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Sample records for l-nitroarginine methylester effects

  1. Lack of anticholinergic effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Barthó, L; Horváth, G; Lénárd, L

    1999-04-16

    The nitric oxide (NO)-synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), has been reported to have an atropine-like action. We compared the effects of L-NAME (1 mM) and atropine on isolated small intestinal preparations of the guinea-pig, rat, rabbit and mouse. Half-maximal longitudinal contractions in response to acetylcholine (50-100 nM) were not influenced by L-NAME, but were strongly suppressed by atropine (1 nM). Cholinergic 'twitch' contractions of the guinea-pig ileum were slightly enhanced by L-NAME; this effect was prevented by pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 microM), another NO synthase inhibitor. 'Twitch' contractions were concentration dependently inhibited by atropine (1-100 nM). We conclude that L-NAME is free of atropine-like activity in isolated intestinal preparations. PMID:10334503

  2. Shanzhiside methylester, the principle effective iridoid glycoside from the analgesic herb Lamiophlomis rotata, reduces neuropathic pain by stimulating spinal microglial β-endorphin expression.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui; Li, Teng-Fei; Gong, Nian; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Lamiophlomis rotata (L. rotata, Duyiwei) is an orally available Tibetan analgesic herb widely prescribed in China. Shanzhiside methylester (SM) is a principle effective iridoid glycoside of L. rotata and serves as a small molecule glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. This study aims to evaluate the signal mechanisms underlying SM anti-allodynia, determine the ability of SM to induce anti-allodynic tolerance, and illustrate the interactions between SM and morphine, or SM and β-endorphin, in anti-allodynia and anti-allodynic tolerance. Intrathecal SM exerted dose-dependent and long-lasting (>4 h) anti-allodynic effects in spinal nerve injury-induced neuropathic rats, with a maximal inhibition of 49% and a projected ED50 of 40.4 μg. SM and the peptidic GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide treatments over 7 days did not induce self-tolerance to anti-allodynia or cross-tolerance to morphine or β-endorphin. In contrast, morphine and β-endorphin induced self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to SM and exenatide. In the spinal dorsal horn and primary microglia, SM significantly evoked β-endorphin expression, which was completely prevented by the microglial inhibitor minocycline and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580. SM anti-allodynia was totally inhibited by the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39), minocycline, β-endorphin antiserum, μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP, and SB203580. SM and exenatide specifically activated spinal p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These results indicate that SM reduces neuropathic pain by activating spinal GLP-1 receptors and subsequently stimulating microglial β-endorphin expression via the p38 MAPK signaling. Stimulation of the endogenous β-endorphin expression may be a novel and effective strategy for the discovery and development of analgesics for the long-term treatment of chronic pain. PMID:26363192

  3. Effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) on functional and biochemical alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated responses in rat blood vessels.

    PubMed Central

    Tabernero, A.; Giraldo, J.; Vila, E.

    1996-01-01

    1. The modulation by NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) of alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction was investigated on isolated segments of rat tail artery and aorta. The influence of L-NAME on inositol phosphates accumulation by alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists was also investigated to elucidate the intracellular mechanism responsible for this modulation. 2. In aorta but not in tail artery L-NAME (30 microM) enhanced the sensitivity (3.3 times) and the maximum contraction (Emax) induced by the full agonist, phenylephrine. 3. St-587, a partial alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, behaved as a weak agonist in the aorta (22.2% of phenylephrine Emax). However, when the same agonist was studied in tail artery rings a maximum contraction that was 78.4% of the phenylephrine induced Emax was reached. 4. L-NAME increased (3.3 times) the Emax for St-587 contraction in the aorta but not in the tail artery. Sensitivity to St-587 was slightly but significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced (1.9 times) by L-NAME in tail artery segments. 5. Contractile responses to phenylephrine after partial alkylation with phenoxybenzamine were analyzed by the nested hyperbolic null method. To elicit 50% of Emax for contraction only 1.1% of the receptors in the tail artery and 21% of the receptors in the aorta need to be occupied. These results indicate a higher receptor reserve for the tail artery than the aorta. 6. In the tail artery but not in the aorta, St-587 activates phosphoinositide turnover. The presence of L-NAME was without effect on inositol phosphates accumulation induced by this partial alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist. 7. The maximum contraction induced by phenylephrine, after partial alpha-adrenoceptor alkylation, was enhanced by L-NAME in tail artery rings. However, the NO synthase inhibitor was unable to modify the phenylephrine-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in the presence of phenoxybenzamine. 8. These results indicate that the differences in St-587-induced contraction and the modulation by L-NAME of alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction observed between the tail artery and aorta are associated with differences in receptor reserve. In addition, our biochemical studies indicate that the potentiating effect of L-NAME is independent of intracellular calcium release via phosphatidylinositol turnover. PMID:8646425

  4. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10448 Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic)....

  5. Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Rakicidins: Overcoming Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Resistance to Imatinib with 4-Methylester-Rakicidin A.

    PubMed

    Sang, Feng; Ding, Yahui; Wang, Jinghan; Sun, Bingxia; Sun, Jianlei; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Zhang; Ding, Ke; Wu, Ling-Ling; Liu, Jian-Wei; Bai, Cuigai; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Quan; Li, Lu-Yuan; Chen, Yue

    2016-02-11

    Natural product rakicidin A induces cell death in TKI-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells. Therefore, 14 rakicidin A analogues were synthesized via a highly efficient combinatorial strategy and were evaluated against CML cell lines. The conjugated diene moiety was found to be crucial for the anti-CML activity of rakicidin A, and the changes in the configuration(s) at C-2, C-3, C-14, C-15, and C-16 resulted in lower levels of anti-CML activity. The most promising compound was 4-methylester rakicidin A (1a). Compared with rakicidin A, 1a exhibited 2.8-fold greater potency against the imatinib-resistant cell line K562/G(+) and approximately 100-fold enhanced potency compared with that of imatinib. Furthermore, compound 1a demonstrated a significantly lower resistance index against Ba/F3 cells expressing BCR-ABL(T315I) than bosutinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib, while 1a exhibited less effect on normal hematopoietic cells. Preliminary results indicated that 1a down-regulated caspase-3 and PARP, which contributes to its K562 cell inhibitory activity. PMID:26814890

  6. Recommended methods of fatty acid methylester preparation for conjugated dienes and trienes in food and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miki; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kambe, Tomoko; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-04-01

    In this study, we compared three acid-catalyzed methods and three base-catalyzed methods for the methylester preparation of conjugated dienoic fatty acids and conjugated trienoic fatty acids in food and biological samples. Among the six methods examined, the sodium methoxide/methanol (NaOCH3/MeOH) method and the tetramethylguanidine/ methanol (TMG/MeOH) method of methylester preparation from tung oil were most efficient in preventing the artificial isomerization of alpha-eleostearic acid (alpha-ESA; 9c,11t,13t-18:3) to beta-eleostearic acid (beta-ESA: 9t,11t,13t-18:3) and for avoiding the artificial generation of unknown byproducts. Hydrochloric acid/methanol (HCl/MeOH), sulfuric acid/methanol (H2SO4/MeOH) and AOCS (boron trifluoride/methanol (BF3/MeOH)) methods of methylester preparation from tung oil resulted in the breakdown of alpha-ESA due to their long reaction periods and high reaction temperatures. In addition, these three methods did not prevent the generation of beta-ESA. For the methylester preparation of tung oil free fatty acids, the BF3/MeOH method (30 min at room temperature) did not lead to artificial beta-ESA formation or byproducts, while the trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSN2CH3) method did form artifacts. For the methylation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, free fatty acid), the BF3/ MeOH and TMSN2CH3 methods completely suppressed artificial isomerization of c,t-CLA and t,c-CLA to t,t-CLA. The results indicated that the BF3/MeOH method for free fatty acids is the best method for the methylester preparation of both conjugated dienoic and trienoic fatty acids with respect to preventing artificial isomerization and the formation of byproducts. The BF3/MeOH method was applicable to both food and biological samples. PMID:15242016

  7. Methylesters of plant oils as diesel fuels, either straight or in blends

    SciTech Connect

    Pischinger, G.H.; Siekmann, R.W.; Falcon, A.M.; Fernandes, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Engine and vehicle tests were carried out with three alternative Diesel fuels: straight methylester of soybean oil (MESO), 75 to 25 gasoil-MESO blend, and 68-23-9 gasoil-MESO-ethanol (anhydrous) blend. Fuel-relevant characteristics of the three Diesel alternatives are given, together with the phase diagram of the ternary blend. Power, torque and volumetric brake specific fuel consumption in an unmodified IDI Diesel engine reflect mainly the net volumetric heating values. Smoke decreases with the presence of oxygenate compounds as does the emission of CO, as measured on the chassis dynamometer. A rigorous durability bench test on straight MESO shows results entirely within VW specifications. Analyses have indicated that, for IDI engines, no lube-oil problems are anticipated. Investigation of compatibility of MESO with fuel system material reveals considerable similarity to gasoil, but some items may require adaptation or even substitution. 3 figures, 9 tables.

  8. Mechanism of colon cancer cell apoptosis mediated by pyropheophorbide-a methylester photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Matroule, J Y; Carthy, C M; Granville, D J; Jolois, O; Hunt, D W; Piette, J

    2001-07-01

    Pyropheophorbide-a methylester (PPME) is a second generation of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We demonstrated that PPME photosensitization triggered apoptosis of colon cancer cells as measured by using several classical parameters such as DNA laddering, PARP cleavage, caspase activation and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. Preincubation of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) protected against apoptosis mediated by PPME photosensitization showing that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved as second messengers. On the other hand, photosensitization carried out in the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) which enhances singlet oxygen (1O2) lifetime only increases necrosis without affecting apoptosis. Since PPME was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi system and lysosomes, other messengers than ROS were tested such as calcium, Bid, Bap31, phosphorylated Bcl-2 and caspase-12 but none was clearly identified as being involved in triggering cytochrome c release from mitochondria. On the other hand, we demonstrated that the transduction pathways leading to NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis were clearly independent although NF-kappaB was shown to counteract apoptosis mediated by PPME photosensitization. PMID:11494135

  9. Current Conduction in Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) and in Poly(3- Hexylthiophene) doped [6,6]-Phenyl C61-Butyric Acid Methylester Composite Thin Film Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiguvare, Zivayi; Parisi, Jrgen

    2012-11-01

    Transport properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and of its blend with [6,6]-phenyl C61- butyric acid methylester (PCBM), were studied by analysing temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics of spin cast thin films sandwiched between aluminium electrodes in a metal-insulator- metal (MIM) configuration. It was found that in Al/P3HT/Al devices, the current is limited by space charge that accumulates near the hole injecting electrode due to the poor bulk transport properties of P3HT. At low temperatures and high applied electric fields the current density obeys a power law of the form J _ Vm, characteristic of space charge limited current (SCLC) in the presence of exponentially distributed traps within the band gap. These traps are filled by charge that is injected by quantum mechanical tunnelling, which is adequately described by the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) theory. By calculating the majority charge carrier mobility in Al/P3HT/Al and Al/P3HT:PCBM/Al devices from the Ohmic, SCLC, and FN tunnelling fits at different temperatures, we have obtained that the charge carrier mobility in P3HT is two orders smaller than the electron mobility in the P3HT:PCBM blend at room temperature, but comparable at low temperatures. This information is important in determining the origin of open circuit voltage and short circuit current limit in solar cells that employ this blend as the active layer.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Molecular Structures of some Bismuth(III) Complexes with Thiosemicarbazones and Dithiocarbazonic Acid Methylester Derivatives with Activity against Helicobacter Pylori.

    PubMed

    Diemer, R; Dittes, U; Nuber, B; Seifried, V; Opferkuch, W; Keppler, B K

    1995-01-01

    The reactions of bismuth(III) nitrate pentahydrate and bismuth(III) chloride with heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones and derivatives of dithiocarbazonic acid methylester were used to synthesize the respective bismuth(III) complexes, which could be divided into five groups D-H because of their stoichiometrical properties and their molecular structures. The molecular structure and the near coordination sphere of the bismuth(III) central atom of four representative compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray studies. Bis[1-azepanyl-4-(2-pyridyl)-2,3-diazapenta-1,3-diene-1-thiolato-N',N(3),S]bismuth(III) nitrate (5) belongs to group D. The two tridentate ligands and the nitrate ion surround the bismuth atom. The best description of the coordination sphere appears to be that of a distorted trigonal dodecahedron with one position occupied by the lone pair of the bismuth atom. Bis[1-azepanyl-4-(2-thienyl)-2,3-diazapenta-1,3-diene-1-thiolato-N(3),S]bismuth(III) nitrate (9) is assigned to complex type E. Here, two deprotonated ligand molecules are coordinated to the bismuth(III) central atom as bidentate ligands. The structure of this complex can best be described as a distorted trigonal antiprism with a five-coordinated central atom. The two triangular faces are formed by the atoms S(4), N(6), O(11) and S(3), N(4) and the lone pair of the central atom. The two chelate rings are almost perpendicular to each other. Complex molecules of group F form dimeric units with bichloro-bridged bismuth atoms. The structure of di-mu-chlorobis[1-azepanyl-4-(2-pyridyl)-2,3-diazapenta-1,3-diene-1-thiolato-N',N(3),S-chloro]dibismuth(III) (15) can be described as two six-coordinated bismuth atoms, which are bound together via two bridging chlorine atoms. The two bismuth atoms Bi(1) and Bi(1a) and the two bridging chlorine atoms Cl(2) and Cl(2a) form the Bi(2)Cl(2) plane. The two tridentate ligand molecules coordinate via the same atoms as shown in complex 5. In addition, they form two parallel planes, which are perpendicular to the Bi(2)Cl(2) plane. With regard to the center of the Bi(1)-Bi(2) axis they are central point symmetrical, i.e. one pyridine ring lies above and the other beneath the Bi(2)Cl(2) plane. Bismuth(III) chloride and pyridine-2-carboxaldehydethiosemicarbazone 1 b or 2-acetylpyridine-thiosemicarbazone 1 c form complexes of group G. Three chlorine atoms and a bidentate ligand are coordinated to the bismuth(III) central atom. The bidentate ligand bound to the central atom through the N(3) atom and the sulfur atom of the thioketo group. The structure of 18 is completely different from the structures of the bismuth(III) complexes discussed so far and was therefore assigned to group H. The bismuth central atom is coordinated with two ligands, which are bound in different ways. One of them is deprotonated. This ligand is bound to the central atom via the sulfur atom S(3) of the thiolate group and the N(5) atom. An interaction between the sulfur atom of the thiophene ring and the bismuth atom is not possible.The other ligand molecule is not deprotonated. This ligand is bound to the bismuth(III) cation merely via the sulfur atom S(1) of the thioketo group. The best description of the coordination sphere of the bismuth atom is that of a distorted square bipyramidal polyhedron. The square face is formed by the atoms S(3), N(5), Cl(1), the lone pair and the bismuth atom within. The axial positions are occupied by the atoms S(1) and Cl(2). The bond angle between S(1), Bi(1) and Cl(2) differs by about eight degrees from the value determined for a regular square bipyramidal polyhedron of 180 degrees.Some of the newly synthesized bismuth complexes and three ligands have been tested against several strains of Helicobacter pylori bacteria in an agar dilution test. Almost all of the listed bismuth complexes show excellent inhibitory properties with regard to growth of H. pylori already at low concentrations. PMID:18472778

  11. Structural, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester and its Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Gamel, Nadia E A

    2005-04-01

    Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and UO(2)(II) complexes with the ligand 2-tert-butylaminomethylpyridine-6-carboxylic acid methylester (HL(2)) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic moment, thermal analysis and spectral data. 1:1 M:HL(2) complexes, with the general formula [M(HL(2))X(2)].nH(2)O (where M = Co(II) (X = Cl, n = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 3), Cu(II) (grey colour, X = AcO, n = 1), Cu(II) (yellow colour, X = Cl, n = 0) and Zn(II) (X = Br, n = 0). In addition, the Fe(III) and UO(2)(II) complexes of the type 1:2 M:HL(2) and with the formulae [Fe(L(2))(2)]Cl and [UO(2)(HL(2))(2)](NO(3))(2) are prepared. From the IR data, it is seen that HL(2) ligand behaves as a terdentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridyl N, carboxylate O and protonated NH group; except the Fe(III) complex, it coordinates via the deprotonated NH group. This is supported by the molar conductance data, which show that all the complexes are non-electrolytes, while the Fe(III) and UO(2)(II) complexes are 1:1 electrolytes. IR and H1-NMR spectral studies suggest a similar behaviour of the Zn(II) complex in solid and solution states. From the solid reflectance spectral data and magnetic moment measurements, the complexes have a trigonal bipyramidal (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes) and octahedral (Fe(III), UO(2)(II) complexes) geometrical structures. The thermal behaviour of the complexes is studied and the different dynamic parameters are calculated applying Coats-Redfern equation. PMID:15741106

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  13. In vitro effects of isoprinosine and a dipeptide methyl ester on Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces.

    PubMed

    Lawton, P; Walchshofer, N; Sarciron, M E

    2001-09-01

    A protoscoleces/vesicles in vitro maintenance test with assessment of viability by eosin exclusion was used to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative activities of isoprinosine, its active component inosine and the dipeptide methylester L-Phe-Phe-OMe on isolated protoscoleces of Echinococcus multilocularis for 24 and 48 h. Isoprinosine and inosine showed dose- and time-dependent activity, the latter displaying a more rapid effect than the former. A high activity was shown with L-Phe-Phe-OMe, when compared to praziquantel. Ultrastructural alterations were much more striking with L-Phe-Phe-OMe, with an effect similar to that of praziquantel, whereas the chemotherapeutic activity of inosine and isoprinosine appeared to be directed against a metabolic target, with a lethal effect not immediately visible at the ultrastructural level. Thus, the previously reported in vivo activities of these drugs result largely from a direct effect on the parasite. PMID:11551315

  14. 5-HT7 receptor-mediated relaxation of the oviduct in nonpregnant proestrus pigs.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mayuko; Kitazawa, Takio; Cao, Jinshan; Taneike, Tetsuro

    2003-02-14

    The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the muscle tonus of the ampulla and isthmus of the oviduct isolated from nonpregnant proestrus pigs were investigated, and the 5-HT receptor subtype and mechanisms of the responses were analyzed. 5-HT (1 nM-10 microM) caused a relaxation of longitudinal and circular muscles of the isthmus in a concentration-dependent manner. Tetrodotoxin did not change the relaxation, indicating a direct action of 5-HT on smooth muscle cells. The EC(50) value in the longitudinal muscle was significantly lower than that in the circular muscle but the maximum relaxations were similar. 5-HT also caused a relaxation of both muscle layers in the ampulla but the maximum relaxation of both muscles was smaller than that of the isthmus. 5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) and (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) mimicked the relaxation of the isthmic longitudinal muscle by 5-HT, and the ranking order was 5-CT>5-HT>5-MeOT>8-OH-DPAT. On the other hand, oxymethazoline, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (2-methyl-5-HT), alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-methyl-5-HT), [endo-N-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo-(3,2,1) oct-3-yl]-2,3-dihydro-3-ethyl-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-1-carboxamide (BIMU-1), ergotamine and dihydroergotamine were less effective. The relaxation by 5-HT was not decreased by ketanserin, 2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid 2-(diethylamino)ethyl ester (tropisetron) or [1[2-(methylsulphonyl) amino ethyl]-4-piperidinyl]methyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (GR113808) but was antagonized by the following compounds in a competitive manner (with pK(b) values in parentheses): 2a-[4-(4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridyl)butyl]-2a,3,4,5-tetrahydro-benzo[cd]indol-2(1H)-one (DR4004, 9.31), methiothepin (8.91), methysergide (7.95), metergoline (7.98), mianserin (7.69), mesulergine (8.4), spiperone (6.86) and clozapine (7.4). The correlation of these pK(b) values with pK(i) values of cloned 5-HT(7) receptor or pA(2) values of porcine uterus was high and significant. 4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-imidazolidin-2-one (Ro20-1724) significantly enhanced the relaxation by 5-HT but zaprinast, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and L-nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME) did not change the responses to 5-HT. 5-HT increased cyclic AMP in the isthmic oviduct. Ampulla and isthmus contained a single class of [3H]5-CT binding sites with a similar K(d) value (0.4 nM), but the density of the receptors in the isthmus was 2.4 times higher than that in the ampulla. A significant correlation was found between the pK(i) values in the oviduct and those of the cloned 5-HT(7) receptors. Isoprenaline, sodium nitroprusside, vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide were less effective in causing the relaxation of the oviduct. In conclusion, the 5-HT receptor, functionally correlated to the 5-HT(7) type, mediates the relaxation of the porcine oviduct by 5-HT through an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP. The degrees of 5-HT-induced relaxation in the isthmus and ampulla of the oviduct were different due to the heterogeneous distribution of 5-HT(7) receptors. The strongest relaxation through 5-HT(7) receptor activation suggests that 5-HT plays an important physiological role in the regulation of porcine oviduct contractility. PMID:12586216

  15. Characterization of the effects of neurokinins on canine antral muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Koelbel, C.B.; Mayer, E.A.; Van Deventer, G.; Snape, W.J. Jr.; Patel, A. Wadsworth Hospital, Los Angeles, CA )

    1988-12-01

    The excitation of longitudinal antral muscle by substance P (SP) involves both a myogenic and a cholinergic effect. To examine if these responses are mediated by different neurokinin receptors, the authors studied the mechanical response and the release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine from antral muscle strips in response to SP, substance P methylester (SPME), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), and several nonmammalian tachykinins. All peptides studied showed a dose-dependent inotropic and chronotropic effect on spontaneous phasic contractions. This ionotropic effect in longitudinal muscle was partially atropine sensitive for SPME, SP, and NKB but not for NKA, whereas neither atropine nor tetrodotoxin had an effect in circular muscle. In longitudinal muscle, all three neurokinins were equipotent. In longitudinal muscle treated with atropine and in circular muscle, the rank order of potency for the inotropic response was NKA > NKB > SP > SPME. For the chronotropic response the rank order was SPME, SP > NKA > NKB. NKA, NKB, and SP caused a dose-dependent, tetrodotoxin-sensitive increase in ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine release from strips preincubated with ({sup 3}H)choline. NKA was significantly more potent to release ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine than either NKB or SP. The stimulated release was inhibited by (D-Ala{sup 2},D-Met{sup 5})methionine enkephalinamide and the SP antagonist, spantide. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NKA is the natural ligand mediating the myogenic inotropic response in both muscle layers and the cholinergic response in longitudinal muscle.

  16. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  17. Regional heterogeneity in the reactivity of equine small pulmonary blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Stack, Alice; Derksen, Frederik J; Williams, Kurt J; Robinson, N Edward; Jackson, William F

    2016-03-15

    Regional differences in large equine pulmonary artery reactivity exist. It is not known if this heterogeneity extends into small vessels. The hypothesis that there is regional heterogeneity in small pulmonary artery and vein reactivity to sympathomimetics (phenylephrine and isoproterenol) and a parasympathomimetic (methacholine) was tested using wire myography on small vessels from caudodorsal (CD) and cranioventral (CV) lung of 12 horses [9 mares, 3 geldings, 8.67 ± 0.81 (age ± SE) yr, of various breeds that had never raced]. To study relaxation, vessels were precontracted with U46619 (10(-6) M). Methacholine mechanism of action was investigated using l-nitroarginine methylester (l-NAME, 100 μM) and indomethacin (10 μM). Phenylephrine did not contract any vessels. Isoproterenol relaxed CD arteries more than CV arteries (maximum relaxation 28.18% and 48.67%; Log IC50 ± SE -7.975 ± 0.1327 and -8.033 ± 0.1635 for CD and CV, respectively, P < 0.0001), but not veins. Methacholine caused contraction of CD arteries (maximum contraction 245.4%, Log EC50 ± SE -6.475 ± 0.3341), and relaxation of CV arteries (maximum relaxation 40.14%, Log IC50 ± SE -6.791 ± 0.1954) and all veins (maximum relaxation 50.62%, Log IC50 ± SE -6.932 ± 0.1986) in a nonregion-dependent manner. l-NAME (n = 8, P < 0.0001) and indomethacin (n = 7, P < 0.0001) inhibited methacholine-induced relaxation of CV arteries, whereas indomethacin augmented CD artery contraction (n = 8, P < 0.0001). Our data demonstrate significant regional heterogeneity in small blood vessel reactivity when comparing the CD to the CV region of the equine lung. PMID:26769957

  18. Protective effects of befunolol on hypoxic respiration-induced alterations in myocardial energy metabolism of rats.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Y; Awaji, T; Inoue, M; Takeo, S

    1991-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate beta-adrenoceptor blocking effects of befunolol (BFE 60, CAS 39543-79-8) on changes in the myocardial metabolites induced by hypoxic respiration. When rats were subjected to hypoxic respiration, a significant increase in heart rate (about 13% increase) and a slight decline in mean aortic blood pressure (about 12% decrease) were observed at 1 min and 6 min after the onset of hypoxic respiration. The hypoxic respiration also elicited decreases in the myocardial ATP and creatine phosphate levels (each 18% decrease) and increases in the myocardial lactate (13% increase) and cyclic-AMP (20% increase) levels. In contrast, these changes were never observed throughout hypoxic respiration when rats had been treated with both reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine methylester 20 to 22 h before experiment, suggesting that these metabolic alterations are mediated through beta-adrenoceptor stimulation. These hypoxic respiration-induced hemodynamic and metabolic changes were found to be suppressed by treatment with 1 and 10 micrograms/kg befunolol or 10 micrograms/kg propranolol to an appreciable degree. The results demonstrate protective action of befunolol, like propranolol, on hypoxia-induced changes in the myocardial energy metabolism. PMID:1799378

  19. Drugs affecting prelamin A processing: Effects on heterochromatin organization

    SciTech Connect

    Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Santi, Spartaco; D'Apice, M. Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe; Riccio, Massimo; Squarzoni, Stefano; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2008-02-01

    Increasing interest in drugs acting on prelamin A has derived from the finding of prelamin A involvement in severe laminopathies. Amelioration of the nuclear morphology by inhibitors of prelamin A farnesylation has been widely reported in progeroid laminopathies. We investigated the effects on chromatin organization of two drugs inhibiting prelamin A processing by an ultrastructural and biochemical approach. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 and the non-peptidomimetic drug N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCMe) were administered to cultured control human fibroblasts for 6 or 18 h. FTI-277 interferes with protein farnesylation causing accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A, while AFCMe impairs the last cleavage of the lamin A precursor and is expected to accumulate farnesylated prelamin A. FTI-277 caused redistribution of heterochromatin domains at the nuclear interior, while AFCMe caused loss of heterochromatin domains, increase of nuclear size and nuclear lamina thickening. At the biochemical level, heterochromatin-associated proteins and LAP2{alpha} were clustered at the nuclear interior following FTI-277 treatment, while they were unevenly distributed or absent in AFCMe-treated nuclei. The reported effects show that chromatin is an immediate target of FTI-277 and AFCMe and that dramatic remodeling of chromatin domains occurs following treatment with the drugs. These effects appear to depend, at least in part, on the accumulation of prelamin A forms, since impairment of prelamin A accumulation, here obtained by 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment, abolishes the chromatin effects. These results may be used to evaluate downstream effects of FTIs or other prelamin A inhibitors potentially useful for the therapy of laminopathies.

  20. Effect of NO synthase inhibition on cardiovascular circadian rhythms in wild-type and eNOS-knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Bjõrn; Arraj, Mahran

    2008-07-01

    Cardiovascular functions (blood pressure [BP], heart rate [HR]) were radiotelemetrically studied in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) knock-out mice (eNOS-/-) and their wild type C57BL/6 (WT) controls. Studies were performed with and without inhibition of the NOS with the non-specific inhibitor N(omega)-Nitro-L-Arginin-Methylester (L-NAME). Six eNOS-/-and five WT mice, kept under a light:dark schedule of 12:12 h (lights on 07:00 h), were treated with L-NAME in tap water containing different concentrations (94, 282, and 940 mg/kg) each for three days. Under control conditions, the eNOS-/-mice are mildly hypertensive in comparison to WT. L-NAME increased systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP] blood pressures in WT mice to the levels of eNOS-/-mice after two days of L-NAME application with no dose-dependency, whereas L-NAME had no effects on SBP and DBP in eNOS-/-mice. In neither mouse strain were the circadian rhythms in BP and HR affected by drug treatment. The similarity of the 24 h BP profiles in eNOS-/-and L-NAME-treated WT mice support the notion that only the enothelial NOS and not other NOS isoenzymes are of importance for hypertension in the knock-out mouse strain. PMID:18622812

  1. Effect of water deficit on the cell wall of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet nour', Arecales) fruit during development.

    PubMed

    Gribaa, Ali; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud; Rihouey, Christophe; Burel, Carole; Ferchichi, Ali; Driouich, Azeddine; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2013-05-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important crop providing a valuable nutrition source for people in many countries including the Middle East and North Africa. In recent years, the amount of rain in North Africa and especially in the Tunisian palm grove areas has dropped significantly. We investigated the growth and cell wall remodelling of fruits harvested at three key development stages from trees grown with or without water supply. During development, cell wall solubilization and remodelling was characterized by a decrease of the degree of methylesterification of pectin, an important loss of galactose content and a reduction of the branching of xylan by arabinose in irrigated condition. Water deficit had a profound effect on fruit size, pulp content, cell wall composition and remodelling. Loss of galactose content was not as important, arabinose content was significantly higher in the pectin-enriched extracts from non-irrigated condition, and the levels of methylesterification of pectin and O-acetylation of xyloglucan were lower than in irrigated condition. The lower levels of hydrophobic groups (methylester and O-acetyl) and the less intensive degradation of the hydrophilic galactan, arabinan and arabinogalactan in the cell wall may be implicated in maintaining the hydration status of the cells under water deficit. PMID:23176574

  2. Effect of Growth Medium pH of Aeropyrum pernix on Structural Properties and Fluidity of Archaeosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Ajda; Gmajner, Dejan; Šentjurc, Marjeta; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2012-01-01

    The influence of pH (6.0; 7.0; 8.0) of the growth medium of Aeropyrum pernix K1 on the structural organization and fluidity of archaeosomes prepared from a polar-lipid methanol fraction (PLMF) was investigated using fluorescence anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence anisotropy of the lipophilic fluorofore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and empirical correlation time of the spin probe methylester of 5-doxylpalmitate revealed gradual changes with increasing temperature for the pH. A similar effect has been observed by using the trimethylammonium-6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, although the temperature changes were much smaller. As the fluorescence steady-state anisotropy and the empirical correlation time obtained directly from the EPR spectra alone did not provide detailed structural information, the EPR spectra were analysed by computer simulation. This analysis showed that the archaeosome membranes are heterogeneous and composed of several regions with different modes of spin-probe motion at temperatures below 70°C. At higher temperatures, these membranes become more homogeneous and can be described by only one spectral component. Both methods indicate that the pH of the growth medium of A. pernix does not significantly influence its average membrane fluidity. These results are in accordance with TLC analysis of isolated lipids, which show no significant differences between PLMF isolated from A. pernix grown in medium with different pH. PMID:22778670

  3. Increased Photovoltaic Performance in Polymer-Oligothiophene-[6,6]-Phenyl-C61 -Butyric Acid Methylester Ternary Blend Films.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eunhee

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of oligothiophenes (b-5T and b-5TB) improved the performance of F85TB:PCBM bulk heterojunction OPV cells due to improved UV-vis absorption and the well-matched cascade energy levels between components. PMID:26353680

  4. Adenylosuccinate synthetase from Dictyostelium discoideum: effects of hadacidin analogs and binding of [14C]hadacidin.

