and carotid and coronary arteries were processed for electron microscopy. For functional investigation (n=10), aortic rings were used in an organ bath. In Wistar rats, L-NAME evoked an increase of sBP; hypertrophy of the heart and arterial walls; an increase in cross-sectional areas (CSA) of endothelial cells (EC), muscle cells (SMC), extracellular matrix (ECM), and a decrease in acetylcholine-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation (EDR). 7NI evoked sBP-independent hypotrophy of the heart and arterial walls, a decrease in CSA of EC and SMC without affecting the CSA of ECM, and a mild decrease in acetylcholine-induced EDR. 7NI and L-NAME administered together evoked lower effect on BP and trophicity of the heart and all arteries, and a similar decrease in acetylcholine-induced EDR compared to L-NAME alone. In SHR, 7NI did not evoke any effect on the studied parameters. PMID:25194127

Kristek, F; Drobna, M; Cacanyiova, S

2015-03-01

15

Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.  

PubMed

Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and N?-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, p<0.001). The inhibitory effect of extract on contraction induced by KCl and acetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the ?-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A. millefolium. PMID:24311877

Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

2013-01-01

16

The effect of piribedil on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: differential role of ?(2) adrenergic mechanisms.  

PubMed

Piribedil is a non-ergoline, dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist with ?(2) adrenoceptor antagonist properties that has been used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Noradrenergic neurotransmission may be involved in the pathogenesis of dyskinesias induced by chronic treatment with L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, levodopa), but its role in the in vivo action of piribedil or on different subclasses of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) remains unclear. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to investigate the anti-dyskinetic effects of piribedil on L-DOPA-induced contralateral turning behaviour, locomotive dyskinesias (LD), axial dystonia (AD), orolingual dyskinesia (OD) and forelimb dyskinesia (FD) and (2) to compare these effects to the ?(2) adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan, or the ?(2) adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine. Rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and injected intraperitoneally twice daily with L-DOPA methylester (12.5 mg/kg) and benserazide (3.25 mg/kg). After 3 weeks, the effects of piribedil (5, 15, 40 mg/kg), clonidine (0.15 mg/kg), idazoxan (10 mg/kg) and combinations of these drugs were scored during 2 h. Pre-treatment with 5 and 40 mg/kg, but not 15 mg/kg, of piribedil reduced turning behaviour and AD, OD and FD, but piribedil increased LD at the 40 mg/kg doses compared to the L-DOPA group. Idazoxan induced similar effects as piribedil (40 mg/kg), except that it had no effect on LD. Idazoxan blocked the effect of piribedil on AD and FD. Clonidine reduced all AIMs except OD, possibly because of its sedative effect. Clonidine blocked the effect of piribedil on AD, OD and FD. These data suggest a differential involvement of ?(2) adrenergic receptors in the action of piribedil on different subclasses of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. PMID:22592937

Gerlach, Manfred; Halley, Paul; Riederer, Peter; van den Buuse, Maarten

2013-01-01

17

Effects of hypoxia on relationships between cytosolic and mitochondrial NAD(P)H redox and superoxide generation in coronary arterial smooth muscle  

PubMed Central

Since controversy exists on how hypoxia influences vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and our previous work provided evidence that it relaxes endothelium-denuded bovine coronary arteries (BCA) in a ROS-independent manner by promoting cytosolic NADPH oxidation, we examined how hypoxia alters relationships between cytosolic and mitochondrial NAD(P)H redox and superoxide generation in BCA. Methods were developed to image and interpret the effects of hypoxia on NAD(P)H redox based on its autofluorescence in the cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear regions of smooth muscle cells isolated from BCA. Aspects of anaerobic glycolysis and cytosolic NADH redox in BCA were assessed from measurements of lactate and pyruvate. Imaging changes in mitosox and dehydroethidium fluorescence were used to detect changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic-nuclear superoxide, respectively. Hypoxia appeared to increase mitochondrial and decrease cytosolic-nuclear superoxide under conditions associated with increased cytosolic NADH (lactate/pyruvate), mitochondrial NAD(P)H, and hyperpolarization of mitochondria detected by tetramethylrhodamine methyl-ester perchlorate fluorescence. Rotenone appeared to increase mitochondrial NAD(P)H and superoxide, suggesting hypoxia could increase superoxide generation by complex I. However, hypoxia decreased mitochondrial superoxide in the presence of contraction to 30 mM KCl, associated with decreased mitochondrial NAD(P)H. Thus, while hypoxia augments NAD(P)H redox associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide, contraction with KCl reverses these effects of hypoxia on mitochondrial superoxide, suggesting mitochondrial ROS increases do not mediate hypoxic relaxation in BCA. Since hypoxia lowers pyruvate, and pyruvate inhibits hypoxia-elicited relaxation and NADPH oxidation in BCA, mitochondrial control of pyruvate metabolism associated with cytosolic NADPH redox regulation could contribute to sensing hypoxia. PMID:18567707

Gao, Qun; Wolin, Michael S.

2008-01-01

18

[The synergetic effects of nitric oxide and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on learning and memory of rats].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to explore the interaction of nitric oxide (NO) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) on learning and memory of rats. Rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with L-arginine (L-Arg, the NO precursor) (L-Arg group) or choline chloride (CC, an agonist of ?7nAChR) (CC group), and with combined injection of L-Arg and CC (L-Arg+CC group), and methyllycaconitine (MLA, ?7nAChR antagonist) or N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) i.c.v. injected first and followed by administration of L-Arg combined with CC (MLA+L-Arg+CC group or L-NAME+L-Arg+CC group), respectively, and normal saline was used as control (NS group). The learning and memory ability of rats was tested with Y-maze; the level of NO and the expressions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or ?7nAChR in hippocampus were measured by NO assay kit, immunohistochemistry or Western blot. The results showed that compared with L-Arg group or CC group, the rats' learning and memory behavioral ability in Y-maze was observably enhanced and the level of NO, the optical density of nNOS-like immunoreactivity (LI) or ?7nAChR-LI in hippocampus were significantly increased in L-Arg+CC group; Compared with L-Arg+CC group, the ability of learning and memory and the level of NO as well as the expressions of nNOS-LI or ?7nAChR-LI were obviously decreased in MLA+L-Arg+CC group or in L-NAME+L-Arg+CC group. In conclusion, i.c.v. administration of L-Arg combined with CC significantly improved the action of the L-Arg or CC on the content of NO and the nNOS or ?7nAChR expressions in hippocampus along with the learning and memory behavior of rats; when nNOS or ?7nAChR was interrupted in advance, the effects of L-Arg combined with CC were also suppressed. The results suggest that there are probably synergistic effects between NO and nAChR on learning and memory. PMID:24964848

Jing, Zhi-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shao-Hu; Chen, Yu-Fen; Liu, Li-Xia; Qi, Wen-Xiu

2014-06-25

19

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling: a novel pathway in OSA induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.  

PubMed

The mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function directly in the microcirculatory endothelial tissue of OSA patients who have very low cardiovascular risk status. Nineteen OSA patients underwent gluteal biopsies before, and after effective treatment of OSA. We measured superoxide (O2(•-)) and nitric oxide (NO) in the microcirculatory endothelium using confocal microscopy. We evaluated the effect of the NOS inhibitor l-Nitroarginine-Methyl-Ester (l-NAME) and the NOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on endothelial O2(•-) and NO in patient endothelial tissue before and after treatment. We found that eNOS is dysfunctional in OSA patients pre-treatment, and is a source of endothelial O2(•-) overproduction. eNOS dysfunction was reversible with the addition of BH4. These findings provide a new mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in OSA patients and a potentially targetable pathway for treatment of cardiovascular risk in OSA. PMID:25534145

Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Porter, Kyle; Pleister, Adam; Wannemacher, Jacob; Sow, Angela; Jarjoura, David; Zweier, Jay L; Khayat, Rami N

2015-02-01

20

Transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling mediate organic dust induction of IL-8 expression in lung epithelial and THP-1 cells.  

PubMed

Exposure to the agricultural work environment is a risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms and chronic lung diseases. Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of tissue injury and disease. Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating lung inflammatory responses to agricultural dust are not yet fully understood. We studied the effects of poultry dust extract on molecular regulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory cytokine, in A549 and Beas2B lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cells. Our findings indicate that poultry dust extract potently induces IL-8 levels by increasing IL-8 gene transcription without altering IL-8 mRNA stability. Increase in IL-8 promoter activity was due to enhanced binding of activator protein 1 and NF-?B. IL-8 induction was associated with protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and inhibited by PKC and MAPK inhibitors. IL-8 increase was not inhibited by polymyxin B or l-nitroarginine methyl ester, indicating lack of involvement of lipopolysaccharide and nitric oxide in the induction. Lung epithelial and THP-1 cells share common mechanisms for induction of IL-8 levels. Our findings identify key roles for transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling pathways for IL-8 induction and provide insights into the mechanisms regulating lung inflammatory responses to organic dust exposure. PMID:25398986

Gottipati, Koteswara R; Bandari, Shiva Kumar; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Levin, Jeffrey L; Dooley, Gregory P; Reynolds, Stephen J; Boggaram, Vijay

2015-01-01

21

Release of endothelial nitric oxide in coronary arteries by celiprolol, a ? 1-adrenoceptor antagonist: possible clinical relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms underlying celiprolol-induced vasodilatation were analyzed in isolated porcine coronary arteries. Celiprolol induced dose-related relaxation of the artery rings with endothelium, an effect which was suppressed by NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME), nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, guanylate cyclase inhibitor, endothelium denudation, and removal of Ca2+. l-NAME contracted, and superoxide dismutase relaxed, the arteries only when the endothelium was preserved. Neither superoxide dismutase

Kumiko Noda; Michiko Oka; Fu-H Ma; Satoru Kitazawa; Yojiro Ukai; Noboru Toda

2001-01-01

22

A novel and efficient enzymatic method for the production of peptides from unprotected starting materials.  

PubMed

We report herein the development of a novel and efficient enzymatic method for the production of oligopeptides. This newly discovered method is a simple, cost-effective process, using unprotected amino acids as substrates in an aqueous solution and producing peptides in high yield. The target of our initial screen was l-alanyl-L-glutamine, a dipeptide of significant industrial interest by virtue of its widespread use in infusion therapy. By means of the screening of microorganisms that can catalyze the peptide-forming reaction producing l-alanyl-L-glutamine from L-alanine methylester (acyl donor) and L-glutamine (nucleophile), we discovered that Empedobacter brevis ATCC 14234 produced l-alanyl-L-glutamine most efficiently. The newly found enzyme purified from E. brevis ATCC 14234 facilitates significantly high production yields of l-alanyl-L-glutamine from L-alanine methylester and L-glutamine in an aqueous solution--more than 80% yield based on L-alanine methylester. In addition, this enzyme has wide substrate specificity--both for acyl donors and nucleophiles--and can catalyze peptide-forming reactions not only to produce various dipeptides from the corresponding amino acid esters and amino acids but also to produce various oligopeptides from the corresponding amino acid esters and peptides. PMID:15607239

Yokozeki, Kenzo; Hara, Seiichi

2005-01-26

23

Are Effective Properties Effective?  

SciTech Connect

The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, NM 87131 (United States); Hsiao, S.-C. [Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

2008-02-15

24

Advertising Effects and Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the application of an integrated econometric time-series model for advertising effectiveness is presented. The model form gives rise to three possible advertising effects: brand loyalty, current effects (both simple and compound) and carryover effects. The inherent nature of these effects is related to the degree of involvement and the affective or cognitive aspects of the purchase decision.

Mike T. Bendixen

1993-01-01

25

The triterpenoid quinonemethide pristimerin inhibits induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in murine macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inducible nitric oxide synthase dependent production of nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in inflammation. We investigated whether pristimerin ((20?)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-24-nor-friedela-1(10),3,5,7-tetraen-carboxylic acid-(29)-methylester), an antitumoral, antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory plant compound, has an effect on the inducible NO synthase system in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Pristimerin dose dependently (IC50: 0.2–0.3 ?M) reduces nitrite accumulation, a parameter for NO synthesis, in

Verena M Dirsch; Alexandra K Kiemer; Hildebert Wagner; Angelika M Vollmar

1997-01-01

26

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information on the classical doppler effect, the relativistic doppler effect, aberration, and the transverse doppler effect. It also discusses wave fronts, first-order and second order effect, light-time correction, Galilean transformation, and parallax.

Calvert, J.B.

27

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Doppler effect followed from water waves to sound waves to light waves. Red shift of the universe is also explored. What is doppler effect? It is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. What does that mean? Watch this: moving doppler effect video What does the doppler effect look like in a stationary and moving object? dooppler effect views What does doppler effect have to do with stars and galaxies??? View the following ...

Mrs. Clemons

2010-11-10

28

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Doppler effect followed from water waves to sound waves to light waves. Red shift of the universe is also explored. What is doppler effect? It is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. What does that mean? Watch this: moving doppler effect video What does the doppler effect look like in a stationary and moving object? dooppler effect views What does doppler effect have to do with stars and galaxies??? View the following ...

Mrs. Brown

2010-10-26

29

Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a greenhouse-effect-in-a-bottle experiment. The lesson includes readings from NEED.org and an inquiry lab measuring the effect of carbon dioxide and temperature change in an enclosed environment.

Connecticut Energy Education

30

School Effectiveness and Effectiveness Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines connections between Alberta practitioners' perceptions of current school effectiveness in elementary and junior high schools and the relative importance of various effectiveness indicators. Because of differences in practioners' perceptions, schools and school systems need to continually probe the dimensions of school-effectiveness

Holdaway, Edward A.; Johnson, Neil A.

1993-01-01

31

Health Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... Possible Health Effects Short-term Strong hallucinations including perceptions of otherworldly imagery, altered visual and auditory perceptions; increased blood pressure, vomiting. Long-term Unknown. Other ...

32

Gauging Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books by education experts and speakers at national professional conferences have inspired many school leaders to initiate professional learning communities (PLCs). Sustaining them effectively to raise student achievement is another matter. How can one know whether a PLC is moving toward a desired outcome? Measuring effectiveness requires an…

Foord, Kathleen A.; Haar, Jean M.

2012-01-01

33

Thermal Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the effect of temperature on the biosphere water, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes the effects of temperature on growth, production, and embryonic and larval development. A list of 401 references is also presented. (HM)

Talmage, Sylvia S.; Coutant, Charles C.

1978-01-01

34

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a tuning fork to explore how the Doppler effect works. They strike the tuning fork to produce a sound, then observe as the tone changes as the fork is swung back and forth. Learners also explore applications of the Doppler effect in technology.

2014-02-03

35

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

- The Doppler Effect explains why we hear a sonic boom when an airplane flies faster than the speed of sound. - Applying the Doppler Effect is how we have Doppler Radar used to track weather. - The Doppler Effect can be applied to outerspace and it evidence that the universe is expanding. Sound is energy traveling through a medium. A medium can be a gas, liquid, or solid. Therefore sound can not travel in outerspace since it is a vacuum which means there is nothing not even air. Energy traveling through a medium or even a vacuum is considered a wave. ...

Mr. Leet

2008-03-16

36

Selective membrane transport of amino acids by functionalised calix[4]arenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective active transport through liquid membrane assisted by the pH gradient of amino acid methylesters by using a series of calix[4]arenes substituted by acid and amido functions, glycolic chains, and hydroxyl groups as carriers has been performed. All these receptors have been found to act as carriers for transport of aromatic amino acid methylesters from the aqueous source phase

Lidia Kim; Abdelwaheb Hamdi; Ana Delia Stancu; Rachid Souane; Lucia Mutihac; Jacques Vicens

2010-01-01

37

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Control the velocity of two sound sources in which the wave crests are visually represented. As the sound sources move, interference patterns and evidence of the Doppler effect can be observed and measured.

2007-12-12

38

Chemotherapy Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope ...

39

Health Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/human-health . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

40

Effects and Effectiveness of Telemedicine  

PubMed Central

The use of telemedicine has recently undergone rapid growth and proliferation. Although the feasibility of many applications has been tested for nearly 30 years, data concerning the costs, effects, and effectiveness of telemedicine are limited. Consequently, the development of a strategy for coverage, payment, and utilization policy has been hindered. Telemedicine continues to expand, and pressure for policy development increases in the context of Federal budget cuts and major changes in health service financing. This article reviews the literature on the effects and medical effectiveness of telemedicine. It concludes with several recommendations for research, followed by a discussion of several specific questions, the answers to which might have a bearing on policy development. PMID:10153466

Grigsby, Jim; Kaehny, Margaret M.; Sandberg, Elliot J.; Schlenker, Robert E.; Shaughnessy, Peter W.

1995-01-01

41

Email Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site caters to those in search of an easier way to create tables, flow charts, maps, chemical structure diagrams, and the like. Email Effects can also add fun pictures to the signatures at the bottom of email messages for Macintosh owners who use Qualcomm's Eudora or Claris Emailer. This $10 shareware offers an easy-to-use interface with a drawing-like toolbar to create or convert the items mentioned above into ASCII based text. To convert an item, just copy and paste it into the Email Effects window. The text can be saved and/or added to an email message with the click of a button. Email Effects is provided by Sig Software. The download comes with text clip art.

42

Plasma Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio communication with space probes requires sending signals through the Earth's ionosphere and usually the solar wind. During planetary flybys, the signal may also pass through the ionosphere of another planet. These ionized media can perturb the radio signal in a variety of ways. Examples of these perturbations are variations in the electrical length between the spacecraft and the ground station, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized signals, amplitude and phase scintillations, and spectral and angular broadening. These plasma effects can have undesirable influences on telemetry performance and thus need to be understood from a communications engineering viewpoint. The plasma effects are, however, useful from a scientific viewpoint, since the effects on the communications link can often be inverted to estimate the physical conditions in the plasma.

Armstrong, J. W.

1983-01-01

43

Photoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of simulations of aspects of the photoelectric effect. There is an animation of the experiment with four choices of incident radiation - low and high intensity "red", to represent low energy light and low and high intensity "blue" to represent higher energy light. Electron production is animated and there is an ammeter to simulate current flow. Additional simulations show the effect of light frequency and intensity. There is a link to a spreadsheet that allows students to choose a sample from among five metals. The spreadsheet includes several questions to be answered after working through the materials.

44

Interpersonal Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interpersonal Effectiveness provides participants with an opportunity to develop their interpersonal skills through interactive exercises conducted in a team setting. Debriefing these exercises with all members of the class helps ensure that the exercises translate into personal and interpersonal learning for the participants. After completing this module, students should be able to identify the principles of good teamwork and effective communication and demonstrate those skills during a series of interactive exercises. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

Alston, Michele

45

Effects of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recorded the voices of white and black male college students reading instructions and questions for the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). 124 black and 128 white children from the same school in Grades 1-4 completed the PPVT after listening to 1 of the examiner's voices. Analysis of PPVT scores indicates significant effects for race of voice and race of S,

Kenneth France

1973-01-01

46

Effective Mentoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective mentoring is essential to the growth and success of librarianship in all types of library. This paper considers the possibilities for fostering mentoring activities among early career librarians, mid-career transitional librarians, and non-professional library workers. First, the paper describes existing studies to illuminate the urgency of mentoring activities to address the diminishing number of librarians and changing librarianship in

Shin Freedman

2009-01-01

47

System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

48

Blazhko Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cause of the Blazhko effect, the long-term modulation of the light and radial velocity curves of some RR Lyr stars, is still not understood. The observational characteristics of the Blazhko effect are discussed. Some preliminary results are presented from two recent campaigns to observe RR Lyr, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer along with ground-based spectroscopy and photometry, throughout a pulsation cycle, at a variety of Blazhko phases. A set of ultraviolet light curves have been generated from low dispersion IUE spectra. In addition, the (visual) light curves from IUE's Fine Error Sensor are analyzed using the Fourier decomposition technique. The values of the parameters Psi(sub 21) and R(sub 21) at different Blazhko phases of RR Lyr span the range of values found for non-Blazhko variables of similar period.

Teays, Terry

1996-01-01

49

Ripple Effects  

E-print Network

of water. In another portion of the economics project, Amosson and Extension Associate Bridget Guerrero take the results a step further. Using a socio-economic planning model, they first incorporate economic data for the counties in each sub...-region and in particular crop production costs. Finally, they input the initial effects on farmers? incomes gained from the opti- mization models into the socio-economic modeling program. The results give an idea of what specific policies or technological advances...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01

50

Crystal Growth Inhibitors for the Prevention of L-Cystine Kidney Stones Through Molecular Design  

SciTech Connect

Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects. Real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that L-cystine dimethylester (L-CDME) and L-cystine methylester (L-CME) dramatically reduce the growth velocity of the six symmetry-equivalent {l_brace}100{r_brace} steps because of specific binding at the crystal surface, which frustrates the attachment of L-cystine molecules. L-CDME and L-CME produce L-cystine crystals with different habits that reveal distinct binding modes at the crystal surfaces. The AFM observations are mirrored by reduced crystal yield and crystal size in the presence of L-CDME and L-CME, collectively suggesting a new pathway to the prevention of L-cystine stones by rational design of crystal growth inhibitors.

Rimer, Jeffrey D.; An, Zhihua; Zhu, Zina; Lee, Michael H.; Goldfarb, David S.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.; Ward, Michael D. (NY Univ.); (MCW)

2010-11-12

51

Efficient solution-processed small-molecule solar cells by insertion of graphene quantum dots.  

PubMed

In this work, we have demonstrated the results of several positive effects that arise from the addition of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to solution-processed small molecule bulk-heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cells fabricated from a p-DTS(FBTTh(2))(2)/[6,6]-phenyl C(71) butyric acid methyl-ester (PC(71)BM). The device with an optimized ratio of GQDs exhibits increased current density and fill factor owing to 10% improved external quantum efficiency (EQE) and induction of a favorable SM-BHJ morphology. Additionally, the multiple scattering of the GQDs in the SM-BHJ leads to longer optical pathlengths according to the analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra and UV/Vis absorption spectra. The GQD inserted SM-BHJ film at the optimized concentration exhibits decreased charge transport resistance significantly by impedance measurements with effective charge extraction in the device which contributes to 15% enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE). PMID:25373477

Wang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jung Kyu; Jin Kim, Sang; Hee Hong, Byung; Park, Jong Hyeok

2014-12-21

52

Erosion Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The impact crater in this THEMIS image is a model illustration to the effects of erosion on Mars. The degraded crater rim and several landslides observed in crater walls is evidence to the mass wasting of materials. Layering in crater walls also suggests the presence of materials that erode at varying rates.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.6, Longitude 44.3 East (315.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

2003-01-01

53

Efficient solution-processed small-molecule solar cells by insertion of graphene quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have demonstrated the results of several positive effects that arise from the addition of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to solution-processed small molecule bulk-heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cells fabricated from a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl-ester (PC71BM). The device with an optimized ratio of GQDs exhibits increased current density and fill factor owing to 10% improved external quantum efficiency (EQE) and induction of a favorable SM-BHJ morphology. Additionally, the multiple scattering of the GQDs in the SM-BHJ leads to longer optical pathlengths according to the analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra and UV/Vis absorption spectra. The GQD inserted SM-BHJ film at the optimized concentration exhibits decreased charge transport resistance significantly by impedance measurements with effective charge extraction in the device which contributes to 15% enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE).In this work, we have demonstrated the results of several positive effects that arise from the addition of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to solution-processed small molecule bulk-heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cells fabricated from a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl-ester (PC71BM). The device with an optimized ratio of GQDs exhibits increased current density and fill factor owing to 10% improved external quantum efficiency (EQE) and induction of a favorable SM-BHJ morphology. Additionally, the multiple scattering of the GQDs in the SM-BHJ leads to longer optical pathlengths according to the analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra and UV/Vis absorption spectra. The GQD inserted SM-BHJ film at the optimized concentration exhibits decreased charge transport resistance significantly by impedance measurements with effective charge extraction in the device which contributes to 15% enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04944f

Wang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jung Kyu; Jin Kim, Sang; Hee Hong, Byung; Park, Jong Hyeok

2014-11-01

54

Pulmonary Hypertension in Lambs Transfused with Stored Blood is Prevented by Breathing Nitric Oxide  

PubMed Central

Background During extended storage, erythrocytes undergo functional changes. These changes reduce the viability of erythrocytes leading to release of oxyhemoglobin, a potent scavenger of nitric oxide. We hypothesized that transfusion of ovine packed erythrocytes (PRBC) stored for prolonged periods would induce pulmonary vasoconstriction in lambs, and that reduced vascular nitric oxide concentrations would increase this vasoconstrictor effect. Methods We developed a model of autologous stored blood transfusion in lambs (n=36). Leukoreduced blood was stored for either 2 days (fresh PRBC) or 40 days (stored PRBC). Fresh or stored PRBC were transfused into donors instrumented for awake hemodynamic measurements. Hemodynamic effects of PRBC transfusion were also studied after infusion of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester (25 mg/kg) or during inhalation of nitric oxide (80 ppm). Results Cell-free hemoglobin levels were higher in the supernatant of stored PRBC than in supernatant of fresh PRBC (Mean±SD, 148±20 versus 41±13 mg/dl, respectively, P<0.001). Pulmonary artery pressure during transfusion of stored PRBC transiently increased from 13±1 to 18±1 mmHg (P<0.001) and was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin concentrations. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester potentiated the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure induced by transfusing stored PRBC, whereas inhalation of nitric oxide prevented the vasoconstrictor response. Conclusions Our results suggest that patients with reduced vascular nitric oxide levels due to endothelial dysfunction may be more susceptible to adverse effects of transfusing blood stored for prolonged periods. These patients might benefit from transfusion of fresh PRBC, when available, or inhaled nitric oxide supplementation to prevent the pulmonary hypertension associated with transfusion of stored PRBC. PMID:22293717

Baron, David M.; Yu, Binglan; Lei, Chong; Bagchi, Aranya; Beloiartsev, Arkadi; Stowell, Christopher P.; Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.

2012-01-01

55

Microbial effects  

SciTech Connect

The postulated doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ is not likely to have direct effect on soil microbial activity because during the growing season, the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the soil atmosphere is already ten to fifty times higher than existing atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Based on all available experimental information, it is estimated that a doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ will cause an increase in primary productivity of 10 to 40% depending on locale. The increase in biomass will, in turn, produce a limitation of available soil nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Increased organic carbon together with nitrogen and/or phosphorus limitation will result in a preferential increase in nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizal activities as the expedient means for supplying required nutrients to sustain the predicted increase in primary productivity. Therefore, increased emphasis should be placed on fundamental research related to soil microbiology with special reference to nitrogen-fixing, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, and to the mycorrhizal fungi. 111 references, 2 figures.

Lamborg, M.R.; Hardy, R.W.F.; Paul, E.A.

1983-01-01

56

Misoprostol: a prostaglandin E1 analog with antisecretory and cytoprotective properties.  

PubMed

Misoprostol, a methylester analog of prostaglandin E1, with antisecretory and cytoprotective properties, has undergone extensive investigation and has received Food and Drug Administration approval for the prevention of nonsteroidal-induced ulceration. The drug represents the first synthetic, orally active prostaglandin evaluated for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Clinical studies reveal a trend toward slightly lower healing rates with misoprostol when compared with histamine (H2)-receptor antagonists in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers. In addition, misoprostol was less effective than H2-blockers in reducing ulcer pain, and caused a higher incidence of adverse reactions, particularly diarrhea occurring in up to 13 percent of the patients treated. Several studies have shown misoprostol to be superior to cimetidine and sucralfate in the prevention of alcohol- and drug-induced gastritis. This report summarizes the biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy of misoprostol in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and in the prevention of mucosal injury. PMID:2499129

Jones, J B; Bailey, R T

1989-04-01

57

Structure-activity relationships influencing lipid-induced changes in eIF2? phosphorylation and cell viability in BRIN-BD11 cells.  

