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1

The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N W-Nitro-L-Arginine methylester attenuates brain catalase activity in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide has been implicated in mediating the neurotoxic effects of ischemia in the brain. However, studies of the effects of nitric oxide inhibition with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors have provided controversial results. One of the reasons for the controversy may be related to the specificity of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, such as Nw-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), which has recently

S Rotzinger; C. M. G Aragon; F Rogan; S Amir; Z Amit

1995-01-01

2

Sub-acute effect of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices in rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L  

PubMed Central

Background: Kolaviron (KV) (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) and extract of Curcuma longa (CL) are frequently used in folk medicine for treatment of hypertension. One of their mechanisms of action is to enhance antioxidant properties in animals. NG- nitro- l- arginine methyl- ester (L- NAME) is L- arginine analogue, which by binding to Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) may induce hypertension partly due to increase in tissues oxidative stress. Objectives: To investigate the effect of L- NAME on some biochemical indices and the possible protective effect of KV or CL. Materials and Methods: Four groups consisting of 6 rats each were used. One group served as control, second group received L- NAME (40 mg/kg/day). Third and fourth groups were treated with KV and CL, respectively and also received L- NAME. KV and CL were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Results: L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) increase in the levels of serum urea, creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase relative to controls. L- NAME treated rats had markedly decreased hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione- S- transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Precisely, L- NAME decreased CAT, SOD, GST and GSH by 48, 52, 76 and 40%, respectively. L- NAME intoxication significantly decreased (P <0.05) renal GSH and SOD levels. Also, L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the animals. Administration of KV or CL with L- NAME caused significant (P <0.05) inhibition of LPO and augments tissue antioxidant indices. Conclusion: These results confirm the adverse effect of L- NAME on biochemical indices and, the ability of kolaviron or Curcuma longa to ameliorate the alterations.

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A.; Nwosu, Ifeanyi O.; Farombi, Ebenezer O.

2012-01-01

3

Mechanism of colon cancer cell apoptosis mediated by pyropheophorbide-a methylester photosensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyropheophorbide-a methylester (PPME) is a second generation of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We demonstrated that PPME photosensitization triggered apoptosis of colon cancer cells as measured by using several classical parameters such as DNA laddering, PARP cleavage, caspase activation and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. Preincubation of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) protected against apoptosis

Jean-Yves Matroule; Chris M Carthy; David J Granville; Olivier Jolois; David W C Hunt; Jacques Piette

2001-01-01

4

Role of transglutaminase in insulin release. Study with glycine and sarcosine methylesters  

SciTech Connect

The Ca2+-responsive enzyme transglutaminase, which catalyzes the cross-bridging of proteins, is present in pancreatic islet cells, but its participation in the process of insulin release remains to be documented. Glycine methylester (1.0-10.0 mM) inhibited, in a dose-related manner, transglutaminase activity in rat pancreatic islet homogenates, decreased (/sup 14/C)methylamine incorporation into endogenous proteins of intact islets, and caused a rapid and reversible inhibition of insulin release evoked by D-glucose, while failing to affect D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation. Glycine methylester also inhibited insulin release induced by other nutrient or nonnutrient secretagogues. Sarcosine methylester failed to affect transglutaminase activity, (/sup 14/C)methylamine incorporation, and insulin release. Both methylesters mobilized /sup 45/Ca from prelabeled intact islets, from membranes of islet cells, liver or brain, and from artificial lipid multilayers, this Ca mobilization being apparently unrelated to changes in transglutaminase activity. It is proposed that, in the pancreatic B cell, transglutaminase participates in the machinery controlling the access of secretory granules to the exocytotic sites.

Sener, A.; Dunlop, M.E.; Gomis, R.; Mathias, P.C.; Malaisse-Lagae, F.; Malaisse, W.J.

1985-07-01

5

Methylesters of plant oils as diesel fuels, either straight or in blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engine and vehicle tests were carried out with three alternative Diesel fuels: straight methylester of soybean oil (MESO), 75 to 25 gasoil-MESO blend, and 68-23-9 gasoil-MESO-ethanol (anhydrous) blend. Fuel-relevant characteristics of the three Diesel alternatives are given, together with the phase diagram of the ternary blend. Power, torque and volumetric brake specific fuel consumption in an unmodified IDI Diesel engine

G. H. Pischinger; R. W. Siekmann; A. M. Falcon; F. R. Fernandes

1982-01-01

6

Recommended methods of fatty acid methylester preparation for conjugated dienes and trienes in food and biological samples.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared three acid-catalyzed methods and three base-catalyzed methods for the methylester preparation of conjugated dienoic fatty acids and conjugated trienoic fatty acids in food and biological samples. Among the six methods examined, the sodium methoxide/methanol (NaOCH3/MeOH) method and the tetramethylguanidine/ methanol (TMG/MeOH) method of methylester preparation from tung oil were most efficient in preventing the artificial isomerization of alpha-eleostearic acid (alpha-ESA; 9c,11t,13t-18:3) to beta-eleostearic acid (beta-ESA: 9t,11t,13t-18:3) and for avoiding the artificial generation of unknown byproducts. Hydrochloric acid/methanol (HCl/MeOH), sulfuric acid/methanol (H2SO4/MeOH) and AOCS (boron trifluoride/methanol (BF3/MeOH)) methods of methylester preparation from tung oil resulted in the breakdown of alpha-ESA due to their long reaction periods and high reaction temperatures. In addition, these three methods did not prevent the generation of beta-ESA. For the methylester preparation of tung oil free fatty acids, the BF3/MeOH method (30 min at room temperature) did not lead to artificial beta-ESA formation or byproducts, while the trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSN2CH3) method did form artifacts. For the methylation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, free fatty acid), the BF3/ MeOH and TMSN2CH3 methods completely suppressed artificial isomerization of c,t-CLA and t,c-CLA to t,t-CLA. The results indicated that the BF3/MeOH method for free fatty acids is the best method for the methylester preparation of both conjugated dienoic and trienoic fatty acids with respect to preventing artificial isomerization and the formation of byproducts. The BF3/MeOH method was applicable to both food and biological samples. PMID:15242016

Igarashi, Miki; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kambe, Tomoko; Miyazawa, Teruo

2004-04-01

7

A new drug carrier, N ? -deoxycholyl- l -lysyl-methylester, for enhancing insulin absorption in the intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The development of an orally active insulin formulation will offer great advantages over conventional injectable insulin therapy in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Since insulin absorption in the intestine is restricted by the natural physiological characteristics of insulin, we developed a small synthetic compound, N-deoxycholyl-l-lysyl-methylester (DCK), as an insulin carrier to enhance oral delivery.Methods  Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats orally received

S. Lee; J. Lee; D. Y. Lee; S. K. Kim; Y. Lee; Y. Byun

2005-01-01

8

Design, synthesis of some new (2-aminothiazol-4-yl)methylester derivatives as possible antimicrobial and antitubercular agents.  

PubMed

A series of (2-aminothiazol-4-yl)methylester (5a-t) derivatives were synthesized in good yields and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass spectral and elemental analyses. The crystal structure of 5a was evidenced by X-ray diffraction study. The compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in vitro antibacterial, antifungal activity and were screened for antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. The synthesized compounds displayed interesting antimicrobial activity. PMID:22280817

Karuvalam, Ranjith P; Haridas, Karickal R; Nayak, Susanta K; Row, Tayur N Guru; Rajeesh, P; Rishikesan, R; Kumari, N Suchetha

2012-01-12

9

Role of N-Nitro-L-Arginine-Methylester as anti-oxidant in transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports assessing the neuroprotective role of nonselective Nitric Oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion are contradictory. The aim of this work was to examine the potential benefits of L-NAME on rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Methods The study involved 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups 10 rats in each: First group was sham-operated and served as a control, a ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group of rats infused with 0.9% normal saline intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to 30?minutes of left common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion and a test group infused with L-NAME intraperitoneally 15?minutes prior to ischemia. Neurobehavioral assessments were evaluated and quantitative assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in both serum and the affected cerebral hemisphere were achieved. Results Rats’ neurological deficit and TAC were significantly decreased while NO and MDA were significantly increased in the I/R compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Alternatively in the L-NAME group, neurological deficit and TAC were significantly improved while NO and MDA were significantly decreased compared to I/R group (P < 0.001). Conclusions L-NAME pretreatment for rats undergoing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion significantly improves neurological deficit while reducing oxidative stress biomarkers in the affected cerebral hemisphere.

2013-01-01

10

Effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals in rat brain.  

PubMed

Oxygen (O(2)) at high pressures acts as a neurotoxic agent leading to convulsions. The mechanism of this neurotoxicity is not known; however, oxygen free radicals and nitric oxide (NO) have been suggested as contributors. This study was designed to follow the formation of oxygen free radicals and NO in the rat brain under hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) conditions using in vivo microdialysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% O(2) at a pressure of 3 atm absolute for 2 h. The formation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2, 3-DHBA) as a result of perfusing sodium salicylate was followed as an indicator for the formation of hydroxyl radicals. 2,3-DHBA levels in hippocampal and striatal dialysates of animals exposed to HBO conditions were not significantly different from controls. However, rats treated under the same conditions showed a six- and fourfold increase in nitrite/nitrate, break down products of NO decomposition, in hippocampal and striatal dialysates, respectively. This increase was completely blocked by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Using neuronal NOS, we determined the NOS O(2) K(m) to be 158 +/- 28 (SD) mmHg, a value which suggests that production of NO by NOS would increase approximately four- to fivefold under hyperbaric O(2) conditions, closely matching the measured increase in vivo. The increase in NO levels may be partially responsible for some of the detrimental effects of HBO conditions. PMID:10758112

Elayan, I M; Axley, M J; Prasad, P V; Ahlers, S T; Auker, C R

2000-04-01

11

Antiplatelet activity of BRX-018, (6aS,cis)-malonic acid 3-acetoxy-6a9-bis-(2-methoxycarbonyl-acetoxy)-6,6a,7,11b-tetrahydro-indeno[2,1-c]chromen-10-yl ester methylester.  

PubMed

Brazilin (7,11b-dihydrobenz[b]indeno[1,2-d]pyran-3,6a,9,10 (6H)-tetrol), the major component of Caesalpinia sappan L., was reported to show antiplatelet activity through the inhibition of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). To search more potential antiplatelet agent, brazilin derivatives were synthesized and examined for their effects on the platelet aggregation. Among those compounds, BRX-018, (6aS,cis)-Malonic acid 3-acetoxy-6a9-bis-(2-methoxycarbonyl-acetoxy)-6,6a,7,11b-tetrahydro-indeno[2,1-c]chromen-10-yl ester methylester, was confirmed as one of the potential antiplatelet agents. In the present study, we investigated the antiplatelet mechanism of BRX-018. BRX-018 inhibited the thrombin-, collagen-, and ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 35, 15, and 25 microM, respectively. BRX-018 also inhibited thrombin-induced dense granule secretion, thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthesis, and [Ca2+]i elevation in platelets. BRX-018 was also found to inhibit A23187-induced [Ca2+]i and aggregation in the presence of apyrase (ADP scavenger) but not in the presence of both apyrase and indomethacin (a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, COX). Although BRX-018 significantly inhibited arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation and TXA2 synthesis, it had no significant inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase activity in vitro. In contrast, BRX-018 inhibited the activity of purified PLA2. Dixon plot showed that this inhibition was mixed type with an inhibition constant of Ki=23 microM. Taken together, the present study suggests that BRX-018 may be a promising antiplatelet agent and that its antiplatelet activity may be based on the inhibitory mechanisms on TXA2 synthesis in stimulated platelets. PMID:15668191

Lee, Gwi-Yeop; Chang, Tong-Shin; Lee, Ki-Seon; Khil, Lee-Yong; Kim, Deukjoon; Chung, Jin-Ho; Kim, Young-Chul; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Moon, Chang-Hyun; Moon, Chang-Kiu

2004-10-27

12

Biodiesel blend effects on common-rail diesel combustion and emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel (fatty acid methylesters) blends with fossil diesel at a mixing ratio between 0.5 and 5vol.% are widely offered as automotive fuels in Europe. The target for the future is to bring this ratio to at least 10%, in order to increase the share of renewable energy in transport. There is however limited evidence on the effects of such blends

Marina Kousoulidou; Georgios Fontaras; Leonidas Ntziachristos; Zissis Samaras

2010-01-01

13

Structural, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester and its Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II) complexes.  

PubMed

Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II) complexes with the ligand 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester (HL(2)) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic moment, thermal analysis and spectral data. 1:1 M:HL(2) complexes, with the general formula [M(HL(2))X(2)].nH(2)O (where M = Co(II) (X = Cl, n = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 3), Cu(II) (grey colour, X = AcO, n = 1), Cu(II) (yellow colour, X = Cl, n = 0) and Zn(II) (X = Br, n = 0). In addition, the Fe(III) and UO(2)(II) complexes of the type 1:2 M:HL(2) and with the formulae [Fe(L(2))(2)]Cl and [UO(2)(HL(2))(2)](NO(3))(2) are prepared. From the IR data, it is seen that HL(2) ligand behaves as a terdentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridyl N, carboxylate O and protonated NH group; except the Fe(III) complex, it coordinates via the deprotonated NH group. This is supported by the molar conductance data, which show that all the complexes are non-electrolytes, while the Fe(III) and UO(2)(II) complexes are 1:1 electrolytes. IR and H1-NMR spectral studies suggest a similar behaviour of the Zn(II) complex in solid and solution states. From the solid reflectance spectral data and magnetic moment measurements, the complexes have a trigonal bipyramidal (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes) and octahedral (Fe(III), UO(2)(II) complexes) geometrical structures. The thermal behaviour of the complexes is studied and the different dynamic parameters are calculated applying Coats-Redfern equation. PMID:15741106

Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Gamel, Nadia E A

2005-04-01

14

Triterpenoids CDDO-methylester or CDDO-ethylamide and rexinoids LG100268 or NRX194204 for prevention and treatment of lung cancer in mice  

PubMed Central

We tested members of two non-cytotoxic classes of drugs, synthetic oleanane triterpenoids and rexinoids, both as individual agents and in combination, for the prevention and treatment of carcinogenesis in a highly relevant animal model of lung cancer. Lung adenocarcinomas were induced in A/J mice by injection of the carcinogen vinyl carbamate. Mice were fed drugs in diet, beginning 1 week after the carcinogen challenge for prevention or 8 weeks later for treatment. The number, size and severity of tumors in the lungs were then evaluated. In the prevention studies, the triterpenoids CDDO-ethyl amide (CDDO-EA) and CDDO-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) reduced the average tumor burden (ATB) in the lungs 86–92%, respectively, compared to the controls, and the rexinoid LG100268 (268) reduced ATB by 50%. The combination of CDDO-EA and 268 reduced ATB by 93%. We show for the first time that these drugs also were highly effective for treatment of experimental lung cancer, and all triterpenoid and rexinoid combinations reduced ATB 85–87% compared to the control group. The triterpenoids also potently inhibited proliferation of VC1 mouse lung carcinoma cells and directly interacted with key regulatory proteins in these cells. In contrast, the rexinoids had little anti-proliferative activity in VC1 cells but were potent inhibitors of the toll-like receptor pathway in macrophage-like cells. Triterpenoids and rexinoids are multifunctional, well-tolerated drugs that target different signaling pathways and are thus highly effective for prevention and treatment of experimental lung cancer.

Liby, Karen; Risingsong, Renee; Royce, Darlene B.; Williams, Charlotte R.; Ma, Tian; Yore, Mark M.; Sporn, Michael B.

2009-01-01

15

Effects of nitric oxide synthase blockade on dorsal vagal stimulation-induced pancreatic insulin secretion.  

PubMed

We and others have previously shown that the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) is involved in regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion. Many pancreatic preganglionic neurons within the DMV are inhibited by pancreatic secretagogues suggesting that an inhibitory pathway may participate in the control of pancreatic exocrine secretion. Accordingly, the present study examined whether chemical stimulation of the DMV activates the endocrine pancreas and whether an inhibitory pathway is involved in this response. All experiments were conducted in overnight fasted isoflurane/urethane-anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats. Activation of the DMV by bilateral microinjection of bicuculline methiodide (BIM, GABA(A) receptor antagonist, 100 pmol/25 nl; 4 mM) resulted in a significant and rapid increase in glucose-induced insulin secretion (9.2±0.1 ng/ml peak response) compared to control microinjection (4.0±0.6 ng/ml). Activation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by chemical stimulation of the DMV was inhibited (2.1±1.1 ng/ml and 1.6±0.1 ng/ml 5 min later) in the presence of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine methonitrate (100 ?g/kg/min, i.v.). On the other hand, the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor l-nitroarginine methyl ester (30 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly increased the excitatory effect of DMV stimulation on glucose-induced insulin secretion to 15.3±3.0 ng/ml and 16.1±3.1 ng/ml 5 min later. These findings suggest that NO may play an inhibitory role in the central regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:21530944

Mussa, Bashair M; Sartor, Daniela M; Rantzau, Christian; Verberne, Anthony J M

2011-04-16

16

Inductive Effects on the Energetics of Prolyl Peptide Bond Isomerization: Implications for Collagen Folding and Stability  

PubMed Central

The hydroxylation of proline residues in collagen enhances the stability of the collagen triple helix. Previous X-ray diffraction analyses had demonstrated that the presence of an electron-withdrawing substituent on the pyrrolidine ring of proline residues has significant structural consequences [Panasik, N., Jr.; Eberhardt, E. S.; Edison, A. S.; Powell, D. R.; Raines, R. T. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 1994, 44, 262–269]. Here, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy were used to ascertain kinetic and thermodynamic properties of N-acetyl-[?,?-13C]D,L-proline methylester (1); N-acetyl-4(R)-hydroxy-L-proline [13C]methylester (2); and N-acetyl-4(R)-fluoro-L-proline methylester (3). The pKa’s of the nitrogen atom in the parent amino acids decrease in the order: proline (10.8) > 4(R)-hydroxy-L-proline (9.68) > 4(R)-fluoro-L-proline (9.23). In water or dioxane, amide I vibrational modes decrease in the order: 1 > 2 > 3. At 37 °C in dioxane, the rate constants for amide bond isomerization are greater for 3 than 1. Each of these results is consistent with the traditional picture of amide resonance coupled with an inductive effect that results in a higher bond order in the amide C=O bond and a lower bond order in the amide C–N bond. Further, at 37 °C in water or dioxane equilibrium concentrations of the trans isomer increase in the order: 1 < 2 < 3. Inductive effects may therefore have a significant impact on the folding and stability of collagen, which has a preponderance of hydroxyproline residues, all with peptide bonds in the trans conformation.

Eberhardt, Eric S.; Panisik, Nicholas; Raines, Ronald T.

2010-01-01

17

On the effect of neonatal nitric oxide synthase inhibition in rats: a potential neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

NADPH-d (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase) neurons are thought to migrate improperly during development in the brains of schizophrenic patients. This enzyme is a nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) is known to affect neurodevelopmental processes in the CNS. Therefore, we hypothesized that interference of NO generation during development may produce some aspects of schizophrenia symptomatology in a rat model. In these experiments, neonatal rats were challenged with a NOS inhibitor (L-nitroarginine 1-100 mg/kg s.c.) daily on post-natal days 3-5. L-Nitroarginine (L-NoArg) treated male rats developed a hypersensitivity to amphetamine in adulthood versus vehicle treated controls, whereas female rats did not. However, L-NoArg treated female rats developed a hypersensitivity to phencyclidine (PCP) at juvenile and adult ages versus vehicle treated controls, whereas male animals did not. L-NoArg treated male rats also had deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of startle whereas adult female rats did not. The results are discussed in terms of a new neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia and male/female differences inherent in this disease. PMID:10471083

Black, M D; Selk, D E; Hitchcock, J M; Wettstein, J G; Sorensen, S M

1999-09-01

18

Inhibitory effect of unsaturated fatty acids on lymphocyte-antigen interaction with special reference to multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Using the macrophage electrophoretic mobility (MEM) test, the in vitro effects of oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acid, as well as Naudicell oil and methyl gamma-linolenate, on lymphocyte response to various antigens (PPD, thyroid antigen and EF) were studied in patients with mutiple sclerosis, patients with other neurological diseases, and in normal subjects. In all three groups, linoleic and arachidonic acid showed a significant inhibition; the latter was greater than the former, when tested at physiological concentrations, suggesting that unsaturated fatty acids may exert an immunoregulatory effect in vivo. The methylester of gamma-linolenate is the most powerful suppressing agent yet tested. The inhibitory activity of linoleic and arachidonic acids was consistently greater in MS than in other subjects and forms the basis of an in vitro test for the disease. The possible relationship of these findings to widespread alterations in the fatty acid composition of the tissues and to the pathogenesis of MS is discussed. PMID:1155030

Field, E J; Shenton, B K

1975-08-01

19

Antiplatelet activity of BRX-018, (6a S, cis)-Malonic acid 3-acetoxy-6a9-bis-(2-methoxycarbonyl-acetoxy)-6,6a,7,11b-tetrahydro-indeno[2,1-c]chromen-10-yl ester methylester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilin (7,11b-dihydrobenz[b]indeno[1,2-d]pyran-3,6a,9,10 (6H)-tetrol), the major component of Caesalpinia sappan L., was reported to show antiplatelet activity through the inhibition of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). To search more potential antiplatelet agent, brazilin derivatives were synthesized and examined for their effects on the platelet aggregation. Among those compounds, BRX-018, (6aS,cis)-Malonic acid 3-acetoxy-6a9-bis-(2-methoxycarbonyl-acetoxy)-6,6a,7,11b-tetrahydro-indeno[2,1-c]chromen-10-yl ester

Gwi-Yeop Lee; Tong-Shin Chang; Ki-Seon Lee; Lee-Yong Khil; Deukjoon Kim; Jin-Ho Chung; Young-Chul Kim; Byung-Hoon Lee; Chang-Hyun Moon; Chang-Kiu Moon

2005-01-01

20

Separation of methanol from methylesters by vapour permeation: experiences of industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of water from its mixtures with organic liquids, especially from those with which it forms azeotropes by means of pervaporation and vapour permeation. has matured during the past 10 years to a state-of-the-art technology. The processes are applied in industrial plants worldwide for the dehydration of binary mixtures of light alcohols such as ethanol or isopropanol, esters such as

Eva Maus; Hartmut E. A. Brüschke

2002-01-01

21

Characterization of the effects of neurokinins on canine antral muscle  

SciTech Connect

The excitation of longitudinal antral muscle by substance P (SP) involves both a myogenic and a cholinergic effect. To examine if these responses are mediated by different neurokinin receptors, the authors studied the mechanical response and the release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine from antral muscle strips in response to SP, substance P methylester (SPME), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), and several nonmammalian tachykinins. All peptides studied showed a dose-dependent inotropic and chronotropic effect on spontaneous phasic contractions. This ionotropic effect in longitudinal muscle was partially atropine sensitive for SPME, SP, and NKB but not for NKA, whereas neither atropine nor tetrodotoxin had an effect in circular muscle. In longitudinal muscle, all three neurokinins were equipotent. In longitudinal muscle treated with atropine and in circular muscle, the rank order of potency for the inotropic response was NKA > NKB > SP > SPME. For the chronotropic response the rank order was SPME, SP > NKA > NKB. NKA, NKB, and SP caused a dose-dependent, tetrodotoxin-sensitive increase in ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine release from strips preincubated with ({sup 3}H)choline. NKA was significantly more potent to release ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine than either NKB or SP. The stimulated release was inhibited by (D-Ala{sup 2},D-Met{sup 5})methionine enkephalinamide and the SP antagonist, spantide. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NKA is the natural ligand mediating the myogenic inotropic response in both muscle layers and the cholinergic response in longitudinal muscle.

Koelbel, C.B.; Mayer, E.A.; Van Deventer, G.; Snape, W.J. Jr.; Patel, A. (Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (USA) Wadsworth Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

1988-12-01

22

Nitric oxide and gastric relaxation.  

PubMed

Pentagastrin enhanced the volume increase caused by isobaric gastric distension in conscious dogs. This effect could be abolished by inhibitors of acid secretion and mimicked by histamine. The increased compliance after pentagastrin was not affected by L-nitroarginine (L-NNA), a blocker of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. L-NNA itself reduced the volume increases caused by isobaric gastric distension. Intralipid administration into the duodenum led to a gastric relaxation sensitive to inhibition by L-NNA. The inhibitory effect of L-NNA was partially reversed by L-arginine. Pentagastrin induces a gastric relaxation via a mechanism that involves gastric secretion but not nitric oxide, whereas intraduodenal intralipid induces a gastric relaxation via a NO-dependent mechanism. PMID:7995223

Schuurkes, J A; Meulemans, A L

1994-12-01

23

Effect of TTC-909 in a middle cerebral artery thrombosis model in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of TTC-909, a preparation of the stable prostaglandin I(2) analogue clinprost (isocarbacyclin methylester; methyl 5-[(1S,5S,6R,7R)-7-hydroxy-6-[(E)-(S)-3-hydroxy-1-octenyl] bicyclo[3.3.0]oct-2-en-3-yl] pentanoate) incorporated into lipid microspheres, on infarct volume 24 h after photochemically induced thrombotic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Under anesthesia, the photosensitizing dye rose bengal (20 mg/kg) was administered intravenously and photoirradiation with green light (wavelength 540 nm) on the middle cerebral artery above the rhinal fissure was achieved using a xenon lamp for 10 min. Infarct volume 24 h after the photochemically induced thrombotic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was significantly larger in stroke-prone SHR than in Wistar rats. When TTC-909 in doses of 100, 300 and 900 ng/kg/h was intravenously infused for 3 h, starting immediately after the end of the 10-min photoirradiation, the infarct volume was dose-dependently reduced and was statistically significant at a dose of 900 ng/kg/h (p < 0.05). Ozagrel, a thromboxane A(2) synthetase inhibitor, significantly reduced the infarct volume. The model of photochemically induced thrombotic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in stroke-prone SHR is very useful, because the cerebral infarction is large enough and reproducible. TTC-909 may be effective for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:12163116

Karasawa, Yasuko; Hitomi, Takehiko; Komiyama, Hiroko; Isobe, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nakaike, Shiro; Araki, Hiroaki

2002-08-01

24

Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization  

SciTech Connect

Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir M. [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Riccio, Massimo [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Squarzoni, Stefano [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: lattanzi@jolly.bo.cnr.it

2008-02-01

25

Combined enzymatic and colorimetric method for determining the uronic acid and methylester content of pectin: Application to tomato products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure for determining the galacturonic acid and methanol contents of soluble and insoluble pectins, relying on enzymatic pectin hydrolysis and colorimetric quantification, is described. Pectin samples are incubated with a commercial pectinase preparation, Viscozyme, then the galacturonic acid content of the hydrolyzed pectin is quantified colorimetrically using a modification of the Cu reduction procedure originally described by Avigad

Gordon E. Anthon; Diane M. Barrett

2008-01-01

26

Study of the Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Concentration on Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus in Yeast Extract Sucrose Medium  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic metabolite produced by certain Aspergillus species on agricultural commodities. AFB1 biosynthesis is affected by jasmonic acid and also by its methylester (MeJA), a plant growth regulator derived from linoleic acid. This study reports the effect of MeJA on the growth of A. parasiticus and AFB1 output in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium when added at three different concentrations; namely, 10?2?M, 10?4?M, and 10?6?M. AFB1 determination was performed by immunoaffinity and HPLC. MeJA at 10?4 and 10?6 M concentrations had no significant effect on mycelial growth but did affect AFB1 production after the 7th day of incubation; on the 12th day, AFB1 production was increased by 212.7% and 141.6% compared to the control samples (addition of 10?6?M and 10?4?M MeJA, resp.). Treatment of A. parasiticus cultures with 10?2?M MeJA inhibited mycelial growth and AFB1 production as well. These results suggest that the effect of MeJA on AFB1 biosynthesis by A. parasiticus depends on the MeJA concentration used.

Meimaroglou, Dido Maria; Galanopoulou, Dia; Markaki, Panagiota

2009-01-01

27

Effect of growth medium pH of Aeropyrum pernix on structural properties and fluidity of archaeosomes.  

PubMed

The influence of pH (6.0; 7.0; 8.0) of the growth medium of Aeropyrum pernix K1 on the structural organization and fluidity of archaeosomes prepared from a polar-lipid methanol fraction (PLMF) was investigated using fluorescence anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence anisotropy of the lipophilic fluorofore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and empirical correlation time of the spin probe methylester of 5-doxylpalmitate revealed gradual changes with increasing temperature for the pH. A similar effect has been observed by using the trimethylammonium-6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, although the temperature changes were much smaller. As the fluorescence steady-state anisotropy and the empirical correlation time obtained directly from the EPR spectra alone did not provide detailed structural information, the EPR spectra were analysed by computer simulation. This analysis showed that the archaeosome membranes are heterogeneous and composed of several regions with different modes of spin-probe motion at temperatures below 70°C. At higher temperatures, these membranes become more homogeneous and can be described by only one spectral component. Both methods indicate that the pH of the growth medium of A. pernix does not significantly influence its average membrane fluidity. These results are in accordance with TLC analysis of isolated lipids, which show no significant differences between PLMF isolated from A. pernix grown in medium with different pH. PMID:22778670

Ota, Ajda; Gmajner, Dejan; Šentjurc, Marjeta; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

2012-06-13

28

Effect of Growth Medium pH of Aeropyrum pernix on Structural Properties and Fluidity of Archaeosomes  

PubMed Central

The influence of pH (6.0; 7.0; 8.0) of the growth medium of Aeropyrum pernix K1 on the structural organization and fluidity of archaeosomes prepared from a polar-lipid methanol fraction (PLMF) was investigated using fluorescence anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence anisotropy of the lipophilic fluorofore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and empirical correlation time of the spin probe methylester of 5-doxylpalmitate revealed gradual changes with increasing temperature for the pH. A similar effect has been observed by using the trimethylammonium-6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, although the temperature changes were much smaller. As the fluorescence steady-state anisotropy and the empirical correlation time obtained directly from the EPR spectra alone did not provide detailed structural information, the EPR spectra were analysed by computer simulation. This analysis showed that the archaeosome membranes are heterogeneous and composed of several regions with different modes of spin-probe motion at temperatures below 70°C. At higher temperatures, these membranes become more homogeneous and can be described by only one spectral component. Both methods indicate that the pH of the growth medium of A. pernix does not significantly influence its average membrane fluidity. These results are in accordance with TLC analysis of isolated lipids, which show no significant differences between PLMF isolated from A. pernix grown in medium with different pH.

Ota, Ajda; Gmajner, Dejan; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar

2012-01-01

29

Effect of water deficit on the cell wall of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet nour', Arecales) fruit during development.  

PubMed

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important crop providing a valuable nutrition source for people in many countries including the Middle East and North Africa. In recent years, the amount of rain in North Africa and especially in the Tunisian palm grove areas has dropped significantly. We investigated the growth and cell wall remodelling of fruits harvested at three key development stages from trees grown with or without water supply. During development, cell wall solubilization and remodelling was characterized by a decrease of the degree of methylesterification of pectin, an important loss of galactose content and a reduction of the branching of xylan by arabinose in irrigated condition. Water deficit had a profound effect on fruit size, pulp content, cell wall composition and remodelling. Loss of galactose content was not as important, arabinose content was significantly higher in the pectin-enriched extracts from non-irrigated condition, and the levels of methylesterification of pectin and O-acetylation of xyloglucan were lower than in irrigated condition. The lower levels of hydrophobic groups (methylester and O-acetyl) and the less intensive degradation of the hydrophilic galactan, arabinan and arabinogalactan in the cell wall may be implicated in maintaining the hydration status of the cells under water deficit. PMID:23176574

Gribaa, Ali; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud; Rihouey, Christophe; Burel, Carole; Ferchichi, Ali; Driouich, Azeddine; Mollet, Jean-Claude

2012-12-17

30

Field-effect transistor-based solution-processed colloidal quantum dot photodetector with broad bandwidth into near-infrared region.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQDs) photodetector with the configuration of a field-effect transistor (FET), in which the drain and source electrodes are fabricated by a shadow mask. By blending PbS CQDs into the hybrid blend, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methylester (PCBM), the photosensitive spectrum of the nanocomposite blend is extended into the near-infrared region. A FET-based photodetector ITO/PMMA (180 nm)/P3HT:PCBM:PbS (110 nm)/Al, in which PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) acts as the dielectric layer and P3HT:PCBM:PbS (in weight ratio of 1:1:1) as the active layer, shows a broad spectral bandwidth, a responsivity of 0.391 mA W(-1) and a specific detectivity of 1.31 × 10(11) Jones are obtained at V(GS) = 1 V under 600 nm illumination with an intensity of 30 ?W cm(-2). Therefore, it provides an easy way to fabricate such a FET-based photodetector with a channel length of some hundreds of micrometers by a shadow mask. PMID:22652547

Yang, Shengyi; Zhao, Na; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Haizheng; Liu, Ruibin; Zou, Bingsuo

2012-05-31

31

Interactions between L-arginine/L-arginine derivatives and lysozyme and implications to their inhibition effects on protein aggregation.  