    PubMed

    Jahngen, E G; Rossomando, E F

    1984-02-15

    The enzyme adenylosuccinate (sAMP) synthetase has been partially purified from Dictyostelium discoideum using hadacidin-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gel-filtration HPLC, resulting in a 2600-fold purification. Using a newly developed HPLC procedure to assay activity, it has been found that D. discoideum adenylosuccinate synthetase activity has apparent Km values for the substrates IMP, GTP, and aspartate of 36, 23, and 714 microM, respectively. The analog guanosine-5'-(beta, gamma-imino)triphosphate was found to be an inhibitor of GTP with a Ki of 15 microM, and IMP was competitively inhibited by its analog formycin B monophosphate with a Ki of 80 microM. An analysis of these kinetic data showed a pattern consistent with a fully random terter mechanism. Hadacidin, an analog of aspartate, was an inhibitor of that substrate at 86 microM. Other analogs of hadacidin were synthesized and examined for their effect on the sAMP synthetase activity. Compared to hadacidin, which produced 100% inhibition at 5 mM, it was observed that N-acetyl-N-hydroxyglycine, N-formylglycine, N-acetylglycine, and N-hydroxyglycine all inhibited between 50 and 75%, with N-(thiocarboxy)-L-aspartic anhydride less effective at 27%, and N-benzoylglycine at only 6%. N-Formylsarcosine, N-acetylmethionine, O-methylpyruvate oxime, and hadacidin methylester had no effect at this concentration. The adenylosuccinate synthetase activity was dependent on metal ions with maximum activity being obtained with Mg2+. The ability of the aspartate analog hadacidin to bind to the purified adenylosuccinate synthetase was demonstrated using anion-exchange HPLC and [formyl-14C]hadacidin. The radioactivity coeluted with the adenylosuccinate synthetase and the bound, radiolabeled hadacidin was displaced by excess aspartate. PMID:6703692

  5. Effects of endothelin and nitric oxide on cardiac muscle functions in experimental septic shock model.

    PubMed

    Ozer, E K; Iskit, A B

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the possible roles of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin on the changes of cardiac muscle function in both hyper- and hypodynamic septic shock periods. Cecal ligation and puncture was performed in 50 Wistar albino rats to induce septic shock. Changes in atrium and right ventricle papillary muscle contractions, atrium beat rate, adrenergic and cholinergic responses in these tissues were evaluated in vitro. Atrium beat rate increased in hypodynamic period (p < 0.001) that was reversed by bosentan (p < 0.001) and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME; p < 0.05). Atrium contractions decreased in both hyper- and hypodynamic periods (p < 0.001) that were partially ameliorated by bosentan in both periods (p < 0.01) and only in hypodynamic period by l-NAME (p < 0.001). l-NAME increased papillary muscle contractions in both periods (p < 0.01), but bosentan increased it only in hyperdynamic period (p < 0.01). Bosentan and l-NAME increased potency of isoproterenol on atrium beat rate in both periods and increased carbachol potency on atrium beat rate and atrium contraction amplitude only in hypodynamic period. Bosentan increased atrium contraction response to isoproterenol in hypodynamic period (p < 0.05). Papillary muscle contraction response to isoproterenol increased in hypodynamic period (p < 0.05). l-NAME increased papillary muscle contraction response to carbachol in both periods (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). These results show that NO and endothelin may play a role in positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effects for atrium in septic shock. Bosentan and l-NAME may change potency and efficacy of isoproterenol and carbachol via upregulation of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors and/or through post receptor factors. PMID:25911090

  6. Effects of hypoxia on relationships between cytosolic and mitochondrial NAD(P)H redox and superoxide generation in coronary arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qun; Wolin, Michael S

    2008-09-01

    Since controversy exists on how hypoxia influences vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and our previous work provided evidence that it relaxes endothelium-denuded bovine coronary arteries (BCA) in a ROS-independent manner by promoting cytosolic NADPH oxidation, we examined how hypoxia alters relationships between cytosolic and mitochondrial NAD(P)H redox and superoxide generation in BCA. Methods were developed to image and interpret the effects of hypoxia on NAD(P)H redox based on its autofluorescence in the cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear regions of smooth muscle cells isolated from BCA. Aspects of anaerobic glycolysis and cytosolic NADH redox in BCA were assessed from measurements of lactate and pyruvate. Imaging changes in mitosox and dehydroethidium fluorescence were used to detect changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic-nuclear superoxide, respectively. Hypoxia appeared to increase mitochondrial and decrease cytosolic-nuclear superoxide under conditions associated with increased cytosolic NADH (lactate/pyruvate), mitochondrial NAD(P)H, and hyperpolarization of mitochondria detected by tetramethylrhodamine methyl-ester perchlorate fluorescence. Rotenone appeared to increase mitochondrial NAD(P)H and superoxide, suggesting hypoxia could increase superoxide generation by complex I. However, hypoxia decreased mitochondrial superoxide in the presence of contraction to 30 mM KCl, associated with decreased mitochondrial NAD(P)H. Thus, while hypoxia augments NAD(P)H redox associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide, contraction with KCl reverses these effects of hypoxia on mitochondrial superoxide, suggesting mitochondrial ROS increases do not mediate hypoxic relaxation in BCA. Since hypoxia lowers pyruvate, and pyruvate inhibits hypoxia-elicited relaxation and NADPH oxidation in BCA, mitochondrial control of pyruvate metabolism associated with cytosolic NADPH redox regulation could contribute to sensing hypoxia. PMID:18567707

  7. Beneficial effects of diminished production of hydrogen sulfide or carbon monoxide on hypertension and renal injury induced by NO withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Fledderus, Joost O; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Whether NO, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) compensate for each other when one or more is depleted is unclear. Inhibiting NOS causes hypertension and kidney injury. Both global depletion of H2S by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) gene deletion and low levels of exogenous H2S cause hypertension. Inhibiting CO-producing enzyme haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) makes rodents hypersensitive to hypertensive stimuli. We hypothesized that combined inhibition of NOS and HO-1 exacerbates hypertension and renal injury, but how combined inhibition of NOS and CSE affect hypertension and renal injury was unclear. Experimental Approach Rats were treated with inhibitors of NOS (L-nitroarginine; LNNA), CSE (DL-propargylglycine; PAG), or HO-1 (tin protoporphyrin; SnPP) singly for 1 or 4 weeks or in combinations for 4 weeks. Key Results LNNA always reduced NO, decreased H2S and increased CO after 4 weeks. PAG abolished H2S, always enhanced CO and reduced NO, but not when used in combination with other inhibitors. SnPP always increased NO, enhanced H2S and inhibited CO after 1 week. Rats treated with LNNA, but not PAG and SnPP, rapidly developed hypertension followed by renal dysfunction. LNNA-induced hypertension was ameliorated and renal dysfunction prevented by all additional treatments. Renal HO-1 expression was increased by LNNA in injured tubules and increased in all tubules by all other treatments. Conclusions and Implications The amelioration of LNNA-induced hypertension and renal injury by additional inhibition of H2S and/or CO-producing enzymes appeared to be associated with secondary increases in renal CO or NO production. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24597655

  8. Effect of L-dopa alone and with benserazide on the spontaneous activity of striatal neurones in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, W Y; Webster, R A

    1997-05-01

    1. The effects of L-dopa methylester (LDME), an analogue of levodopa, on the spontaneous activity of dopamine sensitive neurones in the rat striatum, after 6-hydroxydopamine induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal tract were compared with those in unlesioned animals both in the absence and presence of benserazide, a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor (PDI). 2. Studies were performed at 5-7 days post lesion (group 1 animals), at 21 days (group 2) when denervation supersensitivity was evident by contralateral turning to apomorphine and at the same time but following 7 days dosing with LDME plus benserazide (group 3). 3. In unlesioned animals, LDME alone inhibited spontaneous firing by some 45% over 60 min including a marked but transient early phase which was still present in all lesioned animals even though the later inhibition was significantly reduced in group 1 and 3 animals. 4. When given after benserazide in unlesioned animals LDME still produced a similar level of overall inhibition but without the early phase. The lesion reduced the overall inhibition, except in group 2 animals, and after chronic dosing (group 3) it was almost absent. 5. It is proposed that since the early inhibition with LDME alone is still seen after lesion of the nigrostriatal tract but not after the PDI benserazide, it is caused by peripherally formed dopamine and that as the delayed inhibition with LDME alone and after benserazide are all reduced by nigrostriatal lesions, as is its amphetamine like ipsilateral turning, that this depends on locally (striatal) synthesized dopamine. 6. This study also shows the chronic levodopa/PDI treatment reduces the compensating increased activity of surviving dopaminergic neurones and the functional supersensitivity to dopamine and suggests that the long term administration of levodopa may reduce its own utilization and activity in the striatum and in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease [corrected]. PMID:9154345

  9. L-Nitroargininium picrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apreyan, R. A.; Fleck, M.; Atanesyan, A. K.; Sukiasyan, R. P.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    L-Nitroargininium picrate has been obtained from an aqueous solution containing equimolar quantities of L-nitroarginine and picric acid by slow evaporation. Single crystal was grown by evaporation method. Crystal structure was determined at room temperature. The salt crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system (space group P21). Vibrational spectra and thermal properties were studied. Second harmonic generation efficiency measured by powder method is found to be four times higher than in L-nitroarginine, which in turn is ten times more efficient than KDP (KH2PO4).

  10. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, p<0.001). The inhibitory effect of extract on contraction induced by KCl and acetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the β-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A. millefolium. PMID:24311877

  11. U-19451A: a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Stratman, N C; Fici, G J; Sethy, V H

    1996-01-01

    Drugs with high selectivity for iNOS inhibition may be useful for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases, and septic shock. Therefore, U-19451A (2-benzyl-2-thio-pseudourea hydrochloride), a potential NOS inhibitor, has been investigated for its selectivity for iNOS using tissues, primary cerebellar granule cell cultures and glial cell cultures. Lungs isolated from rats treated with intravenous injection of E coli lipopolysaccharide and glial cell cultures treated with the same bacterial toxin plus gamma-interferon were used for iNOS activity. Rat cerebellum and primary cerebellar granule cell cultures were utilized for neuronal NOS (nNOS) activity. S-methylthiourea (SMT) and L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), selective iNOS and nNOS inhibitors, respectively, were chosen as standards. Both U-19451A and SMT were 4-times more selective for iNOS as compared to nNOS in tissues. U-19451A was more selective than SMT for iNOS inhibition using cultures. L-NAME was 16-31 times more selective for inhibiting nNOS activity. Based on the selectivity of U-19451A for iNOS inhibition, this drug would be expected to be effective in the treatment of diseases with inflammatory pathology without producing side effects associated with nNOS inhibition. PMID:8795706

  12. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling: a novel pathway in OSA induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Porter, Kyle; Pleister, Adam; Wannemacher, Jacob; Sow, Angela; Jarjoura, David; Zweier, Jay L; Khayat, Rami N

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function directly in the microcirculatory endothelial tissue of OSA patients who have very low cardiovascular risk status. Nineteen OSA patients underwent gluteal biopsies before, and after effective treatment of OSA. We measured superoxide (O2(•-)) and nitric oxide (NO) in the microcirculatory endothelium using confocal microscopy. We evaluated the effect of the NOS inhibitor l-Nitroarginine-Methyl-Ester (l-NAME) and the NOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on endothelial O2(•-) and NO in patient endothelial tissue before and after treatment. We found that eNOS is dysfunctional in OSA patients pre-treatment, and is a source of endothelial O2(•-) overproduction. eNOS dysfunction was reversible with the addition of BH4. These findings provide a new mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in OSA patients and a potentially targetable pathway for treatment of cardiovascular risk in OSA. PMID:25534145

  13. Can Chronic Nitric Oxide Inhibition Improve Liver and Renal Dysfunction in Bile Duct Ligated Rats?

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mona Fouad; Zakaria, Sara; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present work were to study the effects of chronic NO inhibition on liver cirrhosis and to analyze its relationship with liver and kidney damage markers. Two inhibitors of NO synthesis (inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), and nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME)) were administered for 6 weeks to bile duct ligated (BDL) rats 3 days after surgery. The present study showed that BDL was associated with liver injury and renal impairment. BDL increased liver NO content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. This was corroborated by increased oxidative stress, TNF-α, TGF-1β, and MMP-13 genes overexpression. Although both drugs reduced NO synthesis and TNF-α gene overexpression, only AG improved renal dysfunction and liver damage and reduced liver oxidative stress. However, L-NAME exacerbated liver and renal dysfunction. Both drugs failed to modulate TGF-1β and MMP-13 genes overexpression. In conclusion, inhibition of NO production by constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) plays a crucial role in liver injury and renal dysfunction while inhibition of iNOS by AG has beneficial effect. TNF-α is not the main cytokine responsible for liver injury in BDL model. Nitric oxide inhibition did not stop the progression of cholestatic liver damage. PMID:26692194

  14. Transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling mediate organic dust induction of IL-8 expression in lung epithelial and THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gottipati, Koteswara R.; Bandari, Shiva Kumar; Nonnenmann, Matthew W.; Levin, Jeffrey L.; Dooley, Gregory P.; Reynolds, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the agricultural work environment is a risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms and chronic lung diseases. Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of tissue injury and disease. Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating lung inflammatory responses to agricultural dust are not yet fully understood. We studied the effects of poultry dust extract on molecular regulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory cytokine, in A549 and Beas2B lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cells. Our findings indicate that poultry dust extract potently induces IL-8 levels by increasing IL-8 gene transcription without altering IL-8 mRNA stability. Increase in IL-8 promoter activity was due to enhanced binding of activator protein 1 and NF-κB. IL-8 induction was associated with protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and inhibited by PKC and MAPK inhibitors. IL-8 increase was not inhibited by polymyxin B or l-nitroarginine methyl ester, indicating lack of involvement of lipopolysaccharide and nitric oxide in the induction. Lung epithelial and THP-1 cells share common mechanisms for induction of IL-8 levels. Our findings identify key roles for transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling pathways for IL-8 induction and provide insights into the mechanisms regulating lung inflammatory responses to organic dust exposure. PMID:25398986

  15. The role of prostanoids and nitric oxide in endotoxin-induced hyporesponsiveness of equine digital blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S R; Elliott, J

    1999-05-01

    Endotoxin has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute laminitis. The aim of this study was to examine the direct effects of endotoxin on isolated equine digital blood vessels. Equine digital veins (EDV), incubated in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 microg/ml) became hyporesponsive to 5-HT after 16 h. Cycloheximide and ibuprofen blocked this effect of LPS and increased the maximum response obtained to 5-HT when compared to control vessels. L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reversed the hyporesponsiveness caused by LPS. Vessels maintained in culture medium containing LPS also became hyporesponsive to 5-HT, an effect which was completely prevented by ibuprofen but only partially reversed by L-NAME. Measurements were made of 6-keto PGF1alpha and nitrite production by segments of equine digital artery and vein in culture medium alone or co-cultured with peripheral blood leucocytes. LPS did not stimulate nitrite production from vessel segments but increased nitrite release from leucocytes, an effect which was inhibited by cycloheximide and L-NAME. Lipopolysaccharide increased 6-keto PGF1alpha production by blood vessels, an effect which was inhibited by cycloheximide and ibuprofen but not L-NAME. No synergistic effect on release of nitrite or 6-keto PGF1alpha was noted in co-cultures of blood vessels and leucocytes. These data suggest that induction of cyclo-oxygenase by LPS was a major cause of hyporesponsiveness of digital blood vessels to 5-HT. Release of nitric oxide was not detectable in LPS-stimulated blood vessels maintained in culture even in the presence of activated leucocytes yet L-NAME did protect against LPS-induced hyporesponsiveness indicating nitric oxide synthase induction may play some role in the effect of LPS. These findings are important in furthering our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the vascular changes which occur in acute laminitis. PMID:10402134

  16. Triterpenoide. XX. 3beta-acetoxy-12-oxo-18beta-olean- und 3beta-acetoxy-12,19-dioxo-9(11), 13(18)-oleandien-28-saure-methylester

    PubMed

    Gzella

    2000-08-01

    The structures of methyl 3beta-acetoxy-12-oxo-18beta-olean-28-oate [C(33)H(52)O(5), (I)] and methyl 3beta-acetoxy-12, 19-dioxoolean-9(11),13(18)-dien-28-oate [C(33)H(46)O(6), (II)] are described. In (I), all rings are in the chair conformation, rings D and E are cis and the other rings trans-fused. In compound (II), only rings A and E are in the chair conformation, ring B has a distorted chair conformation, ring C a distorted half-boat and ring D an insignificantly distorted half-chair conformation. PMID:10944297

  17. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  18. An extract of Tagetes lucida and its phenolic constituents as antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Rita; Cáceres, Armando; Morelli, Silvana; Rastrelli, Luca

    2002-12-01

    Analysis of a methanolic extract of Tagetes lucida leaves has resulted in the isolation of a new flavonol glycoside, quercetagenin 3,4'-dimethyl ether 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), two new phenolic acids, 3-(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-4-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid (2) and its methylester (3), and known flavonols, aromatic acids, and 7-methoxycoumarin. Using the DPPH degrees test, the extract and some of its constituents showed a significant free-radical-scavenging effect in comparison to alpha-tocopherol and standard flavonols. PMID:12502312

  19. Synthesis and analgesic activity of 1-(N-methylanilinoethyl)indoles.

    PubMed

    Andreani, A; Rambaldi, M; Locatelli, A; Andreani, F; Bossa, R; Galatulas, I; Ninci, M

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of two series of 1-(N-methylanilinoethyl)indoles is reported. The first arises from the N-alkylation of indole-3-acetic acid or its methylester, while the second was prepared by means of the Witting reaction on the appropriate aldehyde. The compounds were tested in mice (hot plate test and phenyl-p-benzoquinone induced writhing test) for their analgesic activity. None of the compounds was significantly active in the hot plate test. However, N-methylanilinoethyl 1-(N-methylanilinoethyl)-3-indolylacetate (7) was the most active one in the phenyl-p-benzoquinone induced writhing test, which indicates that 7 has a peripheral analgesic effect. PMID:1793506

  20. Isolation and identification of hemostatic ingredients from Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo.

    PubMed

    Li, Maoxing; Zhang, Ruxue; Jia, Zhengping; Sheng, Jie; Qiu, Jianguo; Wang, Juan

    2009-06-01

    Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo (LR) is a traditional drug used by Chinese minorities such as Tibetans, Mongolians and Na Xi with the beneficial effects of hemostasis and alleviating pain. Flavonoids ingredients (P(1)), iridoid glycosides ingredients (P(2)) and maximus polarity components ingredients (P(3)) were isolated from the aqueous extract of LR (AELR) with polyamide and macroporous adsorptive resins chromatographic columns. The hemostatic activity of these ingredients was estimated by the changes in bleeding time (BT), clotting time (CT) and blood coagulation parameters in mice or rats. RP-HPLC was used to analyze the chemical composition of P(2). As a result, AELR and P(2) significantly shortened BT, CT and thrombin time (TT), and increased fibrinogen (FIB), but P(1) and P(3) showed no hemostatic effect during the experiment. Moreover, P(2) showed satisfactory hemostatic effect with dose-effect relationship and low toxicity in mice. 8-Dehydroxy shanzhiside, phloyoside II, shanzhiside methylester, loganin, and 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methylester were detected as the main iridoid glycosides in P(2) by RP-HPLC. Our results suggest that iridoid glycosides may be the hemostatic activity ingredients of L. rotata and are a potential hemostatic medicine. PMID:19173219

  1. The effect of calcium-induced fullerene migration on the performance of thermally stable nanoparticle organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feron, K.; Ulum, S.; Sesa, E.; Gong, B. B.; Belcher, W. J.; Zhou, X.; Fell, C. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2014-09-01

    The impact of a calcium interface layer in combination with a thermal annealing treatment on the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-buteric acid methylester (PCBM) nanoparticle photovoltaic devices is investigated. Annealing is found to disrupt the microstructure of the nanoparticle active layer leading to a reduction in fill factor. However, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the calcium interface layer causes PCBM to preferentially migrate to the cathode interface upon annealing, resulting in better charge extraction from the PCBM moiety, an increase in the built-in voltage, open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency. Moreover, the annealing trends could be completely explained by the observed PCBM migration. Unlike P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction devices, the P3HT:PCBM nanoparticle devices showed a remarkable thermal stability up to 120 °C. As such, OPVs fabricated from aqueous nanoparticle inks provide an attractive alternative to conventional organic solvent based bulk heterojunction devices.

  2. Chemotherapy Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Chemotherapy Side Effects Chemotherapy drugs are powerful medicines that can cause side ... on the side effects most commonly caused by chemotherapy, this is a good place to start. Managing ...

  3. Thermal Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Sylvia S.; Coutant, Charles C.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effect of temperature on the biosphere water, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes the effects of temperature on growth, production, and embryonic and larval development. A list of 401 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Thermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.; Coutant, C.C.

    1980-06-01

    Literature dealing with the following topics was reviewed: effects of power plant once-through cooling on aquatic systems; site studies; producers - effects on growth and production; consumers; decomposers; diseases and parasites; and beneficial uses of power plant condenser cooling water. (DAD)

  5. Gauging Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foord, Kathleen A.; Haar, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Books by education experts and speakers at national professional conferences have inspired many school leaders to initiate professional learning communities (PLCs). Sustaining them effectively to raise student achievement is another matter. How can one know whether a PLC is moving toward a desired outcome? Measuring effectiveness requires an…

  6. Thermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cravens, J.B.; Harrelson, M.E.; Talmage, S.S.

    1983-06-01

    A literature review of studies dealing with thermal effects on aquatic systems is presented. Site studies are discussed, along with biochemical reaction studies, the effects of temperature on the growth of organisms, and the interaction of temperature and other stresses. (JMT)

  7. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  8. Placebo Effect

    MedlinePlus

    ... doing it. Similar effects of changes in brain chemistry have been found in studies of pain and ... experience benefit with placebo treatment. Why should brain chemistry change when pa- tients are convinced they are ...

  9. Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you can treat mild side effects with home remedies or over-the-counter medications. In some cases, ... can also cause nausea, vomiting, gas, or diarrhea. Home remedies include: Instead of three big meals, eat smallee ...

  10. Health Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... globalchange.gov/engage/activities-products/NCA3/technical-inputs . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

  11. Measuring effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Stegenga, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the effectiveness of medical interventions faces three epistemological challenges: the choice of good measuring instruments, the use of appropriate analytic measures, and the use of a reliable method of extrapolating measures from an experimental context to a more general context. In practice each of these challenges contributes to overestimating the effectiveness of medical interventions. These challenges suggest the need for corrective normative principles. The instruments employed in clinical research should measure patient-relevant and disease-specific parameters, and should not be sensitive to parameters that are only indirectly relevant. Effectiveness always should be measured and reported in absolute terms (using measures such as 'absolute risk reduction'), and only sometimes should effectiveness also be measured and reported in relative terms (using measures such as 'relative risk reduction')-employment of relative measures promotes an informal fallacy akin to the base-rate fallacy, which can be exploited to exaggerate claims of effectiveness. Finally, extrapolating from research settings to clinical settings should more rigorously take into account possible ways in which the intervention in question can fail to be effective in a target population. PMID:26199055

  12. Silver-Nanoparticle-Assisted Photocurrent Generation in Polythiophene-Fullerene Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jing; Arakawa, Taichi; Munaoka, Takatoshi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yukina; Yamada, Sunao

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgPs) on the photocurrent generation of a polyphiophene-fullerene photovoltaic film. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) were used for the electron donor and acceptor, respectively. First, AgPs were electrostatically deposited upon the surface of an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode via a polycation. Then, a film of P3HT or a mixture of P3HT and PCBM was prepared by spin coating. The thickness of the film was evaluated by atomic force microscopy. Absorption and fluorescence spectral measurements were carried out to investigate the effects of AgPs. Photocurrent spectra were also measured, and the effects of AgPs on photocurrent enhancement were verified.

  13. Effects and Effectiveness of Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Jim; Kaehny, Margaret M.; Sandberg, Elliot J.; Schlenker, Robert E.; Shaughnessy, Peter W.

    1995-01-01

    The use of telemedicine has recently undergone rapid growth and proliferation. Although the feasibility of many applications has been tested for nearly 30 years, data concerning the costs, effects, and effectiveness of telemedicine are limited. Consequently, the development of a strategy for coverage, payment, and utilization policy has been hindered. Telemedicine continues to expand, and pressure for policy development increases in the context of Federal budget cuts and major changes in health service financing. This article reviews the literature on the effects and medical effectiveness of telemedicine. It concludes with several recommendations for research, followed by a discussion of several specific questions, the answers to which might have a bearing on policy development. PMID:10153466

  14. Tectonomagnetic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.

    1978-01-01

    We know that earthquakes result from the sudden release of elastic strain, the end product, most likely, of a long period of gradual stress accumulation in the crust. At the U.S Geological Survey, our magnetic fields studies have two main directions. First, a determination of the magnetic behavior accompanying shallow earthquakes (seismomagnetic effects). Second, a long-term monitoring of the magnetic field in the vicinity of an active fault to detect magnetic changes due to general tectonic activity, particularly that which ultimately leads to earthquakes. These magnetic changes are generally termed "tectonomagnetic effects." 

  15. Physiological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pearcy, R.W.; Bjoerkman, O.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the effects of CO/sub 2/ on plants at the physiological level. The authors examine the potential effects of elevated CO/sub 2/ in concert with water, temperature, light, and salinity. They also examine plant allometric growth as it is affected by CO/sub 2/. The relationships between CO/sub 2/ uptake and temperature are examined in some detail. Stomatal function as it is now known is discussed, along with changes in water use efficiency correlated with increased levels of CO/sub 2/. Future research needs are identified. 71 references, 8 figures.

  16. Molecular Architectonics of Naphthalenediimides for Efficient Structure-Property Correlation.

    PubMed

    Avinash, M B; Swathi, K; Narayan, K S; Govindaraju, T

    2016-04-01

    We present a bioinspired design strategy to effectively tailor the assembly of naphthalenediimides (NDIs) into a wide variety of architectures by functionalizing with amino acid derivatives. This bioinspired process of custom designing and engineering molecular assemblies is termed "bioinspired architectonics". By employing minute structural mutations in the form of α-substituents of amino acids, we successfully engineered molecular assembly of NDIs into zero-dimensional (0D, spheres), one-dimensional (1D, fibers), and two-dimensional (2D, sheets) architectures. The 2D sheets of phenylalanine methylester appended NDI 1 showed remarkable bulk electron mobility of up to 1 cm(2) V(-1)s(-1). With the aid of photophysical, diffraction, and microscopy techniques we rationalize the effect of molecular structure with their ordering and electronic properties in an effort to find structure-property correlations via a bioinspired modular approach. PMID:27002593

  17. Crystal Growth Inhibitors for the Prevention of L-Cystine Kidney Stones Through Molecular Design

    SciTech Connect

    Rimer, Jeffrey D.; An, Zhihua; Zhu, Zina; Lee, Michael H.; Goldfarb, David S.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.; Ward, Michael D.

    2010-11-12

    Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects. Real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that L-cystine dimethylester (L-CDME) and L-cystine methylester (L-CME) dramatically reduce the growth velocity of the six symmetry-equivalent {l_brace}100{r_brace} steps because of specific binding at the crystal surface, which frustrates the attachment of L-cystine molecules. L-CDME and L-CME produce L-cystine crystals with different habits that reveal distinct binding modes at the crystal surfaces. The AFM observations are mirrored by reduced crystal yield and crystal size in the presence of L-CDME and L-CME, collectively suggesting a new pathway to the prevention of L-cystine stones by rational design of crystal growth inhibitors.

  18. Effective Consumerism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Mabel

    This module, consisting of materials for use in conducting a consumer education mini-course, deals with effective consumerism. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: being prepared with information (sources of consumer information and subscription forms); evaluating warranties and service contracts; evaluating advertising and

  19. Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  20. Sleeper Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Daphne; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.

    2007-01-01

    Early experience preserves and refines many capabilities that emerge prenatally. Here we describe another role that it plays--establishing the neural substrate for capabilities that emerge at a much later point in development. The evidence comes from sleeper effects: permanent deficits when early experience was absent in capabilities that normally…

  1. Effective Consumerism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Mabel

    This module, consisting of materials for use in conducting a consumer education mini-course, deals with effective consumerism. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: being prepared with information (sources of consumer information and subscription forms); evaluating warranties and service contracts; evaluating advertising and…

  2. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

  3. Blazhko Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teays, Terry

    1996-01-01

    The cause of the Blazhko effect, the long-term modulation of the light and radial velocity curves of some RR Lyr stars, is still not understood. The observational characteristics of the Blazhko effect are discussed. Some preliminary results are presented from two recent campaigns to observe RR Lyr, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer along with ground-based spectroscopy and photometry, throughout a pulsation cycle, at a variety of Blazhko phases. A set of ultraviolet light curves have been generated from low dispersion IUE spectra. In addition, the (visual) light curves from IUE's Fine Error Sensor are analyzed using the Fourier decomposition technique. The values of the parameters Psi(sub 21) and R(sub 21) at different Blazhko phases of RR Lyr span the range of values found for non-Blazhko variables of similar period.

  4. Zeeman Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The splitting of a spectral line into two, three or more components, that occurs when the source of that line lies within a magnetic field. This phenomenon is named after the Dutch physicist, Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943), who discovered the effect in the laboratory, in 1896. The separation of the components of a line is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field and the number of components,...

  5. Remifentanil: applications in neonates.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Mineto; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-06-01

    Remifentanil is a synthetic opioid derivative that was introduced into clinical practice in the United States in 1996. The unique modification of its chemical structure to include a methyl-ester ring allows its hydrolysis by non-specific plasma and tissue esterases. This molecular configuration results in its rapid metabolism thereby providing a rapid onset, easy titration by continuous infusion, and a short context-sensitive half-life with rapid elimination. These principles are stable and consistent across all age groups regardless of the infusion characteristics. Owing to these pharmacokinetic characteristics, it is an effective agent in the neonatal population allowing the provision of intense analgesia and anesthesia with a rapid recovery profile in various clinical scenarios. Here, we review the pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in neonates, discuss its clinical applications including intraoperative administration for anesthetic care, unique applications for procedural sedation including endotracheal intubation, and its potential use for sedation in the Intensive Care Unit setting during mechanical ventilation. PMID:26758072

  6. Anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizing properties of two semisynthetic derivatives of oleanolic acid.

    PubMed

    Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta N; Oyedeji, Opeoluwa O; Oyedeji, Adebola O; Ndebia, Eugene J

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and methylation semisynthesis of oleanolic acid (OA) isolated from Syzygium aromaticum L. yielded two compounds: 3-acetoxyoleanolic acid (3-AOA) and 3-acetoxy, 28-methylester oleanolic acid (3-A,28-MOA). Anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds were assessed using the serotonin and fresh egg albumin-induced inflammatory test models in male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g. Furthermore, erythrocyte membrane-stabilizing property of these compounds was evaluated in the heat- and hypotonicity-induced in vitro hemolysis test models. The two semisynthetic compounds significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited albumin-induced inflammation better than OA and indomethacin from 1-5 h post administration. Both compounds were membrane stabilizing in heat-induced hemolysis test while only 3-AOA showed membrane-stabilizing effects in a hypotonic milieu. Semisynthesis of OA yielded two compounds which had better in vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro membrane-stabilizing properties. PMID:25173889

  7. Erosion Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The impact crater in this THEMIS image is a model illustration to the effects of erosion on Mars. The degraded crater rim and several landslides observed in crater walls is evidence to the mass wasting of materials. Layering in crater walls also suggests the presence of materials that erode at varying rates.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.6, Longitude 44.3 East (315.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  8. Microbial effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lamborg, M.R.; Hardy, R.W.F.; Paul, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    The postulated doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ is not likely to have direct effect on soil microbial activity because during the growing season, the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the soil atmosphere is already ten to fifty times higher than existing atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Based on all available experimental information, it is estimated that a doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ will cause an increase in primary productivity of 10 to 40% depending on locale. The increase in biomass will, in turn, produce a limitation of available soil nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Increased organic carbon together with nitrogen and/or phosphorus limitation will result in a preferential increase in nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizal activities as the expedient means for supplying required nutrients to sustain the predicted increase in primary productivity. Therefore, increased emphasis should be placed on fundamental research related to soil microbiology with special reference to nitrogen-fixing, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, and to the mycorrhizal fungi. 111 references, 2 figures.

  9. Effectiveness Update: Academic Programs Transfer Effectiveness Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX.

    This document is a compilation of reports that outline various institutional effectiveness measures and present assessment results and data at Austin Community College (ACC) (Texas). The College Effectiveness Update reports include Academic Programs Transfer Effectiveness Measures, Workforce Education Effectiveness Measures, Developmental…

  10. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  11. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  12. Treatment Side-Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Information » Living With » Treatment Side-Effects Treatment Side-Effects If your treatment plan involves chemotherapy you may experience physical, emotional, and/or psychological side effects related to this treatment. Unfortunately, while chemotherapy kills ...

  13. Lunar Dust Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.; Jacques, S.; Rask, J. C.; Tranfield, E.; Taylor, L.; Kerschmann, R.; Loftus, D. J.

    2008-07-01

    We are investigating the biological effects of lunar dust collected during the Apollo missions to understand potential skin effects, inhalation toxicity, and ocular effects that may result from long duration human habitation of the Moon.

  14. [Adverse effects of marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mallaret, Michel; Dal'Bo-Rohrer, Dominique; Demattis, Maurice

    2005-01-15

    When admitted in an emergency unit, young patients often present acute neurological effects of smoked marijuana. Other chronic adverse effects of marijuana are probably underestimated: postural syncope, arteritis, chronic bronchitis, amnesia. Marijuana may trigger a myocardial infarction and have a vasospastic effect. Marijuana has impairing effects on driving ability. Smoked marijuana is a potential respiratory tract carcinogen. PMID:15801396

  15. On Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

  16. Improving School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John, Ed.; Mortimore, Peter, Ed.

    School effectiveness is an issue that has preoccupied researchers and policymakers for 3 decades. To study how ineffective schools become effective and what constitutes an effective school, the Improving School Effectiveness Project was carried out in Scotland from 1995 to 1997. This project forms the basis of discussion in this book, which has 11

  17. Gravitational Casimir effect.

    PubMed

    Quach, James Q

    2015-02-27

    We derive the gravitonic Casimir effect with nonidealized boundary conditions. This allows the quantification of the gravitonic contribution to the Casimir effect from real bodies. We quantify the meagerness of the gravitonic Casimir effect in ordinary matter. We also quantify the enhanced effect produced by the speculated Heisenberg-Couloumb (HC) effect in superconductors, thereby providing a test for the validity of the HC theory, and, consequently, the existence of gravitons. PMID:25768749

  18. On effect size.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2012-06-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension, measure/index, and value), outline 10 corollaries that follow from our definition, and review ideal qualities of effect sizes. Our definition of effect size is general and subsumes many existing definitions of effect size. We define effect size as a quantitative reflection of the magnitude of some phenomenon that is used for the purpose of addressing a question of interest. Our definition of effect size is purposely more inclusive than the way many have defined and conceptualized effect size, and it is unique with regard to linking effect size to a question of interest. Additionally, we review some important developments in the effect size literature and discuss the importance of accompanying an effect size with an interval estimate that acknowledges the uncertainty with which the population value of the effect size has been estimated. We hope that this article will facilitate discussion and improve the practice of reporting and interpreting effect sizes. PMID:22545595

  19. The Hydrophobic Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huque, Entazul M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the physical basis and current understanding of hydrophobic effects. The thermodynamic background of the effects, hydrophobic hydration, and hydrophobic interactions are described. Four existing controversies are outlined. (YP)

  20. Medications and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... such as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  1. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  2. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified the effectiveness of Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the e...

  3. Memory effects in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  4. Effective Schools Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Daniel U.; Lezotte, Lawrence W.