PubMed

Fatty acids influence the viability of eukaryotic cells differentially such that long chain saturated molecules are poorly tolerated, whereas unsaturated species are less detrimental and can be cytoprotective. The basis for these effects is unclear but studies in yeast imply that they reflect the spatial configuration of the molecules when incorporated into the ER membrane. Using BRIN-BD11 ?-cells, we show that a wide range of unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl-esters (having differing chain length and disposition of the double bonds) elicit cytoprotection and relief of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase-dependent ER stress. Thus, both physical properties and specific signalling events may regulate fatty acid responses in ?-cells. PMID:21627968

Dhayal, Shalinee; Morgan, Noel G

2011-07-21

58

Nitrergic neurotransmission mediates the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses in the clitoral corpus cavernosum of the rabbit  

PubMed Central

The corpus cavernosum is the erectile tissue in the penis and clitoris. Although nitrergic neurotransmission has been characterized in detail in the penile corpus cavernosum, functional studies on the inhibitory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) transmission in the clitoral corpus cavernosum have been lacking. Here we demonstrate that electrical field stimulation (EFS) induces NANC relaxation responses in the clitoral corpus cavernosum of the rabbit. These responses were inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) or tetrodotoxin. The inhibitory effect of L-NAME was partially reversed by L-arginine but not by D-arginine. EFS-induced relaxations were enhanced by an inhibitor of type V cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, zaprinast. These results suggest that nitrergic neurotransmission is responsible for the NANC relaxation responses in the clitoral corpus cavernosum of the rabbit. PMID:9886752

Cellek, Selim; Moncada, Salvador

1998-01-01

59

Anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizing properties of two semisynthetic derivatives of oleanolic Acid.  

PubMed

Acetylation and methylation semisynthesis of oleanolic acid (OA) isolated from Syzygium aromaticum L. yielded two compounds: 3-acetoxyoleanolic acid (3-AOA) and 3-acetoxy, 28-methylester oleanolic acid (3-A,28-MOA). Anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds were assessed using the serotonin and fresh egg albumin-induced inflammatory test models in male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g. Furthermore, erythrocyte membrane-stabilizing property of these compounds was evaluated in the heat- and hypotonicity-induced in vitro hemolysis test models. The two semisynthetic compounds significantly (p?effects in a hypotonic milieu. Semisynthesis of OA yielded two compounds which had better in vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro membrane-stabilizing properties. PMID:25173889

Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta N; Oyedeji, Opeoluwa O; Oyedeji, Adebola O; Ndebia, Eugene J

2015-02-01

60

Side Effects of Chemotherapy  

MedlinePLUS

... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction ... side effects of docetaxel as used to treat prostate cancer are VERY different and less severe than the ...

61

Chelation of 238Pu(IV) in vivo by 3,4,3-LICAM(C): effects of ligand methylation and pH.  

PubMed

The linear tetracarboxycatecholate ligand, 3,4,3-LICAM(C) (N1,N5,N10,N14-tetrakis(2,3-dihydroxy-4-carboxybenzoyl-tetraaza tet radecane, tetra sodium salt) injected within 1 h after injection of Pu(IV) citrate, removes about the same fraction of Pu from animals as CaNa3-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, calcium, sodium salt) but removes less inhaled Pu than CaNa3-DTPA and leaves a Pu residue in the renal cortex. However, the formation constant of the expected Pu-3,4,3-LICAM(C) complexes are orders of magnitude greater than that of Pu-DTPA, and 3,4,3-LICAM(C) is 100 times more efficient than CaNa3-DTPA for removing Pu from transferrin in vitro. Because the formation constants of their actinide complexes are central to in vivo actinide chelation, ligand design strategies are dominated by the search for ligands with large Pu complex stabilities, and it was necessary to explain the failure of 3,4,3-LICAM(C) to achieve its thermodynamic potential in vivo. All the batches of 3,4,3-LICAM(C) prepared at Berkeley or in France [Euro-LICAM(C)] were found by high-pressure liquid chromatography to be mixtures of the pure ligand [55% in Berkeley preparations, 8.5% in Euro-LICAM(C)] and its four methylesters. A revised synthesis for 3,4,3-LICAM(C) is appended to this report. All of the incompletely hydrolyzed 3,4,3-LICAM(C) preparations and the pure ligand were tested for removal of Pu from mice [238Pu(IV) citrate intravenous, 30 mumol kg-1 of ligand at 1 h, kill at 24 h, radioanalyze tissues and separated excretal]. The presence of methylesters did not significantly impair the ability of the ligands to remove Pu from mice, and it did not alter the fraction of injected Pu deposited in kidneys. Temporary elevation (reduction) of plasma and urine pH of mice by 0.5 mL of 0.1 M NaHCO3 (NH4Cl) injected before or simultaneously with pure 3,4,3-LICAM(C) somewhat improved (significantly reduced) Pu excretion but had little influence on Pu deposition in kidneys. Review of the investigations of Pu removal from animals by 3,4,3-LICAM(C) revealed that the fractional renal Pu deposit was characteristic of the species and that it could be reduced by vigorous alkalinization which indicated the need to examine the details of the pH dependence of Pu complexation by 3,4,3-LICAM(C).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2722507

Durbin, P W; White, D L; Jeung, N L; Weitl, F L; Uhlir, L C; Jones, E S; Bruenger, F W; Raymond, K N

1989-06-01

62

Communicating Effectively PDF  

Cancer.gov

Effective communication is essential for the delivery of quality cancer palliative care. And yet, healthcare providers often lack the skills to communicate effectively with their patients and families.

63

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2011-04-01

64

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2010-04-01

65

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2014-04-01

66

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2013-04-01

67

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2012-04-01

68

Polymorphic effect systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach to programming languages for parallel computers that uses an effect system to discover expression scheduling constraints. This effect system is part of a 'kinded' type system with three base kinds: types, which describe the value that an expression may return; effects, which describe the side-effects that an expression may have; and regions, which describe the

John M. Lucassen; David K. Gifford

1988-01-01

69

On Effect Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

2012-01-01

70

Improving School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School effectiveness is an issue that has preoccupied researchers and policymakers for 3 decades. To study how ineffective schools become effective and what constitutes an effective school, the Improving School Effectiveness Project was carried out in Scotland from 1995 to 1997. This project forms the basis of discussion in this book, which has 11…

MacBeath, John, Ed.; Mortimore, Peter, Ed.

71

AHSGE Cause and Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cause and Effect practice to build skill knowledge for the reading portion of the graduation exam. Complete the Cause and Effect activities at your pace . Cause and Effect Match , Cause and Effect Mini Lesson and Game , What s the Cause?? Quiz . ...

Ms. Ufomadu

2013-06-13

72

Gravitational Casimir Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the gravitonic Casimir effect with nonidealized boundary conditions. This allows the quantification of the gravitonic contribution to the Casimir effect from real bodies. We quantify the meagerness of the gravitonic Casimir effect in ordinary matter. We also quantify the enhanced effect produced by the speculated Heisenberg-Couloumb (HC) effect in superconductors, thereby providing a test for the validity of the HC theory, and, consequently, the existence of gravitons.

Quach, James Q.

2015-02-01

73

WASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS APPROACH  

E-print Network

to its citizens, articulated in the Master Plan for Higher Education, UC Santa Cruz must continue to doWASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS APPROACH UC Santa Cruz ... ranked sought to maintain the high quality of our undergraduate education. We also seek to continue growth

California at Santa Cruz, University of

74

Functional Characterization and Transcriptional Analysis of a Gene Cluster Governing Early and Late Steps in Daunorubicin Biosynthesis inStreptomyces peucetius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence analysis of the Streptomyces peucetius daunorubicin biosynthetic gene cluster revealed a partial (dnrQ) and two complete (dnrD and dnrP) open reading frames flanking dnrK. Bioconversion experiments showed that DnrD converts aklanonic acid methylester to aklaviketone and that DnrC is a methyltransferase that converts aklanonic acid to aklanonic acid methylester. The deduced dnrP gene product, homologous to known esterases, may

KRISHNAMURTHY MADDURI; RICHARD HUTCHINSON

1995-01-01

75

Managing Physical Effects  

Cancer.gov

Browse a list of common side effects of cancer or cancer treatment with links to practical information for preventing or relieving these effects. Also find information on maintaining proper nutrition during cancer treatment.

76

Side Effects (Management)  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

77

Effective College Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses other writings on effective college teaching and then presents his list of necessary characteristics for the effective teacher, stressing the interpersonal dimension of the teaching-learning situation. (MF)

Caraway, James E.

1978-01-01

78

Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Toolkit  

EPA Science Inventory

US EPA has identified the effectiveness of Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the e...

79

Special Effects Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

80

Electrocaloric effect on graphenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present Letter explores the electrocaloric effect of graphene nano-ribbons, with a longitudinal electric field and transversal magnetic field. Special features of the effect can be ruled and tuned by the applied fields as, for instance, the unusual inverse effect, created by the Landau levels. These results open doors to enhance electrocaloric utility of materials.

Reis, M. S.; Soriano, S.

2013-03-01

81

Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

Sartori, Leo

1983-01-01

82

Side Effects of Hormone Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

83

Allee effects in ants.  

PubMed

1. Allee effects occur when the aggregation of individuals result in mutually beneficial intraspecific interactions whereby individual fitness, or per capita growth rate, increases with the number of individuals. Allee effects are common in social species due to their cooperative behaviours, such as breeding, feeding or defence. Allee effects have important implications for many aspects of basic and applied ecology. Over the past decades, the study of Allee effects has influenced population dynamics, community ecology, endangered species management and invasion biology. 2. Despite the fact that cooperation is the basis of their social structure, Allee effects have received little attention among eusocial insects. Extreme cooperation is common, and reproductive specialization of individuals occurs due to division of labour. These life-history traits suggest that the potential contribution of each caste to reproduction and survival may be differential and nonadditive. 3. We studied Allee effects in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In this species, many queens and workers are present in colonies, which allowed us to explore the differential effects of castes on the presence of Allee effects. In the laboratory, we measured brood production and individual survival in experimental colonies that differed in the initial numbers of queens and workers.4. Our results highlight the differential effect of queens and workers on survival and productivity. We found three positive density-dependent relationships indicative of component Allee effects at the colony level: both workers and queens had a positive effect on the productivity of the other caste, and queens had a positive effect on worker survivorship. 5. Our experimental results suggest a potential positive feedback between worker and queen abundance, which may have contributed to the evolution of large colony sizes. Our study provides the first evidence of Allee effects in eusocial insects and highlights the need to consider castes separately in population dynamics. Division of labour and differential reproductive rates are factors that should be integrated into the study of Allee effects. PMID:23672650

Luque, Gloria M; Giraud, Tatiana; Courchamp, Franck

2013-09-01

84

The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".  

PubMed

The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

Dooley, Kevin J

2009-07-01

85

Thermally Driven Josephson Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept is proposed of the thermally driven Josephson effect in superfluid helium. Heretofore, the Josephson effect in a superfluid has been recognized as an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady pressure difference between two superfluid reservoirs separated by an array of submicron-sized orifices, which act in unison as a single Josephson junction. Analogously, the thermally driven Josephson effect is an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady temperature difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect is partly a consequence of a quantum- mechanical effect known as the fountain effect, in which a temperature difference in a superfluid is accompanied by a pressure difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect may have significance for the development of a high-resolution gyroscope based on the Josephson effect in a superfluid: If the pressure-driven Josephson effect were used, then the fluid on the high-pressure side would become depleted, necessitating periodic interruption of operation to reverse the pressure difference. If the thermally driven Josephson effect were used, there would be no net flow and so the oscillatory flow could be maintained indefinitely by maintaining the required slightly different temperatures on both sides of the junction.

Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

2008-01-01

86

Arbutus unedo prevents cardiovascular and morphological alterations in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats Part I: cardiovascular and renal hemodynamic effects of Arbutus unedo in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition is associated with functional abnormalities of the heart and kidney. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronic treatment with Arbutus unedo leaf (AuL) or root (AuR) aqueous extracts can prevent these alterations. Six groups of rats were used: control group received tap water; N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) group treated with L-NAME at 40 mg/kg/day; AuL and AuR groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and Au leaves or roots extract at the same concentration 250 mg/kg/day; l-arginine and enalapril groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and l-arginine at 50mg/kg/day or enalapril at 15 mg/kg/day. Treatment of rats during 4 weeks with L-NAME caused an increase of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) accompanied by a ventricular hypertrophy, an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, an increase of the cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and a decrease of water, sodium and potassium excretion. The co-administration of AuL or AuR extracts with L-NAME reduces the development of increased SBP, ameliorates the vascular reactivity as well as the baroreflex sensitivity and normalizes the renal function. AuR reduces the ventricular hypertrophy but AuL do not. Enalapril associated with L-NAME reverses the majority of alterations induced by L-NAME while l-arginine only lightly ameliorates the vascular reactivity. These results show that chronic treatment with Arbutus extract regress the development of hypertension and ameliorate cardiovascular and renal functions in NO deficient hypertension. PMID:18191352

Afkir, Saida; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Aziz, Mohamed; Zoheir, Johar; Cuisinaud, Guy; Bnouham, Mohamed; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Lahlou, Saad; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

2008-03-01

87

Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material  

DOEpatents

A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

Lewis, Laura J. H.

2006-07-18

88

Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

E-print Network

The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0...

Liu, Kuo-Chun

2010-01-14

89

Effect Identification in Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

The widespread adoption of electronic medical records means there are now vast data resources available for comparative effectiveness research (CER). In concert with conventional randomized controlled trials, CER holds great promise for advancing our understanding of how different therapeutic treatments yield different health outcomes in different settings and with different populations. But in a research culture fixated on estimating correlations and p-values, the threat of misinterpretation of results and improper CER inferences is troubling. Accordingly, this paper aims to shore up the inferential foundations of CER by introducing the fundamentals of effect identification, which is the process of identifying or teasing out empirically defensible causal effects from competing explanations. Three primary requirements of effect identification—positivity, exchangeability, and consistency— are explained and simple exampled are given. The take home message is that so-called big data from medical records may not yield better or more useful results. Advances will come only when the right question is addressed with the appropriate data and methods.

Oakes, J. Michael

2013-01-01

90

The Hubble effective potential  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2009-05-15

91

Dynamic ground effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effect of rate of descent on ground effects. A series of powered models were tested in the Vortex Research Facility under conditions with rate of descent and in the 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel under identical conditions but without rate of descent. These results indicate that the rate of descent can have a significant impact on ground effects particularly if vectored or reversed thrust is used.

Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gilbert, William P.

1990-01-01

92

Atomic lighthouse effect.  

PubMed

We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease in magnetic field efficiency. PMID:25401364

Máximo, C E; Kaiser, R; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

2014-11-01

93

The Atomic Lighthouse Effect  

E-print Network

We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease of the magnetic field efficiency.

Máximo, C E; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

2014-01-01

94

Volcanic effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

Robock, Alan

1991-01-01

95

Effects on Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of controlled and modified atmospheres on insects is reviewed and summarized in this chapter. Traditionally, controlled and modified atmospheres are used to store and preserve fresh fruits and vegetables. The effects on insects and the potential of these treatments are secondary to the...

96

Comparative Effectiveness Research  

Cancer.gov

Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is the conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing different interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances.

97

Relativistic effects in chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativistic effects become apparent when the velocity of the electron is arbitrarily close to the speed of light (137 au) without actually attaining it (in heavy atoms of elements at the end of Mendeleev's Periodic Table). At the orbital level, the relativistic effect is apparent in the radial contraction of penetrating s and p shells, expansion of nonpenetrating d and

K. B. Yatsimirskii

1995-01-01

98

Legislative Effectiveness in Congress  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that congressional scholarship would benefit from an aggressive agenda to incorporate legislative effectiveness more fully into theoretical and empirical examinations of Congress. To facilitate this effort, we advance hypotheses from a foundational theory of lawmaking effectiveness that arises from members' innate abilities, cultivated skills, and institutional positioning. We develop a method for cardinally ranking members of the U.S.

Craig Volden; Alan E. Wiseman

99

effectively tax treaty?  

E-print Network

Is income effectively connected to US trade/ business? Is this exempt under the tax treaty? Does- employee comp? Is income "effectively connected"? Is payment subject to a lower tax rate? Is payment for rent or royalty? Individual completes IRS form 1001. Payment will not be taxed. (Code "N") Taxes

Krovi, Venkat

100

Gastrointestinal effects of aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin is being used as an effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent at doses >325 mg daily. At low doses (75–325 mg daily), aspirin is the key antiplatelet drug in the pharmacological prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Topical and systemic effects of aspirin in the gastrointestinal mucosa are associated with mucosal damage in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. The risk of

Carlos Sostres; Angel Lanas

2011-01-01

101

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-07-01

102

Primacy Effects in Attributions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has suggested the existence of a primacy effect in the attribution of ability. To test if the primacy effect occurs in situations where specific cues about the person and nature of the test materials are lacking or greatly reduced, college students corrected a multiple-choice test in which a phantom stimulus person correctly…

McAndrew, Francis T.

103

Serious video game effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the interactive media characteristics and intrinsically motivating appeal, computer games are often praised for their potential and value in education. However, comprehensive research testing these assumptions is still missing. Preliminary comparative studies on the learning effects of games versus traditional media have shown some promise. In this paper, we describe a comparative study that thoroughly investigates the effects of

Wee Ling Wong; Cuihua Shen; Luciano Nocera; Eduardo Carriazo; Fei Tang; Shiyamvar Bugga; Harishkumar Narayanan; Hua Wang; Ute Ritterfeld

2007-01-01

104

Effective Mentoring Rebecca Vandiver  

E-print Network

Effective Mentoring Rebecca Vandiver 9 October 2006 #12;I. RESPONSIBILITIES OF A MENTOR #12;WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A MENTOR?? · Mentors... ­ offer continuing guidance and support ­ are willing's performance "Effective mentoring can be learned, but not taught. Good mentors discover their own objectives

Lega, Joceline

105

The Greenhouse Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greenhouse Effect is getting a lot of publicity as concern grows about trends in weather and pollution. The midwestern states of the US suffered a drought during 1988 coupled with an unsually hot summer throughout the country. Many people attributed this to the Greenhouse Effect. Palmer and Brankovic (Nature, Vol. 338, page 54, March 2, 1989) tied the drought

2009-01-01

106

The greenhouse effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse effect on the Earth is identified by the difference between the effective radiating temperature of the planet and its surface temperature. The difference between the energy emitted by the surface and that emitted upward to space by the upper atmosphere quantifies it; it can therefore be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing

A. Berger; Ch. Tricot

1992-01-01

107

Lake Effect Snow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This MPEG shows lake effect precipitation resulting when cold air masses pass over the relatively warm Great Lakes, pick up moisture, and then precipitate when again encountering the cold land surface. Note the bands of lake effect snow apparent over Lake Superior and the lack of snow on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The animation can be replayed to stress important points.

NASA

108

Aharonov-Bohm Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page illustrates the effect of a magnetic flux on the interference of a quantum double-slit experiment. The time-dependent scattering patterns are shown with and without a magnetic field. In addition, the effects of changing the topology of the system are discussed and displayed. The webpage includes animations which demonstrate the concept.

De Raedt, Hans

109

Concerning Hertz' photoelectric effect  

E-print Network

Experimental evidence of the photoelectric effect goes back to H. Hertz. It occurred during the famous confirmation experiments of the Maxwellian theory. It is commonly held however that it cannot be explained in the framework of that theory. We are calling attention to some aspects linked with the interpretation of that effect on which, in our opinion, it is worthwhile reflecting.

S. L. Vesely; A. A. Vesely

2002-02-23

110

Evaluating Effective Management Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A better way to assess the effectiveness of management development is to measure organizational effectiveness rather than individual improvement. Case studies support the Business Excellence Framework model, which assesses enablers (leadership, personnel management, policy, resources, processes) and results (personnel and customer satisfaction,…

Bramley, Peter

1999-01-01

111

Teacher Work Group Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research links the development of a collaborative community of educators to enhanced teaching and learning effectiveness. This study contributes to this research by testing a work group effectiveness model with a sample of teachers from middle school teams. The study assesses the interrelationships among the model's antecedent variables…

Conley, Sharon; Fauske, Janice; Pounder, Diana G.

2004-01-01

112

JPL Radiation Effects Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation Effects Group investigates the effects of space radiation on present and future microelectronic and optoelectronic technologies, evaluate the risk of using them in specific space missions, and recommend component and design techniques for JPL and NASA programs to reduce reliability risk from space radiation.

Thorbourn, Dennis

2013-01-01

113

Effects on aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding the effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems, recent scientific and public interest has focused on marine primary producers and on the aquatic web, which has resulted in a multitude of studies indicating mostly detrimental effects of UV-B radiation on aquatic organisms. The interest has expanded to include ecologically significant groups and major biomass producers using mesocosm studies, emphasizing

D.-P. Häder; H. D. Kumar; R. C. Smith; R. C. Worrest

1998-01-01

114

The Kaye Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, "The Kaye effect", as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid…

Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

2009-01-01

115

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

116

Branch Effect Reduction Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branch effects are the biggest obstacle to gaining significant speedups when running general purpose code on instruction level parallel machines. The article presents a survey which compares current branch effect reduction techniques, offering hope for greater gains. We believe this survey is timely because research is bearing much fruit: speedups of 10 or more are being demonstrated in research simulations

Augustus K. Uht; Vijay Sindagi; Sajee Somanathan

1997-01-01

117

Generalized gravitomagnetic clock effect  

E-print Network

In General Relativity, the rotation of a gravitating body like the Earth influences the motion of orbiting test particles or satellites in a non-Newtonian way. This causes, e.g., a precession of the orbital plane known as the Lense-Thirring effect and a precession of the spin of a gyroscope known as the Schiff effect. Here, we discuss a third effect first introduced by Cohen and Mashhoon called the gravitomagnetic clock effect. It describes the difference in proper time of counterrevolving clocks after a revolution of $2\\pi$. For two clocks on counterrotating equatorial circular orbits around the Earth, the effect is about $10^{-7}$ seconds per revolution, which is quite large. We introduce a general relativistic definition of the gravitomagnetic clock effect which is valid for arbitrary pairs of orbits. This includes rotations in the same direction and different initial conditions, which are crucial if the effect can be detected with existing satellites or with payloads on nondedicated missions. We also derive the post-Newtonian expansion of the general relativistic expression and calculate the effect for the example of a satellite of a Global Navigation Satellite System compared to a geostationary satellite.

Eva Hackmann; Claus Lämmerzahl

2014-08-28

118

Generalized gravitomagnetic clock effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general relativity, the rotation of a gravitating body like the Earth influences the motion of orbiting test particles or satellites in a non-Newtonian way. This causes, e.g., a precession of the orbital plane known as the Lense-Thirring effect and a precession of the spin of a gyroscope known as the Schiff effect. Here, we discuss a third effect first introduced by Cohen and Mashhoon called the gravitomagnetic clock effect. It describes the difference in proper time of counterrevolving clocks after a revolution of 2?. For two clocks on counterrotating equatorial circular orbits around the Earth, the effect is about 10-7 s per revolution, which is quite large. We introduce a general relativistic definition of the gravitomagnetic clock effect which is valid for arbitrary pairs of orbits. This includes rotations in the same direction and different initial conditions, which are crucial if the effect can be detected with existing satellites or with payloads on nondedicated missions. We also derive the post-Newtonian expansion of the general relativistic expression and calculate the effect for the example of a satellite of a global navigation satellite system compared to a geostationary satellite.

Hackmann, Eva; Lämmerzahl, Claus

2014-08-01

119

The precedence effect.  

PubMed

When two similar transient sounds are presented binaurally in rapid succession, observers hear a single sound from a location which depends mainly on the properties of the first sound to reach the ears. This phenomenon, known as the precedence effect, was explored using stimuli consisting of 20 mus pulses presented using earphones; experiments were carried out on both the classical precedence effect (in which interaural delays provide the cues to lateralization) and on an amplitude-based precedence effect, where interaural amplitude differences provide the cues. Some experiments on the amplitude-based precedence effect led to unexpected but highly consistent anomalous results. The spectral characteristics of stimuli used in studies of both the classical and amplitude-based precedence effect were considered and, provided the delay between the two pairs of pulses used in the experiments is 600 mus or less, observers' behaviour is simply related to the amplitude and phase spectra of the stimuli. PMID:6668254

Gaskell, H

1983-12-01

120

Greenhouse effect of NOX.  

PubMed

Through various processes the nitrogen oxides (NOX) interact with trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere which do absorb in the spectral range relevant to the greenhouse effect (infrared wavelengths). The net effect is an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The catalytic role of NOX in the production of tropospheric ozone provides the most prominent contribution. The global waming potential is estimated as GWP (NOX = 30 - 33 and 7 - 10 for the respective time horizons of 20 and 100 years, and is thereby comparable to that of methane. NOX emissions in rural areas of anthropogenically influenced regions, or those in the vicinity of the txopopause caused by air traffic, cause the greenhouse effectivity to be substantially more intense. We estimate an additional 5-23 % for Germany's contribution to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect as a result of the indirect greenhouse effects stemming from NOX. Furthermore, a small and still inaccurately defined amount of the deposited NOX which has primarily been converted into nitrates is again released from the soil into the atmosphere in the form of the long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Thus, anthropogenically induced NOX emissions contribute to enhanced greenhouse effect and to stratospheric ozone depletion in the time scale of more than a century. PMID:24234471

Lammel, G; Graßl, H

1995-07-01

121

Hall effect in nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical Hall effect in thin semiconductor nanowires with lateral contacts is considered theoretically. Two new phenomena: (i) influence of diffusion currents in nanowires with radius comparable with the screening length of carriers and (ii) eddy currents in non-planar Hall contacts are taken into account. Both effects result in a noticeable reduction of the measured Hall voltage compared with the standard formula for bulk samples and hence the effective carrier concentration determined by using this formula may exceed the real concentration in nanowires in up to two orders of magnitude.

Fernandes, C.; Ruda, H. E.; Shik, A.

2014-06-01

122

Measuring Study Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This model-eliciting activity challenges students to operationally define a construct (study effectiveness). Students are given a survey to review that rates different aspects of study behaviors. They are then given a set of data for a few students and asked to use their scores to determine an index of study effectiveness. After determining a method, they are then asked to use this index to put five students in rank order according to their scores on study effectiveness. Students write a report explaining the method they used to determine these scores and how they produced their ratings.

This page was authored by the CATALST Group at the University of Minnesota, based on an original activity by Richard Lesh at Purdue University.

123

Bustling argon: biological effect  

PubMed Central

Argon is a noble gas in group 18 of the periodic table. Certificated to exist in air atmosphere merely one century ago, discovery of argon shows interesting stories of researching and exploring. It was assumed to have no chemical activity. However, argon indeed present its biological effect on mammals. Narcotic effect of argon in diving operation and neur-protective function of argon in cerebral injury demonstrate that argon has crucial effect and be concentrated on is necessary. Furthermore, consider to be harmless to human, argon clinical application in therapy would be another option. PMID:24088583

2013-01-01

124

Finite Temperature Effective Actions  

E-print Network

We present, from first principles, a direct method for evaluating the exact fermion propagator in the presence of a general background field at finite temperature, which can be used to determine the finite temperature effective action for the system. As applications, we determine the complete one loop finite temperature effective actions for 0+1 dimensional QED as well as the Schwinger model. These effective actions, which are derived in the real time (closed time path) formalism, generate systematically all the Feynman amplitudes calculated in thermal perturbation theory and also show that the retarded (advanced) amplitudes vanish in these theories.

Ashok Das; J. Frenkel

2009-08-27

125

Improving engineering effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methodologies to improve engineering productivity were investigated. The rocky road to improving engineering effectiveness is reviewed utilizing a specific semiconductor engineering organization as a case study. The organization had a performance problem regarding new product introductions. With the help of this consultant as a change agent the engineering team used a systems approach to through variables that were effecting their output significantly. Critical factors for improving this engineering organization's effectiveness and the roles/responsibilities of management, the individual engineers and the internal consultant are discussed.

Fiero, J. D.

1985-01-01

126

Conducting Effective Performance Evaluations  

E-print Network

Conducting Effective Performance Evaluations February 2013 #12;Performance Management v to prove that the employee did know the expectations and standards #12;Performance Evaluation Personnel your most talented employees · Satisfactory participation in the performance evaluation process

Lawrence, Rick L.

127

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.

1986-01-01

128

[Genetic effects of radiation].  

PubMed

This paper is a short review of genetic effect of radiation. This includes methods and results of a large-scale genetic study on specific loci in mice and of various studies in the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors. As for the latter, there is no results obtained which suggest the effect of parental exposure to radiation. Further, in recent years, studies are conducted to the offspring born to parents who were survivors of childhood cancers. In several reports, the mean gonad dose is quite large whereas in most instances, the results do not indicate genetic effect following parental exposure to radiation. Possible reasons for the difficulties in detecting genetic effect of radiation are discussed. PMID:22514926

Nakamura, Nori

2012-03-01

129

Matthew: Effect or Fable?  

E-print Network

In a market context, a status effect occurs when actors are accorded differential recognition for their efforts depending on their location in a status ordering, holding constant the quality of these efforts. In practice, ...

Azoulay, Pierre

130

Creating effective character animation  

E-print Network

Several stages are involved in the creation of an graphics. effective, three-dimensional character animation. Before starting any work at the computer, the animator should consider what his characters will look like and how they will move, as well...