PubMed

L-arginine (Arg), L-homoarginine (HArg), L-arginine ethylester (ArgEE) and L-arginine methylester (ArgME) were found effective in inhibiting protein aggregation, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Herein, stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and mass spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the folding kinetics of lysozyme and the interactions of the additives with lysozyme. It was found that the interactions of ArgME and ArgEE with lysozyme were similar to that of guanidine hydrochloride, and were much stronger than those of Arg and HArg. The binding forces were all mainly hydrogen bonding and cation-? interaction from the guanidinium group, but their differences in molecular states led to the significantly different binding strengths. The additives formed molecular clusters in an increasing order of ArgEE, ArgME, HArg and Arg. Arg and HArg mainly formed annular clusters with head-to-tail bonding, while ArgME and ArgEE formed linear clusters with guanidinium groups stacking. The interactions between the additives and lysozyme were positively related to the monomer contents. That is, the monomers were the primary species that participated in the direct interactions due to their intact guanidinium groups and small sizes, while the clusters performed as barriers to crowd out the protein-protein interactions for aggregation. Thus, it is concluded that the effects of Arg and its derivatives on protein aggregation stemed from the direct interactions by the monomers and the crowding effects by the clusters. Interplay of the two effects led to the differences in their inhibition effects on protein aggregation. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013. PMID:23737098

Gao, Ming-Tao; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

2013-06-01

32

Role of nitric oxide synthases in the infarct size-reducing effect conferred by heat stress in isolated rat hearts  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) donors are known to induce both delayed cardioprotection and myocardial heat stress protein (HSP) expression. Moreover, heat stress (HS), which also protects myocardium against ischaemic damages, is associated with a NO release. Therefore, we have investigated the implication of NO in HS-induced resistance to myocardial infarction, in the isolated rat heart model.Rats were divided in six groups (n=10 in each group), subjected or not to heat stress (42°C internal temperature, 15?min) and treated or not with nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) a non-selective inhibitor of NO synthase isoforms, or L-N6-(1-imino-ethyl)lysine (L-NIL), a selective inhibitor of the inducible NO synthase. Twenty-four hours after heat stress, their hearts were isolated, retrogradely perfused, and subjected to a 30-min occlusion of the left coronary artery followed by 120?min of reperfusion.Infarct-to-risk ratio was significantly reduced in HS (18.7±1.6%) compared to Sham (33.0±1.7%) hearts. This effect was abolished in L-NAME-treated (41.7±3.1% in HS+L-NAME vs 35.2±3.0% in Sham+L-NAME) and L-NIL-treated (36.1±3.4% in HS+L-NIL vs 42.1±4.6% in Sham+L-NIL) groups. Immunohistochemical analysis of myocardial HSP 27 and 72 showed an HS-induced increase of these proteins, which was not modified by L-NAME pretreatment.We conclude that NO synthases, and in particular the inducible isoform, appear to play a role in the heat stress-induced cardioprotection, independently of HSP 27 and 72 levels. Further investigations are required to elucidate the precise role of HSPs in this adaptive response.

Arnaud, Claire; Laubriet, Aline; Joyeux, Marie; Godin-Ribuot, Diane; Rochette, Luc; Demenge, Pierre; Ribuot, Christophe

2001-01-01

33

Stoichiometric methylation of calcineurin by protein carboxyl O-methyltransferase and its effects on calmodulin-stimulated phosphatase activity.  

PubMed Central

Calcineurin, a calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase, was a substrate for purified bovine brain protein carboxyl O-methyltransferase (protein O-methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.24) and incorporated up to 2 mol of CH3 per mol of calcineurin. Carboxyl methylation was dependent on the concentrations of S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine and was prevented by addition of the carboxyl methylation inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine. The stoichiometry of methyl group incorporation was related to the ratio of methyltransferase/calcineurin. The rate of spontaneous hydrolysis of carboxyl methylester groups on calcineurin increased rapidly above pH 6.5 with those on native carboxyl-methylated calcineurin substantially more labile than for trichloracetic acid-precipitated calcineurin. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of NaDodSO4 (pH 2.4) confirmed that the A subunit of calcineurin (Mr = 61,000) was the primary site of carboxyl methylation with little, if any, modification of the B subunit (Mr = 18,000). When carboxyl-methylated calcineurin (approximately 1-2 mol of CH3 per mol of protein) was assayed for p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity at pH 6.5, a marked inhibition of calmodulin-stimulated activity was observed while there was little effect on Mn2+-stimulated phosphatase activity. Thus, calcineurin appears to be an excellent substrate for protein carboxyl O-methylation and this modification, which impairs calmodulin stimulation of phosphatase activity, may be of functional significance. Images

Billingsley, M L; Kincaid, R L; Lovenberg, W

1985-01-01

34

Antitumor effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy can be enhanced by the use of a low dose of photofrin in human tumor xenografts.  

PubMed

Practically all of the exogenous photosensitizers used for clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) target mainly vasculature. Although effective in tumor destruction, they also, unavoidably, induce phototoxicity of normal tissues. Porphyrins synthesized endogenously from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) accumulate within cells. Tumor eradication would be more efficient if both cellular components and vascular stroma of a tumor could be targeted. Thus, PDT with a mixture of ALA and Photofrin (Pf, a vessel-targeted sensitizer) may simultaneously destroy the two elements. Using chemical extraction assays, pharmacokinetics of ALA and ALA-induced porphyrins were studied in the plasma and tumors of nude mice bearing human WiDr and KM20L2 colonic carcinomas after an i.p. injection of 250 mg/kg body weight of ALA. Subsequently, PDT efficacy of the two tumor models with ALA, Pf, or with the two drugs in combination was evaluated. The phototoxic effects on tumor cells in vitro with the combined drugs was also determined. Moreover, histological and ultrastructural alterations of the treated tumors were investigated, and tumor cell clonogenicity was assessed as a function of time after in vivo PDT using an in vitro colony formation assay. Finally, the photosensitivity of normal skin tissue treated according to various protocols was compared. The amounts of ALA peaked at 0.5 h after administration in both plasma and WiDr tumor. The rates of ALA clearance seemed to follow a one-compartment model with half-lives of approximately 18 and 58 min in the plasma and tumor, respectively. About 100 and 60 times higher concentrations of ALA were needed to induce a given concentration of porphyrins in the plasma and tumor, respectively, although the plasma porphyrins may not only be released from blood cells but also from other organs. Similar kinetics of distribution patterns of ALA- and ALA methylester-induced porphyrins were found in the plasma and tumors, and the elimination rates were consistent with a two-compartment model. ALA induced much more porphyrins than ALA methylester in both plasma and tumors. Tumors PDT-treated with ALA plus Pf at a low dose (1 mg/kg) grew significantly more slowly than those treated with either of the drugs in both WiDr and KM20L2 models. However, the enhanced antitumor effect was not found in the tumor cells under in vitro conditions. Morphological studies demonstrated that PDT with the combined regimen resulted in necrosis of neoplastic cells and severe disruption of tumor microvasculature. This was supported by the findings obtained from the studies of in vivo PDT and in vitro clonogenic assay that showed a progressive reduction in tumor cell viability with times following PDT. Such a combined PDT protocol did not induce any phototoxicity in normal skin tissue. These data indicate that targeting both neoplastic cells and stroma with ALA and Pf (a low dose) can potentiate antitumor PDT effect with no risk of prolonged skin photosensitivity. PMID:11479222

Peng, Q; Warloe, T; Moan, J; Godal, A; Apricena, F; Giercksky, K E; Nesland, J M

2001-08-01

35

Effect of TTC-909 on cerebral infarction following permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of TTC-909, a drug preparation of the stable prostaglandin I(2) analogue clinprost (isocarbacyclin methylester; methyl 5-[(1S,5S,6R,7R)-7-hydroxy-6-[(E)-(S)-3-hydroxy-1-octenyl] bicyclo[3.3.0]oct-2-en-3-yl] pentanoate) incorporated into lipid microspheres, on cerebral infarction 7 days after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Under the anesthesia, the MCA was permanently occluded above the rhinal fissure. In schedule 1, vehicle or TTC-909 was injected i.v. once daily over 7 days starting immediately after MCA occlusion. In schedule 2, vehicle or TTC-909 was infused for 3 h starting immediately after MCA occlusion. In schedule 3, vehicle or TTC-909 was infused for 3 h starting immediately after MCA occlusion followed by bolus injection once daily over 6 days. Seven days later, the infarct volume was estimated following hematoxylin and eosin staining. Cerebral infarction produced by permanent occlusion of MCA was limited to the cerebral cortex. While this volume was reduced significantly in case of schedule 3, the infarct volume was not reduced significantly in schedules 1 and 2. Ozagrel, a thromboxane A(2) synthetase inhibitor, had no effect on the infarct volume in schedule 3. These results suggest that cerebral infarction can be developed progressively not only during the first few hours but also after a permanent occlusion of MCA in SHRSP. TTC-909 inhibited cerebral infarction, maybe by improving cerebral blood flow and by protecting against neuronal damage. PMID:12719659

Karasawa, Yasuko; Komiyama, Hiroko; Yoshida, Shigeru; Hino, Noriko; Katsuura, Yasuhiro; Nakaike, Shiro; Araki, Hiroaki

2003-04-01

36

Evidence for Nitric Oxide Mediated Effects on Islet Hormone Secretory Phospholipase C Signal Transduction Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the putative role of nitric oxide (NO) as a modular of islet hormone release, when stimulated by the muscarinic receptor agonist–phospholipase C activator, carbachol, with special regard to whether the IP3-Ca2+ or the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C messenger systems might be involved. It was observed that the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) markedly potentiated insulin release

Björn Åkesson; Ingmar Lundquist

1998-01-01

37

Palm yu kara no yusoyo bio fuel jitsuyoka kanosei chosa. (Research on possibility of utilization of palm methylester for diesel engines).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is expected that palm oil will reduce black smoke/particulates in exhaust gas from the diesel engine. Therefore, an investigation for practical application of palm oil is made on adaptability as a fuel oil and supply potential. For utilization of palm ...

1993-01-01

38

Multiplexed immunoassays for simultaneous quantification of cardiovascular biomarkers in the model of H(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) hypertensive rat.  

PubMed

The multimarker approach using Luminex technology represents a new tool for studying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Although many cardiac biomarkers in heart failure have been well established, the role and significance of their measurement in hypertensive patients is still questionable. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship of selected biomarkers in L-NAME-induced hypertension to the left ventricular remodeling in the two different periods of hypertension development. Four groups of 3-month-old male Wistar rats were investigated: (1) control 4 (placebo for 4 weeks), (2) control 7 (placebo for 7 weeks), (3) L-NAME 4 (40 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), and (4) L-NAME 7 (40 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks). BNP, cTnI, TNF-?, and VEGF were measured using Rat CVD Panel 1 Kit (Milliplex® MAP). Cardiac troponin T was determined using Elecsys® Troponin T high sensitive immunoassay (Roche, Switzerland). Although the systolic blood pressure increases about 50% in L-NAME-induced hypertension in rat, both hypertrophy and fibrosis were expressed only slightly in this experiment. The levels of BNP, TNF-?, or VEGF did not differ significantly among groups. However, cardiac troponin T measured by high sensitive ELISA was significantly (P<0.05) increased in L-NAME 4 (0.229 ?g/l versus 0.034 ?g/l) and L-NAME-7 groups (0.366 ?g/l versus 0.06 ?g/l) in comparison with the controls. We conclude that the slightly increased cTnT levels could indicate ischemic damage of L-NAME-hypertensive heart. Importantly, to our best knowledge, this is the first study indicating that CVD rat panel may be a useful methodological tool in experimental cardiology. PMID:23756396

Adamcova, M; Ruzickova, S; Simko, F

2013-04-01

39

Effects of different potato cropping system approaches and water management on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities.  

PubMed

Four different potato cropping systems, designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation, soil improvement, disease suppression, and a status quo standard rotation control, were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases of potato and soil microbial community characteristics. The status quo system (SQ) consisted of barley underseeded with red clover followed by potato (2-year). The soil-conserving system (SC) featured an additional year of forage grass and reduced tillage (3-year, barley/timothy-timothy-potato). The soil-improving system (SI) added yearly compost amendments to the SC rotation, and the disease-suppressive system (DS) featured diverse crops with known disease-suppressive capability (3-year, mustard/rapeseed-sudangrass/rye-potato). Each system was also compared with a continuous potato control (PP) and evaluated under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. Data collected over three potato seasons following full rotation cycles demonstrated that all rotations reduced stem canker (10 to 50%) relative to PP. The SQ, SC, and DS systems reduced black scurf (18 to 58%) relative to PP; SI reduced scurf under nonirrigated but not irrigated conditions; and scurf was lower in DS than all other systems. The SQ, SC, and DS systems also reduced common scab (15 to 45%), and scab was lower in DS than all other systems. Irrigation increased black scurf and common scab but also resulted in higher yields for most rotations. SI produced the highest yields under nonirrigated conditions, and DS produced high yields and low disease under both irrigation regimes. Each cropping system resulted in distinctive changes in soil microbial community characteristics as represented by microbial populations, substrate utilization, and fatty acid methyl-ester (FAME) profiles. SI tended to increase soil moisture, microbial populations, and activity, as well result in higher proportions of monounsaturated FAMEs and the FAME biomarker for mycorrhizae (16:1 ?6c) relative to most other rotations. DS resulted in moderate microbial populations and activity but higher substrate richness and diversity in substrate utilization profiles. DS also resulted in relatively higher proportions of FAME biomarkers for fungi (18:2 ?6c), actinomycetes, and gram-positive bacteria than most other systems, whereas PP resulted in the lowest microbial populations and activity; substrate richness and diversity; proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAME classes; and fungal, mycorrhizae, and actinomycete FAME biomarkers of all cropping systems. Overall, soil water, soil quality, and soilborne diseases were all important factors affecting productivity, and cropping systems addressing these constraints improved production. Cropping system approaches will need to balance these factors to achieve sustainable production and disease management. PMID:20839965

Larkin, Robert P; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Griffin, Timothy S; Olanya, O Modesto; Halloran, John M; He, Zhongqi

2011-01-01

40

Role of VIP1/PACAP receptors in postoperative ileus in rats.  

PubMed

1. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system. We investigated the role of VIP1/PACAP receptors in postoperative ileus in rats. 2. Different degrees of inhibition of the gastrointestinal transit, measured by the migration of Evans blue, were achieved by skin incision, laparotomy or laparotomy plus mechanical stimulation of the gut. 3. The transit after skin incision or laparotomy was not altered by the VIP1/PACAP receptor antagonist Ac-His1,D-Phe2, K15, R16, VIP(3-7), GRF(8-27)-NH2 nor by the VIP1/PACAP receptor agonist K15, R16, VIP(1-7), GRF(8-27)-NH2 and the VIP2/PACAP receptor agonist RO 25-1553 (5 microg kg(-1)). 4. However, the transit after laparotomy plus mechanical stimulation was significantly enhanced by the VIP1/PACAP receptor antagonist, whereas it was further inhibited by the VIP1/PACAP receptor agonist. The combination of the VIP1/PACAP receptor agonist and antagonist counteracted the effect of both drugs alone. The VIP2/PACAP receptor agonist did not alter the effect of the VIP1/PACAP receptor antagonist. 5. The combination of the VIP1/PACAP receptor antagonist plus the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-nitroarginine had no effect on the transit after laparotomy plus mechanical stimulation, while the transit after skin incision was significantly decreased. 6. These findings suggest the involvement of VIP1/PACAP receptors, next to NO, in the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus. However, the combination of the VIP1/PACAP antagonist and the NO synthase inhibitor abolished the beneficial effect of each drug alone, suggesting the need for one of the inhibitory neurotransmitters to enable normal gastrointestinal transit. PMID:9720789

De Winter, B Y; Robberecht, P; Boeckxstaens, G E; De Man, J G; Moreels, T G; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A

1998-07-01

41

Functional study on TRPV1-mediated signalling in the mouse small intestine: involvement of tachykinin receptors.  

PubMed

Afferent nerves in the gut not only signal to the central nervous system but also provide a local efferent-like effect. This effect can modulate intestinal motility and secretion and is postulated to involve the transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). By using selective TRPV1 agonist and antagonists, we studied the efferent-like effect of afferent nerves in the isolated mouse jejunum. Mouse jejunal muscle strips were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recordings. Jejunal strips contracted to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. Contractions to capsaicin showed rapid tachyphylaxis and were insensitive to tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium, atropine or L-nitroarginine. Capsaicin did not affect contractions to electrical stimulation of enteric motor nerves and carbachol. Tachykinin NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor blockade by RP67580, nepadutant plus SR-142801 reduced contractions to capsaicin to a similar degree as contractions to substance P. The effect of the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, SB-366791, iodo-resiniferatoxin (iodo-RTX) and N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorphyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carbox-amide (BCTC) was studied. Capsazepine inhibited contractions not only to capsaicin but also those to carbachol. SB-366791 reduced contractions both to capsaicin and carbachol. Iodo-RTX partially inhibited the contractions to capsaicin without affecting contractions to carbachol. BCTC concentration-dependently inhibited and at the highest concentration used, abolished the contractions to capsaicin without affecting those to carbachol. From these results, we conclude that activation of TRPV1 in the mouse intestine induces a contraction that is mediated by tachykinins most likely released from afferent nerves. The TRPV1-mediated contraction does not involve activation of intrinsic enteric motor nerves. Of the TRPV1 antagonists tested, BCTC combined strong TRPV1 antagonism with TRPV1 selectivity. PMID:18194153

de Man, J G; Boeckx, S; Anguille, S; de Winter, B Y; de Schepper, H U; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A

2008-01-13

42

Chronic ouabain treatment induces vasa recta endothelial dysfunction in the rat  

PubMed Central

Descending vasa recta (DVR) are 15-?m vessels that perfuse the renal medulla. Ouabain has been shown to augment DVR endothelial cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]CYT) signaling. In this study, we examined the expression of the ouabain-sensitive Na-K-ATPase ?2 subunit in the rat renal vasculature and tested effects of acute ouabain exposure and chronic ouabain treatment on DVR. Immunostaining with antibodies directed against the ?2 subunit verified its expression in both DVR pericytes and endothelium. Acute application of ouabain (100 or 500 nM) augmented the DVR nitric oxide generation stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh; 10 ?M). At a concentration of 1 mM, ouabain constricted microperfused DVR, whereas at 100 nM, it was without effect. Acute ouabain (100 nM) did not augment constriction by angiotensin II (0.5 or 10 nM), whereas l-nitroarginine methyl ester-induced contraction of DVR was slightly enhanced. Ouabain-hypertensive (OH) rats were generated by chronic ouabain treatment (30 ?g·kg?1·day?1, 5 wk). The acute endothelial [Ca2+]CYT elevation by ouabain (100 nM) was absent in DVR endothelia of OH rats. The [Ca2+]CYT response to 10 nM ACh was also eliminated, whereas the response to 10 ?M ACh was not. The endothelial [Ca2+]CYT response to bradykinin (100 nM) was significantly attenuated. We conclude that endothelial responses may offset the ability of acute ouabain exposure to enhance DVR vasoconstriction. Chronic exposure to ouabain, in vivo, leads to hypertension and DVR endothelial dysfunction, manifested as reduced [Ca2+]CYT responses to both ouabain- and endothelium-dependent vasodilators.

Cao, Chunhua; Payne, Kristie; Lee-Kwon, Whaseon; Zhang, Zhong; Lim, Sun Woo; Hamlyn, John; Blaustein, Mordecai P.; Kwon, H. Moo; Pallone, Thomas L.

2009-01-01

43

Do sodium nitroprusside and L-NAME affect pyrogen fever in rabbits?  

PubMed

Thermoregulatory responses after treatment with nitric oxide (NO) donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP-3 mg/kg/h), or NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME-100 mg/kg) were investigated in febrile rabbits (lipopolysaccharide E. coli-1 meg/kg). Pretreatment with SNP attenuated pyrogen fever as well as metabolic rate. L-NAME also inhibited postpyrogen increases in metabolism; however, this effect did not lead to antipyresis. PMID:9219611

Gaga?o, I T; Ha?, E E; Korolkiewicz, K Z; Matuszek, M T; Szreder, Z

1996-01-01

44

Advertising Effects and Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the application of an integrated econometric time-series model for advertising effectiveness is presented. The model form gives rise to three possible advertising effects: brand loyalty, current effects (both simple and compound) and carryover effects. The inherent nature of these effects is related to the degree of involvement and the affective or cognitive aspects of the purchase decision.

Mike T. Bendixen

1993-01-01

45

Nitric oxide changes its role as a modulator of respiratory motor activity during development in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique chemical messenger that has been shown to play a role in the modulation of breathing in amphibians and other vertebrates. In the post-metamorphic tadpole and adult amphibian brainstem, NO, acting via the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), is excitatory to the generation of lung burst activity. In this study, we examine the modulation of breathing by NO during development of the amphibian brainstem. Isolated brainstem preparations from pre-metamorphic and late-stage post-metamorphic tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) were used to determine the role of NO in modulating central respiratory neural activity. Respiratory neural activity was monitored with suction electrodes recording extracellular activity of cranial nerve rootlets that innervate respiratory musculature. Brainstems were superfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at 20-22 degrees C containing l-nitroarginine (l-NA; 1-10 mM), a non-selective NOS inhibitor. In pre-metamorphic tadpoles, l-NA increased fictive gill ventilation frequency and amplitude, and increased lung burst frequency. By contrast, l-NA applied to the post-metamorphic tadpole brainstem had little effect on fictive buccal activity, but significantly decreased lung burst frequency and the frequency of lung burst episodes. These data indicate that early in development, NO provides a tonic inhibitory input to gill and lung burst activity, but as development progresses, NO provides an excitatory input to lung ventilation. This changing role for NO coincides with the shift in importance in the different respiratory modes during development in amphibians; that is, pre-metamorphic tadpoles rely predominantly on gill ventilation whereas post-metamorphic tadpoles have lost the gills and are obligate air-breathers primarily using lungs for gas exchange. We hypothesize that NO provides a tonic input to the respiratory CPG during development and this changing role reflects the modulatory influence of NO on inhibitory or excitatory modulators or neurotransmitters involved in the generation of respiratory rhythm. PMID:16023875

Hedrick, Michael S; Chen, Anna K; Jessop, Kristy L

2005-07-14

46

The effect of silanol masking on the recovery of picloram and other solutes from a hydrocarbonaceous pre-analysis extraction column  

SciTech Connect

The recoveries of picloram, picloram-methylester, hexazinone, benzene, and acetophenone from aqueous samples were studied using a commercially available hydrocarbonaceous pre-analysis extraction cartridge, both with and without tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TBAHS) in the eluent. Extraction efficiency was found to be dependent on sample loading volume. The results suggest a mixed mechanism of retention involving both ''silanophilic'' and ''hydrophobic'' interactions in the absence of tetrabutylammonium ion. The ability of TBAHS to mask surface silanol groups and/or ion-pair with counterionic solutes is invoked to explain the observations. Chromatograms of the solutes obtained on a C/sub 18/ bonded analytical column in both the presence and absence of TBAHS are also presented.

Wells, J.M.

1982-12-01

47

Catalepsy induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Previous study showed that NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NOARG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, induces catalepsy in a dose-dependent manner in male albino-Swiss mice.2.2. The objective of the present work was to further investigate this effect, extending it to other NOS inhibitors.3.3. Results showed that l-NOARG (40–80 mg\\/kg IP), NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME, 40–160 mg\\/kg IP) or NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA, 80 mg\\/kg IP)

E. A. Del Bel; C. A. da Silva; F. S. Guimarães

1998-01-01

48

Frontier Orbital Energy Change of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) Oligomers: Effect of Large Amplitude Torsional Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) based solar cells remain the most promising organic photovoltaics so far. Despite their promise for organic solar cells, practical application is hindered by low efficiency, associated with poor electron transport from P3HT to PCBM. For isolated P3HT oligomers, we investigate the torsional dependence of electronic properties by performing DFT calculations and extrapolate to the long chain limit. The fully relaxed isolated P3HT oligomers are non-planar with a 47 degree twist angle between each pair of rings and are lower in energy by 0.03 eV per monomer unit than the fully planar oligomers. The non-planarity lowers highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy by 1 eV and rises lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy by 0.6 eV compared to the respective orbital energies in a planar P3HT. The shifts in HOMO and LUMO energies increase the band gap from 1.9 eV in planar P3HT up to 3.3 eV when all backbone angles are non-planar and point to a reduced electrical conductivity. The larger band gap in non-planar P3HT accounts for the observed blue shift in the visible P3HT absorption band in P3HT/PCBM mixtures.

Bhatta, Ram; Tsige, Mesfin; Perry, David

2013-03-01

49

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Doppler effect followed from water waves to sound waves to light waves. Red shift of the universe is also explored. What is doppler effect? It is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. What does that mean? Watch this: moving doppler effect video What does the doppler effect look like in a stationary and moving object? dooppler effect views What does doppler effect have to do with stars and galaxies??? View the following ...

Clemons, Mrs.

2010-11-10

50

Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Doppler effect followed from water waves to sound waves to light waves. Red shift of the universe is also explored. What is doppler effect? It is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. What does that mean? Watch this: moving doppler effect video What does the doppler effect look like in a stationary and moving object? dooppler effect views What does doppler effect have to do with stars and galaxies??? View the following ...

Brown, Mrs.

2010-10-26

51

Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a greenhouse-effect-in-a-bottle experiment. The lesson includes readings from NEED.org and an inquiry lab measuring the effect of carbon dioxide and temperature change in an enclosed environment.

Education, Connecticut E.

52

Chemotherapy Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Chemotherapy Effects Chemotherapy drugs are powerful medicines that can cause side ... on the side effects most commonly caused by chemotherapy, this is a good place to start. Managing ...

53

Effects of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brainstorming instruction is an effective method for increasing the production of good ideas in a particular type of creative thinking problems, and is even more effective if preceded by extensive training in its use. (5 tables)

Sidney J. Parnes; Arnold Meadow

1959-01-01

54

Chelation of /sup 238/Pu(IV) in vivo by 3,4,3-LICAM(C): Effects of ligand methylation and pH  

SciTech Connect

The linear tetracarboxycatecholate ligand, 3,4,3-LICAM(C) N1,N5,N10,N14-tetrakis(2,3-dihydroxy-4-carboxybenzoyl-tetraaza tet radecane, tetra sodium salt) injected within 1 h after injection of Pu(IV) citrate, removes about the same fraction of Pu from animals as CaNa3-DTPA but removes less inhaled Pu than CaNa3-DTPA and leaves a Pu residue in the renal cortex. However, the formation constant of the expected Pu-3,4,3-LICAM(C) complexes are orders of magnitude greater than that of Pu-DTPA, and 3,4,3-LICAM(C) is 100 times more efficient than CaNa3-DTPA for removing Pu from transferrin in vitro. Because the formation constants of their actinide complexes are central to in vivo actinide chelation, ligand design strategies are dominated by the search for ligands with large Pu complex stabilities, and it was necessary to explain the failure of 3,4,3-LICAM(C) to achieve its thermodynamic potential in vivo. All the batches of 3,4,3-LICAM(C) prepared at Berkeley or in France (Euro-LICAM(C)) were found by high-pressure liquid chromatography to be mixtures of the pure ligand (55% in Berkeley preparations, 8.5% in Euro-LICAM(C)) and its four methylesters. A revised synthesis for 3,4,3-LICAM(C) is appended to this report. All of the incompletely hydrolyzed 3,4,3-LICAM(C) preparations and the pure ligand were tested for removal of Pu from mice (238Pu(IV) citrate intravenous, 30 mumol kg-1 of ligand at 1 h, kill at 24 h, radioanalyze tissues and separated excretal). The presence of methylesters did not significantly impair the ability of the ligands to remove Pu from mice, and it did not alter the fraction of injected Pu deposited in kidneys. Temporary elevation (reduction) of plasma and urine pH of mice by 0.5 mL of 0.1 M NaHCO3 (NH4Cl) injected before or simultaneously with pure 3,4,3-LICAM(C) somewhat improved (significantly reduced) Pu excretion but had little influence on Pu deposition in kidneys.

Durbin, P.W.; White, D.L.; Jeung, N.L.; Weitl, F.L.; Uhlir, L.C.; Jones, E.S.; Bruenger, F.W.; Raymond, K.N.

1989-06-01

55

Thermal effects  

SciTech Connect

Literature dealing with the following topics was reviewed: effects of power plant once-through cooling on aquatic systems; site studies; producers - effects on growth and production; consumers; decomposers; diseases and parasites; and beneficial uses of power plant condenser cooling water. (DAD)

Talmage, S.S.; Coutant, C.C.

1980-06-01

56

Thermal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature dealing with the following topics was reviewed: effects of power plant once-through cooling on aquatic systems; site studies; producers - effects on growth and production; consumers; decomposers; diseases and parasites; and beneficial uses of power plant condenser cooling water. (DAD)

S. S. Talmage; C. C. Coutant

1980-01-01

57

Naloxone: Effects and Side Effects  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Cardiovascular effects ?Hypertension morbidity (eg, vascular aneurysms) ... Hypertension morbidity (eg, vascular aneurysms) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

58

Thermal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature concerning the effects of temperature on aquatic organisms is reviewed. Subjects include: site studies, producers, consumers, decomposers, diseases and parasites, and beneficial uses. Specific topics involve growth, reproduction, temperature tolerance, preferred temperature, feeding, distribution, oxygen metabolism, and morphology.

1976-01-01

59

Position Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Position effects describe the observed alteration in protein-coding gene expression that may accompany a change in genomic\\u000a position of a given gene. A position effect may result from chromosomal translocation or other genomic rearrangements. Recent\\u000a advances in chromatin studies in several different species including yeast, Drosophila, and mouse have contributed significantly\\u000a to better understanding of human diseases resulting from abnormal

Pawel Stankiewicz

60

Interpersonal Effectiveness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interpersonal Effectiveness provides participants with an opportunity to develop their interpersonal skills through interactive exercises conducted in a team setting. Debriefing these exercises with all members of the class helps ensure that the exercises translate into personal and interpersonal learning for the participants. After completing this module, students should be able to identify the principles of good teamwork and effective communication and demonstrate those skills during a series of interactive exercises. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

Alston, Michele; King, John

2010-07-26

61

Photoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of simulations of aspects of the photoelectric effect. There is an animation of the experiment with four choices of incident radiation - low and high intensity "red", to represent low energy light and low and high intensity "blue" to represent higher energy light. Electron production is animated and there is an ammeter to simulate current flow. Additional simulations show the effect of light frequency and intensity. There is a link to a spreadsheet that allows students to choose a sample from among five metals. The spreadsheet includes several questions to be answered after working through the materials.

62

Coriolis Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of four animated slides illustrates the Coriolis effect, a manifestation of one of Newton's laws which says that objects move in a straight line, in an "inertial" frame of reference, unless acted upon by a force. The slides use the analogy of a ball thrown on a rotating carousel.

63

Thermal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1976 literature on thermal effects was reviewed under the following categories: reviews; power plant studies; producers; consumer reproduction, development, morphology, distribution, thermal tolerance, growth, feeding, activity, oxygen metabolism, temperature and other stresses; decomposers; diseases and parasites and beneficial uses. Many of the studies are summarized in tabular form.

C. C. Coutant; S. S. Talmadge

1977-01-01

64

Slingshot Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page demonstrates the slingshot effect through a Flash simulation. The user places an object at some distance from Jupiter, sets up its initial velocity, then choose the appropriate time to lunch it. Once the simulation begins, the path of the projectile and its speed are shown.

Fowler, Michael; Ching, Jacquie H.

2008-09-20

65

Atmospheric Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN atmospheric effect, which is sometimes observed in England, displayed itself here in great beauty yesterday. The western sun had been cut off from us by an intervening ridge, while the upper atmosphere was still filled with his light. There was a good deal of opalescent haze in the atmosphere, which, had the sun shone upon it uniformly, would have

John Tyndall

1872-01-01

66

Sleeper Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early experience preserves and refines many capabilities that emerge prenatally. Here we describe another role that it plays--establishing the neural substrate for capabilities that emerge at a much later point in development. The evidence comes from sleeper effects: permanent deficits when early experience was absent in capabilities that…

Maurer, Daphne; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.

2007-01-01

67

Crystal Growth Inhibitors for the Prevention of L-Cystine Kidney Stones Through Molecular Design  

SciTech Connect

Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects. Real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that L-cystine dimethylester (L-CDME) and L-cystine methylester (L-CME) dramatically reduce the growth velocity of the six symmetry-equivalent {l_brace}100{r_brace} steps because of specific binding at the crystal surface, which frustrates the attachment of L-cystine molecules. L-CDME and L-CME produce L-cystine crystals with different habits that reveal distinct binding modes at the crystal surfaces. The AFM observations are mirrored by reduced crystal yield and crystal size in the presence of L-CDME and L-CME, collectively suggesting a new pathway to the prevention of L-cystine stones by rational design of crystal growth inhibitors.

Rimer, Jeffrey D.; An, Zhihua; Zhu, Zina; Lee, Michael H.; Goldfarb, David S.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.; Ward, Michael D. (NY Univ.); (MCW)

2010-11-12

68

Towards the development of a virtual organic solar cell: An experimental and dynamic Monte Carlo study of the role of charge blocking layers and active layer thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have been used to fully model organic solar cells. The quantum efficiency and short-circuit current of these virtual devices are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Simulations show that, contrary to expectation, indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM)/aluminium devices lack effective charge blocking layers at the electrode interfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling shows that despite a PCBM-rich region near the cathode, interface intermixing at the electrodes combined with incomplete PCBM coverage leads to significant interface recombination. This work highlights the effectiveness of MC simulations as a predictive tool and emphasizes the need to control electrode interface processes.

Feron, K.; Fell, C. J.; Rozanski, L. J.; Gong, B. B.; Nicolaidis, N.; Belcher, W. J.; Zhou, X.; Sesa, E.; King, B. V.; Dastoor, P. C.

2012-11-01

69

Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This HyperPhysics webpage contains information and diagrams on global warming, the greenhouse effect, and greenhouse gases. Numerous graphs and diagrams illustrate the measurements and concepts. Also, this page displays the famous "Keeling curve" showing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration versus time from 1958 to 2004. This page page is part of the HyperPhysics Collection, which contains many short, illustrated pages on various areas of physics and astronomy.

Nave, Carl R.

2013-04-29

70

Effective Presentations  

PubMed Central

Where the purpose of presentations is to inform, effective delivery is important to ensure that audiences receive the educational message. We offer six suggestions: introduce the topic in an interesting way; speak loudly enough; do not read; involve the audience actively; respect the attention span of the audience; and limit the amount of content. We conclude that the skills of live public presentation can be learned, but that the art of presentation is innate. Imagesp2063-ap2064-a

Spooner, H. James; Swanson, Richard W.