    Research studies that have focused on identifying the characteristics or correlates of elementary and secondary schools that are unusually effective are reviewed, concentrating on the "effective schools" movement. Research on effective schools supports the conclusion that they rank high on certain characteristics frequently referred to as…

  5. Effective Teachers of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane; Wray, David; Poulson, Louise; Fox, Richard

    A study was commissioned to help the Teacher Training Agency and teachers in England to understand more clearly how effective teachers help children to become literate. Research aims were to: identify the key factors of what effective teachers know, understand, and do that enables them to put effective literacy teaching into practice; identify the…

  6. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three

  7. Special Effects Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

    This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

  8. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  9. Andexanet: Effectively Reversing Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2016-06-01

    Despite direct oral anticoagulants becoming a mainstay of anticoagulant therapy, the effective, timely, and safe reversal of their anticoagulant effect remains challenging. Emerging evidence attests that andexanet, a recombinant and inactive variant of native factor X (FXa), competitively inhibits and counteracts the anticoagulant effect of many inhibitors of native activated FXa. PMID:27048885

  10. Allee effects in ants.

    PubMed

    Luque, Gloria M; Giraud, Tatiana; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-09-01

    1. Allee effects occur when the aggregation of individuals result in mutually beneficial intraspecific interactions whereby individual fitness, or per capita growth rate, increases with the number of individuals. Allee effects are common in social species due to their cooperative behaviours, such as breeding, feeding or defence. Allee effects have important implications for many aspects of basic and applied ecology. Over the past decades, the study of Allee effects has influenced population dynamics, community ecology, endangered species management and invasion biology. 2. Despite the fact that cooperation is the basis of their social structure, Allee effects have received little attention among eusocial insects. Extreme cooperation is common, and reproductive specialization of individuals occurs due to division of labour. These life-history traits suggest that the potential contribution of each caste to reproduction and survival may be differential and nonadditive. 3. We studied Allee effects in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In this species, many queens and workers are present in colonies, which allowed us to explore the differential effects of castes on the presence of Allee effects. In the laboratory, we measured brood production and individual survival in experimental colonies that differed in the initial numbers of queens and workers.4. Our results highlight the differential effect of queens and workers on survival and productivity. We found three positive density-dependent relationships indicative of component Allee effects at the colony level: both workers and queens had a positive effect on the productivity of the other caste, and queens had a positive effect on worker survivorship. 5. Our experimental results suggest a potential positive feedback between worker and queen abundance, which may have contributed to the evolution of large colony sizes. Our study provides the first evidence of Allee effects in eusocial insects and highlights the need to consider castes separately in population dynamics. Division of labour and differential reproductive rates are factors that should be integrated into the study of Allee effects. PMID:23672650

  11. The butterfly effect of the "butterfly effect".

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kevin J

    2009-07-01

    The "Butterfly Effect" metaphor states with variance that the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil can cause a tornado in Texas. This metaphor has become part of the common vernacular of Western culture. In this paper I discuss the origins of the metaphor, examine its current usage within popular culture, and present an argument as to why it is popular. I propose that the metaphor is a type of semantic attractor, a narrative device with invariant meaning but audience-specific contextualization. Finally I address whether the Butterfly Effect metaphor is a good example of itself. PMID:19527619

  12. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  13. Thermally Driven Josephson Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    A concept is proposed of the thermally driven Josephson effect in superfluid helium. Heretofore, the Josephson effect in a superfluid has been recognized as an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady pressure difference between two superfluid reservoirs separated by an array of submicron-sized orifices, which act in unison as a single Josephson junction. Analogously, the thermally driven Josephson effect is an oscillatory flow that arises in response to a steady temperature difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect is partly a consequence of a quantum- mechanical effect known as the fountain effect, in which a temperature difference in a superfluid is accompanied by a pressure difference. The thermally driven Josephson effect may have significance for the development of a high-resolution gyroscope based on the Josephson effect in a superfluid: If the pressure-driven Josephson effect were used, then the fluid on the high-pressure side would become depleted, necessitating periodic interruption of operation to reverse the pressure difference. If the thermally driven Josephson effect were used, there would be no net flow and so the oscillatory flow could be maintained indefinitely by maintaining the required slightly different temperatures on both sides of the junction.

  14. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  15. Atomic lighthouse effect.

    PubMed

    Máximo, C E; Kaiser, R; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease in magnetic field efficiency. PMID:25401364

  16. Photon Thermal Hall Effect.

    PubMed

    Ben-Abdallah, P

    2016-02-26

    A near-field thermal Hall effect (i.e., Righi-Leduc effect) in networks of magneto-optical particles placed in a constant magnetic field is predicted. This many-body effect is related to a symmetry breaking in the system induced by the magnetic field, which gives rise to preferential channels for the heat transport by near-field interaction thanks to the particle's anisotropy tuning. PMID:26967417

  17. Photon Thermal Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Abdallah, P.

    2016-02-01

    A near-field thermal Hall effect (i.e., Righi-Leduc effect) in networks of magneto-optical particles placed in a constant magnetic field is predicted. This many-body effect is related to a symmetry breaking in the system induced by the magnetic field, which gives rise to preferential channels for the heat transport by near-field interaction thanks to the particle's anisotropy tuning.

  18. Dynamic ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gilbert, William P.

    1990-01-01

    A research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effect of rate of descent on ground effects. A series of powered models were tested in the Vortex Research Facility under conditions with rate of descent and in the 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel under identical conditions but without rate of descent. These results indicate that the rate of descent can have a significant impact on ground effects particularly if vectored or reversed thrust is used.

  19. Rectenna related atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    Possible meteorological effects arising from the existence and operations of a solar power satellite (SPS) system rectenna are examined. Analysis and model simulations in some chosen site situations and meteorological conditions indicate that the meteorological effects of the construction and operation of a rectenna are small, particularly outside the boundary of the structure. From weather and climate points of view, installation of an SPS rectenna seems likely to have effects comparable with those due to other nonindustrial land use changes covering the same area. The absorption and scattering of microwave radiation in the troposphere would have negligible atmospheric effects.

  20. Volcanic effects on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

  1. Cardiovascular Effects Of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1992-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum presents study of effects of weightlessness and simulations upon cardiovascular systems of humans and animals. Reviews research up to year 1987 in United States and Soviet space programs on such topics as physiological changes induced by weightlessness in outer space and by subsequent return to Earth gravity and also reviews deconditioning effects of prolonged bed rest on ground.

  2. Primacy Effects in Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Francis T.

    Previous research has suggested the existence of a primacy effect in the attribution of ability. To test if the primacy effect occurs in situations where specific cues about the person and nature of the test materials are lacking or greatly reduced, college students corrected a multiple-choice test in which a phantom stimulus person correctly…

  3. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for

  4. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Developing Effective Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T.J.

    In this introductory work, the main principles on which British companies are basing management development programs are presented, and stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial talent are set forth: stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial t"lent are set forth: program planning based on clear objectives and communication;…

  6. Effective Appraisal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Jerry L.

    An examination of the goals of an effective employee appraisal system of an effective employee evaluation procedure is the focus of this paper.The paper discusses the purposes of the appraisal system and its objectivity (or lack of it), the selection of items to be judged, the standards for judging the performance of an employee, and the person…

  7. Tomography with mirage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanneau, P.; Bertrand, L.; Forget, B. C.; Fournier, D.

    1999-03-01

    We have designed an experimental set-up that allows us to obtain thermal images of small samples by associating the mirage effect with the tomographic techniques. Spectroscopic features, surface effects and thermal diffusivity changes have been used to illustrate the feasibility of the method.

  8. Overview of atmospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rote, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    Effluents from the transportation system are the major cause of Satellite Power System related atmospheric effects. These effects are discussed and include inadvertent weather modification, air quality degradation, compositional changes in the stratosphere and mesosphere, formation of noctilucent clouds, plasma density changes, airglow enhancements, and changes in composition and dynamics of the plasmasphere and magnetosphere.

  9. Correlational effect size benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Frank A; Aguinis, Herman; Singh, Kulraj; Field, James G; Pierce, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Effect size information is essential for the scientific enterprise and plays an increasingly central role in the scientific process. We extracted 147,328 correlations and developed a hierarchical taxonomy of variables reported in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from 1980 to 2010 to produce empirical effect size benchmarks at the omnibus level, for 20 common research domains, and for an even finer grained level of generality. Results indicate that the usual interpretation and classification of effect sizes as small, medium, and large bear almost no resemblance to findings in the field, because distributions of effect sizes exhibit tertile partitions at values approximately one-half to one-third those intuited by Cohen (1988). Our results offer information that can be used for research planning and design purposes, such as producing better informed non-nil hypotheses and estimating statistical power and planning sample size accordingly. We also offer information useful for understanding the relative importance of the effect sizes found in a particular study in relationship to others and which research domains have advanced more or less, given that larger effect sizes indicate a better understanding of a phenomenon. Also, our study offers information about research domains for which the investigation of moderating effects may be more fruitful and provide information that is likely to facilitate the implementation of Bayesian analysis. Finally, our study offers information that practitioners can use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various types of interventions. PMID:25314367

  10. The polarized EMC effect

    SciTech Connect

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  11. The Kaye Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, "The Kaye effect", as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid…

  12. The Kaye Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, "The Kaye effect", as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid

  13. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  14. Improving Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Twyla; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all dealing with ways to improve teacher effectiveness, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Improving Teacher Effectiveness" (Twyla Stewart), describes the efforts of the Center for Academic Interinstitutional Programs at the University of California, Los Angeles. The program focuses on helping…

  15. Defining Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  16. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  17. Effective Family Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blechman, Elaine A.; McEnroe, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Effective family problem solving was studied in 97 families of elementary-school-aged children with definite- and indefinite-solution tasks. Incentive and task independence were manipulated. It was found that definitions of effective problem solving based on directly observed measures of group interaction were more valid than definitions based on…

  18. Bulk Topological Proximity Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Timothy H.; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2016-02-01

    Existing proximity effects stem from systems with a local order parameter, such as a local magnetic moment or a local superconducting pairing amplitude. Here, we demonstrate that despite lacking a local order parameter, topological phases also may give rise to a proximity effect of a distinctively inverted nature. We focus on a general construction in which a topological phase is extensively coupled to a second system, and we argue that, in many cases, the inverse topological order will be induced on the second system. To support our arguments, we rigorously establish this "bulk topological proximity effect" for all gapped free-fermion topological phases and representative integrable models of interacting topological phases. We present a terrace construction which illustrates the phenomenological consequences of this proximity effect. Finally, we discuss generalizations beyond our framework, including how intrinsic topological order may also exhibit this effect.

  19. Bulk Topological Proximity Effect.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Timothy H; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon; Hughes, Taylor L

    2016-02-26

    Existing proximity effects stem from systems with a local order parameter, such as a local magnetic moment or a local superconducting pairing amplitude. Here, we demonstrate that despite lacking a local order parameter, topological phases also may give rise to a proximity effect of a distinctively inverted nature. We focus on a general construction in which a topological phase is extensively coupled to a second system, and we argue that, in many cases, the inverse topological order will be induced on the second system. To support our arguments, we rigorously establish this "bulk topological proximity effect" for all gapped free-fermion topological phases and representative integrable models of interacting topological phases. We present a terrace construction which illustrates the phenomenological consequences of this proximity effect. Finally, we discuss generalizations beyond our framework, including how intrinsic topological order may also exhibit this effect. PMID:26967436

  20. PLEIOTROPIC EFFECTS OF STATINS

    PubMed Central

    Liao, James K.; Laufs, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Statins are potent inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. In clinical trials, statins are beneficial in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. However, the overall benefits observed with statins appear to be greater than what might be expected from changes in lipid levels alone, suggesting effects beyond cholesterol lowering. Indeed, recent studies indicate that some of the cholesterol-independent or “pleiotropic” effects of statins involve improving endothelial function, enhancing the stability of atherosclerotic plaques, decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation, and inhibiting the thrombogenic response. Furthermore, statins have beneficial extrahepatic effects on the immune system, CNS, and bone. Many of these pleiotropic effects are mediated by inhibition of isoprenoids, which serve as lipid attachments for intracellular signaling molecules. In particular, inhibition of small GTP-binding proteins, Rho, Ras, and Rac, whose proper membrane localization and function are dependent on isoprenylation, may play an important role in mediating the pleiotropic effects of statins. PMID:15822172

  1. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  2. Use of effective dose.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Balonov, M; Martin, C J; Ortiz Lopez, P; Menzel, H-G; Simmonds, J R; Smith-Bindman, R; Wakeford, R

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 provided a detailed explanation of the purpose and use of effective dose and equivalent dose to individual organs and tissues. Effective dose has proven to be a valuable and robust quantity for use in the implementation of protection principles. However, questions have arisen regarding practical applications, and a Task Group has been set up to consider issues of concern. This paper focusses on two key proposals developed by the Task Group that are under consideration by ICRP: (1) confusion will be avoided if equivalent dose is no longer used as a protection quantity, but regarded as an intermediate step in the calculation of effective dose. It would be more appropriate for limits for the avoidance of deterministic effects to the hands and feet, lens of the eye, and skin, to be set in terms of the quantity, absorbed dose (Gy) rather than equivalent dose (Sv). (2) Effective dose is in widespread use in medical practice as a measure of risk, thereby going beyond its intended purpose. While doses incurred at low levels of exposure may be measured or assessed with reasonable reliability, health effects have not been demonstrated reliably at such levels but are inferred. However, bearing in mind the uncertainties associated with risk projection to low doses or low dose rates, it may be considered reasonable to use effective dose as a rough indicator of possible risk, with the additional consideration of variation in risk with age, sex and population group. PMID:26980800

  3. Bustling argon: biological effect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Argon is a noble gas in group 18 of the periodic table. Certificated to exist in air atmosphere merely one century ago, discovery of argon shows interesting stories of researching and exploring. It was assumed to have no chemical activity. However, argon indeed present its biological effect on mammals. Narcotic effect of argon in diving operation and neur-protective function of argon in cerebral injury demonstrate that argon has crucial effect and be concentrated on is necessary. Furthermore, consider to be harmless to human, argon clinical application in therapy would be another option. PMID:24088583

  4. Improving engineering effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiero, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Methodologies to improve engineering productivity were investigated. The rocky road to improving engineering effectiveness is reviewed utilizing a specific semiconductor engineering organization as a case study. The organization had a performance problem regarding new product introductions. With the help of this consultant as a change agent the engineering team used a systems approach to through variables that were effecting their output significantly. Critical factors for improving this engineering organization's effectiveness and the roles/responsibilities of management, the individual engineers and the internal consultant are discussed.

  5. From effective interactions to effective operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetcu, Ionel; Barrett, Bruce R.; Navratil, Petr

    2004-10-01

    One of the most successful approaches to the nuclear structure of light nuclei is the no-core shell model (NCSM), which describes with very good precision the observed nuclear spectra. In its framework, by means of the Lee Suzuki procedure one derives effective interactions in finite model spaces starting from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials; the low-lying energy spectrum is then obtain through the diagonalization of the ab initio effective interactions in large, translationally invariant, many-body basis. In addition to energy levels, one has to obtain good description of the nuclear wave functions; the latter can be tested by computing observables and transition strengths. With a few exceptions, transition strengths and expectation values of observables have been obtained using bare operators restricted to the model space. We have started recently to apply the Lee-Suzuki procedure to general operators and performed tests in restricted model spaces. In this work, we compute expectation values of selected scalar observables and electromagnetic transition strengths using realistic wave functions for nuclei in the p shell. I.S. and B.R.B acknowledge partial support by NFS grants PHY0070858 and PHY0244389. The work was performed in part under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. P.N. received support from LDRD contract 04-ERD-058.

  6. Strategies for Effective Outsourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moneta, Larry; Dillon, William L.

    2001-01-01

    Emphasizes strategies that can be employed for effective outsourcing in higher education settings. Several models of outsourcing are identified and described, and examples of institutions using each model are provided. (GCP)

  7. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Prostate Cancer About the Prostate Risk Factors Prevention Symptoms Early Detection & Screening Living With Prostate Cancer Newly Diagnosed Treatment Options Side Effects Recurrence Advanced Disease Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Helpful Resources Patient Support ...

  8. Pulmonary effects of firefighting.

    PubMed

    Scannell, C H; Balmes, J R

    1995-01-01

    The authors examine the acute and chronic effects of exposure to smoke among firefighters and look at mortality studies for the risk of death due to nonmalignant respiratory disease and lung cancer. PMID:8903749

  9. Evaluating teaching effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kirschling, J M; Fields, J; Imle, M; Mowery, M; Tanner, C A; Perrin, N; Stewart, B J

    1995-12-01

    Major reform in nursing education is underway, with increased emphasis being placed on the importance of the teacher-student relationship. An instrument for evaluation of teaching effectiveness, developed at the Oregon Health Sciences University School of Nursing, attempts to capture the student's perception of the quality of the teacher-student relationship as well as other salient aspects of teaching practices. The evaluation tool contains 26 items evaluating teaching effectiveness and 14 items that evaluate the course. The teaching effectiveness items yield five scales including: knowledge and expertise, facilitative teaching methods, communication style, use of own experiences, and feedback. Psychometric testing has been completed and there is evidence of construct validity in relation to teaching effectiveness and internal consistency reliability for the five scales. PMID:8583255

  10. Conditions for Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jeannette T.

    1988-01-01

    The most effective college presidents are those whose leadership styles are dominant, decisive, and when appropriate, autocratic. The president has to believe profoundly in the intrinsic value of the college. (Author/MSE)

  11. Cytogenetic effects of cyclamates

    SciTech Connect

    Jemison, E.W.; Brown, K.; Rivers, B.; Knight, R.

    1984-01-01

    PHA-stimulated human peripheral lymphocytes were used as a model system for assessing the in vitro effects of calcium cyclamate. Techniques of autoradiography, cytological staining, cell counting, liquid scintillation and karyotyping were used to study the cytogenetic damage and biochemical effects of calcium cyclamate when assayed in 24 hour intervals for 96 hours. The cells were exposed to 10(-2) and 10(-3) molar concentrations of calcium cyclamate in TC 199 medium with fetal calf serum and antibiotics. It was noted that the addition of cyclamate increased mitotic rate of lymphocyte cells in cultures. It was determined that calcium cyclamate impaired the synthesis of deoxribonunucleic acid (as depicted by decreased incorporation of tritiated thymidine), reduced grain counts in autoradiographs and increased chromosome aberrations in cyclamate treated PHA stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Morphological changes and growth rates showed significant effects. These studies indicate that calcium cyclamate has variable significant effects on leucocytes growth and chromosome morphology.

  12. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  13. [Genetic effects of radiation].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a short review of genetic effect of radiation. This includes methods and results of a large-scale genetic study on specific loci in mice and of various studies in the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors. As for the latter, there is no results obtained which suggest the effect of parental exposure to radiation. Further, in recent years, studies are conducted to the offspring born to parents who were survivors of childhood cancers. In several reports, the mean gonad dose is quite large whereas in most instances, the results do not indicate genetic effect following parental exposure to radiation. Possible reasons for the difficulties in detecting genetic effect of radiation are discussed. PMID:22514926

  14. Health Effects of Tsunamis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tsunamis Health Effects Food & Water Safety Food Safety Water Quality Sanitation & Hygiene Diseases & Health Concerns Information for Clinicians Response & ... waters can pose health risks such as contaminated water and food supplies. Loss of shelter leaves people vulnerable to insect ...

  15. [Aminoglycosides, their ototoxic effect].

    PubMed

    de la Rosa-Gálvez, A; Jáuregui-Renaud, K; Hernández-Goribar, M

    1998-01-01

    The aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics especially effective against many strains of gramnegative bacteria. Since streptomycin was used for tuberculosis treatment, the toxic side effects of such antibiotics were identified. The kidney and the inner ear are affected. The nephrotoxicity is usually reversible, while the chronic ototoxicity is irreversible. Within the inner ear, it is the cochlear and vestibular sensory epithelium that is damaged. A toxic mechanism in which an interference with mitochondrial protein synthesis is central has been inferred. During the last fifty years, risk factors for aminoglycoside-induced-ototoxicity have been identified, including a genetically transmitted hypersensitivity to the ototoxic effect. Although several strategies to prevent the damage have been proposed, today it is not rare that patients suffer permanent loss of hearing and loss of balance due to aminoglycoside toxicity. This review gives a brief background of aminoglycoside ototoxicity, some strategies to prevent it, and the therapeutic use of the vestibulo-toxic effect. PMID:9927776

  16. The extraterrestrial Casimir Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storti, Riccardo C.

    2011-09-01

    Application of the Electro-Gravi-Magnetic (EGM) Photon radiation method to the Casimir Effect (CE), suggests that the experimentally verified (terrestrially) neutrally charged Parallel-Plate configuration force, may differ within extraterrestrial gravitational environments from the gravitationally independent formulation by Casimir. Consequently, the derivation presented herein implies that a gravitationally dependent CE may become an important design factor in nanotechnology for extraterrestrial applications (ignoring finite conductivity + temperature effects and evading the requirement for Casimir Force corrections due to surface roughness).

  17. Systemic effects of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Black, J

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the host response to implanted biomaterials usually focuses on the implant site tissue response. This may lead to erroneous conclusions in the same way that examination of battles outside of their historic context does. A broader view discloses a variety of possible and actual systemic effects of carcinogenic, metabolic, immunological and bacteriological nature. Recognition of these effects in patients is hampered by a lack of epidemiological studies. PMID:6375744

  18. Effects of periodic discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.

    1977-01-01

    Periodic capacity checks are assessed as well as the effects of periodic discharges on the cycle life and the performance of cells during the cycle life. Topics discussed include the effect of the amount of electrolyte on cell capacity at 35 C; battery design for spacecraft; electrolyte starvation theory; battery separator degradation; negative electrode stability; voltage regulation; operating temperatures; and integration of reconditioning systems using microprocessors.

  19. Quantum zeno effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosky, T.; Tasaki, S.; Prigogine, I.

    1990-12-01

    Misra and Sudarshan pointed out, based on the quantum measurement theory, that repeated measurements lead to a slowing down of the transition, which they called the quantum Zeno effect. Recently, Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger and Wineland have reported that they succeeded in observing that effect. We show that the results of Itano et al. can be recovered through conventional quantum mechanics and do not involve a repeated reduction of the wave function

  20. Secondary pool boiling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, C.; Tsubaki, A.; Zuhlke, C.; Anderson, T.; Alexander, D.; Gogos, G.; Ndao, S.

    2016-02-01

    A pool boiling phenomenon referred to as secondary boiling effects is discussed. Based on the experimental trends, a mechanism is proposed that identifies the parameters that lead to this phenomenon. Secondary boiling effects refer to a distinct decrease in the wall superheat temperature near the critical heat flux due to a significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Recent pool boiling heat transfer experiments using femtosecond laser processed Inconel, stainless steel, and copper multiscale surfaces consistently displayed secondary boiling effects, which were found to be a result of both temperature drop along the microstructures and nucleation characteristic length scales. The temperature drop is a function of microstructure height and thermal conductivity. An increased microstructure height and a decreased thermal conductivity result in a significant temperature drop along the microstructures. This temperature drop becomes more pronounced at higher heat fluxes and along with the right nucleation characteristic length scales results in a change of the boiling dynamics. Nucleation spreads from the bottom of the microstructure valleys to the top of the microstructures, resulting in a decreased surface superheat with an increasing heat flux. This decrease in the wall superheat at higher heat fluxes is reflected by a "hook back" of the traditional boiling curve and is thus referred to as secondary boiling effects. In addition, a boiling hysteresis during increasing and decreasing heat flux develops due to the secondary boiling effects. This hysteresis further validates the existence of secondary boiling effects.

  1. The Mesoscopic Photovoltaic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolo, Robert Ernest

    1995-01-01

    We have studied a photovoltaic (PV) effect in submicron Au wires and rings in which a dc voltage, V _{dc}, is generated in response to microwave radiation. The lack of inversion symmetry in these small disordered systems allows for a non-linear response, analogous to a small rectifier, in which V _{dc} is proportional to the microwave power. At low temperatures the PV effect exhibits oscillations similar to the quantum interference effects present in the now extensively studied conductance measurements. We have observed pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the mesoscopic PV effect in Au rings with diameters ranging from d = 3300-5700 A for temperatures T~ 4 K. The effects of dephasing due to the high frequency (microwave) field have also been observed, where the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are quenched for microwave field strengths E_{ac}~ 5.0 V/m. The suppression of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations as a function of temperature (T = 14-15 K) was also studied and found to be much weaker than expected. We also report the observation of an anomalous PV signal due to the presence of superconducting contacts which has been attributed to the inverse Josephson effect.

  2. Neurotoxic effects of caulerpenyne.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, M; Garcia-Gil, M; Mozzachiodi, R; Roberto, M; Scuri, R; Traina, G; Zaccardi, M L

    2000-08-01

    1. In this paper the authors tested the effect of caulerpenyne (CYN), a sesquiterpene synthesized by the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia onto the central nervous system of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. Investigations have been performed with three different approaches: neuroethological, electrophysiological and neurochemical techniques. 2. CYN application mimics the effect of a nociceptive stimulation (brushing), eliciting a clear-cut potentiation of the animal swim response to the test stimulus (non associative learning process such as sensitization). This effect is similar to that one induced by the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT). 3. CYN strongly reduces the after-hyperpolarization (AHP) recorded from T sensory neurons. This effect overlaps that one produced by 5HT, but it is not affected by the serotonergic antagonist methysergide. 4. The decrease of AHP amplitude due to CYN application is observed also in presence of apamin, a blocking agent of Ca++-dependent K+ channels, suggesting that CYN is acting through the inhibition of the Na+/K+ electrogenic pump. 5. The depression of the AHP driven by CYN is not prevented by application of MDL 12330A, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor. On the other hand MDL 12330A counteracts the reduction of AHP due to 5HT application. 6. Incubation of the leech central nervous system with CYN induces the phosphorylation of proteins of 29, 50, 66 and 100 kDa. This pattern of phosphorylation is similar to that one elicited by 5HT treatment. 7. The data demonstrate that CYN exerts remarkable effects on leech neurons by acting onto specific molecular targets such as the Na+/K+ ATPase. This effect may influence important neural integrative functions and may explain the sensitizing action produced by the toxin on swim induction. Finally, caulerpenyne does not act through the pathways involved in the 5HT action, and its effect is not mediated by the second messenger cyclic AMP. The mechanism of action of CYN are still under investigations. PMID:11041536

  3. Spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical point of view, focusing on well-established and accepted physics. In such a young field, there remains much to be understood and explored, hence some of the future challenges and opportunities of this rapidly evolving area of spintronics are outlined.

  4. Pleiotropic effects of statins.

    PubMed

    Kavalipati, Narasaraju; Shah, Jay; Ramakrishan, Ananthraman; Vasnawala, Hardik

    2015-01-01

    Statins or 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors not only prevents the synthesis of cholesterol biosynthesis but also inhibits the synthesis of essential isoprenoid intermediates such as farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, isopentanyl adenosine, dolichols and polyisoprenoid side chains of ubiquinone, heme A, and nuclear lamins. These isoprenoid intermediates are required for activation of various intracellular/signaling proteins- small guanosine triphosphate bound protein Ras and Ras-like proteins like Rho, Rab, Rac, Ral, or Rap which plays an indispensible role in multiple cellular processes. Reduction of circulating isoprenoids intermediates as a result of HMG CoA reductase inhibition by statins prevents activation of these signalling proteins. Hence, the multiple effects of statins such as antiinflammatory effects, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects, plaque stability, normalization of sympathetic outflow, and prevention of platelet aggregation are due to reduction of circulating isoprenoids and hence inactivation of signalling proteins. These multiple lipid-independent effects of statins termed as statin pleiotropy would potentially open floodgates for research in multiple treatment domains catching attentions of researchers and clinician across the globe. PMID:26425463

  5. Mitochondrial threshold effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12467494

  6. Pleiotropic effects of statins

    PubMed Central

    Kavalipati, Narasaraju; Shah, Jay; Ramakrishan, Ananthraman; Vasnawala, Hardik

    2015-01-01

    Statins or 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors not only prevents the synthesis of cholesterol biosynthesis but also inhibits the synthesis of essential isoprenoid intermediates such as farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, isopentanyl adenosine, dolichols and polyisoprenoid side chains of ubiquinone, heme A, and nuclear lamins. These isoprenoid intermediates are required for activation of various intracellular/signaling proteins- small guanosine triphosphate bound protein Ras and Ras-like proteins like Rho, Rab, Rac, Ral, or Rap which plays an indispensible role in multiple cellular processes. Reduction of circulating isoprenoids intermediates as a result of HMG CoA reductase inhibition by statins prevents activation of these signalling proteins. Hence, the multiple effects of statins such as antiinflammatory effects, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects, plaque stability, normalization of sympathetic outflow, and prevention of platelet aggregation are due to reduction of circulating isoprenoids and hence inactivation of signalling proteins. These multiple lipid-independent effects of statins termed as statin pleiotropy would potentially open floodgates for research in multiple treatment domains catching attentions of researchers and clinician across the globe. PMID:26425463

  7. Simulating effects based operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeever, William E., Jr.; Walter, Martin J.; Gilmour, Duane A.; Hanna, James P.

    2005-05-01

    Effects based operations (EBO) are proving to be a vital part of current concepts of operations in military missions and consequently need to be an integral part of current generation wargames. EBO is an approach to planning, executing and assessing military operations that focuses on obtaining a desired strategic outcome or "effect" on the adversary instead of merely attacking targets or simply dealing with objectives. Alternatively, the emphasis of conventional wargames is focused on attrition based modeling and is incapable of assessing effects and their contribution to the overall mission objectives. The focus of this paper is the integration of an EBO modeling scheme [1] within a force-on-force simulator. In this paper, the authors review the EBO modeling capability and describe its" integration within the wargame; including the integration of center of gravity (COG) models, the realization of indirect and cascading effects, the impact of the COG models on simulation control files, and the use of COG models to link the simulation commander with assets. A simple scenario demonstrating indirect and cascading effects is described and the results are presented.

  8. Temperature effects on electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rogacs, Anita; Santiago, Juan G

    2013-05-21

    We present a model capturing the important contributors to the effects of temperature on the observable electrophoretic mobilities of small ions, and on solution conductivity and pH. Our temperature model includes relations for temperature-dependent viscosity, ionic strength corrections, degree of ionization (pK), and ion solvation effects on mobility. We incorporate thermophysical data for water viscosity, temperature-dependence of the Onsager-Fuoss model for finite ionic strength effects on mobility, temperature-dependence of the extended Debye-Huckel theory for correction of ionic activity, the Clarke-Glew approach and tabulated thermodynamic quantities of ionization reaction for acid dissociation constants as a function of temperature, and species-specific, empirically evaluated correction terms for temperature-dependence of Stokes' radii. We incorporated our model into a MATLAB-based simulation tool we named Simulation of Temperature Effects on ElectroPhoresis (STEEP). We validated our model using conductivity and pH measurements across a temperature variation of 25-70 °C for a set of electrolytes routinely used in electrophoresis. The model accurately captures electrolyte solution pH and conductivity, including important effects not captured by simple Walden-type relations. PMID:23627294

  9. A "voice inversion effect?".

    PubMed

    Bédard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an "auditory face" rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a "voice inversion effect," by analogy to the classical "face inversion effect," which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted of a gender identification task on two syllables pronounced by 90 speakers (boys, girls, men, and women). Experiment 2 consisted of a speaker discrimination task on pairs of syllables (8 men and 8 women). Experiment 3 consisted of an instrument discrimination task on pairs of melodies (8 string and 8 wind instruments). In all three experiments, stimuli were presented in 4 conditions: (1) no inversion; (2) temporal inversion (e.g., backwards speech); (3) frequency inversion centered around 4000 Hz; and (4) around 2500 Hz. Results indicated a significant decrease in performance caused by sound inversion, with a much stronger effect for frequency than for temporal inversion. Interestingly, although frequency inversion markedly affected timbre for both voices and instruments, subjects' performance was still above chance. However, performance at instrument discrimination was much higher than for voices, preventing comparison of inversion effects for voices vs. non-vocal stimuli. Additional experiments will be necessary to conclude on the existence of a possible "voice inversion effect." PMID:15177788

  10. 150 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne stimulates caspase-3 activation and reduces inducible nitric oxide production in HCT-116 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2006-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the apoptotic effects of glycoprotein (SNL glycoprotein, 150-kDa) isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne, which has been used as an antipyretic and anticancer agent in folk medicine. We found that SNL glycoprotein consists of carbohydrate content (69.74%) and protein content (30.26%), which contains more than 50% hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline. SNL glycoprotein showed remarkable cytotoxic and apoptotic effects at 40 microg/ml of SNL glycoprotein for 4 h in HCT-116 cells. In the activity of the apoptotic related proteins [caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)], the results showed that SNL glycoprotein (40 microg/ml) has a stimulatory effect on caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in HCT-116 cells. Moreover, SNL glycoprotein blocked nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and reduced inducible nitric oxide (iNO) production. Interestingly, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, for NF-kappaB inhibitor) and N omega-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME, for NO inhibitor) effectively stimulated the caspase-3 activation in HCT-116 cells. The results in this experiment indicated that SNL glycoprotein induces apoptosis through the NF-kappaB activation and inducible nitric oxide (iNO) production in HCT-116 cells. Here, we speculate that SNL glycoprotein is one of the chemotherapeutic agents and of the modulators for apoptotic signals in HCT-116 cells. PMID:16527444

  11. Alerting effects of light.

    PubMed

    Cajochen, Christian

    2007-12-01

    Light exerts powerful non-visual effects on a wide range of biological functions and behavior. In humans, light is intuitively linked with an alert or wakeful state. Compared to the effects of light on human circadian rhythms, little attention has been paid to its acute alerting action. Here I summarize studies from the past two decades, which have defined and quantified the dose (illuminance levels), exposure duration, timing and wavelength of light needed to evoke alerting responses in humans, as well as their temporal relationship to light-induced changes in endocrinological and electrophysiological sequelae of alertness. Furthermore, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological findings from animal studies elucidating a potential role of light in the regulation of sleep/wake states are discussed. A brief outlook of promising clinical and non-clinical applications of lights' alerting properties will be given, and its involvement in the design of more effective lighting at home and in the workplace will be considered. PMID:17936041

  12. Effective Documentation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleboda, Claire

    1997-01-01

    Quality assurance programs provide a very effective means to monitor and evaluate medical care. Quality assurance involves: (1) Identify a problem; (2) Determine the source and nature of the problem; (3) Develop policies and methods to effect improvement; (4) Implement those polices; (5) Monitor the methods applied; and (6) Evaluate their effectiveness. Because this definition of quality assurance so closely resembles the Nursing Process, the health unit staff was able to use their knowledge of the nursing process to develop many forms which improve the quality of patient care. These forms include the NASA DFRC Service Report, the occupational injury form (Incident Report), the patient survey (Pre-hospital Evaluation/Care Report), the Laboratory Log Sheet, the 911 Run Sheet, and the Patient Assessment Stamp. Examples and steps which are followed to generate these reports are described.