Gerwig, Jennifer

1999-01-01

131

Chesapeake Bay Impact Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint show depicts the effects (blast, heat, etc.) of the Chesapeake Bay impact. To emphasize the human consequences of asteroid and comet impacts, the slides show what would happen to East Coast communities if an identical object hit the same place today. (The impact actually happened roughly 35 million years ago.) Impact effects were estimated with the Earth Impact Effects Program (www.lpl.arizona.edu/impacteffects/). Effects shown on these slides are at best very approximate, and, consequently, these slides should only be used to stimulate discussions about impact hazards. Satellite images were obtained through the NASA Earth Observing System Higher Education Alliance (GeoBrain) which provided funding for this work. Graphics were created with the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) family of geographic information system (GIS) products.

Mark Abolins

132

Comparative effectiveness research.  

PubMed

The goal of comparative effectiveness research is to improve health care while dealing with the seemingly ever-rising cost. An understanding of comparative effectiveness research as a core topic is important for neuroradiologists. It can be used in a variety of ways. Its goal is to look at alternative methods of interacting with a clinical condition, ideally, while improving delivery of care. While the Patient-Centered Outcome Research initiative is the most mature US-based foray into comparative effectiveness research, it has been used more robustly in decision-making in other countries for quite some time. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence of the United Kingdom is a noteworthy example of comparative effectiveness research in action. PMID:24874531

Hirsch, J A; Schaefer, P W; Romero, J M; Rabinov, J D; Sanelli, P C; Manchikanti, L

2014-09-01

133

Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Amy Kolenbrander

2004-01-01

134

The Quadratic Zeeman Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zeeman effects of the principal series lines of sodium and potassium in the range n=10 to 35 are observed in absorption, using the new 60-inch cyclotron magnet. With a field of 27,000 gauss, the lines having n in the neighborhood of ten show a normal triplet representing the complete Paschen-Back effect of the narrow 2P doublet. From about n=12

F. A. Jenkins; E. Segrè

1939-01-01

135

Correlational effect size benchmarks.  

PubMed

Effect size information is essential for the scientific enterprise and plays an increasingly central role in the scientific process. We extracted 147,328 correlations and developed a hierarchical taxonomy of variables reported in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from 1980 to 2010 to produce empirical effect size benchmarks at the omnibus level, for 20 common research domains, and for an even finer grained level of generality. Results indicate that the usual interpretation and classification of effect sizes as small, medium, and large bear almost no resemblance to findings in the field, because distributions of effect sizes exhibit tertile partitions at values approximately one-half to one-third those intuited by Cohen (1988). Our results offer information that can be used for research planning and design purposes, such as producing better informed non-nil hypotheses and estimating statistical power and planning sample size accordingly. We also offer information useful for understanding the relative importance of the effect sizes found in a particular study in relationship to others and which research domains have advanced more or less, given that larger effect sizes indicate a better understanding of a phenomenon. Also, our study offers information about research domains for which the investigation of moderating effects may be more fruitful and provide information that is likely to facilitate the implementation of Bayesian analysis. Finally, our study offers information that practitioners can use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various types of interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314367

Bosco, Frank A; Aguinis, Herman; Singh, Kulraj; Field, James G; Pierce, Charles A

2015-03-01

136

Gynaecologic effects of tamoxifen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamoxifen, an estrogen antagonist, is widely used as adjuvant therapy in patients with breast cancer. Its efficacy in increasing\\u000a survival and reducing recurrence rates has been demonstrated in several European and American studies. However, its effects\\u000a appear to be tissue specific. Tamoxifen exerts an estrogen effect (agonist) on the endometrium, myometrium and vagina. An\\u000a increase in uterine cancer has been

Dennis Yi-Shin Kuo; Carolyn D. Runowicz

1995-01-01

137

The Lisse effect revisited.  

PubMed

The Lisse effect is a rarely noted phenomenon occurring when infiltration caused by intense rain seals the surface soil layer to airflow, trapping air in the unsaturated zone. Compression of air by the advancing front results in a pressure increase that produces a water-level rise in an observation well screened below the water table that is several times as large as the distance penetrated by the wetting front. The effect is triggered by intense rains and results in a very rapid water-level rise, followed by a recession lasting a few days. The Lisse effect was first noted and explained by Thal Larsen in 1932 from water-level observations obtained in a shallow well in the village of Lisse, Holland. The original explanation does not account for the increased air pressure pushing up on the bottom of the wetting front. Analysis of the effect of this upward pressure indicates that a negative pressure head at the base of the wetting front, psi(f), analogous to that postulated by Green and Ampt (1911) to explain initially rapid infiltration rates into unsaturated soils, is involved in producing the Lisse effect. Analysis of recorded observations of the Lisse effect by Larsen and others indicates that the water-level rise, which typically ranges from 0.10 to 0.55 m, should be only slightly larger than psi(f) and that the depth of penetration of the wetting front is no more than several millimeters. PMID:12425353

Weeks, Edwin P

2002-01-01

138

Anomalous Skin Effect Igor Kaganovich  

E-print Network

Anomalous Skin Effect Revisited Igor Kaganovich Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory #12 to explain "simply" anomalous skin effect without abusing physics. #12;3 Outline Skin effect (Inductively Coupled Plasmas/ Lasers) ­ Normal skin effect ­ Concept of phase-mixing and scale ­ Anomalous skin effect

Kaganovich, Igor

139

CAUSE & EFFECT What Is It?  

E-print Network

effect has Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending A Staircase had on Western culture's understanding of what questions: Is there really a cause and effect relationship between these two events? If there really is a cause and effect relationship, what is the exact connection between the cause(s) and the effect(s)? What

Boonstra, Rudy

140

Intrauterine position effects.  

PubMed

A review of the literature suggests that individual variability in sex-related traits may be influenced by variations in hormonal exposure during fetal development. In litter-bearing mammals, fetuses develop in utero and may be subjected to differing hormonal environments based upon the sex of neighboring fetuses. Female fetuses developing between two males tend to show masculinized anatomical, physiological and behavioral traits as adults. Female fetuses developing without adjacent males, on the other hand, tend to show more feminized traits as adults. These traits include permanently altered hormone levels, reproductive organs, aggressive behaviors, secondary sex ratios and susceptibility to endocrine disruption. This intrauterine effect is due to the transfer of testosterone from male fetuses to adjacent fetuses. While these effects have been most clearly demonstrated in mice, other rodents and swine also show intrauterine position (IUP) effects. Some of these effects are similar to the influence of prenatal stress on adult phenotypes. A few reports on human twins suggest that variability in some masculine and feminine traits may be due to intrauterine hormonal signals. IUP effects may impact a number of scientific fields of research such as endocrine disruption, toxicology, population biology, animal production and health. PMID:12479841

Ryan, Bryce C; Vandenbergh, John G

2002-10-01

141

The real butterfly effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier-Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods.

Palmer, T. N.; Döring, A.; Seregin, G.

2014-09-01

142

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

143

The Quantum Sweeper Effect  

E-print Network

We show that during stochastic beam attenuation in double slit experiments, there appear unexpected new effects for transmission factors below $a\\lesssim10^{-4}$, which can eventually be observed with the aid of weak measurement techniques. These are denoted as quantum sweeper effects, which are characterized by the bunching together of low counting rate particles within very narrow spatial domains. We employ a "superclassical" modeling procedure which we have previously shown to produce predictions identical with those of standard quantum theory. Thus it is demonstrated that in reaching down to ever weaker channel intensities, the nonlinear nature of the probability density currents becomes ever more important. We finally show that the resulting unexpected effects nevertheless implicitly also exist in standard quantum mechanics.

Gerhard Groessing; Siegfried Fussy; Johannes Mesa Pascasio; Herbert Schwabl

2015-02-13

144

Giving effective presentations.  

PubMed

Apprehension about oral communication, or public speaking is rated as the number one fear among most individuals. Developing skill in, and comfort with, public speaking is important whether we are presenting oral reports and proposals, responding to questions, or training co-workers. Effective speakers are able to communicate information in a way that stimulates interest, helps the audience to understand and remember, and influences attitudes and behaviours. Many of us think that effective speakers are born rather than made. In truth most successful speakers work hard and invest a great deal of time and effort in to improving their speaking capabilities. Effective public speaking is a learned skill and activity that requires lots of practice. Like other learned skills, having a strategy with clear action steps can help you achieve your goal. PMID:15116467

Englehart, Nadine

2004-03-01

145

Effective Documentation Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quality assurance programs provide a very effective means to monitor and evaluate medical care. Quality assurance involves: (1) Identify a problem; (2) Determine the source and nature of the problem; (3) Develop policies and methods to effect improvement; (4) Implement those polices; (5) Monitor the methods applied; and (6) Evaluate their effectiveness. Because this definition of quality assurance so closely resembles the Nursing Process, the health unit staff was able to use their knowledge of the nursing process to develop many forms which improve the quality of patient care. These forms include the NASA DFRC Service Report, the occupational injury form (Incident Report), the patient survey (Pre-hospital Evaluation/Care Report), the Laboratory Log Sheet, the 911 Run Sheet, and the Patient Assessment Stamp. Examples and steps which are followed to generate these reports are described.

Sleboda, Claire

1997-01-01

146

The Mozart Effect.  

PubMed

This review deals with the Mozart Effect, an improvement of performance while listening to Mozart music. Previous studies have shown improved spatial temporal reasoning and improved IQ test results and neurophysiological changes, mainly increased coherence among different groups of subjects. This review emphasizes the effect on epileptiform patterns, both generalized and focal; provides an example of a chronic effect over a period of 1-2 days; addresses the distinctive aspects of the music to account for this phenomenon and shows that long-term periodicity in the power of the music is a special quality; and deals with the melodic line and shows that Mozart repeats the melodic line much more frequently than other well-known composers. It is likely that the superorganization of the cerebral cortex resonates with great organization found in Mozart music. PMID:12609277

Hughes, John R.

2001-10-01

147

Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Assessment Toolkit  

EPA Science Inventory

US EPA has identified stormwater BMP effectiveness as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater ...

148

Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness: Contrasts Between Especially Effective and Less Effective Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do key stakeholders of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) judge the effectiveness of their organization? Are the judgments of stake- holders similar, and how are board effectiveness and the use of practitioner-identified correct management procedures related to judgments of effectiveness? This study focuses on a subset of espe- cially effective and less effective NPOs from a larger sample and finds that

Robert D. Herman; David O. Renz

1998-01-01

149

Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness  

PubMed Central

In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect “accelerated-HRE.” Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior. PMID:24409128

Lloyd, David R.; Medina, Douglas J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Fosco, Whitney D.; Richards, Jerry B.

2014-01-01

150

Effective Temperature of Mutations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological macromolecules experience two seemingly very different types of noise acting on different time scales: (i) point mutations corresponding to changes in molecular sequence and (ii) thermal fluctuations. Examining the secondary structures of a large number of microRNA precursor sequences and model lattice proteins, we show that the effects of single point mutations are statistically indistinguishable from those of an increase in temperature by a few tens of kelvins. The existence of such an effective mutational temperature establishes a quantitative connection between robustness to genetic (mutational) and environmental (thermal) perturbations.

Derényi, Imre; Szöll?si, Gergely J.

2015-02-01

151

Anticancer effects of fucoidan.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been an increased interest in the pharmacologically active natural compounds isolated and used for remedies of various kinds of diseases, including cancer. The great deal of interest has been developed to isolate bioactive compounds from marine resources because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds and has been used as an ingredient in some dietary supplement products. Fucoidan has various biological activities including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antitumor activities. So this chapter deals with anticancer effects of fucoidan. PMID:25081084

Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Kim, Se-Kwon

2014-01-01

152

Contamination effects study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The in-situ optical surface measurement system is a facility designed to study the deleterious effects of particulate materials on the surface reflectivities of optical materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). This arrangement is designed to simulate the on-orbit effects of contamination and degradation of optical surfaces. This simulation is accomplished through the use of non-coherent VUV sources illuminating optical surfaces located in a high vacuum chamber. Several sources of contamination are employed. The reflectivity is measured both at the specular reflection as well as at two scattered positions, forward and reverse. The system components are described and an operating procedure is given.

1988-01-01

153

Quantum Spin Hall Effect  

SciTech Connect

The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2010-01-15

154

ENVIRONMENTAL RESIDUE EFFECTS DATABASE (ERED)  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Residue Effects Database", a searchable database of adverse biological effects associated with tissue concentrations of various contaminants....

155

Microcircuit radiation effects databank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

1983-01-01

156

Conducting Effective Performance Evaluations  

E-print Network

Conducting Effective Performance Evaluations · February 13, 2012 · March 9, 2012 #12 with the ability to prove that the employee did know the expectations and standards #12;Performance Evaluation Practice · An annual performance evaluation is required for classified and contract professional employees

Dyer, Bill

157

Reporting Research Results Effectively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

Volkwein, J. Fredericks

2010-01-01

158

Pleiotropic effects of incretins  

PubMed Central

Drugs that augment the incretin system [glucagon like peptide (GLP) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors] represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have shown to improve the health and survival of beta-cells (improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia) and suppress glucagon (improvement in fasting hyperglycemia). The incretins represent a large family of molecules referred to as the “glucagon superfamily of peptide hormones” of which more than 90% of the physiological effects of incretins are accomplished by GLP-17-37 and GLP17-36 amide and gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 mediates its effects via the GLP-1 receptor, which has a wide tissue distribution [pancreas, lung, heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes, kidney, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine), central nervous system (neoortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius) and peripheral nervous system]. This would imply that the incretin system has effects outside the pancreas. Over time data has accumulated to suggest that therapies that augment the incretin system has beneficial pleiotrophic effects. The incretins have shown to possess a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and safeguard from neuronal degeneration, improve hepatic inflammation and hepatosteatosis, improve insulin resistance, promote weight loss and induce satiety. There is growing evidence that they may also be renoprotective promoting wound healing and bone health. PMID:22701844

Gupta, Vishal

2012-01-01

159

Facilitating Online Discussions Effectively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a synthesis of the theoretical and research literature on facilitating asynchronous online discussions effectively. Online courses need to be designed so that they provide motivation for students to engage in productive discussions and clearly describe what is expected, perhaps in the form of a discussion rubric.…

Rovai, Alfred P.

2007-01-01

160

Effective 4-H Meetings  

E-print Network

are needed and their effects on their health. ? Use a variety of teaching techniques. In a meeting related to pet grooming and hygiene for example, provide several ways of learning by showing the tools to be used, discussing them, demonstrating them...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

161

Physiological effects of hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many studies indicating that sensory, circulatory, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous functions can be altered by means of hypnosis. There also are many studies indicating that similar physiological effects can be produced by symbolic stimulation without hypnosis. The assumption that hypnotic behavior is a function of the trance state is open to question. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3II90B.

Theodore Xenophon Barber

1961-01-01

162

Effects of Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides links to information on the potential damage caused to the environment by acid rain. An introductory paragraph briefly describes the damage to lakes and streams, building materials, and monuments. Each link access additional information on these topics: surface waters and aquatic animals, forests, automotive coatings, soluble building materials such as marble or limestone, atmospheric haze, and human health effects.

163

Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses entrance lotteries to explore heterogeneity in the achievement effects of charter schools across demographic groups and between urban and non-urban areas in Massachusetts. The authors develop a framework for interpreting this heterogeneity using both student- and school-level explanatory variables. (Contains 4 tables.)

Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.; Walters, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

164

Effective management of ARDS.  

PubMed

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a serious complication of critical illness that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There are no effective treatment options, so prevention, early recognition, and appropriate supportive care are essential to improve outcomes. This article provides an overview of the disorder, including current treatment considerations. PMID:25299354

Carlucci, Melissa; Graf, Nicole; Simmons, James Q; Corbridge, Susan J

2014-12-13

165

Exploring the Lotus Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students test and observe the "self-cleaning" lotus effect using a lotus leaf and cloth treated with a synthetic lotus-like superhydrophobic coating. They also observe the Wenzel and Cassie Baxter wetting states by creating and manipulating condensation droplets on the leaf surface. They consider the real-life engineering applications for these amazing water-repellent and self-cleaning properties.

2014-09-18

166

Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined longitudinal effects of kindergarten attendance on academic achievement through high school with students who attended public or nonpublic kindergarten, or neither one. Found that students with either kind of kindergarten experience had higher ACT scores and grade point averages. Found no significant differences in number of students…

Prince, Debra Lindsey; Hare, R. Dwight; Howard, Esther M.

2001-01-01

167

Interactive Pi Bonding Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application demonstrates the effect of pi bonding on the one-electron ligand field splitting in an octahedral. By clicking on the appropriate buttons students can see how D changes when you move from ligands with no pi bonding capability to pi donor and pi acceptor ligands.

168

Wood Quality: The Effects  

E-print Network

Particle and Fiber Energy Veneer Lumber Posts & PolesRound wood Heat Chemicals $ $$$ #12;Mix High & Low to considerOther things to consider................ Stability: height/diameter ratios lower through reduced thinning can be expected to effectively lower future ratios Wilson and Oliver 2000 #12;ThinningThinning #12

169

The supergreenhouse effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the greenhouse effect as it applies to explain the Earth's climate system is understood, there are aspects of the effect that require further study. In particular, the character of change in emission of radiation to space in a warming atmosphere and its relation to surface temperature is a key component of the greenhouse effect and related feedbacks. Over most of the planet, the emission systematically increase with increasing surface temperature indicating the important function of the emission to space in removing heat from the warming Earth. In some regions of the planet, the emission decreases with increasing temperature. These are the so-called super-greenhouse regions of the planet and if left alone, these regions would produce a localized runaway warming. Using global observations extracted from the A-train satellites, the properties of these supergreenhouse regions will be reviewed and the factors that control them explained. A glimpse at how these regions evolve in a warming world based on CMIP5 results will be presented and the broader implication of the supergreenhouse effect will be underlined.

Stephens, G. L.; Kahn, B. H.

2012-12-01

170

Effective Thinking Outdoors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

Hyde, Rod

1997-01-01

171

Building Effective Afterschool Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a comprehensive review of various afterschool programs across the United States, this resource provides a practical overview of the research and best practices that can be easily adapted and applied in the development of highly effective afterschool programs. chapters focus on: (1) "Why Afterschool Programs?" (benefits, challenges, and…

Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

172

Documentation: Effective AND Literate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

Paul S. Burdett Jr.

1985-01-01

173

Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.  

PubMed Central

The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

Davidson, D M

1989-01-01

174

Alexandrite effect spectropyrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alexandrite crystal is commonly used for making alexandrite laser, and it also has a less-known phenomenon called the alexandrite effect that refers to the color change between different light sources. A novel spectropyrometer for temperature measurement of a radiating body utilizing the alexandrite effect is introduced. The alexandrite effect method for temperature measurement is based on the relationship between the temperature of blackbody and the hue-angle in the CIELAB color space. The alexandrite effect spectropyrometer consists of an optical probe, a spectrometer, a computer, and an alexandrite filter. It measures the spectral power distribution of a radiating body through the alexandrite filter, calculates the hue-angle, and determines the temperature. The spectropyrometer is suitable for temperature measurement of any radiating body with or without spectral lines in its spectral power distribution from 1000 K to 100000 K. The spectropyrometer is particularly useful for high to ultrahigh temperature measurement of any radiating bodies with spectral line emissions, such as electric arcs and discharges, plasmas, and high temperature flames.

Liu, Yan

2006-08-01

175

Creating Effective Multimedia Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on several critical themes related to multimedia instruction for those involved in the design, development, or use of computer delivered instruction. Addresses software product life cycle; systematic approach to design; multimedia design and development teams; production values; critical components of effective multimedia;…

Sales, Gregory C.

1999-01-01

176

Effects of Induced Astigmatism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

1968-01-01

177

Earth Impacts Effects Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive web site estimates the regional environmental consequences of an impact on Earth. The program will estimate the ejecta distribution, ground shaking, atmospheric blast wave, and thermal effects of an impact as well as the size of the crater produced.

Robert Marcus

178

Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

Wood, B. E.

2007-01-01

179

Developing Effective Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on research administrators, discusses how an effective training program improves employee performance by including comprehensive needs assessment, employing appropriate training methodologies, and anticipating factors beyond the actual training event that influence the transfer of skills from the training environment to the work…

Wagonhurst, Carole

2002-01-01

180

Fast and effective?  

PubMed

The 5.2 diet involves two days of fasting each week. It is being promoted as the key to sustained weight loss, as well as wider health benefits, despite the lack of evidence on the long-term effects. Nurses need to support patients who wish to try intermittent fasting. PMID:24345130

Trueland, Jennifer

2013-12-18

181

Effective Staff Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with the observation that educators are faced with rising public expectations, declining resources, and increased public criticism, this paper describes a six-fold model for determining how staff development is operating and how it can be made to operate more effectively, in a self-renewing manner. The six dimensions consist of the…

Bush, Robert N.

182

EFFECTS ON SALTWATER ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The literature review summarizes current data on the effects of pesticides and metals on marine organisms, aquatic environmental research methods, bioaccumulation of pollutants by estuarine and marine organisms and in water/sediment residues and biota. Results of studies of the e...

183

Effective Online Privacy Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online privacy policies are important mechanisms for informing web site users about the level of information privacy protection afforded when visiting web sites. To date, societal mechanisms and technologies have been the focus of attempts to improve the quality and effectiveness of online privacy policies. Little attention, however, has been given to the development and use of organisational measures for

Sharman Lichtenstein; Paula M C Swatman; Kanchan Babu

184

Class Effects in ATI's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected results from an aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) study illustrate the importance of including class analyses in ATI research. The interactive effects of motivational aptitude (including locus of control, academic self confidence, and interests) and cognitive aptitude (as measured by a learning task and the Lorge-Thorndike verbal and…

Greene, Jennifer C.

185

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MANGANESE  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological effects of manganese were studied in a town on the coast of Dalmatia in which a ferromanganese plant has been operating since before World War II. The study focused on the question of whether the exposure to manganese can cause a higher incidence of respiratory dis...

186

The quadratic Zeeman effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen-atom quadratic Zeeman effect is treated by several techniques, and a new perturbation approach is suggested which involves numerical solution of a radial equation based on the s part of the potential. The low-field results appear to be more accurate than those of previous workers.

J. Killingbeck

1979-01-01

187

Tips for Effective Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School business officials' days are filled with numbers and reports--audits, balance sheets, check registers, financial statements, journal entries, vouchers, and warrant reports, just to name a few. Those are all important tools that school business officers use to manage the financial resources of the district effectively. However, they are also…

Supple, Kevin F.

2009-01-01

188

FIELD DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA's OHMSETT facility has developed a rapid field test that includes some of the theoretical aspects and conditions of dispersion at sea. This Field Dispersant Effectiveness Test (FDET) has been used to evaluate the dispersibility of various commonly-transported oils and mak...

189

The Surface Photoelectric Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probability of ejection of an electron in the surface photo-effect is expressed in terms of a function of the potential barrier, the energy of the electron after ejection, and the frequency. This function is dominated, for low energies of ejection, by the transmission coefficient of the surface. It is then assumed that the function can be expanded in a

W. V. Houston

1937-01-01

190

Measuring Teacher Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that there is a correlation between teacher characteristics (e.g., pedagogical knowledge, teacher preparation/certification) and student achievement. Current political contexts call for the utilization of student achievement data to measure the effectiveness of our education systems. A solid research base of how teacher…

Jacobo, Amber Leann

2012-01-01

191

Designing Effective Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents an online tutorial about creating effective poster presentations. The site guides users through the basics of poster design, which should free the presenter to focus on discussion of essential elements of the work. Decisions about poster format and design which contribute to efficient and accurate transfer of information using this medium are also discussed.

Jeff Radel

192

test collection retrieval effectiveness  

E-print Network

and provide means, in the form of a large XML test collection and appropriate scoring methodsINEX evaluation test collection retrieval effectiveness The INEX Evaluation Initiative Gabriella increases, so is the need to assess their benefit to users. The benefit to a given user depends largely

Lalmas, Mounia

193

Cutaneous Effects of Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cigarette smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death and disability in developed countries and is a significant public health concern. While known to be strongly associated with a number of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and cancers, smoking also leads to a variety of cutaneous manifestations. Objective: This article reviews the effects of cigarette smoking on the skin

Anatoli Freiman; Garrett Bird; Andrei I. Metelitsa; Benjamin Barankin; Gilles J. Lauzon

2004-01-01

194

Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.  

PubMed

Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

2014-02-01

195

Anticancer effects of phytosterols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytosterol and stanol (or phytosterols) consumption reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, leading to decreased blood LDL-cholesterol levels and lowered cardiovascular disease risk. However, other biological roles for plant sterols and stanols have also been proposed. The objective of this review is to critically examine results from recent research regarding the potential effects and mechanisms of action of phytosterols on forms of

T A Woyengo; V R Ramprasath; P J H Jones; PJH Jones

2009-01-01

196

Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

Dr. Michael Cross, Cal Tech

197

SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

198

Evolution of Earth's Greenhouse Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors contributing to Earth's greenhouse effect are discussed along with various quantitative methods for determining the greenhouse effect. Earth's greenhouse effect has evolved over geologic time scales and continues to evolve. The magnitude of Earth's greenhouse effect is explored for particular time periods of Earth's evolution from the Neoproterozoic to present. Coupled climate model simulations for these various

J. T. Kiehl

2003-01-01

199

Ecotoxicological effects at contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination sites pose significant environmental hazards for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, groundwater and aquatic ecosystems. At severely contaminated sites, acute effects occur, but the core problem lies in long-term chronic effects. Ecotoxicological effects occur at all levels of biological organization, from the molecular to the ecosystem

Karl Fent

2004-01-01

200

Nonequilibrium effects and baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Possible effects due to nonequilibrium dynamics in the Affleck-Dine mechanism of baryogenesis are examined. Using the closed-time-path formalism, the quantum fluctuation and the backreaction of the Affleck-Dine scalar field are incorporated self-consistently into the dynamical equations of the system by invoking a nonperturbative Hartree approximation. It is found that such nonequilibrium effects can significantly affect the amount of baryon asymmetry that can be generated. In particular, it is possible to generate the observed baryon asymmetry with suitable initial conditions. The methodology described in this paper as well as some of the results obtained are quite general, and can be applied to any complex scalar field in a cosmological background.

Charng, Y.-Y.; Ng, K.-W. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Lee, D.-S. [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hua-Lien, Taiwan 974 (China); Theory Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Leung, C.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2005-12-15

201

Latent effects decision analysis  

DOEpatents

Latent effects on a system are broken down into components ranging from those far removed in time from the system under study (latent) to those which closely effect changes in the system. Each component is provided with weighted inputs either by a user or from outputs of other components. A non-linear mathematical process known as `soft aggregation` is performed on the inputs to each component to provide information relating to the component. This information is combined in decreasing order of latency to the system to provide a quantifiable measure of an attribute of a system (e.g., safety) or to test hypotheses (e.g., for forensic deduction or decisions about various system design options).

Cooper, J. Arlin (Albuquerque, NM); Werner, Paul W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2004-08-24

202

Effective Vaccination Policies  

PubMed Central

We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This “importance factor” was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years. PMID:21057602

Shaw, L.; Spears, W.; Billings, L.; Maxim, P.

2010-01-01

203

Neuroprotective effects of creatine.  

PubMed

There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic lesions produced by N-methyl-D: -aspartate. We also showed that creatine is neuroprotective against lesions produced by the toxins malonate and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) which are reversible and irreversible inhibitors of succinate dehydrogenase, respectively. Creatine produced dose-dependent neuroprotective effects against MPTP toxicity reducing the loss of dopamine within the striatum and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We carried out a number of studies of the neuroprotective effects of creatine in transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases. We demonstrated that creatine produced an extension of survival, improved motor performance, and a reduction in loss of motor neurons in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Creatine produced an extension of survival, as well as improved motor function, and a reduction in striatal atrophy in the R6/2 and the N-171-82Q transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), even when its administration was delayed until the onset of disease symptoms. We recently examined the neuroprotective effects of a combination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) with creatine against both MPTP and 3-NP toxicity. We found that the combination of CoQ and creatine together produced additive neuroprotective effects in a chronic MPTP model, and it blocked the development of alpha-synuclein aggregates. In the 3-NP model of HD, CoQ and creatine produced additive neuroprotective effects against the size of the striatal lesions. In the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD, the combination of CoQ and creatine produced additive effects on improving survival. Creatine may stabilize mitochondrial creatine kinase, and prevent activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition. Creatine, however, was still neuroprotective in mice, which were deficient in mitochondrial creatine kinase. Administration of creatine increases the brain levels of creatine and phosphocreatine. Due to its neuroprotective effects, creatine is now in clinical trials for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and HD. A phase 2 futility trial in PD showed approximately a 50% improvement in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale at one year, and the compound was judged to be non futile. Creatine is now in a phase III clinical trial being carried out by the NET PD consortium. Creatine reduced plasma levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in HD patients phase II trial and was well-tolerated. Creatine is now being studied in a phase III clinical trial in HD, the CREST trial. Creatine, therefore, shows great promise in the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21448659

Beal, M Flint

2011-05-01

204

Safety Intervention Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

2001-10-16

205

Relativistic Hall Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin-Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices and mechanical flywheels and also discuss various fundamental aspects of this phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales, from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black holes.

Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco

2012-03-01

206

Lightning Physics and Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

Orville, Richard E.

2004-03-01

207

Measuring marketing effectiveness.  

PubMed

The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be. PMID:10312197

Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

1987-09-01

208

The reverse Stroop effect.  

PubMed

In classic Stroop interference, manual or oral identification of sensory colors presented as incongruent color words is delayed relative to simple color naming. In the experiment reported here, this effect was shown to all but disappear when the response was simply to point to a matching patch of color. Conversely, strong reverse Stroop interference occurred with the pointing task. That is, when the sensory color of a color word was incongruent with that word, responses to color words were delayed by an average of 69 msec relative to a word presented in gray. Thus, incongruently colored words interfere strongly with pointing to a color patch named by the words, but little interference from incongruent color words is found when the goal is to match the color of the word. These results suggest that Stroop effects arise from response compatibility of irrelevant information rather than automatic processing or habit strength. PMID:10780025

Durgin, F H

2000-03-01

209

Fire Effects Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides up-to-date information about fire effects on plants and animals. It was developed at the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The FEIS database contains synoptic descriptions, taken from current English-language literature of almost 900 plant species, about 100 animal species, and 16 Kuchler plant communities found on the North American continent. The emphasis of each synopsis is fire and how it affects each species. Background information on taxonomy, distribution, basic biology and ecology of each species is also included. Synopses are thoroughly documented, and each contains a complete bibliography. Personnel from several land management agencies (USDA Forest Service, USDI-BIA, NPS, BLM, F&WS) identified the species to be included in the database. Those agencies funded the original work and continue to support maintenance and updating of the database.

1995-12-12

210

Estimating Absolute Site Effects  

SciTech Connect

The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency) by removing the source spectrum (moment-rate spectrum) from the distance-corrected S-wave spectra. Typically, removing the S-wave source spectrum is difficult because of inadequate corrections for the source radiation pattern, directivity and random interference. In addition to complexities near the source, 2-D and 3-D structure beneath the recording site will result in an azimuth-dependent site effect. Since the direct wave only samples a narrow range in take-off and back-azimuth angles, multi-station averaging is needed to minimize the inherent scatter. To minimize these complicating effects, they apply the coda methodology outlined by Mayeda et al., (2003) to obtain stable moment-rate spectra. This methodology provides source amplitude and derived source spectra that are a factor of 3-to-4 times more stable than those derived from direct waves. Since the coda is commonly thought of as scattered energy that samples all ray parameters and back-azimuths, it is not very sensitive to the source radiation pattern and 3-D structure. This property makes it an excellent choice for use in obtaining average properties of the source, site and path effects in a region. Due to the characteristics of the techniques used in this study, all the inverted quantities are azimuthally averaged, since the aximuthal information is lost in the processing.

Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

2004-07-15

211

Ocular effects of adrenomedullin.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the expression and effects of adrenomedullin (AM), a novel vasodilator peptide, in the eye. Expression of AM mRNA was examined in the rat iris-ciliary body using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In rabbits, intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured periodically after intravitreal injection (20 microl) of AM (10(-7)-10(-4)m) into one eye. In separate groups of rabbits, 30 min after intravitreal injection of either AM-(22-52) (10(-3)m), a specific AM receptor antagonist, or CGRP-(8-37) (10(-3)m), a CGRP1 receptor antagonist, into one eye, AM (10(-6)m) was injected into both eyes, and IOP was measured. Using different rabbits, aqueous protein and cAMP concentrations were determined 6 hr after injection of AM. Expression of AM mRNA was detected in the rat iris-ciliary body. In rabbits, intravitreally administered AM (10(-6)-10(-4)m) profoundly lowered IOP, and the maximum effect was observed at 4-8 h. The ocular hypotensive effect of AM was dose-dependent (10(-7)-10(-4)m). Pretreatment with CGRP-(8-37) did not significantly inhibit the ocular hypotensive effect of AM (10(-6)m), whereas pretreatment with AM-(22-52) completely abolished it. AM (10(-6)m) did not significantly affect aqueous protein concentration. The higher dose of AM (10(-5)m) induced a significant increase in aqueous protein, which was not associated with an increase in the aqueous cAMP content and was significantly inhibited by AM-(22-52) and CGRP-(8-37). These results demonstrate that AM is expressed in the iris-ciliary body and decreases IOP mainly via specific AM receptors, and suggest that AM may play a role in controlling IOP. PMID:10548466

Taniguchi, T; Kawase, K; Gu, Z B; Kimura, M; Okano, Y; Kawakami, H; Tsuji, A; Kitazawa, Y

1999-11-01

212

Neuroprotective effects of creatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies\\u000a examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic\\u000a lesions produced by

M. Flint Beal

2011-01-01

213

Geomorphically effective floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of the hydrology and geomorphology of recent floods from the rapid failure of two small upland dams document the unusually large peak boundary shear stress and peak stream power per unit area for each flood. Downstream consequences to alluvial channels and floodplains, however, were minimal. Lack of geomorphic change is attributed to the short duration of the floods, which lasted about six and sixteen minutes each. Distribution of stream power over hydrographs of eight exceptional floods is constructed from channel geometry, discharge rating curves, and flood hydrographs; the resulting curve is defined as a stream-power graph. A stream-power graph gives a better portrayal of the potential for a flood to be geomorphically effective than simple statements of flow magnitude. From stream-power graphs, total energy expended over a flood hydrograph can be computed. Total flood energy may not be a sensitive measure of geomorphic effectiveness without consideration of channel and floodplain resistance. A conceptual model combining flow duration, peak stream power per unit area, flood energy, and alluvial and bedrock thresholds may represent the effectiveness of floods and can distinguish among such cases as (a) floods of long duration, moderate to large energy expenditure, but low peak stream power per unit area. These floods are ineffective in causing significant landform changes in alluvial or bedrock channels; (b) floods of medium to long duration, with medium to large total energy expenditure, and large peak stream power per unit area. These are believed to be the most effective geomorphic floods in any kind of channel because of the optimal combination of peak flood power, duration, and total energy expenditure; and (c) floods of very short duration, low total energy expenditure, but large peak stream power. These floods are also ineffective agents of geomorphic change in spite of record values of peak stream power per unit area because of their short duration, and resulting low energy expenditures.

Costa, John E.; O'Connor, Jim E.

214

Magnetic effects on thermocouples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermometers in laboratory environment and industrial applications are often subject to extraneous, usually unwanted and uncontrolled magnetic fields. Magnetic field influence can be minimized, but cannot be fully cancelled out. Even more, in most cases, there is no awareness of the existence of magnetic fields, let alone their effect on measurement instrumentation. In the past, sensitivity to high dc magnetic fields has been investigated in cryogenics and at high temperatures. More recently, the magnetic effect on weak dc magnetic fields was presented. The goal of this paper was to analyse and empirically and experimentally prove the magnetic sensitivity of thermocouples exposed to low magnetic fields: both dc and ac. Precision and uniform alternating and direct magnetic flux densities were generated by means of permanent magnets and power amplifiers with air-cored coils. The magnetic effect on ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic thermocouples at liquid-nitrogen-boiling point (-196 °C), ice point (0 °C), in water (17 °C) and at melting point of gallium fixed point cell (29.7646 °C) was investigated. Magnetic-field-dependent temperature errors of up to 700 mK (at 5.3 mT: dc) and up to 1 °C (at 10 mT: ac 50 Hz magnetic fields) were detected. From the results, it can be concluded that, ideally for temperature measurements of the highest accuracy in the above-cryogenic temperature range, magnetic sensitivity should be estimated and taken into account either as the correction of an error and/or as an additional source of measurement uncertainty. Special consideration should be given to thermocouple orientation relative to the magnetic field direction, influence of metal enclosures and magnetization effects on ferromagnetic components of thermocouples.

Beguš, Samo; Bojkovski, Jovan; Drnovšek, Janko; Geršak, Gregor

2014-03-01

215

Designing effective instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have usedDesigning Effective Instruction in introductory ID courses and experienced its use from both the instructors' and the learners' perspective. Our overall\\u000a conclusion is that it is highly usable and accessible to beginning ID students, including those whose first language may not\\u000a be English. The ID model presented is clear and the focus on the learner throughout is appropriate

Gary J. Anglin; Steven M. Ross; Jerrold E. Kemp

2002-01-01

216

Hall Effect Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this Web site is twofold: (1) to describe the Hall measurement technique for determining the carrier density and mobility in semiconductor materials and (2) to initiate an electronic interaction forum where workers interested in the Hall effect can exchange ideas and information. It includes an introductory description of the Hall measurement technique and covers basic principles, equipment, and recommended procedures. Keywords: Conductance, conductivity, resistance, resistivity

217

Writing Effective TAFs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides an overview of some of the applicable TAF Amendment and Conditional Group usage rules, as presented in the latest version of the National Weather Service Instruction 10-813 on TAF directives. It also presents a methodology for TAF writing and development that will lead to an effective and user-friendly product. The focus is on the ceiling and visibility aspects of the TAF. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus.

2014-09-14

218

Effects on Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter will review the effects produced on neural development by maternal consumption of cannabinoids during gestation\\u000a and lactation, with emphasis in thematuration of several neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, serotonin, opioids, cannabinoids,\\u000a etc.) and possible modifications in their functional expression at the behavioral or neuroendocrine levels. In addition, we\\u000a have analyzed the possible existence of a sexual dimorphism in these ontogenic

J. A. Ramos; M. Gómez; R. de Miguel

219

Dark Matter Effective Theory  

E-print Network

We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties.

Eugenio Del Nobile; Francesco Sannino

2012-04-18

220

Pulsed DF laser effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser effects caused by pulsed DF laser beams have been investigated under one-dimensional plasma conditions. The high energy pulse from a 50-liter photoinitiated chemical laser was utilized to measure both metal and fiberglass target responses to incident fluences up to 150 J\\/sq cm. In thermal coupling experiments with aluminum, the absorbed fluence showed enhancement just above the plasma threshold, reaching

W. E. Maher; R. B. Hall

1981-01-01

221

Side effects of benoxaprofen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of adverse dermatological reactions to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent benoxaprofen. Photosensitivity was seen in several patients, confined to wavelengths less than 340 nm. Other cutaneous side effects were erythema multiforme, the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, milia, and onycholysis. One case of pancytopenia and toxic epidermal necrolysis was reported. patients were not rechallenged with the drug, but these reactions

Brian Diffey; Colin Hindson; F Lawlor

1982-01-01

222

[Bactericidal effect of lysozyme].  

PubMed

Isolation of lysozyme from hemolymph of Alveonasus lahorensis (Acari: Parasitiformes, Argasidae) and Hyalomma marginatum (Acari: Parasitiformes, Ixodidae) with using ultrasound is described. It was shown that the bactericidal effect of the ultrasound-extracted lysozyme against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus significantly exceeded that of the chicken egg lysozyme and lysozyme from ticks without ultrasound exposure. Disintegration of the hemolymph cells increased lysozyme production. PMID:24640148

Podborodov, V M; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Smirnova, I P; Burenkova, L A; Novikova, V P; Aristova, V A; Novikova, E L; Moskvitina, G G; Ioffe, A M

2013-01-01

223

Identifying Effective School Principals  

E-print Network

focus on three dimensions: student performance, teacher retention, and financial management. Data is derived from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to develop a total of seven specific indicators to measure success in these three areas for Texas... tests and school accountability ratings. TEA data is used from 1996-2005 to develop indicators for these two measures. Since our goal was to capture the improvements in student performance attributable to principal effectiveness, we used a value...

Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

2007-01-01

224

Interpersonal effectiveness training  

E-print Network

of the individual 's daily activities and encounters with his or her spouse. The frequency of occurrence of the six behaviors were analyzed by a 6 x 7 x 4 factorial repeated measures ANOVA. This analysis revealed a significant main effect of questions (y&. 01... & Siegel, 1973; Mix, 1972; Navran, 1967; Pearce, 1973; Raush, Barry, Hertel 8 Swaim, 1974; Tubbs 8 Moss, 1974; Watzlawick, Beavin & Jackson, 1967; Wicks, 1973). A person's concept of himself and others partially determines his behavior. Bienvenu (1971...

DeOtte, Dona Lou Lewis

1976-01-01

225

The Effects of Outliers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Illuminations: Resources for Teaching Mathematics, this lesson is designed to help students understand the significance of outliers. This lesson includes thought questions and an applet to help students visualize the effect of an outlier. The authors divide the lesson into different groups, they include: learning objectives, materials, instructional plans, NCTM standards/expectations, and finally references. This is a great interactive resource for those wanting to learn more about correlation and regression.

226

Extra Housepayments Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How financial institutions use the monthly mortgage payment and mortgage amortization formulas can be a confusing concept to grasp. This lesson asks students to find a current interest mortgage rate for their city and state. This rate is then applied to an Internet based mortgage calculator to discover the effect that paying extra on a monthly house payment has on total interest paid and length of the loan. A student worksheet is included in the document.

2011-01-05

227

Estimating Absolute Site Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption

L. Malagnini; K M Mayeda; A Akinci; P L Bragato

2004-01-01

228

QCD Effects in Cosmology  

E-print Network

The cosmological evolution in the radiation dominated regimen is usually computed by assuming an ideal relativistic thermal bath. In this note, we discuss the deviation from the non-interaction assumption. In either the standard model (SM) and the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the main contribution comes from the strong interaction. An understanding of these effects are important for precision measurements and for the evolution of scalar modes, where the commented corrections constitute the main source of the dynamics.

Cembranos, Jose A R

2009-01-01

229

The Kaye effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

2009-11-01

230

Doppler-Effect Omnirange  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an omnirange of a new design in which the transmitting antenna is caused either to move, or to appear to move along a circular path to produce low-deviation FM by Doppler effect. The FM envelope phase of the transmitted signal is directionally characterized. Deviation-expansion and selective-degeneration in an AFC circuit are used at the receiver to detect

Paul Hansel

1953-01-01

231

Putting Instruction Sequences into Effect  

E-print Network

An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into effect is a special case of putting into effect with other special cases classified as indirectly putting into effect.

Bergstra, Jan A

2011-01-01

232

Neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside.  

PubMed

In the central nervous system, Asiaticoside has been shown to attenuate in vitro neuronal damage caused by exposure to ?-amyloid. In vivo studies demonstrated that Asiaticoside could attenuate neurobehavioral, neurochemical and histological changes in transient focal middle cerebral artery occlusion animals. In addition, Asiaticoside showed anxiolytic effects in acute and chronic stress animals. However, its potential neuroprotective properties in glutamate-induced excitotoxicity have not been fully studied. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons exposed to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity invoked by N-methyl-D-aspartate. Pretreatment with Asiaticoside decreased neuronal cell loss in a concentration-dependent manner and restored changes in expression of apoptotic-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax. Asiaticoside pretreatment also attenuated the upregulation of NR2B expression, a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, but did not affect expression of NR2A subunits. Additionally, in cultured neurons, Asiaticoside significantly inhibited Ca(2+) influx induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate. These experimental findings provide preliminary evidence that during excitotoxicity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate exposure in cultured cortical neurons, the neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside are mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Aside from its anti-oxidant activity, down-regulation of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may be one of the underlying mechanisms in Asiaticoside neuroprotection. PMID:25221579

Qi, Feng-Yan; Yang, Le; Tian, Zhen; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Liu, Shui-Bing; An, Jia-Ze

2014-07-01

233

Cascading Effects Following Intervention  

PubMed Central

Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

2010-01-01

234

Cardioprotective effects of curcumin.  

PubMed

Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, is extracted from the powdered dry rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae) and it has been used for centuries in indigenous medicine. We have shown that curcumin has a protective role against myocardial necrosis in rats. The antioxidant activity of curcumin could be attributed to the phenolic and methoxy groups in conjunction with the 1,3-diketone-conjugated diene system, for scavenging of the oxygen radicals. In addition, curcumin is shown to enhance the activities of detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase in vivo. We have also shown that oxygen free radicals exacerbate cardiac damage and curcumin induces cardioprotective effect and it also inhibits free-radical generation in myocardial ischemia in rats. This chapter on the cardioprotective effects of curcumin covers the following aspects: (1) the history of curcumin and its discovery as a potent drug with relevance to cardiovascular diseases; (2) mechanistic role of curcumin in vitro, emphasizing the antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects; (3) cardiovascular properties of curcumin; (4) application of curcumin in different animal models (viz. myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmia in vitro and in vivo); (5) curcumin free-radical scavenging activity, particularly against O2 radical and depletion of the oxidative stress. PMID:17569220

Miriyala, Sumitra; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Rengarajulu, Puvanakrishnan

2007-01-01

235

Stringy effects in scrambling  

E-print Network

In [1] we gave a precise holographic calculation of chaos at the scrambling time scale. We studied the influence of a small perturbation, long in the past, on a two-sided correlation function in the thermofield double state. A similar analysis applies to squared commutators and other out-of-time-order one-sided correlators [2-4]. The essential bulk physics is a high energy scattering problem near the horizon of an AdS black hole. The above papers used Einstein gravity to study this problem; in the present paper we consider stringy and Planckian corrections. Elastic stringy corrections play an important role, effectively weakening and smearing out the development of chaos. We discuss their signature in the boundary field theory, commenting on the extension to weak coupling. Inelastic effects, although important for the evolution of the state, leave a parametrically small imprint on the correlators that we study. We briefly discuss ways to diagnose these small corrections, and we propose another correlator where inelastic effects are order one.

Stephen H. Shenker; Douglas Stanford

2015-03-20

236

Planetary Electrochemical Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning on a planet other than the Earth was first discovered by Voyager when it flew past Jupiter in 1979. Since then it has been reported on Saturn by Voyager and Cassini, and on Venus from Pioneer Venus and Venus Express. While lightning involves clouds formed from polar molecules such as water, or vulcanism, dusty environments often create electrostatic fields through triboelectric phenomena. In each instance, changes in local chemistry with profound global impact can occur, such as lightning-induced nitrogen fixation on earth. Perhaps the most dramatic effect occurs on Mars within its global dust storms and dust devils. Enhanced production of oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, sulfur and halogen species including perhaps perchlorates from minerals in airborne dust are some of the likely chemical effects. The oxidants may be responsible for the lack of organics on the surface of Mars and rapid destruction of methane in the atmosphere. On Titan, the surface organics may be altered by a different (charged particle) effect, a phenomena that may also operate in the polar regions of Mars and on the Galilean satellites. In this talk, we will discuss possible chemical and astrobiological implications of above electrical processes.

Atreya, S. K.; Mihalka, K. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.

2008-12-01

237

Causal diagrams, the placebo effect, and the expectation effect  

PubMed Central

Using causal diagrams, a formal research methodology, we analyzed several definitions of placebo and the placebo effect. We conclude that placebo is an ambiguous, redundant term and that the so-called placebo effect conceals far more interesting effects that are attributed to the patient’s expectation. Biomedical research will benefit from abandoning the term placebo effect and focusing instead on a deeper understanding of the expectation variable, including its causes, effects, and effect modifiers. This avenue of research should be pursued by observational cohorts that are nested within clinical trials. PMID:24101881

Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

2013-01-01

238

Electrical properties of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells with ultrathin titania nanosheet blocking layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of ultrathin titanium oxide nanosheet (TN) crystallites to the electrical properties and the diffusion of metal atoms were studied in a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) cell in indium-tin oxide (ITO)/MoO3/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) active layer/titania nanosheet (TN)/metal multilayered photovoltaic devices. The insertion of only two or three layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and TN multilayered film prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique effectively decreased the leakage current and increased the open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (?) nearly two fold. Although the active layer has a hydrophobic surface, the active layer was fully covered by the insertion of only two or three layers of the PDDA/TN multilayered film and the ultrathin TN layer effectively prevented the metal atoms from diffusing into the polymer film. The impedance analysis and the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the TN layer effectively separated the organic layer/metal interface and blocked holes at the organic/TN interface resulting in the reduction in leakage current by nearly three orders of magnitude and the increase in the capacitance at a voltage around VOC.

Itoh, Eiji; Maruyama, Yasutake; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

2014-01-01

239

Effectiveness Review Analysis (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) Root Cause  

E-print Network

Effectiveness Review Analysis ­ (Insert Effectiveness Review Name) 1 of 1 Root Cause: Corrective action address the root cause? 2. Does the corrective action prevent recurrence of similar conditions due

240

'The Kesterson effect'  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hypothesized to be derived from Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks, selenium contamination of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge is traced through irrigation drainage to the source bedrock of the California Coast Ranges. This biogeochemical pathway of selenium is defined here as the 'Kesterson effect.' At the refuge ponds, this effect culminated in 1983 in a 64% rate of deformity and death of embryos and hatchlings of wild aquatic birds. From the previous companion paper on irrigation drainage, the Kesterson effect has been implicated in nine of 11 reconnaissance areas studied in the western United States. Deformities have resulted in at least five of these sites. Climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and soil conditions in these reconnaissance areas are similar to those in the area surrounding Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California, in California, selenium as selenate, was ultimately found weathered with sulfur from marine sources in soluble sodium and magnesium sulfate salts, which are concentrated by evaporation on farmland soils. The Se, mobilized by irrigation drainage, is bioaccumulated to toxic levels in refuge wetland ponds that are located mainly in hydrologically closed basins and thus act as concentrating disposal points. The depositional environment of the ponds may be similar to that of the nutrient-rich continental shelf edge and slope in which Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sediments found to be seleniferous in the California Coast Ranges were deposited. Bioaccumulation may be therefore a primary mechanism of selenium enrichment in ancient sediments in addition to that of the formerly suggested Cretaceous volcanic pathway.

Presser, T.S.

1994-01-01

241

Asteroids without opposition effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the observed asteroids show a nonlinear increase of brightness at small phase angles, typically less than 7°, known as the opposition effect. Its amplitude, relative to the extrapolation of the linear part of the phase curve, depends on an asteroid's albedo, decreasing for low-albedo asteroids (e.g., Belskaya and Shevchenko 2000). Recently, low-albedo asteroids without the nonlinear increase of brightness down to subdegree phase angles were observed among outer-belt asteroids and Jupiter Trojans (Shevchenko et al. 2012, 2013). These asteroids belong mainly to the P and D spectral classes that have featureless spectra with moderate to high slopes in the visual and near-infrared wavelengths (DeMeo et al. 2009, 2013). Their spectra are similar to the spectra of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, in particular, to those of some CI meteorites (Alais, Tagish Lake) and some CM meteorites after thermal heating (Cloutis et al. 2011, 2012, Fornazier et al. 2011). We analyze possible relationships between surface composition of asteroids and their opposition effect behavior. Asteroids which do not show nonlinear opposition effect in their magnitude--phase angle dependencies tend to have very low surface albedos. However, the correlation is not very strong due to errors in asteroid albedo determinations. We note that the absolute magnitudes of these asteroids determined using the H, G function are systematically overestimated (Slyusarev et al. 2012, Shevchenko et al. 2014). An overestimate of the absolute brightness results in systematic overestimation of their albedos from the infrared data (Usui et al., 2011, Masiero et al., 2011). Advantages of using the new H, G_1, G_2 function (Muinonen et al. 2010) for the determination of asteroid absolute magnitudes are discussed.

Shevchenko, V.; Belskaya, I.; Slyusarev, I.

2014-07-01

242

Quantum Effects in Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Man?al; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

2014-08-01

243

Transistors: The Field Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transistors are the building blocks of modern electronic devices. Your cell phones, iPods, and computers all depend on them to operate. Thanks to today's microfabrication technology, transistors can be made very tiny and be massively produced. You are probably using billions of them while working with this activity now--as of 2006, a dual-core Intel microprocessor contains 1.7 billion transistors. The field effect transistor is the most common type of transistor. So we will focus on it in this activity.

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-11

244

Vibration by relativistic effects  

E-print Network

Relativity, time reversal invariance in mechanics and principle of causality can be in the bases of a type of vibration of the extensive objects. It is because, the detailed analysis of the relativistic movement of an extensive body entail that all the objects must have inherent a vibratory movement to their own size. Such effect does not happen when it works with point particles thus is not stranger who happens unnoticed in the traditional studies. Also we can find relation between the form of vibration of the extensive objects and the energy that calculates by quantum considerations.

Enrique Oradaz Romay

2005-12-27

245

Microcircuit radiation effects databank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).

1983-01-01

246

Assessments of astronaut effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.

1993-01-01

247

Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.  

PubMed

The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts. PMID:23884116

Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina

2013-01-01

248

Earthquake occurrence and effects.  

PubMed

Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

Adams, R D

1990-01-01

249

Greenhouse Effect Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simple lab, students collect data to demonstrate basic atmospheric science concepts. Groups of students measure the effect of carbon dioxide on temperature using soda bottles with thermometers inserted. One bottle is filled with air and capped. The second bottle is filled with carbon dioxide using a specific procedure. To conduct the experiment, both bottles are placed under a lamp while students record the increase in temperature over five minutes. The bottle containing carbon dioxide has a greater increase in temperature than the bottle containing air. This lab demonstrates the fundamental concept that underlies climate change science by providing data that are easy for students to interpret.

Krista Larsen

250

The Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of the Earth's atmospheric greenhouse effect by briefly exploring the atmospheres of nearby planets and discussing the greenhouse gases of our atmosphere, such as, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and nitrous oxide. Students will learn that the heat-trapping ability of a greenhouse is influenced by a number of factors, including the transparency of the greenhouse cover, and color and texture of the planet's surfaces. This site serves as a resource for and includes links to two classroom activities.

Carol McLaren

2000-01-01

251

Genotoxic effect of alkaloids.  

PubMed

Because of the increased use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotoxicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated from the leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine) was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion) in yeast diploid strain XS2316. PMID:1842017

Henriques, J A; Moreno, P R; Von Poser, G L; Querol, C C; Henriques, A T

1991-01-01

252

Intrinsic Transverse Size Effect  

E-print Network

Two recently proposed concepts to improve the perturbative calculation of exclusive amplitudes, gluonic radiative corrections (Sudakov factor) and confinement size effects (intrinsic transverse momentum) are combined to study the neutron magnetic form factor in the space-like region. We find that nucleon distribution amplitudes modelled on the basis of current QCD sum rules indicate overlap with the existing data at the highest measured values of momentum transfer. However, sizeable higher-order perturbative corrections (K-factor) and/or higher-twist contributions cannot be excluded, although they may be weaker than in the proton case.

J. Bolz; R. Jakob; P. Kroll; M. Bergmann; N. G. Stefanis

1994-07-11

253

Shock effects in meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts that can occur between objects on intersecting solar system orbits can generate shock-induced deformations and transformations, creating new mineral phases or melting old ones. These shock-metamorphic effects affect not only the petrography but the chemical and isotopic properties and the ages of primordial meteoritic materials. A fuller understanding of shock metamorphism and breccia formation in meteorites will be essential not only in the study of early accretion, differentiation, and regolith-evolution processes, but in the characterization of the primordial composition of the accreted material itself.

Stoeffler, D.; Bischoff, A.; Buchwald, V.; Rubin, A. E.

1988-01-01

254

Key to effective video retrieval: effective cataloging and browsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

-—— ——— — : 1. ABSTRACT Mukirnedia data is an increasingly important information medium today. Providing intelligent access for effective use of this information continues to offer challenges in digital Iibrary research. As computer vision, image processing and speech recognition research continue to progress, we examine the effectiveness of these fully automated techniques in architecting effective video retrieval systems. We

Dulce B. Ponceleon; Savitha Srinivasan; Arnon Amir; Dragutin Petkovic; Dan Diklic

1998-01-01

255

Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

Thompson, Bruce

2007-01-01

256

Effects of Vendor-Managed Inventory on the Bullwhip Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bullwhip effect means that demand variability increases as one moves up the supply chain. In the following article the bullwhip effect is quantified for each part of the supply chain which is presupposed to consist of a producer, a wholesaler, a retailer, and a consumer. After considering the causes of the bullwhip effect, it will be shown with the

Susanne Hohmann; Stephan Zelewski

2011-01-01

257

The Manhattan Effect 1 Running Head: THE MANHATTAN EFFECT  

E-print Network

and dismisses her relationship worries. After breaking up with Tracy for another woman, however, Isaac hasThe Manhattan Effect 1 Running Head: THE MANHATTAN EFFECT The Manhattan Effect: When Relationship on close relationships has frequently contrasted one's own interests with the interests of the partner

Reber, Paul J.