1990-01-01

71

Piezoelectric Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students explore the piezoelectric effect, which is the conversion between electricity and mechanical motion. The model used in this activity shows this conversion and users can manipulate the model to change the voltage and observe changes to a crystal. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In these activities, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment full of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity and central and key concepts.

2008-10-23

72

Dependence of Device Characteristics of Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Thin-Film Solar Cells on Concentration of Glycerol and Sorbitol Addition in Pedot:. PSS Solutions for Fabricating Buffer Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the dependence of device characteristics of bulk-heterojunction organic thin-film solar cells on the concentration of glycerol and sorbitol addition in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solutions for fabricating buffer layers. The device structure is ITO/buffer/regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM)/Al. Glycerol addition is effective for increasing power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.25 to 1.41% because of the increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) without decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc). On the other hand, sorbitol addition decreases PCE from 1.25 to 1.04%, owing to the decrease in Voc. This difference in Voc behavior is ascribed to different work function of PEDOT:PSS with glycerol and sorbitol treatment.

Yamaki, Yusuke; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Fujimori, Takuya; Mori, Tatsuo

73

Elevated Endothelial Nitric Oxide Bioactivity and Resistance to Angiotensin-Dependent Hypertension in 12/15-Lipoxygenase Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) plays a pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. To characterize whether 12/15-LOX also contributes to endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, regulation of vessel tone and angiotensin II (ang II) responses were characterized in mice deficient in 12/15-LOX. There was a twofold increase in the magnitude of l-nitroarginine-methyl ester-inhibitable, acetylcholine-dependent relaxation or phenylephrine-dependent constriction in aortic rings isolated from 12/15-LOX?/? mice. Plasma NO metabolites and aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression were also elevated twofold. Angiotensin II failed to vasoconstrict 12/15-LOX?/? aortic rings in the absence of l-nitroarginine-methyl ester, and ang II impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation in wild-type, but not 12/15-LOX?/? rings. In vivo, 12/15-LOX?/? mice had similar basal systolic blood pressure measurements to wild type, however, blood pressure elevations in response to ang II infusion (1.1 mg/kg/day) were significantly attenuated (maximal pressure, 143.4 ± 4 mmHg versus 122.1 ± 5.3 mmHg for wild type and 12/15-LOX?/?, respectively). In contrast, vascular hypertrophic responses to ang II, and ang II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) expression were similar in both strains. This study shows that 12/15-LOX?/? mice have increased NO biosynthesis and impaired ang II-dependent vascular responses in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that 12/15-LOX signaling contributes to impaired NO bioactivity in vascular disease in vivo.

Anning, Peter B.; Coles, Barbara; Bermudez-Fajardo, Alexandra; Martin, Patricia E.M.; Levison, Bruce S.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Funk, Colin D.; Kuhn, Hartmut; O'Donnell, Valerie B.

2005-01-01

74

Radiation effects.  

PubMed

International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Committee 1 (C1) considers the risk of induction of cancer and heritable disease; the underlying mechanisms of radiation action; and the risks, severity, and mechanisms of induction of tissue reactions (formerly 'deterministic effects'). C1 relies upon the interpretation of current knowledge of radio-epidemiological studies; current information on the underlying mechanisms of diseases and radiation-induced disease; and current radiobiological studies at the whole animal, tissue, cell, and molecular levels. This overview will describe the activities of C1 in the context of the 2007 Recommendations of ICRP. In particular, the conclusions from the most recent C1 Task Group deliberations on radon and lung cancer, and tissue reactions will be discussed. Other activities are described in summary fashion to illustrate those areas that C1 judge to be likely to influence the development of the risk estimates and nominal risk coefficients used for radiation protection purposes. PMID:23088999

Preston, R J

2012-08-22

75

Side Effects of Chemotherapy  

MedlinePLUS

... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction ... Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When to Seek Help PSA Rising ...

76

Effective Teaching/Effective Urban Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers the ways in which 17 novice teachers define and describe effective urban teaching and the stark contrasts that these teachers draw between effective urban teaching and effective teaching. The authors find that descriptions of students played a considerable role when participants made distinctions between effective teaching…

Watson, Dyan; Charner-Laird, Megin; Kirkpatrick, Cheryl L.; Szczesiul, Stacy Agee; Gordon, Pamela J.

2006-01-01

77

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a...

2009-04-01

78

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a...

2010-04-01

79

The Ranschburg effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizes recent research on the Ranschburg effect, an inhibitory effect on short-term recall observed when a stimulus string contains a repeated element, and attempts to identify the conditions associated with the effect. The theoretical bases for the Ranschburg effect, including a new analysis of the effect are considered and the results of 2 experiments designed as a 1st test of

John C. Jahnke

1969-01-01

80

Mercury: Health Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... toxicological profile for mercury . Top of page Elemental mercury effects Elemental (metallic) mercury primarily causes health effects ... 0370.htm . Top of page Effects of other mercury compounds (inorganic and organic) High exposures to inorganic ...

81

On Effect Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

2012-01-01

82

Effect Lines for Specifying Animation Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract When we create 2D animations on a desktop computer using programs such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Macrome- dia Flash, we assign effects to objects and define their pa- rameters, such as their path, speed, and time of movement. To do this, we use conventional interfaces like menus or dia- log boxes. However, the motion effects associated with each object

Yoshikazu Kato; Etsuya Shibayama; Shin Takahashi

2004-01-01

83

Regulation with placebo effects.  

PubMed

A growing scientific literature supports the existence of placebo effects from a wide range of health interventions and for a range of medical conditions. This Article reviews this literature, examines the implications for law and policy, and suggests future areas for research on placebo effects. In particular, it makes the case for altering the drug approval process to account for, if not credit, placebo effects. It recommends that evidence of placebo effects be permitted as a defense in cases alleging violations of informed consent or false advertising. Finally, it finds that tort law already has doctrines such as joint and several liability to account for placebo effects. Future research on placebo effects should focus on whether awareness of placebo effects can disable these effects and whether subjects can control their own placebo effects. PMID:19353835

Malani, Anup

2008-12-01

84

Kite Pseudo Effect Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a new class of pseudo effect algebras, called kite pseudo effect algebras, which is connected with partially ordered groups not necessarily with strong unit. In such a case, starting even with an Abelian po-group, we can obtain a noncommutative pseudo effect algebra. We show how such kite pseudo effect algebras are tied with different types of the Riesz Decomposition Properties. Kites are so-called perfect pseudo effect algebras, and we define conditions when kite pseudo effect algebras have the least non-trivial normal ideal.

Dvure?enskij, Anatolij

2013-10-01

85

The Mossbauer Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory of the nuclear Mossbauer effect and its optical analogue is presented. Introductory paragraphs deal with the destruction of resonance fluorescence in case of a freely recoiling nucleus. The partial restoration of resonance by Doppler effect and...

A. Mukerji C. A. Coulter

1966-01-01

86

Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Toolkit  

EPA Science Inventory

US EPA has identified the effectiveness of Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the e...

87

Effects of Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... Davis Legacy Fund Stay Informed Share » Effects of Stroke After Stroke Effects of Stroke Pediatric Stroke Rehabilitation ... PDF file. Content Updated: August 2012 Get Involved Stroke and You Stroke Survivors Caregivers and Families Healthcare ...

88

The Stimulated Raman Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews the main experimental and theoretical developments in stimulated Raman scattering of light, which has been actively investigated since 1962. The effect cannot be discussed properly without paying attention to related nonlinear effects wh...

N. Bloembergen

1967-01-01

89

Effective Frequency Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An effective monochromatic frequency technique is described to represent the effects of finite spectral bandwidth for active and passive measurements centered on an absorption line, a trough region, or a slowly varying spectral feature. For Gaussian and r...

C. L. Korb C. Y. Weng

2003-01-01

90

Leadership Effectiveness and Gender.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness. It specifically looks at the current defin...

C. R. Gedney

1999-01-01

91

Global Effects Simulation Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reviews the initial rise of a fire plume in the atmosphere, including effects of the condensation of entrained moisture. The condensation, expansion, and evaporation of the water cloud are examined, as are the relative effects of scattering ...

C. Chandler E. Bauer F. A. Albini

1986-01-01

92

Arbutus unedo prevents cardiovascular and morphological alterations in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats Part I: cardiovascular and renal hemodynamic effects of Arbutus unedo in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition is associated with functional abnormalities of the heart and kidney. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronic treatment with Arbutus unedo leaf (AuL) or root (AuR) aqueous extracts can prevent these alterations. Six groups of rats were used: control group received tap water; N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) group treated with L-NAME at 40 mg/kg/day; AuL and AuR groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and Au leaves or roots extract at the same concentration 250 mg/kg/day; l-arginine and enalapril groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and l-arginine at 50mg/kg/day or enalapril at 15 mg/kg/day. Treatment of rats during 4 weeks with L-NAME caused an increase of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) accompanied by a ventricular hypertrophy, an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, an increase of the cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and a decrease of water, sodium and potassium excretion. The co-administration of AuL or AuR extracts with L-NAME reduces the development of increased SBP, ameliorates the vascular reactivity as well as the baroreflex sensitivity and normalizes the renal function. AuR reduces the ventricular hypertrophy but AuL do not. Enalapril associated with L-NAME reverses the majority of alterations induced by L-NAME while l-arginine only lightly ameliorates the vascular reactivity. These results show that chronic treatment with Arbutus extract regress the development of hypertension and ameliorate cardiovascular and renal functions in NO deficient hypertension. PMID:18191352

Afkir, Saida; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Aziz, Mohamed; Zoheir, Johar; Cuisinaud, Guy; Bnouham, Mohamed; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Lahlou, Saad; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

2007-11-26

93

Health effects of ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1989 Critical Review on Health Effects of Ozone by Morton Lippmann is a valuable contribution to the literature on criteria air pollutants. In a comprehensive fashion, the paper methodically examines key areas relevant to understanding effects of ozone on human health: exposure and dosimetry, populations and responses of concern, research approaches, and effects upon specific pulmonary endpoints from single

Utell

1989-01-01

94

Health effects of ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dr. Morton Lippmann prepared, at the request of the A WMA Review Committee, an extensive update of the available information on the biological effects of ozone. His review is a thorough and well-written summary of what is known about respiratory effects of low ozone concentrations. The authors is well qualified to evaluate clinical data on ozone effects since a substantial

Vostal

1989-01-01

95

Special Effects Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

96

How effective are models?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses a number of common interpretations of 'implementation' in the literature, and how these have been confused. Various different levels of implementation are then discussed, including the concept of model effectiveness. This is concerned with both the operational effectiveness of the model, as shown by a tangible improvement in the system modelled, and the personal effectiveness in helping

John Fripp

1985-01-01

97

Special Effects Activity Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

98

Irradiation Effects on Zircaloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a water cooled reactor, the neutron effect on zirconium base alloys which are used in the core, is a twofold one: - indirect effect, by means of modifications to the alloy environment; - direct effect occurence of irradiation defects in the material. T...

P. Morize

1983-01-01

99

Nonlinear Talbot Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and experimentally demonstrate the nonlinear Talbot effect from nonlinear photonic crystals. The nonlinear Talbot effect results from self-imaging of the generated periodic intensity pattern at the output surface of the crystal. To illustrate the effect, we experimentally observed second-harmonic Talbot self-imaging from 1D and 2D periodically poled LiTaO3 crystals. Both integer and fractional nonlinear Talbot effects were investigated. The observation not only conceptually extends the conventional Talbot effect, but also opens the door for a variety of new applications in imaging technologies.

Zhang, Yong; Wen, Jianming; Zhu, S. N.; Xiao, Min

2010-05-01

100

Nonlinear Talbot effect.  

PubMed

We propose and experimentally demonstrate the nonlinear Talbot effect from nonlinear photonic crystals. The nonlinear Talbot effect results from self-imaging of the generated periodic intensity pattern at the output surface of the crystal. To illustrate the effect, we experimentally observed second-harmonic Talbot self-imaging from 1D and 2D periodically poled LiTaO(3) crystals. Both integer and fractional nonlinear Talbot effects were investigated. The observation not only conceptually extends the conventional Talbot effect, but also opens the door for a variety of new applications in imaging technologies. PMID:20482176

Zhang, Yong; Wen, Jianming; Zhu, S N; Xiao, Min

2010-05-07

101

The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".  

PubMed

The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

Dooley, Kevin J

2009-07-01

102

Virality, Network Effects and Advertising Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many video ads are designed to go viral, so that the total number of views they receive depends on customers sharing the ads with their friends. This paper explores the relationship between achieving this endogenous reach and the effectiveness of the ad at persuading a consumer to purchase or adopt a favorable attitude towards a product. The analysis combines data

Catherine Tucker

2011-01-01

103

Coexistence of qubit effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two quantum events, represented by positive operators (effects), are coexistent if they can occur as possible outcomes in a single measurement scheme. Equivalently, the corresponding effects are coexistent\\u000a if and only if they are contained in the ranges of a single (joint) observable. Here we give several equivalent characterizations\\u000a of coexistent pairs of qubit effects. We also establish the equivalence

Paul Busch; Heinz-Jürgen Schmidt

2010-01-01

104

Practical and effective ALARA.  

PubMed

The ALARA Principle ensures that the total effective dose equivalent is minimized subject to economic and social factors. Effective ALARA programs must include the participation of all facility workgroups, management support, teamwork, and strong leadership. The development and sustainability of effective ALARA programs require the establishment and monitoring of goals, rewarding the successful achievement of those goals, and incorporating lessons learned from tasks that fail to meet their goals. PMID:20386191

Bevelacqua, Joseph John

2010-05-01

105

Effective Strategies Brief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this research brief the authors detail effective teaching strategies for teaching students with difficulties in math. The brief summarizes the work of over fifty research studies and details the practices that were seen as consistently effective across many of them. The brief details six instructional strategies and presents data describing the effectiveness of each on special education students and low-achieving students. The brief can be viewed on the webpage or downloaded as a PDF.

Gersten, Russell; Clarke, Benjamin S.

2007-01-01

106

Magnetic Casimir effect  

SciTech Connect

The Casimir effect results from alterations of the zero-point electromagnetic energy introduced by boundary conditions. For ferromagnetic layers separated by vacuum (or a dielectric), such boundary conditions are influenced by the magneto-optical Kerr effect. We will show that this gives rise to a long-range magnetic interaction and discuss the effect for two different configurations (magnetization parallel and perpendicular to the layers). Analytical expressions are derived for two models and compared to numerical calculations. Numerical calculations of the effect for Fe are also presented and the possibility of an experimental observation of the Casimir magnetic interaction is discussed.

Metalidis, G.; Bruno, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

2002-12-01

107

The polarized EMC effect  

SciTech Connect

We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

2007-02-01

108

Health effects of ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author comments on Morton Lippmann's paper entitled Health Effects of Ozone which was presented at the 82nd Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting and Exhibition, held in Anaheim, California in June 1989. Thanks to the efforts of Dr. Lippmann we have a better understanding of the acute, prolonged and chronic exposure health effects of ozone and are in

McKee

1989-01-01

109

Cardiovascular effects of leptin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of investigations, ranging from clinical and animal model studies to in vitro analyses, have generated great interest in the cardiovascular effects of leptin. Accordingly, many studies have examined the contribution of leptin to cardiac remodeling in heart failure and whether the effects of leptin on metabolism, apoptosis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and hypertrophy could explain the so-called obesity paradox.

Gary Sweeney

2009-01-01

110

The Kaye Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, "The Kaye effect", as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid…

Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

2009-01-01

111

The effectiveness of decoupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effectiveness of decoupling as an optimization technique for high-performance computer architectures. Decoupled access execute architectures are described, and the concept of control decoupling is introduced and justified. A description of a highly-decoupled architecture is given, and a metric for the effectiveness of decoupling on particular programs, the Loss of Decoupling frequency is introduced. Finally, a number

Peter L. Bird; Alasdair Rawsthorne; Nigel P. Topham

1993-01-01

112

Nitrogen oxides - animal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of animal studies investigating the effects of nitrogen dioxide are reviewed in an attempt to arrive at objective grounds for an NOâ standard. There appears to be no threshold level for NOâ so far as some detectable alteration of lung function or structure in animals is concerned. A threshold may be reached for an effect contributing to clinical

Crocker

1973-01-01

113

Defining Effective Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and…

Layne, L.

2012-01-01

114

Theorizing Interactivity's Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noting that interactivity is often defined but seldom theorized in the literature, this article provides some pointers for developing theories about effects of interactivity, particularly as it applies to Web-based mass communication. It first makes the case that interactivity is an attribute of the technology and not that of the user. It exposes the tautology of studying the effects of

S. Shyam Sundar

2004-01-01

115

Effects of Mobile Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before reviewing some of the key consequences of mobile communication technology, a brief discussion of how they fit within the media effects paradigm is in order. At the risk of oversimplification, we understand the media effects paradigm as a framework for understanding how mass media content influences attitudes and behavior of audience members. To be fair, it is important to

Scott W. Campbell

116

Carbon star effective temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible methods for measuring the effective temperatures of individual carbon stars are discussed. Since calibrations of broad or narrow-band photometric colors is impractical at present, empirical corrections to narrow band color temperatures is the only valid procedure. The effective temperature of the star TW Oph is estimated, based on preliminary reduction of the occultation and associated photometry

S. T. Ridgway; G. H. Jacoby; R. R. Joyce; D. C. Wells

1981-01-01

117

Institutional Effectiveness Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first edition of the College of the Canyon's (California) Institutional Effectiveness Report, which is modeled after the statewide report prepared by the Chancellor's Office. The college is measuring 60 effectiveness indicators in four mission areas: student access, student success, staff composition, and fiscal condition. A brief…

College of the Canyons, Santa Clarita, CA.

118

Side effects of clozapine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the low risk of agranulocytosis, several more frequent side effects are associated with clozapine therapy. We tried to estimate the incidence of these side effects. We analysed 391 treatments in 315 inptients, who received clozapine alone or combined with other neuroleptic and antidepressant drugs. Two thirds were combined treatments, one third were treatments with clozapine alone (i.e.,

Hans Jörg Gaertner; Eberhard Fischer; Joachim Hoss

1989-01-01

119

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

120

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

121

Effects of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most recent data concerning the effects associated with explosions of nuclear weapons are presented. The data have been obtained from observations made of effects of nuclear bombing in Japan and tests carried out at the Eniwetok Proving Grounds and Nevada Test Site, as well as from experiments with conventional explosives, and mathematical calculations. The volume is intended for use

Glasstone

1957-01-01

122

Quantum Spin Hall Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin

B. Andrei Bernevig; Shou-Cheng Zhang

2010-01-01

123

Quantum Spin Hall Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. The existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic

B. Andrei Bernevig; Shou-Cheng Zhang

2006-01-01

124

School Quality and Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most robust and consistent findings in educational research is that a child's educational attainment is greatly affected by its family background. A crucial issue for policy is whether schools have any effect on children's attainment or whether it is all determined by family background and personality traits. If schools are differentially effective then the school attended matters

Arnaud Chevalier; Peter Dolton; Ros Levacic

2004-01-01

125

Effects on Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of experiments with plants on the effects of low-dose and low-dose rates of low LET radiation are reported. Experiments were conducted on the effects of x and gamma radiation on the production of yellow-green sectors in maize leaves, growth inhibi...

H. H. Smith

1977-01-01

126

Effectiveness of active antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active antennas are miniaturized radio-receiver antennas which use broadband transistor amplifiers to effect added voltage. The effectiveness of such an antenna is the signal to noise ratio at the input of the amplifier. This paper presents an analysis of the noise properties of the most widespread active antenna - a short asymmetrical vibrator with a high-impedance broadband amplifier. It is

B. V. Sosunov

1976-01-01

127

Effective Family Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children with definite- and indefinite-solution tasks. Incentive and task independence were manipulated. It was found that definitions of effective problem solving based on directly observed measures of group interaction were more valid than definitions based on…

Blechman, Elaine A.; McEnroe, Michael J.

1985-01-01

128

[Antioxidant effects of melatonin].  

PubMed

Increase in knowledge about reactive oxygen species action mechanisms and oxidative stress effects in living organisms led to intensive seeking for new, more effective substances, which prevent extreme development of oxidative stress or are able to decrease its negative influence, damaging cell structures and many cell functions. These substances are called antioxidants, scavengers, trappers or quenchers. In nineties, melatonin became the centre of the interest in the filed of investigation of antioxidative properties of different chemical substances. This is in living organisms ubiquitous substance with relatively simple chemical structure, good physical properties and wide physiological effects. The main role of endogenous melatonin comprises receptor-mediated biological rhythms synchronisation. Among other functions mentioned later belong anti-gonadotropic, immunotropic and non-receptor-mediated antioxidative effects. Melatonin is said to have also antineoplastic properties. Its anti-aging effect is discutable. PMID:11417192

Konecná, I; Holecek, V; Racek, J; Trefil, L; Rokyta, R

2001-05-01

129

The greenhouse effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse effect on the Earth is identified by the difference between the effective radiating temperature of the planet and its surface temperature. The difference between the energy emitted by the surface and that emitted upward to space by the upper atmosphere quantifies it; it can therefore be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing and the response of the climate system within which climate feedback mechanisms are contained, will be defined in this review. Quantitative examples will illustrate what could happen if the greenhouse effect is perturbed by the human activities, in particular if atmospheric CO2 concentrations would double in the future. Recent measurements by satellites of the greenhouse effect will be given. The net cooling effect of clouds on the Earth and whether or not there will be less cooling by clouds as the planet warms, are discussed following a series of papers recently published by Ramanathan and his collaborators.

Berger, A.; Tricot, Ch.

1992-11-01

130

[Cholinergic effects of nootropics].  

PubMed

With respect to the enhancing effect of nootropics on learning and memory, the influence of some of these drugs on the high affinity choline uptake has been investigated. Meclofenoxate competes with choline uptake in vitro because of its similar side chain; other nootropics are without in vitro effects. A single dose of pramiracetam enhances the choline uptake in cortex and hippocampus. Application of meclofenoxate decreases the uptake of choline. Other nootropics lack acute effects. Possible increases of uptake after repeated dosage disappear within 24 h. PMID:3149192

Funk, K F; Schmidt, J

1988-01-01

131

From effective interactions to effective operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most successful approaches to the nuclear structure of light nuclei is the no-core shell model (NCSM), which describes with very good precision the observed nuclear spectra. In its framework, by means of the Lee Suzuki procedure one derives effective interactions in finite model spaces starting from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials; the low-lying energy spectrum is then obtain through the diagonalization of the ab initio effective interactions in large, translationally invariant, many-body basis. In addition to energy levels, one has to obtain good description of the nuclear wave functions; the latter can be tested by computing observables and transition strengths. With a few exceptions, transition strengths and expectation values of observables have been obtained using bare operators restricted to the model space. We have started recently to apply the Lee-Suzuki procedure to general operators and performed tests in restricted model spaces. In this work, we compute expectation values of selected scalar observables and electromagnetic transition strengths using realistic wave functions for nuclei in the p shell. I.S. and B.R.B acknowledge partial support by NFS grants PHY0070858 and PHY0244389. The work was performed in part under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. P.N. received support from LDRD contract 04-ERD-058.

Stetcu, Ionel; Barrett, Bruce R.; Navratil, Petr

2004-10-01

132

Effective Communication: Instructor Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective Communications is part of the Professional Development Series (PDS) of courses developed under the supervision of the Emergency Management Institute (EMI) with the assistance of State and local subject-matter experts. The series includes seven 1...

2002-01-01

133

Physiological Effects of Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the evolution of exercise science a vast amount of information concerning the physiological effects of training has been generated. Understanding the basic training responses and adaptations of various modes of conditioning can give the clinician ins...

W. J. Kraemer W. L. Daniels

1985-01-01

134

Flexoelectric Effect in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexoelectricity-the coupling between polarization and strain gradients-is a universal effect allowed by symmetry in all materials. Following its discovery several decades ago, studies of flexoelectricity in solids have been scarce due to the seemingly small magnitude of this effect in bulk samples. The development of nanoscale technologies, however, has renewed the interest in flexoelectricity, as the large strain gradients often present at the nanoscale can lead to strong flexoelectric effects. Here we review the fundamentals of the flexoelectric effect in solids, discuss its presence in many nanoscale systems, and look at potential applications of this electromechanical phenomenon. The review also emphasizes the many open questions and unresolved issues in this developing field.

Zubko, Pavlo; Catalan, Gustau; Tagantsev, Alexander K.

2013-07-01

135

Vaccine herd effect.  

PubMed

Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines. PMID:21604922

Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

2011-05-23

136

Vaccine herd effect  

PubMed Central

Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

2011-01-01

137

Coping with Side Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... Depression When should I call my doctor? Side Effect Strategies for Coping Fatigue Lingering feeling of tiredness Most common symptom Some medications Plenty of rest, with short naps Light to moderate physical activity Ask others to help ...

138

Demonstrating Product Effectiveness  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... know how to do this with appropriate correction, ... effect. If the trial did not have assay sensitivity, then ... That is, the trial itself does not show the study's ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

139

Munroe Effect Breaching Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is provided in the present invention an unlined, Munroe Effect device for breaching structures in urban terrain during combat or emergency operations. The device is constructed as an unlined, linear, shaped explosive charge which upon detonation dir...

J. S. Foster J. A. Zehmer

1982-01-01

140

Effectiveness of Navy Advertising.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Navy recruiting advertising in producing fully qualified, first-term enlistments during calendar years 1976 and 1977. Advertising expenditures and enlistment data were allocated to the county le...

T. C. Williams

1978-01-01

141

Coherent Backscattering Opposition Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have measured the opposition effect, the nonlinear surge in reflectance seen in particulate materials as phase angle approaches zero degrees, in a suite of materials of varying particle size and reflectance. These samples were illuminated by linearly a...

R. M. Nelson B. W. Hapke W. D. Smythe V. Gharakanian P. Herrera

1993-01-01

142

[Genetic effects of radiation].  

PubMed

This paper is a short review of genetic effect of radiation. This includes methods and results of a large-scale genetic study on specific loci in mice and of various studies in the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors. As for the latter, there is no results obtained which suggest the effect of parental exposure to radiation. Further, in recent years, studies are conducted to the offspring born to parents who were survivors of childhood cancers. In several reports, the mean gonad dose is quite large whereas in most instances, the results do not indicate genetic effect following parental exposure to radiation. Possible reasons for the difficulties in detecting genetic effect of radiation are discussed. PMID:22514926

Nakamura, Nori

2012-03-01

143

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.

1986-01-01

144

Substituent Effect in Ketoferrocenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of carbonyl-group on the redox potential and Moessbauer parameters was studied in ketoferrocenes and chalcone analogous ferrocene derivatives. Interaction of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents and the carbonyl-group is disc...

A. G. Nagy

1983-01-01

145

Hall Effect Spintronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the original project continued research devoted to manufacture, study and optimization of materials suitable for spintronics applications based on the extraordinary Hall effect (EHE). The work was focused on three major tasks: 1. Preparation and...

A. Gerber

2011-01-01

146

Cost Effectiveness Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This section presents the general cost-effectiveness analysis procedures appropriate to small communal and onsite waste-water treatment systems design. The cost components of the analysis will first be defined and the general procedures for their determin...

1995-01-01

147

Chemical Structural Aging Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program is determining the individual chemical rate processes that govern the aging of ANB-3066 propellant, and it is attempting to establish the effect of chemical (compositional) changes upon the system's mechanical response to enable better utiliz...

G. E. Myers A. B. Tipton

1972-01-01

148

Coefficients of Effective Length.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

Edwards, Roger H.

1981-01-01

149

Nocturnal aircraft noise effects.  

PubMed

Noise protection associated with the construction and extension of airports in the Federal Republic of Germany has been regulated by the law for protection against aircraft noise since 1971. This legislation is due for revision because of different aspects. One aspect is the growth of air traffic which has led many airports to the limits of their capacity and in search of new ways of adaptation to the increasing demand for flight services. Another aspect is the increasing concern of the population about noise effects which has to be addressed by better protection against the effects of aircraft noise. The framework conditions of policy in terms of society as a whole, its health and economic environment need to be put into effect by political action. Science can contribute to this goal by performing noise effects research and by providing recommendations to the political body. However, it remains controversial, what measures are necessary or adequate to assure effective protection of the population against aircraft noise. This is particularly true for the protection of rest and sleep at night. The problem of finding a common basis for adequate recommendations is associated with (1) the low number of primary studies, which also exhibited highly variable results and assessments, (2) the handling of acoustic or psycho-acoustic dimensions for quantifying psychological or physiological reactions, and (3) the conception of how far preventive measures have to go to prove effective. With this in mind, the DLR Institute for Aerospace Medicine is conducting a large-scale, multi-stage study for investigating the acute effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on human sleep. This enterprise is implemented in the framework of the HGF/DLR project "Quiet Air Traffic" for developing sustainable assessment criteria for human-specific effects of aircraft noise at night. PMID:15070533

Basner, M; Samel, A

150

Pupillary Stroop effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recorded the pupil diameters of participants performing the words’ color-naming Stroop task (i.e., naming the color of\\u000a a word that names a color). Non-color words were used as baseline to firmly establish the effects of semantic relatedness\\u000a induced by color word distractors. We replicated the classic Stroop effects of color congruency and color incongruency with\\u000a pupillary diameter recordings: relative

Bruno Laeng; Marte Ørbo; Terje Holmlund; Michele Miozzo

2011-01-01

151

Security effectiveness review (SER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the on-going DOE\\/Russian MPC and A activities at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) and in order to provide a basis for planning MPC and A enhancements, an expedient method to review the effectiveness of the MPC and A system has been adopted. These reviews involve the identification of appropriate and cost-effective enhancements of facilities

I. Kouprianova; D. Ek; R. Showalter; M. Bergman

1998-01-01

152

The Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a simulation of the Doppler effect. The user can change the speed of the wave source and can move a microphone to detect the wave frequency at different points relative to the moving source. The resulting wave pattern can be both observed and heard. Instructional notes outlining the details of the Doppler effect are provided. This material is part of a web site for a second semester physics course for majors covering gravity, fluids, waves, and thermodynamics.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather

2008-07-31

153

Cytogenetic effects of cyclamates  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHA-stimulated human peripheral lymphocytes were used as a model system for assessing the in vitro effects of calcium cyclamate. Techniques of autoradiography, cytological staining, cell counting, liquid scintillation and karyotyping were used to study the cytogenetic damage and biochemical effects of calcium cyclamate when assayed in 24 hour intervals for 96 hours. The cells were exposed to 10(-2) and 10(-3)

E. W. Jemison; K. Brown; B. Rivers; R. Knight

1984-01-01

154

Health effects of ozone  

SciTech Connect

The author comments on Morton Lippmann's paper entitled Health Effects of Ozone which was presented at the 82nd Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting and Exhibition, held in Anaheim, California in June 1989. Thanks to the efforts of Dr. Lippmann we have a better understanding of the acute, prolonged and chronic exposure health effects of ozone and are in a better position to receive public support to clean the air.

McKee, D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1989-09-01

155

Doppler Effect Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet lets students interactively experience the Doppler effect. The user can adjust the position of an "observer" relative to the wave source (a jet plane), change the plane's speed, observe how the waveforms change in frequency and wavelength as the plane passes by the observer, and listen to the change in pitch of the sound. There are also links to additional information on the Doppler effect, the physics of sound, and other sound-based applets.

156

Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise

2004-01-01

157

The Disappearing Delaware Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refining and extending the methodology introduced by Daines (2001), I present evidence that small Delaware firms were worth more than small non-Delaware firms during the period 1991--1996 but not afterwards. I also present evidence that larger firms, which comprise 98% of my sample by size, exhibit no Delaware effect for any year during the period 1991--2002. Thus the Delaware effect

Guhan Subramanian

2004-01-01

158

Spin Hall Effect Transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of semiconductor spintronics explores spin-related quantum relativistic phenomena in solid-state systems. Spin transistors and spin Hall effects have been two separate leading directions of research in this field. We have combined the two directions by realizing an all-semiconductor spin Hall effect transistor. The device uses diffusive transport and operates without electrical current in the active part of the

Jörg Wunderlich; Byong-Guk Park; Andrew C. Irvine; Liviu P. Zârbo; Eva Rozkotová; Petr Nemec; Vít Novák; Jairo Sinova; Tomás Jungwirth

2010-01-01

159

The extraterrestrial Casimir Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of the Electro-Gravi-Magnetic (EGM) Photon radiation method to the Casimir Effect (CE), suggests that the experimentally verified (terrestrially) neutrally charged Parallel-Plate configuration force, may differ within extraterrestrial gravitational environments from the gravitationally independent formulation by Casimir. Consequently, the derivation presented herein implies that a gravitationally dependent CE may become an important design factor in nanotechnology for extraterrestrial applications (ignoring finite conductivity + temperature effects and evading the requirement for Casimir Force corrections due to surface roughness).

Storti, Riccardo C.

2011-09-01

160

The Uniform Rugosity Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relying on the effect of microscopic asperities, one can mathematically justify that viscous fluids adhere completely on the\\u000a boundary of an impermeable domain. The rugosity effect accounts asymptotically for the transformation of complete slip boundary\\u000a conditions on a rough surface in total adherence boundary conditions, as the amplitude of the rugosities vanishes. The decreasing\\u000a rate (average velocity divided by the

Matthieu Bonnivard; Dorin Bucur

2011-01-01

161

Pleiotropic effects of pitavastatin.  

PubMed

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are established first line treatments for hypercholesterolaemia. In addition to the direct effects of statins in reducing concentrations of atherogenic low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), several studies have indicated that the beneficial effects of statins may be due to some of their cholesterol-independent, multiple (pleiotropic) effects which may differ between different members of the class. Pitavastatin is a novel synthetic lipophilic statin that has a number of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties distinct from those of other statins, which may underlie its potential pleiotropic benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. This review examines the principal pleiotropic effects of pitavastatin on endothelial function, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and thrombosis. The article is based on a systematic literature search carried out in December 2010, together with more recent relevant publications where appropriate. The available data from clinical trials and in vitro and animal studies suggest that pitavastatin is not only effective in reducing LDL-C and triglycerides, but also has a range of other effects. These include increasing high density lipoprotein cholesterol, decreasing markers of platelet activation, improving cardiac, renal and endothelial function, and reducing endothelial stress, lipoprotein oxidation and, ultimately, improving the signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. It is concluded that the diverse pleiotropic actions of pitavastatin may contribute to reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality beyond that achieved through LDL-C reduction. PMID:22053916

Davignon, Jean

2012-04-01

162

Effective Transport Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

Mauri, Roberto

163

Magnetoelectric effects in manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on manganites has been conducted for more than half century. Recent discoveries of colossal responses to external fields such as colossal magnetoresistance effects and correlation among spin, orbital, and lattice in phase separated manganites and multiferroic manganites have motivated me to understand these materials. The main purpose of this dissertation is to understand magnetoelectric effects in phase separated (La1-yPr y)1-xCaxMnO3 (LPCMO) thin films and multiferroic BiMnO3 (BMO) thin films. First, high quality phase separated manganite thin films have been successfully grown. To grow the high quality manganite thin films, extensive effort was devoted to fine tuning of oxygen pressure, temperature, and laser fluence during film growth. As-grown films were characterized with various ex-situ techniques: magnetization measurements, transport measurements, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and/or transmission electron microscopy to remove the effects of impurities and unwanted strains except substrate induced strain. Second, three major results were obtained in high quality phase separated LPCMO thin films. These results are based on the dynamic nature of phases in LPCMO. 1) LPCMO thin films showed single domain to multi-domain transition during cooling. This transition can be tuned by substrate stress induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy. 2) Evidence for the origin of colossal electroresistance (CER) effect has been observed. The CER is triggered by dielectrophoresis, or movements of ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) phase, which is manifested in anisotropic transport properties in microfabricated LPCMO cross structures. This fluidic nature of the FMM phase in LPCMO under high electric fields lead to exotic magnetoelectric effects. 3) Electric field effects on magnetotransport properties have been observed. This phenomena can also be tuned by the combined effect of substrate strain and current flow. This combined effect of electric and magnetic fields and strain at the interface of LPCMO suggest new ways to control magnetism (magnetotransport) with electric fields. Third, impurity-free and epitaxial BMO thin films were grown. These films showed ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity at low temperature. Magnetoelectric effects are discussed, especially magnetization change due to electric fields.

Jeen, Hyoung Jeen

164

Nonperturbative effects in supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A promising candidate for a fundamental theory of nature, incorporating both general relativity and quantum mechanics, is string theory. This theory is based on one-dimensional extended objects that move through spacetime. However, string theory is most naturally formulated in ten dimensions. To consider string theory in four dimensions one can compactify six dimensions (by making them very small) and compute the effect on the theory. This yields a certain four-dimensional theory. Furthermore, string theory contains also extended objects of higher dimensions, these are called D-branes (think for example of a membrane). Their effect on the four-dimensional theory should be considered as well. This is what we have done, in a certain setting, and the results are presented in this thesis. We work in the supergravity approximation, which means that we restrict ourselves to length scales (much) smaller than the string length. In this approximation the D-branes are described by solitonic solutions to the supergravity equations of motion. We consider the N=2 supergravity theory in four dimensions resulting from compactifying type IIA supergravity (the low energy limit of type IIA string theory) on a six-dimensional Calabi-Yau manifold. Furthermore we consider the membrane and NS five-brane. In the four-dimensional theory they can be described by finite action solutions to the equations of motion. We then construct the effective action which incorporates the effects of the membrane and the five-brane, respectively. The effective N=2 supergravity action (the supergravity multiplet coupled to a hypermultiplet) in four dimensions incorporating the one-loop effects in the background of a NS five-brane is computed by a 'traditional' instanton calculation. The effective action incorporating the one-loop effect in the presence of a membrane is computed using knowledge of the symmetries of the action and their breaking by the membrane. These nonperturbative corrections affect the hypermultiplet sector of the N=2 supergravity theory. Furthermore, we gauge an isometry of the hypermultiplet sector. This produces a potential. This potential has certain minima and the effect of the nonperturbative membrane corrections is to produce a metastable minimum which can have a positive value: a de Sitter minimum.

Davidse, Marijn

2006-01-01

165

A "voice inversion effect?".  

PubMed

Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an "auditory face" rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a "voice inversion effect," by analogy to the classical "face inversion effect," which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted of a gender identification task on two syllables pronounced by 90 speakers (boys, girls, men, and women). Experiment 2 consisted of a speaker discrimination task on pairs of syllables (8 men and 8 women). Experiment 3 consisted of an instrument discrimination task on pairs of melodies (8 string and 8 wind instruments). In all three experiments, stimuli were presented in 4 conditions: (1) no inversion; (2) temporal inversion (e.g., backwards speech); (3) frequency inversion centered around 4000 Hz; and (4) around 2500 Hz. Results indicated a significant decrease in performance caused by sound inversion, with a much stronger effect for frequency than for temporal inversion. Interestingly, although frequency inversion markedly affected timbre for both voices and instruments, subjects' performance was still above chance. However, performance at instrument discrimination was much higher than for voices, preventing comparison of inversion effects for voices vs. non-vocal stimuli. Additional experiments will be necessary to conclude on the existence of a possible "voice inversion effect." PMID:15177788

Bédard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

2004-07-01

166

System Effectiveness Model Formulation  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of system effectiveness has numerous pitfalls. System objectives may be poorly defined, may shift during the system life or may be hard to quantify. Further, individual perceptions of the quantifications may differ. Whatever the cause, system effectiveness has been an elusive term to quantitatively define. The proposed model presents a quantitative system effectiveness model and establishes a utilitarian approach for its use with the illustrative application to a nuclear safeguards system. The model uses the Type I and Type II statistical error rates as input to the component or subsystem effectiveness calculation which, when combined using a utilitarian methodology, quantify the overall system effectiveness. The methodology will use a survey of expert judgment to determine the relative importance of the individual subsystems through a statistically designed web survey. The web based survey will be available to nuclear material protection, control, and accounting experts attending the 2008 INMM conference. This model and methodology will provide a repeatable quantifiable measure for any system but in this case a simple safeguards system is used as an example.

Coates, Cameron W [ORNL; Jackson, Denise F [ORNL

2008-01-01

167

Mitochondrial threshold effects.  

PubMed Central

The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases.

Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

2003-01-01

168

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

169

Photoelectric Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Photoelectric Effect model simulates the Photoelectric effect discovered by Hertz in 1887 and described theoretically by Einstein in 1905. Light of a given frequency (and energy) shines on a metal. If the frequency (energy) of the light is greater than the work function, W, of the metal, electrons are ejected and can form a current (which is shown in milliAmperes). These photoelectrons will also have a kinetic energy if the energy of the light is greater than the workfunction. they will have kinetic energy. If subjected to an electric potential the electrons can be stopped from reaching the plate and stop current from flowing in a circuit. The EJS Photoelectric Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_photoelectric.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Palop, Jose I.

2010-07-16

170

??-Corrected Chiral Magnetic Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, the effect of ??-correction on the value of Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is computed by adding a number of spinning probe D7-branes in the ??-corrected background. We numerically show that the magnitude of CME rises in the presence of ??-correction for massive solutions and this increase is more sensible at higher temperatures. However, this value does not change for massless solution. Although some of the D7-brane embeddings have no CME, after applying the ??-correction they find a non-zero value for the CME. We also show that the effect of ??-correction removes the singularity from some of the D7-brane embeddings.

Ali-Akbari, M.; Taghavi, S. F.

2013-07-01

171

Health effects of ozone  

SciTech Connect

The 1989 Critical Review on Health Effects of Ozone by Morton Lippmann is a valuable contribution to the literature on criteria air pollutants. In a comprehensive fashion, the paper methodically examines key areas relevant to understanding effects of ozone on human health: exposure and dosimetry, populations and responses of concern, research approaches, and effects upon specific pulmonary endpoints from single and multiple exposures. Dr. Lippmann has provided us with more than an excellent summary; whenever possible, he has thoughtfully integrated findings from the relevant disciplines of animal toxicology, epidemiology, field studies and controlled clinical studies, and has emphasized exposure-response relationship in arriving at his conclusions. Going beyond the call of duty, he has concluded with a Critical Preview recommending a shape and form for the ozone standard of the future.

Utell, M.J. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (USA))

1989-09-01

172

Spin Hall Effect Transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of semiconductor spintronics explores spin-related quantum relativistic phenomena in solid-state systems. Spin transistors and spin Hall effects have been two separate leading directions of research in this field. We have combined the two directions by realizing an all-semiconductor spin Hall effect transistor. The device uses diffusive transport and operates without electrical current in the active part of the transistor. We demonstrate a spin AND logic function in a semiconductor channel with two gates. Our study shows the utility of the spin Hall effect in a microelectronic device geometry, realizes the spin transistor with electrical detection directly along the gated semiconductor channel, and provides an experimental tool for exploring spin Hall and spin precession phenomena in an electrically tunable semiconductor layer.

Wunderlich, Jörg; Park, Byong-Guk; Irvine, Andrew C.; Zârbo, Liviu P.; Rozkotová, Eva; Nemec, Petr; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomás

2010-12-01

173

Aviation noise effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

1985-03-01

174

Spin Hall effect transistor.  

PubMed

The field of semiconductor spintronics explores spin-related quantum relativistic phenomena in solid-state systems. Spin transistors and spin Hall effects have been two separate leading directions of research in this field. We have combined the two directions by realizing an all-semiconductor spin Hall effect transistor. The device uses diffusive transport and operates without electrical current in the active part of the transistor. We demonstrate a spin AND logic function in a semiconductor channel with two gates. Our study shows the utility of the spin Hall effect in a microelectronic device geometry, realizes the spin transistor with electrical detection directly along the gated semiconductor channel, and provides an experimental tool for exploring spin Hall and spin precession phenomena in an electrically tunable semiconductor layer. PMID:21205664

Wunderlich, Jörg; Park, Byong-Guk; Irvine, Andrew C; Zârbo, Liviu P; Rozkotová, Eva; Nemec, Petr; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomás

2010-12-24

175

The uncontrollable placebo effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a To analyse the role of the control group in the methodology of clinical placebo effect evaluating trials.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Department of Medical Philosophy and Clinical Theory, University of Copenhagen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A theoretical methodological analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a At least with present trial designs, it is impossible, with certainty, to exclude a potential placebo effect from the so-called\\u000a control group. The placebo effect,

A. Hróbjartsson

1996-01-01

176

Irsogladine prevents monochloramine-induced gastric mucosal lesions by improving the decrease in mucosal blood flow due to the disturbance of nitric oxide synthesis in rats.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect of an anti-ulcer drug irsogladine [2,4-diamino-6-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-s-triazine maleate] on monochloramine (NH(2)Cl)-induced gastric mucosal lesions and its mechanisms of action were clarified in rats. Irsogladine dose-dependently prevented the formation of gastric mucosal lesions induced by 60 mM NH(2)Cl. The mucosal protective effect of irsogladine was not influenced by capsaicin-sensitive sensory defunctionalization. On the other hand, its protective effect was diminished by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), but not by the inducible nitric oxide synthase selective inhibitor aminoguanidine. Irsogladine restored the NH(2)Cl-induced decrease in the gastric cGMP formation as an index of nitric oxide synthesis, while it alone had no influence on the cGMP formation in intact tissues. Pretreatment with L-NAME abolished the recovery of cGMP by irsogladine. Furthermore, irsogladine ameliorated the NH(2)Cl-induced decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow, which was also reversed by pretreatment with L-NAME. These findings suggest that the improvement of the decrease in mucosal blood flow subsequent to the disturbance of gastric nitric oxide synthesis is involved in the protective effect of irsogladine on gastric mucosal lesions caused by NH(2)Cl. PMID:14646249

Kyoi, Takashi; Oka, Michiko; Noda, Kumiko; Ukai, Yojiro

2003-11-01

177

Angiotensin-(1-7) inhibits the angiotensin II-enhanced norepinephrine release in coarcted hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Since it has been suggested that angiotensin (Ang) (1-7) functions as an antihypertensive peptide, we studied its effect on the Ang II-enhanced norepinephrine (NE) release evoked by K+ in hypothalami isolated from aortic coarcted hypertensive (CH) rats. The endogenous NE stores were labeled by incubation of the tissues with 3H-NE during 30 min, and after 90 min of washing, they were incubated in Krebs solution containing 25 mM KCl in the absence or presence of the peptides. Ang-(1-7) not only diminished the K+-evoked NE release from hypothalami of CH rats, but also blocked the Ang II-enhanced NE release induced by K+. Ang-(1-7) blocking action on the Ang II response was prevented by [D-Ala7]Ang-(1-7), an Ang-(1-7) specific antagonist, by PD 123319, an AT2-receptor antagonist, and by Hoe 140, a B2 receptor antagonist. Ang-(1-7) inhibitory effect on the Ang II facilitatory effect on K+-stimulated NE release disappeared in the presence of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester and was restored by L-arginine. Our present results suggest that Ang-(1-7) may contribute to blood pressure regulation by blocking Ang II actions on NE release at the central level. This inhibitory effect is a nitric oxide-mediated mechanism involving AT2 receptors and/or Ang-(1-7) specific receptors and local bradykinin generation. PMID:14759556

Gironacci, Mariela Mercedes; Yujnovsky, Irene; Gorzalczany, Susana; Taira, Carlos; Peña, Clara

2004-04-15

178

Quercetin inhibits vascular superoxide production induced by endothelin-1: Role of NADPH oxidase, uncoupled eNOS and PKC.  

PubMed

Chronic administration of the most abundant dietary flavonoid quercetin exerts antihypertensive effects and improves endothelial function. We have investigated the effects of quercetin and its methylated metabolite isorhamnetin (1-10microM) on endothelial dysfunction and superoxide (O(2*)(-)) production induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1, 10nM). ET-1 increased the contractile response induced by phenylephrine and reduced the relaxant responses to acetylcholine in phenylephrine contracted intact aorta, and these effects were prevented by co-incubation with quercetin, isorhamnetin or chelerythrine (protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor). This endothelial dysfunction was also improved by superoxide dismutase (SOD), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and sepiapterin (tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis substrate). Furthermore, ET-1 increased intracellular O(2*)(-) production in all layers of the vessel, protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit p47(phox) without affecting p22(phox) expression and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence signal stimulated by calcium ionophore A23187. All these changes were prevented by both quercetin and isorhamnetin. Moreover, apocynin, endothelium denudation and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) suppressed the ET-1-induced increase in A23187-stimulated O(2*)(-) generation. Moreover, quercetin but not isorhamnetin, inhibited the increased PKC activity induced by ET-1. Taken together these results indicate that ET-1-induced NADPH oxidase up-regulation and eNOS uncoupling via PKC leading to endothelial dysfunction and these effects were prevented by quercetin and isorhamnetin. PMID:18436224

Romero, Miguel; Jiménez, Rosario; Sánchez, Manuel; López-Sepúlveda, Rocío; Zarzuelo, Maria José; O'Valle, Francisco; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

2008-03-16

179

Pseudoprogression and treatment effect.  

PubMed

The standard of care for newly diagnosed malignant glioblastoma entails postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. There has been an increase in the incidence of enhancing and progressive lesions seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following treatment. Conventional MRI with gadolinium contrast is unable to distinguish between the effects of treatment and actual tumor recurrence. New modalities have provided additional information for distinguishing treatment effects from tumor progression but are not 100% sensitive or specific in diagnosing progression. Novel radiographic or nonradiographic biomarkers with sensitivity and specificity verified in large randomized clinical trials are needed to detect progression. PMID:22440871

Jahangiri, Arman; Aghi, Manish K

2012-02-14

180

Mesoscopic Josephson effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the classical Josephson effect the phase difference across the junction is well defined, and the supercurrent is reduced only weakly by phase diffusion. For mesoscopic junctions with small capacitance the phase undergoes large quantum fluctuations, and the current is also decreased by Coulomb blockade effects. We discuss the behavior of the current-voltage characteristics in a large range of parameters comprising the phase diffusion regime with coherent Josephson current as well as the supercurrent peak due to incoherent Cooper pair tunneling in the Coulomb blockade regime.

Grabert, Hermann; Ingold, Gert-Ludwig

1999-05-01

181

Predicting drug effectiveness.  

PubMed

Two new diagnostic tests which evaluate a patient's HIV resistance to antiviral drugs were scheduled to be on the market in July. The tests are being marketed under the trademarks Antivirogram, by Laboratory Corporation of America, and VircoGEN by VIRCO. Both companies say that when the tests are used together, they will predict which drugs a patient will respond to, leading to more effective treatment decisions. Studies were conducted to predict the effectiveness of Ritonavir/Saquinavir therapy, and the results were very promising. PMID:11365696

1998-08-01

182

Chiral magnetic effect  

SciTech Connect

Topological charge changing transitions can induce chirality in the quark-gluon plasma by the axial anomaly. We study the equilibrium response of the quark-gluon plasma in such a situation to an external magnetic field. To mimic the effect of the topological charge changing transitions we will introduce a chiral chemical potential. We will show that an electromagnetic current is generated along the magnetic field. This is the chiral magnetic effect. We compute the magnitude of this current as a function of magnetic field, chirality, temperature, and baryon chemical potential.

Fukushima, Kenji [Yukawa Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Warringa, Harmen J. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York 11973 (United States)

2008-10-01

183

Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Assessment Toolkit  

EPA Science Inventory

US EPA has identified stormwater BMP effectiveness as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater ...

184

The Effects of Nuclear War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the full range of effects that nuclear war would have on civilians: direct effects from blast and radiation; and indirect effects from economic, social, and political disruption. Particular attention is devoted to the ways in which the ...

1979-01-01

185

Side Effects of Hormone Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary ... to evaluate its use in men with advanced prostate cancer. If the approach proves to be as effective ...

186

Petroleum effects in the Arctic  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the environmental and biological effects of oil spills. Topics considered include the Arctic marine ecosystem, the physical and chemical fate of spilled oil, the effects of hydrocarbons on microorganisms and petroleum biodegradation in arctic ecosystems, the effects of oil on arctic invertebrates, the effects of oil on fish, a risk assessment of oil on arctic marine birds, the effects of petroleum on marine mammals, and the effects of petroleum activities on the ecology of arctic man.

Engelhardt, F.R.

1985-01-01

187

Structural Effects on Daylighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum daylighting of interior spaces is most effectively achieved by pure archi- tectural (or: structural) measures of which the most basic ones are the dimension- ing and positioning of daylight openings in the building envelope as well as geome- try and surface characteristics of the considered space. Multidimensional regres- sion analyses with such parameters performed for a number of simple

Friedrich Sick

188

Effective classical partition functions  

SciTech Connect

We present a method by which a quantum-mechanical partition function can be approximated from below by an effective classical partition function. The associated potential is obtained by a simple smearing procedure. For a strongly anharmonic oscillator and a double-well potential, the lowest approximation gives a free energy which is accurate to a few percent, even at zero temperature.

Feynman, R.P.; Kleinert, H.

1986-12-01

189

Effective receivables management.  

PubMed

To prevent the accumulation of accounts in the "greater than 120 days" category, receivable management strategies must be revised. The keys to managing receivables in the current healthcare environment have been presented. With the healthcare industry likely to remain credit-oriented, those organizations that effectively manage receivables and minimize their cost of working capital will win a real competitive advantage. PMID:10303035

Raymond, G B

1988-12-01

190

EFFECTS ON SALTWATER ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The literature review summarizes current data on the effects of pesticides and metals on marine organisms, aquatic environmental research methods, bioaccumulation of pollutants by estuarine and marine organisms and in water/sediment residues and biota. Results of studies of the e...

191

Cardiovascular Effects of Caffeine  

PubMed Central

A review of the literature on the cardiovascular effects of caffeine indicates that moderate caffeine consumption does not cause cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, or an increased incidence of coronary heart disease. Caffeine use is often associated with atherogenic behavior, such as cigarette smoking. Failure to take into account covariables for cardiovascular disease could be responsible for commonly held misconceptions about caffeine and heart disease.

Myers, Martin G.

1992-01-01

192

Health effects of ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is an honor to have the opportunity to comment on Dr. Morton Lippmann's excellent review on the health effects of ozone, which was presented at the 82nd Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting and Exhibition held in Anaheim, California in June 1989. It is comprehensive in citing all of the pertinent references, interpretative in its review of the

McClellan

1989-01-01

193

Developing Effective Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on research administrators, discusses how an effective training program improves employee performance by including comprehensive needs assessment, employing appropriate training methodologies, and anticipating factors beyond the actual training event that influence the transfer of skills from the training environment to the work…

Wagonhurst, Carole

2002-01-01

194

Designing Effective Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents an online tutorial about creating effective poster presentations. The site guides users through the basics of poster design, which should free the presenter to focus on discussion of essential elements of the work. Decisions about poster format and design which contribute to efficient and accurate transfer of information using this medium are also discussed.

Radel, Jeff; Center, Ku M.

195

The nonlinear Fano effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fano effect is ubiquitous in the spectroscopy of, for instance, atoms, bulk solids and semiconductor heterostructures. It arises when quantum interference takes place between two competing optical pathways, one connecting the energy ground state and an excited discrete state, the other connecting the ground state with a continuum of energy states. The nature of the interference changes rapidly as

M. Kroner; A. O. Govorov; S. Remi; B. Biedermann; S. Seidl; A. Badolato; P. M. Petroff; W. Zhang; R. Barbour; B. D. Gerardot; R. J. Warburton; K. Karrai

2008-01-01

196

Effect of a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 studies with 104 undergraduates investigated the effect of a chunked typography on the reading rate and comprehension of mature readers, reading at their normal rates. Passages and questions from a standardized reading test were displayed via an electromechanical device which allowed actual reading times to be recorded. 5 experimental chunked formats were compared with each other and 1 selected

Ronald P. Carver

1970-01-01

197

Desert Storm environmental effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that after more than six months of operation of the Patriot launch station in the Saudi Arabian desert no problems that were attributed to high temperature occurred. The environmental anomalies that did occur were cosmetic in nature and related to dust and salt fog. It was concluded that the Desert Storm environmental effects were typical of worldwide

E. W. Kimball

1992-01-01

198

Desert Storm environmental effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that after more than six months of operation of the Patriot launch station in the Saudi Arabian desert no problems that were attributed to high temperature occurred. The environmental anomalies that did occur were cosmetic in nature and related to dust and salt fog. It was concluded that the Desert Storm environmental effects were typical of worldwide hot, dry climates.

Kimball, E. W.

199

Ground Effect in Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper aims to analyze the propulsion of birds and fishes undergoing the ground effect as well as the lift of high-speed ground vehicle. Applying the analytical method which was developed for flutter of a soft plate placed at an arbitrary position in subsonic channel flows, calculations are carried out first for non-oscillatory case in compressible flow and then

Yoshimichi Tanida

2001-01-01

200

Matthew Effects for Whom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Which children are most at risk of experiencing a Matthew effect in reading? We investigated this question using population-based methodology. First, we identified children entering kindergarten on socio-demographic factors (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) known to index the relative risks and resources available to them…

Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hibel, Jacob

2008-01-01

201

Local-Effect Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new class of games, local-effect games (LEGs), which exploit structure in a differ- ent way from other compact game representations studied in AI. We show both theoretically and em- pirically that these games often (but not always) have pure-strategy Nash equilibria. Finding a po- tential function is a good technique for finding such equilibria. We give a

Kevin Leyton-brown; Moshe Tennenholtz

2003-01-01

202

Cost Effective Buying  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will help students learn to evaluate energy-related purchases in terms of cost-effectiveness. How long will it take for the new purchase to "pay for itself" in terms of energy savings? The lesson involves both sustainability and economics concepts. The lesson should take two or three class periods to complete.

2011-01-11

203

Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

Renville, Gary

1999-01-01

204

Developing Effective Tourism Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the development of effective leadership in the tourism industry from the perspective of current industry leaders in Hong Kong, China. The literature reviews the key themes in tourism leadership research, which is followed by an empirical qualitative study of 10 leaders in the tourism industry in Hong Kong. Findings are explored in relation to three key areas:

Karin Weber; Adele Ladkin

2010-01-01

205

Gauge Invariant Effective Potentials  

SciTech Connect

We make use of a dual formulation of the abelian Higgs model expressing it in terms of anti-symmetric tensor fields. In this dual form we obtain a gauge invariant derivation of the effective potential and also make the topological contributions (vortex-strings) explicit in the action.

Ramos, Rudnei O. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Medeiros Neto, J.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110 Belem, PA (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2004-12-02

206

Documentation: Effective AND Literate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

Paul S. Burdett Jr.

1985-01-01

207

Astrophysical chaotic gun effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a kinetic equation for a special kind of acceleration: chaotic gun effect. Then we infer a distribution function which can depict the instability condition. With this distribution function we derive the power spectrum of the synchrotron emission and we prove the power law form of the power spectrum. We show that the spectral index of the emission spectrum

Gheorghe Dumitrescu; Toma N. Socolescu

2009-01-01

208

Effective Internet Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how teachers can help students learn to use effectively the wealth of knowledge on the Internet by organizing research in advance, planning carefully and structuring assignments as students conduct their own research, and teaching students to evaluate web sites. (SR)|

Lim, Janine

2001-01-01

209

Lorenz Attractor -- Butterfly Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Butterfly Effect", or more technically the "sensitive dependence on initial conditions", is the essence of chaos. This is illustrated an applet of the Lorenz Attractor. The demonstration shows a graphical representation of the time variation of three variables X(t),Y(t) and Z(t), coupled by non-linear evolution equations.

Michael Cross, Cal T.

210

Effective Press Releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stresses the importance of the effective management of the release of information to the media and the development of media relations. Considers reasons for good and bad press. Advises on the presentation of press releases, the elements of their content and their structure. Looks at how additional information should be supplied, and how photographs can be used to illustrate a

Linda S. Ashcroft

1994-01-01

211

Stern-Gerlach effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page illustrates the Stern-Gerlach effect on spin 1/2 particles. Movies and an illustration show the time-dependent properties of wavepackets in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Examples are given for silver atoms, ions, and electrons.

Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans

2010-03-11

212

Courtside: Private Effects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After being accused of sexually harassing a student, a high school math teacher in New York was suspended with pay pending an impartial hearing. The district allowed the teacher to return to his classroom to collect his personal effects, which he had kept in boxes, desk drawers, and three filing cabinets, one of which was locked. He did not…

Zirkel, Perry A.

2004-01-01

213

Lightning Physics and Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of

Richard E. Orville

2004-01-01

214

Media effect in commercial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords Brand identity, Brand image, Consumer behaviour, Goodwill, Marketing communications, Sponsorship Abstract Various elements of brand identity contribute to brand image development; however, the role of marketing communications is particularly important in achieving brand image effects. In the case of advertising, two separate elements of communications, a message and a medium, combine to deliver particular brand image values. In the

David Shipley

215

Facilitating online discussions effectively  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a synthesis of the theoretical and research literature on facilitating asynchronous online discussions effectively. Online courses need to be designed so that they provide motivation for students to engage in productive discussions and clearly describe what is expected, perhaps in the form of a discussion rubric. Additionally, instructors need to provide discussion forums for socio-emotional discussions that

Alfred P. Rovai

2007-01-01

216

The Energy Diameter Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diameter (size) effect is the well-known increase of detonation velocity with increasing radius. We ask if a similar effect is seen with the detonation energy. To see this, it is necessary to perform the Cylinder test on small-radius samples of non-ideal explosives, which detonate with a low velocity. We fired nine ammonium nitrate/aluminum and AN/NM Cylinder shots with diameters of 12.7 to 50.8 mm using Fabry and heterodyne velocimetry for the wall velocities and pins for the detonation velocity. It is the use of the ultra-narrow 12.7 mm copper cylinders that give us points low enough to be sure that the effect exists. We find that the detonation energies at the three standard Cylinder relative volumes (2.2, 4.4, 7.2) vary roughly as the square of the detonation velocity. This is confirmed in numerical simulation calculations. A simple derivation of the relations of energy, detonation velocity, reaction zone length and detonation rate are given. We define a generalized inverse radius that can be applied to data for both explosive cylinders and outwardly-detonating spheres. The relation that detonation rate is proportional to the diameter effect slope can be used to derive the inverse radius equation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Vitello, Peter; Souers, P. Clark

2007-06-01

217

Recruiting Effective Board Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that lack of seriousness in recruiting board members for child care agencies can create problems with organizational effectiveness. Addresses the following: (1) Do we need more board members?; (2) What do we need from new members?; and (3) How do we begin recruiting? Provides resources, such as the "Child Care Agency Board Skill Inventory"…

Bess, Gary; Ratekin, Cindy

1999-01-01

218

DESIGNING EFFECTIVE STUDY ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study setting (private or open-plan), environmental color (blue, red, or white), and study material (reading or math comprehension) were manipulated in a simulated study environment to determine their effects on adult students' mood, satisfaction, motivation, and performance. Students rated the reading task as more demanding and less enjoyable than the math task. Negative mood was slightly greater for students

NANCY J. STONE

2001-01-01

219

Defending Double Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the doctrine of double effect(DDE), there is a morally significantdifference between harm that is intended andharm that is merely foreseen and not intended.It is not difficult to explain why it is bad tointend harm as an end (you have a ``badattitude'' toward that harm) but it is hard toexplain why it is bad to intend harm as a

Alison Hills

2003-01-01

220

Effective Instructional Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective instructional management processes come in many guises, but all share four essential components: (1) a set of educational goals toward which progress can be measured; (2) a means of assessing students' instructional needs and determining placement and grouping; (3) an organizational structure and instructional delivery process capable…

Zakariya, Sally Banks; Steller, Arthur, Ed.

221

Evaluating Effective Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper outlines the purposes, professional obligations, and key components to consider when providing effective evaluation in psychotherapy supervision. An overview of various methods for gathering supervision data for evaluation purposes is provided including self-reporting; process notes; video and audiotaping; live observation; co-therapy;…

Worthen, Vaughn E.; Dougher, M. Kirk

222

Effect of Shock Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of the pathogenetic effects of shock waves from explosions are reviewed. The characteristics of an air blast are described. The interaction of such a blast on the human body, and the mechanism of resulting damage are investigated with particular a...

P. I. Burenin

1974-01-01

223

Creating Effective Multimedia Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

English: This paper presents information on several critical themes related to multimedia instruction. An understanding of these issues will be helpful to anyone involved in the design, development or use of computer delivered instruction. Topics addressed in this paper focus on: software product life cycle; systematic approach to design; multimedia design and development teams; production values; critical components of effective

Gregory C Sales

1999-01-01

224

Marijuana: Respiratory Tract Effects.  

PubMed

Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

2013-05-29

225

The Stephen Lawrence Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effect of the Macpherson Inquiry Report into the murder of Stephen Lawrence, a black man, on efforts to reduce institutional bias in Great Britain, claiming that there has been much more institutional indifference than institutional change since the report was published. Notes the need to rid society of racism in education. (SM)

Ouseley, Herman

2000-01-01

226

Loop effects in ?-->?+?-?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the incorporation of the model consisting of a loop of charged kaons in the description of the ?-->ƒ;0? decay has important effects on the expected signal to background ratio for e+e--->?(?)-->?+?-?. On leave of absence from Escuela Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa.

Lucio, J. L. M.; Napsuciale, M.

1994-07-01

227

Hall Effect Spintronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report results from a contract tasking Tel Aviv University as follows: This project will attempt to develop a new type of magnetic memory devices based on the so-called Extraordinary Hall Effect (EHE) in which information is stored in nanometric magn...

A. Gerber

2008-01-01

228

Towards Hall effect spintronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major efforts in the current exploration of spintronics are focused on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) phenomenon in metallic, semiconducting and tunnel junction magnetic heterostructures. I wish to present a different approach based on the extraordinary Hall effect (EHE). Since its discovery more than a century ago, the EHE was not considered seriously for technological applications because of its relatively small

A. Gerber

2007-01-01

229

Effects of nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the subject rising the following topics and subtopics: I. Nuclear explosions: heat, nuclear radiation, and radioactive fallout; II. Effects: radiation sickness, burns, blast injuries, and equivalent areas of death; III. Nuclear war: battlefield, regional, intercontinental - counterforce, and intercontinental - counter-city and industry. There are two appendices. 34 references, 32 figures.

von Hippel

1983-01-01

230

Continuous electrowetting effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new electrowetting effect, continuous electrowetting (CEW), and show its advantages for applications to displays and other electro-optic devices. We demonstrate experimentally, by using CEW, fast and reversible electrowetting flow on the theoretically predicted scale of ?10 cm\\/s for ?1-V driving voltage.

G. Beni; S. Hackwood; J. L. Jackel

1982-01-01

231

Building Effective Afterschool Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through a comprehensive review of various afterschool programs across the United States, this resource provides a practical overview of the research and best practices that can be easily adapted and applied in the development of highly effective afterschool programs. chapters focus on: (1) "Why Afterschool Programs?" (benefits, challenges, and…

Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

232

Modelling tidal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two models for demonstrating tides and experimenting with various tidal effects are presented. The first takes advantage of the approximately inverse-square nature of the force law for magnetic poles and exhibits symmetric tidal bulges on opposite sides of the planet, analogous to the tides of the earth. The second demonstration apparatus is a realization of the ``rubber sheet'' geometry analogy

Gary White; Tony Mondragon; David Slaughter; Dorothy Coates

1993-01-01

233

Learning to Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 14 papers which discuss contemporary issues of curriculum change and instructional effectiveness in higher education primarily from a British perspective. Papers address curriculum purpose, curriculum delivery, and curriculum impact on the wider society. In addition, the book covers experiential learning, skills and training,…

Barnett, Ronald, Ed.

234

Exploring the Lotus Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students test and observe the âself-cleaningâ lotus effect using a lotus leaf and cloth treated with a synthetic lotus-like superhydrophobic coating. They also observe the Wenzel and Cassie Baxter wetting states by creating and manipulating condensation droplets on the leaf surface. They consider the real-life engineering applications for these amazing water-repellent and self-cleaning properties.

NSF CAREER Award and RET Program, Mechanical Engineering and Material Science,

235

The Effective, Efficient Professor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a succinct overview of the book "The Effective, Efficient Professor" (P. Wankat) that presents a wealth of strategies and techniques for successful faculty members. Sections of the book focus on time management, teaching, students, and scholarship and service. Includes some practical tips from the book ranging from instructional…

Felder, Richard M.