  13. Cyclone vibration effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.C.; Tillery, M.I.

    1981-09-01

    A Government Accounting Office review of coal mine dust sampling procedures recommended studies be performed to determine accuracy and precision of dust measurements taken with current equipment. The effects of vibration on the 10-mm Dorr-Oliver nylon cyclone run at a flow rate of 2 L/min were investigated. A total of 271 samples were taken during 95 tests. All tests lasted about 7 h each and were performed inside a 19 l capacity aerosol chamber. Coal dust concentrations of about 2 mg/m/SUP/3 in air and a respirable fraction of 25-30% were used. The effects of a variety of vibration frequencies and stroke lengths were tested in two modes (horizontal and vertical). At most frequencies and stroke lengths, vibration was found to have an insignificant effect on cyclone performance.

  14. Security effectiveness review (SER)

    SciTech Connect

    Kouprianova, I.; Ek, D.; Showalter, R.; Bergman, M.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the on-going DOE/Russian MPC and A activities at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) and in order to provide a basis for planning MPC and A enhancements, an expedient method to review the effectiveness of the MPC and A system has been adopted. These reviews involve the identification of appropriate and cost-effective enhancements of facilities at IPPE. This effort requires a process that is thorough but far less intensive than a traditional vulnerability assessment. The SER results in a quick assessment of current and needed enhancements. The process requires preparation and coordination between US and Russian analysts before, during, and after information gathering at the facilities in order that the analysis is accurate, effective, and mutually agreeable. The goal of this paper is to discuss the SER process, including the objectives, time scale, and lessons learned at IPPE.

  15. The quantum sweeper effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2015-07-01

    We show that during stochastic beam attenuation in double slit experiments, there appear unexpected new effects for transmission factors below a ≤ 10-4, which can eventually be observed with the aid of weak measurement techniques. These are denoted as quantum sweeper effects, which are characterized by the bunching together of low counting rate particles within very narrow spatial domains. We employ a “superclassical” modeling procedure which we have previously shown to produce predictions identical with those of standard quantum theory. Thus it is demonstrated that in reaching down to ever weaker channel intensities, the nonlinear nature of the probability density currents becomes ever more important. We finally show that the resulting unexpected effects nevertheless implicitly also exist in standard quantum mechanics.

  16. Quantum Zeno effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosky, T.; Tasaki, S.; Prigogine, I.

    1991-01-01

    In 1977, Misra and Sudarshan showed, based on the quantum measurement theory, that an unstable particle will never be found to decay when it is continuously observed. They called it the quantum Zeno effect (or paradox). More generally the quantum Zeno effect is associated to the inhibition of transitions by frequent measurements. This possibility has attracted much interest over the last years. Recently, Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger and Wineland have reported that they succeeded in observing the quantum Zeno effect. This would indeed be an important step towards the understanding of the role of the observer in quantum mechanics. However, in the present paper, we will show that their results can be recovered through conventional quantum mechanics and do not involve a repeated reduction (or collapse) of the wave function.

  17. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  18. Transgenerational genetic effects

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Vicki R; Nadeau, Joseph H

    2012-01-01

    Since Mendel, studies of phenotypic variation and disease risk have emphasized associations between genotype and phenotype among affected individuals in families and populations. Although this paradigm has led to important insights into the molecular basis for many traits and diseases, most of the genetic variants that control the inheritance of these conditions continue to elude detection. Recent studies suggest an alternative mode of inheritance where genetic variants that are present in one generation affect phenotypes in subsequent generations, thereby decoupling the conventional relations between genotype and phenotype, and perhaps, contributing to missing heritability. Under some conditions, these transgenerational genetic effects can be as frequent and strong as conventional inheritance, and can persist for multiple generations. Growing evidence suggests that RNA mediates these heritable epigenetic changes. The primary challenge now is to identify the molecular basis for these effects, characterize mechanisms and determine whether transgenerational genetic effects occur in humans. PMID:22122083

  19. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  20. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    PubMed

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-06-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26417709

  1. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, David R.; Medina, Douglas J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Fosco, Whitney D.; Richards, Jerry B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect “accelerated-HRE.” Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior. PMID:24409128

  2. Aharonov-Bohm effect revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskin, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    Aharonov-Bohm effect is a quantum mechanical phenomenon that attracted the attention of many physicists and mathematicians since the publication of the seminal paper of Aharonov and Bohm [1] in 1959. We consider different types of Aharonov-Bohm effects such as the magnetic AB effect, electric AB effect, combined electromagnetic AB effect, AB effect for the Schrödinger equations with Yang-Mills potentials, and the gravitational analog of AB effect. We shall describe different approaches to prove the AB effect based on the inverse scattering problems, the inverse boundary value problems in the presence of obstacles, spectral asymptotics, and the direct proofs of the AB effect.

  3. Quantum spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Bernevig, B Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2006-03-17

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. The existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2(e/4pi). The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory. PMID:16605772

  4. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  5. Photostimulated even acoustoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, G. M.; Shon, N. Kh.; Tsurkan, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Photostimulated photogalvanic (PG) and acoustogalvanic (AG) currents in a semiconductor placed in the field of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves with frequencies Omega sub 1 = 2Omega sub 2 are analyzed. These currents affect the probability of electron scattering and the HF acoustic flux field. Under specified double laser illumination the system comprising an electron gas and photons becomes noncentrosymmetric, which leads to the PG and AG effects. The AG effect represents a contribution to the acoustoelectric current that is linear according to intensity and even according to the acoustic wave vector.

  6. Anticancer effects of fucoidan.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the pharmacologically active natural compounds isolated and used for remedies of various kinds of diseases, including cancer. The great deal of interest has been developed to isolate bioactive compounds from marine resources because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds and has been used as an ingredient in some dietary supplement products. Fucoidan has various biological activities including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antitumor activities. So this chapter deals with anticancer effects of fucoidan. PMID:25081084

  7. Effective Temperature of Mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derényi, Imre; Szöllősi, Gergely J.

    2015-02-01

    Biological macromolecules experience two seemingly very different types of noise acting on different time scales: (i) point mutations corresponding to changes in molecular sequence and (ii) thermal fluctuations. Examining the secondary structures of a large number of microRNA precursor sequences and model lattice proteins, we show that the effects of single point mutations are statistically indistinguishable from those of an increase in temperature by a few tens of kelvins. The existence of such an effective mutational temperature establishes a quantitative connection between robustness to genetic (mutational) and environmental (thermal) perturbations.

  8. Contamination effects study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The in-situ optical surface measurement system is a facility designed to study the deleterious effects of particulate materials on the surface reflectivities of optical materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). This arrangement is designed to simulate the on-orbit effects of contamination and degradation of optical surfaces. This simulation is accomplished through the use of non-coherent VUV sources illuminating optical surfaces located in a high vacuum chamber. Several sources of contamination are employed. The reflectivity is measured both at the specular reflection as well as at two scattered positions, forward and reverse. The system components are described and an operating procedure is given.

  9. Contaminant effects on fisheries

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, V.W.; Hodson, P.V.; Nriagu, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on the effects of water pollution on fish and fisheries. Topics include: monitoring lead pollution in fish, metallothionein and acclimation to heavy metals in fish, modeling approaches, appraising the status of fisheries, and assessing the health of aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Effect of New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This series of articles cites a variety of sources and synthesizes a number of studies on the effects of new technologies on the world of work and on social and economic life in general. These studies are related to several industrial nations and are also concerned with the new information-oriented society. (SSH)

  11. Effects of New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles studies the effects of microelectronics technologies on the world of work and on the social and economic life in general. These studies are related to several industrial nations and are also concerned with the international division of labor. (SSH)

  12. Using Your Library Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennepin County Library, Minnetonka, MN.

    This collection of materials for a three-hour instructional program for young people and adults in the effective use of the public library includes an introduction to the program, a teaching guide for the librarian, a packet of materials for students, and a summary of 90 evaluations of the program as it was presented at two area libraries and

  13. Developing Effective Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagonhurst, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Focusing on research administrators, discusses how an effective training program improves employee performance by including comprehensive needs assessment, employing appropriate training methodologies, and anticipating factors beyond the actual training event that influence the transfer of skills from the training environment to the work…

  14. Contamination Effects Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, C. G.; Thornton, M. M.; Mullen, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test facility has been developed for in-situ measurement of the thermo-optical and electrical effects of molecular contamination deposited on sensitive spacecraft surfaces. The Contamination Effects Test Facility (CETF) consists of three separate vacuum chambers interconnected by gate valves through which test sample surfaces may be moved as needed by various vacuum manipulators. Deposition of contamination occurs in one chamber, where surface electrical properties can also be measured. In the second chamber, a wide range of thermo-optical properties can be measured by use of a unique ellipsoidal-mirror reflectometer. The third chamber maintains a vacuum environment around the test sample while the chamber is transported to facilities for solar ultraviolet (UV), electron, and proton irradiation of the sample at orbital intensities. By keeping atmosphere away from the contaminated surface at all times during the effects measurement and irradiation stages, the CETF provides a more realistic space simulation that avoids the possible effects of oxygen and water on the thermo-optical or electrical properties of the contaminant deposits. For testing of the volatile species produced by rocket propulsion systems, which are condensible only at cryogenic temperatures, continual vacuum capability precludes rapid icing due to atmospheric water vapor.

  15. Effective Free Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapalparvi, Ramesh; Protas, Bartosz

    2010-11-01

    In this investigation we introduce the concept of an "effective free surface" arising as a solution of time--averaged equations in the presence of free boundaries. This work is motivated by applications of optimization theory to problems involving free surfaces, such as droplets impinging on the weld pool surface in welding processes. In such problems the time--dependent governing equations lead to technical difficulties, many of which are alleviated when methods of optimization are applied to a steady problem with effective free surfaces. The corresponding equations are obtained by performing the Reynolds decomposition and averaging of the time--dependent free--boundary equations based on the volume--of--fluid (VoF) formalism. We identify the terms representing the average effect of fluctuating free boundaries which, in analogy with the Reynolds stresses in classical turbulence models, need to be modelled and propose some simple algebraic closures for these terms. We argue that effective free boundaries can be computed using methods of shape optimization and present some results.

  16. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  17. The offline production effect.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Randall K; Spear, Jackie

    2014-03-01

    People remember words they say aloud better than ones they do not, a result called the production effect. The standing explanation for the production effect is that producing a word renders it distinctive in memory and thus memorable at test. Whereas it is now clear that motoric production benefits remembering over nonproduction, and that more intense motoric production benefits remembering to a greater extent than less intense motoric production, there has been no comparison of the memorial benefit conferred by motoric versus imagined production. One reason for the gap is that the standard production-by-vocalization procedure confounds the analysis. To make the comparison, we used a production-by-typing procedure and tested memory for words that people typed, imagined typing, and did not type. Whereas participants remembered the words that they typed and imagined typing better than words that they did not, they remembered the words they typed better than the ones they imagined typing; an advantage that was consistent over tests of recognition memory and source discrimination. We conclude that motoric production is a sufficient and facilitative (but not a necessary) condition to observe the production effect. We explain our results by a sensory feedback account of the production effect and sketch a computational framework to implement that approach. PMID:24364810

  18. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

  19. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  20. Courtside: Private Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    After being accused of sexually harassing a student, a high school math teacher in New York was suspended with pay pending an impartial hearing. The district allowed the teacher to return to his classroom to collect his personal effects, which he had kept in boxes, desk drawers, and three filing cabinets, one of which was locked. He did not…

  1. Creating an Effective Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Griffis, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Newsletters are an important resource or form of media. They offer a cost-effective way to keep people informed, as well as to promote events and programs. Production of a newsletter makes an excellent project, relevant to real-world communication, for technology students. This article presents an activity on how to create a short newsletter. The…

  2. Reporting Research Results Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

  3. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  4. Facilitating Online Discussions Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovai, Alfred P.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the theoretical and research literature on facilitating asynchronous online discussions effectively. Online courses need to be designed so that they provide motivation for students to engage in productive discussions and clearly describe what is expected, perhaps in the form of a discussion rubric.…

  5. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  6. Effects of Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regional Anesthesia The potential side effects of regional anesthesia (such as an epidural or spinal block, in which an anesthetic is injected in ... days after the procedure if some of the spinal fluid leaks out. Minor back ... was injected. Serious but rare complications include: Pneumothorax – ...

  7. Effective Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parratt, Smitty

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of understanding nonverbal communication in enhancing the personal and work relationships of interpreters and increasing their effectiveness in meeting the needs of customers. Discusses the mystique of body language, cultural variation in the use of gestures, the stages of an encounter, interpreting gesture clusters, and…

  8. The Effective, Efficient Professor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a succinct overview of the book "The Effective, Efficient Professor" (P. Wankat) that presents a wealth of strategies and techniques for successful faculty members. Sections of the book focus on time management, teaching, students, and scholarship and service. Includes some practical tips from the book ranging from instructional…

  9. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  10. Effective Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Eng, Wong Kim; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study…

  11. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  12. Tips for Effective Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Kevin F.

    2009-01-01

    School business officials' days are filled with numbers and reports--audits, balance sheets, check registers, financial statements, journal entries, vouchers, and warrant reports, just to name a few. Those are all important tools that school business officers use to manage the financial resources of the district effectively. However, they are also…

  13. Commentary: Expanding on Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, William E., Jr.; Massetti, Greta M.

    2003-01-01

    Atkins, Graczyk, Frazier, and Abdul-Adil (2003) make the point that there have been three limitations of mental health services for children and families in low-income, urban settings: (a) accessibility; (b) effectiveness; and (c) sustainability. Their article focuses extensively on improving access and addressing issues of sustainability in…

  14. Alexandrite effect spectropyrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2006-08-01

    Alexandrite crystal is commonly used for making alexandrite laser, and it also has a less-known phenomenon called the alexandrite effect that refers to the color change between different light sources. A novel spectropyrometer for temperature measurement of a radiating body utilizing the alexandrite effect is introduced. The alexandrite effect method for temperature measurement is based on the relationship between the temperature of blackbody and the hue-angle in the CIELAB color space. The alexandrite effect spectropyrometer consists of an optical probe, a spectrometer, a computer, and an alexandrite filter. It measures the spectral power distribution of a radiating body through the alexandrite filter, calculates the hue-angle, and determines the temperature. The spectropyrometer is suitable for temperature measurement of any radiating body with or without spectral lines in its spectral power distribution from 1000 K to 100000 K. The spectropyrometer is particularly useful for high to ultrahigh temperature measurement of any radiating bodies with spectral line emissions, such as electric arcs and discharges, plasmas, and high temperature flames.

  15. Multiplying Your Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juchartz, Donald D.

    1978-01-01

    From his extension experience in Wayne County, Michigan, the third most populous county in the nation, the author offers some principles to consider in enhancing staff and program effectiveness: resource assessment, staff utilization, program funding, time management, and program visibility. (MF)

  16. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MANGANESE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effects of manganese were studied in a town on the coast of Dalmatia in which a ferromanganese plant has been operating since before World War II. The study focused on the question of whether the exposure to manganese can cause a higher incidence of respiratory dis...

  17. Assessing Library Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Thomas W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the current emphasis on assessment of library effectiveness and describes several assessment techniques. It is argued that, by encouraging staff to develop an attitude of self-assessment based on their ability to add value to library services, the assessment phenomenon can be used to improve the overall quality of libraries. (11…

  18. Explaining Charter School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.; Walters, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses entrance lotteries to explore heterogeneity in the achievement effects of charter schools across demographic groups and between urban and non-urban areas in Massachusetts. The authors develop a framework for interpreting this heterogeneity using both student- and school-level explanatory variables. (Contains 4 tables.)

  19. What Effective Schools Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Research has been showing that the most important development in K-12 education over the past decade has been the emergence of a growing number of urban schools that have been convincingly shown to have dramatic positive effects on the achievement of disadvantaged students. Those with the strongest evidence of success are oversubscribed charter…

  20. Effective Educational Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockard, Jean; Mayberry, Maralee

    The existing knowledge of the school environment is reviewed in this book, with a focus on its impact on educational effectiveness and student achievement. Chapter 1 examines how the composition of educational groups affect learning; chapter 2 focuses on the learning climate and cultures--the norms and values that characterize learning…

  1. Effective Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Robert N.

    Beginning with the observation that educators are faced with rising public expectations, declining resources, and increased public criticism, this paper describes a six-fold model for determining how staff development is operating and how it can be made to operate more effectively, in a self-renewing manner. The six dimensions consist of the…

  2. Cost Effective Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1996-01-01

    This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

  3. Indicators of Administrative Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skipper, Charles E.; Hofmann, Richard J.

    Ten personal characteristics and seven administrative skills that differentiated effective from ineffective university leaders were assessed by multiple discriminate analysis. The personal characteristics identified by previous research (Skipper, 1975, 1977) are: responsibility, integrity, self-control, intellectual efficiency, flexibility,…

  4. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  5. Building Effective Afterschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

    Through a comprehensive review of various afterschool programs across the United States, this resource provides a practical overview of the research and best practices that can be easily adapted and applied in the development of highly effective afterschool programs. chapters focus on: (1) "Why Afterschool Programs?" (benefits, challenges, and

  6. DCPS Effective Schools Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    DCPS is committed to providing "all" students with the caliber of education they deserve. The goal of the DCPS Effective Schools Framework is to ensure that every child, in every classroom, has access to a high-quality and engaging standards-based instructional program, and that all school supports are aligned to support teaching and learning. The…

  7. Making Effective Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Although the focus of this issue of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is on making effective assignments, most of the articles also emphasize the importance and power of writing. Articles deal with the following topics: (1) the use of I-search (as explained by Kenneth Macrorie in "Searching Writing") as a form of research paper that narrates the…

  8. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  9. Effective Intervention for Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Randie; Kellner, Millicent H.; Green, Stuart; Elias, Maurice J.

    2012-01-01

    Most professional educators are aware that every school should have an effective approach to harassment, intimidation, and bullying (HIB) prevention in which every member of the school community participates. Regardless of the approach a school takes, all students and all staff members should be knowledgeable participants who have been trained to…

  10. EFFECTIVE USE OF PHEROMONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective integrated pest management programs are needed for food processing and storage facilities and this requires improvements in our ability to monitor pest populations and use this information to target management tactics in both time and space. The use of pheromone traps to detect pests is i...

  11. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

  12. Building Effective Afterschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

    Through a comprehensive review of various afterschool programs across the United States, this resource provides a practical overview of the research and best practices that can be easily adapted and applied in the development of highly effective afterschool programs. chapters focus on: (1) "Why Afterschool Programs?" (benefits, challenges, and…

  13. Qualities of Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Richard, Holly B.; Catano, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    You know how important principals are in advancing student achievement and school success, but it's not been exactly clear which components of the principal's job are the highest priority... until now. Following on the results-based approach from the ASCD best-seller "Qualities of Effective Teachers", James Stronge and his coauthors explain how…

  14. Case 26: Somogyi effect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This individual has a classic manifestation of the Somogyi effect, which is fasting morning hyperglycemia in response to hypoglycemia in the early morning and late night hours. The danger is that if night-time blood glucose levels are not measured, the physician may interpret the patient as having h...

  15. Institute Effectiveness through Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    An institution with a marketing orientation can (1) recognize shifts in the market and in perceptions of activities of significant markets or competing institutions and (2) respond to them. Institutions with strategic marketing may be better able to predict or influence market shifts and be judged as effective in the areas it prefers. (MSE)

  16. Is Effective Teaching Stable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Helen; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the ecological validity of using observation-based scores to evaluate individual teachers' effectiveness, mirroring their use by school administrators. Using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, the authors asked (a) how similar are teachers' emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support scores from…

  17. Designing "Educationally Effective" Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses data from a curriculum intervention project designed to introduce new forms of discussion, seen as educationally effective, into the primary classroom. While the introduction of talk as an aid to learning is premised on a social approach to learning, such interventions are often evaluated in terms of cognitive benefits and…

  18. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to establish a causal relationship in either direction, because of these methodological limitations. In Australia, the marked increase in cannabis use has not been accompanied by an increased incidence of schizophrenia. On the basis of the available data, we cannot reach firm conclusions on whether or not cannabis use causes psychosis. It seems prudent to inform apparently vulnerable individuals that cannabis may cause acute psychotic decompensation, especially at high doses. Users can feel dependent on cannabis, but this dependence is usually psychological. Withdrawal symptoms tend to occur within 48 hours following cessation of regular cannabis use, and include increased irritability, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sleep difficulties and aggression. Symptoms subside within 2 to 12 weeks. Driving under the influence of cannabis doubles the risk of causing a fatal road accident. Alcohol consumption plays an even greater role. A few studies and a number of isolated reports suggest that cannabis has a role in the occurrence of cardiovascular adverse effects, especially in patients with coronary heart disease. Numerous case-control studies have investigated the role of cannabis in the incidence of some types of cancer. Its role has not been ruled out, but it is not possible to determine whether the risk is distinct from that of the tobacco with which it is often smoked. Studies that have examined the influence of cannabis use on the clinical course of hepatitis C are inconclusive. Alcohol remains the main toxic agent that hepatitis C patients should avoid. In practice, the adverse effects of low-level, recreational cannabis use are generally minor, although they can apparently be serious in vulnerable individuals. The adverse effects of cannabis appear overall to be less serious than those of alcohol, in terms of neuropsychological and somatic effects, accidents and violence. PMID:21462790

  19. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/ ... a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, ...

  20. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Assessment Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified stormwater BMP effectiveness as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater ...

  1. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  2. Electrical properties of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells with ultrathin titania nanosheet blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Eiji; Maruyama, Yasutake; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The contributions of ultrathin titanium oxide nanosheet (TN) crystallites to the electrical properties and the diffusion of metal atoms were studied in a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) cell in indium-tin oxide (ITO)/MoO3/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) active layer/titania nanosheet (TN)/metal multilayered photovoltaic devices. The insertion of only two or three layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and TN multilayered film prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique effectively decreased the leakage current and increased the open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (?) nearly two fold. Although the active layer has a hydrophobic surface, the active layer was fully covered by the insertion of only two or three layers of the PDDA/TN multilayered film and the ultrathin TN layer effectively prevented the metal atoms from diffusing into the polymer film. The impedance analysis and the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the TN layer effectively separated the organic layer/metal interface and blocked holes at the organic/TN interface resulting in the reduction in leakage current by nearly three orders of magnitude and the increase in the capacitance at a voltage around VOC.

  3. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  4. Radiation effects in glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrt, D.; Vogel, W.

    1992-03-01

    Glass was produced by man about 4000 years ago. The scientific exploration of glass is very young and closely connected with Jena. Fraunhofer, Goethe, DobEreiner, Abbe, Zeiss and Schott are famous names on this field. Both crystals and glasses are solids. However, there are fundamental differences in their properties and behavior. Glass is a thermodynamically unstable state and has a defect structure compared to the crystal. Glass and its properties arc subject to a variety of changes under the influence of high energy radiation. In general, effects extend from the reduction of specific ions to the collapse of the entire network. Ultraviolet and X-ray radiation effects on UV-transmitting glasses will be discussed.

  5. Lightning Physics and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, Richard E.

    2004-03-01

    Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

  6. Leptophilic effective WIMPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Spencer; Edezhath, Ralph; Hutchinson, Jeffrey; Luty, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Effective weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) models are minimal extensions of the standard model that explain the relic density of dark matter by the "WIMP miracle." In this paper we consider the phenomenology of effective WIMPs with trilinear couplings to leptons and a new "lepton partner" particle. The observed relic abundance fixes the strength of the cubic coupling, so the parameters of the models are defined by the masses of the WIMP and lepton partner particles. This gives a simple parameter space where collider and direct detection experiments can be compared under well-defined physical minimality assumptions. The most sensitive collider probe is the search for leptons+MET, while the most sensitive direct detection channel is scattering from nuclei arising from loop diagrams. Collider and direct detection searches are highly complementary: colliders give the only meaningful constraint when dark matter is its own antiparticle, while direct detection is generally more sensitive if the dark matter is not its own antiparticle.

  7. Developmental effects of dioxins.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, L S

    1995-01-01

    The potent developmental toxicity of dioxin in multiple species has been known for a number of years. However, recent studies have indicated that dioxin also induces functional developmental defects, many of which are delayed. Subtle structural deficits, not detectable at birth, have also been described in multiple species and in both sexes. Certain defects have been reported not only in animals but also in children prenatally exposed to complex mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. None of the effects can be attributed to modulation of any one endocrine system. For example, dioxin does not bind to the estrogen receptor, but it can cause effects that are both estrogenic and antiestrogenic. However, viewing dioxin and related compounds as endocrine disruptors that may alter multiple pathways sheds some light on the complexities of this potent class of growth dysregulators. PMID:8593882

  8. Establishing effective working relationships.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. PMID:26907148

  9. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  10. Cosmogenic effects in shergottites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, N.; Goswami, J. N.; Jha, R.; Sengupta, D.; Shukla, P. N.

    1986-06-01

    Heavy nuclei tracks, thermoluminescence (TL), and Al-26 activity have been analyzed in samples of Shergotty, ALHA 77005, and EETA 79001 achondrites with the purpose of tracing their thermal and cosmic ray exposure history. The track data indicate low (1 to 3 cm) ablation for all three shergottites, pointing to low geocentric velocities and small masses. Nuclear track, Al-26 activity, and other cosmogenic effects in the three shergottites are consistent with their single stage exposure in space as small objects. The TL data indicate a low equivalent dose (ED) of less than 30 krad at low glow curve temperature for all the shergottites. Solar heating at close perihelion distance (0.70 to 0.85 AU) might be primarily responsible for the low ED's, although shock-induced effects cannot be ruled out. The results of this study are compared with the dynamical models developed by Wetherill (1984) for the origin of shergottites.

  11. Effectively managing wound exudate.

    PubMed

    Chamanga, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The management of wound exudate remains a clinical challenge despite technological advances in products with better exudate-handling capacities. This clinical challenge is occasionally encountered when thick exudate (viscous exudate) is present, and when most modern dressings do not possess the capabilities to manage the viscosity while enabling exudate absorption. Maceration to the peri-wound area poses another challenge, irrespective of the number of topical barrier application products on the market and the innovation of dressing products that lock exudate away or those that encourage vertical wicking. In addition to all the above, in clinical practice, the assessment and documentation of wound exudate remains sporadic, leading to the challenges of effective wound exudate dressing selection and cost-effective dressings. PMID:26322408

  12. Effectiveness of medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Stegenga, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must target either the constitutive causal basis of a disease or the harms caused by the disease (or ideally both). This provides a theoretical underpinning to the two principle aims of medical treatment: care and cure. PMID:26209171

  13. Latent effects decision analysis

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J. Arlin; Werner, Paul W.

    2004-08-24

    Latent effects on a system are broken down into components ranging from those far removed in time from the system under study (latent) to those which closely effect changes in the system. Each component is provided with weighted inputs either by a user or from outputs of other components. A non-linear mathematical process known as `soft aggregation` is performed on the inputs to each component to provide information relating to the component. This information is combined in decreasing order of latency to the system to provide a quantifiable measure of an attribute of a system (e.g., safety) or to test hypotheses (e.g., for forensic deduction or decisions about various system design options).

  14. Effective plasma inductance computation

    SciTech Connect

    Maslovsky, Dmitry A.; Boozer, Allen H.

    2005-04-15

    The calculation of the resistive wall modes and their feedback stabilization is greatly simplified by splitting the plasma response from that of the external conductors. Existing calculations either consider highly simplified models of the external conductors or assume the plasma response can be approximated by a single rigid mode. The full response of an ideal, nonrotating plasma to perturbations that evolve slowly compared to the Alfven time is contained in the matrix for the effective plasma inductance {lambda}<=>. This matrix can be used in a code that accurately calculates the effects of the external conductors to obtain an essentially complete description of both plasma and the conducting structures. Calculations of {lambda}<=> for a number of tokamak equilibria are given together with an explanation of how the calculations are made and why they are important.

  15. AHIS Cost-Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bunnell, Pamela; Lemons, Lorena F.; Shapin, Paul G.

    1980-01-01

    In 1977, Fairfax Hospital Association (FHA) set out to determine the cost-effectiveness of installing a comprehensive Automated Hospital Information System (AHIS) within its institutions. In order to determine this, FHA developed a formalized staffing impact analysis methodology. The objective of the methodology is to determine the effect that any automated system will have on staffing requirements if the specific functions of the system are known in advance. This methodology was subsequently used in the evaluation of two departments - Radiology and Utilization Review. This paper describes the methodology used so that other institutions can benefit by the experience, and discusses why it is necessary to perform such an analysis, concentrating on determining whether a system is cost beneficial, identifying benefits in advance to ensure that they are in fact achieved later, and satisfying external reporting requirements. The bulk of the paper documents step-by-step how the analysis is performed.

  16. Are diabetes camps effective?

    PubMed

    Barone, Mark Thomaz Ugliara; Vivolo, Marco Antonio; Madden, Paul B

    2016-04-01

    In the present article data about Diabetes Camps (DC) from all continents were reviewed in order to answer the title question "are diabetes camps effective?". Articles from peer reviewed journals and abstracts published in international conferences proceedings were raised. The effectiveness was considered in terms of knowledge acquisition, and psychosocial and physiological changes. Even though expected improvements were not found in all studies, in a deeper and wider analysis the aspects that influence the most toward gains are identified. Among them are: number of participations in a DC, post-camp educational opportunities, staff training, and program oriented toward campers' autonomy. To conclude, practical recommendations are addressed intending to amplify DC's potential. PMID:27103364

  17. [Herbs and cardiotoxic effects].

    PubMed

    Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto

    2013-06-01

    Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed. PMID:23748541

  18. Transgenerational effects of NMs.

    PubMed

    Poma, Anna; Colafarina, Sabrina; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Chichiriccò, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are present in a number of commercially available products but there are uncertainties as to whether the unique properties that support their commercial use may also pose potential health risks. Information is missing concerning the influence of nanomaterials on the overall reproductive outcome and transgenerational effects in animals and plants. To obtain this information, long-term studies would be required using animal models phylogenetically close to humans and exposure conditions that reflect realistic scenarios with regard to dosages and admission. The nanoreprotoxicology literature published to date is largely descriptive in nature regarding the effects of nanoparticles. The mechanisms, which determine particle reproduction compatibility, are mostly elusive at the moment. Thus, it is recommended that future research explore the interactions between nanomaterials and transgenerational matter on a molecular level. It would, for instance, be of major importance to understand the behaviour of nanoparticles inside the cells but also their genotoxic and epigenetic effects. Recent studies have shown that intravenous and/or intra-abdominal administration of nanoparticles to mice results in their accumulation in the cells of many tissues, including the brain and the testis, suggesting that they easily pass through the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers. In parallel embryo development after exposure to nanoparticles should be comparatively investigated. The majority of studies on embryo toxicology have concentrated on piscine embryos, mostly derived from zebrafish. Plants for human food as an important component of the ecosystem need also to be taken into account when evaluating transgenerational effects of engineered nanomaterials in crops. PMID:24683035

  19. Quantized Field Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyberger, Matthias; Vogel, Karl; Schleich, Wolfgang; O'Connell, Robert

    The electromagnetic field appears almost everywhere in physics. Following the introduction of Maxwell's equations in 1864, Max Planck initiated quantum theory when he discovered h = 2πℏ in the laws of black-body radiation. In 1905 Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect on the hypothesis of a corpuscular nature of radiation and in 1917 this paradigm led to a description of the interaction between atoms and electromagnetic radiation.

  20. Ion propulsion cost effectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S.; Biess, J. J.; Callens, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Ion propulsion modules employing 8 cm thrusters and 30 cm thrusters were studied for Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) applications. Recurring and non-recurring cost elements were generated for these modules. As a result, ion propulsion cost drivers were identified to be Shuttle charges, solar array, power processing, and thruster costs. Cost effective design approaches included short length module configurations, array power sharing, operation at reduced thruster input power (reduced solar array size), simplified power processing units, and power processor output switching.

  1. Dynamical Casimir effect instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Y. N.; Widom, A.; Ganesh, M. Pradeep; Sivasubramanian, S.

    2006-09-15

    The dynamic Casimir effect, which concerns two photon radiation processes due to time dependent frequency modulations, is computed in the one photon loop approximation. An instability is signaled by the production of an unphysically large number of photons. We show how it is tamed and a saturation in the number of photons reached through higher order processes. Explicit results are obtained for a recently proposed experiment.

  2. Effects on saltwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reish, D.J. ); Oshida, P.S. ); Mearns, A.J. ); Ginn, T.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Books and symposia proceedings were published that discussed the biological effects of water pollution, ecotoxicity, and aquatic toxicity and hazard assessment. Metal pollution in South America was summarized according to sources, the interrelationships between metals and sediment, concentration of metals ion biota, and metal transport and cycles. The present situation in latin America was summarized with regard to problems associated with its long coastline, lack of basic information, and a shortage of research staff.