258

Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models  

SciTech Connect

One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

Suter, G.W. II

1996-09-01

259

NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CURCUMIN  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases result in the loss of functional neurons and synapses. Although future stem cell therapies offer some hope, current treatments for most of these diseases are less than adequate and our best hope is to prevent these devastating diseases. Neuroprotective approaches work best prior to the initiation of damage, suggesting that some safe and effective prophylaxis would be highly desirable. Curcumin has an outstanding safety profile and a number of pleiotropic actions with potential for neuroprotective efficacy, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-protein-aggregate activities. These can be achieved at sub-micromolar levels. Curcumin’s dose–response curves are strongly dose dependent and often biphasic so that in vitro data need to be cautiously interpreted; many effects might not be achievable in target tissues in vivo with oral dosing. However, despite concerns about poor oral bioavailability, curcumin has at least 10 known neuroprotective actions and many of these might be realized in vivo. Indeed, accumulating cell culture and animal model data show that dietary curcumin is a strong candidate for use in the prevention or treatment of major disabling age-related neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and stroke. Promising results have already led to ongoing pilot clinical trials. PMID:17569212

Cole, Greg M.; Teter, Bruce; Frautschy, Sally A.

2008-01-01

260

Predicting Earthquake Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the earth sciences and information technology have lead to dramatic improvements in our ability to respond to, as well as anticipate and mitigate, earthquake effects in our communities. The development of Geographic Information System (GIS) based tools such as ShakeMap and HAZUS have ushered in a new era of risk and emergency management. Real-time maps of strong ground motion, coupled with engineering-based descriptions of building and infrastructure inventory and vulnerability enable more accurate determinations of the location and severity of earthquake damage and the socio-economic consequences for emergency managers and officials following significant earthquakes. The ability to map the distribution and growth of seismic risk in the United States has long-term benefits for public policy as well. Long-term forecasts of seismic risk based on varying mitigation strategies can provide guidance for developing national and local earthquake policy. The successful performance of the Trans-Alaska pipeline during the 2002 Denali earthquake illustrates the dependence of performance-based engineering on the ability to predict earthquake effects (e.g., levels of strong ground motion, amounts of fault displacement or ground deformation). Being able to reduce the uncertainty in predicting these parameters has significant economic consequences and enables decision makers to more efficiently prioritize risk management strategies.

Nishenko, S.

2005-12-01

261

Quantum Zeno Effect  

E-print Network

We present the physics of the quantum Zeno effect, whose gist is often expressed by invoking the adage "a watched pot never boils". We review aspects of the theoretical and experimental work done on the effect since its inception in 1977, and mention some applications. We dedicate the article - with our very best wishes - to Rudolf Zahradnik at the occasion of his great jubilee. Perhaps Rudolf's lasting youthfulness and freshness are due to that he himself had been frequently observed throughout his life: until the political turn-around in 1989 by those who wished, by their surveillance, to prevent Rudolf from spoiling the youth by his personal culture and his passion for science and things beautiful and useful in general. This attempt had failed. Out of gratitude, the youth has infected Rudolf with its youthfulness. Chronically. Since 1989, Rudolf has been closely watched by the public at large. For the same traits of his as before, but with the opposite goal and for the benefit of all generations. We relish keeping him in sight ...

Mikhail Lemeshko; Bretislav Friedrich

2009-03-26

262

Quantum Zeno Effect  

E-print Network

We present the physics of the quantum Zeno effect, whose gist is often expressed by invoking the adage "a watched pot never boils". We review aspects of the theoretical and experimental work done on the effect since its inception in 1977, and mention some applications. We dedicate the article - with our very best wishes - to Rudolf Zahradnik at the occasion of his great jubilee. Perhaps Rudolf's lasting youthfulness and freshness are due to that he himself had been frequently observed throughout his life: until the political turn-around in 1989 by those who wished, by their surveillance, to prevent Rudolf from spoiling the youth by his personal culture and his passion for science and things beautiful and useful in general. This attempt had failed. Out of gratitude, the youth has infected Rudolf with its youthfulness. Chronically. Since 1989, Rudolf has been closely watched by the public at large. For the same traits of his as before, but with the opposite goal and for the benefit of all generations. We relish...

Lemeshko, Mikhail

2009-01-01

263

Lake Effect Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

264

Astroinfect Effect - Revised Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space activities lead to a lasting pollution of the Solar System. Light pressure, gravitational interaction with the planets, collisions and explosions (similar to spontaneous explosions of Earth satellite) of artefacts in the outer parts of the planetary system can lead to effective, inevitable spontaneous leakage of interplanetary trash into the interstellar medium, even in the absence of interstellar flights. If there are alien artefacts between the stars, some of them are likely to fall down to Earth at times [1,2]. They could be non-sterile, so sporadic interstellar panspermia is possible [3]. The minimum pollution threshold for such panspermia was estimated [2] for 2 m-microartefacts at the level of Galactic cosmic radiation of 4 x 10-7 rad/s [4]. However, C. Mileikowsky showed that, if the X-rays are taken into consideration, the interstellar dose rate is ~3 x 10- 5 rad/s [5]. At this high dose rate the microartefacts must be sterilised at the distances >0.1 pc from the planetary system, hence they cannot be an effective agent of interstellar panspermia. Sufficient protection of microbial spores is possible inside macroartefacts. Therefore, the panspermia model and the corresponding minimum pollution threshold must be re-examined.

Arkhipov, A. V.

265

Flight effects of fan noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

Chestnutt, D. (editor)

1982-01-01

266

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on  

E-print Network

1 Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Iain S. Walker ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor-generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only

267

Side Effects and Their Management  

MedlinePLUS

... leave this field empty Side Effects and their Management SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Home > Treatment and Care > Side Effects and their Management Listen Brain tumors and their treatments bring an ...

268

Hall Effect in a Plasma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus and procedure for conducting an undergraduate laboratory experiment to quantitatively study the Hall effect in a plasma. Includes background information on the Hall effect and rationale for conducting the experiment. (JN)

Kunkel, W. B.

1981-01-01

269

IMPROVED LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a program to evaluate an Improved Laboratory Dispersant Effectiveness Test (ILDET) which was developed to replace EPA's Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test (RSDET). The report summarizes the development of the IL...

270

Further considerations of spallation effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trapped photon and cosmic ray effects on spallation in the UK-5 (hard X ray telescope) central crystal were measured. Both low dose and high dose effects were considered. Decay results are presented in tables.

Dyer, C.

1973-01-01

271

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... effects Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection Take these steps to lower your chances of getting an infection: Try not to get cuts. ? Use an electric shaver, not a razor. ? Clean yourself well and ...

272

Euler - Heisenberg effective action and magnetoelectric effect in multilayer graphene  

E-print Network

The low energy effective field model for the multilayer graphene (at ABC stacking) is considered. We calculate the effective action in the presence of constant external magnetic field $B$ (normal to the graphene sheet). We also calculate the first two corrections to this effective action caused by the in-plane electric field $E$ at $E/B \\ll 1$ and discuss the magnetoelectric effect. In addition, we calculate the imaginary part of the effective action in the presence of constant electric field $E$ and the lowest order correction to it due to the magnetic field ($B/E \\ll 1$).

M. I. Katsnelson; G. E. Volovik; M. A. Zubkov

2013-01-24

273

[Mechanism of warburg effect and its effect on tumor metastasis].  

PubMed

Cancer cells exhibit altered glucose metabolism characterized by a preference for aerobic glycolysis even when the oxygen content is normal, a phenomenon termed "Warburg effect". However the definite molecular mechanisms of Warburg effect remains unclear, recent works indicated that it might be related to the abnormal activity of the oncogene and tumor suppressor genes, also the change of tumor microenvironment, the abnormal expression of glucose metabolic enzyme and so on. Warburg effect has a relationship with tumor progression and provide suitable conditions for tumor metastasis. This review will summarizes the mechanism of Warburg effect and its effect on tumor metastasis. PMID:25800576

Wei, Huijun; Guo, Lili; Li, Lin; Zhou, Qinghua; Wu, Zhihao

2015-03-20

274

Effective medium in dispersed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural analysis of effective medium formed by dispersed systems from the viewpoint of flux modification at large dispersions\\u000a is presented. The effective medium coefficient is investigated for its parametric dependence and the effective properties\\u000a are estimated through this dependence. This estimation covers all highly dispersed two-phase systems including the effect\\u000a of container.

R N Pande; D R Chaudhary; F Gori

1987-01-01

275

Inverse Gibbs-Thomson effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove the existence of an effect inverse to the Gibbs-Thomson effect for mass transfer in systems consisting of a solid phase and the solution of the solid phase material in a certain solvent. The effect involves a change in the shape of the interface due to a variation of the equilibrium concentrations under it, which is induced by external conditions, and exists in the presence of a negative feedback for mass transfer associated with capillary effects.

Gershanov, V. Yu.; Garmashov, S. I.

2015-01-01

276

Anisotropic effective medium theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of anisotropic inhomogeneous media are studied within the framework of the classical 3D effective medium theories of Maxwell Garnett and Bruggeman, and the 2D theory of Yamaguchi et al. The origin of the anisotropy is either the nonspherical shape of the metallic inclusions in the 3D systems, or the distribution of the inclusions (even if spherical) on a substrate in the 2D configuration. In both cases, it leads to an anisotropic effective medium. In this paper, it is shown that this surrounding anisotropic medium induces a fictitious deformation of the inclusions which reduces the anisotropy and shifts the resonance wavelengths toward the sphere plasmon resonance. In the case of the mean field theory of Bruggeman, it also affects the percolation threshold value. Although some of these theories are now quite old, they are still extensively used, especially for the predictions of the absorption of the composite media. Therefore the effect presented here for the first time should be taken into account. Les propriétés optiques des milieux inhomogènes anisotropes sont étudiées dans le cadre des théories du milieu effectif, tant à trois dimensions (3D) (théories de Maxwell Garnett et de Bruggeman) qu'à deux dimensions (2D) (théorie de Yamaguchi et al.). L'anisotropie du milieu effectif peut provenir soit de l'alignement d'inclusions non sphériques dans un système à deux ou trois dimensions, soit de la distribution plane du système 2D, même pour des particules sphériques. Nous montrons ici que ce milieu effectif anisotrope induit une déformation fictive des inclusions qui va dans le sens d'une réduction de l'anisotropie et rapproche les fréquences de résonance de plasmon de surface vers celle de la sphère. Par ailleurs, dans le cas de la théorie de Bruggeman, cela modifie la valeur du seuil de percolation optique. Ces théories, bien qu'anciennes, sont toujours très utilisées, en particulier pour prédire l'absorption optique des composites. L'effet présenté ici doit donc impérativement être pris en compte.

Berthier, Serge

1994-02-01

277

Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) refers to the generation of a spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in magnetic materials [1-7]. Here, a spin voltage is a potential for electron spins to drive a nonequilibrium spin current; when a conductor is attached to a magnet with a finite spin voltage, it induces a spin injection into the conductor. The SSE is of crucial importance in spintronics and spin caloritronics, since it enables simple and versatile generation of a spin current from heat. The simplest and most straightforward setup of the SSE is the longitudinal configuration [4], in which a spin current flowing parallel to a temperature gradient is measured via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The longitudinal SSE device consists of a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic insulator (FI, e.g. YIG) covered with a paramagnetic metal (PM, e.g. Pt) film. When a temperature gradient is applied perpendicular to the FI/PM interface, an ISHE-induced voltage is generated in the PM layer. In this talk, we report the observation of the longitudinal SSE in various FI/PM systems and provide evidence that the longitudinal SSE is free from thermoelectric artefact [7], i.e., the anomalous Nernst effect caused by extrinsic magnetic proximity [8]. Then, we discuss the longitudinal SSE from an application point of view [6]. We thank E. Saitoh, S. Maekawa, G. E. W. Bauer, X.-F. Jin, H. Adachi, D. Hou, D. Tian, T. Kikkawa, A. Kirihara, and M. Ishida for their support and valuable discussions. [4pt] [1] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008).[0pt] [2] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 9, 894 (2010).[0pt] [3] C. M. Jaworski et al., Nature Mater. 9, 898 (2010).[0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 172505 (2010).[0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 10, 737 (2011).[0pt] [6] A. Kirihara et al., Nature Mater. 11, 686 (2012).[0pt] [7] T. Kikkawa et al., arXiv:1211.0139 (2012). [0pt] [8] S. Y. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107204 (2012).

Uchida, Ken-Ichi

2013-03-01

278

Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers  

SciTech Connect

It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator.

Pourhamidi, A.H.

1983-10-01

279

The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks  

E-print Network

The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks #12;Three Pillars Behind Climate Change! #12;1. Global. Greenhouse Gases have been on the increase. #12;3. The Greenhouse effect is a powerful theory that explains! natural greenhouse effect! · an empirical introduction #12;Moral of the story: The doubling of CO2 causes

280

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods  

MedlinePLUS

Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Most Effective Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in a year Reversible Implant 0.05 %* Intrauterine Device (IUD) LNG - ... Laparoscopic, Hysteroscopic) 0.5 % How to make your method most effective After procedure, little or nothing to ...

281

"No Effects" Studies Raising Eyebrows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like a steady drip from a leaky faucet, the experimental studies being released this school year by the federal Institute of Education Sciences are mostly producing the same results: "No effects," "No effects," "No effects." The disappointing yield is prompting researchers, product developers, and other experts to question the design of the…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

282

Partner effects in social interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person's behavior during social interaction is due not only to the person's dispositional characteristics but is also determined by his or her social partner. If a person consistently elicits the same behavior from others, the person has apartner effect. Partner effects in affect, cognition, and behavior are examined. Partner effects in behavior are presumed to be caused by partner

David A. Kenny; Thomas E. Malloy

1988-01-01

283

2, 289337, 2002 Greenhouse effect  

E-print Network

effect dependence on atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse substances and the nature of climate water vapour concentration, dependence of the planetary greenhouse effect on atmospheric water content by the values and temperature-dependent behaviour of the planetary albedo and atmospheric greenhouse effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect  

E-print Network

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

Johnson, Robert E.

285

Solar Neutrino Matter Effects Redux  

E-print Network

Following recent low-threshold analysis of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and asymmetry measurements of the BOREXINO Collaboration of the solar neutrino flux, we revisit the analysis of the matter effects in the Sun. We show that solar neutrino data constrains the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ poorly and that subdominant Standard Model effects can mimic the effects of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

A. B. Balantekin; A. Malkus

2011-12-19

286

Effective Programs for Latino Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents the current state of research on effective instructional programs for Hispanic American students. The 10 chapters are: (1) "Effective Programs for Latino Students in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Olatokunbo S. Fashola, Robert E. Slavin, Margarita Calderon, and Richard Duran); (2) "Effective Dropout Prevention…

Slavin, Robert E., Ed.; Calderon, Margarita, Ed.

287

HIV and AIDS: Oral Effects  

MedlinePLUS

HIV and AIDS Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects The oral effects of HIV and AIDS occur because of your weakened immune system and ... of medicines that you may take for HIV/AIDS. Dry mouth can make you more prone to ...

288

Effective operators in atomic physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation effect of inter-electronic interactions between atomic configurations can be reproduced by effective orthogonal operators acting within a single configuration of interest. These operators which act on N electrons at a time can be resolved through the use of continuous Lie groups. This thesis details the development of these effective operators for a number of configurations. Complete sets of

1989-01-01

289

Effective Operators in Atomic Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation effects of inter-electronic interactions between atomic configurations can be reproduced by effective orthogonal operators acting within a single configuration of interest. These operators which act on N electrons at a time can be resolved through the use of continuous Lie groups. This thesis details the development of these effective operators for a number of configurations. Complete sets of

Richard Carlson Leavitt

1989-01-01

290

Greenhouse effect of NO X  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through various processes the nitrogen oxides (NOX) interact with trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere which do absorb in the spectral range relevant to the greenhouse\\u000a effect (infrared wavelengths). The net effect is an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The catalytic role of NOX in the production of tropospheric ozone provides the most prominent contribution. The global waming potential

Gerhard Lammel; Hartmut Grafll

1995-01-01

291

Acting intentionally and the side-effect effect.  

PubMed

The concept of acting intentionally is an important nexus where theory of mind and moral judgment meet. Preschool children's judgments of intentional action show a valence-driven asymmetry. Children say that a foreseen but disavowed side effect is brought about "on purpose" when the side effect itself is morally bad, but not when it is morally good. This is the first demonstration in preschoolers that moral judgment influences judgments of whether something was done on purpose (as opposed to judgments of purpose influencing moral judgment). Judgments of intentionality are usually assumed to be purely factual. That these judgments are sometimes partly normative-even in preschoolers-challenges current understanding. Young children's judgments regarding foreseen side effects depend on whether the children process the idea that the character does not care about the side effect. As soon as preschoolers effectively process the theory-of-mind concept "not care that P," children show the side-effect effect. PMID:16683930

Leslie, Alan M; Knobe, Joshua; Cohen, Adam

2006-05-01

292

Action languages: Dimensions, effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

1989-01-01

293

Hypersonic jet control effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims to identify some of the parameters which determine the upstream extent and the lateral spreading of the separation front around an under-expanded transverse jet on a slender blunted cone. The tests were conducted in the Cranfield hypersonic facility at M? = 8.2, Re? /cm = 4.5 to 9.0 × 104 and at M? = 12.3, Re? /cm = 3.3 × 104. Air was used as the working gas for both the freestream and the jet. Schlieren pictures were used for the visualisation of the three-dimensional structures around the jet. Pressure, normal force and pitching moment measurements were conducted to quantitatively study the interaction region and its effects on the vehicle. An analytical algorithm has been developed to predict the shape of the separation front around the body.

Kumar, D.; Stollery, J. L.; Smith, A. J.

294

Effective leadership in competition  

E-print Network

Among natural biological flocks/swarms or even mass social activities, when the collective behaviors of the followers has been dominated by the moving direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems very difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This Letter reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the late-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern which enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible in a given time and to accumulate enough power to govern these followers. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leadership, which helps to design an economic way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their distribution pattern. Our investigation provides new insights into the effective leadership in biological systems, with mea...

Zhang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Michael Z Q; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Changsong

2009-01-01

295

Asphericity Effects in Supernovae  

E-print Network

We present a brief summary of asphericity effects in thermonuclear and core collapse supernovae (SN), and how to distinguish the underlying physics by their observable signatures. Electron scattering is the dominant process to produce polarization which is one of the main diagnostical tools. Asphericities result in a directional dependence of the luminosity which has direct implications for the use of SNe in cosmology. For core collapse SNe, the current observations and their interpretations suggest that the explosion mechanism itself is highly aspherical with a well defined axis and, typically, axis ratios of 2 to 3. Asymmetric density/chemical distributions and off-center energy depositions have been identified as crucial for the interpretation of the polarization $P$. For thermonuclear SNe, polarization turned out to be an order of magnitude smaller strongly supporting rather spherical, radially stratified envelopes. Nevertheless, asymmetries have been recognized as important signatures to probe A) for the...

Höflich, P; Quimby, R

2003-01-01

296

Axio-electric effect  

E-print Network

Using the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation, we calculate the rates of atomic ionization by absorption of axions of the energies up to 100 keV and for an arbitrary value of the axion mass. We present numerical results for atoms used in the low radioactive background searches of dark matter (\\em{e.g.} Ar, Ge and Xe), as well as the analytical formula which fits numerical calculations for the absorption cross sections and can be applied for other atoms, molecules and condensed matter systems. Using the cross-sections for the axio-electric effect, we derive the counting rates induced by solar axions and set limits on the axion coupling constants.

Derevianko, A; Flambaum, V V; Pospelov, M

2010-01-01

297

Axio-electric effect  

E-print Network

Using the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation, we calculate the rates of atomic ionization by absorption of axions of the energies up to 100 keV and for an arbitrary value of the axion mass. We present numerical results for atoms used in the low radioactive background searches of dark matter (e.g. Ar, Ge and Xe), as well as the analytical formula which fits numerical calculations for the absorption cross sections and can be applied for other atoms, molecules and condensed matter systems. Using the cross-sections for the axio-electric effect, we derive the counting rates induced by solar axions and set limits on the axion coupling constants.

A. Derevianko; V. A. Dzuba; V. V. Flambaum; M. Pospelov

2010-07-12

298

Hot chocolate effect  

SciTech Connect

The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

Crawford, F.S.

1982-05-01

299

Superhydrophobicity — The Lotus Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to superhydrophobic surfaces and the "lotus effect." Water spilled on a superhydrophobic surface does not wet the surface, but simply rolls off. Additionally, as water moves across the superhydrophobic surface, it picks up and carries away any foreign material, such as dust or dirt. Students learn how plants create and use superhydrophobic surfaces in nature and how engineers have created human-made products that mimic the properties of these natural surfaces. They also learn about the tendency of all superhydrophobic surfaces to develop water droplets that do not roll off the surface but become "pinned" under certain conditions, such as water droplets formed from condensation. They see how the introduction of mechanical energy can "unpin" these water droplets and restore the desirable properties of the superhydrophobic surface.

NSF CAREER Award and RET Program, Mechanical Engineering and Material Science,

300

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

301

Grantmakers for Effective Organizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grantmakers for Effective Organizations (GEO) makes it their mission to promote the strategies and practices that contribute to grantee success. To this end, the GEO website contains information about its outreach efforts, peer learning opportunities, conferences, and upcoming events. Within GEO Priorities visitors can learn about the organization's own development plan and long-term goals, while the GEO Publications area contains a raft of useful publications for policy types and others. Noteworthy publications, here, include "Many Hands, More Impact: Philanthropy's Role in Supporting Movements" and "Cracking the Network Code: Four Principles for Grantmakers." The Peer Learning Opportunities section is another great installment, containing links to helpful webinars, speaking engagement possibilities, and other useful resources.

302

Anthropogenic Effects on Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise focuses on anthropogenic effects on erosion. It could be run as a single lab or as a series of in-class exercises or problem sets. We discussed an article by Hooke and used it as a launching pad for a discussion of back of the envelope calculations. Students then estimate the volume moved by mountain-top removal and how long it might take a river to mobilize that sediment. They estimate the cost for beach nourishment along Florida beaches. They estimate the contribution of local construction projects and road gravel to stream sediment loads. This activity gives students a chance to formulate a problem, make simple measurements, estimate unknowns, and calculate volumes, rates, and costs of various human earth-moving activities. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills Uses geomorphology to solve problems in other fields

Karen Gran

303

Unruh effect and Holography  

E-print Network

We study the Unruh effect on the dynamics of quarks and mesons in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence. We adopt an AdS metric with the boundary Rindler edge extending into a bulk Rindler-like horizon, which yields the thermodynamics with Unruh temperature verified by computing the boundary stress tensor. We then embed in it the probe fundamental string and D7 brane which are dual to the quark and meson in the Unruh vacuum, respectively. Using the standard procedure of holographic renormalization, we calculate the chiral condensate, and also the spectral functions for both quarks and mesons. From these, we extract the corresponding strength of random force of the Langevin dynamics and observe that it can characterize the phase transition of meson melting. We find most of the dynamical features are qualitatively similar to the ones in the thermal bath dual to the AdS black hole background, though could be quite different quantitatively.

Hirayama, Takayuki; Kawamoto, Shoichi; Lin, Feng-Li

2010-01-01

304

The Energy Diameter Effect  

SciTech Connect

Various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder are explored. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder and sphere results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

Souers, P; Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A

2007-04-20

305

The Energy Diameter Effect  

SciTech Connect

We explore various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A; Souers, P C

2007-07-10

306

[Immunomodulatory effects of lenalidomide].  

PubMed

Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) including lenalidomide, a single compound shows various pharmacological action such as the stimulation of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, the suppression hematopoietic tumor proliferation, suppression of neo-vascularisation, and anti-inflammatory action. It has been thought that IMiDs stimulates CD8+ cytotoxic T cells primarily, it is recently shown that they also stimulate CD4+ helper-T cells similarly. Lenalidomide stimulates T cells and NK-cell through production of Th1 type cytokines IL-2 and IFN-? from CD4+ helper-T cells. Lenalidomide also activate T cells indirectly by inhibiting regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) which inhibit the activation of T cells, but controversy still exist about effects on regulatory T cells. PMID:25626322

Handa, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Takayuki; Murakami, Hirokazu

2015-01-01

307

Radiation Effects In Space  

SciTech Connect

Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

Tripathi, Ram K. [NASA Langley Research Center, MS - 188 E, Hampton VA 23681 (United States)

2011-06-01

308

THE HOT CHOCOLATE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

Crawford, Frank S.

1980-12-01

309

Antimutagenic effects in humans  

SciTech Connect

The application of antimutagenicity studies to human somatic mutation is discussed, with emphasis on the potential for future studies. Five assay-gene combinations are now available for measuring human somatic mutation in lymphocytes and erythrocytes. Results with these combinations have defined the human background levels, and show clear responses of mutant frequency to a variety of mutagens. The testing of antimutagenic effects of background frequencies is feasible, but has not yet been done. The major uncertainty in such studies is the unknown age of mutant cells in the background, since only the newly forming mutants are potentially susceptible to most antimutagenic treatments. Intervention studies in the face of active mutagenicity and the use of other genotoxicity endpoints, such as chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and DNA adducts, are considered briefly. 42 refs.

Mendelsohn, M.L.

1991-06-10

310

Radiolytic effects of plutonium.  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium isotopes, most of them a-emitters, cause radiolytic changes in the matrix, in whic h they are embedded. The internal irradiation of Pu metal or its alloys results in physical changes, largel y as a result of the formation of helium bubbles, well-known to material scientists and weapons specialists . In all other media where plutonium occurs, usually as Pu'+ in an ionic form, the results of irradiation ar e chemical in nature. Homogenous media containing Pu, are often aqueous or non-aqueous solutions o f plutonium compounds, mostly originating during processing of spent nuclear fuel or from Pu processing . Heterogenous matrices containing plutonium are more complex from the point of view of radiolysis; they usually contain a variety of combinations of common materials contaminated with radionuclides . This class of radioactive materials represents a challenge for the management of plutonium waste . One has to consider a range of time scales for radiolytic effects (and consequently a several orders o f magnitude range of the cumulative dose) beginning with waste generation, through packaging, transportation, to the period of final storage . Final storage could be for thousands of years in deep geologic repositories . At every ' stage of that time scale, radiolysis proceeds continuously an d cumulative effects c an complicate operating procedures and final disposition . The results presented here have been obtained from experiments that have irradiated of model materials, which are typically the objects of contamination with plutonium . They were irradiated with linearly accelerated electrons up to very high dose rates, adjusted to simulate any contamination at any point on the time scale .

Zagorski, Z. (Zbigniew); Dziewinski, J. J. (Jacek J.); Conca, James L.

2003-01-01

311

Effective monitoring of agriculture.  

PubMed

An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E

2011-06-01

312

Radiative Effects of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

Valero, Francisco P. J.

1996-01-01

313

Enhanced oral absorption of ibandronate via complex formation with bile acid derivative.  

PubMed

Bisphosphonates are recommended for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease, bone metastasis, and multiple myeloma. However, the efficacy of oral preparations is limited because of their low bioavailabilities and adverse effects from the gastrointestinal tract. This study was conducted to investigate whether N(?)-deoxycholyl-L-lysyl-methylester (DCK), an absorption enhancer derived from deoxycholic acid, can increase the oral bioavailability of ibandronate. We prepared a physical complex of ibandronate with DCK, and evaluated its permeability across a parallel artificial membrane. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic profile and oral absorption of the optimized formulation were also studied in rats. DCK enhanced the apparent membrane permeability of ibandronate by 14.4-fold in a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay model, compared with when ibandronate was applied alone. When ibandronate-DCK complex was intrajejunally administered to rats, it resulted in a 2.8- and 4.3-fold increase in maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable time point, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ibandronate-DCK formulation can improve the oral absorption of ibandronate, allowing less frequent dosing to avoid side effects as well to enhance patient compliance. PMID:23233267

Park, Jin Woo; Hwang, Seung Rim; Jeon, Ok-Cheol; Moon, Hyun Tae; Byun, Youngro

2013-02-01

314

Guanylate cyclase activation by organic nitrates is not mediated via nitrite.  