2002-01-01

236

On nature's scaling effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches

Dick J. Wilkins

1994-01-01

237

Notes on Effective Bandwidths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a personal view of work to date on effective bandwidths,emphasising the unifying role of the concept: as a summary of thestatistical characteristics of sources over different time and space scales;in bounds, limits and approximations for various models of multiplexingunder quality of service constraints; and as the basis for simple and robusttariffing and connection acceptance control mechanisms for

Frank Kelly

1996-01-01

238

Alexandrite effect spectropyrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alexandrite crystal is commonly used for making alexandrite laser, and it also has a less-known phenomenon called the alexandrite effect that refers to the color change between different light sources. A novel spectropyrometer for temperature measurement of a radiating body utilizing the alexandrite effect is introduced. The alexandrite effect method for temperature measurement is based on the relationship between the temperature of blackbody and the hue-angle in the CIELAB color space. The alexandrite effect spectropyrometer consists of an optical probe, a spectrometer, a computer, and an alexandrite filter. It measures the spectral power distribution of a radiating body through the alexandrite filter, calculates the hue-angle, and determines the temperature. The spectropyrometer is suitable for temperature measurement of any radiating body with or without spectral lines in its spectral power distribution from 1000 K to 100000 K. The spectropyrometer is particularly useful for high to ultrahigh temperature measurement of any radiating bodies with spectral line emissions, such as electric arcs and discharges, plasmas, and high temperature flames.

Liu, Yan

2006-08-01

239

Cutaneous Effects of Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cigarette smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death and disability in developed countries and is a significant public health concern. While known to be strongly associated with a number of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and cancers, smoking also leads to a variety of cutaneous manifestations. Objective: This article reviews the effects of cigarette smoking on the skin

Anatoli Freiman; Garrett Bird; Andrei I. Metelitsa; Benjamin Barankin; Gilles J. Lauzon

2004-01-01

240

The Contrail Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOVA's The Contrail Effect describes how contrails form and how humidity determines how long they last. The webpage goes on to describe the study during the days of clear skies, without contrails, following 9/11. Three satellite images of contrail patterns are provided.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-09-15

241

Effective family problem solving.  

PubMed

Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children, with 2 definite-solution tasks--tower building (TWB) and 20 questions (TQ), and 1 indefinite-solution task--plan-something-together (PST). Incentive (for cooperation or competition) and task independence (members worked solo or jointly) were manipulated during TWB and TQ, yielding 4 counterbalanced conditions per task per family. On TQ, solo performance exceeded joint performance; on TWB, competition impaired joint performance. Families effective at problem solving in all conditions of both definite-solution tasks tried more problem-solving strategies during TWB and deliberated longer and reached more satisfactory agreements during PST. Family problem-solving effectiveness was moderately predicted by 2 parents' participation in the study. Parental education, parental occupational prestige, and membership in the family of an academically and socially competent child were weaker predictors. The results indicate that definitions of effective family problem solving that are based on directly observed measures of group interaction are more valid than definitions that rely primarily on family characteristics. PMID:3987417

Blechman, E A; McEnroe, M J

1985-04-01

242

Reading Effects of IBM's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews evaluations of IBM's Writing to Read program in kindergartens and first grades. In Writing to Read (WTR), students rotate through five learning stations to learn and practice phonics, to write stories, and to listen to recorded books. Two of these stations involve computers. Twenty-one studies of Writing to Read in kindergartens found a median effect size of

Robert E. Slavin

1991-01-01

243

The Placebo Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placebos have been traditionally regarded as deceptive therapies and have not been understood in the broader context of social symbols and of interpersonal factors that surround the healing process itself. Although the power of inert substances to heal is well recognized, the placebo effect also influences the outcome of conventional therapies. The role of the placebo in modern medicine is

Curtis E Margo

1999-01-01

244

ENVIRONMENTAL RESIDUE EFFECTS DATABASE (ERED)  

EPA Science Inventory

US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Residue Effects Database", a searchable database of adverse biological effects associated with tissue concentrations of various contaminants....

245

Adverse effects of cannabis.  

PubMed

Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to establish a causal relationship in either direction, because of these methodological limitations. In Australia, the marked increase in cannabis use has not been accompanied by an increased incidence of schizophrenia. On the basis of the available data, we cannot reach firm conclusions on whether or not cannabis use causes psychosis. It seems prudent to inform apparently vulnerable individuals that cannabis may cause acute psychotic decompensation, especially at high doses. Users can feel dependent on cannabis, but this dependence is usually psychological. Withdrawal symptoms tend to occur within 48 hours following cessation of regular cannabis use, and include increased irritability, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sleep difficulties and aggression. Symptoms subside within 2 to 12 weeks. Driving under the influence of cannabis doubles the risk of causing a fatal road accident. Alcohol consumption plays an even greater role. A few studies and a number of isolated reports suggest that cannabis has a role in the occurrence of cardiovascular adverse effects, especially in patients with coronary heart disease. Numerous case-control studies have investigated the role of cannabis in the incidence of some types of cancer. Its role has not been ruled out, but it is not possible to determine whether the risk is distinct from that of the tobacco with which it is often smoked. Studies that have examined the influence of cannabis use on the clinical course of hepatitis C are inconclusive. Alcohol remains the main toxic agent that hepatitis C patients should avoid. In practice, the adverse effects of low-level, recreational cannabis use are generally minor, although they can apparently be serious in vulnerable individuals. The adverse effects of cannabis appear overall to be less serious than those of alcohol, in terms of neuropsychological and somatic effects, accidents and violence. PMID:21462790

2011-01-01

246

Adverse effects of retinoids.  

PubMed

Oral retinoids, synthetic derivatives of vitamin A, have been used in the treatment of various dermatoses over the last decade. The most useful drugs have been isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) for nodulocystic acne and etretinate for psoriasis vulgaris. Retinoids are also effective in the treatment of papulosquamous dermatoses other than psoriasis (i.e. inherited disorders of keratinisation), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and in chemotherapy and chemoprevention of cancer. However, systemic administration of these compounds is frequently associated with mucocutaneous side effects, liver toxicity and abnormalities of serum lipid profiles, which might be related to an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Of particular concern is the teratogenic effect of all retinoids, which limits their use in women of child-bearing potential. Chronic toxicities from long term therapy with retinoids may result in skeletal abnormalities, usually mimicking diffuse idiopathic hyperostosis syndrome. Furthermore, the chronic use of retinoids in children may inhibit their growth due to premature epiphyseal closure. In contrast to other side effects of retinoids which are dose dependent and reversible upon withdrawal of the drug, it seems unlikely that bone abnormalities will resolve after discontinuation of the medication. In view of the wide spectrum of toxicities, treatment with retinoids requires appropriate selection of patients, careful consideration of the benefit to risk ratio for each individual, periodic monitoring of clinical response and laboratory tests. Clinicians should use special management techniques in order to prevent or minimize slide effects. Extensive investigations are currently being conducted in an attempt to develop new retinoids which will improve the therapeutic efficacy and reduce unwanted reactions. PMID:3054426

David, M; Hodak, E; Lowe, N J

247

The Effects of Procedural Variations on Lateralized Stroop Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several issues in the classic Stroop effect remain open, including (i) the stage of processing which gives rise to the effect, (ii) the effect of some procedural manipulations, (iii) the effect of hemispheric specialization and of interhemispheric interactions, and (iv) the existence of individual differences. In this paper, we investigate these issues using a series of experiments with central, lateral,

N. Y. Weekes; E. Zaidel

1996-01-01

248

Cerebroprotective effect of flunarizine.  

PubMed

The cerebroprotective effect of flunarizine was studied using the following methods: hypobaric hypoxia in mice, complete ischemia by decapitation in mice, anoxic hypoxia in mice, hemic hypoxia in rats, incomplete ischemia by bilateral carotid ligation in rats and asphyxic hypoxia in cats. Piracetam, meclofenoxate, nicergoline, naftidrofuryl, cinnarizine and nifedipine were studied as reference drugs. Flunarizine increased the survival time in all survival models. Its effect was most pronounced in complete ischemia model, and considerably higher than that of reference drugs. In asphyxic hypoxia flunarizine increased cortical resistance and shortened cortical recovery. The EEG frequency-amplitude analysis during asphyxic hypoxia showed a significant decrease of the slow-waves amplitudes of delta and theta range, and an increase of the fast-waves amplitudes of beta-2 range, changes indicating protective action. PMID:2087140

Nikolov, R; Nikolova, M; Dikova, M; Mirzoyan, R S; Ganshina, T S; Volobueva, T I

249

Doppler Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Doppler Effect model demonstrates the shift in frequency of a wave that is produced by the motion of either the wave source or the observer of the wave (or both). In this simulation, you can explore the change in the wave that is produced by source and/or observer motion, and you can even view what the situation looks like from the perspective of the medium (the standard reference frame), the source, or the observer. The Doppler Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Doppler.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

250

Radiation Damage Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation damage is an important issue for the particle detectors operated in a hostile environment where radiations from various sources are expected. This is particularly important for high energy physics detectors designed for the energy and intensity frontiers. This chapter describes the radiation damage effects in scintillating crystals, including the scintillation-mechanism damage, the radiation-induced phosphorescence, and the radiation-induced absorption. The radiation damage mechanism in crystal scintillators is also discussed. While the damage in halides is attributed to the oxygen/hydroxyl contamination, it is the structure defects, such as the oxygen vacancies, which cause the damage in oxides. Various material analysis methods used in investigations of the radiation damage effects as well as the improvement of crystal quality through systematic R&D are also presented.

Zhu, R.-Y.

251

The QCD Effective String  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values.

Espriu, Domenec

2003-10-01

252

Applications of effective Lagrangians  

SciTech Connect

This thesis contains some applications of effective field theories in particle physics. The impact of a fourth generation of quarks on neutral kaon mixing is considered, and the results are extended to the mixing and CP violating phenomenology of neutral bottom meson systems. A phenomenological Lagrangian is constructed to describe radiative vector meson decays. The measured decay rates are reproduced, and one prediction is made. It is shown that the large-N approximation in the standard model cannot explain the {Delta}I = {1/2} rule for kaon nonleptonic decays, even when short distance effects such as Penguins are included. Finally, the contribution of small instantons to the axion potential is calculated. The induced potential can be a large if the QCD coupling is non-decreasing at high energies, and if a suppression by light quark masses can be avoided using loops of scalars.

Flynn, J.M.

1987-01-01

253

Developmental effects of dioxins.  

PubMed Central

The potent developmental toxicity of dioxin in multiple species has been known for a number of years. However, recent studies have indicated that dioxin also induces functional developmental defects, many of which are delayed. Subtle structural deficits, not detectable at birth, have also been described in multiple species and in both sexes. Certain defects have been reported not only in animals but also in children prenatally exposed to complex mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. None of the effects can be attributed to modulation of any one endocrine system. For example, dioxin does not bind to the estrogen receptor, but it can cause effects that are both estrogenic and antiestrogenic. However, viewing dioxin and related compounds as endocrine disruptors that may alter multiple pathways sheds some light on the complexities of this potent class of growth dysregulators.

Birnbaum, L S

1995-01-01

254

Fire Effects Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides up-to-date information about fire effects on plants and animals. It was developed at the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The FEIS database contains synoptic descriptions, taken from current English-language literature of almost 900 plant species, about 100 animal species, and 16 Kuchler plant communities found on the North American continent. The emphasis of each synopsis is fire and how it affects each species. Background information on taxonomy, distribution, basic biology and ecology of each species is also included. Synopses are thoroughly documented, and each contains a complete bibliography. Personnel from several land management agencies (USDA Forest Service, USDI-BIA, NPS, BLM, F&WS) identified the species to be included in the database. Those agencies funded the original work and continue to support maintenance and updating of the database.

1995-12-12

255

Health effects of ozone  

SciTech Connect

It is an honor to have the opportunity to comment on Dr. Morton Lippmann's excellent review on the health effects of ozone, which was presented at the 82nd Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting and Exhibition held in Anaheim, California in June 1989. It is comprehensive in citing all of the pertinent references, interpretative in its review of the literature, integrates critical information and is highly relevant in dealing with one of our nation's most difficult air pollution issues. I commend Dr. Lippmann for developing a critical review that serves in many ways as a case study in toxicology and risk assessment. It does this by integrating data obtained from various types of studies, emphasizing exposure-dose-response relations and underscoring the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which ozone produces health effects. In this commentary, I would like to briefly consider several of the points made by Lippmann, and in doing so, note various issues requiring additional research.

McClellan, R.O. (Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1989-09-01

256

[Hypertensive effects of qat].  

PubMed

Chewing of Qat leaves which contain amphetamine alkaloids is a traditional drug practice in the horn of Africa. Cathine and cathinone are responsible for the desired psychogenic (suppression of hunger, mind stimulation, euphoria) and sympathicomimetic effects. In this study, we monitored seven volunteers during a traditional qat ritual. An increase in systolic and diastolic pressure was observed in three patients including one presenting predisposing chronic arterial hypertension. Peak pressure was observed approximately seven hours after beginning the ritual. The three patients presenting pressure changes were not significantly different from the four unaffected patients with regard to age or duration of qat use. These findings suggest that qat use by untreated hypertensive patients who react strongly to vasoconstrictive effects can lead to hypertension and resulting cardiovascular complications. PMID:10088104

Mion, G; Oberti, M; Ali, A W

1998-01-01

257

Evaluating Grandmother Effects  

PubMed Central

Women who have outlived child-bearing have long been described as post-reproductive. But contributions they make to the survival or fertility of their descendants enhance the reproduction of their genes. Consequently natural selection affects this characteristic stage of human life history. Grandmother effects can be measured in data sets that include births and deaths over several generations, but unmeasured covariates complicate the task. Here we focus on two complications: cohort shifts in mortality and fertility, and maternal age at death. We use the Utah Population Database to show that longevity of grandmothers may be associated with fewer grandchildren, as reported by Madrigal and Melendez-Obando (2008) for a Costa Rican sample, even when grandmother effects are actually positive.

Smith, Ken R.

2009-01-01

258

Nonopioid effect of ?-endorphin.  

PubMed

This review presents the generalized literature data and the results of our own research of the nonopioid effect of ?-endorphin, an opioid neuropeptide interacting not only with opioid but also with nonopioid (insensitive to the opioid antagonist naloxone) receptors. The roles of the hormone and its receptors in regulation of the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems are discussed. The effect of neuromediator on the immune system mediated by both opioid and nonopioid receptors is considered in detail. The data on distribution and function of the nonopioid ?-endorphin receptor in human and animal organisms are presented. All available data on the characteristics of the nonopioid ?-endorphin receptor obtained by means of radioligand analysis are given. The discussed information is supposed to extend our conceptions of the role of ?-endorphin in mammals and to be of extensive use in medicine and pharmacology. PMID:21585314

Kovalitskaya, Yu A; Navolotskaya, E V

2011-04-01

259

[Herbs and cardiotoxic effects].  

PubMed

Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed. PMID:23748541

Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto

2013-06-01

260

Spin Hall effect devices.  

PubMed

The spin Hall effect is a relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomenon that can be used to electrically generate or detect spin currents in non-magnetic systems. Here we review the experimental results that, since the first experimental observation of the spin Hall effect less than 10 years ago, have established the basic physical understanding of the phenomenon, and the role that several of the spin Hall devices have had in the demonstration of spintronic functionalities and physical phenomena. We have attempted to organize the experiments in a chronological order, while simultaneously dividing the Review into sections on semiconductor or metal spin Hall devices, and on optical or electrical spin Hall experiments. The spin Hall device studies are placed in a broader context of the field of spin injection, manipulation, and detection in non-magnetic conductors. PMID:22522638

Jungwirth, Tomas; Wunderlich, Jörg; Olejník, Kamil

2012-04-23

261

Relativistic Hall effect.  

PubMed

We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin-Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices and mechanical flywheels and also discuss various fundamental aspects of this phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales, from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black holes. PMID:22540559

Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

2012-03-21

262

Lightning Physics and Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

Orville, Richard E.

2004-03-01

263

Temporary Retinal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN your present week's ``Notes'' you have referred to the curious experiences of MM. Macé de Lepinay and Nicati, in finding the town lights appear green, after five hours among snow-fields. On the Cima di Jazi, some 16,000 feet or more high, I found another effect. On removing my blue snow-glasses, the sky (at about 10 a.m.) appeared of the

J. Rand Capron

1882-01-01

264

Adipokine Effects on Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adipocyte is an important source of factors that act as circulating regulators of bone metabolism. These include estrogens,\\u000a and the adipokines, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and probably others. Leptin acts directly on bone cells, and in some experimental\\u000a models these effects are modified by its actions on the central nervous system, which impact on appetite, body weight, and\\u000a insulin sensitivity.

Ian R. Reid; J. B. Richards

2009-01-01

265

Ivabradine: Cardiovascular Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ivabradine (a compound of the benzocyclobutane) is a highly selective If current inhibitor acting directly on the sino-atrial node, induces a rapid, sustained and dose-dependent reduction of heart rate at rest and during exercise without a significant effect on atrio-ventricular conduction, left ventricular contraction\\/relaxation or vascular tissues. These properties associated with an improvement in left ventricular loading related to bradycardia

Andrea Rognoni; Marzia Bertolazzi; Sergio Maccio; Giorgio Rognoni

2009-01-01

266

NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CURCUMIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurodegenerative diseases result in the loss of functional neurons and synapses. Although future stem cell therapies offer\\u000a some hope, current treatments for most of these diseases are less than adequate and our best hope is to prevent these devastating\\u000a diseases. Neuroprotective approaches work best prior to the initiation of damage, suggesting that some safe and effective\\u000a prophylaxis would be highly

Greg M. Cole; Bruce Teter; Sally A. Frautschy

267

Local-Effect Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a new class of games, local-effect games (LEGs), which exploit structure in a different way from other compact,game,representations studied in AI. We show both theoretically and empirically that these games,often (but not always) have pure-strategy Nash equilibria. Finding a potential function is a good technique for finding such equilibria. We give a complete,characterization of which LEGs have

Kevin Leyton-brown; Moshe Tennenholtz

2005-01-01

268

Neuroprotective effects of creatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature, which has demonstrated that creatine has neuroprotective effects both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo. Creatine can protect against excitotoxicity as well as against ?-amyloid toxicity in vitro. We carried out studies\\u000a examining the efficacy of creatine as a neuroprotective agent in vivo. We demonstrated that creatine can protect against excitotoxic\\u000a lesions produced by

M. Flint Beal

2011-01-01

269

Center for Effective Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this chapter, we closely examine one set of factors that are critical for knowledge work team effectiveness --how organizations set and communicate,direction for teams. The variables we examine encompass,several related elements in the organization's direction-setting context: the clarity of the organization's strategy, the alignment of individual team, and organizational goals, and the measurability and specificity of those goals.

JAY R. GALBRAITH; SUSAN G. COHEN; CRISTINA B. GIBSON; JULIAN BIRKINSHAW

270

The reverse Stroop effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In classic Stroop interference, manual or oral identification of sensory colors presented as incongruent color words is delayed\\u000a relative to simple color naming. In the experiment reported here, this effect was shown to all but disappear when the response\\u000a was simply to point to a matching patch of color. Conversely, strong reverse Stroop interference occurred with the pointing\\u000a task. That

Frank H. Durgin

2000-01-01

271

Writing Effective TAFs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides an overview of some of the applicable TAF Amendment and Conditional Group usage rules, as presented in the latest version of the National Weather Service Instruction 10-813 on TAF directives. It also presents a methodology for TAF writing and development that will lead to an effective and user-friendly product. The focus is on the ceiling and visibility aspects of the TAF. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus

Spangler, Tim

2003-06-28

272

Side effects of benoxaprofen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of adverse dermatological reactions to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent benoxaprofen. Photosensitivity was seen in several patients, confined to wavelengths less than 340 nm. Other cutaneous side effects were erythema multiforme, the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, milia, and onycholysis. One case of pancytopenia and toxic epidermal necrolysis was reported. patients were not rechallenged with the drug, but these reactions

Brian Diffey; Colin Hindson; F Lawlor

1982-01-01

273

Asking Effective Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 8-page monograph offers strategies for effective questioning that engages students and that deepens their conceptual understanding in mathematics. It suggests questions and prompts that help students progress through various stages of the problem solving process and that help teachers assess the thinking of students. The article describes the purposes of questions at different stages of a lesson and describes situations when it is appropriate to convey information to students. A list of references is included.

2011-07-01

274

Antithyroid effects of lithium  

PubMed Central

Lithium has been reported to be goitrogenic when used for the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis. To investigate the effects of lithium on iodine metabolism, male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a low iodine (LID) or normal iodine diet (NID) containing enough Li2CO3 to give serum lithium levels of 0.23-0.86 mEq/liter (human therapeutic range is 0.6-1.6 mEq/liter). The following effects were noted with lithium treatment: (a) thyroid weight increased concomitant with a slowing of thyroidal iodine release; (b) the ability to concentrate iodide was increased only after goiters were established; (c) on the LID, 131I uptake was elevated throughout all phases of treatment, even when the release rate was normal; (d) iodine organification was unaffected but the proportion of 131I present as iodothyronines was decreased; (e) the thyroidal 127I content was increased; (f) despite these changes, the serum PBI remained normal as did the thyroxine turnover rate; and (g) thyrotropin (TSH) levels in serum were the same as controls except for a slight elevation early in the course of treatment; TSH levels did not correlate with goitrogenesis. When LiCl was injected in large doses into intact rats (giving serum lithium levels of 3.08-3.89 mEq/liter), the iodide concentrating mechanism, 131I uptake, and 131I release rates were depressed. Similar experiments in hypophysectomized rats receiving TSH demonstrated these to be local antithyroid effects not mediated through the pituitary. The discrepancy between acute and chronic responses to lithium, and the dissociation between the inhibition of iodine release and stimulatory effects is discussed.

Berens, S. C.; Bernstein, R. S.; Robbins, J.; Wolff, J.

1970-01-01

275

Antithyroid effects of lithium.  

PubMed

Lithium has been reported to be goitrogenic when used for the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis. To investigate the effects of lithium on iodine metabolism, male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a low iodine (LID) or normal iodine diet (NID) containing enough Li(2)CO(3) to give serum lithium levels of 0.23-0.86 mEq/liter (human therapeutic range is 0.6-1.6 mEq/liter). The following effects were noted with lithium treatment: (a) thyroid weight increased concomitant with a slowing of thyroidal iodine release; (b) the ability to concentrate iodide was increased only after goiters were established; (c) on the LID, (131)I uptake was elevated throughout all phases of treatment, even when the release rate was normal; (d) iodine organification was unaffected but the proportion of (131)I present as iodothyronines was decreased; (e) the thyroidal (127)I content was increased; (f) despite these changes, the serum PBI remained normal as did the thyroxine turnover rate; and (g) thyrotropin (TSH) levels in serum were the same as controls except for a slight elevation early in the course of treatment; TSH levels did not correlate with goitrogenesis. When LiCl was injected in large doses into intact rats (giving serum lithium levels of 3.08-3.89 mEq/liter), the iodide concentrating mechanism, (131)I uptake, and (131)I release rates were depressed. Similar experiments in hypophysectomized rats receiving TSH demonstrated these to be local antithyroid effects not mediated through the pituitary. The discrepancy between acute and chronic responses to lithium, and the dissociation between the inhibition of iodine release and stimulatory effects is discussed. PMID:4194189

Berens, S C; Bernstein, R S; Robbins, J; Wolff, J

1970-07-01

276

The Kaye effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

2009-11-01

277

Effective Teaching with Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A course entitled effective teaching with technology (ETT) has been taught to PhD candidates and postdoctoral students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the Spring semester of 2004, 2005, and 2006, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The course is supported by the NSF-sponsored Center for Integration of Research, Teaching, and Learning (CIRTL). The course employs the three CIRTL

Gregory Moses; Barbara Ingham; Katherine Barnicle; Jake Blanchard; Jan Cheetham; Sandra Courter; Elizabeth DeVos; Margaret Immendorf; Michael Litzkow; Gina Svarovsky; Alan Wolf

2006-01-01

278

Doppler-Effect Omnirange  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an omnirange of a new design in which the transmitting antenna is caused either to move, or to appear to move along a circular path to produce low-deviation FM by Doppler effect. The FM envelope phase of the transmitted signal is directionally characterized. Deviation-expansion and selective-degeneration in an AFC circuit are used at the receiver to detect

Paul Hansel

1953-01-01

279

Botany: floral fluorescence effect.  

PubMed

The way flowers appear to insects is crucial for pollination. Here we describe an internal light-filtering effect in the flowers of Mirabilis jalapa, in which the visible fluorescence emitted by one pigment, a yellow betaxanthin, is absorbed by another, a violet betacyanin, to create a contrasting fluorescent pattern on the flower's petals. This finding opens up new possibilities for pollinator perception as fluorescence has not previously been considered as a potential signal in flowers. PMID:16163341

Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco; Escribano, Josefa

2005-09-15

280

Quantum effects in biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that quantum-mechanical phenomena can play nontrivial roles in biology has fascinated researchers for a century. Here we review some examples of such effects, including light-harvesting in photosynthesis, vision, electron- and proton-tunneling, olfactory sensing, and magnetoreception. We examine how experimental tests have aided this field in recent years and discuss the importance of developing new experimental probes for future

Graham R. Fleming; Gregory D. Scholes; Yuan-Chung Cheng

2011-01-01

281

Cost-Effectiveness Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical research has traditionally focused on comparing health outcome measures of a new technique with accepted practice.\\u000a As health care resources become scarcer and options for newer, more expensive diagnostic tests and surgical interventions\\u000a increase, incorporating cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) into surgical research studies becomes increasingly important. CEA\\u000a provides the information necessary to allow resource allocation decisions to be based on

Lynn Stothers

282

Hall Effect Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this Web site is twofold: (1) to describe the Hall measurement technique for determining the carrier density and mobility in semiconductor materials and (2) to initiate an electronic interaction forum where workers interested in the Hall effect can exchange ideas and information. It includes an introductory description of the Hall measurement technique and covers basic principles, equipment, and recommended procedures. Keywords: Conductance, conductivity, resistance, resistivity

2012-07-26

283

Tasting edge effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

Bocquet, Lydéric

2007-02-01

284

Designing effective instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have usedDesigning Effective Instruction in introductory ID courses and experienced its use from both the instructors' and the learners' perspective. Our overall\\u000a conclusion is that it is highly usable and accessible to beginning ID students, including those whose first language may not\\u000a be English. The ID model presented is clear and the focus on the learner throughout is appropriate

Gary J. Anglin; Steven M. Ross; Jerrold E. Kemp

2002-01-01

285

Preattentive auditory context effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of auditory context on the preattentive and perceptual organization of tone sequences were investigated. Two sets\\u000a of experiments were conducted in which the pitch of contextual tones was varied, bringing about two different contextual manipulations.\\u000a Preattentive auditory organization was indexed by the mismatch negativity event-related potential, which is elicited by violations\\u000a of auditory regularities even when participants ignore

István Winkler; Elyse Sussman; Mari Tervaniemi; János Horváth; Walter Ritter; Risto Näätänen

2003-01-01

286

Phenotypic Effects of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

From outbred Hsd:ICR mice, we selectively bred 4 replicate lines for high running (High-Runner (HR) lines) on wheels while maintaining 4 nonselected lines as controls (C lines). An apparent Mendelian recessive, the ''mini-muscle'' (MM) allele, whose main phenotypic effect is to reduce hindlimb muscle mass by 50%, was discovered in 2 HR lines and 1 C line. This gene of

ROBERT M. HANNON; S COTT A. KELLY; K EVIN M. MIDDLETON; E. M. Kolb; D ANIEL POMP; THEODORE GARLAND JR

2008-01-01

287

Radiation effects on integrated microcircuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theory describing the effects of ionizing radiation on integrated microcircuits is developed. The features of secondary ionization effects (e.g., radiation-induced secondary breakdown) are examined along with residual and transient ionization effects on the characteristics of standard components of digital and analog ICs. The radiation characteristics of LSI systems are also considered, with emphasis on microdosimetric and functional effects.

Agakhanian, Tatevos M.; Astvatsatur'ian, Evgenii R.; Skorobogatov, Petr K.

288

SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

289

Petroleum effects in the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on the environmental and biological effects of oil spills. Topics considered include the Arctic marine ecosystem, the physical and chemical fate of spilled oil, the effects of hydrocarbons on microorganisms and petroleum biodegradation in arctic ecosystems, the effects of oil on arctic invertebrates, the effects of oil on fish, a risk assessment of oil on arctic

Engelhardt

1985-01-01

290

[Biological effects of selenium].  

PubMed

The role of selenium concerning its biological effects particularly in relation to cardiovascular and tumor diseases has been in the focus of intensive studies. Selenium is a constituent part of the enzyme glutathion peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.9) which catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides into water and corresponding alcohols. A review of epidemiological studies is presented focusing predominantly on countries where a low concentration of selenium in blood serum was found. The role of selenium in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases may probably be accounted for by its protective effect as it prevents platelet aggregation and protects the arterial endothelium from being damaged by lipid peroxides. The results of experimental studies, carried out in research institutes in many parts of the world, suggest that coordinated supplementation of food with selenium may reduce the risk of cancer and moreover, the effect of selenium can be modified by other dietary factors, such as vitamin A and E. (Fig. 2, Ref. 29.) PMID:1296855

Brtková, A

1992-12-01

291

Ejs Doppler Effect Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Doppler Effect model displays the detection of sound waves from a moving source and the change in frequency of the detected wave via the Doppler effect. In addition to the wave fronts from the source a graph depicting the time of emission and time of detection of each of the wave fronts is given. The speed of sound, the velocity of the source and the position and velocity of the detector can be changed via text boxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Doppler Effect model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_waves_doppler.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for wave optics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-08-20

292

Cascading Effects Following Intervention  

PubMed Central

Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments.

Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

2010-01-01

293

Health effects of ozone  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Morton Lippmann prepared, at the request of the A WMA Review Committee, an extensive update of the available information on the biological effects of ozone. His review is a thorough and well-written summary of what is known about respiratory effects of low ozone concentrations. The authors is well qualified to evaluate clinical data on ozone effects since a substantial amount of work on this subject has been produced in his own laboratory. Years of experience in consultative functions for the Environmental Protection Agency and Clean Air Science Advisory Committee further characterize Dr. Lippmann as an especially qualified scientist for assessing this complex problem. For the same reasons, however, interpretation of some experimental data in the review may have been influenced by inherent personal biases of the author and may, in fact, differ from the views of other investigators. This possibility is recognized in the text and does not diminish the overall quality of the review. My comments will be limited primarily to the general aspects of the review and to the role of the current form of the standard in public health protection.

Vostal, J.J. (General Motors Environmental Activities Staff, Warren, MI (USA))

1989-09-01

294

Pairing correlations and effective mass  

SciTech Connect

We study the effect of effective mass on pairing correlations in the ground states of superfluid nuclei {sup 124}Sn and {sup 136}Sn. Various parameter sets of Skyrme interactions and relativistic Lagrangians are adopted to study pairing correlations across a wide range of effective mass. It is shown that surface-type pairing interaction gives an almost constant pairing gap as a function of the effective mass, while volume-type pairing interaction shows rather strong dependence of the pairing gap upon the effective mass. The local pair potentials of various effective interactions are also examined in relation to the effective mass.

Yoshida, Satoshi [Science Research Center, Hosei University, 2-17-1 Fujimi, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Sagawa, Hiroyuki [Center for Mathematical Sciences, University of Aizu Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan)

2008-05-15

295

The Giant Magnetocaloric Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of the magnetocaloric effect in pure iron by E.Warburg in 1881, it has been measured experimentally on many magnetic metals and compounds. The majority of the materials studied order magnetically undergoing a second order phase transformation. The magnetocaloric effect, typically peaking near the Curie or the Néel temperature, generally ranges from 0.5 to 2 K (in terms of adiabatic temperature change) or at 1 to 4 J/kg K (in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change) per 1 T magnetic field change. The giant magnetocaloric effect recently discovered in Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where x <= 0.5, is associated with a first order magnetic phase transition and it reaches values of 3 to 4 K and 6 to 10 J/kg K per 1 T field change, respectively. The refrigerant capacity, which is the measure of how much heat can be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir in one ideal thermodynamic cycle, is larger than that of the best second order phase transition materials by 25 to 100%. When the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys are compared with other known materials, which show first order magnetic phase transition, such as Dy, Ho, Er, HoCo_2, NdMn_2Si_2, Fe_0.49Rh_0.51, and (Hf_0.83Ta_0.17)Fe_2+x, only Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 has comparable magnetocaloric properties. However, the first order magnetic phase transition in Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 is irreversible, and the magnetocaloric effect disappears after one magnetizing/demagnetizing cycle. A study of the crystal structure, thermodynamics, and magnetism of the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where 0 <= x <= 1 allowed us to obtain a qualitative understanding of the basic relations between the composition, the crystal structure, and the change in thermodynamics and magnetocaloric properties, which occur in the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 system, and which brings about the giant magnetocaloric effect when x <= 0.5.

Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

1998-03-01

296

Health effects of nonionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic energy in the microwave and radiofrequency bands can produce biologic effects, which are predominantly thermal. During therapeutic use under medical supervision, desired biologic effects are produced and potentially injurious effects minimized. The biologic effects of electromagnetic fields have materialized because of a recent concern that relatively low-level fields produced by everyday electrical appliances, wiring in the home, and power transmission lines may be causally related to a number of detrimental health effects.41 references.

Wilkening, G.M.; Sutton, C.H. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (USA))

1990-03-01

297

Causal diagrams, the placebo effect, and the expectation effect.  

PubMed

Using causal diagrams, a formal research methodology, we analyzed several definitions of placebo and the placebo effect. We conclude that placebo is an ambiguous, redundant term and that the so-called placebo effect conceals far more interesting effects that are attributed to the patient's expectation. Biomedical research will benefit from abandoning the term placebo effect and focusing instead on a deeper understanding of the expectation variable, including its causes, effects, and effect modifiers. This avenue of research should be pursued by observational cohorts that are nested within clinical trials. PMID:24101881

Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

2013-09-27

298

Causal diagrams, the placebo effect, and the expectation effect  

PubMed Central

Using causal diagrams, a formal research methodology, we analyzed several definitions of placebo and the placebo effect. We conclude that placebo is an ambiguous, redundant term and that the so-called placebo effect conceals far more interesting effects that are attributed to the patient’s expectation. Biomedical research will benefit from abandoning the term placebo effect and focusing instead on a deeper understanding of the expectation variable, including its causes, effects, and effect modifiers. This avenue of research should be pursued by observational cohorts that are nested within clinical trials.

Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

2013-01-01

299

Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.  

PubMed

A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:3522147

Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

1986-04-01

300

The flash grab effect.  

PubMed

When an object moves back and forth, its trajectory appears significantly shorter than it actually is. The object appears to stop and reverse well before its actual reversal point, as if there is some averaging of location within a window of about 100ms (Sinico et al., 2009). Surprisingly, if a bar is flashed at the physical end point of the trajectory, right on top of the object, just as it reverses direction, the flash is also shifted - grabbed by the object - and is seen at the perceived endpoint of the trajectory rather than the physical endpoint. This can shift the perceived location of the flash by as much as 2 or 3 times its physical size and by up to several degrees of visual angle. We first show that the position shift of the flash is generated by the trajectory shortening, as the same shift is seen with or without the flash. The flash itself is only grabbed if it is presented within a small spatiotemporal attraction zone around the physical end point of the trajectory. Any flash falling in that zone is pulled toward the perceived endpoint. The effect scales linearly with speed, up to a maximum, and is independent of the contrast of the moving stimulus once it is above 5%. Finally, we demonstrate that this position shift requires attention. These results reveal a new "flash grab" effect in the family of motion-induced position shifts. Although it most resembles the flash drag effect, it differs from this in the following ways: (1) it has a different temporal profile, (2) it requires attention, (3) it is about 10 times larger. PMID:23872166

Cavanagh, Patrick; Anstis, Stuart

2013-07-18

301

Adverse antiepileptic drug effects  

PubMed Central

Background: Adverse effects (AEs) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are a major impediment to optimal dosing for seizure control. Better understanding of clinical properties of AEs is a prerequisite for systematic research of their neurobiological underpinnings. This study aimed to define specific patterns of AE occurrence and determine their clinical relevance based on their association with subjective health status. Methods: Two hundred subjects with epilepsy completed validated self-report health assessments, including the Adverse Event Profile (AEP) and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE)-89. Factor analysis was performed on the 19 AEP items to identify distinct classes of AEs. Correlations between AE class scores and QOLIE-89 scores were evaluated. Multivariate analysis was used to assess contributions of AE class scores to QOLIE-89 scores after controlling for depression and seizure frequency. Relationships between changes in AE class scores and changes in QOLIE-89 scores were also investigated in a subgroup of 62 subjects enrolled in a randomized trial. Results: The mean number of AEs per subject was 6.5. AEs were segregated into five classes: Cognition/Coordination, Mood/Emotion, Sleep, Weight/Cephalgia, and Tegument/Mucosa. Higher scores in each AE class were associated with lower QOLIE-89 scores. Cognition/Coordination scores were the strongest predictor of QOLIE-89 scores. Improvements in Cognition/Coordination, Mood/Emotion, and Tegument/Mucosa scores were associated with improvements in QOLIE-89 scores. Improved Cognition/Coordination was the only predictor of improved QOLIE-89. Conclusion: Adverse effects (AEs) of antiepileptic drugs can be classified in five biologically plausible factors. When specific classes of AEs are identified and attempts are made to reduce them, quality of life is significantly improved. GLOSSARY AE = adverse effect; AED = antiepileptic drug; AEP = Adverse Event Profile; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; GABA = ?-aminobutyric acid; HRQOL = Health-Related Quality of Life; QOLIE = Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory.

Perucca, Piero; Carter, Jewell; Vahle, Victoria; Gilliam, Frank G.

2009-01-01

302

'The Kesterson effect'  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hypothesized to be derived from Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks, selenium contamination of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge is traced through irrigation drainage to the source bedrock of the California Coast Ranges. This biogeochemical pathway of selenium is defined here as the 'Kesterson effect.' At the refuge ponds, this effect culminated in 1983 in a 64% rate of deformity and death of embryos and hatchlings of wild aquatic birds. From the previous companion paper on irrigation drainage, the Kesterson effect has been implicated in nine of 11 reconnaissance areas studied in the western United States. Deformities have resulted in at least five of these sites. Climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and soil conditions in these reconnaissance areas are similar to those in the area surrounding Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California, in California, selenium as selenate, was ultimately found weathered with sulfur from marine sources in soluble sodium and magnesium sulfate salts, which are concentrated by evaporation on farmland soils. The Se, mobilized by irrigation drainage, is bioaccumulated to toxic levels in refuge wetland ponds that are located mainly in hydrologically closed basins and thus act as concentrating disposal points. The depositional environment of the ponds may be similar to that of the nutrient-rich continental shelf edge and slope in which Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sediments found to be seleniferous in the California Coast Ranges were deposited. Bioaccumulation may be therefore a primary mechanism of selenium enrichment in ancient sediments in addition to that of the formerly suggested Cretaceous volcanic pathway.

Presser, T. S.

1994-01-01

303

Immunosuppressive effects of defibrotide.  

PubMed

The effect of defibrotide (DF) alone or in combination with CsA was examined using in vitro proliferation assays with human PBLs and in vivo heterotopic heart allografts in rats. DF alone (12.5-50 mg/ml) inhibited in vitro PBL proliferation more effectively after PHA (50-56%) or OKT3 (50-95%), than after alloantigenic (25-30%), stimulation. Furthermore, the combination of DF (1-4 mg/ml) with CsA (10-40 ng/ml) caused an 85.2-86.8% reduction in proliferative responses after OKT3 stimulation. Median-effect analysis documented that the combination index for DF and CsA was consistently lower than 0.3 at various concentration ratios of the 2 agents. Combination index values below 1.0 reflect drug synergism; those equal to 1.0 show additive, and above 1.0, antagonistic, interactions. Daily intraperitoneal injections of DF (150 mg/kg) failed to prolong the survival of Buffalo (RT-1b) heart allografts in Wistar-Furth (RT-1u) recipients, namely mean survival times of 7.0 +/- 0.7 days with, vs. 6.5 +/- 0.5 days without, DF treatment. Similarly, intravenous or intra-arterial infusion of DF (280 mg/kg) delivered directly into the heart allograft by a 7-day osmotic pump was ineffective. However, a course of local, but not systemic, DF (280 mg/kg) combined with a 14-day i.v. administration of a subtherapeutic dose of CsA (1 mg/kg) significantly prolonged heart allograft survival to 22.8 +/- 5.0 days (P < 0.001). Thus, in vitro DF is immunosuppressive alone at high concentrations, and in combination with CsA at low concentrations. Continuous infusion of DF into the graft combined with systemic administration of CsA prolonged transplant survival in vivo. These findings suggest that high tissue levels of DF potentiate the immunosuppressive effects of CsA. PMID:8212219

Ferraresso, M; Rigotti, P; Stepkowski, S M; Chou, T C; Kahan, B D

1993-10-01

304

Greenhouse Effect Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simple lab, students collect data to demonstrate basic atmospheric science concepts. Groups of students measure the effect of carbon dioxide on temperature using soda bottles with thermometers inserted. One bottle is filled with air and capped. The second bottle is filled with carbon dioxide using a specific procedure. To conduct the experiment, both bottles are placed under a lamp while students record the increase in temperature over five minutes. The bottle containing carbon dioxide has a greater increase in temperature than the bottle containing air. This lab demonstrates the fundamental concept that underlies climate change science by providing data that are easy for students to interpret.

Larsen, Krista

305

Effect of Auxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of auxin on the physiology of protoplasts from growing oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles was investigated. Protoplasts, iso- lated iso-osmotically from peeled oat coleoptile segments, were found to swell steadily over many hours. lncubated in 1 mM CaCI,, 1 O mM KCI, 1 O mM 2-(morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid\\/lJ-bis- Itris(hydroxymethyl)methylaminolpropane, pH 6.5, and mannitol to 300 milliosmolal, protoplasts swelled 28.9%

Christopher P. Keller; Elizabeth Van Volkenburgh

306

Is health education effective?  

PubMed

Primary health care (PHC) workers from 20 hospitals, PHC nurses, community health care nurses, and other PHC workers attended a session on health education and effectiveness in South Africa in September 1991. Discussion is directed to an overview of health education as presented in the day's session, the effectiveness of health education, and recommendations for improving health education. The first session on health education aimed to explore the breadth of possibilities for health education, and to emphasize some important problems, such as inconsistency in messages. Role plays were enacted within different groups: the 1991 Tintswalo PHC nurses class, the Tintswalo People's Awareness of Disability Issues group, and the Nkhensani PHC nurses group. The second session involved a panel discussion with 4 speakers. The first speaker directed attention to the need for an adequate education as insurance for effective health education. Modern trends have been responsible for the destruction of black culture. There is a problem of victim blaming, when in fact the problem of rural mortality is the system. Socioeconomic conditions and politics must be changed before health education can be effective. Health personnel as representatives of the middle class may be viewed as part of the problem. The second speaker spoke of the ineffectiveness of teaching someone what ought to be eaten but not providing the means to acquire the food. Oppression has led to blaming the oppressed. The third speaker noted that health workers were indeed part of the problem, e.g., health workers do not practice the advice given out and many times are junior personnel who are not evaluated. There are requirements for tracking what nurses do, but little on evaluation of appropriate messages. Appearance replaces substance. The fourth speaker felt health education is about training people and satisfying the educator and the system. Politics and health were related and too much time was misdirected to fighting with the community. Situation analysis was recommended before action was taken. Recommendations involved, for instance, building rapport with the community, and the need for a greater grasp of health knowledge by health educators. PMID:1356228

McKenzie, A; Ngobeni, O; Bonongo, F

1992-07-01

307

On nature's scaling effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches for aircraft were also reviewed for comparison with similitude laws. Finally, some historical evidence for the use of Weibull scaling in composites was reviewed.

Wilkins, Dick J.

1994-07-01

308

Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.  

PubMed

The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts. PMID:23884116

Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina

2013-07-01

309

Interface effects on nanoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoelectronics consist of devices with active electronic components on the nanometer length scale. At such dimensions most, if not all, atoms or molecules composing the active device region must be on or near a surface. Also, materials effectively confined to two dimensions, or when subject to abrupt boundary conditions, generally do not behave the same as materials inside three dimensional, continuous structures. This dissertation is a quantitative determination of how surfaces and interfaces in organic nanoelectronic devices affect properties such as charge transport, electronic structure, and material fluctuations. Si/SiO2 is a model gate/gate dielectric for organic thin film transistors, therefore proper characterization and measurement of the effects of the SiO2/organic interface on device structures is extremely important. I fabricated pentacene thin film transistors on Si/SiO2 and varied the conduction channel thickness from effectively bulk (˜40nm) to 2 continuous conducting layers to examine the effect of substrate on noise generation. The electronic spectral noise was measured and the generator of the noise was determined to be due to the random spatial dependence of grain boundaries, independent of proximity to the gate oxide. This result led me to investigate the mechanisms of pentacene grain formation, including the role of small quantities of impurities, on silicon dioxide substrates. Through a series of nucleation, growth and morphology studies, I determined that impurities assist in nucleation on SiO2, decreasing the stable nucleus size by a third and increasing the overall number of grains. The pentacene growth and morphology studies prompted further exploration of pentacene crystal growth on SiO2. I developed a method of making atomically clean ultra-thin oxide films, with surface chemistry and growth properties similar to the standard thick oxides. These ultra-thin oxides were measured to be as smooth as cleaned silicon and then used as substrates for scanning tunneling microscopy of pentacene films. The increased spatial resolution of this technique allowed for the first molecular resolution characterization of the standing-up pentacene crystal structure near the gate dielectric, with molecules oriented perpendicular to the SiO2 surface. Further studies probed how growth of C60 films on SiO2 and pentacene surfaces affected C60 morphology and electronic structure to better understand solar cell heterojunctions.

Conrad, Brad Richard

310

Interfacial effects in multilayers  

SciTech Connect

Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general.

Barbee, T.W., Jr.

1998-04-01

311

Effects of Time on the Effectiveness of Dispersants. Final Version.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to determine whether dispersants will remain with treated oil slicks over time and retain effectiveness. If dispersants remain effective for significant periods ot time, oil spill responders can consider dispersants in scen...

I. Eide J. Guyomarch J. L. Resby P. J. Brandvik P. S. Daling

2007-01-01

312

Acrolein health effects.  

PubMed

Acrolein is a chemical used as an intermediate reactive aldehyde in chemical industry. It is used for synthesis of many organic substances, methionine production, and methyl chloride refrigerant. The general population is exposed to acrolein via smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to wood and plastic smoke. Firefighters and population living or working in areas with heavy automotive traffic may expose to higher level of acrolein via inhalation of smoke or automotive exhaust. Degradation of acrolein in all environmental media occurs rapidly, therefore, environmental accumulation is not expected. Acrolein degrade in 6A days when applied to surface water, and it has not been found as a contaminant in municipal drinking water. Acrolein vapor may cause eye, nasal and respiratory tract irritations in low level exposure. A decrease in breathing rate was reported by volunteers acutely exposed to 0.3A ppm of acrolein. At similar level, mild nasal epithelial dysplasia, necrosis, and focal basal cell metaplasia have been observed in rats. The acrolein effects on gastrointestinal mucosa in the animals include epithelial hyperplasia, ulceration, and hemorrhage. The severity of the effects is dose dependent. Acrolein induces the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal irritations by inducing the release of peptides in nerve terminals innervating these systems. Levels of acrolein between 22 and 249 ppm for 10 min induced a dose-related decrease in substance P (a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator). PMID:19028774

Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

2008-08-01

313

Predicting Earthquake Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the earth sciences and information technology have lead to dramatic improvements in our ability to respond to, as well as anticipate and mitigate, earthquake effects in our communities. The development of Geographic Information System (GIS) based tools such as ShakeMap and HAZUS have ushered in a new era of risk and emergency management. Real-time maps of strong ground motion, coupled with engineering-based descriptions of building and infrastructure inventory and vulnerability enable more accurate determinations of the location and severity of earthquake damage and the socio-economic consequences for emergency managers and officials following significant earthquakes. The ability to map the distribution and growth of seismic risk in the United States has long-term benefits for public policy as well. Long-term forecasts of seismic risk based on varying mitigation strategies can provide guidance for developing national and local earthquake policy. The successful performance of the Trans-Alaska pipeline during the 2002 Denali earthquake illustrates the dependence of performance-based engineering on the ability to predict earthquake effects (e.g., levels of strong ground motion, amounts of fault displacement or ground deformation). Being able to reduce the uncertainty in predicting these parameters has significant economic consequences and enables decision makers to more efficiently prioritize risk management strategies.

Nishenko, S.

2005-12-01

314

Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models  

SciTech Connect

One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

Suter, G.W. II

1996-09-01

315

Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

Thompson, Bruce

2007-01-01

316

Research on HEMP injection and radiation effect effect of EED  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) will lead to EED misoperation (such as early burst) or degradation of the performance and reliability (such as failure) etc. This paper is mainly about injection effect test and radiation effect test of high-altitude EMP on EED, tests are performed in typical HEMP environments. On this basis, researched and analyzed HEMP effect on EED. Analysis

Xiangfei Ji; Qingmei Feng; Tuan Zhao; Hongzhi Yao

2009-01-01

317

Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) refers to the generation of a spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in magnetic materials [1-7]. Here, a spin voltage is a potential for electron spins to drive a nonequilibrium spin current; when a conductor is attached to a magnet with a finite spin voltage, it induces a spin injection into the conductor. The SSE is of crucial importance in spintronics and spin caloritronics, since it enables simple and versatile generation of a spin current from heat. The simplest and most straightforward setup of the SSE is the longitudinal configuration [4], in which a spin current flowing parallel to a temperature gradient is measured via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The longitudinal SSE device consists of a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic insulator (FI, e.g. YIG) covered with a paramagnetic metal (PM, e.g. Pt) film. When a temperature gradient is applied perpendicular to the FI/PM interface, an ISHE-induced voltage is generated in the PM layer. In this talk, we report the observation of the longitudinal SSE in various FI/PM systems and provide evidence that the longitudinal SSE is free from thermoelectric artefact [7], i.e., the anomalous Nernst effect caused by extrinsic magnetic proximity [8]. Then, we discuss the longitudinal SSE from an application point of view [6]. We thank E. Saitoh, S. Maekawa, G. E. W. Bauer, X.-F. Jin, H. Adachi, D. Hou, D. Tian, T. Kikkawa, A. Kirihara, and M. Ishida for their support and valuable discussions. [4pt] [1] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008).[0pt] [2] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 9, 894 (2010).[0pt] [3] C. M. Jaworski et al., Nature Mater. 9, 898 (2010).[0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 172505 (2010).[0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 10, 737 (2011).[0pt] [6] A. Kirihara et al., Nature Mater. 11, 686 (2012).[0pt] [7] T. Kikkawa et al., arXiv:1211.0139 (2012). [0pt] [8] S. Y. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107204 (2012).

Uchida, Ken-Ichi

2013-03-01

318

Health Effects of Dietary Carnitine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the health effects of carnitine with emphasis on dietary sources, possible essentiality, differential effects of optical isomers, and consequences of oral administration for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. Metabolic needs for carn...

P. R. Borum K. D. Fisher

1983-01-01

319

Disney Effects Using Implicit Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper we briefly summarise the ABC of implicit surfaces, present and justify the model usedin our system and describe how Disney effects are automatically created. Each effect will be discussed separatelypointing out the advantages and drawbacks of our techniques.

Agata Opalach; Steve Maddock

1994-01-01

320

Piezoelectricity: Venerable Effect, Modern Thrusts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A synopsis of the piezoelectric effect is presented in the context of its history, traditional uses, and relation to crystal symmetry. Associated effects are briefly noted. Future prospects, particularly in the area of microelectromechanical systems/struc...

A. Ballato

1994-01-01

321

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... anD human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Pain Call the doctor or nurse ... and am able to enjoy life more!” Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain Keep track of the pain. ...

322

Effects of the Prostaglandin PGBx.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experimental studies were initiated as a result of the discovery of a prostaglandin derivative, PGBx, with unique enhancing effects on mitochondrial enzymatic systems, especially those involved in oxidative phenomena. It was thought that such effects ...

L. Goldstein

1973-01-01

323

IMPROVED LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a program to evaluate an Improved Laboratory Dispersant Effectiveness Test (ILDET) which was developed to replace EPA's Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test (RSDET). The report summarizes the development of the IL...

324

Alcohol's Effects on the Body  

MedlinePLUS

... Drinking Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Moderate & Binge Drinking Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorders ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on ...

325

Side Effects: Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Another way to learn about your drug's side effects or safety concerns is to use the Index to Drug ... How do I report a suspected drug side effect? ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

326

The Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a joint effort of NOAA Research and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama. The goal of the site is to provide middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources. In this unit students learn about what the greenhouse effect is and what causes it. By looking at greenhouse gas rates and amounts, students can propose reasons for trends and solutions to global warming. Parts of the unit include gathering information from other websites, applying the data gathered, and performing enrichment exercises. This site contains a downloadable teachers guide, student guide, and all activity sheets to make the unit complete.

327

Biological effects of ozone  

SciTech Connect

Tropospheric ozone, a classic anthropogenic air pollutant, is going to remain a troublesome byproduct of contemporary civilization for many decades. We have known for some time that the hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles, together with actinic radiation, account for local and regional photochemistry leading to prolonged afternoon ozone peaks. We also now know that agricultural burning and intensive animal husbandry elevate regional and mesoscale concentrations of ozone and its precursors, and that remote background levels of ozone have been rising steadily throughout this century. The changes we will have to make in emission controls to appreciably reduce current tropospheric ozone levels will have profound effects on our transportation systems, consumer products, and lifestyles. As a society, we will have to make difficult choices about the levels of ozone-associated health, welfare, and natural system damage we will tolerate, or conversely, how much we are willing to pay for controls which can minimize the damage.

Lippmann, M. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (USA))

1989-09-01

328

Parent of origin effects.  

PubMed

A major weakness of most genome-wide association studies has been their inability to fully explain the heritable component of complex disease. Nearly all such studies consider the two parental alleles to be functionally equivalent. However, the existence of imprinted genes demonstrates that this assumption can be wrong. In this review, we describe a wide variety of different mechanisms that underlie many other parent of origin and trans-generational effects that are known to operate in both humans and model organisms, suggesting that these phenomena are perhaps not uncommon in the genome. We propose that the consideration of alternative models of inheritance will improve our understanding of the heritability and causes of human traits and could have significant impacts on the study of complex disorders. PMID:21933173

Guilmatre, A; Sharp, A J

2011-10-30

329

The hot chocolate effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

Crawford, Frank S.

1982-05-01

330

[Side effects of caffeine].  

PubMed

Caffeine is one of the most commonly ingested alkaloids worldwide. It is present in coffee, tea, soft and energy drinks, chocolate, etc. Currently published data has been stressed that the metyloxantine consumption increases the risk of coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, arterial stiffness, and an elevation of cholesterol and homocysteine plasma concentration. The acute high consumption may also modulate insulin sensitivity and glucose blood level. However, the long-term consumption reduces the incidence of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. When administered in high doses the substance may cause various side effects, related to abnormal stimulation of the central nervous system, decrease tonus of the lower esophageal sphincter, as well as increase risk of miscarriage and intrauterine growth retardation. The final manifestation of side reactions is dependent on the genotype, especially polymorphisms of genes associated with caffeine metabolism, i.e., cytochrome P450-CYP1A2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). PMID:19999796

Dworza?ski, Wojciech; Opielak, Grzegorz; Burdan, Franciszek

2009-11-01

331

Remarks on Effect Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erik M. Alfsen and Frederic W. Shultz had recently developed the characterisation of state spaces of operator algebras. It established full equivalence (in the mathematical sense) between the Heisenberg and the Schrödinger picture, i.e. given a physical system we are able to construct its state space out of its observables as well as to construct algebra of observables from its state space. As an underlying mathematical structure they used the theory of duality of ordered linear spaces and obtained results are valid for various types of operator algebras (namely C *, von Neumann, JB and JBW algebras). Here, we show that the language they developed also admits a representation of an effect algebra.

Majewski, W?adys?aw A.; Tylec, Tomasz I.

2010-12-01

332

The Energy Diameter Effect  

SciTech Connect

Various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder are explored. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder and sphere results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

Souers, P; Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A

2007-04-20

333

The Energy Diameter Effect  

SciTech Connect

We explore various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A; Souers, P C

2007-07-10

334

Neutralization and system effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Security forces that can neutralize an attack force are essential to effectively safeguard special nuclear material (SNM) against theft or sabotage. Probability of neutralization, P(N), estimates the likelihood that security forces will win given that security forces interrupt the attackers and begin an armed engagement. Brief Adversary Threat Loss Estimator (BATLE) calculates P(N). BATLE was developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1980. This paper describes a total repackaging of BATLE which will be called the Threat Neutralization Model. New features and capabilities are (1) guidance to the user in setting up the input parameters, (2) faster software, (3) graphical output and sensitivity curves to assist the user in interpreting the results, (4) compatibility with the SAVI vulnerability analysis program, and (5) operation under Microsoft Windows on personal computers.

Paulus, W.K.

1988-01-01

335

THE HOT CHOCOLATE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

Crawford, Frank S.

1980-12-01

336

Hot chocolate effect  

SciTech Connect

The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

Crawford, F.S.

1982-05-01

337

Topological Magnetoelectric Effect Decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the influence of realistic disorder and finite doping on the effective magnetic monopole induced near the surface of an ideal topological insulator (TI) by currents that flow in response to a suddenly introduced external electric charge. We show that when the longitudinal conductivity ?xx=g(e2/h)?0, the apparent position of a magnetic monopole initially retreats from the TI surface at speed vM=?cg, where ? is the fine structure constant and c is the speed of light. For the particular case of TI surface states described by a massive Dirac model, we further find that the temperature T=0 Hall currents vanish when the external potential is screened.

Pesin, D. A.; MacDonald, A. H.

2013-07-01

338

Unparticle phase effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unparticles proposed by Georgi carry CP conserving phases in their propagators. We demonstrate that these peculiar phases have an important impact on CP violation. Without including the strong QCD phases, we study the unparticle phase effects on the direct CP asymmetries in the exclusive decays of B¯d??+?- and B??K, in which the flavor changing neutral currents are forbidden at tree level but induced by one-loop diagrams. Interesting and consistent results comparing to the data are obtained. In addition, we find that unparticles will significantly enhance the differential branching ratio of b?s?+?- at the small invariant mass of ?+?-. The forward-backward asymmetries for b?s?+?- due to unparticles are also explored.

Chen, Chuan-Hung; Geng, Chao-Qiang

2007-08-01

339

Environmental effects of mining  

SciTech Connect

The mining and mineral process industry has had very strong demands placed on it in recent decades, as the extent of its effects on the environment has become better understood and public concern has increased. Important progress has been made in both awareness and comprehension of the problems created by mineral production and in knowledge of how to prevent, mitigate and correct them. The first half of the book covers exploration and development, extraction processes, metallurgical processing and refining, decommissioning, environmental and ecological analysis, transportation analysis, residual dispersion, protection, rehabilitation, reclamation, regulation, standards and monitoring. The second half consists of chapters devoted to specific mined commodities. Each chapter covers a commodity, its production history, the situation of orebodies, ore extraction, ore processing, specific impacts on the environment, and short- and long-term remediation methods. Case histories are used to provide detail.

Crowder, A.A. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Ripley, E.A.; Redmann, R.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1995-12-01

340

Adverse effects of bisphosphonates.  

PubMed

Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse events in bisphosphonate-treated patients was based on published information from case reports, case series, claims databases, national databases, surveys, adverse event reporting databases, and single or pooled clinical trials. The most common acute adverse events with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis are gastrointestinal discomfort and acute influenza-like illness. Renal complications are very rare with oral bisphosphonates and rare with i.v. bisphosphonates when used appropriately. Based on our current knowledge, skeletal events in the form of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical fragility fractures are rare compared with the risk of osteoporotic fractures, at least in patients with the same risk of fractures as those in the phase III trials. It is biologically plausible that atypical fragility fractures could follow from suppression of bone remodeling, but high-quality studies proving causality are lacking. Physicians are advised to critically reassess BMD and risk profile after 3-5 years of therapy to avoid treatment in patients at low risk. PMID:20407762

Abrahamsen, Bo

2010-04-21

341

Radiolytic effects of plutonium.  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium isotopes, most of them a-emitters, cause radiolytic changes in the matrix, in whic h they are embedded. The internal irradiation of Pu metal or its alloys results in physical changes, largel y as a result of the formation of helium bubbles, well-known to material scientists and weapons specialists . In all other media where plutonium occurs, usually as Pu'+ in an ionic form, the results of irradiation ar e chemical in nature. Homogenous media containing Pu, are often aqueous or non-aqueous solutions o f plutonium compounds, mostly originating during processing of spent nuclear fuel or from Pu processing . Heterogenous matrices containing plutonium are more complex from the point of view of radiolysis; they usually contain a variety of combinations of common materials contaminated with radionuclides . This class of radioactive materials represents a challenge for the management of plutonium waste . One has to consider a range of time scales for radiolytic effects (and consequently a several orders o f magnitude range of the cumulative dose) beginning with waste generation, through packaging, transportation, to the period of final storage . Final storage could be for thousands of years in deep geologic repositories . At every ' stage of that time scale, radiolysis proceeds continuously an d cumulative effects c an complicate operating procedures and final disposition . The results presented here have been obtained from experiments that have irradiated of model materials, which are typically the objects of contamination with plutonium . They were irradiated with linearly accelerated electrons up to very high dose rates, adjusted to simulate any contamination at any point on the time scale .

Zagorski, Z. (Zbigniew); Dziewinski, J. J. (Jacek J.); Conca, James L.

2003-01-01

342

Nitric oxide suppression reversibly attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and cholestasis in endotoxemic rat liver.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine whether nitric oxide (NO) plays a causal role in endotoxin-induced dysfunction of biliary transport. Rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (O111B4, 4 mg/kg). At 2 hours, the liver was excised and perfused ex vivo with taurocholate (TC)-containing Krebs-Ringer solution under monitoring bile output and NO2 in the perfusate and tissue cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels as indices of NO production. The endotoxin treatment evoked a marked decrease in the bile acid-dependent bile formation concurrent with the increasing NO2 output, cGMP elevation, and a reduction of hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents and oxygen consumption. Perfusion with 1 mmol/L aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of inducible NO synthase, but not with L-nitroarginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of the constitutive form of the enzyme, significantly reversed the endotoxin-induced increment of the bile formation in concert with the recovery of oxygen consumption and ATP levels. Laser confocal microfluorography of the liver lobules using rhodamine 123 (Rh), a fluoroprobe sensitive to mitochondrial membrane potential, revealed that endotoxin elicited a significant mitochondrial dysfunction panlobularly. The AG administration reversed the endotoxin-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Collectively, up-regulation of NO by inducible NO synthase accounts for a mechanism through which endotoxin impairs the bile formation, and its suppression serves as a therapeutic strategy for improvement of hepatobiliary function. PMID:9425925

Shiomi, M; Wakabayashi, Y; Sano, T; Shinoda, Y; Nimura, Y; Ishimura, Y; Suematsu, M

1998-01-01

343

Hydrogen peroxide induced relaxation in porcine pulmonary arteries in vitro is mediated by EDRF and cyclic GMP  

SciTech Connect

Xanthine and xanthine oxidase induced relaxations in porcine pulmonary arteries in vitro are augmented in the presence of the endothelium and abolished by catalase, implicating hydrogen peroxide as an endothelium-dependent effector. To determine the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}O{sub 2} causes relaxations, isolated rings of fifth order porcine pulmonary artery, with (E{sup +}) and without (E{sup {minus}}) endothelium, were suspended in organ baths filled with buffer, and isometric tension was recorded. Hydrogen peroxide caused concentration-dependent, endothelium-augmented relaxations which were abolished by catalase and hydroquinone and reversed by L-nitroarginine and methylene blue. Prostacyclin (PGI{sub 2}) levels, measured after a two minute exposure to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in rings with endothelium were comparable to controls. This concentration of PGI{sub 2} does not cause relaxations in these rings. These data suggest that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulates the release of an EDRF, causing relaxations mediated by cyclic GMP, which is independent of prostacyclin.

Zellers, T.; McCormick, J. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas (United States))

1991-03-15

344

An analysis of inhibitory junction potentials in the guinea-pig proximal colon  

PubMed Central

Intracellular recordings were made from either sheets or isolated bundles of the circular muscle layer of guinea-pig proximal colon and the responses evoked by stimulating inhibitory nerve fibres were analysed. Inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs), evoked by single stimuli, had two components which could be separated on their pharmacological and temporal characteristics and their voltage sensitivities. The initial component, which was abolished by apamin and reduced in amplitude by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulphonic acid (PPADS), had a brief time course: its amplitude was changed when the external concentration of potassium ions ([K+]o) was changed. The second component of the IJP had a slower onset than the first component, was abolished by l-nitroarginine (NOLA) and oxadiazolo quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase: its amplitude was little affected by changing [K+]o and was increased when the membrane potential of the circular layer was hyperpolarized. The observations suggest that the initial component of the IJP results from the release of ATP which triggers an increase in membrane conductance to K+ and that the second component results from the release of nitric oxide which suppresses a background inward current.

Hirst, GDS; Bywater, RAR; Teramoto, N; Edwards, FR

2004-01-01

345

Dispersant effectiveness: Studies into the causes of effectiveness variations  

SciTech Connect

Effectiveness, a key issue of using dispersants, is affected by many interrelated factors. The principal factors involved are the oil composition, dispersant formulation, sea surface turbulence and dispersant quantity. Oil composition is a very strong determinant. Current dispersant formulation effectiveness correlates strongly with the amount of saturate component in the oil. The other components of the oil, the asphaltenes, resins or polars and aromatic fractions show a negative correlation with the dispersant effectiveness. Viscosity is also a predictor of dispersant effectiveness and may have an effect because it is in turn determined by oil composition. Dispersant composition is significant and interacts with oil composition. Dispersants show high effectiveness at HLB values near 10. Sea turbulence strongly affects dispersant effectiveness.Effectiveness rises with increasing turbulence to a maximum value. Effectiveness for current commercial dispersants is gaussian around a peak salinity value. Peak effectiveness is achieved at very high dispersant quantities--at a ratio of 1:5, dispersant-to-oil volume. Dispersant effectiveness for those oils tested and under the conditions measured, is approximately logarithmic with dispersant quantity and will reach about 50% of its peak value at a dispersant to oil ratio of about 1:20 and near zero at a ratio of about 1:50.

Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tennyson, E. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States)

1995-06-01

346

Fatigue Effects in Germanium Photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatigue effects in germanium photodetectors were observed and studies carried out to determine the main components of these effects. Irradiance level, spectral distribution of the incident radiation and irradiated surface on the detector all play an important part in the existence and magnitude of fatigue effects. The time needed to recover the initial characteristics was also studied.

Lecollinet, P.; Bastie, J.

1993-01-01

347

KATABATIC FLOW WITH CORIOLIS EFFECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Katabatic flows on long glaciers in high latitudes experience the Coriolis effect deflecting the flow thus affecting turbulent transports in the boundary layer. Analytically katabatic flows have been best represented by Prandtl model. However, the classic Prandtl model does not take into account the effect of the Coriolis force. It is found that after a straightforward inclusion of this effect,

Ivana Stiperski; Iva Kav; Branko Grisogono

348

Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers  

SciTech Connect

It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator.

Pourhamidi, A.H.

1983-10-01

349

Nonlinear effects in particulate processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonlinear effects in various particulate processes are analyzed within the context of population balance modeling. Our main objective is to indicate the origin of the nonlinear effects and to categorize them in a systematic manner. To illustrate the importance of the nonlinear effects, a continuous milling process is considered, which has been analyzed in the literature with linear population

E. Bilgili; B. Scarlett

2005-01-01

350

Emotional intelligence and effective leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence has become increasingly popular as a measure for identifying potentially effective leaders, and as a tool for developing effective leadership skills. Despite this popularity, however, there is little empirical research that substantiates the efficacy of emotional intelligence in these areas. The aim of the present paper was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Emotional

Benjamin Palmer; Melissa Walls; Zena Burgess; Con Stough

2001-01-01

351

Ion Effects in 'Anaerobic Digestion'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents results of research on the effects of organic and inorganic ions on the anaerobic waste treatment process. Studied were the effects of various cations, the toxicity of various heavy metals, and the effect of high concentrations of indi...

P. L. McCarty I. J. Kugelman A. W. Lawrence

1964-01-01

352

Antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione has been studied with healthy scalps in relation to its ANTIDANDRUFF effect. Use of zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo sharply reduced the CORNEOCYTE COUNTS, while the similarly active antimicrobial agent, Irgasan DP-300 © had no effect on the corneocyte counts. Quantitative estimation of scalp microorganisms revealed that corresponding to the decrease in dandruff, Pityrospbrum ovale

GENJI IMOKAWA; HARUO SHIMIZU

353

Hall effect in spinor condensates  

SciTech Connect

We consider a neutral spinor condensate moving in a periodic magnetic field. The spatially dependent magnetic field induces an effective spin-dependent Lorentz force, which in turn gives rise to a spin-dependent Hall effect. Simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation quantify the Hall effect. We discuss possible experimental realizations.

Taillefumier, Mathieu; Dahl, Eskil K.; Brataas, Arne [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Hofstetter, Walter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

2009-07-01

354

Effective Programs for Latino Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers presents the current state of research on effective instructional programs for Hispanic American students. The 10 chapters are: (1) "Effective Programs for Latino Students in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Olatokunbo S. Fashola, Robert E. Slavin, Margarita Calderon, and Richard Duran); (2) "Effective Dropout Prevention…

Slavin, Robert E., Ed.; Calderon, Margarita, Ed.

355

The Effective Illumination of Streets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mentions the dependence of effectiveness in street lighting upon municipal appropriations and efficient lamps, but discusses more particularly those aspects of effectiveness which are dependent upon skilful utilization of the light to produce the most effective illumination. There are included a classification of streets, a statement of the objects of street lighting and the elements of vision under

Preston S. Mllar

1915-01-01

356

Effective field theories from QCD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a method for extracting effective Lagrangians from QCD. The resulting effective Lagrangians are based on exact rewrites of cut-off QCD in terms of these new collective field degrees of freedom. These cut-off Lagrangians are thus 'effective' in ...

R. Sollacher

1994-01-01

357

Assessing and Improving Institutional Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information to promote assessment of organizational effectiveness in colleges and universities is presented, along with an exercise to rank the effectiveness of 10 institutions. The exercise uses three types of criteria to indicate effectiveness: subjective ratings, data about students and activities, and institutional capacity and financial…

Cameron, Kim S.

358

Piezomagnetoelectric effects in anisotropic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of stress on the magnetoelectric polarisability is represented by a fourth-rank axial magnetic tensor called the piezomagnetoelectric effect. The non-zero independent components of the piezomagnetoelectric effect have been determined for each of the 90 magnetic crystal classes using a computer.

E. K. Stefanakos; R. F. Tinder; H. V. Thapliyal

1979-01-01

359

Effective Operators in Atomic Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation effects of inter-electronic interactions between atomic configurations can be reproduced by effective orthogonal operators acting within a single configuration of interest. These operators which act on N electrons at a time can be resolved through the use of continuous Lie groups. This thesis details the development of these effective operators for a number of configurations. Complete sets of

Richard Carlson Leavitt

1989-01-01

360

Probiotics: mechanisms and established effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition for probiotics has gradually changed with increasing understanding of the mechanisms by which they influence human health. Health effects related to changes in the intestinal microflora also accompany or are related to adhesion and immune system effects, competitive exclusion or metabolic and nutritional effects, with an increasing array of other potential modes of action. Most clinically documented and

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Pirkka V. Kirjavainen; Colette Shortt; Seppo Salminen

1999-01-01

361

Side effects with amiodarone therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amiodarone hydrochloride is increasingly being used in the treatment of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Although a highly effective anti-arrhythmic agent, its use is restricted by the high incidence of side effects. To elucidate the value of monitoring serum level of both the parent drug and its active metabolite in predicting the occurrence of side effects, the investigators examined 109 patients

R. Shukla; N. I. Jowett; D. R. Thompson; J. E. Pohl

1994-01-01

362

Simultaneous determination of iridoid glycosides and flavanoids in Lamionphlomis rotate and its herbal preparation by a simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis method.  

PubMed

Iridoid glycosides and flavanoids are two main effective components of Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) kudo. However, there is no method for simultaneous analysis of iridoid glycosides and flavanoids in L. rotata and its pharmaceutical preparations. A simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methylester and 8-deoxyshanzhiside) and three flavanoids (apigenin, quercetin and luteolin) in L. rotata. Operational variables, such as the voltage, buffer concentration and pH were optimized, the final optimum separation condition was 10 mM sodium tetraborate-20 mM NaH(2) PO(4) (pH 8.5)-15% (v/v) methanol, 238 nm UV detection, 18 kV applied voltage. The linearity and the recovery of the proposed method were very satisfactory (correlation coefficients were 0.9994-0.9998 and the recoveries were 94.5-108.8% for the analytes) and the method allowed analytes in real samples to be determined within 9 min. The proposed CZE method can be used for quality control of iridoid glycosides and flavanoids in L. rotata and its herbal preparation. PMID:21548111

Lü, Wenjuan; Li, Maoxing; Chen, Yonglei; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

2011-05-04

363

Organic compounds and trace elements in the Pocomoke River and its tributaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to concern about recent blooms of the dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, samples of sediment and water were collected from the lower Pocomoke River Basin and were screened for trace elements, pesticides, and other organic compounds. A large group of steroid and fatty acid methyl-ester compounds was detected in streamwater using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy in scan mode. Some of these steroid compounds have been identified and further quantified in bed-sediment extracts. Spatial patterns of the concentrations of cholesterol suggest that these compounds are linked to the runoff of animal wastes into the river. Many of the organic compounds found in the Pocomoke River sediments have not yet been identified, but at least several are in the class of hormone compounds related to estradiols and have the potential to promote endocrine-disrupting effects in aquatic life. Particulate forms of arsenic and zinc are slightly elevated above normal levels for streams, but the sources for these elements are still undetermined. Several pesticides were found in low, parts-per-trillion concentrations, but were within the ranges commonly found in streams of this region.

Miller, Cherie V.; Foster, Gregory D.; Huff, Thomas B.; Garbarino, John R.

1999-01-01

364

Local NOS inhibition impairs vascular and metabolic actions of insulin in rat hindleg muscle in vivo.  

PubMed

Insulin stimulates microvascular recruitment in skeletal muscle, and this vascular action augments muscle glucose disposal by ?40%. The aim of the current study was to determine the contribution of local nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to the vascular actions of insulin in muscle. Hooded Wistar rats were infused with the NOS inhibitor N(?)-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME, 10 ?M) retrogradely via the epigastric artery in one leg during a systemic hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (3 mU·min(-1)·kg(-1) × 60 min) or saline infusion. Femoral artery blood flow, microvascular blood flow (assessed from 1-methylxanthine metabolism), and muscle glucose uptake (2-deoxyglucose uptake) were measured in both legs. Local l-NAME infusion did not have any systemic actions on blood pressure or heart rate. Local l-NAME blocked insulin-stimulated changes in femoral artery blood flow (84%, P < 0.05) and microvascular recruitment (98%, P < 0.05), and partially blocked insulin-mediated glucose uptake in muscle (reduced by 34%, P < 0.05). l-NAME alone did not have any metabolic effects in the hindleg. We conclude that insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment is dependent on local activation of NOS in muscle and that this action is important for insulin's metabolic actions. PMID:23900417

Bradley, Eloise A; Richards, Stephen M; Keske, Michelle A; Rattigan, Stephen

2013-07-30

365

Growth medium affects the cellular fatty acid composition of Pasteurellaceae.  

PubMed

We studied the cellular fatty acid composition of 10 Actinobacillus (A.) and Pasteurella (P.) reference strains grown on 2 types of agar by the MIDI Microbial Identification System (MIS). A. capsulatus, A. equuli, A. lignieresii, A. ureae, A. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. haemolytica, P. multocida, P. pneumotropica biotypes Heyl and Jawetz were grown on GC agar supplemented with ascitic fluid and X and V factor (Levinthal's agar = LA agar) or GC agar supplemented with vitox and hemoglobin (VH agar) on 3 to 7 and 7 to 16 occasions respectively and fatty acid methylester (FAME) profiles were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA). All Pasteurellaceae strains showed FAME profiles typical for the family. Maximum coefficients of variation of the percentage of the 3 major FAMEs 14:0, 16:0, and 16:1 cis were 0.03, 0.03 and 0.03 for Pasteurellaceae strains grown on VH agar and 0.09, 0.17 and 0.09 respectively for strains grown on LA agar. PCA of FAME profiles obtained with growth from LA agar generally did not allow species separation of the Pasteurellaceae but most species were clearly discriminated by PCA when they were grown on VH agar. Our findings indicate that the growth medium had a significant effect on the reproducibility of fatty acid profiling in Pasteurellaceae and that PCA of fatty acid data obtained under standardized growth conditions may discriminate Pasteurellaceae species. PMID:10096162

Boot, R; Thuis, H C; Reubsaet, F A

1999-02-01

366

An Increase in Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Accompanies Dormancy Breakage and Germination of Yellow Cedar Seeds1  

PubMed Central

Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC 3.1.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination.

Ren, Chengwei; Kermode, Allison R.

2000-01-01

367

Sweetness and enzymatic activity of lysozyme.  

PubMed

Hen egg lysozyme elicits a sweet taste sensation for human beings. Effects of reduction of disulfide bonds, heat treatment, and chemical modification of hen egg lysozyme on both sweetness and hydrolytic activity were investigated. Both the sweetness and enzymatic activities were lost when the intradisulfide linkage in a lysozyme molecule was reduced and S-3-(trimethylated amino) propylated. The sweetness and enzymatic activity of lysozyme were lost on heating at 95 degrees C for 18 h. These facts suggest that tertiary structures of lysozyme are indispensable for eliciting a sweet taste as well as enzymatic activity. Although the modification of carboxyl residues in a lysozyme by glycine methylester or aminomethansulfonic acid resulted in the loss of enzymatic activity by blocking the catalytic residues, the sweetness was fully retained. These results indicate that the sweetness of lysozyme was independent of its enzymatic activity. The lysozyme purified from goose egg white similarly elicited a sweet taste, although goose (g-type) lysozyme is quite different from hen egg lysozyme (c-type) on the basis of structural, immunological, and enzymatic properties. These findings indicate that a specific protein property of lysozyme is required for sweetness elicitation and that the enzymatic activity and carbohydrates produced by enzymatic reaction are not related to the sweet taste. PMID:11600047

Masuda, T; Ueno, Y; Kitabatake, N

2001-10-01

368

Thromboxane A2 Contributes to the Mediation of Flow-Induced Responses of Skeletal Muscle Venules: Role of Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2  

PubMed Central

Background It has been shown that increases in intraluminal flow elicit dilation in venules, but the mediation of response is not yet clarified. We hypothesized that – in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and dilator prostaglandins (PGI2/ PGE2) – thromboxane A2 (TxA2) contributes to the mediation of flow-induced responses of venules. Methods and Results Isolated rat gracilis muscle venules (259 ± 11 ?m at 10 mm Hg) dilated as a function of intraluminal flow, which was augmented in the presence of the TxA2 receptor antagonist SQ 29,548 or the TxA2 synthase inhibitor ozagrel. In the presence of SQ 29,548, indomethacin or N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester decreased flow-induced dilations, whereas in their simultaneous presence dilations were abolished. The selective cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 inhibitor SC 560 reduced, whereas the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398 enhanced flow-induced dilations. Immunohistochemistry showed that both COX-1 and COX-2 are present in the wall of venules. Conclusion In skeletal muscle venules, increases in intraluminal flow elicit production of constrictor TxA2, in addition to the dilator NO and PGI2/PGE2, with an overall effect of limited dilation. These mediators are likely to have important roles in the multiple feedback regulation of wall shear stress in venules during changes in blood flow velocity and/or viscosity.

Racz, A.; Veresh, Z.; Erdei, N.; Bagi, Z.; Koller, A.

2009-01-01

369

Convolution effects in superconductive tunneling.  

PubMed

The quasiparticle density of states (DOS) of superconductors can be obtained from tunneling spectroscopy. When the normal-state differential conductance varies on the voltage scale comparable to that of strong-coupling effects, the standard normalization rule to extract the DOS is invalid, and the DOS is related to the measured data via an integral equation. These effects are exemplified by studying the geometry effect on the DOS for simple BCS superconductors. We apply these considerations to UPd2Al3 tunnel data where the apparent strong-coupling effects, previously deduced by use of the normalization rule, can be quantitatively attributed to convolution effects. PMID:18233552

Geerk, J; V Löhneysen, H

2007-12-19

370

Effects of Security actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of authority the investigation of the security work will be done with authorities on both regional and local scale. At the moment the investigation process are in progress and preliminary results will be presented.

Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

2010-05-01

371

Effect sizes in memory research.  

PubMed

Effect sizes are omitted from many research articles and are rarely discussed. To help researchers evaluate effect sizes we collected values for the more commonly reported effect size measures (partial eta squared and d) from papers reporting memory research published in 2010. Cohen's small, medium, and large generic guideline values for d mapped neatly onto the observed distributions, but his values for partial eta squared were considerably lower than those observed in current memory research. We recommend interpreting effect sizes in the context of either domain-specific guideline values agreed for an area of research or the distribution of effect size estimates from published research in the domain. We provide cumulative frequency tables for both partial eta squared and d enabling authors to report and consider not only the absolute size of observed effects but also the percentage of reported effects that are larger or smaller than those observed. PMID:23350788

Morris, Peter E; Fritz, Catherine O

2013-01-25

372

Public Opinion on Mass Media Effects: Perceived Societal Effects and Perceived Personal Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The questionnaire in a study of perceived mass media effects included nine statements about the possible negative effects of the mass media, to which respondents could agree, disagree, or indicate "no opinion," and an open-ended question that asked the subjects what effects the mass media had on them personally. Most of the 340 respondents showed…

Tiedge, James T.

373

Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review  

PubMed Central

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases.

Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi

2013-01-01

374

Melatonin anticancer effects: review.  

PubMed

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi

2013-01-24

375

The Second Mössbauer Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"The Second Mössbauer Effect" was the headline of the "Spiegel" (a German weekly journal like the "Times") from May 13, 1964 for announcing the foundation of the "Physik-Department" at the Technische Hochschule München (THM), as it was still called at this time. Maier-Leibnitz was irritated by this headline because the article did not mention at all his contribution to the consolidation of the structure of the three physics institutes (Experimental, Technical, and Theoretical Physics) in the beginning of the sixties. Already in the late fifties ML's Institute for Technical Physics was overloaded with students working on their diploma or doctoral theses, because research in the new field of applied nuclear physics was very attractive and ML had for each student who applied an interesting research project. In the average, ML had to supervise between 150-200 diploma students, an impossible task. So, young postdoctoral students had to help him out by taking over the duties of professors. In a letter to the Bavarian Ministry of Education and Arts in 1957 he complained: "The directors of the institutes are hopelessly surcharged and the institutes are overcrowded, the resources for research projects are totally insufficient and lots of time and energy is wasted for finding additional resources."

Kienle, Paul

376

Quantum Wipe Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a model of a spin system under the influence of decoherence such that a system coupled with a dissipating environmental system consisting of either spins or bosonic modes. The dissipation of an environment is governed by a certain probability with which an environmental system localized around a principal system dissipates into a larger bath and a thermal environmental system instead migrates into the place. A certain threshold on the probability is found in the growth of decoherence in a principal system. A larger as well as a smaller dissipation probability than the threshold results in smaller decoherence. This finding is utilized to elucidate a spin relaxation theory of a magnetic resonance spectrometer. In particular, a seamless description of transverse relaxation and motional narrowing is possible. We also numerically evaluate the dynamics of coherence useful for quantum information processing. The bang-bang control and anti-Zeno effect in entanglement and the Oppenheim-Horodecki nonclassical correlation are investigated in the model of spin-boson coupling.

Saitoh, Akira; Rahimi, Robabeh; Nakahara, Mikio

2010-11-01

377

Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

Cook, J.

2011-12-01

378

Unruh effect and holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the Unruh effect on the dynamics of quarks and mesons in the context of AdS5/CFT4 correspondence. We adopt an AdS5 metric with the boundary Rindler horizon extending into a bulk Rindler-like horizon, which yields the thermodynamics with Unruh temperature verified by computing the boundary stress tensor. We then embed in it a probe fundamental string and a D7 brane in such a way that they become the dual of an accelerated quark and a meson in Minkowski space, respectively. Using the standard procedure of holographic renormalization, we calculate the chiral condensate, and also the spectral functions for both the accelerated quark and meson. Especially, we extract the corresponding strength of random force of the Langevin dynamics and observe that it can characterize the phase transition of meson melting. This result raises an issue toward a formulation of complementarity principle for the Rindler horizon. We find most of the dynamical features are qualitatively similar to the ones in the thermal bath dual to the AdS black hole background, though they could be quite different quantitatively.

Hirayama, Takayuki; Kao, Pei-Wen; Kawamoto, Shoichi; Lin, Feng-Li

2011-03-01

379

Funnelling Effect in Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Funnelling effect, in the context of searching on networks, precisely indicates that the search takes place through a few specific nodes. We define the funnelling capacity f of a node as the fraction of successful dynamic paths through it with a fixed target. The distribution D(f) of the fraction of nodes with funnelling capacity f shows a power law behaviour in random networks (with power law or stretched exponential degree distribution) for a considerable range of values of the parameters defining the networks. Specifically we study in detail D 1 = D(f = 1), which is the quantity signifying the presence of nodes through which all the dynamical paths pass through. In scale free networks with degree distribution P(k) ? k - ? , D 1 increases linearly with ? initially and then attains a constant value. It shows a power law behaviour, D_1 ? N^{-?}, with the number of nodes N where ? is weakly dependent on ? for ?> 2.2. The latter variation is also independent of the number of searches. On stretched exponential networks with P(k) ? exp{(-k^?)}, ? is strongly dependent on ?. The funnelling distribution for a model social network, where the question of funnelling is most relevant, is also investigated.

Sen, Parongama

380

Pulmonary effects of nebivolol.  

PubMed

The pharmacological control of arterial hypertension is a very frequent issue in clinical practice and some critical aspects can arise in particular circumstances and with particular molecules. In the case of hypertensive subjects with respiratory comorbidities, when first introduced, these beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists were described as affecting airway patency as a result of their antagonism against beta(2)-adrenergic receptors within airway muscles. New molecules with a better respiratory tolerability were subsequently designed in order to overcome the narrow therapeutic window of first-generation beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists. Nebivolol is a third-generation beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist with high beta(1)-selective adrenergic receptor antagonism and vasodilating properties that induces a substantial decrease of arterial pressure in hypertensive subjects while preserving their left ventricular function. Respiratory effects of nebivolol have been investigated in animal models, in healthy volunteers and in clinical trials carried out on patients suffering from bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In contrast to older compounds, nebivolol, which modulates the endogenous production of nitric oxide and affects oxidative cascade, proved clinically well tolerated in terms of respiratory outcomes in this type of subject. Moreover, due to the substantial dissociation between its cardiac and pulmonary activity, nebivolol confirmed a very good safety profile when regularly administered to hypertensive subjects with obstructive respiratory comorbidities. PMID:19638367

Dal Negro, Roberto

2009-08-01

381

Beyond the sulfur effect  

SciTech Connect

The addition of reactive elements (REs) is known to increase the adherence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales and the underlying alloys. A widely accepted mechanism is that the REs getter the sulfur impurity in the alloy, thus preventing it from segregating to the scale-alloy interface to weaken the interfacial bonding. This paper provides evidence showing that not all S-free interfaces are strong. Although eliminating the sulfur in the alloy can greatly improve scale adhesion, the presence of RE clearly has additional beneficial effects that make the scale-alloy interface even stronger. Fe{sub 3}Al-base alloys, with or without Zr additions or a desulfurization H{sub 2}-anneal were oxidized at 1000 C in O{sub 2}. The amount of sulfur at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-alloy interface was studied after the scales were removed by scratching with a diamond stylus in ultra-high vacuum using Auger spectroscopy. The interface composition was related to the spallation resistance of the scale.

Hou, P.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Science Div.

1999-10-01

382

(Limiting the greenhouse effect)  

SciTech Connect

Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

Rayner, S.

1991-01-07

383

Matrix effective theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present understanding of nonperturbative ground states in the fractional quantum Hall effect is based on effective theories of the Jain 'composite fermion' excitations. We review the approach based on matrix variables, i.e. D0 branes, originally introduced by Susskind and Polychronakos. We show that the Maxwell-Chern-Simons matrix gauge theory provides a matrix generalization of the quantum Hall effect, where the

Andrea Cappelli; Ivan D. Rodriguez

2009-01-01

384

The effect of dipolar interaction on the magnetic isotope effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-channel kinetic description is used to study the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) in zero magnetic field. The maximal isotope effect is equal to the number of channels, two for the hyperfine interaction but four for the electron spin dipole-dipole interaction of the intermediate radical pair. Quantum mechanical calculations agree with these conclusion and show that large MIE may be obtained even in the presence of a strong exchange interaction. The observed magnesium isotope effect on the rate of enzymatic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is approximately 3 implying that the dipolar interaction is responsible for the effect. Our calculations provide support for the proposed mechanism.

Pedersen, J. Boiden; Mojaza, Matin; Lukzen, Nikita N.

2010-08-01

385

Models for effective prevention.  

PubMed

The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1390786

Perry, C L; Kelder, S H

1992-07-01

386

Neuroendocrine effects of light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light/dark cycle to which animals, and possibly humans, are exposed has a major impact on their physiology. The mechanisms whereby specific tissues respond to the light/dark cycle involve the pineal hormone melatonin. The pineal gland, an end organ of the visual system in mammals, produces the hormone melatonin only at night, at which time it is released into the blood. The duration of elevated nightly melatonin provides every tissue with information about the time of day and time of year (in animals that are kept under naturally changing photoperiods). Besides its release in a circadian mode, melatonin is also discharged in a pulsatile manner; the physiological significance, if any, of pulsatile melatonin release remains unknown. The exposure of animals including man to light at night rapidly depresses pineal melatonin synthesis and, therefore, blood melatonin levels drop precipitously. The brightness of light at night required to depress melatonin production is highly species specific. In general, the pineal gland of nocturnally active mammals, which possess rod-dominated retinas, is more sensitive to inhibition by light than is the pineal gland of diurnally active animals (with cone-dominated retinas). Because of the ability of the light/dark cycle to determine melatonin production, the photoperiod is capable of influencing the function of a variety of endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Indeed, melatonin is a ubiquitously acting pineal hormone with its effects on the neuroendocrine system having been most thoroughly investigated. Thus, in nonhuman photoperiodic mammals melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction; in humans also, the indole has been implicated in the control of reproductive physiology.

Reiter, Russel J.

1991-09-01

387

Effective Sizes for Subdivided Populations  

PubMed Central

Many derivations of effective population sizes have been suggested in the literature; however, few account for the breeding structure and none can readily be expanded to subdivided populations. Breeding structures influence gene correlations through their effects on the number of breeding individuals of each sex, the mean number of progeny per female, and the variance in the number of progeny produced by males and females. Additionally, hierarchical structuring in a population is determined by the number of breeding groups and the migration rates of males and females among such groups. This study derives analytical solutions for effective sizes that can be applied to subdivided populations. Parameters that encapsulate breeding structure and subdivision are utilized to derive the traditional inbreeding and variance effective sizes. Also, it is shown that effective sizes can be determined for any hierarchical level of population structure for which gene correlations can accrue. Derivations of effective sizes for the accumulation of gene correlations within breeding groups (coancestral effective size) and among breeding groups (intergroup effective size) are given. The results converge to traditional, single population measures when similar assumptions are applied. In particular, inbreeding and intergroup effective sizes are shown to be special cases of the coancestral effective size, and intergroup and variance effective sizes will be equal if the population census remains constant. Instantaneous solutions for effective sizes, at any time after gene correlation begins to accrue, are given in terms of traditional F statistics or transition equations. All effective sizes are shown to converge upon a common asymptotic value when breeding tactics and migration rates are constant. The asymptotic effective size can be expressed in terms of the fixation indices and the number of breeding groups; however, the rate of approach to the asymptote is dependent upon dispersal rates. For accurate assessment of effective sizes, initial, instantaneous or asymptotic, the expressions must be applied at the lowest levels at which migration among breeding groups is nonrandom. Thus, the expressions may be applicable to lineages within socially structured populations, fragmented populations (if random exchange of genes prevails within each population), or combinations of intra- and interpopulation discontinuities of gene flow. Failure to recognize internal structures of populations may lead to considerable overestimates of inbreeding effective size, while usually underestimating variance effective size.

Chesser, R. K.; Rhodes-Jr., O. E.; Sugg, D. W.; Schnabel, A.

1993-01-01

388

Antigonococcal effects of vaginal tampons.  

PubMed Central

Different brands of vaginal tampons varied significantly (p less than 0.0001) in their anti-bacterial effects when tested with 46 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal strains recovered from patients with disseminated infections were substantially more sensitive to the anti-bacterial effects of tampons than were strains from patients with uncomplicated genital infections. Strains from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease were moderately sensitive. Tampons showing strong in-vitro antigonococcal effects were also generally effective in vivo in eliminating gonococcal infections from subcutaneous chambers in mice. Extracts of the Rely tampon showed no in-vitro antigonococcal effect, however, but did induce antibacterial activity when injected into subcutaneous chambers in mice. These results emphasise the importance of both in-vitro as well as in-vivo testing of tampon materials to elucidate more fully the nature of their antibacterial effects and their potential for affecting vaginal pathogens and disease processes.

Arko, R J; Wong, K H; Smith, S J; Finley-Price, K G

1983-01-01

389

Fatigue: environment and temperature effects  

SciTech Connect

An overview of temperature and environmental effects of fatigue is provided and room temperature environmental effects are examined, taking into account corrosion fatigue crack propagation, surface reactions and fatigue crack growth, and the determination of prefracture damage and failure prediction in corrosion-fatigued Al-2024-T4 by X-ray diffraction methods. Room temperature environmental effects are considered along with materials, and design engineering applications. High temperature and environmental effects are explored, giving attention to the effect of microstructure on the fatigue behavior of Ni base superalloys, creep crack growth, the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms of alloy 718 in low cycle fatigue, deformation induced microstructural changes in austenitic stainless steels, fatigue and fracture resistance of stainless steel weld deposits after elevated temperature irradiation, high-temperature static fatigue in ceramics, and environment, frequency, and temperature effects on fatigue in engineering plastics.

Burke, J.J.; Weiss, V.

1983-01-01

390

Effects of sea spray geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

391

Reverse coffee-ring effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a coffee drop dries on a solid surface, it commonly leaves a ring-like deposit along the edge, known as the coffee-ring effect. We present a reverse motion of particles in drying droplets, opposite to the coffee-ring effect. We reveal that the particle motion, initially toward the edge by the typical coffee-ring effect, is reversed to the droplet center owing to the capillary interaction generated by the droplet surface. The reverse coffee-ring effect always occurs whenever the capillary interaction prevails over the net outward force by the coffee- ring effect. The interaction predicts an inverse power-law time growth of moving distance from the edge, depending mostly on particle size and contact angle. The reverse coffee-ring effect may contribute to multiple ring formation by sweeping particles toward the center. We prove the mechanism with real-time optical, confocal, and X-ray microscopic observations of colloidal fluids.

Mook Weon, Byung; Xu, Lei; Je, Jung Ho; Hwu, Yeukuang; Margaritondo, Giorgio; Weitz, David A.

2009-03-01

392

Effective medium theory for thermoelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the application of effective medium theory to binary compound thermoelectric materials. We find a range of parameters for the conductivity and thermopower of the constituent elements such that the compound has an enhanced power factor. The results of effective medium theory are compared to full numerical simulations of an ensemble of disordered systems, and good qualitative agreement is found between the two calculations. The effect of various tailored geometries are explored in the direct numerical solution of the compound thermoelectrics.

Haney, Paul

2011-03-01

393

Peer effects in Austrian schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with educational production in Austria and is focused on the impact of schoolmates on students’ academic\\u000a outcomes. We use PISA 2000 and 2003 data to estimate peer effects for 15 and 16 year old students. School fixed effects are\\u000a employed to address the potential self-selection of students into schools and peer groups. The estimations show significant\\u000a positive effects

Nicole Schneeweis; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

2007-01-01

394

Effectiveness of multiple decoupling capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of using the parallel combination of large-value and small-value capacitors to increase the frequency coverage of either one and overcome the effect of lead inductance is examined. Computed and experimental results are given that show this scheme is not significantly effective. The improvement at high frequencies is at most 6 dB over the use of only the large-value

Clayton R. Paul

1992-01-01

395

Effects of harmonics on equipment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the state-of-knowledge of the effects of power system harmonics on equipment. The general mechanisms presented are thermal overloading, disruption, and dielectric stressing. Quantitative effects are presented or referenced whenever possible. However, many of the effects can only be qualitatively described. The equipment considered are adjustable speed drives, capacitors, circuit breakers, fuses, conductors, electronic equipment, lighting, metering, protective relays, rotating machines, telephones, and transformers.

Wagner, V.E.; Balda, J.C.; Barnes, T.M.; Emannuel, A.E.; Ferraro, R.J.; Griffith, D.C.; Hartmann, D.P.; Horton, W.F.; Jewell, W.T.; McEachern, A.; Phileggi, D.J.; Reid, W.E.

1993-04-01

396

Microstructural effects in shock ignition  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic response of explosive microstructures has been explicitly modeled, with the intention of gaining insight into initiation processes from hotspot formation to transition to detonation. In this paper, the authors focus attention upon the inert material response leading to hotspot ignition. Of interest are particle size and shape effects, constitutive effects of both binder and explosive, and their importance to hotspot formation. Effects of chemical reaction are considered elsewhere.

Conley, P.; Benson, D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Howe, P.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-07-01

397

GENETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic effects of electromagnetic waves can be detected by different test-systems. The mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation\\u000a can be developed on the levels of DNA and\\/or chromosomes. In numerous researches efficiency of micronucleus assay, alkaline\\u000a single-cell gel electrophoresis, chromosomal aberrations test and FISH-technique and their different combinations for the\\u000a detection of ionizing radiation-induced genotoxic effects are discussed. Also some

Rouben Aroutiounian; Galina Hovhannisyan; Gennady Gasparian

398

Electro-magneto-optical Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-magneto-optical effects in stationary materials are observed when the materials are placed in strong, static electric or magnetic fields and an electro- magnetic wave (light) traverses the medium. The Faraday effect is an example of the class of phenomena we have in mind. Clearly, the existence of electro- magneto-optical effects in material media is direct evidence that the equations for

R. A. Toupin; R. S. Rivlin

1961-01-01

399

Genetic Effects of Electromagnetic Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic effects of electromagnetic waves can be detected by different test-systems. The mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation can be developed on the levels of DNA and/or chromosomes. In numerous researches efficiency of micronucleus assay, alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis, chromosomal aberrations test and FISH-technique and their different combinations for the detection of ionizing radiation-induced genotoxic effects are discussed. Also some molecular-biological approaches developed in the last years are presented.

Aroutiounian, Rouben; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Gasparian, Gennady

400

Magnetocaloric effect in manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in La1 - x Sr x MnO3, Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3, and PrBaMn2O6 compounds is studied. The maximum values of MCE (? T max) determined by a direct method in the second and third compositions and in La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 are found to be much lower than those calculated from the change of the magnetic part of entropy in the Curie temperature ( T C) and the Néel temperature ( T N) range. The negative contribution of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) part of a sample in the La1 - x Sr x MnO3 system at 0.1 ? x ? 0.3 decreases ? T max and changes the ? T( T) curve shape, shifting its maximum 20-40 K above T C. Lower values of ? T max are detected in the range T C = 130-142 K in polycrystalline and single-crystal Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 samples cooled in air. If such samples were cooled in an oxygen atmosphere (which restores broken Mn-O-Mn bonds and, thus, increases the volume of CE-type AFM clusters), the maximum in the temperature dependence of MCE is located at T N (243 K) for CE-type AFM clusters. A magnetic field applied to a sample during the MCE measurements transforms these clusters into a ferromagnetic (FM) state, and both types of clusters decompose at T = T N. The PrBaMn2O6 composition undergoes an AFM-FM transition at 231 K, and the temperature dependence of its MCE has a sharp minimum at T = 234 K, where MCE is negative, and a broad maximum covering T C. The absolute values of MCE at both extrema are several times lower than those calculated from the change in the magnetic entropy. These phenomena are explained by the presence of a magnetically heterogeneous FM-AFM state in these manganites.

Koroleva, L. I.; Zashchirinskii, D. M.; Morozov, A. S.; Szymczak, R.

2012-10-01

401

Magnetocaloric effect in manganites  

SciTech Connect

The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, Sm{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3}, and PrBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} compounds is studied. The maximum values of MCE ({Delta}T{sub max}) determined by a direct method in the second and third compositions and in La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} are found to be much lower than those calculated from the change of the magnetic part of entropy in the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and the Neel temperature (T{sub N}) range. The negative contribution of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) part of a sample in the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} system at 0.1 {<=} x {<=} 0.3 decreases {Delta}T{sub max} and changes the {Delta}T(T) curve shape, shifting its maximum 20-40 K above T{sub C}. Lower values of {Delta}T{sub max} are detected in the range T{sub C} = 130-142 K in polycrystalline and single-crystal Sm{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3} samples cooled in air. If such samples were cooled in an oxygen atmosphere (which restores broken Mn-O-Mn bonds and, thus, increases the volume of CE-type AFM clusters), the maximum in the temperature dependence of MCE is located at T{sub N} (243 K) for CE-type AFM clusters. A magnetic field applied to a sample during the MCE measurements transforms these clusters into a ferromagnetic (FM) state, and both types of clusters decompose at T = T{sub N}. The PrBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} composition undergoes an AFM-FM transition at 231 K, and the temperature dependence of its MCE has a sharp minimum at T = 234 K, where MCE is negative, and a broad maximum covering T{sub C}. The absolute values of MCE at both extrema are several times lower than those calculated from the change in the magnetic entropy. These phenomena are explained by the presence of a magnetically heterogeneous FM-AFM state in these manganites.

Koroleva, L. I., E-mail: koroleva@phys.msu.ru; Zashchirinskii, D. M.; Morozov, A. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Szymczak, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Poland)

2012-10-15

402

Oscillating magnetocaloric effect on graphenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetocaloric effect of non-relativistic diamagnetic materials presents an oscillatory character due to the crossing of the Landau levels with the Fermi energy. This effect occurs at low temperature (ca 1 K) and high magnetic field (ca 10 T). Considering the relativistic properties of graphenes, a 2D massless diamagnetic material, these oscillations could be preserved and the effect occurs in a much higher temperature (ca 100 K), due to the huge Fermi velocity (106 m/s). In addition, the magnetocaloric effect can be tuned as either inverse or normal, by changing the magnetic field change in ca 3.4 T.

Reis, M. S.

2012-11-01

403

Density-dependent effective interactions  

SciTech Connect

An effective two nucleon interaction is defined by an optimal fit to select on- and half-off-of-the-energy shell {ital t} and {ital g} matrices determined by solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations with the Paris two nucleon interaction as input. As such, it reproduces the interaction on which it is based better than other commonly used, density dependent effective interactions. This new (medium modified) effective interaction, when folded with appropriate density matrices, has been used to define proton-{sup 12}C and proton-{sup 16}O optical potentials. With them elastic scattering data are well fit and the medium effects identifiable.

Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3052 Victoria (Australia)

1994-03-01

404

Effect of geometry on the effective moisture transfer diffusion coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective moisture transfer diffusion coefficient (Deff) of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTE) is determined either from an individual particle or a bulk of material in the literature. The Deff is assumed to be the same in both cases which can be dependent on the material thickness. In this study, the effect of bed depth of a bulk of two types

M. Ahmet Tütüncü; T. P. Labuza

1996-01-01

405

Radiation effects on livestock: physiological effects, dose response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm livestock show no measurable effects from being exposed to ionizing radiation unless the level is greatly in excess of the natural background radiation. Possible sources of ionizing radiation which might affect livestock or contribute to radioactivity in the food chain to humans are reactor accidents, fuel reprocessing plant accidents and thermonuclear explosions. Most data on ionizing radiation effects on

Bell

1985-01-01

406

WHAT LEVEL OF EFFECT IS A NO OBSERVED EFFECT?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) is currently a major summary statistic in ecotoxicity testing. Its use is heavily criticized, partly because it is a poor estimator of ''safe'' chemical concentrations. In this short communication, we review the limited information available on the percentage effect that corresponds with the NOEC, a value designated the ECNOEC, and calculate ECNOEC values for

Mark Crane; Michael C. Newman

2000-01-01

407

Stimulant Treatment over Five Years: Adherence, Effectiveness, and Adverse Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To evaluate the impact of adherence and medication status on effectiveness and adverse effects of stimulant use in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over 5 years. Method: Seventy-nine of 91 participants in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of methylphenidate and parent groups enrolled in a follow-up…

Charach, Alice; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

2004-01-01

408

Dispersant effectiveness: Studies into the causes of effectiveness variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectiveness, a key issue of using dispersants, is affected by many interrelated factors. The principal factors involved are the oil composition, dispersant formulation, sea surface turbulence and dispersant quantity. Oil composition is a very strong determinant. Current dispersant formulation effectiveness correlates strongly with the amount of saturate component in the oil. The other components of the oil, the asphaltenes, resins

M. F. Fingas; D. Kyle; E. Tennyson

1995-01-01

409

Recent Advances in Anomalous Hall Effect and Spin Hall Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the studies of anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the spin Hall effect (SHE) are described with the emphasis on the (i) universal scaling of AHE, (ii) the metallic SHE, and (iii) the noncentro-symmetric superconductors as an analogue of quantum spin Hall system.

N. Nagaosa

2009-01-01

410

Effective radiance temperature: Concept, measurement and effective wavelength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation thermometers measure the effective spectral radiation from a non-blackbody. Thus, the present study re-explains radiance thermometry using effective radiance temperature (ERT) suitable for an arbitrary temperature measurement in which ambient radiation exists. The theory of effective wavelength is adopted to elucidate the relationship between the "subjective" integral effective radiance temperature (the reading of an actual band-pass radiation thermometer) and the "objective" ERT by means of the integral intermediate value theorem, i.e., the value of integral effective radiance temperature measured by a thermometer is equal to ERT at the effective wavelength of the measurement. A unidirectional scanning approach for calculating the effective wavelength, with no iterative algorithm and suitable for existing multi-values, is introduced. The existence, non-monodromy, and geometric and physical meanings of the effective wavelength for an ERT measurement are discussed. ERT feature, which has a marked difference from that of classical radiance temperature, is expounded. ERT is more consistent with the nature of the apparent temperature and is more relevant in the discussion of the thermometric feature of a thermometer. Radiance temperature can be considered as a special case of ERT.

Yuan, Z.

2013-09-01

411

Hemodynamic Effects of Antiarrhythmic Compounds: Intrinsic Effects and Autonomic Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides their proarrhythmic side-effects, most antiarrhythmic drugs exert varying degrees of depressant action on hemodynamics, which may limit their utility, especially in patients with compromised left ventricular function. Antiarrhythmic drugs have not only myocardial inotropic effects but also act on the coronary and peripheral circulation and the heart rate. Thus, sophisticated and appropriate experimental conditions are necessary to define the

Hans Martin Hoffmeister; Martin E Beyer; Ludger Seipel

1997-01-01

412

The Effect of Driving Simulator Fidelity on Training Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of driving simulator fidelity certainly has some effect on its potential training effectiveness. This paper describes post -training accident analysis results for a project that has been previously presented at DSC conferences. Training involved three simulator configurations: 1) an instrumented cab with wide angle projected display; 2) a wide field of view desktop system with a three monitor

R. Wade Allen; George D. Park; Marcia L. Cook; Dary Fiorentino

2007-01-01

413

Space charge effect and mirror charge effect in photoemission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We report the observation and systematic investigation of the space charge effect and mirror charge effect in photoemission spectroscopy. When pulsed light is incident on a sample, the photoemitted electrons experience energy redistribution after escaping from the surface because of the Coulomb interaction between them (space charge effect) and between photoemitted electrons and the distribution of mirror charges in the sample (mirror charge effect). These combined Coulomb interaction effects give rise to an energy shift and a broadening which can be on the order of 10 meV for a typical third-generation synchrotron light source. This value is comparable to many fundamental physical parameters actively studied by photoemission spectroscopy and should be taken seriously in interpreting photoemission data and in designing next generation experiments.

Zhou, X.J.; Wannberg, B.; Yang, W.L.; Brouet, V.; Sun, S.; Douglas, J.F.; Dessau, D.; Hussain, Z.; Shen, Z.-X.

2004-08-17

414

Exercise effects on mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review examines the effects of exercise on mucosal immunity in recreational and elite athletes and the role of mucosal immunity in respiratory illness. Habitual exercise at an intense level can cause suppression of mucosal immune parameters, while moderate exercise may have positive effects. Saliva is the most commonly used secretion for measurement of secretory antibodies in the assessment

Maree Gleeson; David B Pyne

2000-01-01

415

The elusive wishful thinking effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a desirability effect as the inflation of the judged probability of desirable events or the diminution of the judged probability of undersirable events. A series of studies of this effect are reported. In the first four experiments, subjects were presented with visual stimuli (a grid matrix in two colours, or a jar containing beads in two colours), and

Maya Bar-hillel; David Budescu

1995-01-01

416

Biological Effects of Microwave Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of exposure of large segments of the population to complex, multifrequency microwave radiation in the environment is now a reality. It is necessary, therefore, to determine the safe level of exposure for the general population so as to prevent any occurrence of harmful effects without unduly restricting the beneficial uses of microwaves.The biological effects generated by exposure to

Donald I. McRee

1974-01-01

417

Retrieval Effectiveness on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the role of search engines in Web usability and analyzes and evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of various indexing and searching strategies on a new Web text collection. Highlights include preprocessing techniques that might improve retrieval effectiveness; and hyperlinks as useful sources of evidence in improving retrieval…

Savoy, Jacques; Picard, Justin

2001-01-01

418

Immediate Neurocognitive Effects of Concussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively measure the immediate neurocognitive effects and early course of recovery from concussion and to examine the effects of loss of consciousness (LOC) and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) on the severity of neurocognitive impairment immediately after concussion. METHODS: A sports-related concussion research model was used to allow prospective immediate evaluation of concussion. A total of 2385 high school and

Michael McCrea; James P. Kelly; Christopher Randolph; Ron Cisler; Lisa Berger

2002-01-01

419

Surface Effect Ships for Commerce.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ships using the surface effect principle have been suggested as a means of improving the transport of U.S. international commerce. The functional principles of the surface effect ships (SES) appear to offer an avenue for developing transoceanic vehicles p...

1966-01-01

420

Counselor Effectiveness Through Radio Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study determined the effectiveness of the use of radio as a means of providing immediate feedback on student counselors in a practicum setting. Using a non-equivalent group experimental design, 10 experimental subjects were compared to 10 control subjects with respect to counselor effectiveness. The experimental subjects were given immediate…

Tentoni, Stuart C.

421

GENETIC EFFECTS OF SPACEFLIGHT FACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the object of investigating effects of spaceflight factors on ; heredity, Drosophila melanogaster was carried on the second, fourth, and fifth ; orbital spaceships and on Vostok-1 and Vostok-2. Four different spaceflight ; effects were investigated. Nondisjunction of chromosomes was investigated by ; exposing unfertilized white-eyed Drosophila females on Vostoks 1 and 2 and mating ; them on their

Ya. L. Glembotskii; G. P. Parfenov

1962-01-01

422

Emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between managerial emotional intelligence (EI) levels and a rating of leadership effectiveness (subordinate ratings). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study involved administering the Mayer Salovey Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) EI test to 38 supervisors within a large manufacturing organisation. Ratings of supervisory leadership effectiveness were assessed via subordinate ratings on an attitude survey detailing

Robert Kerr; John Garvin; Norma Heaton; Emily Boyle

2006-01-01

423

Building effective service management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Highlight some of the Best Practices for Building Effective Service Management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article describes some of the Best Practices for Effective Service Management. Case studies, success stories, and statistical examples are used to highlight some of the Best Practices. Findings – Case studies, success stories, and statistics. Originality\\/value – This session highlights some of the Best

Tajinder Pal Singh Toor

2009-01-01

424

Remote Lab Effectiveness Assessment Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses current attempts to model the effectiveness assessment of distant labs. Distant labs, specifically remote labs (RL), are systems which are accessed through a web browser, which allow users from all over the world, anytime to perform the experiments with real devices. They increase teaching efficiency, provide time and money savings. Consequently, remote lab effectiveness influence the course

G. Tokdemir; S. Bilgen

2008-01-01

425

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

426

Switchgrass biochar effects two aridisols  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of biochar has received growing attention with regards to improving the physico-chemical properties of highly weathered Ultisols and Oxisols, yet very little research has focused on effects in Aridisols. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of either low or high tempera...

427

Quantum effects in channeling radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum effects on the total radiation intensity in channeling have been considered. It is shown that the problem can be considered in the frame of the magnetic bremsstrahlung limit. In the region where quantum effects are weak, the general formulae have been obtained for quantum corrections to the total intensity of the channeling radiation. While in diamond and silicon

V. N. Baier; V. M. Katkov; V. M. Strakhovenko

1992-01-01

428

Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the apparent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery of

Joel G Pickar

2002-01-01

429

Animation About the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a basic animation/simulation with background information about the greenhouse effect by DAMOCLES. The animation has several layers to it that allow users to drill into more detail about the natural greenhouse effect and different aspects of it, including volcanic aerosols and human impacts from burning fossil fuels.

Damocles

430

Tranquilizer effects on conditioned suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chlorpromazine, meprobamate and reserpine on animal experimental conditioned suppression are reported. Over a wide dose range neither chlorpromazine nor meprobamate increased responding for positive reinforcement during a shock-paired stimulus. Reserpine given chronically did increase responding during shock-paired stimuli. The motor depressant effect of reserpine, at suppression attenuating doses, is most probably related to the response measure used

Oakley S. Ray

1964-01-01

431

Correlation effects and bound states  

SciTech Connect

Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

Zinovjev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15

432

Neighbourhood effects and endogeneity issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent body of research suggests that the spatial structure of cities might influence the socioeconomic characteristics and outcomes of their residents. In particular, the literature on neighbourhood effects emphasizes the potential influence of the socioeconomic composition of neighbourhoods in shaping individual’s behaviours and outcomes, through social networks, peer influences or socialization effects. However, empirical work still has not reached

Claire DUJARDIN; Dominique PEETERS; Isabelle THOMAS

2009-01-01

433

Effects of Color on Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional reactions to color hue, saturation, and brightness (Munsell color system and color chips) were investigated using the Pleasure–Arousal–Dominance emotion model. Saturation (S) and brightness (B) evidenced strong and consistent effects on emotions. Regression equations for standardized variables were: Pleasure = .69B + .22S, Arousal = ? .31B + .60S, Dominance = ? .76B + .32S. Brightness effects were nearly

Patricia Valdez; Albert Mehrabian

1994-01-01

434

Macroeconomic effects of euro implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the macroeconomic effects of European monetary union and the launch of the euro, suggesting that it offers major advantages to European traders, investors and consumers by reducing transaction costs, currency risks and information costs. Recognizes some problems, e.g. transition costs, increased competition in financial services; and the uncertainty surrounding the powers of the European Central Bank (ECB) and effects

John C. Soper

1999-01-01

435

Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant…

Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

2005-01-01

436

MEMORY PROCESSES IN MEDIA EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory mediates the effects of mass media on the individual. The nature of memory is such that encoding, storage, and retrieval of episodic (context-dependent) information from mass media messages is often inhibited whereas semantic (thematic, procedural, structural) information retention is often promoted. Therefore, mass media effects are better defined in terms of structural information transmission than in terms of specific

KATHY KELLERMANN

1985-01-01

437

Memory Processes in Media Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)|

Kellermann, Kathy

1985-01-01

438

Teaching the Photoelectric Effect Inductively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that students have difficulty understanding the underlying process of the photoelectric effect. Thus, this study sought to utilize an inductively situated lesson for teaching the photoelectric effect, hypothesizing that this type of enquiry would help learners delve deeper into the principles of the phenomenon and provide a…

Sokolowski, Andrzej

2013-01-01

439

Mediating Effects of Social Presence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networked interactivity is one of the essential factors that differentiate recent online educational games from traditional stand-alone games. However, despite the growing popularity of online educational games, empirical studies about the effects of the networked interactivity are relatively rare. This study tests the effects of networked interactivity on game users' subjective evaluation of learning (sense of competition, satisfaction, and perceived

Kwan Min Lee; Eui Jun Jeong; Seoungho Ryu

440

Quantum effects in accelerator physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quantum effects for electrons in a storage ring are discussed, in particular the polarization effect due to spin flip synchrotron radiation. The electrons are treated as a simple quantum mechnical two-level system coupled to the orbital motion and the rad...

J. M. Leinaas

1991-01-01

441

Attentional Effect of Animated Character  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has found that animated characters are capable of capturing users' attention, engaging them in active tasks, and entertaining them. Such capabilities are pedagogical techniques that might contribute to an effective comprehensible multimedia presentation. Quality of voice has also been shown to be an important determinant of comprehension. The current study examines the effects of animated characters and voice types

Cholyeun Hongpaisanwiwat; Michael Lewis

2003-01-01

442

Modelling Hydrological Effects on Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological effects on gravity have sizeable impact on the accurate terrestrial gravity observations with superconducting (SG) and absolute gravimeters (AG). These effects, that contain strong seasonal signals, represent important problem in AG and SG observation feasibility in current geodynamic studies (Earth recent dynamics, post-glacial rebound, long-period tides, etc.). At present, hydrological effects are reliably estimated only at few SG stations, where detailed hydro-geological studies of station vicinity and many hydro-meteorological observations are being realized. However, the knowledge of hydrological effects with an accuracy of about 1 microgal are also very important at many sites, where accurate repeated absolute gravity measurements are performed. Unfortunately, very expensive detailed hydrological studies of such stations are unrealistic. Presented are the results of hydrological effects on gravity computed on basis of widespread WGHM and LaDWorld hydrological models. For Europe a global contribution of hydrological effects (distance>2 km) is computed. The local contribution of hydrological effects (distance<2 km) is modelled for the station Pecný based on the nearest WGHM data and variable information about station vicinity. The modelled hydrological effects are compared with combined SG and AG gravity series at the station.

Pálinkás, V.

2009-04-01

443

Cell cycle effects of drugs  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Cell Growth and Division Cycle; Cell Cycle Effects of Alkylating Agents; Biological Effects of Folic Acid Antagonists with Antineoplastic Activity; and Bleomycin-Mode of Action with Particular Reference to the Cell Cycle.

Dethlefsen, L.A.

1986-01-01

444

Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant…

Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

2005-01-01

445

Electromagnetic radiation and biological effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review on biological effects of low power radiation on humans and animals is presented. Effects of electromagnetic coupling between the cellular\\/PCS phone antenna and the human head model have been described. Theoretical plots of the near-field patterns are shown for the human brain. An Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (IEGMP) of the UK discourages the use of mobile

A. Kumar

2001-01-01

446

Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the appar- ent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery

Joel G. Pickar

2002-01-01

447

Cost Effectiveness of Infulenza Vaccination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study evaluates influenza vaccination on the basis of cost-effectiveness. In this analysis, prevention of influenza by vaccination is compared to treatment of the disease if it occurs. Changes in health effects and medical care costs produced by influ...

1981-01-01

448

Volcanic effects on surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is usually difficult to demonstrate the effects on surface temperatures of the injection of gases and dust particles from a volcanic eruption. In a study of major 19th- and 20th-century volcanic eruptions, and climate record for the same period, S. Self, M. Rampino, and J. Barbera report convincing evidence of at least minor effects. They compared the record of

Peter M. Bell

1982-01-01

449

Magnetic Effects in Chemical Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Review discusses in what elementary chemical reactions the intrinsic angular momentum of electrons and nuclei is conserved and in what reactions it is not conserved, how weak electron-nuclear magnetic interaction and an external magnetic field influence the conservation of angular momentum and what are the consequences of this effect, and what magnetic effects occur in chemical reactions, as well

Anatolii L Buchachenko

1976-01-01

450

Network Effects and Welfare Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines the role of social networks in welfare participation. Social theorists from across the political spectrum have argued that network effects have given rise to a culture of poverty. Empirical work, however, has found it difficult to distinguish the effect of networks from unobservable characteristics of individuals and areas. We use data on language spoken to better

Marianne Bertrand; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; Sendhil Mullainathan

1998-01-01

451

Network Effects and Welfare Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines the role of social networks in welfare participation. Social theorists from across the political spectrum have argued that network effects have given rise to a culture of poverty. Empirical work, however, has found it difficult to distinguish the effect of networks from unobservable characteristics of individuals and areas. We use data on language spoken to better

Marianne Bertrand; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; Sendhil Mullainathan

1999-01-01

452

Effective Schools: Mirror or Mirage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies and analyzes characteristics which are frequently mentioned as contributing to effective schools. Among the characteristics are that they improve the effectiveness and efficiency of students' work by organizing material and/or instruction, increase the amount of work students perform per unit of time, reduce distractions, and encourage…

Tomlinson, Tommy M.

1981-01-01

453

Benchmarking the effective literacy rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have identified an externality accruing to proximate illiterates, that is, illiterate people with access to a literate person. The standard literacy rate ignores this externality; measures of effective literacy are sensitive to it. Nearly all measures of effective literacy appearing in the literature are greater than or equal to R. In fact, the best known of these, the

Travis Lee

2008-01-01

454

The Effects of Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling

Glasstone; Samuel

1957-01-01

455

Effects of Noise on Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of noise on task performance are quite complex, and not as predictable as other noise effects. They are often affected by non-acoustical factors, such as biological and psychological state, as well as external factors such as task complexity a...

A. H. Suter

1989-01-01

456

Health effects of diesel emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

f-We have reviewed the literature relating to the health effects of diesel emissions with particular reference to acute and chronic morbidity and to carcinogenici ty. It is apparent that exposure to diesel fumes in sufficient concentrations may lead to eye and nasal irritation but there is no evidence of any permanent effect. A transient decline of ventilatory capacity has been

W. K. C. Morgan; R. B. Regerf; D. M. Tucker

1997-01-01

457

Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect free from the proximity Nernst effect.  

PubMed

This Letter provides evidence for intrinsic longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) that are free from the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) caused by an extrinsic proximity effect. We report the observation of LSSEs in Au/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) (YIG) and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, showing that the LSSE appears even when the mechanism of the proximity ANE is clearly removed. In the conventional Pt/YIG structure, furthermore, we separate the LSSE from the ANE by comparing the voltages in different magnetization and temperature-gradient configurations; the ANE contamination was found to be negligibly small even in the Pt/YIG structure. PMID:23432302

Kikkawa, T; Uchida, K; Shiomi, Y; Qiu, Z; Hou, D; Tian, D; Nakayama, H; Jin, X-F; Saitoh, E

2013-02-07

458

Quantification of Toxicological Effects for Dichloromethane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document discusses the quantification of non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenic effects for dichloromethane. The evaluation of non-carcinogenic effects includes a study of short and long term effects in animals and humans, as well as the developmen...

1992-01-01

459

40 CFR 1508.8 - Effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effects. 1508.8 Section 1508.8 Protection of Environment...ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.8 Effects. Effects include: (a) Direct effects, which are...

2013-07-01

460

Fixed and random effects selection in mixed effects models.  

PubMed

We consider selecting both fixed and random effects in a general class of mixed effects models using maximum penalized likelihood (MPL) estimation along with the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) and adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (ALASSO) penalty functions. The MPL estimates are shown to possess consistency and sparsity properties and asymptotic normality. A model selection criterion, called the IC(Q) statistic, is proposed for selecting the penalty parameters (Ibrahim, Zhu, and Tang, 2008,?Journal of the American Statistical Association 103, 1648-1658). The variable selection procedure based on IC(Q) is shown to consistently select important fixed and random effects. The methodology is very general and can be applied to numerous situations involving random effects, including generalized linear mixed models. Simulation studies and a real data set from a Yale infant growth study are used to illustrate the proposed methodology. PMID:20662831

Ibrahim, Joseph G; Zhu, Hongtu; Garcia, Ramon I; Guo, Ruixin

2010-07-21

461

Effective interactions and fluctuation effects in spin-singlet superfluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive and evaluate one-loop functional flow equations for the effective interactions, self-energy, and gap function in spin-singlet superfluids. The flow is generated by a fermionic frequency cutoff, which is supplemented by an external pairing field to treat divergencies associated with the Goldstone boson. To parametrize the singular momentum and frequency dependencies of the effective interactions, the Nambu interaction vertex is decomposed in charge, magnetic, and normal and anomalous pairing channels. The one-loop flow solves reduced (mean-field) models for superfluidity exactly, and captures also important fluctuation effects. The Ward identity from charge conservation is generally violated, but can be enforced by projecting the flow. Applying the general formalism to the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model, we obtain detailed results on the momentum and frequency dependencies of the effective interactions for weak and moderate bare interactions. The gap is reduced by fluctuations, with a stronger reduction at weaker interactions, as expected.

Eberlein, Andreas; Metzner, Walter

2013-05-01

462

Dissipative Effects in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Effective Field Theory (EFT) paradigm is one of the cornerstones of theoretical physics, from the standard model to condensed matter systems. EFT ideas have recently gathered thrust also in the realm of gravitational physics. For example, EFT techniqu...

D. L. Nacir L. Senatore M. Zaldarriaga R. A. Porto

2011-01-01

463

Features which separate least effective from most effective science teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-one science supervisors identified 321 teachers, 162 most effective and 159 least effective, in their respective districts. Information was then sought concerning age, gender, teaching field(s), number of preparations, amount of preparation, time, semester hours of undergraduate science preparation, quantity of graduate science preparation, type of teacher education programs, number of weeks of NSF workshop experience, and number of workshops elected for participation. Comparisons of the information gathered between least and most effective teachers were made. There were no differences in any categories except for gender, quantity of NSF institute experiences, and elected in-service experiences in excess of a single day's duration. Many of the factors frequently used to differentiate among teachers do not provide any explanation of the differences between least and most effective teachers of science.

Yager, Robert E.; Hidayat, Eddy M.; Penick, John E.

464

Surface effects and Io volcano effects [satellite mutual phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high astrometric accuracy in observation of mutual phenomena is possible only if photometric surface effects are taken into account in the reduction. On the other hand, such observations allow to get physical information about surface regolith.

P. Descamps

1996-01-01

465

Respiratory effects of manufactured nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology is the set of techniques used to engineer, characterize, and produce materials that have at least one dimension within the nanoscale. These nanomaterials, or nanoobjects, include nanoparticles and nanotubes. As dictated by the laws of quantum physics, a size within the nanoscale results in unique physicochemical properties and distinctive behaviors. Nanotechnology has a host of applications in fields ranging from cosmetology to the industry and medicine. The production and use of nanomaterials are expanding at a brisk pace. However, concerns are emerging about the potential health effects of nanoparticles in the short and long terms. These concerns are rooted in data on the harmful health effects of micrometric airborne particulate matter. Conceivably, these adverse effects might be amplified when the particles are within the nanoscale. This article is a nonexhaustive overview of current data on the penetration, deposition, translocation, and elimination of inhaled nanoparticles and on the respiratory effects of metallic nanoparticles (with special attention to titanium dioxide) and carbon nanotubes. Both in vivo and in vitro studies consistently found biological effects of nanoparticles on the respiratory system, including oxidative stress generation, proinflammatory and prothrombotic effects, pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, and DNA damage. Improved knowledge of the potential biological effects of nanoparticles is needed to guide preventive strategies for the workplace and/or general population if needed. PMID:22099416

Andujar, P; Lanone, S; Brochard, P; Boczkowski, J

2011-10-20

466

Effectiveness-implementation Hybrid Designs  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study proposes methods for blending design components of clinical effectiveness and implementation research. Such blending can provide benefits over pursuing these lines of research independently; for example, more rapid translational gains, more effective implementation strategies, and more useful information for decision makers. This study proposes a “hybrid effectiveness-implementation” typology, describes a rationale for their use, outlines the design decisions that must be faced, and provides several real-world examples. Results An effectiveness-implementation hybrid design is one that takes a dual focus a priori in assessing clinical effectiveness and implementation. We propose 3 hybrid types: (1) testing effects of a clinical intervention on relevant outcomes while observing and gathering information on implementation; (2) dual testing of clinical and implementation interventions/strategies; and (3) testing of an implementation strategy while observing and gathering information on the clinical intervention’s impact on relevant outcomes. Conclusions The hybrid typology proposed herein must be considered a construct still in evolution. Although traditional clinical effectiveness and implementation trials are likely to remain the most common approach to moving a clinical intervention through from efficacy research to public health impact, judicious use of the proposed hybrid designs could speed the translation of research findings into routine practice.

Curran, Geoffrey M.; Bauer, Mark; Mittman, Brian; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Stetler, Cheryl

2013-01-01

467

Late effects from hadron therapy  

SciTech Connect

Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

2004-06-01

468

Alkali–silica reaction, pessimum effects and pozzolanic effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pessimum proportion and pessimum size effects for alkali–silica reaction-induced deterioration of concrete (ASR) and the pozzolanic effect of fine siliceous admixtures in concrete have been explained based on the proposed ASR model [T. Ichikawa, M. Miura, Modified model of alkali–silica reaction, Cem. Concr. Res. 37 (2007) 1291–1297.]. The attack of alkali hydroxide to aggregate particles composed of ASR-reactive minerals

Tsuneki Ichikawa

2009-01-01

469

Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

2011-01-01

470

Positron effective mass in silicon  

SciTech Connect

The positron effective mass in Si is obtained from the first-principles calculations along various crystallographic directions. The effect of electron-positron correlation on the band mass is examined in this work. A positron pseudopotential scheme is worked out to calculate the isotropic band mass without explicitly solving the band energy. The effective mass 1.46{ital m} obtained as a sum of band mass and the positron-plasmon interaction compares very well with 1.5{ital m} obtained from the positron mobility data.

Panda, B.K.; Shan, Y.Y.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

1995-08-15

471

Effectiveness of early educational intervention.  

PubMed

Early educational intervention has been proposed to partially offset the impacts of poverty and inadequate learning environments on child development and school success. A broad range of early educational interventions are found to produce meaningful, lasting effects on cognitive, social, and schooling outcomes. However, all interventions are not equally effective. Two major U.S. programs perform relatively poorly. Research provides some guidance regarding the features of highly effective programs, but much remains to be learned. New experimental studies of key program features would have a high payoff. PMID:21852490

Barnett, W S

2011-08-19

472

Torsion effects in braneworld scenarios  

SciTech Connect

We present gravitational aspects of braneworld models endowed with torsion terms both in the bulk and on the brane. In order to investigate a conceivable and measurable gravitational effect, arising genuinely from bulk torsion terms, we analyze the variation in the black hole area by the presence of torsion. Furthermore, we extend the well-known results about consistency conditions in a framework that incorporates brane torsion terms. It is shown, in a rough estimate, that the resulting effects are generally suppressed by the internal space volume. This formalism provides manageable models and their possible ramifications into some aspects of gravity in this context, and cognizable corrections and physical effects as well.

Hoff da Silva, J. M.; Rocha, R. da [Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-170, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

2010-01-15

473

Effectiveness and fabrication of mouthguards.  

PubMed

Although mouthguards have been suggested as a means for preventing dental traumatic injuries, there are still some controversies over some aspects such as effectiveness in preventing concussions, material selections, method for fabrication, design, side effects and so on. The purpose of this literature review was to clarify differences in opinions with supporting evidence on these issues and find the best guidelines for promoting usage and providing mouthguards with better protective capability and fewer side effects such as difficulty in breathing and speaking. PMID:19788425

Maeda, Yoshinobu; Kumamoto, David; Yagi, Kazutomo; Ikebe, Kazunori

2009-09-24

474

Neurological effects of deep diving.  

PubMed

Deep diving is defined as diving to depths more than 50 m of seawater (msw), and is mainly used for occupational and military purposes. A deep dive is characterized by the compression phase, the bottom time and the decompression phase. Neurological and neurophysiologic effects are demonstrated in divers during the compression phase and the bottom time. Immediate and transient neurological effects after deep dives have been shown in some divers. However, the results from the epidemiological studies regarding long term neurological effects from deep diving are conflicting and still not conclusive. Prospective clinical studies with sufficient power and sensitivity are needed to solve this very important issue. PMID:21377169

Grønning, Marit; Aarli, Johan A

2011-03-04

475

Biological Effects Summary Report: Pyrene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive review of pyrene was conducted to assess the potential health effects of this polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and to evaluate the need for recommending an interim occupational exposure limit to protect the health of exposed workers. Pyrene ...

S. D. Keimig R. W. Pattillo

1984-01-01

476

[Effects of methylphenidate on anxiety].  

PubMed

The attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) is a widely recognized disorder of unknown etiology. Methylphenidate administration is one of the most commonly used treatments to improve symptoms associated with ADDH. Although it is generally a well tolerated drug, several secondary effects may occur. In particular, this paper will focus on the effects on anxiety, in humans and experimental animal models. It has been shown that acute administration of methylphenidate in adults reduces anxiety, in both animal models and humans. On the other hand, chronic treatment during early ages (postnatal and young subjects) results in higher anxiety in adults. In some cases this effect appears together with higher susceptibility of drug consumption. Thus, we find that, in the literature, methylphenidate is capable of inducing different and opposite effects. Thus, further experiments would be required to elucidate the mechanisms by which methylphenidate exert its actions. PMID:23055432

Sánchez-Pérez, Ana M; García-Avilés, Álvaro; Albert Gascó, Héctor; Sanjuán, Julio; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco E

2012-10-16

477

Ecotoxicology: Behavior, Exposure, and Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding the behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to toxicants is essential to predicting organism exposure and subsequent effects on survival and ecological success. Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental change can mitigate...

R. H. Gray

1988-01-01

478

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACROLEIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

479

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACENAPHTHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

480

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR CHLOROMETHANE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

481

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR CREOSOTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

482

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR DICHLOROBENZENES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

483

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR NITROPHENOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

484

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR MIREX  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

485

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACRYLONITRILE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

486

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ISOPHORONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

487

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR DIMETHYLPHENOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

488

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR DIBENZOFURAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

489

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACETONITRILE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

490

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ENDRIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

491

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR HEPTACHLOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

492

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

493

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ALUMINUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

494

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ALDRIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

495

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR NITROBENZENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

496

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR BROMOMETHANE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

497

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR DIELDRIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

498

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR TRIMETHYLBENZENES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

499

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR BENZIDINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

500

Effects of Pesticides on Man.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article reveals that a considerable amount of information on the effect of pesticides on man is available from use experience, from human poisoning cases, and from volunteer studies. It appears that more attention should be paid to obtaining toxicolog...

W. F. Durham

1965-01-01