  3. Botany: floral fluorescence effect.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco; Escribano, Josefa

    2005-09-15

    The way flowers appear to insects is crucial for pollination. Here we describe an internal light-filtering effect in the flowers of Mirabilis jalapa, in which the visible fluorescence emitted by one pigment, a yellow betaxanthin, is absorbed by another, a violet betacyanin, to create a contrasting fluorescent pattern on the flower's petals. This finding opens up new possibilities for pollinator perception as fluorescence has not previously been considered as a potential signal in flowers. PMID:16163341

  4. Antidepressant effects of flupenthixol.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A J; Cole, J O

    1991-01-01

    Strong evidence exists that flupenthixol, not presently distributed in the United States, is an effective antidepressant. Its advantages over available antidepressants include its safety with respect to overdose and in combination with other medications, low dependency risk, rapid onset of action, and availability in depot preparation. Flupenthixol also may be useful as a mood elevator for schizophrenics, an alternative mood stabilizer for patients with bipolar disease, and a facilitator for cocaine withdrawal. PMID:1771144

  5. The Kaye effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

    2009-11-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

  6. Health effects of welding.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M

    2003-01-01

    Many of the epidemiology studies performed are difficult to compare because of differences in worker populations, industrial settings, welding techniques, duration of exposure, and other occupational exposures besides welding fumes. Some studies were conducted in carefully controlled work environments, others during actual workplace conditions, and some in laboratories. Epidemiology studies have shown that a large number of welders experience some type of respiratory illness. Respiratory effects seen in full-time welders have included bronchitis, airway irritation, lung function changes, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders. Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increase in pulmonary illness after exposure to welding fumes, little information of the causality, dose-response, and possible underlying mechanisms regarding the inhalation of welding fumes exists. Even less information is available about the neurological, reproductive, and dermal effects after welding fume exposure. Moreover, carcinogenicity and short-term and long-term toxicology studies of welding fumes in animals are lacing or incomplete. Therefore, an understanding of possible adverse health effects of exposure to welding fumes is essential to risk assessment and the development of prevention strategies and will impact a large population of workers. PMID:12585507

  7. Cardioprotective effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Miriyala, Sumitra; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Rengarajulu, Puvanakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, is extracted from the powdered dry rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae) and it has been used for centuries in indigenous medicine. We have shown that curcumin has a protective role against myocardial necrosis in rats. The antioxidant activity of curcumin could be attributed to the phenolic and methoxy groups in conjunction with the 1,3-diketone-conjugated diene system, for scavenging of the oxygen radicals. In addition, curcumin is shown to enhance the activities of detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase in vivo. We have also shown that oxygen free radicals exacerbate cardiac damage and curcumin induces cardioprotective effect and it also inhibits free-radical generation in myocardial ischemia in rats. This chapter on the cardioprotective effects of curcumin covers the following aspects: (1) the history of curcumin and its discovery as a potent drug with relevance to cardiovascular diseases; (2) mechanistic role of curcumin in vitro, emphasizing the antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects; (3) cardiovascular properties of curcumin; (4) application of curcumin in different animal models (viz. myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmia in vitro and in vivo); (5) curcumin free-radical scavenging activity, particularly against O2 radical and depletion of the oxidative stress. PMID:17569220

  8. Generalized Effective Radiance Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Radiance temperature is one of the most important and widely used concepts in radiation thermometry. The usual definition of radiance temperature does not strictly apply for complex situations, such as when surrounding radiation is non-negligible or when corrections are applied to measurements made using an inappropriate emissivity setting. A novel concept, generalized effective radiance temperature (GERT), that adopts a graybody as the reference radiator is proposed in this study to express and explain the actual measurands that exist extensively in practical radiation thermometry applications; for example, a measurement result by a spectral-band radiation thermometer whose instrumental emissivity setting is less than 1. An effective wavelength approach has been developed to elucidate the relationship between a thermometer-dependent temperature (reading from an actual spectral-band radiation thermometer) and the object-side parameter GERT. The characteristics of GERT and the effective wavelength of a GERT measurement are discussed. Choosing an arbitrary emissivity setting to correct for the emissivity of a real target is equivalent to using this value as the emissivity of the reference graybody of the GERT. The GERT can be used in calibrations of both sources and thermometers.

  9. Planetary Electrochemical Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Mihalka, K. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.

    2008-12-01

    Lightning on a planet other than the Earth was first discovered by Voyager when it flew past Jupiter in 1979. Since then it has been reported on Saturn by Voyager and Cassini, and on Venus from Pioneer Venus and Venus Express. While lightning involves clouds formed from polar molecules such as water, or vulcanism, dusty environments often create electrostatic fields through triboelectric phenomena. In each instance, changes in local chemistry with profound global impact can occur, such as lightning-induced nitrogen fixation on earth. Perhaps the most dramatic effect occurs on Mars within its global dust storms and dust devils. Enhanced production of oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, sulfur and halogen species including perhaps perchlorates from minerals in airborne dust are some of the likely chemical effects. The oxidants may be responsible for the lack of organics on the surface of Mars and rapid destruction of methane in the atmosphere. On Titan, the surface organics may be altered by a different (charged particle) effect, a phenomena that may also operate in the polar regions of Mars and on the Galilean satellites. In this talk, we will discuss possible chemical and astrobiological implications of above electrical processes.

  10. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  11. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  12. Unintended Effects of Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Wayne W.; Sternhagen, Fred

    1991-01-01

    Unintended effects of evaluation are discussed, with reference to the Hawthorne Effect, where unintended effects overshadow the manipulations controlled by researchers. Unintended effects are categorized as (1) affective reactions; (2) political dimensions; (3) importance of individual differences; and (4) expectations concerning evaluation.

  13. Pairing correlations and effective mass

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Sagawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-05-15

    We study the effect of effective mass on pairing correlations in the ground states of superfluid nuclei {sup 124}Sn and {sup 136}Sn. Various parameter sets of Skyrme interactions and relativistic Lagrangians are adopted to study pairing correlations across a wide range of effective mass. It is shown that surface-type pairing interaction gives an almost constant pairing gap as a function of the effective mass, while volume-type pairing interaction shows rather strong dependence of the pairing gap upon the effective mass. The local pair potentials of various effective interactions are also examined in relation to the effective mass.

  14. Quantum Effects in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  15. 'The Kesterson effect'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, T.S.

    1994-01-01

    Hypothesized to be derived from Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks, selenium contamination of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge is traced through irrigation drainage to the source bedrock of the California Coast Ranges. This biogeochemical pathway of selenium is defined here as the 'Kesterson effect.' At the refuge ponds, this effect culminated in 1983 in a 64% rate of deformity and death of embryos and hatchlings of wild aquatic birds. From the previous companion paper on irrigation drainage, the Kesterson effect has been implicated in nine of 11 reconnaissance areas studied in the western United States. Deformities have resulted in at least five of these sites. Climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and soil conditions in these reconnaissance areas are similar to those in the area surrounding Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California, in California, selenium as selenate, was ultimately found weathered with sulfur from marine sources in soluble sodium and magnesium sulfate salts, which are concentrated by evaporation on farmland soils. The Se, mobilized by irrigation drainage, is bioaccumulated to toxic levels in refuge wetland ponds that are located mainly in hydrologically closed basins and thus act as concentrating disposal points. The depositional environment of the ponds may be similar to that of the nutrient-rich continental shelf edge and slope in which Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sediments found to be seleniferous in the California Coast Ranges were deposited. Bioaccumulation may be therefore a primary mechanism of selenium enrichment in ancient sediments in addition to that of the formerly suggested Cretaceous volcanic pathway.

  16. The flash grab effect.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Patrick; Anstis, Stuart

    2013-10-18

    When an object moves back and forth, its trajectory appears significantly shorter than it actually is. The object appears to stop and reverse well before its actual reversal point, as if there is some averaging of location within a window of about 100 ms (Sinico et al., 2009). Surprisingly, if a bar is flashed at the physical end point of the trajectory, right on top of the object, just as it reverses direction, the flash is also shifted - grabbed by the object - and is seen at the perceived endpoint of the trajectory rather than the physical endpoint. This can shift the perceived location of the flash by as much as 2 or 3 times its physical size and by up to several degrees of visual angle. We first show that the position shift of the flash is generated by the trajectory shortening, as the same shift is seen with or without the flash. The flash itself is only grabbed if it is presented within a small spatiotemporal attraction zone around the physical end point of the trajectory. Any flash falling in that zone is pulled toward the perceived endpoint. The effect scales linearly with speed, up to a maximum, and is independent of the contrast of the moving stimulus once it is above 5%. Finally, we demonstrate that this position shift requires attention. These results reveal a new "flash grab" effect in the family of motion-induced position shifts. Although it most resembles the flash drag effect, it differs from this in the following ways: (1) it has a different temporal profile, (2) it requires attention, (3) it is about 10 times larger. PMID:23872166

  17. ``The Kesterson effect''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    1994-05-01

    Hypothesized to be derived from Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks, selenium contamination of the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge is traced through irrigation drainage to the source bedrock of the California Coast Ranges. This biogeochemical pathway of selenium is defined here as the “Kesterson effect.” At the refuge ponds, this effect culminated in 1983 in a 64% rate of deformity and death of embryos and hatchlings of wild aquatic birds. From the previous companion paper on irrigation drainage, the Kesterson effect has been implicated in nine of 11 reconnaissance areas studied in the western United States. Deformities have resulted in at least five of these sites. Climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and soil conditions in these reconnaissance areas are similar to those in the area surrounding Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in the west-central San Joaquin Valley of California. In California, selenium, as selenate, was ultimately found weathered with sulfur from marine sources in soluble sodium and magnesium sulfate salts, which are concentrated by evaporation on farmland soils. The Se, mobilized by irrigation drainage, is bioaccumulated to toxic levels in refuge wetland ponds that are located mainly in hydrologically closed basins and thus act as concentrating disposal points. The depositional environment of the ponds may be similar to that of the nutrient-rich continental shelf edge and slope in which Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sediments found to be seleniferous in the California Coast Ranges were deposited. Bioaccumulation may be therefore a primary mechanism of selenium enrichment in ancient sediments in addition to that of the formerly suggested Cretaceous volcanic pathway.

  18. Assessments of astronaut effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

  19. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  20. Earthquake occurrence and effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, R D

    1990-01-01

    Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

  1. Shock effects in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Bischoff, A.; Buchwald, V.; Rubin, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    The impacts that can occur between objects on intersecting solar system orbits can generate shock-induced deformations and transformations, creating new mineral phases or melting old ones. These shock-metamorphic effects affect not only the petrography but the chemical and isotopic properties and the ages of primordial meteoritic materials. A fuller understanding of shock metamorphism and breccia formation in meteorites will be essential not only in the study of early accretion, differentiation, and regolith-evolution processes, but in the characterization of the primordial composition of the accreted material itself.

  2. Substantial evidence of effect.

    PubMed

    Gould, A Lawrence

    2002-02-01

    Pressures for rapid drug development, especially for treatments that may affect public health significantly, drive a need to reconsider what is necessary to establish the "substantial evidence" of efficacy and safety required for regulatory approval. The concept of substantial evidence of effect can be stated fairly simply in principle, but its application to the evaluation of findings from real clinical drug development programs can be quite complicated and depend on circumstances relating to the population studied and the condition being treated. This paper discusses a number of considerations that arise in attempting to address this issue. These include confirmation of efficacy/safety as opposed to replication of results, the use of surrogates for the clinical outcome, ethical considerations, the use of trials aimed at demonstrating equivalence or noninferiority instead of superiority of a new drug, and the balance between benefits and risks. Recent developments such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines dealing with statistical principles and choice of control group, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidances interpreting the 1998 Modernization Act identify useful alternative definitions of substantial evidence and also identify when a single study can be enough to demonstrate a clinically important effect. The primary difficulty with the use of noninferiority trials is the need to demonstrate assay sensitivity or validity, i.e., that the trial would have demonstrated the superiority of the active control treatment to placebo had the trial included a placebo group. Failure to demonstrate a significant difference between the presumed active treatments and an inactive control precludes a definitive conclusion of assay validity, but external evidence, e.g., from trials demonstrating the activity of the active control, may yet justify concluding that the trial was assay valid. Issues of interpretation of important unexpected findings are illustrated in the recent experience with the alpha- and beta-blocker carvedilol, where there was a significant reduction in mortality among patients on carvedilol relative to placebo, but a treatment effect could not be demonstrated for the primary outcome. Experience with trials of thrombolytic agents illustrates alternative strategies for demonstrating substantial evidence of effect. Finally, meta-analyses can contribute to the substantial evidence by synthesizing the findings from separate trials to provide a perspective on drug performance in a heterogeneous population of patients that no single trial could provide. PMID:12146720

  3. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W., Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general.

  4. Effect of thermal cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen F.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this effort is to evaluate the stability of low expansion Zerodur, developmental Zerodur, ULE, and Cer-Vit as possible substrate materials for high energy laser mirrors. This effort will determine whether there is instability in developmental Zerodur, ULE and Cer-Vit over operating temperatures and coating temperatures (300 to 475 K). Zerodur has already been shown to exhibit instability. Thermal cycling will be investigated as a possible approach to eliminate or reduce hysteresis. The effect of polishing on hysteresis will also be investigated.

  5. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1997-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included pollution haze layer from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core.

  6. Flexoelectric effect modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanowski, A.

    2008-12-01

    A statistical theory of dipole flexoelectric (FE) polarization in liquid crystals is used to calculate temperature dependence of order parameters, elastic constants and FE coefficients. Two systems with polar wedge-shaped and banana-shaped molecules are investigated. In both cases, the FE coefficients are proportional to the dipole moment component parallel to the molecule symmetry axis. It results from the symmetries of interactions and of the Mayer function. The origin of the FE effect and microscopic pictures of the distorted phases are discussed.

  7. Ion propulsion cost effectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S.; Biess, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ion propulsion modules employing 8-cm thrusters and 30-cm thrusters were studied for Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) applications. Recurring and nonrecurring cost elements were generated for these modules. As a result, ion propulsion cost drivers were identified to be Shuttle charges, solar array, power processing, and thruster costs. Cost effective design approaches included short length module configurations, array power sharing, operation at reduced thruster input power, simplified power processing units, and power processor output switching. The MMS mission model employed indicated that nonrecurring costs have to be shared with other programs unless the mission model grows. Extended performance missions exhibited the greatest benefits when compared with monopropellant hydrazine propulsion.

  8. Environmental Effects of BPA

    PubMed Central

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection. PMID:26674307

  9. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).

  10. [Cognitive effects of opioids].

    PubMed

    Grisart, J

    2009-06-17

    This article discusses the potentially deleterious influence of opioids on cognitive functioning in chronic pain patients. Under stable doses of opioids, cognitive performances in patients are not inferior to those observed in healthy controls. During initialisation and/or adaptation of opioid treatment, a transient inferiority of cognitive performances is observed in chronic pain patients. Studies on combined effects of opioids and psychotropics on cognition are scarce. It is emphasized that cognitive dysfunction in chronic pain patients might be due to the attentional cost due to daily pain. Pain reduction by opioids may diminish this cost. Recommendations for driving under opioids are proposed. PMID:19626760

  11. Lake Effect Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  13. An effective Z'

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patrick J.; Liu, Jia; Tucker-Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2011-12-06

    We describe a method to couple Z' gauge bosons to the standard model (SM), without charging the SM fields under the U(1)', but instead through effective higher-dimension operators. This method allows complete control over the tree-level couplings of the Z' and does not require altering the structure of any of the SM couplings, nor does it contain anomalies or require introduction of fields in nonstandard SM representations. Moreover, such interactions arise from simple renormalizable extensions of the SM—the addition of vectorlike matter that mixes with SM fermions when the U(1)' is broken. We apply effective Z' models as explanations of various recent anomalies: the D0 same-sign dimuon asymmetry, the CDF W+di-jet excess and the CDF top forward-backward asymmetry. In the case of the W+di-jet excess we also discuss several complementary analyses that may shed light on the nature of the discrepancy. We consider the possibility of non-Abelian groups, and discuss implications for the phenomenology of dark matter as well.

  14. Strategies for effective feedback.

    PubMed

    Kritek, Patricia A

    2015-04-01

    Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education; however, many individuals have not been formally trained in this pedagogical skill. At the bedside or in the clinic, effective performance feedback can be accomplished by following four key steps. Begin by setting expectations that incorporate the trainee's personal goals and external objectives. Delineate how and when you will provide feedback to the learner. Next, directly observe the trainee's performance. This can be challenging while engaged on a busy clinical service, but a focus on discrete activities or interactions (e.g., family meeting, intravascular volume assessment using bedside ultrasound, or obtaining informed consent) is helpful. The third step is to plan and prioritize the feedback session. Feedback is most effective when given in a timely fashion and delivered in a safe environment. Limit the issues addressed because learners often disengage if confronted with too many deficiencies. Finally, when delivering feedback, begin by listening to the trainee's self-evaluation and then take a balanced approach. Describe in detail what the trainee does well and discuss opportunities for improvement with emphasis on specific, modifiable behaviors. The feedback loop is completed with a plan for follow-up reassessment. Through the use of these relatively simple practices, both the trainee and teacher can have a more productive learning experience. PMID:25723379

  15. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-01

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2 . A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30 nm )/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2 (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9 T ) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  16. When Is Selection Effective?

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    Deleterious alleles can reach high frequency in small populations because of random fluctuations in allele frequency. This may lead, over time, to reduced average fitness. In this sense, selection is more "effective" in larger populations. Recent studies have considered whether the different demographic histories across human populations have resulted in differences in the number, distribution, and severity of deleterious variants, leading to an animated debate. This article first seeks to clarify some terms of the debate by identifying differences in definitions and assumptions used in recent studies. We argue that variants of Morton, Crow, and Muller's "total mutational damage" provide the soundest and most practical basis for such comparisons. Using simulations, analytical calculations, and 1000 Genomes Project data, we provide an intuitive and quantitative explanation for the observed similarity in genetic load across populations. We show that recent demography has likely modulated the effect of selection and still affects it, but the net result of the accumulated differences is small. Direct observation of differential efficacy of selection for specific allele classes is nevertheless possible with contemporary data sets. By contrast, identifying average genome-wide differences in the efficacy of selection across populations will require many modeling assumptions and is unlikely to provide much biological insight about human populations. PMID:27010021

  17. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Stephen M; Zhang, Wei; Kc, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E; Jiang, J Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-01

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30  nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9  T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF_{2} thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected. PMID:26991198

  18. Antidepressant effect of Stillen.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Na-Rae; Yoou, Myoung-schook; Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Kyu-Youb; Choi, Youngjin; Jang, Jae-Bum; Kang, In-Cheol; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2015-06-01

    Stillen has been used to treat patients with gastric mucosal ulcers and has an anti-inflammatory effect. It is well-known that neuro-inflammatory reactions are related to depression. Here we evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of Stillen on mice subjected to the forced swimming test (FST). Stillen and eupatilin (a major component of Stillen) significantly decreased immobility times compared with the FST control group. In the Stillen-administered group, increased levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein were observed in the hippocampus. Nissl bodies also increased in the hippocampus neuronal cytoplasm of the Stillen-administered group. Stillen decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (at the mRNA and protein levels) in the hippocampus and serum, compared with the control group. In addition, the mRNA expression of estrogen receptor-β increased after Stillen administration in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that Stillen should be viewed as a candidate antidepressant. PMID:25163682

  19. The Creative Stereotype Effect

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals’ performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective. PMID:26863143

  20. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective. PMID:26863143

  1. Behavioral effects of microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S.

    1980-01-01

    Microwaves can produce sensations of warmth and sound in humans. In other species, they also can serve as cues, they may be avoided, and they can disrupt ongoing behavior. These actions appear to be due to heat produced by energy absorption. The rate of absorption depends on the microwave parameters and the electrical and geometric properties of the subject. We therefore, cannot predict the human response to microwaves based on data from other animals without appropriate scaling considerations. At low levels of exposure, microwaves can produce changes in behavior without large, or even measureable, changes in body temperature. Thermoregulatory behavior may respond to those low levels of heat, and thereby affect other behavior occurring concurrently. There are no data that demonstrate that behavioral effects of microwaves depend on any mechanism other than reactions to heat. Our interpretation of whether a reported behavioral effect indicates that microwaves may be hazardous depends on our having a complete description of the experiment and on our criteria of behavioral toxicity.

  2. The Effective Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  3. JPL Test Effectiveness Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreck, Stephanie; Sharratt, Stephen; Smith, Joseph F.; Strong, Edward

    2008-01-01

    1) The pilot study provided meaningful conclusions that are generally consistent with the earlier Test Effectiveness work done between 1992 and 1994: a) Analysis of pre-launch problem/failure reports is consistent with earlier work. b) Analysis of post-launch early mission anomaly reports indicates that there are more software issues in newer missions, and the no-test category for identification of post-launch failures is more significant than in the earlier analysis. 2) Future work includes understanding how differences in Missions effect these analyses: a) There are large variations in the number of problem reports and issues that are documented by the different Projects/Missions. b) Some missions do not have any reported environmental test anomalies, even though environmental tests were performed. 3) Each project/mission has different standards and conventions for filling out the PFR forms, the industry may wish to address this issue: a) Existing problem reporting forms are to document and track problems, failures, and issues (etc.) for the projects, to ensure high quality. b) Existing problem reporting forms are not intended for data mining.

  4. An effective Z'

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fox, Patrick J.; Liu, Jia; Tucker-Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2011-12-06

    We describe a method to couple Z' gauge bosons to the standard model (SM), without charging the SM fields under the U(1)', but instead through effective higher-dimension operators. This method allows complete control over the tree-level couplings of the Z' and does not require altering the structure of any of the SM couplings, nor does it contain anomalies or require introduction of fields in nonstandard SM representations. Moreover, such interactions arise from simple renormalizable extensions of the SM—the addition of vectorlike matter that mixes with SM fermions when the U(1)' is broken. We apply effective Z' models as explanations ofmore » various recent anomalies: the D0 same-sign dimuon asymmetry, the CDF W+di-jet excess and the CDF top forward-backward asymmetry. In the case of the W+di-jet excess we also discuss several complementary analyses that may shed light on the nature of the discrepancy. We consider the possibility of non-Abelian groups, and discuss implications for the phenomenology of dark matter as well.« less

  5. Microwave biological effects: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    Research concerning the biological effects of microwave (MW) exposure is reviewed. Areas examined include the principles and concepts related to biologic experiments and interpretation, cellular effects, chromosomes-genetic effects, effects on the nervous system, behavioral effects, effects on immunity, and the health aspects of MW exposure. Many of the investigations suffer from either inadequacies of technical facilities and energy measurement skills or insufficient control of the biological specimens and the criteria for biological change. There is a need for systematic and quantitative comparative investigations, using well-controlled experiments.

  6. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    SciTech Connect

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael; Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  7. [Side effects of caffeine].

    PubMed

    Dworzański, Wojciech; Opielak, Grzegorz; Burdan, Franciszek

    2009-11-01

    Caffeine is one of the most commonly ingested alkaloids worldwide. It is present in coffee, tea, soft and energy drinks, chocolate, etc. Currently published data has been stressed that the metyloxantine consumption increases the risk of coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, arterial stiffness, and an elevation of cholesterol and homocysteine plasma concentration. The acute high consumption may also modulate insulin sensitivity and glucose blood level. However, the long-term consumption reduces the incidence of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. When administered in high doses the substance may cause various side effects, related to abnormal stimulation of the central nervous system, decrease tonus of the lower esophageal sphincter, as well as increase risk of miscarriage and intrauterine growth retardation. The final manifestation of side reactions is dependent on the genotype, especially polymorphisms of genes associated with caffeine metabolism, i.e., cytochrome P450-CYP1A2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). PMID:19999796

  8. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  9. 'Special effects' burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1991-02-01

    Three patients are presented with significant flame burns, resulting from accidents occurring during 'special effects' situations in the entertainment industry. These occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of various materials, during events in live theatre (gun powder), a television commercial (artificial 'rocket fuel'), and a video presentation (magnesium oxide). All three patients sustained flash burns to the face and hands. One patient sustained a significant bilateral corneal injury, a gamekeeper's thumb, and a permanent continuous right-sided high frequency tinnitus, in addition to his burn injury. Photographic documentation of all three patients is presented. The total loss of time from work for all patients was 6 months. All these injuries were potentially preventable. PMID:2031675

  10. Radiation Effects in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The requirements for a solid moderator are reviewed and the reasons that graphite has become the solid moderator of choice discussed. The manufacture and properties of some currently available near-isotropic and isotropic grades are described. The major features of a graphite moderated reactors are briefly outlined. Displacement damage and the induced structural and dimensional changes in graphite are described. Recent characterization work on nano-carbons and oriented pyrolytic graphites that have shed new light on graphite defect structures are reviewed, and the effect of irradiation temperature on the defect structures is highlighted. Changes in the physical properties of nuclear graphite caused by neutron irradiation are reported. Finally, the importance of irradiation induced creep is presented, along with current models and their deficiencies.

  11. Anomeric Effects in Sulfamides.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Limé, Elaine; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wiest, Olaf

    2016-05-26

    Sulfamides, together with their simpler sulfonamide analogs, are common functional groups in a significant number of biologically active compounds. This is partly due to their unique electronic structure and conformational behavior, which mimics the tetrahedral intermediate involved in many proteases, esterases, and related enzymes. Here, the origin of these unique structural elements are analyzed in the context of a coupled, double anomeric effect using DFT calculations, including conformational scans, and NBO analysis. It is shown that these coupled interactions can be implicitly parametrized in MM3* type force fields using the quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) method, yielding accurate force field parameters for molecular mechanics studies of sulfamides and sulfonamides. PMID:27135551

  12. Dynamic effects of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic effects of combustion are due to the evolution of exothermic energy and its deposition in the compressible medium where the process takes place. The paper examines the dynamics of combustion phenomena, including ignition, turbulent flame propagation (inflammation), explosion, and detonation, with emphasis on their exothermic characteristics. Ignition and explosion are treated as problems of nonlinear mechanics, and their dynamic behavior is described in terms of phase space models and cinematographic laser shear interferograms. The results of a numerical random vortex model of turbulent flame propagation are confirmed in a combustion tunnel experiment, where it was observed that a fresh mixture of burnt and unburnt gases can sustain combustion with a relatively small expenditure of overall mass flow, due to the increasing specific volume of burnt gases inside the flame front. An isentropic pressure wave is found to precede the accelerating flame in the process of detonation, and components of this presssure wave are shown to propagate at local sonic velocities.

  13. Radiation Effects In Space

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2011-06-01

    Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

  14. Magnetically assisted Sisyphus effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile, Olivier; Kaiser, Robin; Gerz, Christoph; Wallis, Hartmut; Aspect, Alain; Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study of laser cooling in a standing wave in the presence of a small transverse magnetic field (Magnetically Assisted Sisyphus Effect: MASE). The analysis is worked out for a J_g=1 to J_e=1 transition corresponding to the experiment performed on the 23S1longleftrightarrow 23P1 transition of metastable helium. In this situation, MASE has an effect opposed to the usual Doppler cooling effect, i.e. it produces heating for a negative detuning. Depending on the various parameters, the competition between MASE and Doppler cooling, which act on different velocity ranges, leads to interesting new effects, such as a bistable force. The velocity dependence of the total force is calculated, using a semi-classical approach. A second theoretical treatment, where the atomic motion is quantized, is used to study the time evolution of the velocity distribution. The results of these calculations are compared to experimental observations. Cet article présente une étude expérimentale et théorique du refroidissement laser par une onde stationnaire quasi-résonnante en présence d'un champ magnétique transverse faible (Effet Sisyphe Magnétique). Les calculs théoriques ont été développés sur une transition J_g=1to J_e=1 correspondant à la situation expérimentale que nous avons étudiée sur la transition 23S1longleftrightarrow 23P1 de l'hélium métastable. Dans ce cas, l'effet Sisyphe magnétique a une action opposée à celle du refroidissement Doppler habituel : il produit un chauffage pour un accord du laser en dessous de résonance. La compétition entre l'effet Sisyphe magnétique et le refroidissement Doppler, qui agissent sur des gammes de vitesse différentes, débouche sur de nouveaux effets intéressants, et notamment sur une force présentant un caractère bistable. Nous avons calculé la force totale en fonction de la vitesse en utilisant une approche semi-classique. Nous avons aussi utilisé une seconde approche théorique où l'impulsion atomique est quantifiée, et qui permet d'étudier d'évolution temporelle de la distribution en vitesse. Les résultats théoriques sont ensuite confrontés aux résultats expérimentaux.

  15. The hot chocolate effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  16. Hot chocolate effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  17. Nutritional effects on sleep.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda; Lindseth, Paul; Thompson, Mark

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nutritional effects on sleep using actigraphy measures. A repeated-measures, counterbalanced, crossover study design was used to administer treatment diets to 44 adult participants. Participants served as their own control and consumed high-protein, high-fat, high-carbohydrate, and control diets. The study participants wore Motionlogger Actigraph sleep watches while consuming weighed food intakes for 4 days over four different treatment periods. Demographic and laboratory data were also analyzed. Actigraph results showed that the wake episodes and sleep latencies were significantly different when comparing the macronutrient intakes of the participants. Post hoc test results showed that high-protein diets were associated with significantly fewer (p = .03) wake episodes and high-carbohydrate diets were associated with significantly shorter (p < .01) sleep latencies than control diets. Thus, consumption of specific macronutrient intakes may have a significant influence on sleep. PMID:21816963

  18. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified.

    PubMed

    Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by measuring discrimination thresholds for subjective coldness at different ambient temperatures using stimuli of different thicknesses. The reversal point was found to be at 34 degrees C, somewhat above skin temperature. At this reversal point, discrimination is quite impossible. At room temperature, subjects were able to discriminate between stimuli of different thickness based on subjective coldness, showing that the sense of touch, unlike vision, can penetrate solid objects. Furthermore, somewhat surprisingly, at ambient temperatures well below normal room temperature, discrimination is worse than at room temperature. PMID:17306203

  19. Biological effects of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M. )

    1989-09-01

    Tropospheric ozone, a classic anthropogenic air pollutant, is going to remain a troublesome byproduct of contemporary civilization for many decades. We have known for some time that the hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles, together with actinic radiation, account for local and regional photochemistry leading to prolonged afternoon ozone peaks. We also now know that agricultural burning and intensive animal husbandry elevate regional and mesoscale concentrations of ozone and its precursors, and that remote background levels of ozone have been rising steadily throughout this century. The changes we will have to make in emission controls to appreciably reduce current tropospheric ozone levels will have profound effects on our transportation systems, consumer products, and lifestyles. As a society, we will have to make difficult choices about the levels of ozone-associated health, welfare, and natural system damage we will tolerate, or conversely, how much we are willing to pay for controls which can minimize the damage.

  20. [Side effects of caffeine].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Dworzański W; Opielak G; Burdan F

    2009-11-01

    Caffeine is one of the most commonly ingested alkaloids worldwide. It is present in coffee, tea, soft and energy drinks, chocolate, etc. Currently published data has been stressed that the metyloxantine consumption increases the risk of coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, arterial stiffness, and an elevation of cholesterol and homocysteine plasma concentration. The acute high consumption may also modulate insulin sensitivity and glucose blood level. However, the long-term consumption reduces the incidence of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. When administered in high doses the substance may cause various side effects, related to abnormal stimulation of the central nervous system, decrease tonus of the lower esophageal sphincter, as well as increase risk of miscarriage and intrauterine growth retardation. The final manifestation of side reactions is dependent on the genotype, especially polymorphisms of genes associated with caffeine metabolism, i.e., cytochrome P450-CYP1A2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).

  1. THE HOT CHOCOLATE EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1980-12-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  2. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  3. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  4. Wind Effects in Tharsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 24 July 2003

    Located on the western slope of the Tharsis volcanic bulge, this landscape shows the effect of the large-scale wind regime of the region. The northwest/southeast trending yardangs may have been eroded by winds from both directions, but there are some indicators, primarily on the lower left mesa, that the streamlined forms resulted from downslope (to the northwest) winds.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -5, Longitude 200.3 East (159.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Sweetness and enzymatic activity of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Ueno, Y; Kitabatake, N

    2001-10-01

    Hen egg lysozyme elicits a sweet taste sensation for human beings. Effects of reduction of disulfide bonds, heat treatment, and chemical modification of hen egg lysozyme on both sweetness and hydrolytic activity were investigated. Both the sweetness and enzymatic activities were lost when the intradisulfide linkage in a lysozyme molecule was reduced and S-3-(trimethylated amino) propylated. The sweetness and enzymatic activity of lysozyme were lost on heating at 95 degrees C for 18 h. These facts suggest that tertiary structures of lysozyme are indispensable for eliciting a sweet taste as well as enzymatic activity. Although the modification of carboxyl residues in a lysozyme by glycine methylester or aminomethansulfonic acid resulted in the loss of enzymatic activity by blocking the catalytic residues, the sweetness was fully retained. These results indicate that the sweetness of lysozyme was independent of its enzymatic activity. The lysozyme purified from goose egg white similarly elicited a sweet taste, although goose (g-type) lysozyme is quite different from hen egg lysozyme (c-type) on the basis of structural, immunological, and enzymatic properties. These findings indicate that a specific protein property of lysozyme is required for sweetness elicitation and that the enzymatic activity and carbohydrates produced by enzymatic reaction are not related to the sweet taste. PMID:11600047

  6. Specific amino acid (L-arginine) requirement for the microbiostatic activity of murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Granger, D L; Hibbs, J B; Perfect, J R; Durack, D T

    1988-04-01

    The microbiostatic action of macrophages was studied in vitro employing peritoneal cytotoxic macrophages (CM) from mice acting against Cryptococcus neoformans cultured in Dulbecco's medium with 10% dialyzed fetal bovine serum. Fungistasis was measured using electronic particle counting after lysis of macrophages with detergent. Macrophage fungistasis failed in medium lacking only L-arginine. Complete fungistasis was restored by L-arginine; restoration was concentration dependent, maximal at 200 microM. Deletion of all other essential amino acids did not abrogate fungistasis provided that L-arginine was present. Of twenty guanido compounds, including D-arginine, only three (L-arginine, L-homoarginine, and L-arginine methylester) supported fungistasis. Known activators or mediators of macrophage cytotoxicity (endotoxin, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor) did not replace L-arginine for CM-mediated fungistasis. The guanido analogue NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was a potent competitive inhibitor of CM-mediated fungistasis giving 50% inhibition at an inhibitor/L-arginine ratio of 1:27. Although CM completely blocked fungal reproduction via an L-arginine-dependent mechanism, the majority of the dormant fungi remained viable. Thus, this mechanism is viewed as a microbiostatic process similar or identical to the tumoristatic effect of macrophages. This suggests the production of a broad spectrum biostatic metabolite(s) upon consumption of L-arginine by cytotoxic macrophages. PMID:3280600

  7. Simultaneous determination of iridoid glycosides and flavanoids in Lamionphlomis rotate and its herbal preparation by a simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wenjuan; Li, Maoxing; Chen, Yonglei; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

    2012-02-01

    Iridoid glycosides and flavanoids are two main effective components of Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) kudo. However, there is no method for simultaneous analysis of iridoid glycosides and flavanoids in L. rotata and its pharmaceutical preparations. A simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methylester and 8-deoxyshanzhiside) and three flavanoids (apigenin, quercetin and luteolin) in L. rotata. Operational variables, such as the voltage, buffer concentration and pH were optimized, the final optimum separation condition was 10 mM sodium tetraborate-20 mM NaH(2) PO(4) (pH 8.5)-15% (v/v) methanol, 238 nm UV detection, 18 kV applied voltage. The linearity and the recovery of the proposed method were very satisfactory (correlation coefficients were 0.9994-0.9998 and the recoveries were 94.5-108.8% for the analytes) and the method allowed analytes in real samples to be determined within 9 min. The proposed CZE method can be used for quality control of iridoid glycosides and flavanoids in L. rotata and its herbal preparation. PMID:21548111

  8. Aquaporin-3 mediates hydrogen peroxide uptake to regulate downstream intracellular signaling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Evan W.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by cell-surface NADPH Oxidase (Nox) enzymes is emerging as an important signaling molecule for growth, differentiation, and migration processes. However, how cells spatially regulate H2O2 to achieve physiological redox signaling over nonspecific oxidative stress pathways is insufficiently understood. Here we report that the water channel Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) can facilitate the uptake of H2O2 into mammalian cells and mediate downstream intracellular signaling. Molecular imaging with Peroxy Yellow 1 Methyl-Ester (PY1-ME), a new chemoselective fluorescent indicator for H2O2, directly demonstrates that aquaporin isoforms AQP3 and AQP8, but not AQP1, can promote uptake of H2O2 specifically through membranes in mammalian cells. Moreover, we show that intracellular H2O2 accumulation can be modulated up or down based on endogenous AQP3 expression, which in turn can influence downstream cell signaling cascades. Finally, we establish that AQP3 is required for Nox-derived H2O2 signaling upon growth factor stimulation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the downstream intracellular effects of H2O2 can be regulated across biological barriers, a discovery that has broad implications for the controlled use of this potentially toxic small molecule for beneficial physiological functions. PMID:20724658

  9. Analysis of the unresolved organic fraction in atmospheric aerosols with ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: organosulfates as photochemical smog constituents.