PubMed

Nitrovasodilators relax vascular smooth muscle by stimulating guanylate cyclase. Ignarro et al. (1981) proposed a mechanistic scheme according to which organic nitrates release nitrite in the presence of thiols. The corresponding nitrous acid would decay leading to nitric oxide, which then would react with another thiol to nitrosothiol. Dose-response relations with regard to guanylate cyclase stimulation of organic nitrates and sodium nitrite were compared in the presence of cysteine and its closely related methylester. Nitrite formation from ED95 concentrations of organic nitrates was also measured and compared with that present under an equi-effective concentration of sodium nitrite. In addition, the proposed formation of nitrosothiol from nitric oxide was re-examined. In the presence of cysteine, organic nitrates as well as sodium nitrite stimulated guanylate cyclase, but nitrite formation under ED95 concentrations of organic nitrates was 1000-fold smaller than that present under an equi-effective concentration of sodium nitrite. In the presence of cysteinemethylester, liberation of nitrite from organic nitrates was similar but no stimulation of guanylate cyclase was obtained. Sodium nitrite, however, showed a stimulating activity similar to that in the presence of cysteine. These results clearly demonstrate that guanylate cyclase stimulation by organic nitrates is not mediated by nitrite and subsequent formation of nitrosothiol. Since nitrous acid did not decay to nitric oxide in the pH range studied, the formation of nitrosothiol is apparently due to a direct reaction of nitrous acid with thiol. PMID:2905390

Romanin, C; Kukovetz, W R

1988-05-01

315

Public Opinion on Mass Media Effects: Perceived Societal Effects and Perceived Personal Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The questionnaire in a study of perceived mass media effects included nine statements about the possible negative effects of the mass media, to which respondents could agree, disagree, or indicate "no opinion," and an open-ended question that asked the subjects what effects the mass media had on them personally. Most of the 340 respondents showed…

Tiedge, James T.

316

Effect sizes in memory research.  

PubMed

Effect sizes are omitted from many research articles and are rarely discussed. To help researchers evaluate effect sizes we collected values for the more commonly reported effect size measures (partial eta squared and d) from papers reporting memory research published in 2010. Cohen's small, medium, and large generic guideline values for d mapped neatly onto the observed distributions, but his values for partial eta squared were considerably lower than those observed in current memory research. We recommend interpreting effect sizes in the context of either domain-specific guideline values agreed for an area of research or the distribution of effect size estimates from published research in the domain. We provide cumulative frequency tables for both partial eta squared and d enabling authors to report and consider not only the absolute size of observed effects but also the percentage of reported effects that are larger or smaller than those observed. PMID:23350788

Morris, Peter E; Fritz, Catherine O

2013-01-01

317

Anomalous Hall effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a tentative global view of the AHE is proposed which summarizes the roles played by intrinsic and extrinsic contributions in the disorder strength versus temperature plane. Finally outstanding issues and avenues for future investigation are discussed.

Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

2010-04-01

318

Psychological effects of stillbirth.  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence globally, the death of a baby to stillbirth is an often misunderstood and disenfranchised loss. Mothers, fathers, and families struggle to cope with the immediate and long-lasting effects of a baby's death which can last for years and sometimes decades. In addition, providers can be adversely affected by stillbirth, particularly when met with experiential avoidance and a sense of guilt and failure. There is little evidence on intervention efficacy in acute grief following perinatal death; however, there is a growing body of scientific literature on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in treating anxiety, depression, and other biopsychosocial maladies as well as improving patient satisfaction with psychosocial care. This paper explores one such intervention model, ATTEND (attunement, trust, therapeutic touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education), as a means to improve psychosocial care during both acute and chronic states of bereavement. Whereas the death of a baby to stillbirth is the ultimate paradox for providers and patients - the convergence of life and death and the fundamental contradiction it represents - with proper care and compassion, families stand a better chance in the face of such indescribable loss and they need not suffer alone. PMID:23040157

Cacciatore, Joanne

2013-04-01

319

The Second Mössbauer Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The Second Mössbauer Effect" was the headline of the "Spiegel" (a German weekly journal like the "Times") from May 13, 1964 for announcing the foundation of the "Physik-Department" at the Technische Hochschule München (THM), as it was still called at this time. Maier-Leibnitz was irritated by this headline because the article did not mention at all his contribution to the consolidation of the structure of the three physics institutes (Experimental, Technical, and Theoretical Physics) in the beginning of the sixties. Already in the late fifties ML's Institute for Technical Physics was overloaded with students working on their diploma or doctoral theses, because research in the new field of applied nuclear physics was very attractive and ML had for each student who applied an interesting research project. In the average, ML had to supervise between 150-200 diploma students, an impossible task. So, young postdoctoral students had to help him out by taking over the duties of professors. In a letter to the Bavarian Ministry of Education and Arts in 1957 he complained: "The directors of the institutes are hopelessly surcharged and the institutes are overcrowded, the resources for research projects are totally insufficient and lots of time and energy is wasted for finding additional resources."

Kienle, Paul

320

Asphericity Effects in Supernovae  

E-print Network

We present a brief summary of asphericity effects in thermonuclear and core collapse supernovae (SN), and how to distinguish the underlying physics by their observable signatures. Electron scattering is the dominant process to produce polarization which is one of the main diagnostical tools. Asphericities result in a directional dependence of the luminosity which has direct implications for the use of SNe in cosmology. For core collapse SNe, the current observations and their interpretations suggest that the explosion mechanism itself is highly aspherical with a well defined axis and, typically, axis ratios of 2 to 3. Asymmetric density/chemical distributions and off-center energy depositions have been identified as crucial for the interpretation of the polarization $P$. For thermonuclear SNe, polarization turned out to be an order of magnitude smaller strongly supporting rather spherical, radially stratified envelopes. Nevertheless, asymmetries have been recognized as important signatures to probe A) for the signatures of the progenitor system, B) the global asymmetry with well defined axis, likely to be caused by rotation of an accreting white dwarf or merging WDs, and C) possible remains of the deflagration pattern.

P. Hoeflich; C. Gerardy; R. Quimby

2003-12-22

321

[Effects of traumatic stress].  

PubMed

The diagnosis PTSD does not adequately describe the impact of exposure to childhood trauma of the developing child. The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence of different interpersonal trauma types and to describe the long-term effects of maltreatment and neglect in a clinical sample of 34 adolescents. The majority (62%) of the sample was exposed to two different types of trauma during childhood. Emotional abuse and emotional neglect have been the most common trauma types (59%; 53%). 71% of the traumatized adolescents did not meet the criteria for PTSD. The most common diagnosis in the sample was Borderline Personality Disorder. All average scores at SCL-90-Symptom-Scale were clinical significant. Half of the sample reported suicide attempts and self destructive behavior. One third reported substance abuse and aggressive behavior against others respectively. None of the traumatized adolescents had a positive Self-concept. Altogether the results show that abused children and adolescents have a range of psychological sequelae that are not captured in the PTSD diagnostic criteria. Therefore the results support the necessity for a new and more precise diagnosis for chronically traumatized children and adolescents. PMID:19961125

Herbst, Gesa; Jaeger, Ulrich; Leichsenring, Falk; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

2009-01-01

322

Transvection effects in Drosophila.  

PubMed

An unusual feature of the Diptera is that homologous chromosomes are intimately synapsed in somatic cells. At a number of loci in Drosophila, this pairing can significantly influence gene expression. Such influences were first detected within the bithorax complex (BX-C) by E.B. Lewis, who coined the term transvection to describe them. Most cases of transvection involve the action of enhancers in trans. At several loci deletion of the promoter greatly increases this action in trans, suggesting that enhancers are normally tethered in cis by the promoter region. Transvection can also occur by the action of silencers in trans or by the spreading of position effect variegation from rearrangements having heterochromatic breakpoints to paired unrearranged chromosomes. Although not demonstrated, other cases of transvection may involve the production of joint RNAs by trans-splicing. Several cases of transvection require Zeste, a DNA-binding protein that is thought to facilitate homolog interactions by self-aggregation. Genes showing transvection can differ greatly in their response to pairing disruption. In several cases, transvection appears to require intimate synapsis of homologs. However, in at least one case (transvection of the iab-5,6,7 region of the BX-C), transvection is independent of synapsis within and surrounding the interacting gene. The latter example suggests that transvection could well occur in organisms that lack somatic pairing. In support of this, transvection-like phenomena have been described in a number of different organisms, including plants, fungi, and mammals. PMID:12429702

Duncan, Ian W

2002-01-01

323

Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy (XXXX). Results of five experiments show that perceptual sensitivity is strikingly and significantly reduced in the RB condition relative to both baseline control conditions. The data show RB can be obtained under conditions in which memory problems are minimal and where perceptual sensitivity is assessed independently of biases.

Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

324

The photorefractive effect  

SciTech Connect

When Arthur Ashkin and his colleagues at Bell Laboratories first noticed the photorefractive effect some 25 years ago, they considered the phenomenon a curiosity at best and a complete nuisance at worst. Today photorefractive materials are being shaped into components for a new generation of computers that exploit light instead of electricity. During the past 25 years investigators have discovered a wide variety of photorefractive materials, including insulators, semiconductors and organic compounds. Photorefractive materials, like film emulsions, change rapidly when exposed to bright light, respond slowly when subjected to dim light and capture sharp detail when struck by some intricate pattern of light. Unlike film, photorefractive materials are erasable: images can be stored or obliterated at whim or by design. By virtue of their sensitivity, robustness, and unique optical properties, photorefractive materials have the potential to be fashioned into data-processing elements for optical computers. In theory, these devices would allow optical computers to process information at much faster rates than their electronic counterparts. Employing photorefractive materials, workers have already developed the optical analogue to the transistor: if two laser beams interact within a photorefractive material, one beam can control, switch or amplify the second beam. Photorefractive materials also lie at the heart of devices that trace the edges of images, that connect networks of lasers and that store three-dimensional images.

Pepper, D.M. (Pepperdine Univ., CA (USA)); Kukhtarev, N.V. (Institute of Physics, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR))

1990-10-01

325

Harmful effects of nicotine  

PubMed Central

With the advent of nicotine replacement therapy, the consumption of the nicotine is on the rise. Nicotine is considered to be a safer alternative of tobacco. The IARC monograph has not included nicotine as a carcinogen. However there are various studies which show otherwise. We undertook this review to specifically evaluate the effects of nicotine on the various organ systems. A computer aided search of the Medline and PubMed database was done using a combination of the keywords. All the animal and human studies investigating only the role of nicotine were included. Nicotine poses several health hazards. There is an increased risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders. There is decreased immune response and it also poses ill impacts on the reproductive health. It affects the cell proliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, DNA mutation by various mechanisms which leads to cancer. It also affects the tumor proliferation and metastasis and causes resistance to chemo and radio therapeutic agents. The use of nicotine needs regulation. The sale of nicotine should be under supervision of trained medical personnel.

Mishra, Aseem; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Datta, Sourav; Sinukumar, Snita; Joshi, Poonam; Garg, Apurva

2015-01-01

326

(Limiting the greenhouse effect)  

SciTech Connect

Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

Rayner, S.

1991-01-07

327

Effective obesity treatments.  

PubMed

To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk- benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed at promoting sustained (= 2 years) reductions in weight. Both lifestyle and drug interventions consistently produced an approximate 7-lb (3.2-kg) weight loss that was sustained for 2 years and was associated with improvements in diabetes, blood pressure, and/or cardiovascular risk factors. Surgical interventions have a less solid empirical base but offer promise for the promotion of significant and sustained weight reduction posttreatment in the morbidly obese but with possible significant short-term side effects. In summary, there is strong and consistent support from rigorous randomized trials that lifestyle or drug interventions result in modest weight loss with minimal risks but disproportionate clinical benefit. Combinations of lifestyle, drug, and, where appropriate, surgical interventions may be the most efficacious approach to achieving sustained weight loss for the widest diversity of patients. PMID:17469901

Powell, Lynda H; Calvin, James E; Calvin, James E

2007-04-01

328

Phosphorene nanoribbons: Passivation effect on bandgap and effective mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The edge passivation effect of phosphorene nanoribbons is systematically investigated using density functional theory. Hydrogen and fluorine atoms passivate the metallic edge states of nanoribbons and can open a bandgap up to 2.25 eV. The two configurations of passivated atoms can exist at two edges and affect the bandgap of narrow nanoribbons. The bandgap of each type of zPNRs decreases as the ribbon's width increases, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect. The new configuration, named Cb, can effectively reduce the effective mass of electrons, which benefits the future design of phosphorene-based electronic devices.

Xu, Li-Chun; Song, Xian-Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Ling; Liu, Rui-Ping; Li, Xiu-Yan

2015-01-01

329

Paradoxical and bidirectional drug effects.  

PubMed

A paradoxical drug reaction constitutes an outcome that is opposite from the outcome that would be expected from the drug's known actions. There are three types: 1. A paradoxical response in a condition for which the drug is being explicitly prescribed. 2. Paradoxical precipitation of a condition for which the drug is indicated, when the drug is being used for an alternative indication. 3. Effects that are paradoxical in relation to an aspect of the pharmacology of the drug but unrelated to the usual indication. In bidirectional drug reactions, a drug may produce opposite effects, either in the same or different individuals, the effects usually being different from the expected beneficial effect. Paradoxical and bidirectional drug effects can sometimes be harnessed for benefit; some may be adverse. Such reactions arise in a wide variety of drug classes. Some are common; others are reported in single case reports. Paradoxical effects are often adverse, since they are opposite the direction of the expected effect. They may complicate the assessment of adverse drug reactions, pharmacovigilance, and clinical management. Bidirectional effects may be clinically useful or adverse. From a clinical toxicological perspective, altered pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics in overdose may exacerbate paradoxical and bidirectional effects. Certain antidotes have paradoxical attributes, complicating management. Apparent clinical paradoxical or bidirectional effects and reactions ensue when conflicts arise at different levels in self-regulating biological systems, as complexity increases from subcellular components, such as receptors, to cells, tissues, organs, and the whole individual. These may be incompletely understood. Mechanisms of such effects include different actions at the same receptor, owing to changes with time and downstream effects; stereochemical effects; multiple receptor targets with or without associated temporal effects; antibody-mediated reactions; three-dimensional architectural constraints; pharmacokinetic competing compartment effects; disruption and non-linear effects in oscillating systems, systemic overcompensation, and other higher-level feedback mechanisms and feedback response loops at multiple levels. Here we review and provide a compendium of multiple class effects and individual reactions, relevant mechanisms, and specific clinical toxicological considerations of antibiotics, immune modulators, antineoplastic drugs, and cardiovascular, CNS, dermal, endocrine, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, haematological, respiratory, and psychotropic agents. PMID:22272687

Smith, Silas W; Hauben, Manfred; Aronson, Jeffrey K

2012-03-01

330

Electron Effective Mass in Graphene  

E-print Network

The particle effective mass in graphene is a challenging concept because the commonly used theoretical expression is mathematically divergent. In this paper, we use basic principles to present a simple theoretical expression for the effective mass that is suitable for both parabolic and non-parabolic isotropic materials. We demonstrate that this definition is consistent with the definition of the cyclotron effective mass, which is one of the common methods for effective mass measurement in solid state materials. We apply the proposed theoretical definition to graphene and demonstrate linear dependence of the effective mass on momentum, as confirmed by experimental cyclotron resonance measurements. Therefore, the proposed definition of the effective mass can be used for non-parabolic materials such as graphene.

Viktor Ariel; Amir Natan

2012-08-12

331

Neuroendocrine effects of light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light/dark cycle to which animals, and possibly humans, are exposed has a major impact on their physiology. The mechanisms whereby specific tissues respond to the light/dark cycle involve the pineal hormone melatonin. The pineal gland, an end organ of the visual system in mammals, produces the hormone melatonin only at night, at which time it is released into the blood. The duration of elevated nightly melatonin provides every tissue with information about the time of day and time of year (in animals that are kept under naturally changing photoperiods). Besides its release in a circadian mode, melatonin is also discharged in a pulsatile manner; the physiological significance, if any, of pulsatile melatonin release remains unknown. The exposure of animals including man to light at night rapidly depresses pineal melatonin synthesis and, therefore, blood melatonin levels drop precipitously. The brightness of light at night required to depress melatonin production is highly species specific. In general, the pineal gland of nocturnally active mammals, which possess rod-dominated retinas, is more sensitive to inhibition by light than is the pineal gland of diurnally active animals (with cone-dominated retinas). Because of the ability of the light/dark cycle to determine melatonin production, the photoperiod is capable of influencing the function of a variety of endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Indeed, melatonin is a ubiquitously acting pineal hormone with its effects on the neuroendocrine system having been most thoroughly investigated. Thus, in nonhuman photoperiodic mammals melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction; in humans also, the indole has been implicated in the control of reproductive physiology.

Reiter, Russel J.

1991-09-01

332

Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation  

E-print Network

CATARACTOGENIC EFFECTS OF PROTON RADIATION A Thesis by James Ronald Kyzar Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject...: Veterinary Physiology CATARACTOGENIC EFFECTS OF PROTON RADIATION A Thesis by James Ronald Kyzar Approved as to style and content by: (Char of Committee) (Head of Depar ent) (Membei / (Member (Member ) May 1972 ABSTRACT Cataractogenic Effects...

Kyzar, James Ronald

1972-01-01

333

(Theory of relative biological effectiveness)  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on relative biological effectiveness, in the following areas: radial distribution of dose about the path of an energetic heavy ion; the response of E. Coli mutants to ionizing radiations; the application of a fragmentation model to to the calculation of cell survival and mutation with heavy ion beams; biological radiation effects from gamma radiation and heavy ion beams on organisms; cancer induction in the Harderian Gland by HZE particles; and effects of low dose radiations. (CBS)

Katz, R.

1992-06-15

334

The Thirring-Lense Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thirring-Lense effect is the phenomenon that an observer near a rotating mass, being in a state which is non-rotating with respect to the rest of the universe, experiences extra inertial forces, i.e. becomes dizzy. The first anticipation of the effect goes back to Ernst Mach; its first quantitative prediction on the basis of general relativity was given by Hans Thirring and Joseph Lense. Almost ninety years later, the effect seems to be experimentally verified.

Embacher, Franz

335

Biomedical effects of laser application  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews the authors experimental and clinical use of lasers over a 20-year period, during which laser effects on 15 biological systems were studied. Low-energy laser radiation was found to have a stimulating effect on cells, and high-energy radiation had an inhibiting effect. The application of lasers to stimulate wound healing in cases of nonhealing ulcers is recommended.

Mester, E.; Mester, A.F.; Mester, A.

1985-01-01

336

Electro-magneto-optical Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-magneto-optical effects in stationary materials are observed when the materials are placed in strong, static electric or magnetic fields and an electro- magnetic wave (light) traverses the medium. The Faraday effect is an example of the class of phenomena we have in mind. Clearly, the existence of electro- magneto-optical effects in material media is direct evidence that the equations for

R. A. Toupin; R. S. Rivlin

1961-01-01

337

Synthesis of chiral triazine coupling reagents based on esters of N-alkylproline and their application in the enantioselective incorporation of D or L amino acid residue directly from racemic substrate.  

PubMed

Esters of N-methylproline and N-allylproline were prepared and used as component for synthesis of chiral triazine based coupling reagents. N-Triazinylammonium tetrafluoroborate obtained from methylester of L-N-methylproline, 2-chloro-4,6-dimethozxy-1,3,5-triazine and tetrafluoroboric acid in the coupling of rac-Z- A1a-OH with glycine methylester preferred formation of D-Z-AlaGly-OMe with L/D ratio 21/79. Coupling reagent prepared from D enantiomer of N-methylproline gave L-Z-AlaGly-OMe with L/D ratio 75/25. PMID:25745772

Kasperowicz-Frankowska, Katarzyna; Gzik, Anna; Dziemidkiewicz, Micha?; Kolesi?ska, Beata; Kami?ski, Zbigniew J

2014-01-01

338

General Network Effects and Welfare  

E-print Network

involve ‘network effects’ whether direct or indirect. Furthermore, many of the recent models of platform and two-sided markets display reduced form indirect network effects – see e.g. Church et al. (2003).1 Much of this literature has focused, for reasons... of analytical tractability, on the case linear network effects (and heterogeneity).2 It is natural to wonder whether such a restriction is ‘innocent’. In this paper we analyse the case of general network effects. Focusing on the classic case of a Hotelling line...

Pollock, Rufus

339

EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT  

SciTech Connect

The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

Flach, G.

2012-02-27

340

Costs of antibiotic resistance – separating trait effects and selective effects  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance can impair bacterial growth or competitive ability in the absence of antibiotics, frequently referred to as a ‘cost’ of resistance. Theory and experiments emphasize the importance of such effects for the distribution of resistance in pathogenic populations. However, recent work shows that costs of resistance are highly variable depending on environmental factors such as nutrient supply and population structure, as well as genetic factors including the mechanism of resistance and genetic background. Here, we suggest that such variation can be better understood by distinguishing between the effects of resistance mechanisms on individual traits such as growth rate or yield (‘trait effects’) and effects on genotype frequencies over time (‘selective effects’). We first give a brief overview of the biological basis of costs of resistance and how trait effects may translate to selective effects in different environmental conditions. We then review empirical evidence of genetic and environmental variation of both types of effects and how such variation may be understood by combining molecular microbiological information with concepts from evolution and ecology. Ultimately, disentangling different types of costs may permit the identification of interventions that maximize the cost of resistance and therefore accelerate its decline.

Hall, Alex R; Angst, Daniel C; Schiessl, Konstanze T; Ackermann, Martin

2015-01-01

341

Effects beyond Effectiveness: Teaching as a Performative Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article develops the familiar metaphor of teaching as performance towards a definition of "teaching as performative act," where words and actions aim to effect cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes in learners. To what extent, however, are the consequences of pedagogical actions commensurate with their intended effects? Can a science…

Liew, Warren Mark

2013-01-01

342

Ecological effects on effective population size in an annual plant.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient-limited soil can be a strong selective force on plant populations. In addition, ecological factors such as competitive interactions have been shown to have an effect on effective population size (Ne). Both Ne and selection are indicators of population evolutionary processes: selection can...

343

SMITH AND BARGHNONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER  

E-print Network

SMITH AND BARGHNONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH AND AVOIDANCE TENDENCIES Pamela K. Smith Radboud University Nijmegen John A. Bargh Yale University According-24 Address for correspondence: Pamela K. Smith, Department of Social Psychology, Behavioural Science

Bargh, John A.

344

Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. METHODS: Members of a state branch of

Sandra G Leggat

2007-01-01

345

Release of endothelial nitric oxide in coronary arteries by celiprolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist: possible clinical relevance.  

PubMed

Mechanisms underlying celiprolol-induced vasodilatation were analyzed in isolated porcine coronary arteries. Celiprolol induced dose-related relaxation of the artery rings with endothelium, an effect which was suppressed by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, guanylate cyclase inhibitor, endothelium denudation, and removal of Ca(2+). L-NAME contracted, and superoxide dismutase relaxed, the arteries only when the endothelium was preserved. Neither superoxide dismutase nor beta-adrenoceptor antagonists changed celiprolol-induced relaxations. Celiprolol increased the cyclic GMP content in the tissue. The release of NO from endothelium, estimated by the extracellular production of cyclic GMP in arteries incubated in medium containing guanylate cyclase and GTP, was augmented by celiprolol, and L-NAME abolished this action of celiprolol. It is concluded that celiprolol elicits relaxation by acting on sites other than beta-adrenoceptors in the endothelium and by releasing NO, which activates soluble guanylate cyclase in smooth muscle and produces cyclic GMP. Scavenging of superoxide anions from the endothelium does not seem to account for the induced relaxation. PMID:11275001

Noda, K; Oka, M; Ma, F H; Kitazawa, S; Ukai, Y; Toda, N

2001-03-01

346

Nitric oxide and polyamine pathway-dependent modulation of neutrophil free amino- and alpha-keto acid profiles or host defense capability.  

PubMed

We have examined the effects of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-methylester-hydrochloride [L-NAME; inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase], S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine [SNAP; nitric oxide donor], alpha-difluoro-methyl-ornithine [DFMO; inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase] arginine or ornithine as well as the combination of arginine or ornithine with L-NAME, SNAP or DFMO on intracellular free amino- and alpha-keto acid profiles and the immune function markers superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide generation as well as released myeloperoxidase activity in neutrophils (PMN). Although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear, we believe from our results that nitric oxide as well as polyamine-dependent pathways are involved in the signal transmission of free radical molecule, beneficial nutritional therapy or maleficient pharmacological stress-induced alterations in PMN nutrient composition. Relevant changes in intragranulocyte free amino- and alpha-keto acid homeostasis and metabolism, especially, may be one of the determinants in PMN nutrition that positively or negatively influences and modulate neutrophil host defence capability and immunocompetence. PMID:16547646

Mühling, J; Engel, J; Halabi, M; Müller, M; Fuchs, M; Krüll, M; Harbach, H; Langefeld, T W; Wolff, M; Matejec, R; Welters, I D; Menges, T; Hempelmann, G

2006-07-01

347

The photovoltaic efficiency of the fabrication of copolymer P3HT:PCBM on different thickness nano-anatase titania as solar cell.  

PubMed

Organic solar cells based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) with an inverted structure have been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) as their electron transport layer, which was prepared on the indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO-glass), silicon wafer and glass substrates by sol-gel method at different spin speed by using spin-coating (1000, 2000 and 3000rpm) for nano-thin film 58, 75 and 90nm respectively. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and optical properties of TiO2 layer were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The optical band gap of the films has been found to be in the range 3.63-3.96eV for allowed direct transition and to be in the range 3.23-3.69eV for forbidden direct transition to the different TiO2 thickness. The samples were examined to feature current and voltages darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell where they were getting the highest open-circuit voltage, Voc, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39% fabricated with 90nm respectively. PMID:25819135

Lazim, Haidar Gazy; Ajeel, Khalid I; Badran, Hussain A

2015-06-15

348

Bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells sandwiched by solution processed molybdenum oxide and titania nanosheet layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of ultrathin titania nanosheet (TN) crystallites were studied in both an inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) cell in an indium-tin oxide (ITO)/titania nanosheet (TN)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered photovoltaic device and a conventional BHJ cell in ITO/MoOx/P3HT:PCBM active layer/TN/Al multilayered photovoltaic device. The insertion of only one or two layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and TN multilayered film prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique effectively decreased the leakage current and increased the open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (?). The conventional cell sandwiched between a solution-processed, partially crystallized molybdenum oxide hole-extracting buffer layer and a TN electron extracting buffer layer showed comparable cell performance to a device sandwiched between vacuum-deposited molybdenum oxide and TN layers, whereas the inverted cell with solution-processed molybdenum oxide showed a poorer performance probably owing to the increment in the leakage current across the film. The abnormal S-shaped curves observed in the inverted BHJ cell above VOC disappeared with the use of a polyfluorene-based cationic semiconducting polymer as a substitute for an insulating PDDA film, resulting in the improved cell performance.

Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

2014-02-01

349

Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates. PMID:19536806

Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

2009-08-01

350

Aquaporin-3 mediates hydrogen peroxide uptake to regulate downstream intracellular signaling  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by cell-surface NADPH Oxidase (Nox) enzymes is emerging as an important signaling molecule for growth, differentiation, and migration processes. However, how cells spatially regulate H2O2 to achieve physiological redox signaling over nonspecific oxidative stress pathways is insufficiently understood. Here we report that the water channel Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) can facilitate the uptake of H2O2 into mammalian cells and mediate downstream intracellular signaling. Molecular imaging with Peroxy Yellow 1 Methyl-Ester (PY1-ME), a new chemoselective fluorescent indicator for H2O2, directly demonstrates that aquaporin isoforms AQP3 and AQP8, but not AQP1, can promote uptake of H2O2 specifically through membranes in mammalian cells. Moreover, we show that intracellular H2O2 accumulation can be modulated up or down based on endogenous AQP3 expression, which in turn can influence downstream cell signaling cascades. Finally, we establish that AQP3 is required for Nox-derived H2O2 signaling upon growth factor stimulation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the downstream intracellular effects of H2O2 can be regulated across biological barriers, a discovery that has broad implications for the controlled use of this potentially toxic small molecule for beneficial physiological functions. PMID:20724658

Miller, Evan W.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

351

A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs  

PubMed Central

The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug–side effect pairs. For 199 drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de. PMID:20087340

Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

2010-01-01

352

Effects of World War I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Determine the effects of World War I on countries involved in the war. In this activity, read the links and use the information given to determine the effects of World War I on the major players in the war. Fill out the graphic organizer with the information you find. Organizer Casualties - Use this site to determine how many soldiers each country lost in ...

Mr. Kilpatrick

2012-04-10

353

Advertisement Takes effect in January  

E-print Network

Advertisement Takes effect in January New law gives seniors more control over their living wills, which takes effect in January, gives Utahns more control over what happens when they experience/29/2007http://www.sltrib.com/news/ci_7537468 #12;Advertisement The new law also lets Utahns choose what action

Tipple, Brett

354

How effective is targeted advertising?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertisers are demanding more accurate estimates of the impact of targeted advertisements, yet no study proposes an appropriate methodology to analyze the effectiveness of a targeted advertising campaign, and there is a dearth of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of targeted advertising as a whole. The targeted population is more likely to convert from advertising so the response lift between

Ayman Farahat; Michael C. Bailey

2012-01-01

355

Effective Evaluation through Appreciative Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluators in the HPI field can improve their performance program results with effective evaluation through appreciative inquiry. Appreciative inquiry and evaluation have many similarities, and when combined they add value and effectiveness to the measurement of intervention results. Appreciative inquiry is beneficial in many evaluation contexts:…

Dunlap, Cheryl A.

2008-01-01

356

Counselor Effectiveness Through Radio Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined the effectiveness of the use of radio as a means of providing immediate feedback on student counselors in a practicum setting. Using a non-equivalent group experimental design, 10 experimental subjects were compared to 10 control subjects with respect to counselor effectiveness. The experimental subjects were given immediate…

Tentoni, Stuart C.

357

Mediating Effects of Social Presence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked interactivity is one of the essential factors that differentiate recent online educational games from traditional stand-alone games. However, despite the growing popularity of online educational games, empirical studies about the effects of the networked interactivity are relatively rare. This study tests the effects of networked interactivity on game users' subjective evaluation of learning (sense of competition, satisfaction, and perceived

Kwan Min Lee; Eui Jun Jeong; Seoungho Ryu

358

Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching…

Nielsen, Lance D.

2014-01-01

359

Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

2009-01-01

360

Effects of garlic on atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the use of garlic and garlic preparations as agents for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related diseases. Garlic indirectly effects atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. In addition, in animal models, garlic causes direct antiatherogenic (preventive) and antiatherosclerotic (causing regression) effects at the level of artery wall. Garlic's

Alexander N. Orekhov; Jörg Grünwald

1997-01-01

361

Effective retrieval with distributed collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the retrieval effective- ness of distributed information retrieval systems in re- alistic environments. We find that when a large num- ber of collections are available, the retrieval effectiveness is significantly worse than that of centralized systems, mainly because typical queries are not adequate for the purpose of choosing the right collections. We propose two techniques to address

Jinxi Xu; James P. Callan

1998-01-01

362

The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium  

E-print Network

The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all (Wein's Law). Our atmosphere is not completely transparent at these wavelengths, because the greenhouse

Walter, Frederick M.

363

Switchgrass biochar effects two aridisols  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of biochar has received growing attention with regards to improving the physico-chemical properties of highly weathered Ultisols and Oxisols, yet very little research has focused on effects in Aridisols. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of either low or high tempera...

364

Project Title: Prisoner Counselling Effectiveness  

E-print Network

to be evaluated. Based on a review of literature surrounding designing self- assessment survey methods, a review methods and applications of survey methods to evaluate a programmes effectiveness (comparison across review on applications of survey methods to evaluate a programme's effectiveness 12 March ­ 5 April

Hickman, Mark

365

Memory Processes in Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

Kellermann, Kathy

1985-01-01

366

Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant…

Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

2005-01-01

367

Hiring Effective Secondary School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's effective school counselors are integral in education reform, school leadership, and student achievement. It is typically the responsibility of building principals to hire effective school counselors. This article builds on previous literature and provides principals with questions to ask and information to gather that may be helpful in…

McGlothlin, Jason M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot

2008-01-01

368

7, 39413962, 2007 Volcanic effects  

E-print Network

considered leading to the detection of the so called "continen- tal winter warming" in observations in global circulation mod- 3942 #12;ACPD 7, 3941­3962, 2007 Volcanic effects: climate mechanisms H.-F. GrafACPD 7, 3941­3962, 2007 Volcanic effects: climate mechanisms H.-F. Graf et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

370

The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!  

Microsoft Academic Search

In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper

Jochen Ebel

2009-01-01

371

Octupole correlation effects in nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions.

Chasman, R.R.

1992-08-01

372

Octupole correlation effects in nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions.

Chasman, R.R.

1992-01-01

373

Effects of dance on anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the effects of modern dance on anxiety. State anxiety was assessed before and after a 3-mo. education programme, using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The target group followed a class in modern dance. Control group were (1) a physical education group to control for the effects of exercise, (2) a music group to control for aesthetic sensitivity

Andre Lesté; John Rust

1990-01-01

374

Immediate Neurocognitive Effects of Concussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively measure the immediate neurocognitive effects and early course of recovery from concussion and to examine the effects of loss of consciousness (LOC) and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) on the severity of neurocognitive impairment immediately after concussion. METHODS: A sports-related concussion research model was used to allow prospective immediate evaluation of concussion. A total of 2385 high school and

Michael McCrea; James P. Kelly; Christopher Randolph; Ron Cisler; Lisa Berger

2002-01-01

375

Teaching the Photoelectric Effect Inductively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that students have difficulty understanding the underlying process of the photoelectric effect. Thus, this study sought to utilize an inductively situated lesson for teaching the photoelectric effect, hypothesizing that this type of enquiry would help learners delve deeper into the principles of the phenomenon and provide a…

Sokolowski, Andrzej

2013-01-01

376

Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) tools  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective rangeland management requires careful consideration of the possible cumulative effects of different management options prior to making major management decisions. State-and-transition (S/T) models, based on ecological sites, capture our understanding ecosystem functioning and can be used t...

377

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft & Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite systems are vulnerable to Space Weather through its influence on energetic charged particle and plasma populations, which produce a variety of effects, including total dose, lattice displacement damage, single event effects (SEE), noise in sensors and electrostatic charging. In addition aircraft electronics and aircrew are subjected to atmospheric secondary radiation produced by cosmic rays and solar particle events. European

Clive Dyer

2001-01-01

378

The Participatory Effects of Redistricting  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the effects of legal and institutional arrangements on political participation are well documented, little attention has been given to the potential participatory effects of one of the United States' most important electoral laws: constitutionally mandated reapportionment. By severing the ties between constituents and their incumbents, we argue, redistricting raises information costs, leading to increased levels of nonvoting in U.S.

Danny Hayes; Seth C. McKee

2009-01-01

379

Revisiting the Mysterious Mpemba Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hot water freezing faster than cold water is mentioned in Greek literature. However, it came out as a scientific phenomenon during the last few decades and is known as Mpemba effect since 1969. But there is an inadequacy of explanation which was a challenge to the modern science. Hence, it is an important issue to revisit this

R. P. Gamage; S. R. D. Rosa

2008-01-01

380

How Principals Support Teacher Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current standards and accountability regime describes effective teaching as the ability to increase student achievement on standardized tests. This narrow definition of effectiveness can lead principals to create school cultures myopically focused on student achievement data. A "laser-like focus on academic achievement," if employed too…

Gallagher, Michael

2012-01-01

381

Animation About the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a basic animation/simulation with background information about the greenhouse effect by DAMOCLES. The animation has several layers to it that allow users to drill into more detail about the natural greenhouse effect and different aspects of it, including volcanic aerosols and human impacts from burning fossil fuels.

DAMOCLES

382

THERMOVISCOPLASTICITY WITH SECOND SOUND EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled thermoviscoplasticity equations are developed based on the rational theory of thermodynamics. The equations account for the second sound effects and are compatible with the state variable constitutive theories. Second sound effects were considered by adding a new vector, which represents the “elastic” heat flow, to the list of the independent variables required to completely define the state of the

H. Ghoneim; D. N. Dalo

1987-01-01

383

The psychological effects of unemployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies dealing with the following: (1) The effects of unemployment upon personality. Unemployment leads to increased instability in the unemployed and lowers their morale. Movie attendance is increased, and personal habits may be somewhat modified. Methodological approaches to a study of the effect on the total personality are discussed, but no data are cited. (2) Socio-political attitudes

P. Eisenberg; Paul F. Lazarsfeld

1938-01-01

384

Casimir effect: Edges and diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Casimir effect refers to the existence of a macroscopic force between conducting plates in vacuum due to quantum fluctuations of fields. These forces play an important role, among other things, in the design of nano-scale mechanical devices. Accurate experimental observations of this phenomenon have motivated the development of new theoretical approaches in dealing with the effects of different geometries,

Dimitra Karabali

2011-01-01

385

Casimir effect: Edges and diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Casimir effect refers to the existence of a macroscopic force between conducting plates in vacuum due to quantum fluctuations of fields. These forces play an important role, among other things, in the design of nano-scale mechanical devices. Accurate experimental observations of this phenomenon have motivated the development of new theoretical approaches in dealing with the effects of different geometries,

Dimitra Karabali

2012-01-01

386

Effective doses, guidelines & regulations.  

PubMed

A number of countries have developed regulations or guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacteria in drinking water, and in some cases in water used for recreational activity and agriculture. The main focus internationally has been upon microcystin toxins, produced predominantly by Microcystis aeruginosa. This is because microcystins are widely regarded as the most significant potential source of human injury from cyanobacteria on a world-wide scale. Many international guidelines have taken their lead from the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional guideline of 1 microg L(-1) for microcystin-LR in drinking-water released in 1998 (WHO 2004). The WHO guideline value is stated as being 'provisional', because it covers only microcystin-LR, for reasons that the toxicology is limited and new data for toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins are being generated. The derivation of this guideline is based upon data that there is reported human injury related to consumption of drinking water containing cyanobacteria, or from limited work with experimental animals. It was also recognised that at present the human evidence for microcystin tumor promotion is inadequate and animal evidence is limited. As a result the guideline is based upon the model of deriving a Tolerable Daily intake (TDI) from an animal study No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL), with the application of appropriate safety or uncertainty factors. The resultant WHO guideline by definition is the concentration of a toxin that does not result in any significant risk to health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption. Following the release of this WHO provisional guideline many countries have either adopted it directly (e.g., Czech Republic, France, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Brazil and Spain), or have adopted the same animal studies, TDI and derivation convention to arrive at slight variants based upon local requirements (e.g., Australia, Canada). Brazil currently has the most comprehensive federal legislation which includes a mandatory standard of 1 microg L-(1) for microcystins, and also recommendations for saxitoxins (3 microg L(-1)) and for cylindrospermopsin (15 microg L(-1)). Although guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacterial cell numbers for recreational waters are in place in a number of countries, it is consid ered that there is currently insufficient information to derive sound guidelines for the use of water contaminated by cyanobacteria or toxins for agricultural production, fisheries and ecosystem protection. In relation to the need for specific regulations for toxins for the US, the surveys that have been carried out to date would indicate that the priority compounds for regulation, based upon their incidence and distribution, are microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and Anatoxin-a. Additional research is required to support guideline development, including whole-of-life animal studies with each of the known cyanotoxins. In view of the animal studies that indicate that microcystins may act as tumor promoters, and also some evidence of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity for cylindrospermopsin, it may be appropriate to carry out whole-of-life animal studies with both toxicity and carcinogenicity as end-points. In relation to microcystins, it is known that there a large number of congeners, and the toxico-dynamics and kinetics of these variants are not well understood. Further research is needed to consider the approach to take in formulating health advisories or regulations for toxin mixtures, i.e. multiple microcystins, or mixtures of toxin types. An important requirement for regulation is the availability of robust monitoring and analytical protocols for toxins. Currently rapid and economical screening or quantitative analytical methods are not available to the water industry or natural resource managers, and this is a priority before the release of guidelines and regulations. There is insufficient information available in a range of the categories usually required to satisfy comprehensive risk assessment process for the major tox

Burch, Michael D

2008-01-01

387

Relativistic effect in galaxy clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general relativistic description of galaxy clustering provides a complete and unified treatment of all the effects in galaxy clustering such as the redshift-space distortion, gravitational lensing, Sachs-Wolfe effects, and their relativistic effects. In particular, the relativistic description resolves the gauge issues in the standard Newtonian description of galaxy clustering by providing the gauge-invariant expression for the observed galaxy number density. The relativistic effect in galaxy clustering is significant on large scales, in which dark energy models or alternative theories of modified gravity deviate from general relativity. In this paper, we review the relativistic effect in galaxy clustering by providing a pedagogical derivation of the relativistic formula and by computing the observed galaxy two-point statistics. The relativistic description of galaxy clustering is an essential tool for testing general relativity and probing the early Universe on large scales in the era of precision cosmology.

Yoo, Jaiyul

2014-12-01

388

Phi-symmetric effect algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of a Sasaki projection on an orthomodular lattice is generalized to a mapping ?: E × E ? E, where E is an effect algebra. If E is lattice ordered and ? is symmetric, then E is called a ?-symmetric effect algebra. This paper launches a study of such effect algebras. In particular, it is shown that every interval effect algebra with a lattice-ordered ambient group is ?-symmetric, and its group is the one constructed by Ravindran in his proof that every effect algebra that has the Riesz decomposition property is an interval algebra. It is shown that the doubling construction introduced in the paper is connected to the conditional event algebras of Goodman, Nguyen, and Walker.

Bennett, M. K.; Foulis, D. J.

1995-12-01

389

Effective 1.0: An Analytic Effective Action Analysis Library  

E-print Network

Effective is a C++ library which provides the user a toolbox to study the effective action of an arbitrary field theory. From the field content, gauge groups and representations an appropriate action is generated symbolically. The effective potential, mass spectrum, field couplings and vacuum expectation values are then obtained automatically; tree level results are obtained analytically while many tools, both numeric and analytic, provide a variety of approaches to deal with the one-loop corrections. This article provides a guide for users to who wish to analyze their own models using Effective. This is done by presenting the code required and describing the physics assumptions behind the code. The library can be extended in many ways and discussion of several such extensions is also provided.

James P. J. Hetherington; Philip Stephens

2006-05-12

390

Effects of therapists nonverbal communication on rated skill and effectiveness.  

PubMed

A therapist's nonverbal behavior may communicate emotion and feelings toward a client. Thus, skilled utilization of appropriate nonverbal cues should facilitate many nonbehavioral therapies. A 2 X 2 X 2 factorial experiment investigated the therapy-facilitating effects of three theoretical dimensions of nonverbal communication: Immediacy, potency or status, and responsivity. A reenacted client-centered therapy session was videotaped. Verbal content was held constant, but all combinations of the three nonverbal dimensions were portrayed. A total of 118 male and female nonparticipant observers rated the therapist's interpersonal skills (empathy, warmth, and genuineness) and effectiveness. The results disclosed that the nonverbal cues of immediacy (close therapist-client distance and eye contact) significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. Thus, the study demonstrated that a therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuiness, and effectiveness. These findings were interpreted in terms of the therapist's nonverbal cues communicating liking and acceptance of the client. PMID:7410567

Sherer, M; Rogers, R W

1980-07-01

391

IMPROVING MEASURES OF BIOLOGIC EFFECT: MEASURING EFFECTS IN HUMAN MALES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Animal toxicology studies have demonstrated spermatogenesis and sperm quality effects after exposure to DCA, BDCM, chloral hydrate and DBA. Population-based field studies to identify human male reproductive risks of DBPs require preliminary work to develop specific epidemiologi...

392

IMPROVING MEASURES OF BIOLOGIC EFFECT: MEASURING EFFECTS IN HUMAN MALES  

EPA Science Inventory

Animal toxicology studies have demonstrated spermatogenesis and sperm quality effects after exposure to several drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including DCA, BDCM, chloral hydrate and DBA. Population-based field studies to identify human male reproductive risks o...

393

Aldol Reactions - Isotope Effects, Mechanism and Dynamic Effects  

E-print Network

The mechanism of three important aldol reactions and a biomimetic transamination is investigated using a combination of experimental kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), standard theoretical calculations and dynamics trajectory simulations. This powerful...

Vetticatt, Mathew J.

2011-02-22

394

Cadmium and Its Neurotoxic Effects  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that has received considerable concern environmentally and occupationally. Cd has a long biological half-life mainly due to its low rate of excretion from the body. Thus, prolonged exposure to Cd will cause toxic effect due to its accumulation over time in a variety of tissues, including kidneys, liver, central nervous system (CNS), and peripheral neuronal systems. Cd can be uptaken from the nasal mucosa or olfactory pathways into the peripheral and central neurons; for the latter, Cd can increase the blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, mechanisms underlying Cd neurotoxicity remain not completely understood. Effect of Cd neurotransmitter, oxidative damage, interaction with other metals such as cobalt and zinc, estrogen-like, effect and epigenetic modification may all be the underlying mechanisms. Here, we review the in vitro and in vivo evidence of neurotoxic effects of Cd. The available finding indicates the neurotoxic effects of Cd that was associated with both biochemical changes of the cell and functional changes of central nervous system, suggesting that neurotoxic effects may play a role in the systemic toxic effects of the exposure to Cd, particularly the long-term exposure. PMID:23997854

Wang, Bo; Du, Yanli

2013-01-01

395

Late effects from hadron therapy  

SciTech Connect

Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

2004-06-01

396

Effective-surface-energy approach for size effects in ferroics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple approach enabling analytical treatments of size effects in ferroelectric samples of complicated shapes for the cases where long-range depolarizing effects are not involved. The key element of the approach is the presentation of the energy of the system as the sum of the bulk and effective surface energy (like in the classical nucleation problem), while the latter is expressed as a function of the bulk value of the order parameter. The effective surface energy is calculated in terms of the Kretschmer-Binder framework. The size-driven shift of TC in the ferroelectric thin films with in-plane polarization and the nanowires with axial polarization is studied using the proposed approach and the results are compared with those exact. In the limit of large extrapolation length, the approach reproduces the exact results (analytical and numerical). For short extrapolation lengths, it can provide a good approximation to the exact results for the case of second-order phase transitions. For ferroelectrics with the first-order phase transition having the maximal correlation length smaller than the extrapolation length (a common situation in perovskites), the approach provides as well an appropriate description of the size effect on the transition temperature. The proposed approach can be used for the description of the size effect not only in ferroelectrics, but in other ferroics as well.

Wang, Jin; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

2015-03-01

397

Rotating structures and Bryan's effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1890 Bryan observed that when a vibrating structure is rotated the vibrating pattern rotates at a rate proportional to the rate of rotation. During investigations of the effect in various solid and fluid-filled objects of various shapes, an interesting commonality was found in connection with the gyroscopic effects of the rotating object. The effect has also been discussed in connection with a rotating fluid-filled wineglass. A linear theory is developed, assuming that the rotation rate is constant and much smaller than the lowest eigenfrequency of the vibrating system. The associated physics and mathematics are easy enough for undergraduate students to understand.

Joubert, Stephan V.; Shatalov, Michael Y.; Fay, Temple H.

2009-06-01

398

Casimir effect: Edges and diffraction  

E-print Network

The Casimir effect refers to the existence of a macroscopic force between conducting plates in vacuum due to quantum fluctuations of fields. These forces play an important role, among other things, in the design of nano-scale mechanical devices. Accurate experimental observations of this phenomenon have motivated the development of new theoretical approaches in dealing with the effects of different geometries, temperature etc. In this talk, I will focus on a new method we have developed in calculating the contribution to the Casimir effect due to diffraction from edges and holes in different geometries, at zero and at finite temperature.

Dimitra Karabali

2011-11-03

399

Novel effects of nitric oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitric oxide (NO), a simple free radical gas, elicits a surprisingly wide range of physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO interacts with soluble guanylate cyclase to evoke many of these effects. However, NO can also interact with molecular oxygen and superoxide radicals to produce reactive nitrogen species that can modify a number of macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. NO can also interact directly with transition metals. Here, we have reviewed the non--3',5'-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-mediated effects of NO including modifications of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

Davis, K. L.; Martin, E.; Turko, I. V.; Murad, F.

2001-01-01

400

Environmental effects on spacecraft materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects on the natural space environments on materials are presented, which may be used for SDI applications. The current state-of-the-art knowledge of those effects was studied, and a literature search, a questionnaire mailing, and some visits to NASA and Air Force research facilities were performed. Phase 2 will be a study of what materials may be used for SDI applications and to what natural space environments they may be vulnerable. Deficiencies in knowledge of the effects of the natural space environments on these materials are to be identified and recommendations are to be made to eliminate these knowledge deficiencies.

Haffner, J. W.

1989-01-01

401

Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena  

PubMed Central

Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers. PMID:23493250

Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

2011-01-01

402

Casimir effect: Edges and diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Casimir effect refers to the existence of a macroscopic force between conducting plates in vacuum due to quantum fluctuations of fields. These forces play an important role, among other things, in the design of nano-scale mechanical devices. Accurate experimental observations of this phenomenon have motivated the development of new theoretical approaches in dealing with the effects of different geometries, temperature etc. In this talk, I will focus on a new method we have developed in calculating the contribution to the Casimir effect due to diffraction from edges and holes in different geometries, at zero and at finite temperature.

Karabali, Dimitra

2012-02-01

403

Alcohol's Effects on the Body  

MedlinePLUS

... the Body In this Section Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Genetics of ...

404

Radiation Therapy Side Effects Sheets  

Cancer.gov

Radiation therapy fact sheets that help patients understand their treatment and manage side effects. The fact sheets (also available in audio) have tips from patients and healthcare providers, and questions to ask providers.

405

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR MIREX  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

406

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ALDRIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

407

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACROLEIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

408

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ISOPHORONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

409

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR CHLOROMETHANE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

410

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACRYLONITRILE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

411

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ALUMINUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

412

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR DIMETHYLPHENOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

413

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR BENZIDINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

414

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR NITROBENZENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

415

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR NITROPHENOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

416

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACETONITRILE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

417

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR CREOSOTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

418

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR TRIMETHYLBENZENES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

419

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR DICHLOROBENZENES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

420

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR HEPTACHLOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

421

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACENAPHTHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

422

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR DIBENZOFURAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

423

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR BROMOMETHANE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

424

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ENDRIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

425

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR DIELDRIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

426

Semiparametric measurement of environmental effects  

E-print Network

This paper gives the results of a semiparametric analysis of pollution effects on housing prices using the Boston Housing Data. The exposition introduces the basic ideas of modeling pollution impacts with hedonic price ...

Rodriguez, Diego

1993-01-01

427

Gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existing work on gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries is summarized, certain conclusions are drawn, and recommendations are made for future activities in this field. The effects of sustained high-G environments on cycle silver-zinc and nickel-cadmium cells have been evaluated over four complete cycles in the region of 10 to 75 G. Although no effects on high current discharge performances or on ampere-hour capacity were noted, severe zinc migration and sloughing of active material from the zinc electrode were observed. This latter effect constitutes real damage, and over a long period of time would result in loss of capacity. It is recommended that a zero-G battery experiment be implemented. Both an orbiting satellite and a sounding rocket approach are being considered.

Meredith, R. E.; Juvinall, G. L.; Uchiyama, A. A.

1972-01-01

428

NEURODEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental Exposures Sherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington, DC) The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...

429

Physiologic effects of dry needling.  

PubMed

During the past decades, worldwide clinical and scientific interest in dry needling (DN) therapy has grown exponentially. Various clinical effects have been credited to dry needling, but rigorous evidence about its potential physiological mechanisms of actions and effects is still lacking. Research identifying these exact mechanisms of dry needling action is sparse and studies performed in an acupuncture setting do not necessarily apply to DN. The studies of potential effects of DN are reviewed in reference to the different aspects involved in the pathophysiology of myofascial triggerpoints: the taut band, local ischemia and hypoxia, peripheral and central sensitization. This article aims to provide the physiotherapist with a greater understanding of the contemporary data available: what effects could be attributed to dry needling and what are their potential underlying mechanisms of action, and also indicate some directions at which future research could be aimed to fill current voids. PMID:23801002

Cagnie, Barbara; Dewitte, Vincent; Barbe, Tom; Timmermans, Frank; Delrue, Nicolas; Meeus, Mira

2013-08-01

430

Possible Side Effects of Cabazitaxel  

Cancer.gov

Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Cabazitaxel (Table Version Date: May 28, 2013) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Cabazitaxel, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Vomiting, nausea, diarrhea Bruising, bleeding Infection, especially

431

Health effects of smokeless tobacco  

SciTech Connect

Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

Not Available

1986-02-28

432

Governance & Policies Effective: October 1997  

E-print Network

Foundations, 2 representatives. b. Elementary and Early Childhood Education, 2 representatives. c. Industry and Technology, 2 representatives. d. Psychology, 1 representative. e. Special Education, 2 representatives. fGovernance & Policies Effective: October 1997 University Governance TEACHER EDUCATION COUNCIL

Hardy, Christopher R.

433

Predictability effects in language acquisition   

E-print Network

Human language has two fundamental requirements: it must allow competent speakers to exchange messages efficiently, and it must be readily learned by children. Recent work has examined effects of language predictability ...

Pate, John Kenton

2013-07-02

434

The organization of effective hospitals.  

PubMed

An analysis of 32 hospitals for effectiveness, organization structure, integrative mechanisms, and coordinative aspects reveals some common characteristics that can guide managers in structuring their own organizations. PMID:10241309

Moseley, S K; Grimes, R M

1976-01-01

435

Scale Effects in Crystal Plasticity  

E-print Network

) to investigate size effects due to microstructural constraints; and (3) to develop a size dependent hardening model through coarse graining of dislocation dynamics. A discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) framework where the scale of analysis is intermediate...

Padubidri Janardhanachar, Guruprasad

2010-07-14

436

Antidepressants and the Placebo Effect  

PubMed Central

Antidepressants are supposed to work by fixing a chemical imbalance, specifically, a lack of serotonin in the brain. Indeed, their supposed effectiveness is the primary evidence for the chemical imbalance theory. But analyses of the published data and the unpublished data that were hidden by drug companies reveals that most (if not all) of the benefits are due to the placebo effect. Some antidepressants increase serotonin levels, some decrease it, and some have no effect at all on serotonin. Nevertheless, they all show the same therapeutic benefit. Even the small statistical difference between antidepressants and placebos may be an enhanced placebo effect, due to the fact that most patients and doctors in clinical trials successfully break blind. The serotonin theory is as close as any theory in the history of science to having been proved wrong. Instead of curing depression, popular antidepressants may induce a biological vulnerability making people more likely to become depressed in the future. PMID:25279271

Kirsch, Irving

2014-01-01

437

Radiation effects on bacterial cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study reveals the physicochemical and biochemical mechanisms which alter or modify the effects of high-energy radiation on living cells. An in-depth discussion is presented emphasizing the importance of optimizing bacterial treatment with glycerol.

Powers, E. L.

1968-01-01

438

Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of performance management and appraisal in New Zealand schools. Outlines a model of principal appraisal that demonstrates an integration of development and accountability elements. Draws on three studies to identify key features of appraisal effectiveness. (SLD)

Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

2003-01-01

439

Health Effects of UV Radiation  

MedlinePLUS

Fact Sheet Download the Health Effects of Overexposure to the Sun (PDF) Ozone layer depletion decreases our atmosphere’s natural protection from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This Web page provides an overview of ...

440

Improving Rainfall Effectiveness on Rangeland  

E-print Network

Rainfall is a major limiting factor for livestock production on Texas rangelands. This publication explains how to more effectively use water for forage production on rangelands, and how to reduce runoff, evaporation, soil erosion and undesirable...

McGinty, Allan; Thurow, Thomas L.; Taylor Jr., Charles A.

2000-01-11

441

Wall effects in wind tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthesis of current trends in the reduction and computation of wall effects is presented. Some of the points discussed include: (1) for the two-dimensional, transonic tests, various control techniques of boundary conditions are used with adaptive walls offering high precision in determining reference conditions and residual corrections. A reduction in the boundary layer effects of the lateral walls is obtained at T2; (2) for the three-dimensional tests, the methods for the reduction of wall effects are still seldom applied due to a lesser need and to their complexity; (3) the supports holding the model of the probes have to be taken into account in the estimation of perturbatory effects.

Chevallier, J. P.; Vaucheret, X.