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gelencsér, Andras; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Kiss, Gyula; Hertkorn, Norbert; Harir, Mourad; Hong, Yang; Gebefügi, Istvan

    2010-10-01

    Complementary molecular and atomic signatures obtained from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectra and NMR spectra provided unequivocal attribution of CHO, CHNO, CHOS, and CHNOS molecular series in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and high-resolution definition of carbon chemical environments. Sulfate esters were confirmed as major players in SOA formation and as major constituents of its water-soluble fraction (WSOC). Elevated concentrations of SO(2), sulfate, and photochemical activity were shown to increase the proportion of SOA sulfur-containing compounds. Sulfonation of CHO precursors by means of heterogeneous reactions between carbonyl derivatives and sulfuric acid in gas-phase photoreactions was proposed as a likely formation mechanism of CHOS molecules. In addition, photochemistry induced oligomerization processes of CHOS molecules. Methylesters found in methanolic extracts of a SOA subjected to strong photochemical exposure were considered secondary products derived from sulfate esters by methanolysis. The relative abundance of nitrogen-containing compounds (CHNO and CHNOS series) appeared rather dependent on local effects such as biomass burning. Extensive aliphatic branching and disruption of extended NMR spin-systems by carbonyl derivatives and other heteroatoms were the most significant structural motifs in SOA. The presence of heteroatoms in elevated oxidation states suggests a clearly different SOA formation trajectory in comparison with established terrestrial and aqueous natural organic matter. PMID:20879800

  10. The photovoltaic efficiency of the fabrication of copolymer P3HT:PCBM on different thickness nano-anatase titania as solar cell.

    PubMed

    Lazim, Haidar Gazy; Ajeel, Khalid I; Badran, Hussain A

    2015-06-15

    Organic solar cells based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) with an inverted structure have been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) as their electron transport layer, which was prepared on the indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO-glass), silicon wafer and glass substrates by sol-gel method at different spin speed by using spin-coating (1000, 2000 and 3,000 rpm) for nano-thin film 58, 75 and 90 nm respectively. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and optical properties of TiO2 layer were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The optical band gap of the films has been found to be in the range 3.63-3.96 eV for allowed direct transition and to be in the range 3.23-3.69 eV for forbidden direct transition to the different TiO2 thickness. The samples were examined to feature current and voltages darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell where they were getting the highest open-circuit voltage, Voc, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39% fabricated with 90 nm respectively. PMID:25819135

  11. An Increase in Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Accompanies Dormancy Breakage and Germination of Yellow Cedar Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chengwei; Kermode, Allison R.

    2000-01-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC 3.1.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination. PMID:10982438

  12. The photovoltaic efficiency of the fabrication of copolymer P3HT:PCBM on different thickness nano-anatase titania as solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazim, Haidar Gazy; Ajeel, Khalid I.; Badran, Hussain A.

    2015-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) with an inverted structure have been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) as their electron transport layer, which was prepared on the indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO-glass), silicon wafer and glass substrates by sol-gel method at different spin speed by using spin-coating (1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm) for nano-thin film 58, 75 and 90 nm respectively. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and optical properties of TiO2 layer were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The optical band gap of the films has been found to be in the range 3.63-3.96 eV for allowed direct transition and to be in the range 3.23-3.69 eV for forbidden direct transition to the different TiO2 thickness. The samples were examined to feature current and voltages darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell where they were getting the highest open-circuit voltage, Voc, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39% fabricated with 90 nm respectively.

  13. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-07-18

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C1-C4 oxidation and NOx formation kinetics.

  14. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-08-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates. PMID:19536806

  15. Multiple types of tachykinin receptor mediate a slow excitation of rat spinal motoneurones in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fisher, N D; Baranauskas, G; Nistri, A

    1994-01-01

    Using intracellular current clamp recording from motoneurones of the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro, the action of tachykinin receptor agonists was investigated. Test drugs included the endogenously occurring neuropeptide substance P and synthetic compounds, such as substance P methylester (SPMeO), [beta Ala8]neurokinin A4-10 ([Ala]NKA), [MePhe7]neurokinin B ([MePhe]NKB) and senktide. SPMeO and [Ala]NKA were used as selective agonists at NK1 and NK2 receptors, respectively, while [MePhe]NKB or senktide were employed to activate NK3 receptors. In control solution, all compounds produced sustained depolarization with increase in input resistance although at comparable levels of membrane depolarization different patterns of motoneuronal firing were observed dependent on the type of agonist tested. In tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 microM) solution, the depolarization caused by substance P or SPMeO largely persisted while in the majority of cells the effect of [Ala]NKA, [MePhe]NKB or senktide was blocked. It is suggested that NK1 receptors primarily mediated the actions of substance P on spinal motoneurones and that activation of NK2 or NK3 receptors, predominantly found on interneurones, induced motoneuronal depolarization with different firing patterns. PMID:7517026

  16. Flight effects of fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chestnutt, D. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

  17. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Infographics and Visualized Data Adult Data Cessation Economics Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Trends Information by Topic ... 2005 Historical MMWRs By Topic Adult Data Cessation Economics Global Data Health Effects Policy and Legislation Secondhand ...

  18. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Anemia “I told my doctor that I was ... or exercise a little every day. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Anemia Eat and drink well. ● ● Talk with your ...

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Infection “I am extra careful to stay away ... your doctor or nurse right away. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection Take these steps to lower your chances ...

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Pain It’s important to treat pain. If you ... help to pay for pain medicine. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain Keep track of the pain. Each day, ...

  1. Is Casework Effective? A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Joel

    1973-01-01

    This review of research on the effectiveness of professional casework services reveals that lack of effectiveness seems to be the rule. In fact, in about 50 percent of the studies reviewed, clients receiving casework services tended to deteriorate. (Author)

  2. Effects of PTSD on Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... for PTSD » Public » Effects of PTSD on Family PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... code here Enter ZIP code here Effects of PTSD on Family Public This section is for Veterans, ...

  3. Hall Effect in a Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an apparatus and procedure for conducting an undergraduate laboratory experiment to quantitatively study the Hall effect in a plasma. Includes background information on the Hall effect and rationale for conducting the experiment. (JN)

  4. Union Effects on Teacher Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberts, Randall W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of collective bargaining on several factors known to be determinants of student achievement in the public schools, particularly its effect on the teacher's allocation of time among various activities. (Author/SSH)

  5. Dispersant effectiveness: Studies into the causes of effectiveness variations

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.; Tennyson, E.

    1995-06-01

    Effectiveness, a key issue of using dispersants, is affected by many interrelated factors. The principal factors involved are the oil composition, dispersant formulation, sea surface turbulence and dispersant quantity. Oil composition is a very strong determinant. Current dispersant formulation effectiveness correlates strongly with the amount of saturate component in the oil. The other components of the oil, the asphaltenes, resins or polars and aromatic fractions show a negative correlation with the dispersant effectiveness. Viscosity is also a predictor of dispersant effectiveness and may have an effect because it is in turn determined by oil composition. Dispersant composition is significant and interacts with oil composition. Dispersants show high effectiveness at HLB values near 10. Sea turbulence strongly affects dispersant effectiveness.Effectiveness rises with increasing turbulence to a maximum value. Effectiveness for current commercial dispersants is gaussian around a peak salinity value. Peak effectiveness is achieved at very high dispersant quantities--at a ratio of 1:5, dispersant-to-oil volume. Dispersant effectiveness for those oils tested and under the conditions measured, is approximately logarithmic with dispersant quantity and will reach about 50% of its peak value at a dispersant to oil ratio of about 1:20 and near zero at a ratio of about 1:50.

  6. The Enigma of Organizational Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim

    1981-01-01

    Organizational effectiveness is not a clearly defined concept. The author illustrates how the four most widely used models are not uniformly applicable. He states the evaluator must make explicit certain critical choices when measuring effectiveness. These criteria reveal the definition of effectiveness and what is being measured. (DWH)

  7. Assessing and Improving Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    Information to promote assessment of organizational effectiveness in colleges and universities is presented, along with an exercise to rank the effectiveness of 10 institutions. The exercise uses three types of criteria to indicate effectiveness: subjective ratings, data about students and activities, and institutional capacity and financial

  8. Effects Of Radiation On Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Report provides data on effects of radiation on elastomers. Quantifies effects by giving minimum radiation levels to induce changes of 1 percent and 25 percent in given properties. Electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties included in data. Combined effects of heat and radiation briefly considered. Data summarized in graphic form useful to designers.

  9. Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers

    SciTech Connect

    Pourhamidi, A.H.

    1983-10-01

    It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator.

  10. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  11. "No Effects" Studies Raising Eyebrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Like a steady drip from a leaky faucet, the experimental studies being released this school year by the federal Institute of Education Sciences are mostly producing the same results: "No effects," "No effects," "No effects." The disappointing yield is prompting researchers, product developers, and other experts to question the design of the…

  12. Faculty Perceptions of Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCascio, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (a) the differences in perceptions of faculty, full-time versus part-time, at a community college in northern Alabama on the importance of institutional effectiveness activities; (b) the factors that affect perceptions of the importance of institutional effectiveness activities; and (c) the effect of academic discipline,…

  13. Effective Programs for Latino Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E., Ed.; Calderon, Margarita, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents the current state of research on effective instructional programs for Hispanic American students. The 10 chapters are: (1) "Effective Programs for Latino Students in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Olatokunbo S. Fashola, Robert E. Slavin, Margarita Calderon, and Richard Duran); (2) "Effective Dropout Prevention…

  14. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that

  15. Effective Programs for Latino Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E., Ed.; Calderon, Margarita, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents the current state of research on effective instructional programs for Hispanic American students. The 10 chapters are: (1) "Effective Programs for Latino Students in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Olatokunbo S. Fashola, Robert E. Slavin, Margarita Calderon, and Richard Duran); (2) "Effective Dropout Prevention

  16. Effects of Security actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of authority the investigation of the security work will be done with authorities on both regional and local scale. At the moment the investigation process are in progress and preliminary results will be presented.

  17. Carcinogenic effects of hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, M W; Lora-Michiels, M; Viglianti, B L; Dewey, W C; Repacholi, M

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the evidence for and against the premise that hyperthermia is carcinogenic. The paper is one of several published in this issue of the International Journal of Hyperthermia on the subject of the health risks of hyperthermia. The motivation for this issue of the journal was the result of a World Health Organization workshop that dealt with this issue, as it relates to exposure of the population to RF fields. Since hyperthermia can be a natural consequence of such exposures, the health risks of hyperthermia are relevant in this context. Particularly in the case of carcinogenesis, it is necessary to provide a brief overview of the data that have been generated to examine the carcinogenic risks of RF exposure, so that these results can be compared with studies that have examined the carcinogenic risks of hyperthermia. For this reason, the paper is organized into three sections dealing with: (1) effects of heat on DNA damage/repair and mutations, (2) in vivo studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of heat alone and combined with other carcinogens, and (3) in vivo studies involving RF exposures. The bulk of the data presented indicate that hyperthermia alone is not carcinogenic. If hyperthermia occurs in the presence of exposure to known carcinogens, such as radiation or chemical carcinogens there is the potential for modulation of carcinogenic effects of those agents. In some circumstances, hyperthermia can actually protect against tumour formation. In other instances, hyperthermia clearly increases incidence of tumour formation, but this occurs following thermal exposures (several degrees C temperature rise for up to 1 h or more) and radiation (therapeutic levels as for treatment of cancer) or chemical carcinogen doses higher than would be encountered by the general population. The extrapolation of these results to the general population, where radiation exposure levels would be at background and temperature rise from incidental RF exposure, such as cell phones (which are estimated to cause no more than 0.1 degrees C temperature rise) is not recommended. Current evidence indicates that the temperature elevations resulting from RF exposure are not carcinogenic. Caution should be used in situations where exposure to known carcinogens is combined with thermal exposures high enough to cause tissue damage. A summary of thermal thresholds for tissue damage from hyperthermia is presented in another paper in this special issue (Dewhirst et al.). No data exist that examine the carcinogenic risks of chronic thermal exposures below the threshold for detectable tissue damage, either alone or in combination with known carcinogens. This is an important goal for future research. PMID:12745970

  18. The alpha channeling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  19. Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

  20. Effective family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A G

    1973-01-01

    Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly. PMID:12309877

  1. Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

  2. Health effects of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tetley, T D

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid growth of nanotechnology and future bulk manufacture of nanomaterials comes the need to determine, understand and counteract any adverse health effects of these materials that may occur during manufacture, during use, or accidentally. Nanotechnology is expanding rapidly and will affect many aspects of everyday life; there are already hundreds of products that utilize nanoparticles. Paradoxically, the unique properties that are being exploited (e.g. high surface reactivity and ability to cross cell membranes) might have negative health impacts. The rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials is not yet matched by toxicological investigations. Epidemiological studies implicate the ultrafine (nano-sized) fraction of particulate air pollution in the exacerbation of cardiorespiratory disease and increased morbidity. Experimental animal studies suggest that the increased concentration of nanoparticles and higher reactive surface area per unit mass, alongside unique chemistry and functionality, is important in the acute inflammatory and chronic response. Some animal models have shown that nanoparticles which are deposited in one organ (e.g. lung and gut) may access the vasculature and target other organs (e.g. brain and liver). The exact relationship between the physicochemistry of a nanoparticle, its cellular reactivity, and its biological and systemic consequences cannot be predicted. It is important to understand such relationships to enjoy the benefits of nanotechnology without being exposed to the hazards. PMID:17511644

  3. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy (XXXX). Results of five experiments show that perceptual sensitivity is strikingly and significantly reduced in the RB condition relative to both baseline control conditions. The data show RB can be obtained under conditions in which memory problems are minimal and where perceptual sensitivity is assessed independently of biases.

  4. Psychological effects of stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Joanne

    2013-04-01

    Despite the high prevalence globally, the death of a baby to stillbirth is an often misunderstood and disenfranchised loss. Mothers, fathers, and families struggle to cope with the immediate and long-lasting effects of a baby's death which can last for years and sometimes decades. In addition, providers can be adversely affected by stillbirth, particularly when met with experiential avoidance and a sense of guilt and failure. There is little evidence on intervention efficacy in acute grief following perinatal death; however, there is a growing body of scientific literature on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in treating anxiety, depression, and other biopsychosocial maladies as well as improving patient satisfaction with psychosocial care. This paper explores one such intervention model, ATTEND (attunement, trust, therapeutic touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education), as a means to improve psychosocial care during both acute and chronic states of bereavement. Whereas the death of a baby to stillbirth is the ultimate paradox for providers and patients - the convergence of life and death and the fundamental contradiction it represents - with proper care and compassion, families stand a better chance in the face of such indescribable loss and they need not suffer alone. PMID:23040157

  5. Effective Physics Study Habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  6. Harmful effects of nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Aseem; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Datta, Sourav; Sinukumar, Snita; Joshi, Poonam; Garg, Apurva

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of nicotine replacement therapy, the consumption of the nicotine is on the rise. Nicotine is considered to be a safer alternative of tobacco. The IARC monograph has not included nicotine as a carcinogen. However there are various studies which show otherwise. We undertook this review to specifically evaluate the effects of nicotine on the various organ systems. A computer aided search of the Medline and PubMed database was done using a combination of the keywords. All the animal and human studies investigating only the role of nicotine were included. Nicotine poses several health hazards. There is an increased risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders. There is decreased immune response and it also poses ill impacts on the reproductive health. It affects the cell proliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, DNA mutation by various mechanisms which leads to cancer. It also affects the tumor proliferation and metastasis and causes resistance to chemo and radio therapeutic agents. The use of nicotine needs regulation. The sale of nicotine should be under supervision of trained medical personnel. PMID:25810571

  7. The photorefractive effect

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.M. ); Kukhtarev, N.V. )

    1990-10-01

    When Arthur Ashkin and his colleagues at Bell Laboratories first noticed the photorefractive effect some 25 years ago, they considered the phenomenon a curiosity at best and a complete nuisance at worst. Today photorefractive materials are being shaped into components for a new generation of computers that exploit light instead of electricity. During the past 25 years investigators have discovered a wide variety of photorefractive materials, including insulators, semiconductors and organic compounds. Photorefractive materials, like film emulsions, change rapidly when exposed to bright light, respond slowly when subjected to dim light and capture sharp detail when struck by some intricate pattern of light. Unlike film, photorefractive materials are erasable: images can be stored or obliterated at whim or by design. By virtue of their sensitivity, robustness, and unique optical properties, photorefractive materials have the potential to be fashioned into data-processing elements for optical computers. In theory, these devices would allow optical computers to process information at much faster rates than their electronic counterparts. Employing photorefractive materials, workers have already developed the optical analogue to the transistor: if two laser beams interact within a photorefractive material, one beam can control, switch or amplify the second beam. Photorefractive materials also lie at the heart of devices that trace the edges of images, that connect networks of lasers and that store three-dimensional images.

  8. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Wolf-Dieter; Liu, Shu; Gille, Gabriele; Radad, Khaled

    2006-01-01

    Ginseng, the root of the Panax species, is a well-known herbal medicine. Traditionally it has been used in Korea, China and Japan for thousands of years. Nowadays it has become a popular and worldwide known health drug. Current scientific studies demonstrate in vivo and in vitro its beneficial effects in a wide range of pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune deficiency and hepatotoxicity. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins as the active ingredients have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunostimulant properties, which raised speculations that these compounds could positively affect neurodegenerative disorders and delay neuronal aging. Conclusive clinical data in humans are still missing. However, results from animal studies and neuronal cell culture experiments indicate that ginsenosides can counteract and attenuate factors promoting neuronal death as environmental toxins, excitotoxic action of glutamate and rises in intracellular calcium, excessive release of free radicals and apoptotic events. Thus, neuroprotective actions of ginsenosides could come about as a valuable option to slow down neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17265697

  10. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  11. Harmful effects of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Aseem; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Datta, Sourav; Sinukumar, Snita; Joshi, Poonam; Garg, Apurva

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of nicotine replacement therapy, the consumption of the nicotine is on the rise. Nicotine is considered to be a safer alternative of tobacco. The IARC monograph has not included nicotine as a carcinogen. However there are various studies which show otherwise. We undertook this review to specifically evaluate the effects of nicotine on the various organ systems. A computer aided search of the Medline and PubMed database was done using a combination of the keywords. All the animal and human studies investigating only the role of nicotine were included. Nicotine poses several health hazards. There is an increased risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders. There is decreased immune response and it also poses ill impacts on the reproductive health. It affects the cell proliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, DNA mutation by various mechanisms which leads to cancer. It also affects the tumor proliferation and metastasis and causes resistance to chemo and radio therapeutic agents. The use of nicotine needs regulation. The sale of nicotine should be under supervision of trained medical personnel. PMID:25810571

  12. Health effects from fallout.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Land, Charles E; Simon, Steven L

    2002-05-01

    This paper primarily discusses health effects that have resulted from exposures received as a result of above-ground nuclear tests, with emphasis on thyroid disease from exposure to 131I and leukemia and solid cancers from low dose rate external and internal exposure. Results of epidemiological studies of fallout exposures in the Marshall Islands and from the Nevada Test Site are summarized, and studies of persons with exposures similar to those from fallout are briefly reviewed (including patients exposed to 131I for medical reasons and workers exposed externally at low doses and low dose rates). Promising new studies of populations exposed in countries of the former Soviet Union are also discussed and include persons living near the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan, persons exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and persons exposed as a result of operations of the Mayak Nuclear Plant in the Russian Federation. Very preliminary estimates of cancer risks from fallout doses received by the United States population are presented. PMID:12003021

  13. The Check Effect Reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Marc I.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The “check effect” refers to the use of disability payments to purchase illegal drugs or alcohol. This article describes subsequent research concerning three interrelated issues: the check effect, whether receipt of disability payments is associated with more overall substance use, and potential policy responses to misuse of disability payments for substances. Methods Review and synthesis of published articles. Results Increased substance use at the beginning of the month has been described in a variety of settings. The tendency to purchase substances at the beginning of the month is impacted by household wealth, the tendency to discount future rewards, and cyclical economic activity. However, in naturalistic observational cohort studies, beneficiaries who receive disability payments had no greater substance use than those without disability payments. Potential policy responses to misspending of disability checks include financial counseling that discourages spending on drugs, and the assignment of a representative payee to prevent misuse of benefits for substances. Assignment of a representative payee per se has not been associated with reduced substance use but payeeship administered by agencies that integrate payee practice into treatment has been. Conclusion Disability payments impact the timing of substance use, but receipt of disability payments is not associated with more overall substance use than unalleviated poverty. Money management-based clinical interventions, which may involve assignment of a representative payee, can minimize the purchase of substances with disability payments. PMID:21338431

  14. Turbulent Soret Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Haugen, Nils Erland L.; Rogachevskii, Igor

    2015-11-01

    We study, turbophoresis-the clustering properties of heavy inertial passive particles in a inhomogeneous turbulent flow-by direct numerical simulation of inhomogeneously forced turbulence in a periodic box without walls. The forcing is a periodic function of one coordinate direction. The inertial particles cluster near the minima of the turbulent kinetic energy. Draw- ing analogy with Soret effect in near-equilibrium thermodynamics, we can describe the flux of particles as a sum of two fluxes, described by two turbulent transport coefficients, turbulent diffusion of particles and turbophoretic coefficient. The second (turbophoretic) flux is assumed to be proportional to the gradient of turbulent intensity. The ratio of these two coefficients would be analogous to Soret coefficient, hence we call this the turbulent Soret coefficient. Our numerical calculation show that such a description is a good description of our data. Furthermore, we find that the turbulent Soret coefficient is a non-monotonic function of the particle inertia (described the the Stokes number); i.e. beyond a critical Stokes number the clustering of the particles decreases, but in a smooth manner. Swedish Research Council, Wallenberg Foundations.

  15. Gravitomagnetic effects in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Jackson Levi; Sultana, Joseph; Adami, Kristian Zarb

    2013-10-01

    Gravitomagnetic effects are characterized by two phenomena: first, the geodetic effect which describes the precession of the spin of a gyroscope in a free orbit around a massive object, and second the Lense-Thirring effect which describes the precession of the orbital plane about a rotating source mass. We calculate both these effects in the fourth-order theory of conformal Weyl gravity for the test case of circular orbits. We show that for the geodetic effect a linear term arises which may be interesting for high radial orbits, whereas for the Lense-Thirring effect the additional term has a diminishing effect for most orbits. Circular orbits are also considered in general leading up to a generalization of Kepler’s third law.

  16. Public Opinion on Mass Media Effects: Perceived Societal Effects and Perceived Personal Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiedge, James T.

    The questionnaire in a study of perceived mass media effects included nine statements about the possible negative effects of the mass media, to which respondents could agree, disagree, or indicate "no opinion," and an open-ended question that asked the subjects what effects the mass media had on them personally. Most of the 340 respondents showed

  17. The cosmogonic shadow effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Michel M.

    The Alfven-Arrhenius mechanism was examined. Dust, interacting with a corotating thermal plasma in a dipole magnetosphere, plays a central role. The rotational effects on the distribution of the plasma was determined. The limits on its parameters in order that small disturbance of the dipole field, quasineutrality and thermal equilibrium be maintained under the action of gravitational, electromagnetic and centrifugal forces was determined. The field aligned components of these forces vanish at the equator and at the 2/3 points. The points at which the kinetic energy of the corotational motion is 2/3 of the local Keplerian energy. For a plasma corotating with an angular velocity omega approximately 10(-4) rad/sec, the plasma temperature and density must satisfy 10(-1) less than T(e.v.) less than 10(2) and 10(T(e.v.) squared) less than np (1/cm cubed) less than 10(6). The dust particles, assumed collisionless, are almost corotating and move freely along the field line in the one-dimensional equivalent (gravitational plus centrifugal) potential. The density of the dust particles will be minimum at the equator and maximum at the 2/3 points. The charge on a dust particle remains essentially constant as the particle makes small excursions across the plasma shell. Coulomb collisions with the plasma particles will eventually (approximately 1 year) cause the distribution of dust particles along a field line to relax towards thermal equilibrium. Neutralization will occur at the 2/3 points if the ratio of dust to plasma density is sufficiently large, i.e., if (nd(2/3))/(n sub p(2/3)) greater than 10(-3)/(rg) (mu) (T(e.v.)) (rg is the grain radius in microns and T e.v.) the plasma temperature. The fraction of infalling dust particles that can actually contribute to the Alfven-Arrhenius mechanism is rather small.

  18. Neuroendocrine effects of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Russel J.

    1991-09-01

    The light/dark cycle to which animals, and possibly humans, are exposed has a major impact on their physiology. The mechanisms whereby specific tissues respond to the light/dark cycle involve the pineal hormone melatonin. The pineal gland, an end organ of the visual system in mammals, produces the hormone melatonin only at night, at which time it is released into the blood. The duration of elevated nightly melatonin provides every tissue with information about the time of day and time of year (in animals that are kept under naturally changing photoperiods). Besides its release in a circadian mode, melatonin is also discharged in a pulsatile manner; the physiological significance, if any, of pulsatile melatonin release remains unknown. The exposure of animals including man to light at night rapidly depresses pineal melatonin synthesis and, therefore, blood melatonin levels drop precipitously. The brightness of light at night required to depress melatonin production is highly species specific. In general, the pineal gland of nocturnally active mammals, which possess rod-dominated retinas, is more sensitive to inhibition by light than is the pineal gland of diurnally active animals (with cone-dominated retinas). Because of the ability of the light/dark cycle to determine melatonin production, the photoperiod is capable of influencing the function of a variety of endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Indeed, melatonin is a ubiquitously acting pineal hormone with its effects on the neuroendocrine system having been most thoroughly investigated. Thus, in nonhuman photoperiodic mammals melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction; in humans also, the indole has been implicated in the control of reproductive physiology.

  19. Health effects of phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Branca, Francesco; Lorenzetti, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant-derived phytochemicals, whose common biological roles are to protect plants from stress or to act as part of a plant's defense mechanism. Although composed of a wide group of nonsteroidal compounds of diverse structure, phytoestrogens have been shown to bind estrogen receptors and to behave as weak agonist/antagonist in both animals and humans. Phytoestrogens include mainly isoflavones (IF), coumestans, and lignans. These compounds are known to be present in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains commonly consumed by humans. IF are found in legumes--mainly soybeans--whereas flaxseed is a major source of lignans, and coumestans are significantly present in clover, alfalfa and soybean sprouts. 8-Prenyl flavonoids are common in vegetables. Bioavailability of IF requires an initial hydrolysis of the sugar moiety by intestinal beta-glucosidases to allow the following uptake by enterocytes and the flow through the peripheral circulation. Following absorption, IF are then reconjugated mainly to glucuronic acid and to a lesser degree to sulphuric acid. Gut metabolism seems key to the determination of the potency of action. Several epidemiological studies correlated high dose consumptions of soy IF with multiple beneficial effects on breast and prostate cancers, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and stroke, and neurodegeneration. For the relief of menopausal symptoms a consumption of 60 mg aglycones/day has been suggested; for cancer prevention a consumption between 50 and 110 mg aglycones/day is considered beneficial to reduce risks of breast, colon and prostate cancer; to decrease cardiovascular risk a minimum intake of 40-60 mg aglycones/day, together with about 25 g of soy protein has been suggested. For improvement in bone mineral density, 60-100 mg aglycones/day for a period of at least 6-12 months could be beneficial. PMID:15702593

  20. Testing the Perey effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, L. J.; Nunes, F. M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: The effects of nonlocal potentials have historically been approximately included by applying a correction factor to the solution of the corresponding equation for the local equivalent interaction. This is usually referred to as the Perey correction factor. Purpose: In this work we investigate the validity of the Perey correction factor for single-channel bound and scattering states, as well as in transfer (p,d) cross sections. Method: We solve the scattering and bound state equations for nonlocal interactions of the Perey-Buck type, through an iterative method. Using the distorted wave Born approximation, we construct the T matrix for (p,d) on 17O, 41Ca, 49Ca, 127Sn, 133Sn, and 209Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. Results: We found that for bound states, the Perey corrected wave function resulting from the local equation agreed well with that from the nonlocal equation in the interior region, but discrepancies were found in the surface and peripheral regions. Overall, the Perey correction factor was adequate for scattering states, with the exception of a few partial waves corresponding to the grazing impact parameters. These differences proved to be important for transfer reactions. Conclusions: If only local optical potentials are used in the analysis of experimental (p,d) cross sections, without any correction factors, as compared to the analysis with nonlocal potentials, the spectroscopic factors could be affected by approximately 20%. The Perey correction factor does offer an improvement over taking a direct local equivalent solution. However, if the desired accuracy is to be better than 10%, the exact solution of the nonlocal equation should be pursued.

  1. Effect of handling on positive and negative contrast effects.

    PubMed

    Fagen, J W; Rycek, R F

    1980-01-01

    The effects of early handling on the exhibition of positive and negative contrast effects were investigated. Over two 4-day testing sessions, animals were given alternating 1-min access periods to 2 bottles containing either 32 or 4% sucrose solutions. Measures of lick rate and latency to switch bottles revealed that both handled and nonhandled animals exhibited contrast effects of equal magnitudes. The results did not support an emotional interpretation of contrast effects but were interpreted as support for the perceptual theory of this phenomenon. PMID:7353721

  2. The wow effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Pagnotta, Paola; Trentini, Gabriella; Cirotti, Tiziana; Parrettini, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Teaching science at elementary school is a hard work for scientists since we usually use to talk to colleagues by using technical and specific words not understandable by general public and school students. Finding plain language for explaining what is the research and for describing scientific topics was the objective of this work. In collaboration with the school teachers, I organized a series of meetings describing the same subject with different approaches and, at the end of the test-period, we did a survey within the 60 students (10-11 years old) for understanding which was the most attractive approach for them. The survey asked to the students the 3 topics (which could be a sentence, an activity or simply a picture) that they remember at most from all the meetings. Later on we asked why they have chosen those topics. The common topic was atmospheric and space science and it was approached by using, books, videos, frontal lectures with the support of pictures and other material, and with direct hands-on lab such as 3D puzzles for building a satellite. Nobody highlights having read a book. The majority of the students (male and female) really appreciated having built their own satellite (wow, I have done it!) and how's the life into the International Space Station (wow, everything flies there and they drink the pee!). Many female students were fascinated by the stars and by the Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti (wow, an Italian woman is there!) while many boys were attracted by the technology evolution (wow, how a mobile phone could be that big?!). Surprisingly 3 students remember a quick (showed for just a few seconds) and blurred picture showing the glory effect by aircraft (wow, a circular rainbow!). The survey shows how the students mostly appreciate the hands-on labs and being active and creative, their attention decreases but it is still active with frontal lectures or videos showing them real examples or something impacting their day-life.

  3. Radiation Effects: Core Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

  4. Geologic effects of hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coch, Nicholas K.

    1994-08-01

    Hurricanes are intense low pressure systems of tropical origin. Hurricane damage results from storm surge, wind, and inland flooding from heavy rainfall. Field observations and remote sensing of recent major hurricanes such as Hugo (1989), Andrew (1992) and Iniki (1992) are providing new insights into the mechanisms producing damage in these major storms. Velocities associated with hurricanes include the counterclockwise vortex winds flowing around the eye and the much slower regional winds that steer hurricane and move it forward. Vectorial addition of theseof these two winds on the higher effective wind speed than on the left side. Coast-parallel hurricane tracks keep the weaker left side of the storm against the coast, whereas coast-normal tracks produce a wide swath of destruction as the more powerful right side of the storm cuts a swath of destruction hundreds of kilometers inland. Storm surge is a function of the wind speed, central pressure, shelf slope, shoreline configuration, and anthropogenic alterations to the shoreline. Maximum surge heights are not under the eye of the hurricane, where the pressure is lowest, but on the right side of the eye at the radius of maximum winds, where the winds are strongest. Flood surge occurs as the hurricane approaches land and drives coastal waters, and superimposed waves, across the shore. Ebb surge occurs when impounded surface water flows seaward as the storm moves inland. Flood and ebb surge damage have been greatly increased in recent hurricanes as a result of anthropogenic changes along the shoreline. Hurricane wind damage occurs on three scales — megascale, mesoscale and microscale. Local wind damage is a function of wind speed, exposure and structural resistance to velocity pressure, wind drag and flying debris. Localized extreme damage is caused by gusts that can locally exceed sustained winds by a factor of two in areas where there is strong convective activity. Geologic changes occuring in hurricanes include beach erosion, dune erosion, inlet formation from flood and ebb surge, landscape changes through tree destruction by wind and nearshore channeling and sedimentation resulting from ebb surge. Multi-decadal wet and dry cycles in West Africa seem to be associated with increases (wet periods) and decreases (dry periods) in the frequency of Atlantic Coast landfalling hurricanes. Coastalzone population and development has increased markedly in a time of low hurricane frequency in the 24 year dry cycle from1970 to the present. However, no previous climatic cycle in this century has exceeded 26 years. We may entering a multi-decadal cycle of greater hurricane activity, placing these highly urbanized shorelines in considerable danger.

  5. Magnetocaloric effect in manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Koroleva, L. I. Zashchirinskii, D. M.; Morozov, A. S.; Szymczak, R.

    2012-10-15

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, Sm{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3}, and PrBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} compounds is studied. The maximum values of MCE ({Delta}T{sub max}) determined by a direct method in the second and third compositions and in La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} are found to be much lower than those calculated from the change of the magnetic part of entropy in the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and the Neel temperature (T{sub N}) range. The negative contribution of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) part of a sample in the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} system at 0.1 {<=} x {<=} 0.3 decreases {Delta}T{sub max} and changes the {Delta}T(T) curve shape, shifting its maximum 20-40 K above T{sub C}. Lower values of {Delta}T{sub max} are detected in the range T{sub C} = 130-142 K in polycrystalline and single-crystal Sm{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.45}MnO{sub 3} samples cooled in air. If such samples were cooled in an oxygen atmosphere (which restores broken Mn-O-Mn bonds and, thus, increases the volume of CE-type AFM clusters), the maximum in the temperature dependence of MCE is located at T{sub N} (243 K) for CE-type AFM clusters. A magnetic field applied to a sample during the MCE measurements transforms these clusters into a ferromagnetic (FM) state, and both types of clusters decompose at T = T{sub N}. The PrBaMn{sub 2}O{sub 6} composition undergoes an AFM-FM transition at 231 K, and the temperature dependence of its MCE has a sharp minimum at T = 234 K, where MCE is negative, and a broad maximum covering T{sub C}. The absolute values of MCE at both extrema are several times lower than those calculated from the change in the magnetic entropy. These phenomena are explained by the presence of a magnetically heterogeneous FM-AFM state in these manganites.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide induced relaxation in porcine pulmonary arteries in vitro is mediated by EDRF and cyclic GMP

    SciTech Connect

    Zellers, T.; McCormick, J. )

    1991-03-15

    Xanthine and xanthine oxidase induced relaxations in porcine pulmonary arteries in vitro are augmented in the presence of the endothelium and abolished by catalase, implicating hydrogen peroxide as an endothelium-dependent effector. To determine the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}O{sub 2} causes relaxations, isolated rings of fifth order porcine pulmonary artery, with (E{sup +}) and without (E{sup {minus}}) endothelium, were suspended in organ baths filled with buffer, and isometric tension was recorded. Hydrogen peroxide caused concentration-dependent, endothelium-augmented relaxations which were abolished by catalase and hydroquinone and reversed by L-nitroarginine and methylene blue. Prostacyclin (PGI{sub 2}) levels, measured after a two minute exposure to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in rings with endothelium were comparable to controls. This concentration of PGI{sub 2} does not cause relaxations in these rings. These data suggest that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulates the release of an EDRF, causing relaxations mediated by cyclic GMP, which is independent of prostacyclin.

  7. Antigonococcal effects of vaginal tampons.

    PubMed

    Arko, R J; Wong, K H; Smith, S J; Finley-Price, K G

    1983-04-01

    Different brands of vaginal tampons varied significantly (p less than 0.0001) in their anti-bacterial effects when tested with 46 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal strains recovered from patients with disseminated infections were substantially more sensitive to the anti-bacterial effects of tampons than were strains from patients with uncomplicated genital infections. Strains from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease were moderately sensitive. Tampons showing strong in-vitro antigonococcal effects were also generally effective in vivo in eliminating gonococcal infections from subcutaneous chambers in mice. Extracts of the Rely tampon showed no in-vitro antigonococcal effect, however, but did induce antibacterial activity when injected into subcutaneous chambers in mice. These results emphasise the importance of both in-vitro as well as in-vivo testing of tampon materials to elucidate more fully the nature of their antibacterial effects and their potential for affecting vaginal pathogens and disease processes. PMID:6403199

  8. Reverse coffee-ring effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mook Weon, Byung; Xu, Lei; Je, Jung Ho; Hwu, Yeukuang; Margaritondo, Giorgio; Weitz, David A.

    2009-03-01

    When a coffee drop dries on a solid surface, it commonly leaves a ring-like deposit along the edge, known as the coffee-ring effect. We present a reverse motion of particles in drying droplets, opposite to the coffee-ring effect. We reveal that the particle motion, initially toward the edge by the typical coffee-ring effect, is reversed to the droplet center owing to the capillary interaction generated by the droplet surface. The reverse coffee-ring effect always occurs whenever the capillary interaction prevails over the net outward force by the coffee- ring effect. The interaction predicts an inverse power-law time growth of moving distance from the edge, depending mostly on particle size and contact angle. The reverse coffee-ring effect may contribute to multiple ring formation by sweeping particles toward the center. We prove the mechanism with real-time optical, confocal, and X-ray microscopic observations of colloidal fluids.

  9. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  10. The structure of sequential effects.

    PubMed

    Gökaydin, Dinis; Navarro, Daniel J; Ma-Wyatt, Anna; Perfors, Amy

    2016-01-01

    There is a long history of research into sequential effects, extending more than one hundred years. The pattern of sequential effects varies widely with both experimental conditions as well as for different individuals performing the same experiment. Yet this great diversity of results is poorly understood, particularly with respect to individual variation, which save for some passing mentions has largely gone unreported in the literature. Here we seek to understand the way in which sequential effects vary by identifying the causes underlying the differences observed in sequential effects. In order to achieve this goal we perform principal component analysis on a dataset of 158 individual results from participants performing different experiments with the aim of identifying hidden variables responsible for sequential effects. We find a latent structure consisting of 3 components related to sequential effects-2 main and 1 minor. A relationship between the 2 main components and the separate processing of stimuli and of responses is proposed on the basis of previous empirical evidence. It is further speculated that the minor component of sequential effects arises as the consequence of processing delays. Independently of the explanation for the latent variables encountered, this work provides a unified descriptive model for a wide range of different types of sequential effects previously identified in the literature. In addition to explaining individual differences themselves, it is demonstrated how the latent structure uncovered here is useful in understanding the classical problem of the dependence of sequential effects on the interval between successive stimuli. PMID:26523425

  11. Modelling of the YORP effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubov, O.

    2015-10-01

    In the talk I will review the recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the YORP effect. I describe the standard mathematical formalism used for the YORP effect, with the special focus on the limitations of the standard theory and its possible genaralizations. I discuss the sensitivity of the YORP effect to small-scale structures and the novel concept of the tangential YORP, a torque that alters even the rotation of symmetric asteroids due to uneven heat conductivity in small stones composing the surface. Finally, I consider the overall evolution of an asteroid experiencing the YORP effect.

  12. Measurement in Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Chubak, Jessica; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Kamineni, Aruna; Johnson, Eric A.; Stout, Natasha K.; Weiss, Noel S.; Doria-Rose, V. Paul; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Buist, Diana S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) on preventive services can shape policy and help patients, their providers, and public health practitioners select regimens and programs for disease prevention. Patients and providers need information about the relative effectiveness of various regimens they may choose. Decision makers need information about the relative effectiveness of various programs to offer or recommend. The goal of this paper is to define and differentiate measures of relative effectiveness of regimens and programs for disease prevention. Cancer screening is used to demonstrate how these measures differ in an example of two hypothetic screening regimens and programs. Conceptually and algebraically defined measures of relative regimen and program effectiveness are also presented. The measures evaluate preventive services that range from individual tests through organized, population-wide prevention programs. Examples illustrate how effective screening regimens may not result in effective screening programs and how measures can vary across subgroups and settings. Both regimen and program relative effectiveness measures assess benefits of prevention services in real-world settings, but each addresses different scientific and policy questions. As the body of CER grows, a common lexicon for various measures of relative effectiveness becomes increasingly important to facilitate communication and shared understanding among researchers, healthcare providers, patients, and policymakers. PMID:23597816

  13. The Worked Example Effect, the Generation Effect, and Element Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ouhao; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    The worked example effect indicates that examples providing full guidance on how to solve a problem result in better test performance than a problem-solving condition with no guidance. The generation effect occurs when learners generating responses demonstrate better test performance than learners in a presentation condition that provides an

  14. The Worked Example Effect, the Generation Effect, and Element Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ouhao; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    The worked example effect indicates that examples providing full guidance on how to solve a problem result in better test performance than a problem-solving condition with no guidance. The generation effect occurs when learners generating responses demonstrate better test performance than learners in a presentation condition that provides an…

  15. The Estimated Effects of Service Learning on Students' Intercultural Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgo, Cindy A.

    2015-01-01

    As the higher education landscape continues to diversify, intercultural effectiveness comes to the forefront among important outcomes for students. Service learning is one programmatic tool that institutions of higher education can use to foster the development of intercultural effectiveness. This study provides evidence that service learning is…

  16. Effects beyond Effectiveness: Teaching as a Performative Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Warren Mark

    2013-01-01

    This article develops the familiar metaphor of teaching as performance towards a definition of "teaching as performative act," where words and actions aim to effect cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes in learners. To what extent, however, are the consequences of pedagogical actions commensurate with their intended effects? Can a science…

  17. EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.

    2012-02-27

    The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

  18. TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSIS AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSES AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS
    Benignus, V.A., Research Psychologist, ORD, NHEERL, Human Studies Division,
    919-966-6242, benignus.vernon@epa.gov
    Boyes, W.K., Supervisory Health Scientist, ORD, NHEERL, Neurotoxicology Division
    919-541-...

  19. Costs of antibiotic resistance separating trait effects and selective effects

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Alex R; Angst, Daniel C; Schiessl, Konstanze T; Ackermann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can impair bacterial growth or competitive ability in the absence of antibiotics, frequently referred to as a cost of resistance. Theory and experiments emphasize the importance of such effects for the distribution of resistance in pathogenic populations. However, recent work shows that costs of resistance are highly variable depending on environmental factors such as nutrient supply and population structure, as well as genetic factors including the mechanism of resistance and genetic background. Here, we suggest that such variation can be better understood by distinguishing between the effects of resistance mechanisms on individual traits such as growth rate or yield (trait effects) and effects on genotype frequencies over time (selective effects). We first give a brief overview of the biological basis of costs of resistance and how trait effects may translate to selective effects in different environmental conditions. We then review empirical evidence of genetic and environmental variation of both types of effects and how such variation may be understood by combining molecular microbiological information with concepts from evolution and ecology. Ultimately, disentangling different types of costs may permit the identification of interventions that maximize the cost of resistance and therefore accelerate its decline. PMID:25861384

  20. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug–side effect pairs. For 199 drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de. PMID:20087340

  1. Effect of orientation anisotropy on calculating effective electrical conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, Timothy D.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2014-05-01

    This paper develops an analytical effective medium theory (EMT) equation for calculating the effective conductivity of a mixture based on Maxwell's and Maxwell-Garnett's theories, extended to higher volume fractions using Bruggeman's unsymmetrical treatment (BUT), with a long term goal of extending the treatment to mixtures more representative of real materials in order to calculate their effective electrical conductivity. The development accounts for spheroid shaped inclusions of varying degrees of anisotropic orientation. The orientation is described by the introduction of a distribution function. Two methodologies valid for the inclusion dilute limit were used to evaluate the effective conductivity: one based on Maxwell's far field approach, and the other based on the Maxwell-Garnett in the matrix approach. It was found that while the dilute limit equations for the effective conductivity were different, the final EMT equations derived by applying BUT collapsed to the same formula which was generalized for anisotropic orientation based on the distribution function presented.

  2. Effects of Small Oscillations on the Effective Area

    SciTech Connect

    Cotroneo, V.; Conconi, P.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-11

    We analyze the effective area of the Simbol-X mirrors as a function of the off-axis angle for small oscillations. A reduction is expected due to: 1) geometrical effects, because some of the photons miss the secondary mirror surface; 2) reflectivity effects, caused by the variation of the coating reflectivity with the incidence angle. The former are related to the length of the two mirror surfaces, and can be reduced by making the secondary mirror longer. The second ones are energy-dependent, and strongly related to the characteristics of the reflecting coating. These effects are analyzed by means of ray-tracing simulations in order to optimize the mirror and coating design, aiming to improve the effective area stability.

  3. Effective doses, guidelines & regulations.

    PubMed

    Burch, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have developed regulations or guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacteria in drinking water, and in some cases in water used for recreational activity and agriculture. The main focus internationally has been upon microcystin toxins, produced predominantly by Microcystis aeruginosa. This is because microcystins are widely regarded as the most significant potential source of human injury from cyanobacteria on a world-wide scale. Many international guidelines have taken their lead from the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional guideline of 1 microg L(-1) for microcystin-LR in drinking-water released in 1998 (WHO 2004). The WHO guideline value is stated as being 'provisional', because it covers only microcystin-LR, for reasons that the toxicology is limited and new data for toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins are being generated. The derivation of this guideline is based upon data that there is reported human injury related to consumption of drinking water containing cyanobacteria, or from limited work with experimental animals. It was also recognised that at present the human evidence for microcystin tumor promotion is inadequate and animal evidence is limited. As a result the guideline is based upon the model of deriving a Tolerable Daily intake (TDI) from an animal study No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL), with the application of appropriate safety or uncertainty factors. The resultant WHO guideline by definition is the concentration of a toxin that does not result in any significant risk to health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption. Following the release of this WHO provisional guideline many countries have either adopted it directly (e.g., Czech Republic, France, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Brazil and Spain), or have adopted the same animal studies, TDI and derivation convention to arrive at slight variants based upon local requirements (e.g., Australia, Canada). Brazil currently has the most comprehensive federal legislation which includes a mandatory standard of 1 microg L-(1) for microcystins, and also recommendations for saxitoxins (3 microg L(-1)) and for cylindrospermopsin (15 microg L(-1)). Although guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacterial cell numbers for recreational waters are in place in a number of countries, it is consid ered that there is currently insufficient information to derive sound guidelines for the use of water contaminated by cyanobacteria or toxins for agricultural production, fisheries and ecosystem protection. In relation to the need for specific regulations for toxins for the US, the surveys that have been carried out to date would indicate that the priority compounds for regulation, based upon their incidence and distribution, are microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and Anatoxin-a. Additional research is required to support guideline development, including whole-of-life animal studies with each of the known cyanotoxins. In view of the animal studies that indicate that microcystins may act as tumor promoters, and also some evidence of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity for cylindrospermopsin, it may be appropriate to carry out whole-of-life animal studies with both toxicity and carcinogenicity as end-points. In relation to microcystins, it is known that there a large number of congeners, and the toxico-dynamics and kinetics of these variants are not well understood. Further research is needed to consider the approach to take in formulating health advisories or regulations for toxin mixtures, i.e. multiple microcystins, or mixtures of toxin types. An important requirement for regulation is the availability of robust monitoring and analytical protocols for toxins. Currently rapid and economical screening or quantitative analytical methods are not available to the water industry or natural resource managers, and this is a priority before the release of guidelines and regulations. There is insufficient information available in a range of the categories usually required to satisfy comprehensive risk assessment process for the major toxins to currently adopt any of the international guidelines as regulations in the US. The major limitations that need to be overcome include: the capacity to deal with multiple toxin congeners, the absence of robust analytical methods for compliance monitoring, and the absence of certified toxin standards to support analyses. However, the current WHO provisional guideline for microcystin-LR, or the other national guideline variants that are based upon it, (e.g., Canadian, Australian) may be appropriate to adopt as a health advisory in the short-term, while regulations are developed. The bathing and recreationa water guidelines developed in other countries could also be translated fo use as recreational water guidelines situation in the US. PMID:18461792

  4. Counselor Effectiveness Through Radio Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This study determined the effectiveness of the use of radio as a means of providing immediate feedback on student counselors in a practicum setting. Using a non-equivalent group experimental design, 10 experimental subjects were compared to 10 control subjects with respect to counselor effectiveness. The experimental subjects were given immediate…

  5. Teaching the Photoelectric Effect Inductively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that students have difficulty understanding the underlying process of the photoelectric effect. Thus, this study sought to utilize an inductively situated lesson for teaching the photoelectric effect, hypothesizing that this type of enquiry would help learners delve deeper into the principles of the phenomenon and provide a

  6. Modeling Heavy Ion Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, Thilo

    IBT requires a consideration of the complex dependencies of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). In this chapter, several approaches based on biophysical modeling are reviewed with an emphasis on the Local Effect Model, since this is the only biophysical model that has been used for treatment planning. Basic considerations, the comparison to experimental data, and the integration into a treatment planning system are summarized.

  7. Space environment effects (M0006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelo, J. A., Jr.; Madonna, R. G.; Altadonna, L. P.; Dagostino, M. D.; Chang, J. Y.; Alfano, R. R.; Caplan, V. L.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of long term exposure to the near Earth space environment on advanced electrooptical and radiation sensor components were examined. The effect of long duration spaceflight on the germination rate of selected terrestrial plant seeds is observed in exobiological experiments.

  8. Hiring Effective Secondary School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlothlin, Jason M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot

    2008-01-01

    Today's effective school counselors are integral in education reform, school leadership, and student achievement. It is typically the responsibility of building principals to hire effective school counselors. This article builds on previous literature and provides principals with questions to ask and information to gather that may be helpful in…

  9. Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Lance D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching

  10. Effective Schools: Mirror or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Tommy M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes characteristics which are frequently mentioned as contributing to effective schools. Among the characteristics are that they improve the effectiveness and efficiency of students' work by organizing material and/or instruction, increase the amount of work students perform per unit of time, reduce distractions, and encourage…

  11. Retrieval Effectiveness on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, Jacques; Picard, Justin

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of search engines in Web usability and analyzes and evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of various indexing and searching strategies on a new Web text collection. Highlights include preprocessing techniques that might improve retrieval effectiveness; and hyperlinks as useful sources of evidence in improving retrieval…

  12. Superconducting Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1995-01-01

    Devices offer switching speeds greater than semiconducting counterparts. High-Tc superconducting field-effect transistors (SUPEFETs) investigated for use as electronic switches in delay-line-type microwave phase shifters. Resemble semiconductor field-effect transistors in some respects, but their operation based on different principle; namely, electric-field control of transition between superconductivity and normal conductivity.

  13. Effect Size in Clinical Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and

  14. Switchgrass biochar effects two aridisols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biochar has received growing attention with regards to improving the physico-chemical properties of highly weathered Ultisols and Oxisols, yet very little research has focused on effects in Aridisols. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of either low or high tempera...

  15. Classroom Composition and Peer Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John A. C.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter examines the extent to which the composition of classes affects learning outcomes. The aim is to explore peer effects when students are organized into classes on the basis of ability, ethnicity, or gender, as well as the effects of multigrade and multi-age classes and class size. The argument is defended that these composition factors…

  16. Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant…

  17. Effective Evaluation through Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluators in the HPI field can improve their performance program results with effective evaluation through appreciative inquiry. Appreciative inquiry and evaluation have many similarities, and when combined they add value and effectiveness to the measurement of intervention results. Appreciative inquiry is beneficial in many evaluation contexts:…

  18. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  19. School Composition and Peer Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrupp, Martin; Lauder, Hugh; Robinson, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Despite over 30 years of research into the effects of school composition or "mix," there is remarkably little consensus over the nature and size of school compositional and peer effects. Developing an analytical review of international research in this area, this chapter begins by discussing conceptual and methodological problems related to…

  20. [Between Werther and Papageno effects].

    PubMed

    Scherr, S; Steinleitner, A

    2015-05-01

    Research on the impact of suicide depictions in the media is traditionally focussed on two possible outcomes: on the one hand, there is ample evidence for additional copycat effects after media coverage of suicides referred to as the Werther effect but on the other hand, suicide rates decrease after appropriate media depictions of suicides referred to as the Papageno effect. It is still uncertain what exactly qualifies studies that only limitedly support an imitative or preventive media effect, i.e. studies with ambiguous findings, as they are often disregarded. The present literature review focuses on equivocal studies (n = 25) on copycat suicides that were systematically analyzed based on theoretically derived criteria. The results of the systematic analysis of all identified studies imply that media effects on suicidality are better understood and discussed as a continuum between the two extremes that were introduced as either a damaging Werther effect or a beneficial Papageno effect. Future studies must clarify what factors contribute to a shift from ambiguous findings to harmful media effects on individual suicidality. PMID:25700723

  1. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  2. How Principals Support Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current standards and accountability regime describes effective teaching as the ability to increase student achievement on standardized tests. This narrow definition of effectiveness can lead principals to create school cultures myopically focused on student achievement data. A "laser-like focus on academic achievement," if employed too…

  3. Teaching the Photoelectric Effect Inductively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that students have difficulty understanding the underlying process of the photoelectric effect. Thus, this study sought to utilize an inductively situated lesson for teaching the photoelectric effect, hypothesizing that this type of enquiry would help learners delve deeper into the principles of the phenomenon and provide a…

  4. Effect Size in Clinical Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

  5. Stalking the Elusive "Vividness" Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Shelley E.; Thompson, Suzanne C.

    1982-01-01

    Vividly presented information is thought to be more persuasive and have more impact on judgments. An examination of the proposed processes in vividness effects (memorability, imageability and affective impact) reveals these arguments are themselves problematic. Effects may occur in differential attention conditions, whereas absolute attention is…

  6. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    PubMed

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745

  7. Octupole correlation effects in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1992-08-01

    Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions.

  8. Octupole correlation effects in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions.

  9. Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant

  10. Evaluations of the Overjustification Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Kerri P.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of reinforcement-based procedures has been well established in the behavior analysis literature and is commonly used in educational settings. However, the overjustification effect is one commonly cited criticism of programs that use tangible items as reinforcers. In the current studies, we evaluated the effects of tangible rewards…

  11. Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Lance D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching…

  12. Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective rangeland management requires careful consideration of the possible cumulative effects of different management options prior to making major management decisions. State-and-transition (S/T) models, based on ecological sites, capture our understanding ecosystem functioning and can be used t...

  13. Effects of Ritalin on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, Robert B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes the use of "Ritalin" to calm overactive children. The drug's side effects are reported, and research on the effect of "Ritalin" on reading performance in the classroom is reviewed. It is concluded that use of stimulant drugs to help reading underachievers is not supported by research. (Author/JDD)

  14. Electron Talbot effect on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Jorge A.; Varga, Kalman; Yan, Jia-An; Bevan, Kirk H.

    2016-03-01

    The Talbot effect, employing graphene as a grating and using electron matter waves, is simulated using density functional theory and solving the Helmholtz equation. Talbot fractional images and long wavelength images are calculated. The results show focusing effects that suggest possible applications for wavepacket reshaping and interferometry.

  15. Evolution of maternal effect senescence

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton’s evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton’s age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745

  16. Large effective-area fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaai-Jazi, Ahmad; Hattori, H. T.; Baghdadi, J. A.

    1999-04-01

    Refractive-index nonlinearities have negligible effect on the performance of short-haul fiber-optic communication links utilizing electronic repeaters. However, in long optical fiber links, nonlinearities can cause severe signal degradations. To mitigate nonlinear effects, new generation of fibers, referred to as large effective-area fibers, have been introduced in recent years. This paper reviews the latest research and development work on these fibers conducted by several research groups around the world. Attention is focused on a class of large effective-area fibers that are based on a depressed-core multiple-cladding design. Transmission properties, including dispersion, dispersion slope, effective area, mode-field diameter, bending loss, polarization-mode dispersion, and cutoff wavelength are discussed. Dispersion-shifted, non-zero dispersion-shifted, and dispersion-flattened designs are addressed. Design optimization, particularly with regard to effective area, bending loss, and polarization-mode dispersion, is elaborated upon. The trade-off between effective-area and bending loss is emphasized. Results for dispersion-shifted and non-zero dispersion-shifted large effective-area fibers with zero polarization-mode dispersion and low bending loss at 1.55 micrometer wavelength are presented.

  17. Herbicide Effects on Plant Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of herbicides on plant disease is an important, but generally overlooked, aspect of integrated pest management. Furthermore, these interactions can be crucial contributors to the success or failure of the biocontrol of weeds with microbes. Indirectly, through their strong effects on pla...

  18. Respiratory Effects of Passive Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1991-01-01

    The acute and chronic respiratory effects of environmental cigarette smoke (other than lung cancer) are reviewed. Effects observed are not easily explained. There is strong evidence for an increased incidence of chronic respiratory disease in children of smokers and mounting evidence that occupational and domestic exposure increases the risk of chronic obstructive lung disease in adults. Imagesp962-a PMID:21229076

  19. Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

  20. Effect of surface morphology on kinetic compensation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuniga-Hansen, Nayeli; Silbert, Leonardo E.

    The existence of the kinetic compensation effect, observed in many fields of science, continues to be debated and believed to be a mathematical artifact. Recently, we performed a computational study of the thermal desorption of interacting adsorbates from an energetically homogeneous surface and we observed that the kinetic compensation effect indeed occurs to varying degrees depending on interaction strength. However, other factors which may lead to a kinetic compensation effect have yet to be explored. In the present work, using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we study the effects of substrate topology on thermal desorption. We focus on differences between ordered and disordered surfaces at a fixed site coordination number. The rates of desorption depend on surface configuration due to the inherent differences in the local environments of adsorbing sites. While the compensation effect persists for the disordered substrate, it is more strongly influenced by variations in the preexponential factor rather than the activation energy which dominates in the ordered lattice. We expect our results to provide a deeper insight into the microscopic events that originate compensation effects in our system of study but also in other fields where these effects have been reported.

  1. Clinical side effects during aerosol therapy: cutaneous and ocular effects.

    PubMed

    Geller, David E

    2007-01-01

    Aerosolized medications maximize clinical benefit by targeting the airways and minimize side effects by reducing (though not eliminating) systemic exposure. Aerosolized drugs delivered with a facemask may inadvertently deposit on the face and in the eyes, raising concerns about cutaneous and ocular side effects with these drugs. Cases of anisocoria have been reported from exposure of the eyes to aerosol bronchodilators. Whether inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) can cause skin and eye problems like those seen with systemic or topical steroids is more difficult to answer. Patients who take ICS may have other corticosteroid exposures, or have other conditions that predispose them to side effects, making the analysis of the ICS risk challenging. Also, many studies were not designed to search for cutaneous or ocular effects, or may have been too short to detect these effects. Nevertheless, ICS have been associated with an increased risk of skin thinning, bruising, cataracts and possibly glaucoma in adults, but not in children. The risks increase with advanced age, higher doses, and longer duration of use. In children, the risks of cataracts and glaucoma were negligible with ICS, whether a mouthpiece or a mask interface was used. Side effects like skin rash and conjunctivitis occurred at low frequencies similar to placebo or comparator drugs. We do not know whether exposed children will have increased risks from ICS later in life. Therefore, it is wise to avoid face and eye deposition when possible, and to use the minimally effective dose. PMID:17411401

  2. Synaptic Effects Induced by Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) has effects on numerous cellular molecular targets, and alterations in synaptic function are prominent among these effects. Acute exposure to EtOH activates or inhibits the function of proteins involved in synaptic transmission, while chronic exposure often produces opposing and/or compensatory/homeostatic effects on the expression, localization, and function of these proteins. Interactions between different neurotransmitters (e.g., neuropeptide effects on release of small molecule transmitters) can also influence both acute and chronic EtOH actions. Studies in intact animals indicate that the proteins affected by EtOH also play roles in the neural actions of the drug, including acute intoxication, tolerance, dependence, and the seeking and drinking of EtOH. This chapter reviews the literature describing these acute and chronic synaptic effects of EtOH and their relevance for synaptic transmission, plasticity, and behavior. PMID:21786203

  3. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research. PMID:26331344

  4. Confinement Effect on the Effective Viscosity of Plasticized Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Peng, D.; Ogata, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yang, Z.; Fujii, Y.; Yamada, N. L.; Lam, C. H.; Tsui, Ophelia K. C.

    We have measured the effective viscosity of polystyrene films with a small (4 wt%) added amount of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) deposited on silica. A broad range of molecular weights, Mw, from 13.7 to 2,100 kg/mol was investigated. Our result shows that for the thin films with Mw <~100 kg/mol, the addition of DOP causes the effective viscosity to decrease by a factor of ~4, independent of Mw. But for the higher Mw films, the effective viscosity of the DOP added films creeps towards that of the neat films with increasing Mw. A model assuming the effective viscosity to be dominated by enhanced surface mobility for the lower Mw films, but surface-promoted interfacial slippage for the higher Mw films is able to account for the experimental observations. We are grateful to the support of National Science Foundation through the project DMR-1310536.

  5. Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, William

    2012-02-01

    During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

  6. Cadmium and its neurotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Du, Yanli

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that has received considerable concern environmentally and occupationally. Cd has a long biological half-life mainly due to its low rate of excretion from the body. Thus, prolonged exposure to Cd will cause toxic effect due to its accumulation over time in a variety of tissues, including kidneys, liver, central nervous system (CNS), and peripheral neuronal systems. Cd can be uptaken from the nasal mucosa or olfactory pathways into the peripheral and central neurons; for the latter, Cd can increase the blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, mechanisms underlying Cd neurotoxicity remain not completely understood. Effect of Cd neurotransmitter, oxidative damage, interaction with other metals such as cobalt and zinc, estrogen-like, effect and epigenetic modification may all be the underlying mechanisms. Here, we review the in vitro and in vivo evidence of neurotoxic effects of Cd. The available finding indicates the neurotoxic effects of Cd that was associated with both biochemical changes of the cell and functional changes of central nervous system, suggesting that neurotoxic effects may play a role in the systemic toxic effects of the exposure to Cd, particularly the long-term exposure. PMID:23997854

  7. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  8. Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory: Quantum nonlocal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-04-15

    We develop the Maxwell-Garnett theory for the effective medium approximation of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles by taking into account the quantum spatial dispersion effects in dielectric response of nanoparticles. We derive a quantum nonlocal generalization of the standard Maxwell-Garnett formula, by means the linearized quantum hydrodynamic theory in conjunction with the Poisson equation as well as the appropriate additional quantum boundary conditions.

  9. The Effective School Process: Alive and Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara O.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses status of effective-school movement, especially the work of the National Alliance for Effective Schools and those who developed the Effective Schools Process. Lists six correlates of effective schools. (PKP)

  10. Paramagnetic Meissner effect in Nb

    SciTech Connect

    Kostic, P.; Veal, B.; Paulikas, A.P.; Welp, U.; Todt, V.R.; Gu, C.; Geiser, U.; Williams, J.M.; Carlson, K.D.; Klemm, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), or Wohlleben effect, in which the field-cooled magnetization of superconducting samples is paramagnetic below {ital T}{sub {ital c}}, has been reported to occur in some samples of a variety of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} cuprate superconductors. It has been proposed that the effect arose in granular hole-doped cuprates from current loops with {pi} phase shifts of the superconducting order parameter at some grain-boundary junctions. It is argued that such behavior would be expected to occur in a {ital d}-wave superconductor, but not in a conventional {ital s}-wave superconductor. To test this hypothesis, we have searched for the occurrence of the effect in Nb, and have confirmed a recent report by Minhaj {ital et} {ital al}. of its occurrence in some Nb samples. For these studies, the effects of stray fields and field gradients in the measurement volume of the superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer have been carefully considered to rule out the possibility that measurement artifacts might be responsible for the apparent paramagnetic behavior in Nb. The {ital M}({ital T}) and {ital M}({ital H}) curves obtained in Nb samples that show the PME also show remarkably strong resemblance to those curves reported for the cuprate materials exhibiting the PME. Evidence is presented that the effect arises from inhomogeneously trapped flux, and is strongly influenced by sample geometry and surface effects. These results suggest that, for the effect to be observable, {ital T}{sub {ital c}} on the sample surface must be different from the bulk {ital T}{sub {ital c}}. The occurrence of the PME in Nb strongly suggests that the observation of this effect is unrelated to {ital d}-wave superconductivity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Beneficial effects of human altruism.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Mariana; D'Adamo, Paola; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2011-11-21

    In this work we review converging evidence from several lines of research which suggests that altruism in humans can be intrinsically rewarding. Various investigations illustrate how human altruism can have beneficial effects on health and wellbeing. In this contribution we propose a model that includes positive effects of altruism. These beneficial effects lead to significant changes in the dynamics of the system, favouring higher levels of altruism and facilitating abrupt changes towards cooperation. In the present model, social modulation occurs at both individual and collective levels. The potential beneficial role of altruism proposed here may account for its occurrence among non-kin and beyond reciprocity. PMID:21872608

  12. Environmental effects on spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haffner, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The effects on the natural space environments on materials are presented, which may be used for SDI applications. The current state-of-the-art knowledge of those effects was studied, and a literature search, a questionnaire mailing, and some visits to NASA and Air Force research facilities were performed. Phase 2 will be a study of what materials may be used for SDI applications and to what natural space environments they may be vulnerable. Deficiencies in knowledge of the effects of the natural space environments on these materials are to be identified and recommendations are to be made to eliminate these knowledge deficiencies.

  13. Diffraction effects in freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Melissa N.; Winston, Roland; Oliker, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    Freeform optics is a relatively new field; it uses the methods necessary to describe surfaces lacking symmetry, and/or surfaces that create non-symmetrical irradiance distributions. The Supporting Quadrics Method (SQM) developed by Oliker is a superb for generating any desired irradiance distribution. The SQM uses an envelope of quadrics to create prescribed irradiance distributions. These optical systems are tested in ray trace software, where diffraction effects are not taken into account. It is important to understand the diffraction effects present in an optic, when moving from the ray trace stage to the prototype stage. Here we study the diffraction effects of Supporting Quadrics Method.

  14. Pectin Homogalacturonans: Nanostructural Characterization of Methylesterified Domains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functionality of pectic hydrocolloids is largely dependent on the two major domains commonly found in their homogalacturonan (HG) regions, i.e., methylester protected domains (MPDs)and non methylesterified domains (NMDs). MPDs can participate in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions but unli...