1986-01-01

442

Magnetic effects in anomalous dispersion  

SciTech Connect

Spectacular enhancements of magnetic x-ray scattering have been predicted and observed experimentally. These effects are the result of resonant phenomena closely related to anomalous dispersion, and they are strongest at near-edge resonances. The theory of these resonances will be developed with particular attention to the symmetry properties of the scatterer. While the phenomena to be discussed concern magnetic properties the transitions are electric dipole or electric quadrupole in character and represent a subset of the usual anomalous dispersion phenomena. The polarization dependence of the scattering is also considered, and the polarization dependence for magnetic effects is related to that for charge scattering and to Templeton type anisotropic polarization phenomena. It has been found that the strongest effects occur in rare-earths and in actinides for M shell edges. In addition to the scattering properties the theory is applicable to ``forward scattering`` properties such as the Faraday effect and circular dichroism.

Blume, M.

1992-12-31

443

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Government Performance Results Act (GPRA, goal number four for Safe Communities), constitute the statutory authority and strategic framework respectively, for Agency research on non-target effects of pestici...

444

Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

Shapiro, Charles S.

1988-01-01

445

Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

2014-01-01

446

Vacuum Faraday effect for electrons  

E-print Network

The optical Faraday effect describes the rotation of linear polarization upon propagation through a medium in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field. The effect arises from a different phase delay between the right and left handed polarisation components of the light. In this paper we predict a Faraday effect for a completely different system: electron vortices. Free electron vortex states were recently observed in transmission electron microscopy experiments, and they introduce new degrees of freedom into the probing of matter with electron beams. We associate a rotation of a vortex superposition with the fact that different phases are acquired by oppositely handed vortices propagating in a magnetic field. We show that, in contrast to the optical Faraday effect, the rotation of the electron beam occurs in vacuum and arises from the intrinsic chirality of the constituent vortex states.

Colin Greenshields; Robert L. Stamps; Sonja Franke-Arnold

2012-11-08

447

Classical Correspondence of Unruh Effect  

E-print Network

Derived from semi-classical quantum field theory in curved spacetime, Unruh effect was known as a quantum effect. We find that there does exist a classical correspondence of this effect in electrodynamics. The thermal nature of the vacuum in correlation function for the uniformly accelerated detector is coming from the non-linear relationship between the proper time and the propagating length of the electromagnetic wave. Both the Coulomb field of the detector itself and the radiation supporting the detector's uniformly accelerating motion contribute to the non-vanishing vacuum energy. From this observation we conclude that Unruh temperature experienced by a uniformly accelerated classical electron has no additional effects to Born's solution for laboratory observers far away from the classical electron.

Shih-Yuin Lin

2001-07-10

448

Health effects of dietary phospholipids  

PubMed Central

Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits. PMID:22221489

2012-01-01

449

Space environmental effects on materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of long life platforms and structures for space is discussed in terms of the space environmental effects on the materials used. Vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and charged particle radiation are among the factors considered. Research oriented toward the acquisition of long term environmental effects data needed to support the design and development of large low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit space platforms and systems is described.

Schwinghmaer, R. J.

1980-01-01

450

Workshop summary: Space environmental effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop on Space Environmental Effects is summarized. The underlying concern of the group was related to the question of how well laboratory tests correlate with actual experience in space. The discussion ranged over topics pertaining to tests involving radiation, atomic oxygen, high voltage plasmas, contamination in low earth orbit, and new environmental effects that may have to be considered on arrays used for planetary surface power systems.

Meulenberg, A.; Anspaugh, B. E.

1991-01-01

451

Graduate students learn effective management.  

PubMed

This article describes an active learning approach used in a management seminar for master's students to assist them in internalizing knowledge gained in the seminar. Participating in a research project aimed at identifying the qualities of an effective nursing manager enabled students to improve their research abilities, examine their work environment, and thereby increase their motivation and satisfaction. The study results supported findings of earlier studies, emphasizing "human skills" as most important for effective management. PMID:12235420

Hendel, Tova; Steinmann, Michal

2002-01-01

452

Physiological effects of dietary amaranth  

E-print Network

- supplemented diet resulted in significantly lower plasma and liver cholesterol levels than ' in fiber-free controls. Similarly, Tsai et al. (8) and Chang and Johnson (9) observed cholesterol-lowering effects of pectin in rats. The hypocholesterolemic...PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY AMARANTH A Thesis RUTH ANN DANZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AsM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject...

Danz, Ruth Ann

1988-01-01

453

Novaya Zemlya effect and sunsets.  

PubMed

Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ effect for the Moon. PMID:12570256

van der Werf, Siebren Y; Können, Gunther P; Lehn, Waldemar H

2003-01-20

454

Effective theory of color superconductivity  

E-print Network

We briefly review an effective theory of QCD at high baryon density, describing the relevant modes near the Fermi surface. The high density effective theory has properties of reparametrization invariance and gauge invariance, maintained in a subtle way. It also has a positive measure, allowing lattice simulations at high baryon density. We then apply it to gapless superconductors and discuss recent proposals to resolve the magnetic instability of gapless superconductivity.

Deog Ki Hong

2007-07-17

455

Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms  

SciTech Connect

Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references.

Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

1984-11-01

456

Overview of global greenhouse effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that COâ, Oâ, NâO, CHâ, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much

Reck

1993-01-01

457

Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

Raymond, James P.

1989-01-01

458

Flexomagnetoelectric effect in bismuth ferrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a profound analogy between inhomogeneous magnetoelectric effect in\\u000amultiferroics and flexoelectric effect in liquid crystals. This similarity\\u000agives rise to the flexomagnetoelectric polarization induced by spin modulation.\\u000aThe theoretical estimations of flexomagnetoelectric polarization agree with the\\u000avalue of jumps of polarization in magnetoelectric dependences (~20muC\\/m^2)\\u000aobserved at spin cycloid suppression at critical magnetic field 200kOe.

Anatoly K. Zvezdin; Alexander P. Pyatakov

2009-01-01

459

Mechanisms of the Bystander Effect  

SciTech Connect

Generations of students in radiation biology have been taught that heritable biological damage requires direct damage to DNA. We now know that this is not true. The Bystander Effect is the name given to the phenomenon whereby biological effects are observed in cells that are not themselves traversed by a charged particle, but are in close proximity to cells that are. Several research groups have convincingly demonstrated a bystander effect for alpha particle, which are heavy and high LET, because charged particles can be focused into a tiny beam that can be directed onto individual cells. The biological effects seen in adjacent non-hit cells clearly represents a bystander effect. It is not so easy to demonstrate a similar effect for x-rays or for the electrons set in motion by the absorption of x-rays. In this project we used two types of cell that could be recognized one from the other. One cell type was fed radioactive tritiated thymidine, which is incorporated into the DNA, . The tritium emits electrons which have a very short range so that they do not even get out of the cell. These cells were then mixed with a different type of cell which are routinely used to assess mutations. The mixed cells formed a cluster, where the two types of cells were in close contact, and left for some hours. Subsequently, the two types of cells were separated and studied. A substantial fraction of the cells that had incorporated the tritiated thymidine were killed by the radiation. The interesting finding is that the cells that had not incorporated tritiated thymidine, but had been in close contact with cells that had, exhibited a significant incidence of mutations. These experiments clearly demonstrated a bystander effect for low LET electrons. In further experiments, it was possible to show that the bystander effect was greatest when the two cell types were in gap junction communication.

Hall, Eric J.

2008-07-15

460

Biological effects of organolead compounds  

SciTech Connect

This book is the first extensive review published on this significant environmental health problem. The sources and occurrence of environmental organolead contamination are reviewed. The biotransformation, biochemical and morphological effects are described in detail with extensive electron micrographs and experimental results. Human exposures and intoxications are examined, and the health significance of organolead pollution is discussed. This book will be of key interest to researchers in heavy metal toxicology and environmental health. CONTENTS: Short Review of Properties of Organolead Compounds. Gasoline Additives: Past, Present, and Future. Microbial Methylation of Lead. Organic Lead in the Aquatic Environment. Analysis of Airborne Organic Lead. Atmospheric Occurrence of Organolead Compounds. Toxic Effects in Plant Organisms. Metabolism and Toxicokinetics. Genotoxic Effects. Induction of Anion Transport in Biological Membranes. Effects on Mitochondria and Other Enzyme Systems. Effects on Membrane Formation in the Central Nervous System. Effects on Reproduction and Hormone Metabolism. Experimental Pathology of Short-Chain Alkyllead Compounds. Possible Mechanisms for the Selective Neurotoxicity. Gasoline Sniffing Syndrome. Organolead Exposures and Intoxications. Preventive Measures in the Occupational Setting. Governmental Regulations.

Grandjean, P.

1984-01-01

461

Simulating Hydrologic Effects of Urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization of watersheds introduces multiple effects on hydrology and water quality. Roads, parking lots, roof tops and other impervious areas increase total runoff production. Soils are extensively modified through compaction and importation of fill and placement of sod. Streams are modified, moved, and replaced with lined channels, further increasing runoff and storm peaks. Subsurface drainage may supplement or supplant the function of natural streams, compounding the effects of channel modifications. Increased runoff results in increased erosion and transport of sediment and associated contaminants. Efforts to mitigate the effects of urbanization, channel improvements, levees, low impact development, detention basins, grassed swales, and other best management practices further complicate the issue. These attempts may or may not affect the overall system response as anticipated or desired. Analysis of the effects of urbanizing watersheds and design of abatement measures using simplified empirical methods and/or analyzing only the local effects may produce erroneous results. In this paper we will present and discuss simulation results from various studies related to the application of models to predicting the effects of urbanizing watersheds. We will contrast physics based hydrologic modeling efforts to simpler, empirical methods. We will also discuss the relative importance of various urbanizing features and modeling strategies to incorporate the important features. Dead Run Watershed

Downer, C. W.; Ogden, F. L.; Pradhan, N.

2012-12-01

462

Casimir effect in swimmer suspensions.  

PubMed

We show that the Casimir effect can emerge in microswimmer suspensions. In principle, two effects conspire against the development of Casimir effects in swimmer suspensions. First, at low Reynolds number, the force on any closed volume vanishes, but here the relevant effect is the drag by the flow produced by the swimmers, which can be finite. Second, the fluid velocity and the pressure are linear on the swimmer force dipoles, and averaging over the swimmer orientations would lead to a vanishing effect. However, being that the suspension is a discrete system, the noise terms of the coarse-grained equations depend on the density, which itself fluctuates, resulting in effective nonlinear dynamics. Applying the tools developed for other nonequilibrium systems to general coarse-grained equations for swimmer suspensions, the Casimir drag is computed on immersed objects, and it is found to depend on the correlation function between the rescaled density and dipolar density fields. By introducing a model correlation function with medium-range order, explicit expressions are obtained for the Casimir drag on a body. When the correlation length is much larger than the microscopic cutoff, the average drag is independent of the correlation length, with a range that depends only on the size of the immersed bodies. PMID:25122386

Parra-Rojas, C; Soto, R

2014-07-01

463

Helicity, Reconnection, and Dynamo Effects  

SciTech Connect

The inter-relationships between magnetic helicity, magnetic reconnection, and dynamo effects are discussed. In laboratory experiments, where two plasmas are driven to merge, the helicity content of each plasma strongly affects the reconnection rate, as well as the shape of the diffusion region. Conversely, magnetic reconnection events also strongly affect the global helicity, resulting in efficient helicity cancellation (but not dissipation) during counter-helicity reconnection and a finite helicity increase or decrease (but less efficiently than dissipation of magnetic energy) during co-helicity reconnection. Close relationships also exist between magnetic helicity and dynamo effects. The turbulent electromotive force along the mean magnetic field (alpha-effect), due to either electrostatic turbulence or the electron diamagnetic effect, transports mean-field helicity across space without dissipation. This has been supported by direct measurements of helicity flux in a laboratory plasma. When the dynamo effect is driven by electromagnetic turbulence, helicity in the turbulent field is converted to mean-field helicity. In all cases, however, dynamo processes conserve total helicity except for a small battery effect, consistent with the observation that the helicity is approximately conserved during magnetic relaxation.

Ji, Hantao

1998-11-01

464

Emotional effects of dynamic textures  

PubMed Central

This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo

2011-01-01

465

A fan effect in anaphor processing: effects of multiple distractors  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that the presence of a non-referent from the same category as the referent interferes with anaphor resolution. In five experiments, the hypothesis that multiple non-referents would produce a cumulative interference effect (i.e., a fan effect) was examined. This hypothesis was supported in Experiments 1A and 1B, with subjects being less accurate and slower to recognize referents (1A) and non-referents (1B) as the number of potential referents increased from two to five. Surprisingly, the number of potential referents led to a decrease in anaphor reading times. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B replicated the probe-recognition results in a completely within-subjects design and ruled out the possibility that a speeded-reading strategy led to the fan-effect findings. The results of Experiment 3 provided evidence that subjects were resolving the anaphors. These results suggest that multiple non-referents do produce a cumulative interference effect; however, additional research is necessary to explore the effect on anaphor reading times. PMID:25120519

Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.

2014-01-01

466

Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures  

PubMed Central

As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation. PMID:25258703

Kennedy, Ann R.

2014-01-01

467

Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures.  

PubMed

As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation. PMID:25258703

Kennedy, Ann R

2014-04-01

468

The effect of gender and remainder on effective dose equivalent  

SciTech Connect

Effective dose equivalent methodology, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP-26, may be implemented for routine evaluation of occupational exposures to external sources of penetrating radiation, such as neutrons and photons. The calculational techniques for determining effective dose equivalent are being developed and evaluated at Pacific Northwest Laboratories. These studies show that the estimated effective dose equivalent is strongly influenced by several factors, including the source energy, source geometry, phantom gender type, and remainder scheme used. Since the concept of effective dose equivalent relies on determining organ doses, the organ doses for these studies were calculated using the MIRD-V mathematical phantom and MCNP, a general-purpose Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code. Calculations of organ doses were performed for several irradiation geometries at a series of energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV. The geometries were the anterior-posterior (AP) parallel beam, the posterior-anterior parallel beam, the lateral parallel beam, and an isotropic field. These calculations were performed for both the male and female phantoms. For whole-body irradiations, the use of sex-specific weighting factors instead of the average values can result in large differences in the effective dose equivalent. The largest differences were found for the case of the male phantom in an AP beam.

Tanner, J.E.

1988-01-01

469

Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies  

PubMed Central

Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork. PMID:17284324

Leggat, Sandra G

2007-01-01

470

Shaped hole effects on film cooling effectiveness and a comparison of multiple effectiveness measurement techniques  

E-print Network

This experimental study consists of two parts. For the first part, the film cooling effectiveness for a single row of seven cylindrical holes with a compound angle is measured on a flat surface using five different measurement techniques: steady...

Varvel, Trent Alan

2005-02-17

471

The effective founder effect in a spatially expanding population.  

PubMed

The gradual loss of diversity and the establishment of clines in allele frequencies associated with range expansions are patterns observed in many species, including humans. These patterns can result from a series of founder events occurring as populations colonize previously unoccupied areas. We develop a model of an expanding population and, using a branching process approximation, show that spatial gradients reflect different amounts of genetic drift experienced by different subpopulations. We then use this model to measure the net average strength of the founder effect, and we demonstrate that the predictions from the branching process model fit simulation results well. We further show that estimates of the effective founder size are robust to potential confounding factors such as migration between subpopulations. We apply our method to data from Arabidopsis thaliana. We find that the average founder effect is approximately three times larger in the Americas than in Europe, possibly indicating that a more recent, rapid expansion occurred. PMID:25656983

Peter, Benjamin M; Slatkin, Montgomery

2015-03-01

472

Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap  

PubMed Central

Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

2015-01-01

473

Numerical Study of Hole Shape Effect on Blade Cooling Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical study of hole shape effect on blade adiabatic cooling effectiveness has been carried out on four geometry models comprising a standard cylindrical hole, a cylindrical hole with an upstream ramp, a shaped diffuser, and a double console slot. In all the cases, the hole centerline has an inclination angle of 35 degree against the mainstream gas flow. Results of the cylindrical hole model are in good agreement with available experimental and other numerical data. For the other three hole geometry variants considered, it was found that the cooling effectiveness has been considerably enhanced by a max factor of 2, compared to that from the base model. The physical mechanism for this is mainly due to the weakening of coolant flow penetration in the vicinity of the hole exit, thus reducing the level of mixing and the entrainment with the surrounding hot gas flow.

Yao, Jun; Sian, Sohan; Yao, Yufeng; Davis, Tony W.

474

Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.  

PubMed

Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

2013-11-01

475

The cardiovascular effects of methylxanthines.  

PubMed

In the concentration range that is normally achieved in humans, e.g., after the drinking of coffee or in patients treated with theophylline, the cardiovascular effects of methylxanthines are primarily due to antagonism of adenosine A(1) and A(2) receptors. Inhibition of phosphodiesterases or mobilization of intracellular calcium requires much higher concentrations. In conscious humans, acute exposure to caffeine results in an increase in blood pressure by an increased total peripheral resistance, and a slight decrease in heart rate. This overall hemodynamic response is composed of direct effects of caffeine on vascular tone, on myocardial contractility and conduction, and on the sympathetic nervous system. Caffeine is the most widely consumed methylxanthine, mainly derived from coffee intake. Regular coffee consumption can affect various traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including a slight increase in blood pressure, an increase in plasma cholesterol and homocysteine levels, and a reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although most prospective studies have not reported an association between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease, these findings do not exclude that the acute hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of coffee consumption could have an adverse effect in selected patient groups who are more vulnerable for these effects, based on their genetic profile or medication use. PMID:20859806

Riksen, Niels P; Smits, Paul; Rongen, Gerard A

2011-01-01

476

MEMORY EFFECTS IN TURBULENT TRANSPORT  

SciTech Connect

In the mean-field theory of magnetic fields, turbulent transport, i.e., the turbulent electromotive force is described by a combination of the alpha effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion, which are usually assumed to be proportional, respectively, to the mean field and its spatial derivatives. For a passive scalar, there is just turbulent diffusion, where the mean flux of concentration depends on the gradient of the mean concentration. However, these proportionalities are approximations that are valid only if the mean field or the mean concentration vary slowly in time. Examples are presented where turbulent transport possesses memory, i.e., where it depends crucially on the past history of the mean field. Such effects are captured by replacing turbulent transport coefficients with time integral kernels, resulting in transport coefficients that depend effectively on the frequency or the growth rate of the mean field itself. In this paper, we perform numerical experiments to find the characteristic timescale (or memory length) of this effect as well as simple analytical models of the integral kernels in the case of passive scalar concentrations and kinematic dynamos. The integral kernels can then be used to find self-consistent growth or decay rates of the mean fields. In mean-field dynamos, the growth rates and cycle periods based on steady state values of alpha effect, and turbulent diffusivity can be quite different from the actual values.

Hubbard, Alexander; Brandenburg, Axel, E-mail: alex.i.hubbard@gmail.co [NORDITA, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-11-20

477

Neighborhood Effects in Temporal Perspective  

PubMed Central

Theory suggests that neighborhood effects depend not only on where individuals live today, but also on where they lived in the past. Previous research, however, usually measured neighborhood context only once and did not account for length of residence, thereby understating the detrimental effects of long-term neighborhood disadvantage. This study investigates the effects of duration of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on high school graduation. It follows 4,154 children in the PSID, measuring neighborhood context once per year from age 1 to 17. The analysis overcomes the problem of dynamic neighborhood selection by adapting novel methods of causal inference for time-varying treatments. In contrast to previous analyses, these methods do not “control away” the effect of neighborhood context operating indirectly through time-varying characteristics of the family, and thus they capture the full impact of a lifetime of neighborhood disadvantage. We find that sustained exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods has a severe impact on high school graduation that is considerably larger than effects reported in prior research. Growing up in the most (compared to the least) disadvantaged quintile of neighborhoods is estimated to reduce the probability of graduation from 96% to 76% for black children, and from 95% to 87% for nonblack children. PMID:22879678

Wodtke, Geoffrey T.; Harding, David J.; Elwert, Felix

2012-01-01

478

Quantum Effects in Biological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

Roy, Sisir

2014-07-01

479

Lunar electrostatic effects and protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

2013-03-01

480

Potent health effects of pomegranate  

PubMed Central

Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

2014-01-01

481

Effective Cavity Length of Gyrotrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megawatt-class gyrotron oscillators for electron cyclotron heating and non-inductive current drive (ECH&CD) in magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas have relatively low cavity quality factors in the range of 1000 to 2000. The effective length of their cavities cannot be simply deduced from the cavity electric field profile, since this has by far not a Gaussian shape. The present paper presents a novel method to estimate the effective length of a gyrotron cavity just from the eigenvalue of the operating TEm,n mode, the cavity radius and the exact oscillation frequency which may be numerically computed or precisely measured. This effective cavity length then can be taken to calculate the Fresnel parameter in order to confirm that the cavity is not too short so that the transverse structure of any mode in the cavity is the same as that of the corresponding mode in a long circular waveguide with the same diameter.

Thumm, Manfred

2014-12-01

482

Overview of global greenhouse effects  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

Reck, R.A.

1993-09-01

483

Sudden death of effective entanglement  

E-print Network

Sudden death of entanglement is a well-known effect resulting from the finite volume of separable states. We study the case when the observer has a limited measurement capability and analyse the effective entanglement, i.e. entanglement minimized over the output data. We show that in the well defined system of two quantum dots monitored by single electron transistors, one may observe a sudden death of effective entanglement when real, physical entanglement is still alive. For certain measurement setups, this occurs even for initial states for which sudden death of physical entanglement is not possible at all. The principles of the analysis may be applied to other analogous scenarios, such as etimation of the parameters arising from quantum process tomography.

K. Roszak; P. Horodecki; R. Horodecki

2010-04-20

484

Sudden death of effective entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Sudden death of entanglement is a well-known effect resulting from the finite volume of separable states. We study the case when the observer has a limited measurement capability and analyze the effective entanglement (i.e., entanglement minimized over the output data). We show that in the well-defined system of two quantum dots monitored by single-electron transistors, one may observe a sudden death of effective entanglement when real, physical entanglement is still alive. For certain measurement setups, this occurs even for initial states for which sudden death of physical entanglement is not possible at all. The principles of the analysis may be applied to other analogous scenarios, such as estimation of the parameters arising from quantum process tomography.

Roszak, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Horodecki, P. [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Horodecki, R. [National Quantum Information Centre of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2010-04-15

485

Preschoolers and the Endowment Effect  

PubMed Central

We show that preschoolers exhibit the endowment effect as evidenced by experiments where children generally chose to keep their own toys rather than trading them for similar ones. Furthermore, we relate the emergence of this effect to children's innate psychobiological traits—emotional state, gender, handedness, and digit ratio. The trials were conducted with 141 children across 6 kindergartens. We also found support that children, like adults, exhibit a preference for physical possession as opposed to ownership. As with adults, emotions also seem to matter, as children who were described as quiet and calm were more likely to present the endowment effect. Also of note, right-handed children described as quiet were more likely to exhibit the phenomenon. Furthermore, female children were generally found to be calmer than males, while males tended to be more fearful than females. This result was also previously found in teenagers. PMID:25299430

Da Silva, Sergio; Moreira, Bruno; Da Costa, Newton

2014-01-01

486

Rotational effects on impingement cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present consideration of rotation effects on heat transfer in a radially exhausted, impingement-cooled turbine blade model gives attention to experimental results for Reynolds and Rossby numbers and blade/coolant temperature ratio values that are representative of small gas turbine engines. On the basis of a model that encompasses the effects of Coriolis force and buoyancy on heat transfer, bouyancy is identified as the cause of an average Nusselt number that is 20-30 percent lower than expected from previous nonrotating data. A heuristic model is proposed which predicts that the impingement jets nearest the blade roots should deflect inward, due to a centripetal force generated by their tangential velocity counter to the blade motion. Potentially serious thermal stresses must be anticipated from rotation effects in the course of blade design.

Epstein, A. H.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Koo, J. J.; Preiser, U. Z.

1987-01-01

487

Rotational effects on impingement cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present consideration of rotation effects on heat transfer in a radially exhausted, impingement-cooled turbine blade model gives attention to experimental results for Reynolds and Rossby numbers and blade/coolant temperature ratio values that are representative of small gas turbine engines. On the basis of a model that encompasses the effects of Coriolis force and buoyancy on heat transfer, bouyancy is identified as the cause of an average Nusselt number that is 20-30 percent lower than expected from previous nonrotating data. A heuristic model is proposed which predicts that the impingement jets nearest the blade roots should deflect inward, due to a centripetal force generated by their tangential velocity counter to the blade motion. Potentially serious thermal stresses must be anticipated from rotation effects in the course of blade design.

Epstein, A. H.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Koo, J. J.; Preiser, U. Z.

488

Effects of fluoride on livestock.  

PubMed

Animals normally ingest small amounts of fluorides in their diet with no adverse effect. An increased ingestion of fluoride can be harmful to animals, and grazing animals can be damaged by the consumption of high-fluoride vegetation. Cattle have been the species most commonly affected, and the symptoms of excessive fluoride ingestion in that species include; lesions in the developing dentition, skeletal lesions, lameness, chemical evidence of tissue fluoride ingestion in that species include: lesions in the developing take and decrease in production. The level of fluoride which can be tolerated by various species with no adverse effect has been determined, and this data can be used to set a standard to protect animals from the deleterious effect of fluoride ingestion. PMID:556764

Sutie, J W

1977-01-01

489

RAND Corporation: Measuring Teacher Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RAND Corporation provides research on a range of topics, and has long been interested in public school reform and related matters. This website provides access to papers and commentaries produced as part of RAND's initiative on measuring teacher effectiveness. The site is designed for teachers, administrators, policymakers, and anyone else "seeking objective, nonpartisan information on measuring teaching effectiveness." First-time visitors can get started by looking over the fact sheets, which include "Multiple Choices: Options for Measuring Teaching Effectiveness" and "Teachers Matter: Understanding Teachers' Impact on Student Achievement." After considering these items, visitors can move on to click on the "Research & Commentary" area to read the site's blog, take a look at the multimedia section, or consider the available full reports, which include "Incorporating Student Performance Measures into Teacher Evaluation Systems."

2013-01-15

490

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15

491

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26

492

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-22

493

Potent health effects of pomegranate.  

PubMed

Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

2014-01-01

494

What Makes an Icon Effective?  

SciTech Connect

Several criteria like conspicuity, legibility, and comprehension must be met for an icon to be effective. Previous studies found that visual and cognitive features of icons have significant influence on meeting the criteria for icon effectiveness. The aim of this paper is to present a review on visual features (color, shape, size) and cognitive features (familiarity, concreteness, complexity, meaningfulness, semantic distance). The influence of these features on icon effectiveness was studied. The relationships amongst cognitive features and ways to quantify cognitive features were identified. Suggestions regarding opportunities for future research on icons were also highlighted. Such a review would be helpful in formulating research plans and methodologies for icon studies in the future. In addition, this review would facilitate graphic designers to create more user-friendly icons in various contexts.

Ng, Annie Wy; Chan, Alan Hs [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

2009-01-12

495

What makes distributed practice effective?  

PubMed Central

The advantages provided to memory by the distribution of multiple practice or study opportunities are among the most powerful effects in memory research. In this paper, we critically review the class of theories that presume contextual or encoding variability as the sole basis for the advantages of distributed practice, and recommend an alternative approach based on the idea that some study events remind learners of other study events. Encoding variability theory encounters serious challenges in two important phenomena that we review here: superadditivity and nonmonotonicity. The bottleneck in such theories lies in the assumption that mnemonic benefits arise from the increasing independence, rather than interdependence, of study opportunities. The reminding model accounts for many basic results in the literature on distributed practice, readily handles data that are problematic for encoding variability theories, including superadditivity and nonmonotonicity, and provides a unified theoretical framework for understanding the effects of repetition and the effects of associative relationships on memory. PMID:20580350

Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan

2010-01-01

496

Effects of pollution on freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

This review includes subjects in last year's reviews on effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates and effects of pollution on freshwater fish and amphibians. This review also includes information on the effects of pollution on freshwater plants. 625 references.

Phipps, G.L.; Harden, M.J.; Leonard, E.N.; Roush, T.H; Spehar, D.L.; Stephan, C.E.; Pickering, Q.H.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.

1984-06-01

497

14 CFR 1203.304 - Internal effect.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Internal effect. The effect of security protection on program progess and cost and on other functional activities of NASA should be considered. Impeditive effects and added costs inherent in a security classification must be assessed in light of...

2010-01-01

498

40 CFR 62.4634 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Louisiana Effective Date § 62.4634 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to...

2012-07-01

499

40 CFR 62.4634 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Louisiana Effective Date § 62.4634 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to...

2014-07-01

500

40 CFR 62.4634 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Louisiana Effective Date § 62.4634 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to...

2010-07-01