  15. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  16. Loudness, noisiness, and vibration effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical measurement of noise that determines psychological and physical behavioral effects in real life is investigated. The roles of loudness and noisiness judgement in the development of these measurement procedures are also examined.

  17. Wall effects in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevallier, J. P.; Vaucheret, X.

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis of current trends in the reduction and computation of wall effects is presented. Some of the points discussed include: (1) for the two-dimensional, transonic tests, various control techniques of boundary conditions are used with adaptive walls offering high precision in determining reference conditions and residual corrections. A reduction in the boundary layer effects of the lateral walls is obtained at T2; (2) for the three-dimensional tests, the methods for the reduction of wall effects are still seldom applied due to a lesser need and to their complexity; (3) the supports holding the model of the probes have to be taken into account in the estimation of perturbatory effects.

  18. Ethnicity effects in relative pitch.

    PubMed

    Hove, Michael J; Sutherland, Mary Elizabeth; Krumhansl, Carol L

    2010-06-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the rare ability to identify a musical pitch, occurs at a higher rate among East Asian musicians. This has stimulated considerable research on the comparative contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Two studies examined whether a similar ethnicity effect is found for relative pitch (RP), identifying the distance or interval between two tones. Nonmusicians (n = 103) were trained to label musical intervals and were subsequently tested on interval identification. We establish similar ethnicity effects: Chinese and Korean participants consistently outperformed other participants in RP tasks, but not in a "relative rhythm" control task. This effect is not driven by previous musical or tone-language experience. The parallel with the East Asian advantage for AP suggests that enhanced perceptual-cognitive processing of pitch is more general and is not limited to highly trained musicians. This effect opens up many research questions concerning the environmental and genetic contributions related to this more general pitch-based ability. PMID:20551351

  19. ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Government Performance Results Act (GPRA, goal number four for Safe Communities), constitute the statutory authority and strategic framework respectively, for Agency research on non-target effects of pestici...

  20. Health Effects Assessment for Bromomethane

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  1. Crowding Effects of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    In cell membranes, membrane proteins occupy ?30% of the total surface area. Crowding effects similar to those in the solution phase are thus to be expected. In addition, there are crowding effects unique to proteins bound to the two-dimensional membranes, such as those exerted on the equilibration of a protein between two membrane orientations and on the redistribution of proteins between different locations in a cell membrane. This article aims to present a theoretical framework for understanding the various crowding effects within membranes. For illustration, the theory is used to analyze previously published experimental and simulation data. It is hoped that the article will encourage quantitative analyses in future experiments and spur systematic investigation of membrane crowding effects. PMID:19323472

  2. Key Features of Appraisal Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of performance management and appraisal in New Zealand schools. Outlines a model of principal appraisal that demonstrates an integration of development and accountability elements. Draws on three studies to identify key features of appraisal effectiveness. (SLD)

  3. Medical effects of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Upton, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    This book provides insights into published data on radiation effects in an informative summary style that will be valuable to the clinician, research scientist and health physicist. Integrating all the issues surrounding medical radiation is challenging, but well met here. Especially noteworthy are the chapters on the direct acute effects of high-dose radiation and on dose-response models for carcinogenesis. References are up to date through 1994, but important research conducted in years past is also well covered. Topics range from basic principles of physics to hormesis. The chapters thus have something for everyone: genetic effects, carcinogenesis, acute high-dose effect, in utero exposure, interaction with other environmental or host factors, probability of causation and risk perception. The coverage of hard-to-find topics coupled with extensive references are unique strengths of this text.

  4. Cardiac effects of antidepressant drugs

    PubMed Central

    Roos, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    1 The cardiovascular effects of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are reviewed and compared with those of fluvoxamine, a new 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor. 2 The TCAs have important effects on the heart, related to their anticholinergic and quinidine-like properties. The major side effects in therapeutic dosage include heart rate increase, postural hypotension and slight prolongation of the intraventricular conduction time and QT interval. In toxic dosage (or normal dosage in patients with severe heart disease) both advanced heart block and ventricular arrhythmias can occur, together with clinically important loss of myocardial contractile force. 3 Fluvoxamine has no effects on the heart except for a statistically (but not clinically) significant slowing of the heart rate. PMID:6407505

  5. Gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, R. E.; Juvinall, G. L.; Uchiyama, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    The existing work on gravitational effects on electrochemical batteries is summarized, certain conclusions are drawn, and recommendations are made for future activities in this field. The effects of sustained high-G environments on cycle silver-zinc and nickel-cadmium cells have been evaluated over four complete cycles in the region of 10 to 75 G. Although no effects on high current discharge performances or on ampere-hour capacity were noted, severe zinc migration and sloughing of active material from the zinc electrode were observed. This latter effect constitutes real damage, and over a long period of time would result in loss of capacity. It is recommended that a zero-G battery experiment be implemented. Both an orbiting satellite and a sounding rocket approach are being considered.

  6. Microvascular Effects Of Photodynamic Therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, T. J.; Fingar, Victor H.

    1989-06-01

    Tumor destruction in photodynamic therapy is the result of the combination of direct cellular toxicity and damage to tumor microvasculature. These phenomena appear to be caused by tissue interactions with toxic oxygen compounds which are formed when light interacts with photosensitizing agents. Although injury to cell membranes, mitochondria and the nucleus have been noted, such injuries by themselves tend to be sublethal and cannot totally account for the effectiveness of PDT. The mechanism of effect of PDT on the vasculature has not been fully investigated. The vascular effects are believed to involve both intravascular and perivascular phenomena. Platelet aggregation appears to be an early event. Changes to the endothelium, and smooth muscle contraction as well as increased capillary permeability have also been observed during therapy. Initial experiments using'cyclooxygenase inhibitors indicate that arachidonic acid metabolites are active elements in producing the vascular phase of the therapeutic response and that these microvasculature effects appear to be critical to permanent tumor destruction.

  7. Tunneling Effects and Precocious Planarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, F.

    1980-10-01

    The cylinder correction in the Dual Topological Unitarization (DTU) is explained as the quark pair annihilation and creation through tunneling effects. Regge trajectories α±(t) for f and ω are given numerically.

  8. Biological Effects of Directed Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, Thomas; Beason, Charles; Hitt, M. K.; Rogers, Walter; Cook, Michael

    2002-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the biological effects research conducted by Veridian Engineering personnel under contract F41624-96-C-9009 in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Radio Frequency Radiation Branch from April 1997 to April 2002. Biological effects research and consultation were provided in five major areas: Active Denial System (also known as Vehicle Mounted Active Denial System), radio frequency radiation (RFR) health and safety, non-lethal weapon biological effects research, the newly formed Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Human Effects Center of Excellence, and Biotechnology. The report is organized by research efforts within the major research areas, providing title, objective, a brief description, relevance to the AF or DoD, funding, and products.

  9. Radiation effects on structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    1991-06-28

    This report discusses the following topics on the effect radiation has on thermonuclear reactor materials: Atomic Displacements; Microstructure Evolution; Materials Engineering, Mechanics, and Design; Research on Low-Activation Steels; and Research Motivated by Grant Support.

  10. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... per 100 women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male ... for Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...

  11. Antidepressants and the Placebo Effect

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Irving

    2014-01-01

    Antidepressants are supposed to work by fixing a chemical imbalance, specifically, a lack of serotonin in the brain. Indeed, their supposed effectiveness is the primary evidence for the chemical imbalance theory. But analyses of the published data and the unpublished data that were hidden by drug companies reveals that most (if not all) of the benefits are due to the placebo effect. Some antidepressants increase serotonin levels, some decrease it, and some have no effect at all on serotonin. Nevertheless, they all show the same therapeutic benefit. Even the small statistical difference between antidepressants and placebos may be an enhanced placebo effect, due to the fact that most patients and doctors in clinical trials successfully break blind. The serotonin theory is as close as any theory in the history of science to having been proved wrong. Instead of curing depression, popular antidepressants may induce a biological vulnerability making people more likely to become depressed in the future. PMID:25279271

  12. Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Payne, J R; Kotwinski, P J; Montgomery, H E

    2004-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance. But what effect does steroid abuse have on the cardiovascular system? PMID:15084526

  13. Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

  14. [Adverse cognitive effects and ECT].

    PubMed

    Prapotnik, Michael; Pycha, Roger; Nemes, Csaba; König, Peter; Hausmann, Armand; Conca, Andreas

    2006-04-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a rapidly acting and highly effective treatment for severe and life threatening conditions seen in affective and schizophrenic diseases. Notwithstanding its therapeutic benefits, ECT remains controversial because of seizure induction, cognitive side effects, memory dysfunction and effects on cerebral physiology. These factors have raised the concern that ECT produces structural and functional brain damages. This issue continues to have a major impact on the acceptance of ECT as a therapeutic modality, both within the medical community and in public opinion. A close look at incidence, type, severity, neurofunctional and -anatomical correlates, aetiology and therapeutic approaches of the adverse cognitive effects attributed to ECT may contribute to rational and objective handling of this topic. The final chapter deals with the issue of whether ECT causes brain damage. PMID:16823537

  15. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  16. Photothermoelectric Effects in Nanoporous Silicon.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Sheng; Tsai, Chao-Yang; Chang, Chin-Kai; Huang, Cheng-Yin; Hsiao, Vincent K S; Su, Yuhlong Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The first observation of the photothermoelectric effect in a nanoporous silicon (NPSi) device indicates that the photocurrent is dependent on the position of light-induced local heating from illumination at the Au-electrode/NPSi interface. PMID:26821828

  17. Unparticle effects in neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Martinez, R.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2009-03-01

    Recently H. Georgi has introduced the concept of unparticles in order to describe the low energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective theory. We investigate its physical effects on the neutrino flux to be detected in a kilometer cubic neutrino telescope such as IceCube. We study the effects, on different observables, of the survival neutrino flux after through the Earth, and the regeneration originated in the neutral currents. We calculate the contribution of unparticle physics to the neutrino-nucleon interaction and, then, to the observables in order to evaluate detectable effects in IceCUbe. Our results are compared with the bounds obtained by other nonunderground experiments. Finally, the results are presented as an exclusion plot in the relevant parameters of the new physics stuff.

  18. Health Effects Assessment for Ammonia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  19. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  20. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  1. Drug effect prediction by computer.

    PubMed

    Gloye, E E; Marcus, R J

    1970-07-01

    The mass of information available about effects of chemical substances (drugs) on behavioral, biochemical, and physiological systems of living organisms is so extensive as to defy traditional methods of analysis. A procedure that provides automated, computerized searches for patterns among these effects has been developed and has been applied to a data base constructed of medical and chemical information from The Merck Index. One promising result is the development of new hypotheses about mechanisms of drug action. PMID:5447539

  2. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-11-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references.

  3. Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

  4. Novaya Zemlya effect and sunsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, Siebren Y.; Können, Günther P.; Lehn, Waldemar H.

    2003-01-01

    Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ effect for the Moon.

  5. Space environmental effects on materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghmaer, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of long life platforms and structures for space is discussed in terms of the space environmental effects on the materials used. Vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and charged particle radiation are among the factors considered. Research oriented toward the acquisition of long term environmental effects data needed to support the design and development of large low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit space platforms and systems is described.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:23677842

  7. Health effects of dietary phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits. PMID:22221489

  8. Workshop summary: Space environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Anspaugh, B. E.

    1991-01-01

    The workshop on Space Environmental Effects is summarized. The underlying concern of the group was related to the question of how well laboratory tests correlate with actual experience in space. The discussion ranged over topics pertaining to tests involving radiation, atomic oxygen, high voltage plasmas, contamination in low earth orbit, and new environmental effects that may have to be considered on arrays used for planetary surface power systems.

  9. Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

  10. Investigation of dynamic ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ray Chung; Muirhead, Vincent U.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of dynamic ground effect was conducted in the Univ. of Kansas wind tunnel using delta wings of 60, 70, 75 deg sweep; the XB-70 wing; and the F-104A wing. Both static and dynamic tests were made. Test data were compared to other test data, including dynamic flight test data of the XB-70 and F-104A. Limited flow visualization test were conducted. A significant dynamic effect was found for highly swept delta wings.

  11. Mechanisms of the Bystander Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Eric J.

    2008-07-15

    Generations of students in radiation biology have been taught that heritable biological damage requires direct damage to DNA. We now know that this is not true. The Bystander Effect is the name given to the phenomenon whereby biological effects are observed in cells that are not themselves traversed by a charged particle, but are in close proximity to cells that are. Several research groups have convincingly demonstrated a bystander effect for alpha particle, which are heavy and high LET, because charged particles can be focused into a tiny beam that can be directed onto individual cells. The biological effects seen in adjacent non-hit cells clearly represents a bystander effect. It is not so easy to demonstrate a similar effect for x-rays or for the electrons set in motion by the absorption of x-rays. In this project we used two types of cell that could be recognized one from the other. One cell type was fed radioactive tritiated thymidine, which is incorporated into the DNA, . The tritium emits electrons which have a very short range so that they do not even get out of the cell. These cells were then mixed with a different type of cell which are routinely used to assess mutations. The mixed cells formed a cluster, where the two types of cells were in close contact, and left for some hours. Subsequently, the two types of cells were separated and studied. A substantial fraction of the cells that had incorporated the tritiated thymidine were killed by the radiation. The interesting finding is that the cells that had not incorporated tritiated thymidine, but had been in close contact with cells that had, exhibited a significant incidence of mutations. These experiments clearly demonstrated a bystander effect for low LET electrons. In further experiments, it was possible to show that the bystander effect was greatest when the two cell types were in gap junction communication.

  12. Coherence effects in neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiers, Ken; Nussinov, Schmuel; Weiss, Nathan

    1996-01-01

    We study the effect of coherent and incoherent broadening on neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in the presence of matter (the MSW effect). We show under very general assumptions that it is not possible to distinguish experimentally neutrinos produced in some region of space as wave packets from those produced in the same region of space as plane waves with the same energy distribution.

  13. Hall effect in hopping regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonin, A.; Skupi?ski, P.; Grasza, K.

    2016-02-01

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO.

  14. MDMA effects consistent across laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Baggott, Matthew J.; Mendelson, John E.; Galloway, Gantt P.; Liechti, Matthias E.; Hysek, Cédric M.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Several laboratories have conducted placebo-controlled drug challenge studies with MDMA, providing a unique source of data to examine the reliability of the acute effects of the drug across subject samples and settings. We examined the subjective and physiological responses to the drug across three different laboratories, and investigated the influence of prior MDMA use. Methods Overall, 220 healthy volunteers with varying levels of previous MDMA experience participated in laboratory-based studies in which they received placebo or oral MDMA (1.5 mg/kg or 125 mg fixed dose) under double blind conditions. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and repeatedly after drug administration. The studies were conducted independently by investigators in Basel, San Francisco and Chicago. Results Despite methodological differences between the studies and differences in the subjects' drug use histories, MDMA produced very similar cardiovascular and subjective effects across the sites. The participants' prior use of MDMA was inversely related to feeling `Any Drug Effect' only at sites testing more experienced users. Conclusions These data indicate that the pharmacological effects of MDMA are robust and highly reproducible across settings. There was also modest evidence for tolerance to the effects of MDMA in regular users. PMID:24633447

  15. Simulating Hydrologic Effects of Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, C. W.; Ogden, F. L.; Pradhan, N.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization of watersheds introduces multiple effects on hydrology and water quality. Roads, parking lots, roof tops and other impervious areas increase total runoff production. Soils are extensively modified through compaction and importation of fill and placement of sod. Streams are modified, moved, and replaced with lined channels, further increasing runoff and storm peaks. Subsurface drainage may supplement or supplant the function of natural streams, compounding the effects of channel modifications. Increased runoff results in increased erosion and transport of sediment and associated contaminants. Efforts to mitigate the effects of urbanization, channel improvements, levees, low impact development, detention basins, grassed swales, and other best management practices further complicate the issue. These attempts may or may not affect the overall system response as anticipated or desired. Analysis of the effects of urbanizing watersheds and design of abatement measures using simplified empirical methods and/or analyzing only the local effects may produce erroneous results. In this paper we will present and discuss simulation results from various studies related to the application of models to predicting the effects of urbanizing watersheds. We will contrast physics based hydrologic modeling efforts to simpler, empirical methods. We will also discuss the relative importance of various urbanizing features and modeling strategies to incorporate the important features. Dead Run Watershed

  16. Postnatal effects of prenatal insult

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    Exogenous agents may perturb development during the embryonic period and adversely affect the formation of organs. However, adverse effects on development are not limited to the embryonic period nor are the manifestations restricted solely to outright gross structural malformation, but may instead be expressed as a decrement or abberration of postnatal function. Susceptibility to altered development may extend well into the postnatal period. Studies of functional parameters in several organ systems have demonstrated the broad-based susceptibility, subtlety of expression and potential of long-lasting effects of altered development assessed by physiologic assays. Adverse effects on functional development, whether in the CNS, reproductive, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, respiratory, or immune systems, etc., merit continuing investigation. From the viewpoint of risk estimation and hazard detection, evaluations of postnatal functional parameters may be relevant for several reasons. First, such parameters may serve as low-dose triggers. Second, they may be useful as a focal point for epidemiological studies. Finally, a more thorough understanding of the degree and magnitude of such postnatal functional deficits is needed since an adverse maternal effect may be transient, considered acceptable, or unperceived, but the effect on the conceptus may be permanent and severe. The immune and respiratory systems are discussed as two examples of how subtle and protean adverse effects on functional development may be.

  17. Potential Ergogenic Effects of Saffron.

    PubMed

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Rajabi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Crocus sativus, commonly known as saffron, is a rich source of carotenoids with many health benefits. The muscular strength, pulmonary function, and reaction time are vital to the athlete's performance, and this study aimed to investigate an ergogenic effect of saffron. Twenty-eight nonactive and healthy male university students were randomly assigned into the saffron (n = 14) and control (n = 15) groups. The experimental group received dried saffron stigma (300 mg/day for 10 days) and the control group received a placebo. After one session, familiarization with the tests, anthropometric parameters, visual and audio reaction times, and the maximum isometric and isotonic forces on a leg press machine were measured accordingly, 1 day before and after the supplementation period. This study shows that 10 days of supplementation with saffron significantly increased (10.1%) the isometric force (p < .0001; effect size (EF) = 0.432) and increased 6.1% the isotonic force (p < .0001; effect size = 0.662), as well as effecting faster visual (p < .05; EF = 0.217) and audio (p < .05; EF = 0.214) reaction times. The ergogenic effect of saffron (increase in the forces) may contribute to increase in the muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and positive effect on the motor cortex, both of which may explain faster audio and visual reaction times. Saffron supplementation was also possibly responsible for improvement of muscle blood perfusion and facilitation in the oxygen transport. PMID:26811090

  18. Casimir effect in swimmer suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rojas, C.; Soto, R.

    2014-07-01

    We show that the Casimir effect can emerge in microswimmer suspensions. In principle, two effects conspire against the development of Casimir effects in swimmer suspensions. First, at low Reynolds number, the force on any closed volume vanishes, but here the relevant effect is the drag by the flow produced by the swimmers, which can be finite. Second, the fluid velocity and the pressure are linear on the swimmer force dipoles, and averaging over the swimmer orientations would lead to a vanishing effect. However, being that the suspension is a discrete system, the noise terms of the coarse-grained equations depend on the density, which itself fluctuates, resulting in effective nonlinear dynamics. Applying the tools developed for other nonequilibrium systems to general coarse-grained equations for swimmer suspensions, the Casimir drag is computed on immersed objects, and it is found to depend on the correlation function between the rescaled density and dipolar density fields. By introducing a model correlation function with medium-range order, explicit expressions are obtained for the Casimir drag on a body. When the correlation length is much larger than the microscopic cutoff, the average drag is independent of the correlation length, with a range that depends only on the size of the immersed bodies.

  19. Casimir effect in swimmer suspensions.

    PubMed

    Parra-Rojas, C; Soto, R

    2014-07-01

    We show that the Casimir effect can emerge in microswimmer suspensions. In principle, two effects conspire against the development of Casimir effects in swimmer suspensions. First, at low Reynolds number, the force on any closed volume vanishes, but here the relevant effect is the drag by the flow produced by the swimmers, which can be finite. Second, the fluid velocity and the pressure are linear on the swimmer force dipoles, and averaging over the swimmer orientations would lead to a vanishing effect. However, being that the suspension is a discrete system, the noise terms of the coarse-grained equations depend on the density, which itself fluctuates, resulting in effective nonlinear dynamics. Applying the tools developed for other nonequilibrium systems to general coarse-grained equations for swimmer suspensions, the Casimir drag is computed on immersed objects, and it is found to depend on the correlation function between the rescaled density and dipolar density fields. By introducing a model correlation function with medium-range order, explicit expressions are obtained for the Casimir drag on a body. When the correlation length is much larger than the microscopic cutoff, the average drag is independent of the correlation length, with a range that depends only on the size of the immersed bodies. PMID:25122386

  20. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation. PMID:25258703

  1. The effect of gender and remainder on effective dose equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Effective dose equivalent methodology, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP-26, may be implemented for routine evaluation of occupational exposures to external sources of penetrating radiation, such as neutrons and photons. The calculational techniques for determining effective dose equivalent are being developed and evaluated at Pacific Northwest Laboratories. These studies show that the estimated effective dose equivalent is strongly influenced by several factors, including the source energy, source geometry, phantom gender type, and remainder scheme used. Since the concept of effective dose equivalent relies on determining organ doses, the organ doses for these studies were calculated using the MIRD-V mathematical phantom and MCNP, a general-purpose Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code. Calculations of organ doses were performed for several irradiation geometries at a series of energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV. The geometries were the anterior-posterior (AP) parallel beam, the posterior-anterior parallel beam, the lateral parallel beam, and an isotropic field. These calculations were performed for both the male and female phantoms. For whole-body irradiations, the use of sex-specific weighting factors instead of the average values can result in large differences in the effective dose equivalent. The largest differences were found for the case of the male phantom in an AP beam.

  2. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, Sandra G

    2007-01-01

    Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork. PMID:17284324

  3. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation. PMID:25258703

  4. A fan effect in anaphor processing: effects of multiple distractors

    PubMed Central

    Autry, Kevin S.; Levine, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the presence of a non-referent from the same category as the referent interferes with anaphor resolution. In five experiments, the hypothesis that multiple non-referents would produce a cumulative interference effect (i.e., a fan effect) was examined. This hypothesis was supported in Experiments 1A and 1B, with subjects being less accurate and slower to recognize referents (1A) and non-referents (1B) as the number of potential referents increased from two to five. Surprisingly, the number of potential referents led to a decrease in anaphor reading times. The results of Experiments 2A and 2B replicated the probe-recognition results in a completely within-subjects design and ruled out the possibility that a speeded-reading strategy led to the fan-effect findings. The results of Experiment 3 provided evidence that subjects were resolving the anaphors. These results suggest that multiple non-referents do produce a cumulative interference effect; however, additional research is necessary to explore the effect on anaphor reading times. PMID:25120519

  5. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  6. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  7. Modulation of effective damping constant using spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Shinya Kondou, Kouta; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Mitani, Seiji; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Otani, Yoshichika

    2014-03-03

    We have investigated modulation of the effective damping constant α{sub eff} via spin currents through the spin Hall effect for Permalloy/Pt bilayer films with various thicknesses. The observed linear and sinusoidal dependences of current density and field direction on α{sub eff} are in agreement with the analytical model. By comparing the thickness dependence of spin Hall angle obtained from the damping modulation with that previously obtained by spin-torque-induced ferromagnetic resonance, we show that there is no clear extrinsic contribution in the present method. We also show the large modulation of the effective damping constant (down to ∼20%) in the high-current-density region.

  8. [Respiratory effects of manufactured nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Andujar, P; Lanone, S; Brochard, P; Boczkowski, J

    2009-06-01

    Nanotechnology, defined as techniques aimed to design, characterize and produce materials on a nanometer scale, is a fast-growing field today. Nanomaterials are made of nanoobjects (nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes...). The nanoscale confers on these materials their novel, hitherto unknown, chemical and physical properties by the laws of quantum physics which are essentially expressed on this scale. Nanotechnology applications are numerous (e.g., cosmetics, industry and medicine) and they keep growing. We can safely predict that the production and utilization of nanomaterials will increase greatly in the years to come. Nonetheless, the same properties that make these nanomaterials very attractive are a source of concern: there are questions about their potential toxicity, their long-term side effects, and their biodegradability. These questions are based on knowledge of the toxic effects of micrometric particles in air pollution and the fear that these effects will be amplified because of the nanometric size of the new materials. We present in this article a global but not exhaustive summary of current knowledge. We begin by defining lung penetration, deposition, translocation and elimination of nanoparticles. Finally, we consider the respiratory effects of metallic nanoparticles, titanium dioxide nanoparticles in particular, and carbon nanotubes. In vivo and in vitro experimental studies currently available highlight the existence of biological effects of nanoparticles on the respiratory system with generation of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects and the possible development of fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema or DNA damage. A better understanding of the potential biological effects of nanoparticles is required to implement appropriate preventive measures in the workplace and/or in the general population, if this should be necessary. PMID:19623107

  9. Dietary effects on breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G. )

    1991-07-20

    Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

  10. Influences of the endothelium and hypoxia on alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses in the rabbit isolated pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, M. R.; McCulloch, K. M.; McGrath, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 10(-4) M), mechanical disruption of the endothelium and hypoxia on contraction to noradrenaline (alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), phenylephrine (alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist) and UK 14304 (alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist) were compared in the rabbit isolated pulmonary artery. The effects of the selective antagonists rauwolscine (10(-6) M, alpha 2-adrenoceptors) and prazosin (10(-7) M, alpha 1-adrenoceptors) on the contractions to noradrenaline before and after exposure to L-NAME were also assessed. 2. Noradrenaline, phenylephrine and UK 14304 all produced concentration-dependent increases in vascular tone. The responses to noradrenaline were sensitive to both rauwolscine and prazosin (effect of prazosin >> rauwolscine). L-NAME increased the potency of both noradrenaline and UK 14304, and also the maximum tension achieved. It had no effect on the responses to phenylephrine. After L-NAME, contractions to noradrenaline, although still sensitive to both rauwolscine and prazosin, were now more sensitive to inhibition by rauwolscine. 3. Endothelium removal augmented the potency and maximum contractions to noradrenaline, phenylephrine and UK 14304. 4. Hypoxia decreased both the potency of phenylephrine and its maximum contractile response, but increased the maximum response to noradrenaline without effecting responses to UK 14304. 5. In conclusion, in the rabbit pulmonary artery, augmentation of contractile responses to noradrenaline by L-NAME involves a potentiation of alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction probably through an effect on the synthesis of endothelium-derived nitric oxide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8094023

  11. Effect of carnosine on the immunosuppressive effect of histamine

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpan, Yu. V.

    1985-04-01

    This paper studies the ability of carnosine (beta-imidazole-lactate) to affect histamine-induced immunosuppression of proliferative activity of various lymphocyte subpopulations and the realization of this effect through surface histamine receptors of the cells. The experiments were carried out on mice; lymphocytes were incubated with tritium-labeled thymidine for 4 h, after which their radioactivity was determined on a scintillation counter. The results show that histamine has an inhibitory action on antigen-induced proliferation of T suppressor lymphocytes through H-2 histamine receptors, for this effect was considerably inhibited by the H-2 histamine blockers metiamide, but not by the H-1 histamine blocker mepyramine.

  12. Discreteness effects in population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Lecomte, Vivien

    2016-05-01

    We analyse numerically the effects of small population size in the initial transient regime of a simple example population dynamics. These effects play an important role for the numerical determination of large deviation functions of additive observables for stochastic processes. A method commonly used in order to determine such functions is the so-called cloning algorithm which in its non-constant population version essentially reduces to the determination of the growth rate of a population, averaged over many realizations of the dynamics. However, the averaging of populations is highly dependent not only on the number of realizations of the population dynamics, and on the initial population size but also on the cut-off time (or population) considered to stop their numerical evolution. This may result in an over-influence of discreteness effects at initial times, caused by small population size. We overcome these effects by introducing a (realization-dependent) time delay in the evolution of populations, additional to the discarding of the initial transient regime of the population growth where these discreteness effects are strong. We show that the improvement in the estimation of the large deviation function comes precisely from these two main contributions.

  13. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sisir

    2014-07-01

    The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

  14. Kinetic effects in RFP plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Li, Hui; Albright, Brian

    2007-11-01

    Strong tearing mode activity is present at sawtooth crashes in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch (RFP). It is believed that tearing modes are responsible for strong ion heating and change in plasma flow profile at the crash. Our results based on both linear and nonlinear resistive MHD models showed that the spatial scale of velocity, electric field and current profiles in the tearing mode near resonance surface is comparable to ion gyroradius. The ion gyroradius is relatively large in RFPs because of smaller equilibrium magnetic field. In these conditions both two fluid and kinetic effects can be significant. We study ion kinetic effects on tearing modes in RFP plasmas. We consider RFP-like equilibrium in plane geometry and solve for linear eigenmodes in resistive MHD, two fluid and fully kinetic models. In the first two models we solve an eigenvalue problem, in the last we use particle in cell code VPIC and follow linear time evolution of the fastest growing mode. Also we examine nonlinear effects in tearing modes by running 2-D nonlinear time evolution in plane geometry in resistive MHD and PIC models. We analyze how the scale of plasma flow and flow amplitude in the mode are effected by the finite ion gyroradius effect, to what plasma component (ions or electrons) the magnetic energy of initially unstable equilibrium is transfered. Results of this analysis will be presented.

  15. Recollection reduces unitised familiarity effect.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hanyu; Opitz, Bertram; Yang, Jiongjiong; Weng, Xuchu

    2016-04-01

    Two types of encoding tasks have been employed in previous research to investigate the beneficial effect of unitisation on familiarity-based associative recognition (unitised familiarity effect), namely the compound task and the interactive imagery task. Here we show how these two tasks could differentially engage subsequent recollection-based associative recognition and consequently lead to the turn-on or turn-off of the unitised familiarity effect. In the compound task, participants studied unrelated word pairs as newly learned compounds. In the interactive imagery task, participants studied the same word pairs as interactive images. An associative recognition task was used in combination with the Remember/Know procedure to measure recollection-based and familiarity-based associative recognition. The results showed that the unitised familiarity effect was present in the compound task but was absent in the interactive imagery task. A comparison of the compound and the interactive imagery task revealed a dramatic increase in recollection-based associative recognition for the interactive imagery task. These results suggest that unitisation could benefit familiarity-based associative recognition; however, this effect will be eliminated when the memory trace formed is easily accessed by strong recollection without the need for a familiarity assessment. PMID:25793354

  16. Neighborhood Effects in Temporal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.; Harding, David J.; Elwert, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Theory suggests that neighborhood effects depend not only on where individuals live today, but also on where they lived in the past. Previous research, however, usually measured neighborhood context only once and did not account for length of residence, thereby understating the detrimental effects of long-term neighborhood disadvantage. This study investigates the effects of duration of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on high school graduation. It follows 4,154 children in the PSID, measuring neighborhood context once per year from age 1 to 17. The analysis overcomes the problem of dynamic neighborhood selection by adapting novel methods of causal inference for time-varying treatments. In contrast to previous analyses, these methods do not “control away” the effect of neighborhood context operating indirectly through time-varying characteristics of the family, and thus they capture the full impact of a lifetime of neighborhood disadvantage. We find that sustained exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods has a severe impact on high school graduation that is considerably larger than effects reported in prior research. Growing up in the most (compared to the least) disadvantaged quintile of neighborhoods is estimated to reduce the probability of graduation from 96% to 76% for black children, and from 95% to 87% for nonblack children. PMID:22879678

  17. Cytotoxic effects of neuroleptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Munyon, W H; Salo, R; Briones, D F

    1987-01-01

    Agranulocytosis and the release of transaminase enzymes from liver cells are known consequences of neuroleptic drug use. These effects are most common with low potency neuroleptic drugs. It has been hypothesized that these effects are due to the direct toxic action of these drugs on blood and liver cells. The purpose of this study is to compare the cytotoxic effects of eight neuroleptic drugs in five different biological test systems. In all of the test systems, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine and thiothixene (group one drugs) were the most toxic drugs and molindone was the least toxic. Thioridazine was between 25 and 84 times more toxic than molindone. Loxapine was significantly more toxic than molindone, but less toxic than the group one drugs. Haloperidol was intermediate in toxicity between the group one drugs and loxapine. We conclude that the difference in cytotoxicity of the neuroleptic drugs observed in these experiments accounts in part for the increase in agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity with thioridazine and chlorpromazine and for the lower incidence of these side effects with less toxic drugs. The possibility that tardive dyskinesia may be due to the cytotoxic effects of neuroleptic drugs is discussed and an experiment to test this hypothesis is suggested. PMID:2883697

  18. Focus on the Rashba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  19. Reticle processing induced proximity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Maurice; de Kruif, Robert; Kiers, Ton

    2002-08-01

    Minimising Across Retical Line width Variation is a continuous challenge for each resolution node. Having tight critical dimension (CD) uniformity for a large variety of pitches is even more challenging. The causes of the reticle errors originate mainly from writing reticles at the edge of the write-tool's capabilities, and from manufacturing at the edge of etching and processing capabilities. These various reticle errors will subsequently lead to non-uniformity effects on wafer level. The reticle errors can be compensated for using technologies similar to those used to correct for optical proximity effects at wafer level. The errors can be small effects in the nanometer range like write noise or larger effects of 10 nm to 100 nm on reticle level from etching. Many effects that we see on reticle will be made visible on the wafer after exposure on a Step & Scan system. To visualise system performance one can use specific techniques such as selection of lines that are on target. In addition, with extensive measurement these reticle errors can be subtracted and thus removed from the final wafer result. For the investigation use is made of a reticle, which has a variation of 35 pitches for four line widths of 100 nm, 130 nm, 150 nm, and 170 nm at 1X. The reticle underwent extensive measurements, and its characteristics are described from these measurements. In addition, some wafer results are shown.

  20. 75 FR 10411 - Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Agency), through the FCA Board (Board), issued a final rule under part 617 on December 22, 2009 (74 FR... CFR part 617 published on December 22, 2009 (74 FR 67970) is effective March 2, 2010. FOR FURTHER... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT...