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Sample records for l-type voltage-gated calcium

  1. L-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Conditioned Fear: A Genetic and Pharmacological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Brandon C.; Sze, Wilson; White, Jessica A.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Using pharmacological approaches, others have suggested that L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) mediate both consolidation and extinction of conditioned fear. In the absence of L-VGCC isoform-specific antagonists, we have begun to investigate the subtype-specific role of LVGCCs in consolidation and extinction of conditioned fear…

  2. Emerging Roles of L-Type Voltage-Gated and Other Calcium Channels in T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Badou, Abdallah; Jha, Mithilesh K.; Matza, Didi; Flavell, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    In T lymphocytes, calcium ion controls a variety of biological processes including development, survival, proliferation, and effector functions. These distinct and specific roles are regulated by different calcium signals, which are generated by various plasma membrane calcium channels. The repertoire of calcium-conducting proteins in T lymphocytes includes store-operated CRAC channels, transient receptor potential channels, P2X channels, and L-type voltage-gated calcium (Cav1) channels. In this paper, we will focus mainly on the role of the Cav1 channels found expressed by T lymphocytes, where these channels appear to operate in a T cell receptor stimulation-dependent and voltage sensor independent manner. We will review their expression profile at various differentiation stages of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Then, we will present crucial genetic evidence in favor of a role of these Cav1 channels and related regulatory proteins in both CD4 and CD8 T cell functions such as proliferation, survival, cytokine production, and cytolysis. Finally, we will provide evidence and speculate on how these voltage-gated channels might function in the T lymphocyte, a non-excitable cell. PMID:24009608

  3. Like Extinction, Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Fear in Mice Is Blocked by Systemic Inhibition of L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Cain, Chris K.; Barad, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Having recently shown that extinction of conditioned fear depends on L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs), we have been seeking other protocols that require this unusual induction mechanism. We tested latent inhibition (LI) of fear, because LI resembles extinction except that cue exposures precede, rather than follow, cue-shock pairing.…

  4. The L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Ca[subscript v]1.3 Mediates Consolidation, but Not Extinction, of Contextually Conditioned Fear in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Brandon C.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    Using pharmacological techniques, it has been demonstrated that both consolidation and extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning are dependent to some extent upon L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs). Although these studies have successfully implicated LVGCCs in Pavlovian fear conditioning, they do not provide information about the…

  5. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamponi, Gerald Werner

    Voltage Gated Calcium Channels is the first comprehensive book in the calcium channel field, encompassing over thirty years of progress towards our understanding of calcium channel structure, function, regulation, physiology, pharmacology, and genetics. This book balances contributions from many of the leading authorities in the calcium channel field with fresh perspectives from risings stars in the area, taking into account the most recent literature and concepts. This is the only all-encompassing calcium channel book currently available, and is an essential resource for academic researchers at all levels in the areas neuroscience, biophysics, and cardiovascular sciences, as well as to researchers in the drug discovery area.

  6. Localization and functional modification of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in equine spermatozoa from fresh and frozen semen.

    PubMed

    Albrizio, M; Moramarco, A M; Nicassio, M; Micera, E; Zarrilli, A; Lacalandra, G M

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that insemination of cryopreserved semen always results in lower fertility when compared with fresh semen, but there is an increased interest and demand for frozen equine semen by the major breeder associations because of the utility arising from semen already "on hand" at breeding time. In this article, we report that equine sperm cells express L-type voltage-gated calcium channels; their localization is restricted to sperm neck and to the principal piece of the tail in both fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa. We also studied the causes of cryoinjury at the membrane level focusing on the function of L-type calcium channels. We report that in cryopreserved spermatozoa the mean basal value of [Ca(2+)]i is higher than that of spermatozoa from fresh semen (447.130 vs. 288.3 nM; P < 0.001) and L-type channels function differently in response to their agonist and antagonist in relation to semen condition (fresh or frozen-thawed). We found that on addition of agonist to the culture medium, the increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) was greater in frozen semen than in fresh semen (Δ[Ca(2+)]i = 124.59 vs. 16.04 nM; P < 0.001), whereas after the addition of antagonist the decrease in [Ca(2+)]i was lower in frozen semen than in fresh semen (Δ[Ca(2+)]i = 32.5 vs. 82.5 nM; P < 0.001). In this article, we also discuss the impact of cryopreservation on sperm physiology. PMID:25459425

  7. N- and L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Mediate Fast Calcium Transients in Axonal Shafts of Mouse Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Barzan, Ruxandra; Pfeiffer, Friederike; Kukley, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system (PNS) a vast number of axons are accommodated within fiber bundles that constitute peripheral nerves. A major function of peripheral axons is to propagate action potentials along their length, and hence they are equipped with Na+ and K+ channels, which ensure successful generation, conduction and termination of each action potential. However little is known about Ca2+ ion channels expressed along peripheral axons and their possible functional significance. The goal of the present study was to test whether voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are present along peripheral nerve axons in situ and mediate rapid activity-dependent Ca2+ elevations under physiological circumstances. To address this question we used mouse sciatic nerve slices, Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1, and 2-photon Ca2+ imaging in fast line scan mode (500 Hz). We report that transient increases in intra-axonal Ca2+ concentration take place along peripheral nerve axons in situ when axons are stimulated electrically with single pulses. Furthermore, we show for the first time that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are fast, i.e., occur in a millisecond time-domain. Combining Ca2+ imaging and pharmacology with specific blockers of different VGCCs subtypes we demonstrate that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are mediated mainly by N-type and L-type VGCCs. Discovery of fast Ca2+ entry into the axonal shafts through VGCCs in peripheral nerves suggests that Ca2+ may be involved in regulation of action potential propagation and/or properties in this system, or mediate neurotransmitter release along peripheral axons as it occurs in the optic nerve and white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:27313508

  8. Pulsed electromagnetic field enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression through L-type voltage-gated calcium channel- and Erk-dependent signaling pathways in neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Juanfang; Li, Ling; Hu, Xinghua; Sun, Honghui; Tian, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Although pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) exposure has been reported to promote neuronal differentiation, the mechanism is still unclear. Here, we aimed to examine the effects of PEMF exposure on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression and the correlation between the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and Bdnf mRNA expression in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). Exposure to 50Hz and 1mT PEMF for 2h increased the level of [Ca(2+)]i and Bdnf mRNA expression, which was found to be mediated by increased [Ca(2+)]i from Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). However, calcium mobilization was not involved in the increased [Ca(2+)]i and BDNF expression, indicating that calcium influx was one of the key factors responding to PEMF exposure. Moreover, PD098059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) inhibitor, strongly inhibited PEMF-dependant Erk1/2 activation and BDNF expression, indicating that Erk activation is required for PEMF-induced upregulation of BDNF expression. These findings indicated that PEMF exposure increased BDNF expression in DRGNs by activating Ca(2+)- and Erk-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:24937769

  9. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Nociception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Takahiro; Adams, David J.

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are a large and functionally diverse group of membrane ion channels ubiquitously expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. VGCCs contribute to various physiological processes and transduce electrical activity into other cellular functions. This chapter provides an overview of biophysical properties of VGCCs, including regulation by auxiliary subunits, and their physiological role in neuronal functions. Subsequently, then we focus on N-type calcium (Cav2.2) channels, in particular their diversity and specific antagonists. We also discuss the role of N-type calcium channels in nociception and pain transmission through primary sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons (nociceptors). It has been shown that these channels are expressed predominantly in nerve terminals of the nociceptors and that they control neurotransmitter release. To date, important roles of N-type calcium channels in pain sensation have been elucidated genetically and pharmacologically, indicating that specific N-type calcium channel antagonists or modulators are particularly useful as therapeutic drugs targeting chronic and neuropathic pain.

  10. Redox Regulation of Neuronal Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated calcium channels are ubiquitously expressed in neurons and are key regulators of cellular excitability and synaptic transmitter release. There is accumulating evidence that multiple subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels may be regulated by oxidation and reduction. However, the redox mechanisms involved in the regulation of channel function are not well understood. Recent Advances: Several studies have established that both T-type and high-voltage-activated subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel can be redox-regulated. This article reviews different mechanisms that can be involved in redox regulation of calcium channel function and their implication in neuronal function, particularly in pain pathways and thalamic oscillation. Critical Issues: A current critical issue in the field is to decipher precise mechanisms of calcium channel modulation via redox reactions. In this review we discuss covalent post-translational modification via oxidation of cysteine molecules and chelation of trace metals, and reactions involving nitric oxide-related molecules and free radicals. Improved understanding of the roles of redox-based reactions in regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels may lead to improved understanding of novel redox mechanisms in physiological and pathological processes. Future Directions: Identification of redox mechanisms and sites on voltage-gated calcium channel may allow development of novel and specific ion channel therapies for unmet medical needs. Thus, it may be possible to regulate the redox state of these channels in treatment of pathological process such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 880–891. PMID:24161125

  11. Characterization of L-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channel Expression and Function in Developing CA3 Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A.; Norlin, Mackenzie S.; Vollmer, Cyndel C.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a major role during the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Ca2+ influx via VGCCs regulates axonal growth and neuronal migration as well as synaptic plasticity. Specifically, L-type VGCCs have been well characterized to be involved in the formation and refinement of the connections within the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The majority of the growth, formation, and refinement in the CNS occurs during the human third trimester. An equivalent developmental time period in rodents occurs during the first two weeks of post-natal life, and the expression pattern of L-type VGCCs during this time period has not been well characterized. In this study, we show that Cav1.2 channels are more highly expressed during this developmental period compared to adolescence (post-natal day 30) and that L-type VGCCs significantly contribute to the overall Ca2+ currents. These findings suggest that L-type VGCCs are functionally expressed during the crucial developmental period. PMID:23415785

  12. High-frequency stimulation-induced synaptic potentiation in dorsal and ventral CA1 hippocampal synapses: the involvement of NMDA receptors, mGluR5, and (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Kouvaros, Stylianos

    2016-09-01

    The ability of the ventral hippocampus (VH) for long-lasting long-term potentiation (LTP) and the mechanisms underlying its lower ability for short-lasting LTP compared with the dorsal hippocampus (DH) are unknown. Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices, we found that 200-Hz stimulation induced nondecremental LTP that was maintained for at least 7 h and was greater in the DH than in the VH. The interaction of NMDA receptors with L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels appeared to be more effective in the DH than in the VH. Furthermore, the LTP was significantly enhanced in the DH only, between 2 and 5 h post-tetanus. Furthermore, the mGluR5 contributed to the post-tetanic potentiation more in the VH than in the DH. PMID:27531836

  13. Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels by fluoxetine in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Deák, F; Lasztóczi, B; Pacher, P; Petheö, G L; Valéria Kecskeméti; Spät, A

    2000-04-01

    Fluoxetine, an antidepressant which is used world-wide, is a prominent member of the class of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Recently, inhibition of voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels by fluoxetine has also been reported. We examined the effect of fluoxetine on voltage-gated calcium channels using the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration. In hippocampal pyramidal cells, fluoxetine inhibited the low-voltage-activated (T-type) calcium current with an IC(50) of 6.8 microM. Fluoxetine decreased the high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium current with an IC(50) between 1 and 2 microM. Nifedipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA inhibited the HVA current by 24% and 43%, respectively. Fluoxetine (3 microM), applied in addition to nifedipine or omega-conotoxin, further reduced the current. When fluoxetine (3 microM) was applied first neither nifedipine nor omega-conotoxin attenuated the remaining component of the HVA current. This observation indicates that fluoxetine inhibits both L- and N-type currents. In addition, fluoxetine inhibited the HVA calcium current in carotid body type I chemoreceptor cells and pyramidal neurons prepared from prefrontal cortex. In hippocampal pyramidal cells high K(+)-induced seizure-like activity was inhibited by 1 microM fluoxetine; the mean burst duration was shortened by an average of 44%. These results provide evidence for inhibition of T-, N- and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels by fluoxetine at therapeutically relevant concentrations. PMID:10727713

  14. Cardiac voltage-gated calcium channel macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Abriel, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20years, a new field of research, called channelopathies, investigating diseases caused by ion channel dysfunction has emerged. Cardiac ion channels play an essential role in the generation of the cardiac action potential. Investigators have largely determined the physiological roles of different cardiac ion channels, but little is known about the molecular determinants of their regulation. The voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.2 shapes the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential and allows the influx of calcium leading to cardiomyocyte contraction. Studies suggest that the regulation of Cav1.2 channels is not uniform in working cardiomyocytes. The notion of micro-domains containing Cav1.2 channels and different calcium channel interacting proteins, called macro-molecular complex, has been proposed to explain these observations. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently known information on the Cav1.2 macromolecular complexes in the cardiac cell and discuss their implication in cardiac function and disorder. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26707467

  15. Targeting voltage-gated calcium channels for neuropathic pain management

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Danielle; Luo, Z. David

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) play obligatory roles in diverse physiological functions. Pathological conditions leading to changes in their biophysical properties and expression levels may cause malfunctions of VGCC mediated activities, resulting in disease states. It is believed that changes in VGCC properties under pain-inducing conditions may play a causal role in the development of chronic pain, including nerve injury-induced pain, or neuropathic pain. Over the past decades, preclinical and clinical research in developing VGCC blockers or modulators for chronic pain management has been fruitful, leading to some US Food and Drug Administration approved drugs currently available for chronic pain management. However, their efficacy in pain relief is limited in some patients and their long-term use is limited by their side effect profiles. Certainly, there is room for improvement in developing more subtype specific VGCC blockers or modulators for chronic pain conditions. In this review, we summarized the most recent preclinical and clinical studies related to chronic pain medications acting on the VGCC. We also included clinical trials aiming to expand the application of approved VGCC drugs to different pain states derived from various pathological conditions, as well as drug combination therapies trying to improve the efficacies and side effect profiles of current pain medications. PMID:19789072

  16. Inhibition of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels by RGK Proteins.

    PubMed

    Buraei, Zafir; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Due to their essential biological roles, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are regulated by a myriad of molecules and mechanisms. Fifteen years ago, RGK proteins were discovered to bind the VGCC β subunit (Cavβ) and potently inhibit high-voltage activated Ca(2+) channels. RGKs (Rad, Rem, Rem2 and Gem/Kir) are a family of monomeric small GTPases belonging to the superfamily of Ras GTPases. They exert dual inhibitory effects on VGCCs, decreasing surface expression and suppressing surface channels through immobilization of the voltage sensor or reduction of channel open probability. While Cavβ is required for all forms of RGK inhibition, not all inhibition is mediated by the RGK-Cavβ interaction. Some RGK proteins also interact directly with the pore-forming α1 subunit of some types of VGCCs (Cavα1). Importantly, RGK proteins tonically inhibit VGCCs in native cells, regulating cardiac and neural functions. This minireview summarizes the mechanisms, molecular determinants, and physiological impact of RGK inhibition of VGCCs. PMID:25966691

  17. Voltage-gated calcium channel autoimmune cerebellar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    McKasson, Marilyn; Clawson, Susan A.; Hill, Kenneth E.; Wood, Blair; Carlson, Noel; Bromberg, Mark; Greenlee, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe response to treatment in a patient with autoantibodies against voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) who presented with autoimmune cerebellar degeneration and subsequently developed Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), and to study the effect of the patient's autoantibodies on Purkinje cells in rat cerebellar slice cultures. Methods: Case report and study of rat cerebellar slice cultures incubated with patient VGCC autoantibodies. Results: A 53-year-old man developed progressive incoordination with ataxic speech. Laboratory evaluation revealed VGCC autoantibodies without other antineuronal autoantibodies. Whole-body PET scans 6 and 12 months after presentation detected no malignancy. The patient improved significantly with IV immunoglobulin G (IgG), prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil, but worsened after IV IgG was halted secondary to aseptic meningitis. He subsequently developed weakness with electrodiagnostic evidence of LEMS. The patient's IgG bound to Purkinje cells in rat cerebellar slice cultures, followed by neuronal death. Reactivity of the patient's autoantibodies with VGCCs was confirmed by blocking studies with defined VGCC antibodies. Conclusions: Autoimmune cerebellar degeneration associated with VGCC autoantibodies may precede onset of LEMS and may improve with immunosuppressive treatment. Binding of anti-VGCC antibodies to Purkinje cells in cerebellar slice cultures may be followed by cell death. Patients with anti-VGCC autoantibodies may be at risk of irreversible neurologic injury over time, and treatment should be initiated early. PMID:27088118

  18. The Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Their Future Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zamponi, Gerald W.; Striessnig, Joerg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are required for many key functions in the body. In this review, the different subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels are described and their physiologic roles and pharmacology are outlined. We describe the current uses of drugs interacting with the different calcium channel subtypes and subunits, as well as specific areas in which there is strong potential for future drug development. Current therapeutic agents include drugs targeting L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels, particularly 1,4-dihydropyridines, which are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. T-type (CaV3) channels are a target of ethosuximide, widely used in absence epilepsy. The auxiliary subunit α2δ-1 is the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are of value in certain epilepsies and chronic neuropathic pain. The limited use of intrathecal ziconotide, a peptide blocker of N-type (CaV2.2) calcium channels, as a treatment of intractable pain, gives an indication that these channels represent excellent drug targets for various pain conditions. We describe how selectivity for different subtypes of calcium channels (e.g., CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 L-type channels) may be achieved in the future by exploiting differences between channel isoforms in terms of sequence and biophysical properties, variation in splicing in different target tissues, and differences in the properties of the target tissues themselves in terms of membrane potential or firing frequency. Thus, use-dependent blockers of the different isoforms could selectively block calcium channels in particular pathologies, such as nociceptive neurons in pain states or in epileptic brain circuits. Of important future potential are selective CaV1.3 blockers for neuropsychiatric diseases, neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease, and resistant hypertension. In addition, selective or nonselective T-type channel blockers are considered potential therapeutic targets in epilepsy, pain, obesity, sleep, and

  19. The Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Their Future Therapeutic Potential.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Gerald W; Striessnig, Joerg; Koschak, Alexandra; Dolphin, Annette C

    2015-10-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are required for many key functions in the body. In this review, the different subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels are described and their physiologic roles and pharmacology are outlined. We describe the current uses of drugs interacting with the different calcium channel subtypes and subunits, as well as specific areas in which there is strong potential for future drug development. Current therapeutic agents include drugs targeting L-type Ca(V)1.2 calcium channels, particularly 1,4-dihydropyridines, which are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. T-type (Ca(V)3) channels are a target of ethosuximide, widely used in absence epilepsy. The auxiliary subunit α2δ-1 is the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are of value in certain epilepsies and chronic neuropathic pain. The limited use of intrathecal ziconotide, a peptide blocker of N-type (Ca(V)2.2) calcium channels, as a treatment of intractable pain, gives an indication that these channels represent excellent drug targets for various pain conditions. We describe how selectivity for different subtypes of calcium channels (e.g., Ca(V)1.2 and Ca(V)1.3 L-type channels) may be achieved in the future by exploiting differences between channel isoforms in terms of sequence and biophysical properties, variation in splicing in different target tissues, and differences in the properties of the target tissues themselves in terms of membrane potential or firing frequency. Thus, use-dependent blockers of the different isoforms could selectively block calcium channels in particular pathologies, such as nociceptive neurons in pain states or in epileptic brain circuits. Of important future potential are selective Ca(V)1.3 blockers for neuropsychiatric diseases, neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease, and resistant hypertension. In addition, selective or nonselective T-type channel blockers are considered potential therapeutic targets in epilepsy, pain, obesity, sleep

  20. Structural Basis for Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Sodium and Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in nerve, muscle, and other electrically excitable cells. Voltage-gated calcium channels are activated by depolarization during action potentials, and calcium influx through them is the key second messenger of electrical signaling, initiating secretion, contraction, neurotransmission, gene transcription, and many other intracellular processes. Drugs that block sodium channels are used in local anesthesia and the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, and cardiac arrhythmia. Drugs that block calcium channels are used in the treatment of epilepsy, chronic pain, and cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension, angina pectoris, and cardiac arrhythmia. The principal pore-forming subunits of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels are structurally related and likely to have evolved from ancestral voltage-gated sodium channels that are widely expressed in prokaryotes. Determination of the structure of a bacterial ancestor of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels at high resolution now provides a three-dimensional view of the binding sites for drugs acting on sodium and calcium channels. In this minireview, we outline the different classes of sodium and calcium channel drugs, review studies that have identified amino acid residues that are required for their binding and therapeutic actions, and illustrate how the analogs of those key amino acid residues may form drug-binding sites in three-dimensional models derived from bacterial channels. PMID:25848093

  1. Calmodulin regulation (calmodulation) of voltage-gated calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Johny, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin regulation (calmodulation) of the family of voltage-gated CaV1-2 channels comprises a prominent prototype for ion channel regulation, remarkable for its powerful Ca2+ sensing capabilities, deep in elegant mechanistic lessons, and rich in biological and therapeutic implications. This field thereby resides squarely at the epicenter of Ca2+ signaling biology, ion channel biophysics, and therapeutic advance. This review summarizes the historical development of ideas in this field, the scope and richly patterned organization of Ca2+ feedback behaviors encompassed by this system, and the long-standing challenges and recent developments in discerning a molecular basis for calmodulation. We conclude by highlighting the considerable synergy between mechanism, biological insight, and promising therapeutics. PMID:24863929

  2. LRRK2 Regulates Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Cade; Sears, Catherine; Perez-Carrion, Maria; Piccoli, Giovanni; Condliffe, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels enable Ca2+ influx in response to membrane depolarization. CaV2.1 channels are localized to the presynaptic membrane of many types of neurons where they are involved in triggering neurotransmitter release. Several signaling proteins have been identified as important CaV2.1 regulators including protein kinases, G-proteins and Ca2+ binding proteins. Recently, we discovered that leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a protein associated with inherited Parkinson’s disease, interacts with specific synaptic proteins and influences synaptic transmission. Since synaptic proteins functionally interact with CaV2.1 channels and synaptic transmission is triggered by Ca2+ entry via CaV2.1, we investigated whether LRRK2 could impact CaV2.1 channel function. CaV2.1 channel properties were measured using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in HEK293 cells transfected with CaV2.1 subunits and various LRRK2 constructs. Our results demonstrate that both wild type (wt) LRRK2 and the G2019S LRRK2 mutant caused a significant increase in whole cell Ca2+ current density compared to cells expressing only the CaV2.1 channel complex. In addition, LRRK2 expression caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependent activation while having no significant effect on inactivation properties. These functional changes in CaV2.1 activity are likely due to a direct action of LRRK2 as we detected a physical interaction between LRRK2 and the β3 CaV channel subunit via coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, effects on CaV2.1 channel function are dependent on LRRK2 kinase activity as these could be reversed via treatment with a LRRK2 inhibitor. Interestingly, LRRK2 also augmented endogenous voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function in PC12 cells suggesting other CaV channels could also be regulated by LRRK2. Overall, our findings support a novel physiological role for LRRK2 in regulating CaV2.1 function that could have implications for how mutations in LRRK2

  3. Voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels mediate Sema3A retrograde signaling that regulates dendritic development.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Naoya; Aoki, Reina; Chen, Sandy; Jitsuki-Takahashi, Aoi; Ohura, Shunsuke; Kamiya, Haruyuki; Goshima, Yoshio

    2016-01-15

    Growing axons rely on local signaling at the growth cone for guidance cues. Semaphorin3A (Sema3A), a secreted repulsive axon guidance molecule, regulates synapse maturation and dendritic branching. We previously showed that local Sema3A signaling in the growth cones elicits retrograde retrograde signaling via PlexinA4 (PlexA4), one component of the Sema3A receptor, thereby regulating dendritic localization of AMPA receptor GluA2 and proper dendritic development. In present study, we found that nimodipine (voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) and tetrodotoxin (TTX; voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker) suppress Sema3A-induced dendritic localization of GluA2 and dendritic branch formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. The local application of nimodipine or TTX to distal axons suppresses retrograde transport of Venus-Sema3A that has been exogenously applied to the distal axons. Sema3A facilitates axonal transport of PlexA4, which is also suppressed in neurons treated with either TTX or nimodipine. These data suggest that voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels mediate Sema3A retrograde signaling that regulates dendritic GluA2 localization and branch formation. PMID:26638837

  4. Differential Calcium Signaling Mediated by Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells and Their Unmyelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Sargoy, Allison; Sun, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant calcium regulation has been implicated as a causative factor in the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in numerous injury models of optic neuropathy. Since calcium has dual roles in maintaining homeostasis and triggering apoptotic pathways in healthy and injured cells, respectively, investigation of voltage-gated Ca channel (VGCC) regulation as a potential strategy to reduce the loss of RGCs is warranted. The accessibility and structure of the retina provide advantages for the investigation of the mechanisms of calcium signalling in both the somata of ganglion cells as well as their unmyelinated axons. The goal of the present study was to determine the distribution of VGCC subtypes in the cell bodies and axons of ganglion cells in the normal retina and to define their contribution to calcium signals in these cellular compartments. We report L-type Ca channel α1C and α1D subunit immunoreactivity in rat RGC somata and axons. The N-type Ca channel α1B subunit was in RGC somata and axons, while the P/Q-type Ca channel α1A subunit was only in the RGC somata. We patch clamped isolated ganglion cells and biophysically identified T-type Ca channels. Calcium imaging studies of RGCs in wholemounted retinas showed that selective Ca channel antagonists reduced depolarization-evoked calcium signals mediated by L-, N-, P/Q- and T-type Ca channels in the cell bodies but only by L-type Ca channels in the axons. This differential contribution of VGCC subtypes to calcium signals in RGC somata and their axons may provide insight into the development of target-specific strategies to spare the loss of RGCs and their axons following injury. PMID:24416240

  5. Differential Effects of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Blockers on Calcium Channel Alpha-2-Delta-1 Subunit Protein Mediated Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Chang, E.; Chen, X.; Kim, M.; Gong, N.; Bhatia, S.; Luo, Z.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of the voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) alpha-2-delta1 subunit protein (Cavα2δ1) has been shown to cause pain states. However, whether VGCC are involved in pain states driven by abnormal Cavα2δ1 expression is not known. Methods Intrathecal injection of N-, P/Q-, and L-type VGCC blockers were tested in two models: a transgenic neuronal Cavα2δ1 overexpression (TG) model with behavioral hypersensitivity and a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model with Cavα2δ1 overexpression in sensory pathways and neuropathy pain states. Results The nociceptive response to mechanical stimuli was significantly attenuated in both models with ω-conotoxin GVIA (an N-type VGCC blocker) and nifedipine (a L-type VGCC blocker), in which ω-conotoxin GVIA appeared more potent than nifedipine. Treatments with ω-agatoxin IVA (P-VGCC blocker), but not ω-conotoxin MVIIC (Q-VGCC blocker) had similar potency in the TG model as the N-type VGCC blocker, while both ω-agatoxin IVA and ω-conotoxin MVIIC had minimal effects in the SNL model compared to controls. Conclusion These findings suggest that, at the spinal level, N- and L-type VGCC are likely involved in behavioral hypersensitivity states driven by Cavα2δ1 overexpression. Q-type VGCC have minimal effects in both models. The anti-nociceptive effects of P-type VGCC blocker in the Cavα2δ1 TG mice, but minimally at the SNL model with presynaptic Cavα2δ1 upregulation, suggest that its potential action site(s) is at the post-synaptic and/or supraspinal level. These findings support that N-, L- and P/Q-type VGCC have differential contributions to behavioral hypersensitivity modulated by Cavα2δ1 dysregulation at the spinal cord level. PMID:25158907

  6. PKC independent inhibition of voltage gated calcium channels by volatile anesthetics in freshly isolated vascular myocytes from the aorta

    PubMed Central

    Fanchaouy, Mohammed; Cubano, Luis; Maldonado, Hector; Bychkov, Rostislav

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used barium currents through voltage gated L-type calcium channels (recorded in freshly isolated cells with a conventional patch-clamp technique) to elucidate the cellular action mechanism for volatile anesthetics. It was found that halothane and isoflurane inhibited (dose-dependently and voltage independently) Ba2+ currents through voltage gated Ca2+ channels. Half maximal inhibitions occurred at 0.64 ± 0.07 mM and 0.86 ± 0.1 mM. The Hill slope value was 2 for both volatile anesthetics, suggesting the presence of more than one interaction site. Current inhibition by volatile anesthetics was prominent over the whole voltage range without changes in the peak of the current voltage relationship. Intracellular infusion of the GDPßS (100 μM) together with staurosporine (200 nM) did not prevent the inhibitory effect of volatile anesthetics. Unlike pharmacological Ca2+ channel blockers, volatile anesthetics blocked Ca2+ channel currents at resting membrane potentials. In other words, halothane and isoflurane induced an `initial block'. After the first 4 to 7 control pulses, the cells were left unstimulated and anesthetics were applied. The first depolarization after the pause evoked a Ca2+ channel current whose amplitude was reduced to 41 ± 3.4% and to 57 ± 4.2% of control values. In an analysis of the steady-state inactivation curve for voltage dependence, volatile anesthetics induced a negative shift of the 50% inactivation of the calcium channels. By contrast, the steepness factor characterizing the voltage sensitivity of the channels was unaffected. Unitary L-type Ca2+ channels blockade occurred under cell-attached configuration, suggesting a possible action of volatile anesthetics from within the intracellular space or from the part of the channel inside the lipid bilayer. PMID:23948226

  7. Hyperactivation of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle can result from point mutations in the IS6 or the IIIS4 segment of the α1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Lainé, Viviane; Ségor, Jean Rony; Zhan, Hong; Bessereau, Jean-Louis; Jospin, Maelle

    2014-11-01

    Several human diseases, including hypokalemic periodic paralysis and Timothy syndrome, are caused by mutations in voltage-gated calcium channels. The effects of these mutations are not always well understood, partially because of difficulties in expressing these channels in heterologous systems. The use of Caenorhabditis elegans could be an alternative approach to determine the effects of mutations on voltage-gated calcium channel function because all the main types of voltage-gated calcium channels are found in C. elegans, a large panel of mutations already exists and efficient genetic tools are available to engineer customized mutations in any gene. In this study, we characterize the effects of two gain-of-function mutations in egl-19, which encodes the L-type calcium channel α1 subunit. One of these mutations, ad695, leads to the replacement of a hydrophobic residue in the IIIS4 segment. The other mutation, n2368, changes a conserved glycine of IS6 segment; this mutation has been identified in patients with Timothy syndrome. We show that both egl-19 (gain-of-function) mutants have defects in locomotion and morphology that are linked to higher muscle tone. Using in situ electrophysiological approaches in striated muscle cells, we provide evidence that this high muscle tone is due to a shift of the voltage dependency towards negative potentials, associated with a decrease of the inactivation rate of the L-type Ca(2+) current. Moreover, we show that the maximal conductance of the Ca(2+) current is decreased in the strongest mutant egl-19(n2368), and that this decrease is correlated with a mislocalization of the channel. PMID:25214488

  8. Control of neuronal voltage-gated calcium ion channels from RNA to protein.

    PubMed

    Lipscombe, Diane; Allen, Summer E; Toro, Cecilia P

    2013-10-01

    Voltage-gated calcium ion (CaV) channels convert neuronal activity into rapid intracellular calcium signals to trigger a myriad of cellular responses. Their involvement in major neurological and psychiatric diseases, and importance as therapeutic targets, has propelled interest in subcellular-specific mechanisms that align CaV channel activity to specific tasks. Here, we highlight recent studies that delineate mechanisms controlling the expression of CaV channels at the level of RNA and protein. We discuss the roles of RNA editing and alternative pre-mRNA splicing in generating CaV channel isoforms with activities specific to the demands of individual cells; the roles of ubiquitination and accessory proteins in regulating CaV channel expression; and the specific binding partners that contribute to both pre- and postsynaptic CaV channel function. PMID:23907011

  9. The impact of splice isoforms on voltage-gated calcium channel α1 subunits

    PubMed Central

    Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Lehmann-Horn, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Semi-conserved exon boundaries in members of the CACNA1 gene family result in recurring pre-mRNA splicing patterns. The resulting variations in the encoded pore-forming subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel affect functionally significant regions, such as the vicinity of the voltage-sensing S4 segments or the intracellular loops that are important for protein interaction. In addition to generating functional diversity, RNA splicing regulates the quantitative expression of other splice isoforms of the same gene by producing transcripts with premature stop codons which encode two-domain or three-domain channels. An overview of some of the known splice isoforms of the α1 calcium channel subunits and their significance is given. PMID:14645450

  10. The impact of splice isoforms on voltage-gated calcium channel alpha1 subunits.

    PubMed

    Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Lehmann-Horn, Frank

    2004-02-01

    Semi-conserved exon boundaries in members of the CACNA1 gene family result in recurring pre-mRNA splicing patterns. The resulting variations in the encoded pore-forming subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel affect functionally significant regions, such as the vicinity of the voltage-sensing S4 segments or the intracellular loops that are important for protein interaction. In addition to generating functional diversity, RNA splicing regulates the quantitative expression of other splice isoforms of the same gene by producing transcripts with premature stop codons which encode two-domain or three-domain channels. An overview of some of the known splice isoforms of the alpha(1) calcium channel subunits and their significance is given. PMID:14645450

  11. Control of Neuronal Voltage-Gated Calcium Ion Channels From RNA to Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lipscombe, Diane; Allen, Summer E; Toro, Cecilia P.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium (CaV) ion channels convert neuronal activity into rapid intracellular calcium signals to trigger a myriad of cellular responses. Their involvement in major neurological and psychiatric diseases, and importance as therapeutic targets, has propelled interest in subcellular-specific mechanisms that align CaV channel activity to specific tasks. Here we highlight recent studies that delineate mechanisms controlling the expression of CaV channels at the level of RNA and protein. We discuss the roles of RNA editing and alternative pre-mRNA splicing in generating CaV channel isoforms with activities specific to the demands of individual cells; the roles of ubiquitination and accessory proteins in regulating CaV channel expression; and the specific binding partners which contribute to both pre- and post- synaptic CaV channel function. PMID:23907011

  12. Progesterone Inhibition of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels is a Potential Neuroprotective Mechanism against Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Luoma, Jessie I; Kelley, Brooke G; Mermelstein, Paul G

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of progesterone following traumatic brain injury has recently entered phase III clinical trials as a means of neuroprotection. Although it has been hypothesized that progesterone protects against calcium overload following excitotoxic shock, the exact mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of progesterone have yet to be determined. We found that therapeutic concentrations of progesterone to be neuroprotective against depolarization-induced excitotoxicity in cultured striatal neurons. Through use of calcium imaging, electrophysiology and the measurement of changes in activity-dependent gene expression, progesterone was found to block calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels, leading to alterations in the signaling of the activity-dependent transcription factors NFAT and CREB. The effects of progesterone were highly specific to this steroid hormone, although they did not appear to be receptor mediated. In addition, progesterone did not inhibit AMPA or NMDA receptor signaling. This analysis regarding the effect of progesterone on calcium signaling provides both a putative mechanism by which progesterone acts as a neuroprotectant, as well as affords a greater appreciation for its potential far-reaching effects on cellular function. PMID:21371490

  13. Fetal calcium regulates branching morphogenesis in the developing human and mouse lung: involvement of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sarah C; Finney, Brenda A; Lazarou, Maria; Rosser, Anne E; Scherf, Caroline; Adriaensen, Dirk; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Airway branching morphogenesis in utero is essential for optimal postnatal lung function. In the fetus, branching morphogenesis occurs during the pseudoglandular stage (weeks 9-17 of human gestation, embryonic days (E)11.5-16.5 in mouse) in a hypercalcaemic environment (~1.7 in the fetus vs. ~1.1-1.3 mM for an adult). Previously we have shown that fetal hypercalcemia exerts an inhibitory brake on branching morphogenesis via the calcium-sensing receptor. In addition, earlier studies have shown that nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), inhibits fetal lung growth, suggesting a role for VGCC in lung development. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression of VGCC in the pseudoglandular human and mouse lung, and their role in branching morphogenesis. Expression of L-type (CaV1.2 and CaV1.3), P/Q type (CaV2.1), N-type (CaV2.2), R-type (CaV2.3), and T-type (CaV3.2 and CaV3.3) VGCC was investigated in paraffin sections from week 9 human fetal lungs and E12.5 mouse embryos. Here we show, for the first time, that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 are expressed in both the smooth muscle and epithelium of the developing human and mouse lung. Additionally, Cav2.3 was expressed in the lung epithelium of both species. Incubating E12.5 mouse lung rudiments in the presence of nifedipine doubled the amount of branching, an effect which was partly mimicked by the Cav2.3 inhibitor, SNX-482. Direct measurements of changes in epithelial cell membrane potential, using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DiSBAC2(3), demonstrated that cyclic depolarisations occur within the developing epithelium and coincide with rhythmic occlusions of the lumen, driven by the naturally occurring airway peristalsis. We conclude that VGCC are expressed and functional in the fetal human and mouse lung, where they play a role in branching morphogenesis. Furthermore, rhythmic epithelial depolarisations evoked by airway peristalsis would allow for branching to match

  14. Fetal Calcium Regulates Branching Morphogenesis in the Developing Human and Mouse Lung: Involvement of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Sarah C.; Finney, Brenda A.; Lazarou, Maria; Rosser, Anne E.; Scherf, Caroline; Adriaensen, Dirk; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Airway branching morphogenesis in utero is essential for optimal postnatal lung function. In the fetus, branching morphogenesis occurs during the pseudoglandular stage (weeks 9–17 of human gestation, embryonic days (E)11.5–16.5 in mouse) in a hypercalcaemic environment (∼1.7 in the fetus vs. ∼1.1–1.3 mM for an adult). Previously we have shown that fetal hypercalcemia exerts an inhibitory brake on branching morphogenesis via the calcium-sensing receptor. In addition, earlier studies have shown that nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC), inhibits fetal lung growth, suggesting a role for VGCC in lung development. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression of VGCC in the pseudoglandular human and mouse lung, and their role in branching morphogenesis. Expression of L-type (CaV1.2 and CaV1.3), P/Q type (CaV2.1), N-type (CaV2.2), R-type (CaV2.3), and T-type (CaV3.2 and CaV3.3) VGCC was investigated in paraffin sections from week 9 human fetal lungs and E12.5 mouse embryos. Here we show, for the first time, that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 are expressed in both the smooth muscle and epithelium of the developing human and mouse lung. Additionally, Cav2.3 was expressed in the lung epithelium of both species. Incubating E12.5 mouse lung rudiments in the presence of nifedipine doubled the amount of branching, an effect which was partly mimicked by the Cav2.3 inhibitor, SNX-482. Direct measurements of changes in epithelial cell membrane potential, using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DiSBAC2(3), demonstrated that cyclic depolarisations occur within the developing epithelium and coincide with rhythmic occlusions of the lumen, driven by the naturally occurring airway peristalsis. We conclude that VGCC are expressed and functional in the fetal human and mouse lung, where they play a role in branching morphogenesis. Furthermore, rhythmic epithelial depolarisations evoked by airway peristalsis would allow for branching to

  15. How voltage-gated calcium channels gate forms of homeostatic synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, C. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life, animals face a variety of challenges such as developmental growth, the presence of toxins, or changes in temperature. Neuronal circuits and synapses respond to challenges by executing an array of neuroplasticity paradigms. Some paradigms allow neurons to up- or downregulate activity outputs, while countervailing ones ensure that outputs remain within appropriate physiological ranges. A growing body of evidence suggests that homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) is critical in the latter case. Voltage-gated calcium channels gate forms of HSP. Presynaptically, the aggregate data show that when synapse activity is weakened, homeostatic signaling systems can act to correct impairments, in part by increasing calcium influx through presynaptic CaV2-type channels. Increased calcium influx is often accompanied by parallel increases in the size of active zones and the size of the readily releasable pool of presynaptic vesicles. These changes coincide with homeostatic enhancements of neurotransmitter release. Postsynaptically, there is a great deal of evidence that reduced network activity and loss of calcium influx through CaV1-type calcium channels also results in adaptive homeostatic signaling. Some adaptations drive presynaptic enhancements of vesicle pool size and turnover rate via retrograde signaling, as well as de novo insertion of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Enhanced calcium influx through CaV1 after network activation or single cell stimulation can elicit the opposite response—homeostatic depression via removal of excitatory receptors. There exist intriguing links between HSP and calcium channelopathies—such as forms of epilepsy, migraine, ataxia, and myasthenia. The episodic nature of some of these disorders suggests alternating periods of stable and unstable function. Uncovering information about how calcium channels are regulated in the context of HSP could be relevant toward understanding these and other disorders. PMID

  16. Alternative splicing: functional diversity among voltage-gated calcium channels and behavioral consequences.

    PubMed

    Lipscombe, Diane; Andrade, Arturo; Allen, Summer E

    2013-07-01

    Neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels generate rapid, transient intracellular calcium signals in response to membrane depolarization. Neuronal Ca(V) channels regulate a range of cellular functions and are implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases including epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Each mammalian Cacna1 gene has the potential to generate tens to thousands of Ca(V) channels by alternative pre-mRNA splicing, a process that adds fine granulation to the pool of Ca(V) channel structures and functions. The precise composition of Ca(V) channel splice isoform mRNAs expressed in each cell are controlled by cell-specific splicing factors. The activity of splicing factors are in turn regulated by molecules that encode various cellular features, including cell-type, activity, metabolic states, developmental state, and other factors. The cellular and behavioral consequences of individual sites of Ca(V) splice isoforms are being elucidated, as are the cell-specific splicing factors that control splice isoform selection. Altered patterns of alternative splicing of Ca(V) pre-mRNAs can alter behavior in subtle but measurable ways, with the potential to influence drug efficacy and disease severity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels. PMID:23022282

  17. Alternative splicing: Functional diversity among voltage-gated calcium channels and behavioral consequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Lipscombe, Diane; Andrade, Arturo; Allen, Summer E.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels generate rapid, transient intracellular calcium signals in response to membrane depolarization. Neuronal CaV channels regulate a range of cellular functions and are implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases including epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, chronic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Each mammalian Cacna1 gene has the potential to generate tens to thousands of CaV channels by alternative pre-mRNA splicing, a process that adds fine granulation to the pool of CaV channel structures and functions. The precise composition of CaV channel splice isoform mRNAs expressed in each cell are controlled by cell-specific splicing factors. The activity of splicing factors are in turn regulated by molecules that encode various cellular features, including cell-type, activity, metabolic states, developmental state, and other factors. The cellular and behavioral consequences of individual sites of CaV splice isoforms are being elucidated, as are the cell-specific splicing factors that control splice isoform selection. Altered patterns of alternative splicing of CaV pre-mRNAs can alter behavior in subtle but measurable ways, with the potential to influence drug efficacy and disease severity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels. PMID:23022282

  18. The L-Type Calcium Channel Blocker Nifedipine Impairs Extinction, but Not Reduced Contingency Effects, in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jami, Shekib; Barad, Mark; Cain, Christopher K.; Godsil, Bill P.

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that fear extinction, a form of inhibitory learning, is selectively blocked by systemic administration of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LVGCC) antagonists, including nifedipine, in mice. We here replicate this finding and examine three reduced contingency effects after vehicle or nifedipine (40 mg/kg) administration.…

  19. Meta-Analysis of Public Microarray Datasets Reveals Voltage-Gated Calcium Gene Signatures in Clinical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Phan, Nam Nhut; Sun, Zhengda; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org), a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I) are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment. PMID:26147197

  20. Meta-Analysis of Public Microarray Datasets Reveals Voltage-Gated Calcium Gene Signatures in Clinical Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Phan, Nam Nhut; Sun, Zhengda; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org), a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I) are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment. PMID:26147197

  1. Apo-states of calmodulin and CaBP1 control CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channel function through direct competition for the IQ domain

    PubMed Central

    Findeisen, Felix; Rumpf, Christine; Minor, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, binding of calmodulin (CaM) or calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) to the CaV1 (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channel IQ domain endows the channel with diametrically opposed properties. CaM causes calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and limits calcium entry, whereas CaBP1 blocks CDI and allows sustained calcium influx. Here, we combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with cell-based functional measurements and mathematical modeling to show that these calcium sensors behave in a competitive manner that is explained quantitatively by their apo-state binding affinities for the IQ domain. This competition can be completely blocked by covalent tethering of CaM to the channel. Further, we show that Ca2+/CaM has a sub-picomolar affinity for the IQ domain that is achieved without drastic alteration of calcium binding properties. The observation that the apo-forms of CaM and CaBP1 compete with each other demonstrates a simple mechanism for direct modulation of CaV1 function and suggests a means by which excitable cells may dynamically tune CaV activity. PMID:23811053

  2. Osteoclast cytosolic calcium, regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels and extracellular calcium, controls podosome assembly and bone resorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyauchi, A.; Hruska, K. A.; Greenfield, E. M.; Duncan, R.; Alvarez, J.; Barattolo, R.; Colucci, S.; Zambonin-Zallone, A.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Teti, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms of Ca2+ entry and their effects on cell function were investigated in cultured chicken osteoclasts and putative osteoclasts produced by fusion of mononuclear cell precursors. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) were detected by the effects of membrane depolarization with K+, BAY K 8644, and dihydropyridine antagonists. K+ produced dose-dependent increases of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) in osteoclasts on glass coverslips. Half-maximal effects were achieved at 70 mM K+. The effects of K+ were completely inhibited by dihydropyridine derivative Ca2+ channel blocking agents. BAY K 8644 (5 X 10(-6) M), a VGCC agonist, stimulated Ca2+ entry which was inhibited by nicardipine. VGCCs were inactivated by the attachment of osteoclasts to bone, indicating a rapid phenotypic change in Ca2+ entry mechanisms associated with adhesion of osteoclasts to their resorption substrate. Increasing extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e) induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx. The Ca2+ release was blocked by dantrolene (10(-5) M), and the influx by La3+. The effects of [Ca2+]e on [Ca2+]i suggests the presence of a Ca2+ receptor on the osteoclast cell membrane that could be coupled to mechanisms regulating cell function. Expression of the [Ca2+]e effect on [Ca2+]i was similar in the presence or absence of bone matrix substrate. Each of the mechanisms producing increases in [Ca2+]i, (membrane depolarization, BAY K 8644, and [Ca2+]e) reduced expression of the osteoclast-specific adhesion structure, the podosome. The decrease in podosome expression was mirrored by a 50% decrease in bone resorptive activity. Thus, stimulated increases of osteoclast [Ca2+]i lead to cytoskeletal changes affecting cell adhesion and decreasing bone resorptive activity.

  3. Peptide Neurotoxins that Affect Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels: A Close-Up on ω-Agatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Pringos, Emilie; Vignes, Michel; Martinez, Jean; Rolland, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Peptide neurotoxins found in animal venoms have gained great interest in the field of neurotransmission. As they are high affinity ligands for calcium, potassium and sodium channels, they have become useful tools for studying channel structure and activity. Peptide neurotoxins represent the clinical potential of ion-channel modulators across several therapeutic fields, especially in developing new strategies for treatment of ion channel-related diseases. The aim of this review is to overview the latest updates in the domain of peptide neurotoxins that affect voltage-gated calcium channels, with a special focus on ω-agatoxins. PMID:22069688

  4. Voltage-gated and calcium-gated calcium release during depolarization of skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemond, V; Csernoch, L; Klein, M G; Schneider, M F

    1991-01-01

    The role of elevated intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) in activating calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was studied in skeletal muscle fibers microinjected with strong calcium buffers. After the injection of 3.8 +/- 0.5 mM (mean +/- S.E. of mean, n = 16) BAPTA (1,2-bis[o-aminophenoxy]ethane- N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) or 2.2-2.8 mM fura-2 the normal increase in [Ca2+] during a depolarizing pulse was virtually eliminated. Even though calcium was released from the SR the kinetics of this release were markedly altered: the extensive buffering selectively eliminated the early peak component of SR calcium release with no effect on the maintained steady level. Microinjections of similar volumes but with low concentrations of fura-2 had no significant effect on the release waveform. The calcium released by voltage-dependent activation during depolarization may thus be involved in activating further calcium release, that is, in a calcium-induced calcium release mechanism. PMID:1660317

  5. GABAA Increases Calcium in Subventricular Zone Astrocyte-Like Cells Through L- and T-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Young, Stephanie Z.; Platel, Jean-Claude; Nielsen, Jakob V.; Jensen, Niels A.; Bordey, Angélique

    2010-01-01

    In the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ), the behavior of astrocyte-like cells and some of their functions depend on changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels and tonic GABAA receptor activation. However, it is unknown whether, and if so how, GABAA receptor activity regulates intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in SVZ astrocytes. To monitor Ca2+ activity selectively in astrocyte-like cells, we used two lines of transgenic mice expressing either GFP fused to a Gq-coupled receptor or DsRed under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP) promoter. GABAA receptor activation induced Ca2+ increases in 40–50% of SVZ astrocytes. GABAA-induced Ca2+ increases were prevented with nifedipine and mibefradil, blockers of L- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). The L-type Ca2+ channel activator BayK 8644 increased the percentage of GABAA-responding astrocyte-like cells to 75%, suggesting that the majority of SVZ astrocytes express functional VGCCs. SVZ astrocytes also displayed spontaneous Ca2+ activity, the frequency of which was regulated by tonic GABAA receptor activation. These data support a role for ambient GABA in tonically regulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics through GABAA receptors and VGCC in a subpopulation of astrocyte-like cells in the postnatal SVZ. PMID:20422045

  6. Blockade of voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.2 and α1-adrenoceptors increases vertebral artery blood flow induced by the antivertigo agent difenidol.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kohji; Inoue, Naoki; Fuchikami, Chiaki; Tajima, Koyuki; Hashino, Asami; Fukui, Hisashi; Noda, Kumiko; Oka, Michiko

    2012-08-15

    Difenidol (1,1-diphenyl-4-piperidino-1-butanol hydrochloride) is an effective drug for the treatment of vertigo and dizziness. This drug is known to improve the blood flow in vertebral arteries, though the precise mechanism underlying this action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of difenidol on voltage-gated calcium channel Ca(v)1.2 and α(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes that regulate the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), as well as their possible involvement in the action of difenidol on vertebral artery relaxation and blood flow in dogs. In vitro binding assays demonstrated that difenidol at micromolar concentrations bound to the α(1A)-, α(1B)- and α(1D)-adrenoceptor subtypes. Difenidol inhibited the phenylephrine-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human α(1A)-, α(1B)- or α(1D)-adrenoceptor subtypes with similar IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. In an electrophysiological assay, difenidol inhibited L-type calcium channel (Ca(v)1.2 subunit). In dogs, i.v. difenidol preferentially enhanced vertebral over femoral arterial blood flow. Phenylephrine and potassium induced contraction of dog vertebral arterial rings, and difenidol inhibited this action. Inhibition of phenylephrine-induced contraction by difenidol was mimicked by the α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine, the α(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist RS 17,053 (N-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-5-chloro-α,α-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine hydrochloride) and the α(1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378 (8-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-8-azaspiro[4,5]decane-7,9-dione dihydrochloride). In addition, the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine, like difenidol, attenuated the potassium-induced contraction. These findings suggest that the difenidol-induced increase in vertebral arterial blood flow may be due to vascular relaxation mediated by mixed blocking actions at α(1)-adrenoceptors and

  7. Donepezil is a strong antagonist of voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in molluscan neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, Elena I; Bukanova, Julia V; Marchenko, Evgeny; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

    2007-01-01

    Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in Alzheimer's disease therapy. The neuroprotective effect of donepezil has been demonstrated in a number of different models of neurodegeneration including beta-amyloid toxicity. Since the mechanisms of neurodegeneration involve the activation of both Ca(2+)- and K(+)-channels, the study of donepezil action on voltage-gated ionic currents looked advisable. In the present study, the action of donepezil on voltage-gated Ca(2+)- and K(+)-channels was investigated on isolated neurons of the edible snail (Helix pomatia) using the two-microelectrodes voltage-clamp technique. Donepezil rapidly and reversibly inhibited voltage activated Ca(2+)-current (I(Ca)) (IC(50)=7.9 microM) and three types of high threshold K(+)-current: Ca(2+)-dependent K(+)-current (I(C)) (IC(50)=6.4 microM), delayed rectifier K(+)-current (I(DR)) (IC(50)=8.0 microM) and fast transient K(+)-current (I(Adepol)) (IC(50)=9.1 microM). The drug caused a dual effect on low-threshold fast transient K(+)-current (I(A)), potentiating it at low (5 microM) concentration, but inhibiting at higher (7 microM and above) concentration. Donepezil also caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-current relationship of I(Ca) (but not of any type of K(+)-current). Results suggest the possible contribution of the blocking effect of donepezil on the voltage-gated Ca(2+)- and K(+)-channels to the neuroprotective effect of the drug. PMID:17126610

  8. Effects of electromagnetic field exposure on conduction and concentration of voltage gated calcium channels: A Brownian dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Tekieh, Tahereh; Sasanpour, Pezhman; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2016-09-01

    A three-dimensional Brownian Dynamics (BD) in combination with electrostatic calculations is employed to specifically study the effects of radiation of high frequency electromagnetic fields on the conduction and concentration profile of calcium ions inside the voltage-gated calcium channels. The electrostatic calculations are performed using COMSOL Multiphysics by considering dielectric interfaces effectively. The simulations are performed for different frequencies and intensities. The simulation results show the variations of conductance, average number of ions and the concentration profiles of ions inside the channels in response to high frequency radiation. The ionic current inside the channel increases in response to high frequency electromagnetic field radiation, and the concentration profiles show that the residency of ions in the channel decreases accordingly. PMID:27346366

  9. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pentacycloundecylamines and Triquinylamines as Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Blockers.

    PubMed

    Young, Lois-May; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Domingo, Olwen C; Malan, Sarel F; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical studies for neurodegenerative diseases have shown a multi-targeted approach to be successful in the treatment of these complex disorders with several pathoetiological pathways. Polycyclic compounds, such as NGP1-01 (7a), have demonstrated the ability to target multiple mechanisms of the complex etiology and are referred to as multifunctional compounds. These compounds have served as scaffolds with the ability to attenuate Ca(2+) overload and excitotoxicity through several pathways. In this study, our focus was on mitigating Ca(2+) overload through the L-type calcium channels (LTCC). Here, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of several novel polycyclic compounds. We determined the IC50 values for both the pentacycloundecylamines and the triquinylamines by means of a high-throughput fluorescence calcium flux assay utilizing Fura-2/AM. The potential of these compounds to offer protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death was also evaluated. Overall, 8-benzylamino-8,11-oxapentacyclo[5.4.0.0(2,6) .0(3,10) .0(5,9) ]undecane (NGP1-01, 7a) had the most favorable pharmacological profile with an IC50 value of 86 µM for LTCC inhibition and significant reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. In general, the triquinylamines were more active as LTCC blockers than the oxa-pentacycloundecylamines. The aza-pentacycloundecylamines were potent LTCC inhibitors, with 8-hydroxy-N-phenylethyl-8,11-azapentacyclo[5.4.0.0(2,6) .0(3,10) .0(5,9) ]undecane (8b) also able to offer significant protection in the cell viability assays. PMID:26892182

  10. Towards a unified theory of calmodulin regulation (calmodulation) of voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Yue, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na and Ca2+ channels represent two major ion channel families that enable myriad biological functions including the generation of action potentials and the coupling of electrical and chemical signaling in cells. Calmodulin regulation (calmodulation) of these ion channels comprises a vital feedback mechanism with distinct physiological implications. Though long-sought, a shared understanding of the channel families remained elusive for two decades as the functional manifestations and the structural underpinnings of this modulation often appeared to diverge. Here, we review recent advancements in the understanding of calmodulation of Ca2+ and Na channels that suggest a remarkable similarity in their regulatory scheme. This interrelation between the two channel families now paves the way towards a unified mechanistic framework to understand vital calmodulin-dependent feedback and offers shared principles to approach related channelopathic diseases. An exciting era of synergistic study now looms. PMID:25966688

  11. Voltage-gated calcium currents in cultured embryonic Xenopus spinal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Barish, M E

    1991-01-01

    1. Voltage-gated Ca2+ currents were studied in cultured embryonic Xenopus spinal neurones using whole-cell gigaohm seal techniques. Cultures of neural plate cells were established from stage 15-17 embryos (see Methods), and were studied for up to 80 h in vitro. During this period neural precursor cells morphologically differentiate and commence expression of multiple types of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels. 2. Embryonic Xenopus neurones studied during the first 20-40 h in culture display Ca2+ currents that correspond to the low-voltage-activated (T-type) and high-voltage-activated forms described in other neurones and excitable cells. These Ca2+ current types could be separated based on voltage dependencies and pharmacological sensitivities. 3. T-type Ca2+ current was activated at voltages positive to -50 mV, and was selectively blocked by 200 microM-Ni2+. Curves describing the voltage dependencies of activation and steady-state inactivation overlapped in a region centred on -40 mV. A small sustained Ca2+ current could be recorded within this voltage region. 4. High-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ currents were observed at voltages positive to -10 mV, and could be separated into relaxing and sustained components (denoted as HVA-relaxing and HVA-sustained). HVA-relaxing current was selectively reduced by Met-enkephalin (17.5 microM). Both components of HVA current were sensitive to verapamil (100 microM), were almost completely blocked by omega-conotoxin (3 microM) and were insensitive to nifedipine (20 microM). 5. The data indicate that T-type Ca2+ current is present in the membrane during the initial period of channel and receptor expression, process outgrowth, and synaptogenesis, and is the dominant influence on voltage-gated Ca2+ influx during subthreshold voltage excursions. Further, at more positive voltages, T-type Ca2+ current contributes to inward Ca2+ current during the first 5-10 ms after depolarizing voltage steps, and thus to inward Ca2+ current

  12. Current view on regulation of voltage-gated sodium channels by calcium and auxiliary proteins.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Geoffrey S; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2016-09-01

    In cardiac and skeletal myocytes, and in most neurons, the opening of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV channels) triggers action potentials, a process that is regulated via the interactions of the channels' intercellular C-termini with auxiliary proteins and/or Ca(2+) . The molecular and structural details for how Ca(2+) and/or auxiliary proteins modulate NaV channel function, however, have eluded a concise mechanistic explanation and details have been shrouded for the last decade behind controversy about whether Ca(2+) acts directly upon the NaV channel or through interacting proteins, such as the Ca(2+) binding protein calmodulin (CaM). Here, we review recent advances in defining the structure of NaV intracellular C-termini and associated proteins such as CaM or fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs) to reveal new insights into how Ca(2+) affects NaV function, and how altered Ca(2+) -dependent or FHF-mediated regulation of NaV channels is perturbed in various disease states through mutations that disrupt CaM or FHF interaction. PMID:27262167

  13. The role of voltage-gated calcium channels in neurotransmitter phenotype specification: Coexpression and functional analysis in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Brittany B; Miller, Lauren E; Herbst, Wendy A; Saha, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Calcium activity has been implicated in many neurodevelopmental events, including the specification of neurotransmitter phenotypes. Higher levels of calcium activity lead to an increased number of inhibitory neural phenotypes, whereas lower levels of calcium activity lead to excitatory neural phenotypes. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) allow for rapid calcium entry and are expressed during early neural stages, making them likely regulators of activity-dependent neurotransmitter phenotype specification. To test this hypothesis, multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to characterize the coexpression of eight VGCC α1 subunits with the excitatory and inhibitory neural markers xVGlut1 and xVIAAT in Xenopus laevis embryos. VGCC coexpression was higher with xVGlut1 than xVIAAT, especially in the hindbrain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves. Calcium activity was also analyzed on a single-cell level, and spike frequency was correlated with the expression of VGCC α1 subunits in cell culture. Cells expressing Cav2.1 and Cav2.2 displayed increased calcium spiking compared with cells not expressing this marker. The VGCC antagonist diltiazem and agonist (−)BayK 8644 were used to manipulate calcium activity. Diltiazem exposure increased the number of glutamatergic cells and decreased the number of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cells, whereas (−)BayK 8644 exposure decreased the number of glutamatergic cells without having an effect on the number of GABAergic cells. Given that the expression and functional manipulation of VGCCs are correlated with neurotransmitter phenotype in some, but not all, experiments, VGCCs likely act in combination with a variety of other signaling factors to determine neuronal phenotype specification. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2518–2531, 2014. PMID:24477801

  14. Progress in the structural understanding of voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV) function and modulation.

    PubMed

    Minor, Daniel L; Findeisen, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs) are large, transmembrane multiprotein complexes that couple membrane depolarization to cellular calcium entry. These channels are central to cardiac action potential propagation, neurotransmitter and hormone release, muscle contraction, and calcium-dependent gene transcription. Over the past six years, the advent of high-resolution structural studies of CaV components from different isoforms and CaV modulators has begun to reveal the architecture that underlies the exceptionally rich feedback modulation that controls CaV action. These descriptions of CaV molecular anatomy have provided new, structure-based insights into the mechanisms by which particular channel elements affect voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI), calcium‑dependent inactivation (CDI), and calcium‑dependent facilitation (CDF). The initial successes have been achieved through structural studies of soluble channel domains and modulator proteins and have proven most powerful when paired with biochemical and functional studies that validate ideas inspired by the structures. Here, we review the progress in this growing area and highlight some key open challenges for future efforts. PMID:21139419

  15. A homology model of the pore domain of a voltage-gated calcium channel is consistent with available SCAM data.

    PubMed

    Bruhova, Iva; Zhorov, Boris S

    2010-03-01

    In the absence of x-ray structures of calcium channels, their homology models are used to rationalize experimental data and design new experiments. The modeling relies on sequence alignments between calcium and potassium channels. Zhen et al. (2005. J. Gen. Physiol. doi:10.1085/jgp.200509292) used the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to identify pore-lining residues in the Ca(v)2.1 channel and concluded that their data are inconsistent with the symmetric architecture of the pore domain and published sequence alignments between calcium and potassium channels. Here, we have built K(v)1.2-based models of the Ca(v)2.1 channel with 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSET)-modified engineered cysteines and used Monte Carlo energy minimizations to predict their energetically optimal orientations. We found that depending on the position of an engineered cysteine in S6 and S5 helices, the ammonium group in the long flexible MTSET-modified side chain can orient into the inner pore, an interface between domains (repeats), or an interface between S5 and S6 helices. Different local environments of equivalent positions in the four repeats can lead to different SCAM results. The reported current inhibition by MTSET generally decreases with the predicted distances between the ammonium nitrogen and the pore axis. A possible explanation for outliers of this correlation is suggested. Our calculations rationalize the SCAM data, validate one of several published sequence alignments between calcium and potassium channels, and suggest similar spatial dispositions of S5 and S6 helices in voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels. PMID:20176854

  16. Role of calcium and calpain in the downregulation of voltage-gated sodium channel expression by the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Magby, Jason P; Richardson, Jason R

    2015-03-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)) are essential for initiation and propagation of action potentials. Previous in vitro studies reported that exposure to the Na(v) toxins veratridine and α scorpion toxin cause persistent downregulation of Na(v) mRNA in vitro. However the mechanism of this downregulation is not well characterized. Here, we report that the type-II pyrethroid deltamethrin, which has a similar mechanism as these toxins, elicited an approximate 25% reduction in Na(v) 1.2 and Na(v) 1.3 mRNA in SK-N-AS cells. Deltamethrin-induced decreases of Na(v) mRNA were blocked with the Na(v) antagonist tetrodotoxin, demonstrating a primary role for interaction with Na(v). Pre-treatment with the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and the calpain inhibitor PD-150606 also prevented these decreases, identifying a role for intracellular calcium and calpain activation. Because alterations in Na(v) expression and function can result in neurotoxicity, additional studies are warranted to determine whether or not such effects occur in vivo. PMID:25358543

  17. Genetic disruption of voltage-gated calcium channels in psychiatric and neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Samuel; Pratt, Wendy S.; Rees, Elliott; Dahimene, Shehrazade; Ferron, Laurent; Owen, Michael J.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises genetic studies in which calcium channel genes have been connected to the spectrum of neuropsychiatric syndromes, from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia to autism spectrum disorders and intellectual impairment. Among many other genes, striking numbers of the calcium channel gene superfamily have been implicated in the aetiology of these diseases by various DNA analysis techniques. We will discuss how these relate to the known monogenic disorders associated with point mutations in calcium channels. We will then examine the functional evidence for a causative link between these mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms and the disease processes. A major challenge for the future will be to translate the expanding psychiatric genetic findings into altered physiological function, involvement in the wider pathology of the diseases, and what potential that provides for personalised and stratified treatment options for patients. PMID:26386135

  18. Inhibition of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels as Common Mode of Action for (Mixtures of) Distinct Classes of Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Marieke; Dingemans, Milou M.L.; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are exposed to distinct structural classes of insecticides with different neurotoxic modes of action. Because calcium homeostasis is essential for proper neuronal function and development, we investigated the effects of insecticides from different classes (pyrethroid: (α-)cypermethrin; organophosphate: chlorpyrifos; organochlorine: endosulfan; neonicotinoid: imidacloprid) and mixtures thereof on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Effects of acute (20 min) exposure to (mixtures of) insecticides on basal and depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i were studied in vitro with Fura-2-loaded PC12 cells and high resolution single-cell fluorescence microscopy. The data demonstrate that cypermethrin, α-cypermethrin, endosulfan, and chlorpyrifos concentration-dependently decreased depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i, with 50% (IC50) at 78nM, 239nM, 250nM, and 899nM, respectively. Additionally, acute exposure to chlorpyrifos or endosulfan (10μM) induced a modest increase in basal [Ca2+]i, amounting to 68 ± 8nM and 53 ± 8nM, respectively. Imidacloprid did not disturb basal or depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i at 10μM. Following exposure to binary mixtures, effects on depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i were within the expected effect additivity range, whereas the effect of the tertiary mixture was less than this expected additivity effect range. These results demonstrate that different types of insecticides inhibit depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i in PC12 cells by inhibiting voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in vitro at concentrations comparable with human occupational exposure levels. Moreover, the effective concentrations in this study are below those for earlier described modes of action. Because inhibition of VGCCs appears to be a common and potentially additive mode of action of several classes of insecticides, this target should be considered in neurotoxicity risk assessment studies. PMID:24913802

  19. Targeting voltage-gated calcium channels: developments in peptide and small-molecule inhibitors for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Vink, S; Alewood, P F

    2012-11-01

    Chronic pain affects approximately 20% of people worldwide and places a large economic and social burden on society. Despite the availability of a range of analgesics, this condition is inadequately treated, with complete alleviation of symptoms rarely occurring. In the past 30 years, the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) have been recognized as potential targets for analgesic development. Although the majority of the research has been focused on Ca(v) 2.2 in particular, other VGCC subtypes such as Ca(v) 3.2 have recently come to the forefront of analgesic research. Venom peptides from marine cone snails have been proven to be a valuable tool in neuroscience, playing a major role in the identification and characterization of VGCC subtypes and producing the first conotoxin-based drug on the market, the ω-conotoxin, ziconotide. This peptide potently and selectively inhibits Ca(v) 2.2, resulting in analgesia in chronic pain states. However, this drug is only available via intrathecal administration, and adverse effects and a narrow therapeutic window have limited its use in the clinic. Other Ca(v) 2.2 inhibitors are currently in development and offer the promise of an improved route of administration and safety profile. This review assesses the potential of targeting VGCCs for analgesic development, with a main focus on conotoxins that block Ca(v) 2.2 and the developments made to transform them into therapeutics. PMID:22725651

  20. A voltage-gated calcium channel regulates lysosomal fusion with endosomes and autophagosomes and is required for neuronal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xuejun; Gala, Upasana; Zhang, Yongping; Shang, Weina; Nagarkar Jaiswal, Sonal; di Ronza, Alberto; Jaiswal, Manish; Yamamoto, Shinya; Sandoval, Hector; Duraine, Lita; Sardiello, Marco; Sillitoe, Roy V; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Fan, Hengyu; Bellen, Hugo J; Tong, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Autophagy helps deliver sequestered intracellular cargo to lysosomes for proteolytic degradation and thereby maintains cellular homeostasis by preventing accumulation of toxic substances in cells. In a forward mosaic screen in Drosophila designed to identify genes required for neuronal function and maintenance, we identified multiple cacophony (cac) mutant alleles. They exhibit an age-dependent accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in photoreceptor terminals and eventually a degeneration of the terminals and surrounding glia. cac encodes an α1 subunit of a Drosophila voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) that is required for synaptic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane and neurotransmitter release. Here, we show that cac mutant photoreceptor terminals accumulate AV-lysosomal fusion intermediates, suggesting that Cac is necessary for the fusion of AVs with lysosomes, a poorly defined process. Loss of another subunit of the VGCC, α2δ or straightjacket (stj), causes phenotypes very similar to those caused by the loss of cac, indicating that the VGCC is required for AV-lysosomal fusion. The role of VGCC in AV-lysosomal fusion is evolutionarily conserved, as the loss of the mouse homologues, Cacna1a and Cacna2d2, also leads to autophagic defects in mice. Moreover, we find that CACNA1A is localized to the lysosomes and that loss of lysosomal Cacna1a in cerebellar cultured neurons leads to a failure of lysosomes to fuse with endosomes and autophagosomes. Finally, we show that the lysosomal CACNA1A but not the plasma-membrane resident CACNA1A is required for lysosomal fusion. In summary, we present a model in which the VGCC plays a role in autophagy by regulating the fusion of AVs with lysosomes through its calcium channel activity and hence functions in maintaining neuronal homeostasis. PMID:25811491

  1. A Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Regulates Lysosomal Fusion with Endosomes and Autophagosomes and Is Required for Neuronal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongping; Shang, Weina; Nagarkar Jaiswal, Sonal; di Ronza, Alberto; Jaiswal, Manish; Yamamoto, Shinya; Sandoval, Hector; Duraine, Lita; Sardiello, Marco; Sillitoe, Roy V.; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Fan, Hengyu; Bellen, Hugo J.; Tong, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy helps deliver sequestered intracellular cargo to lysosomes for proteolytic degradation and thereby maintains cellular homeostasis by preventing accumulation of toxic substances in cells. In a forward mosaic screen in Drosophila designed to identify genes required for neuronal function and maintenance, we identified multiple cacophony (cac) mutant alleles. They exhibit an age-dependent accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in photoreceptor terminals and eventually a degeneration of the terminals and surrounding glia. cac encodes an α1 subunit of a Drosophila voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) that is required for synaptic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane and neurotransmitter release. Here, we show that cac mutant photoreceptor terminals accumulate AV-lysosomal fusion intermediates, suggesting that Cac is necessary for the fusion of AVs with lysosomes, a poorly defined process. Loss of another subunit of the VGCC, α2δ or straightjacket (stj), causes phenotypes very similar to those caused by the loss of cac, indicating that the VGCC is required for AV-lysosomal fusion. The role of VGCC in AV-lysosomal fusion is evolutionarily conserved, as the loss of the mouse homologues, Cacna1a and Cacna2d2, also leads to autophagic defects in mice. Moreover, we find that CACNA1A is localized to the lysosomes and that loss of lysosomal Cacna1a in cerebellar cultured neurons leads to a failure of lysosomes to fuse with endosomes and autophagosomes. Finally, we show that the lysosomal CACNA1A but not the plasma-membrane resident CACNA1A is required for lysosomal fusion. In summary, we present a model in which the VGCC plays a role in autophagy by regulating the fusion of AVs with lysosomes through its calcium channel activity and hence functions in maintaining neuronal homeostasis. PMID:25811491

  2. Characterization of ST14A Cells for Studying Modulation of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Crowley, Mandy L.; Rittenhouse, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    In medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum, dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) specifically inhibit the Cav1.3 subtype of L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCs). MSNs are heterogeneous in their expression of dopamine receptors making the study of D2R pathways difficult in primary neurons. Here, we employed the ST14A cell line, derived from embryonic striatum and characterized to have properties of MSNs, to study Cav1.3 current and its modulation by neurotransmitters. Round, undifferentiated ST14A cells exhibited little to no endogenous Ca2+ current while differentiated ST14A cells expressed endogenous Ca2+ current. Transfection with LTC subunits produced functional Cav1.3 current from round cells, providing a homogeneous model system compared to native MSNs for studying D2R pathways. However, neither endogenous nor recombinant Cav1.3 current was modulated by the D2R agonist quinpirole. We confirmed D2R expression in ST14A cells and also detected D1Rs, D4Rs, D5Rs, Gq, calcineurin and phospholipase A2 using RT-PCR and/or Western blot analysis. Phospholipase C β-1 (PLCβ-1) expression was not detected by Western blot analysis which may account for the lack of LTC modulation by D2Rs. These findings raise caution about the assumption that the presence of G-protein coupled receptors in cell lines indicates the presence of complete signaling cascades. However, exogenous arachidonic acid inhibited recombinant Cav1.3 current indicating that channels expressed in ST14A cells are capable of modulation since they respond to a known signaling molecule downstream of D2Rs. Thus, ST14A cells provide a MSN-like cell line for studying channel modulation and signaling pathways that do not involve activation of PLCβ-1. PMID:26147123

  3. CNS Voltage-gated Calcium Channel Gene Variation And Prolonged Recovery Following Sport-related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between concussion duration and two calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) single nucleotide polymorphisms (i.e., rs35737760 and rs704326). A secondary purpose was to examine the association between CACNA1E single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and three acute concussion severity scores (i.e., vestibule-ocular reflex test, balance error scoring scale, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). Methods: Forty athletes with a diagnosed concussion from a hospital concussion program completed a standardized initial evaluation. Concussion injury characteristics, acute signs and symptoms followed by an objective screening (i.e., vestibular ocular assessments, balance error scoring system test, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing exam) were assessed. Enrolled participants provided salivary samples for isolation of DNA. Two exon SNPs rs35737760 and rs704326 within CACNA1E were genotyped. Results: There was a significant difference found between acute balance deficits and prolonged recovery group (X2 = 5.66, p = 0.017). There was an association found between the dominant model GG genotype (X2 = 5.41, p = 0.027) within the rs704326 SNP and prolonged recovery group. Significant differences were identified for the rs704326 SNP within the dominant model GG genotype (p = 0.030) for VOR scores by recovery. A significant difference was found between the rs704326 SNP codominant model AA (p = 0.042) and visual memory. There was an association between acute balance deficits and prolonged recovery (X2 = 5.66, p = 0.017) for the rs35737760 SNP. No significant associations between concussion severity and genotype for rs35737760 SNP. Conclusion: Athletes carrying the CACNA1E rs704326 homozygous genotype GG are at a greater risk of a prolonged recovery. Athletes that reported balance deficits at the time of injury were more likely to have prolonged recovery. These

  4. Design of a functional calcium channel protein: inferences about an ion channel-forming motif derived from the primary structure of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Grove, A.; Tomich, J. M.; Iwamoto, T.; Montal, M.

    1993-01-01

    To identify sequence-specific motifs associated with the formation of an ionic pore, we systematically evaluated the channel-forming activity of synthetic peptides with sequence of predicted transmembrane segments of the voltage-gated calcium channel. The amino acid sequence of voltage-gated, dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive calcium channels suggests the presence in each of four homologous repeats (I-IV) of six segments (S1-S6) predicted to form membrane-spanning, alpha-helical structures. Only peptides representing amphipathic segments S2 or S3 form channels in lipid bilayers. To generate a functional calcium channel based on a four-helix bundle motif, four-helix bundle proteins representing IVS2 (T4CaIVS2) or IVS3 (T4CaIVS3) were synthesized. Both proteins form cation-selective channels, but with distinct characteristics: the single-channel conductance in 50 mM BaCl2 is 3 pS and 10 pS. For T4CaIVS3, the conductance saturates with increasing concentration of divalent cation. The dissociation constants for Ba2+, Ca2+, and Sr2+ are 13.6 mM, 17.7 mM, and 15.0 mM, respectively. The conductance of T4CaIVS2 does not saturate up to 150 mM salt. Whereas T4CaIVS3 is blocked by microM Ca2+ and Cd2+, T4CaIVS2 is not blocked by divalent cations. Only T4CaIVS3 is modulated by enantiomers of the DHP derivative BayK 8644, demonstrating sequence requirement for specific drug action. Thus, only T4CaIVS3 exhibits pore properties characteristic also of authentic calcium channels. The designed functional calcium channel may provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of ionic permeation and drug action, information that may in turn further our understanding of molecular determinants underlying authentic pore structures. PMID:7505682

  5. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) influx through L-type channels contributes to sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) loading in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Robin, Gaëlle; Allard, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Muscle contraction is triggered by Ca(2+) ions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in response to depolarization of skeletal muscle fibres. Muscle activation is also associated with a voltage-activated trans-sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx early identified as a current flowing through L-type Ca(2+) channels. Because removal of external Ca(2+) does not impede fibres from contracting, a negligible role was given to this voltage-activated Ca(2+) entry, although the decline of Ca(2+) release is more pronounced in the absence of Ca(2+) during long-lasting activation. Furthermore, it is not clearly established whether Ca(2+) exclusively flows through L-type channels or in addition through a parallel voltage-activated pathway distinct from L-type channels. Here, by monitoring the quenching of fura-2 fluorescence resulting from Mn(2+) influx in voltage-controlled mouse and zebrafish isolated muscle fibres, we show that the L-type current is the only contributor to Ca(2+) influx during long-lasting depolarizations in skeletal muscle. Calibration of the Mn(2+) quenching signal allowed us to estimate a mean Mn(2+) current of 0.31 ± 0.06 A F(-1) flowing through L-type channels during a train of action potentials. Measurements of SR Ca(2+) changes with fluo-5N in response to depolarization revealed that an elevated voltage-activated Ca(2+) current potentiated SR Ca(2+) loading and addition of external Mn(2+) produced quenching of fluo-5N in the SR, indicating that voltage-activated Ca(2+) /Mn(2+) influx contributes to SR Ca(2+) /Mn(2+) loading. PMID:26383921

  6. Voltage-gated calcium channels are abnormal in cultured spinal motoneurons in the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Martin, Lee J

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motoneurons. Hyperexcitability and excitotoxicity have been implicated in the early pathogenesis of ALS. Studies addressing excitotoxic motoneuron death and intracellular Ca(2+) overload have mostly focused on Ca(2+) influx through AMPA glutamate receptors. However, intrinsic excitability of motoneurons through voltage-gated ion channels may also have a role in the neurodegeneration. In this study we examined the function and localization of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in cultured spinal cord motoneurons from mice expressing a mutant form of human superoxide dismutase-1 with a Gly93→Ala substitution (G93A-SOD1). Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we showed that high voltage activated (HVA) Ca(2+) currents are increased in G93A-SOD1 motoneurons, but low voltage activated Ca(2+) currents are not affected. G93A-SOD1 motoneurons also have altered persistent Ca(2+) current mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels. Quantitative single-cell RT-PCR revealed higher levels of Ca1a, Ca1b, Ca1c, and Ca1e subunit mRNA expression in G93A-SOD1 motoneurons, indicating that the increase of HVA Ca(2+) currents may result from upregulation of Ca(2+) channel mRNA expression in motoneurons. The localizations of the Ca1B N-type and Ca1D L-type Ca(2+) channels in motoneurons were examined by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. G93A-SOD1 motoneurons had increased Ca1B channels on the plasma membrane of soma and dendrites. Ca1D channels are similar on the plasma membrane of soma and lower on the plasma membrane of dendrites of G93A-SOD1 motoneurons. Our study demonstrates that voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels have aberrant functions and localizations in ALS mouse motoneurons. The increased HVA Ca(2+) currents and PCCa current could contribute to early pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:27151771

  7. Role of calcium channels in cellular antituberculosis effects: Potential of voltage-gated calcium-channel blockers in tuberculosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Lele; Cui, Ruina; Yang, Yourong; Wu, Xueqiong

    2015-10-01

    The immunity of human immune cells and their ability to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are key factors in the anti-MTB effect. However, MTB modulates the levels and activity of key intracellular second messengers, such as calcium, to evade protective immune responses. Recent studies suggest that inhibiting L-type calcium channel in immune cells using either antibodies or small interfering RNA increases calcium influx, upregulates the expression of proinflammation genes, and reduces MTB burden. First, we will review the key factors in calcium-signaling pathway that may affect the immunity of immune cells to MTB infection. Second, we will focus on the role of calcium channels in regulating cellular immunity to MTB. Finally, we will discuss the possibility of using calcium-channel blockers as anti-MTB chemotherapy drugs to enhance chemotherapy effects, shorten treatment period, and overcome drug resistance. PMID:25442874

  8. Ancient Origins of RGK Protein Function: Modulation of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Preceded the Protostome and Deuterostome Split

    PubMed Central

    Puhl, Henry L.; Lu, Van B.; Won, Yu-Jin; Sasson, Yehezkel; Hirsch, Joel A.; Ono, Fumihito; Ikeda, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    RGK proteins, Gem, Rad, Rem1, and Rem2, are members of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins that interact with Ca2+ channel β subunits to modify voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function. In addition, RGK proteins affect several cellular processes such as cytoskeletal rearrangement, neuronal dendritic complexity, and synapse formation. To probe the phylogenetic origins of RGK protein–Ca2+ channel interactions, we identified potential RGK-like protein homologs in genomes for genetically diverse organisms from both the deuterostome and protostome animal superphyla. RGK-like protein homologs cloned from Danio rerio (zebrafish) and Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) expressed in mammalian sympathetic neurons decreased Ca2+ current density as reported for expression of mammalian RGK proteins. Sequence alignments from evolutionarily diverse organisms spanning the protostome/deuterostome divide revealed conservation of residues within the RGK G-domain involved in RGK protein – Cavβ subunit interaction. In addition, the C-terminal eleven residues were highly conserved and constituted a signature sequence unique to RGK proteins but of unknown function. Taken together, these data suggest that RGK proteins, and the ability to modify Ca2+ channel function, arose from an ancestor predating the protostomes split from deuterostomes approximately 550 million years ago. PMID:24992013

  9. EFFECTS OF SUBSCUTE EXPOSURE TO NANOMOLAR CONCENTRATIONS OF METHYLMERCURY ON VOLTAGE-GATES SODIUM AND CALCIUM CURRENTS IN PC12 CELLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methylmercury (CH3Hg+) alters the function of voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels in neuronal preparations following acute, in vitro, exposure. Because the developing nervous system is particularly sensitive to CH3Hg+ neurotoxicity, effects on voltage-gated Na+ (INa) and Ca2+ (IC...

  10. Calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channel activators in the 5β-cholanic acid-3α-ol analogue series with modifications in the lateral chain.

    PubMed

    Bukiya, Anna N; Patil, Shivaputra A; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane D; Dopico, Alex M

    2012-10-01

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels regulate various physiological processes and represent an attractive target for drug discovery. Numerous BK channel activators are available. However, these agents usually interact with the ubiquitously distributed channel-forming subunit and thus cannot selectively target a particular tissue. We performed a structure-activity relationship study of lithocholic acid (LCA), a cholane that activates BK channels via the accessory BK β1 subunit. The latter protein is highly abundant in smooth muscle but scarce in most other tissues. Modifications to the LCA lateral chain length and functional group yielded two novel smooth muscle BK channel activators in which the substituent at C24 has a small volume and a net negative charge. Our data provide detailed structural information that will be useful to advance a pharmacophore in search of β1 subunit-selective BK channel activators. These compounds are expected to evoke smooth muscle relaxation, which would be beneficial in the pharmacotherapy of prevalent human disorders associated with increased smooth muscle contraction, such as systemic hypertension, cerebral or coronary vasospasm, bronchial asthma, bladder hyperactivity, and erectile dysfunction. PMID:22945504

  11. Cav1.4 L-Type Calcium Channels Contribute to Calpain Activation in Degenerating Photoreceptors of rd1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schön, Christian; Paquet-Durand, François; Michalakis, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited blinding disorder characterized by progressive degeneration and loss of photoreceptors. The exact mechanism of degeneration and cell death of photoreceptors is not known, but is thought to involve disturbed Ca2+—signaling. Ca2+ can enter the photoreceptor cell via outer segment cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels or synaptic Cav1.4 L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). Previously, we have shown that genetic ablation of the Cngb1 gene encoding the B subunit of the rod CNG channel delays the fast progressing degeneration in the rd1 mutant mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. In this study, we crossbred rd1 mice with the Cacna1f-deficient mouse lacking the Cav1.4 α1 subunit of the L-type VGCC. Longitudinal in vivo examinations of photoreceptor layer thickness by optical coherence tomography revealed a significant, but not sustained delay of retinal degeneration in Cacna1f x rd1 double mutant mice compared to rd1 mice. This was accompanied by a reduction of TUNEL positive cells in the early phase of rod degeneration. Remarkably, Cacna1f x rd1 double mutant mice displayed a strong decrease in the activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain during photoreceptor loss. Our results show that genetic deletion of the synaptic Cav1.4 L-type VGCCs impairs calpain activation and leads to a short-term preservation of photoreceptors in the rd1 mouse. PMID:27270916

  12. Cav1.4 L-Type Calcium Channels Contribute to Calpain Activation in Degenerating Photoreceptors of rd1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Schön, Christian; Paquet-Durand, François; Michalakis, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited blinding disorder characterized by progressive degeneration and loss of photoreceptors. The exact mechanism of degeneration and cell death of photoreceptors is not known, but is thought to involve disturbed Ca2+-signaling. Ca2+ can enter the photoreceptor cell via outer segment cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels or synaptic Cav1.4 L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). Previously, we have shown that genetic ablation of the Cngb1 gene encoding the B subunit of the rod CNG channel delays the fast progressing degeneration in the rd1 mutant mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. In this study, we crossbred rd1 mice with the Cacna1f-deficient mouse lacking the Cav1.4 α1 subunit of the L-type VGCC. Longitudinal in vivo examinations of photoreceptor layer thickness by optical coherence tomography revealed a significant, but not sustained delay of retinal degeneration in Cacna1f x rd1 double mutant mice compared to rd1 mice. This was accompanied by a reduction of TUNEL positive cells in the early phase of rod degeneration. Remarkably, Cacna1f x rd1 double mutant mice displayed a strong decrease in the activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain during photoreceptor loss. Our results show that genetic deletion of the synaptic Cav1.4 L-type VGCCs impairs calpain activation and leads to a short-term preservation of photoreceptors in the rd1 mouse. PMID:27270916

  13. Selectivity filters and cysteine-rich extracellular loops in voltage-gated sodium, calcium, and NALCN channels

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Robert F.; Guan, W.; Zhorov, Boris S.; Spafford, J. David

    2015-01-01

    How nature discriminates sodium from calcium ions in eukaryotic channels has been difficult to resolve because they contain four homologous, but markedly different repeat domains. We glean clues from analyzing the changing pore region in sodium, calcium and NALCN channels, from single-cell eukaryotes to mammals. Alternative splicing in invertebrate homologs provides insights into different structural features underlying calcium and sodium selectivity. NALCN generates alternative ion selectivity with splicing that changes the high field strength (HFS) site at the narrowest level of the hourglass shaped pore where the selectivity filter is located. Alternative splicing creates NALCN isoforms, in which the HFS site has a ring of glutamates contributed by all four repeat domains (EEEE), or three glutamates and a lysine residue in the third (EEKE) or second (EKEE) position. Alternative splicing provides sodium and/or calcium selectivity in T-type channels with extracellular loops between S5 and P-helices (S5P) of different lengths that contain three or five cysteines. All eukaryotic channels have a set of eight core cysteines in extracellular regions, but the T-type channels have an infusion of 4–12 extra cysteines in extracellular regions. The pattern of conservation suggests a possible pairing of long loops in Domains I and III, which are bridged with core cysteines in NALCN, Cav, and Nav channels, and pairing of shorter loops in Domains II and IV in T-type channel through disulfide bonds involving T-type specific cysteines. Extracellular turrets of increasing lengths in potassium channels (Kir2.2, hERG, and K2P1) contribute to a changing landscape above the pore selectivity filter that can limit drug access and serve as an ion pre-filter before ions reach the pore selectivity filter below. Pairing of extended loops likely contributes to the large extracellular appendage as seen in single particle electron cryo-microscopy images of the eel Nav1 channel. PMID

  14. A Polybasic Plasma Membrane Binding Motif in the I-II Linker Stabilizes Voltage-gated CaV1.2 Calcium Channel Function*

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurjot; Pinggera, Alexandra; Ortner, Nadine J.; Lieb, Andreas; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Obermair, Gerald J.; Flucher, Bernhard E.; Striessnig, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) regulate many physiological functions like muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, and neuronal excitability. Their activity is strictly controlled by various molecular mechanisms. The pore-forming α1-subunit comprises four repeated domains (I–IV), each connected via an intracellular linker. Here we identified a polybasic plasma membrane binding motif, consisting of four arginines, within the I-II linker of all LTCCs. The primary structure of this motif is similar to polybasic clusters known to interact with polyphosphoinositides identified in other ion channels. We used de novo molecular modeling to predict the conformation of this polybasic motif, immunofluorescence microscopy and live cell imaging to investigate the interaction with the plasma membrane, and electrophysiology to study its role for Cav1.2 channel function. According to our models, this polybasic motif of the I-II linker forms a straight α-helix, with the positive charges facing the lipid phosphates of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Membrane binding of the I-II linker could be reversed after phospholipase C activation, causing polyphosphoinositide breakdown, and was accelerated by elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels. This indicates the involvement of negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane targeting of the linker. Neutralization of four arginine residues eliminated plasma membrane binding. Patch clamp recordings revealed facilitated opening of Cav1.2 channels containing these mutations, weaker inhibition by phospholipase C activation, and reduced expression of channels (as quantified by ON-gating charge) at the plasma membrane. Our data provide new evidence for a membrane binding motif within the I-II linker of LTCC α1-subunits essential for stabilizing normal Ca2+ channel function. PMID:26100638

  15. A Polybasic Plasma Membrane Binding Motif in the I-II Linker Stabilizes Voltage-gated CaV1.2 Calcium Channel Function.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjot; Pinggera, Alexandra; Ortner, Nadine J; Lieb, Andreas; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Obermair, Gerald J; Flucher, Bernhard E; Striessnig, Jörg

    2015-08-21

    L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) regulate many physiological functions like muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, and neuronal excitability. Their activity is strictly controlled by various molecular mechanisms. The pore-forming α1-subunit comprises four repeated domains (I-IV), each connected via an intracellular linker. Here we identified a polybasic plasma membrane binding motif, consisting of four arginines, within the I-II linker of all LTCCs. The primary structure of this motif is similar to polybasic clusters known to interact with polyphosphoinositides identified in other ion channels. We used de novo molecular modeling to predict the conformation of this polybasic motif, immunofluorescence microscopy and live cell imaging to investigate the interaction with the plasma membrane, and electrophysiology to study its role for Cav1.2 channel function. According to our models, this polybasic motif of the I-II linker forms a straight α-helix, with the positive charges facing the lipid phosphates of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Membrane binding of the I-II linker could be reversed after phospholipase C activation, causing polyphosphoinositide breakdown, and was accelerated by elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This indicates the involvement of negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane targeting of the linker. Neutralization of four arginine residues eliminated plasma membrane binding. Patch clamp recordings revealed facilitated opening of Cav1.2 channels containing these mutations, weaker inhibition by phospholipase C activation, and reduced expression of channels (as quantified by ON-gating charge) at the plasma membrane. Our data provide new evidence for a membrane binding motif within the I-II linker of LTCC α1-subunits essential for stabilizing normal Ca(2+) channel function. PMID:26100638

  16. L-type Calcium Channel Auto-Regulation of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Satin, Jonathan; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Crump, Shawn M.

    2011-01-01

    L-type calcium channels (LTCC) impact the function of nearly all excitable cells. The classical LTCC function is to mediate trans-sarcolemmal Ca2+ flux. This review focuses on the contribution of a mobile segment of the LTCC that regulates ion channel function, and also serves as a regulator of transcription in the nucleus. Specifically we highlight recent work demonstrating an auto-feedback regulatory pathway whereby the LTCC transcription factor regulates the LTCC. Also discussed is acute and long-term regulation of function by the LTCC-transcription regulator. PMID:21295347

  17. L-type calcium channels in adrenal chromaffin cells: role in pace-making and secretion.

    PubMed

    Marcantoni, A; Baldelli, P; Hernandez-Guijo, J M; Comunanza, V; Carabelli, V; Carbone, E

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated L-type (Cav1.2 and Cav1.3) channels are widely expressed in cardiovascular tissues and represent the critical drug-target for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases. The two isoforms are also abundantly expressed in neuronal and neuroendocrine tissues. In the brain, Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels control synaptic plasticity, somatic activity, neuronal differentiation and brain aging. In neuroendocrine cells, they are involved in the genesis of action potential generation, bursting activity and hormone secretion. Recent studies have shown that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 are also expressed in chromaffin cells but their functional role has not yet been identified despite that L-type channels possess interesting characteristics, which confer them an important role in the control of catecholamine secretion during action potentials stimulation. In intact rat adrenal glands L-type channels are responsible for adrenaline and noradrenaline release following splanchnic nerve stimulation or nicotinic receptor activation. L-type channels can be either up- or down-modulated by membrane autoreceptors following distinct second messenger pathways. L-type channels are tightly coupled to BK channels and activate at relatively low-voltages. In this way they contribute to the action potential hyperpolarization and to the pace-maker current controlling action potential firings. L-type channels are shown also to regulate the fast secretion of the immediate readily releasable pool of vesicles with the same Ca(2+)-efficiency of other voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In mouse adrenal slices, repeated action potential-like stimulations drive L-type channels to a state of enhanced stimulus-secretion efficiency regulated by beta-adrenergic receptors. Here we will review all these novel findings and discuss the possible implication for a specific role of L-type channels in the control of chromaffin cells activity. PMID:17561252

  18. The effects of piracetam and its novel peptide analogue GVS-111 on neuronal voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Ostrovskaya, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Voronina, T A; Skrebitsky, V G

    1997-07-01

    1. With the use of the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp method, three types of voltage-activated ionic currents were examined in isolated neurons of the snail Helix pomatia: high-threshold Ca2+ current (ICa), high-threshold Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current (IK(Ca)) and high-threshold K+ current independent of Ca2+ (IK(V)). 2. The effect of bath application of the nootropics piracetam and a novel piracetam peptide analog, ethyl ester of N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolyl-glycine (GVS-111), on these three types of voltage-activated ionic currents was studied. 3. In more than half of the tested cells, ICa was resistant to both piracetam and GVS-111. In the rest of the cells, ICa decreased 19 +/- 7% with 2 mM of piracetam and 39 +/- 14% with 2 microM of GVS-111. 4. IK(V) in almost all cells tested was resistant to piracetam at concentrations up to 2 mM. However, IK(V) in two-thirds of the cells was sensitive to GVS-111, being suppressed 49 +/- 18% with 1 microM GVS-111. 5. IK(Ca) appeared to be the most sensitive current of those studied to both piracetam and GVS-111. Piracetam at 1 mM and GVS-111 at 0.1 microM decreased the amplitude of IK(Ca) in most of the cells examined by 49 +/- 19% and 69 +/- 24%, respectively. 6. The results suggest that piracetam and GVS-111 suppression of voltage-activated calcium and potassium currents of the neuronal membrane may regulate (both up and down) Ca2+ influx into neurons. PMID:9195198

  19. Calcium-Activated SK Channels Influence Voltage-Gated Ion Channels to Determine the Precision of Firing in Globus Pallidus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Deister, Christopher A.; Chan, C. Savio; Surmeier, D. James; Wilson, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Globus pallidus (GP) neurons fire rhythmically in the absence of synaptic input, suggesting that they may encode their inputs as changes in the phase of their rhythmic firing. Action potential afterhyperpolarization (AHP) enhances precision of firing by ensuring that the ion channels recover from inactivation by the same amount on each cycle. Voltage-clamp experiments in slices showed that the longest component of the GP neuron’s AHP is blocked by apamin, a selective antagonist of calcium-activated SK channels. Application of 100 nm apamin also disrupted the precision of firing in perforated-patch and cell-attached recordings. SK channel blockade caused a small depolarization in spike threshold and made it more variable, but there was no reduction in the maximal rate of rise during an action potential. Thus, the firing irregularity was not caused solely by a reduction in voltage-gated Na+ channel availability. Subthreshold voltage ramps triggered a large outward current that was sensitive to the initial holding potential and had properties similar to the A-type K+ current in GP neurons. In numerical simulations, the availability of both Na+ and A-type K+ channels during autonomous firing were reduced when SK channels were removed, and a nearly equal reduction in Na+ and K+ subthreshold-activated ion channel availability produced a large decrease in the neuron’s slope conductance near threshold. This change made the neuron more sensitive to intrinsically generated noise. In vivo, this change would also enhance the sensitivity of GP neurons to small synaptic inputs. PMID:19571136

  20. Spinal blockage of P/Q- or N-type voltage-gated calcium channels modulates functional and symptomatic changes related to haemorrhagic cystitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R B M; Sperotto, N D M; Andrade, E L; Pereira, T C B; Leite, C E; de Souza, A H; Bogo, M R; Morrone, F B; Gomez, M V; Campos, M M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spinal voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are pivotal regulators of painful and inflammatory alterations, representing attractive therapeutic targets. We examined the effects of epidural administration of the P/Q- and N-type VGCC blockers Tx3-3 and Phα1β, respectively, isolated from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, on symptomatic, inflammatory and functional changes allied to mouse cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC). The effects of P. nigriventer-derived toxins were compared with those displayed by MVIIC and MVIIA, extracted from the cone snail Conus magus. Experimental Approach HC was induced by a single i.p. injection of CPA (300 mg·kg–1). Dose- and time-related effects of spinally administered P/Q and N-type VGCC blockers were assessed on nociceptive behaviour and macroscopic inflammation elicited by CPA. The effects of toxins were also evaluated on cell migration, cytokine production, oxidative stress, functional cystometry alterations and TRPV1, TRPA1 and NK1 receptor mRNA expression. Key Results The spinal blockage of P/Q-type VGCC by Tx3-3 and MVIIC or N-type VGCC by Phα1β attenuated nociceptive and inflammatory events associated with HC, including bladder oxidative stress and cytokine production. CPA produced a slight increase in bladder TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA expression, which was reversed by all the toxins tested. Noteworthy, Phα1β strongly prevented bladder neutrophil migration, besides HC-related functional alterations, and its effects were potentiated by co-injecting the selective NK1 receptor antagonist CP-96345. Conclusions and Implications Our results shed new light on the role of spinal P/Q and N-type VGCC in bladder dysfunctions, pointing out Phα1β as a promising alternative for treating complications associated with CPA-induced HC. PMID:25298144

  1. Ca2+ controls gating of voltage-gated calcium channels by releasing the β2e subunit from the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Il; Kweon, Hae-Jin; Park, Yongsoo; Jang, Deok-Jin; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels, which are regulated by membrane potential, cytosolic Ca(2+), phosphorylation, and membrane phospholipids, govern Ca(2+) entry into excitable cells. Cav channels contain a pore-forming α1 subunit, an auxiliary α2δ subunit, and a regulatory β subunit, each encoded by several genes in mammals. In addition to a domain that interacts with the α1 subunit, β2e and β2a also interact with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane through an electrostatic interaction for β2e and posttranslational acylation for β2a. We found that an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) promoted the release of β2e from the membrane without requiring substantial depletion of the anionic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) from the plasma membrane. Experiments with liposomes indicated that Ca(2+) disrupted the interaction of the β2e amino-terminal peptide with membranes containing PIP2 Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin (CaM) leads to CaM-mediated inactivation of Cav currents. Although Cav2.2 coexpressed with β2a required Ca(2+)-dependent activation of CaM for Ca(2+)-mediated reduction in channel activity, Cav2.2 coexpressed with β2e exhibited Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of the channel even in the presence of Ca(2+)-insensitive CaM. Inducible depletion of PIP2 reduced Cav2.2 currents, and in cells coexpressing β2e, but not a form that lacks the polybasic region, increased intracellular Ca(2+) further reduced Cav2.2 currents. Many hormone- or neurotransmitter-activated receptors stimulate PIP2 hydrolysis and increase cytosolic Ca(2+); thus, our findings suggest that β2e may integrate such receptor-mediated signals to limit Cav activity. PMID:27382026

  2. Aging Reduces L-Type Calcium Channel Current and the Vasodilatory Response of Small Mesenteric Arteries to Calcium Channel Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Albarwani, Sulayma A.; Mansour, Fathi; Khan, Abdul Aleem; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Al-Kaabi, Abdulla; Al-Busaidi, Al-Manar; Al-Hadhrami, Safa; Al-Husseini, Isehaq; Al-Siyabi, Sultan; Tanira, Musbah O.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension. As aging is an independent risk factor for CVD, the use of CCBs increases with increasing age. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of aging on the sensitivity of small mesenteric arteries to L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LTCC) blockers and also to investigate whether there was a concomitant change in calcium current density. Third order mesenteric arteries from male F344 rats, aged 2.5–3 months (young) and 22–26 months (old) were mounted on wire myograph to measure the tension during isometric contraction. Arteries were contracted with 100 mM KCl and were then relaxed in a cumulative concentration-response dependent manner with nifedipine (0.1 nM–1 μM), verapamil (0.1 nM–10 μM), or diltiazem (0.1 nM–10 μM). Relaxation-concentration response curves produced by cumulative concentrations of three different CCBs in arteries of old rats were shifted to the right with statistically significant IC50s. pIC50 ± s.e.m: (8.37 ± 0.06 vs. 8.04 ± 0.05, 7.40 ± 0.07 vs. 6.81 ± 0.04, and 6.58 ± 0.07 vs. 6.34 ± 0.06) in young vs. old. It was observed that the maximal contractions induced by phenylephrine and reversed by sodium nitroprusside were not different between young and old groups. However, Bay K 8644 (1 μM) increased resting tension by 23 ± 4.8% in young arteries and 4.7 ± 1.6% in old arteries. LTCC current density were also significantly lower in old arteries (−2.77 ± 0.45 pA/pF) compared to young arteries (−4.5 ± 0.40 pA/pF); with similar steady-state activation and inactivation curves. Parallel to this reduction, the expression of Cav1.2 protein was reduced by 57 ± 5% in arteries from old rats compared to those from young rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that aging reduces the response of small mesenteric arteries to the vasodilatory effect of the CCBs and this may be due to, at least in part, reduced

  3. Electrophysiological evidence for voltage-gated calcium channel 2 (Cav2) modulation of mechano- and thermosensitive spinal neuronal responses in a rat model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, W; Patel, R; Dickenson, A H

    2015-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) remains one of the greatest healthcare burdens in western society, with chronic debilitating pain-dominating clinical presentation yet therapeutic strategies are inadequate in many patients. Development of better analgesics is contingent on improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating OA pain. Voltage-gated calcium channels 2.2 (Cav2.2) play a critical role in spinal nociceptive transmission, therefore blocking Cav2.2 activity represents an attractive opportunity for OA pain treatment, but the only available licensed Cav2.2 antagonist ziconitide (PrilatTM) is of limited use. TROX-1 is an orally available, use dependent and state-selective Cav2 antagonist, exerting its analgesic effect primarily via Cav2.2 blockade, with an improved therapeutic window compared with ziconitide. Using a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), 2 mg, induced OA we used in vivo electrophysiology to assess the effects of spinal or systemic administration of TROX-1 on the evoked activity of wide dynamic range spinal dorsal horn neurons in response to electrical, natural mechanical (dynamic brush and von Frey 2, 8, 26 and 6 g) and thermal (40, 45 and 45 °C) stimuli applied to the peripheral receptive field. MIA injection into the knee joint resulted in mechanical hypersensitivity of the ipsilateral hind paw and weight-bearing asymmetry. Spinal administration of TROX-1 (0.1 and 1 μg/50 μl) produced a significant dose-related inhibition of dynamic brush, mechanical (von Frey filament (vF) 8, 26 and 60 g) and noxious thermal-(45 and 48 °C) evoked neuronal responses in MIA rats only. Systemic administration of TROX-1 produced a significant inhibition of the mechanical-(vF 8, 26 and 60 g) evoked neuronal responses in MIA rats. TROX-1 did not produce any significant effect on any neuronal measure in Sham controls. Our in vivo electrophysiological results demonstrate a pathological state-dependent effect of TROX-1, which suggests an increased functional

  4. Electrophysiological evidence for voltage-gated calcium channel 2 (Cav2) modulation of mechano- and thermosensitive spinal neuronal responses in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, W.; Patel, R.; Dickenson, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) remains one of the greatest healthcare burdens in western society, with chronic debilitating pain-dominating clinical presentation yet therapeutic strategies are inadequate in many patients. Development of better analgesics is contingent on improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating OA pain. Voltage-gated calcium channels 2.2 (Cav2.2) play a critical role in spinal nociceptive transmission, therefore blocking Cav2.2 activity represents an attractive opportunity for OA pain treatment, but the only available licensed Cav2.2 antagonist ziconitide (PrilatTM) is of limited use. TROX-1 is an orally available, use dependent and state-selective Cav2 antagonist, exerting its analgesic effect primarily via Cav2.2 blockade, with an improved therapeutic window compared with ziconitide. Using a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), 2 mg, induced OA we used in vivo electrophysiology to assess the effects of spinal or systemic administration of TROX-1 on the evoked activity of wide dynamic range spinal dorsal horn neurons in response to electrical, natural mechanical (dynamic brush and von Frey 2, 8, 26 and 6 g) and thermal (40, 45 and 45 °C) stimuli applied to the peripheral receptive field. MIA injection into the knee joint resulted in mechanical hypersensitivity of the ipsilateral hind paw and weight-bearing asymmetry. Spinal administration of TROX-1 (0.1 and 1 μg/50 μl) produced a significant dose-related inhibition of dynamic brush, mechanical (von Frey filament (vF) 8, 26 and 60 g) and noxious thermal-(45 and 48 °C) evoked neuronal responses in MIA rats only. Systemic administration of TROX-1 produced a significant inhibition of the mechanical-(vF 8, 26 and 60 g) evoked neuronal responses in MIA rats. TROX-1 did not produce any significant effect on any neuronal measure in Sham controls. Our in vivo electrophysiological results demonstrate a pathological state-dependent effect of TROX-1, which suggests an increased

  5. Conditional forebrain deletion of the L-type calcium channel Ca V 1.2 disrupts remote spatial memories in mice.

    PubMed

    White, Jessica A; McKinney, Brandon C; John, Manorama C; Powers, Patricia A; Kamp, Timothy J; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) are required for remote memory consolidation, we generated conditional knockout mice in which the L-VGCC isoform Ca(V)1.2 was postnatally deleted in the hippocampus and cortex. In the Morris water maze, both Ca(V)1.2 conditional knockout mice (Ca(V)1.2(cKO)) and control littermates displayed a marked decrease in escape latencies and performed equally well on probe trials administered during training. In distinct contrast to their performance during training, Ca(V)1.2(cKO) mice exhibited significant impairments in spatial memory when examined 30 d after training, suggesting that Ca(V)1.2 plays a critical role in consolidation of remote spatial memories. PMID:18174367

  6. Dopamine midbrain neurons in health and Parkinson's disease: emerging roles of voltage-gated calcium channels and ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic, E; Schiemann, J; Liss, B

    2015-01-22

    Dopamine (DA) releasing midbrain neurons are essential for multiple brain functions, such as voluntary movement, working memory, emotion and cognition. DA midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exhibit a variety of distinct axonal projections and cellular properties, and are differentially affected in diseases like schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Apart from having diverse functions in health and disease states, DA midbrain neurons display distinct electrical activity patterns, crucial for DA release. These activity patterns are generated and modulated by specific sets of ion channels. Recently, two ion channels have been identified, not only contributing to these activity patterns and to functional properties of DA midbrain neurons, but also seem to render SN DA neurons particularly vulnerable to degeneration in PD and its animal models: L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATPs). In this review, we focus on the emerging physiological and pathophysiological roles of these two ion channels (and their complex interplay with other ion channels), particularly in highly vulnerable SN DA neurons, as selective degeneration of these neurons causes the major motor symptoms of PD. PMID:25450964

  7. Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of pyrimidobenzothiazole-3-carboxylate derivatives as selective L-type calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Chikhale, Rupesh; Thorat, Sonali; Pant, Amit; Jadhav, Ankush; Thatipamula, Krishna Chary; Bansode, Ratnadeep; Bhargavi, G; Karodia, Nazira; Rajasekharan, M V; Paradkar, Anant; Khedekar, Pramod

    2015-10-15

    L-type voltage gated calcium channels play essential role in contraction of various skeletal and vascular smooth muscles, thereby plays important role in regulating blood pressure. Dihydropyridine receptors have been targeted for development of newer antihypertensive agents, one of the structurally analogs nucleus dihydropyrimidines have been reported earlier by us as a potential agent toward development of calcium channel modulator. A pre-synthetic QSAR was run and on the basis of structure activity relationship a series of twenty three molecules was synthesized and studied by myosin light chain kinase assay (MLCK), Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) colorimetric assay, non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) and invasive blood pressure (IBP) methods. Molecules with significant efficacy were studied for their single crystal X-ray diffraction, molecular docking, molecular dynamics and post-synthetic QSAR. The NIBP and IBP methods screened molecules with better percentage inhibition versus time compared to standard drug Nifedipine. The lead compound ethyl 2-methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-4H-pyrimido [2,1-b] [1,3] benzothiazole-3-carboxylate (26) presented a triclinic structure with polymeric chain packing in lattice. 26 exhibited IC50 on MLCK assay of 2.1±1.7 μM with selectivity of L-type calcium channels and comparative to Nifedipine. It offered satisfactory physicochemical properties with partition coefficient of (ClogP) 4.64. Its pharmacokinetic profile is also good with Cmax at 0.40 μg/ml by oral route with Tmax reaching in 0.5 h which means in 30 min. 26 also exhibits superior t1/2 of 5.4 h and oral bioavailability of (F) 56.75% with an AUC0-∞ of 0.84 μg h/ml. Molecular docking studies indicates toward the interaction of lead compound via hydrogen bonds with Lys144, Glu181 and Asp183, it forms the Van der Walls interactions with Ser18, Asp20, Asn187, Pro185, Glu180, Glu181 and Arg10 with Glide score and Glide energy to be -3.602 and -47.098, respectively. Post

  8. TMEM16A is associated with voltage-gated calcium channels in mouse retina and its function is disrupted upon mutation of the auxiliary α2δ4 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Antonella; Piano, Ilaria; Demontis, Gian Carlo; Bacchi, Niccolò; Casarosa, Simona; Santina, Luca Della; Gargini, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors rely upon highly specialized synapses to efficiently transmit signals to multiple postsynaptic targets. Calcium influx in the presynaptic terminal is mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). This event triggers neurotransmitter release, but also gates calcium-activated chloride channels (TMEM), which in turn regulate VGCC activity. In order to investigate the relationship between VGCC and TMEM channels, we analyzed the retina of wild type (WT) and Cacna2d4 mutant mice, in which the VGCC auxiliary α2δ4 subunit carries a nonsense mutation, disrupting the normal channel function. Synaptic terminals of mutant photoreceptors are disarranged and synaptic proteins as well as TMEM16A channels lose their characteristic localization. In parallel, calcium-activated chloride currents are impaired in rods, despite unaltered TMEM16A protein levels. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed the interaction between VGCC and TMEM16A channels in the retina. Heterologous expression of these channels in tsA-201 cells showed that TMEM16A associates with the CaV1.4 subunit, and the association persists upon expression of the mutant α2δ4 subunit. Collectively, our experiments show association between TMEM16A and the α1 subunit of VGCC. Close proximity of these channels allows optimal function of the photoreceptor synaptic terminal under physiological conditions, but also makes TMEM16A channels susceptible to changes occurring to calcium channels. PMID:26557056

  9. CACNA1D De Novo Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders Activate Cav1.3 L-Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Pinggera, Alexandra; Lieb, Andreas; Benedetti, Bruno; Lampert, Michaela; Monteleone, Stefania; Liedl, Klaus R.; Tuluc, Petronel; Striessnig, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Background Cav1.3 voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) are part of postsynaptic neuronal signaling networks. They play a key role in brain function, including fear memory and emotional and drug-taking behaviors. A whole-exome sequencing study identified a de novo mutation, p.A749G, in Cav1.3 α1-subunits (CACNA1D), the second main LTCC in the brain, as 1 of 62 high risk–conferring mutations in a cohort of patients with autism and intellectual disability. We screened all published genetic information available from whole-exome sequencing studies and identified a second de novo CACNA1D mutation, p.G407R. Both mutations are present only in the probands and not in their unaffected parents or siblings. Methods We functionally expressed both mutations in tsA-201 cells to study their functional consequences using whole-cell patch-clamp. Results The mutations p.A749G and p.G407R caused dramatic changes in channel gating by shifting (~15 mV) the voltage dependence for steady-state activation and inactivation to more negative voltages (p.A749G) or by pronounced slowing of current inactivation during depolarizing stimuli (p.G407R). In both cases, these changes are compatible with a gain-of-function phenotype. Conclusions Our data, together with the discovery that Cav1.3 gain-of-function causes primary aldosteronism with seizures, neurologic abnormalities, and intellectual disability, suggest that Cav1.3 gain-of-function mutations confer a major part of the risk for autism in the two probands and may even cause the disease. Our findings have immediate clinical relevance because blockers of LTCCs are available for therapeutic attempts in affected individuals. Patients should also be explored for other symptoms likely resulting from Cav1.3 hyperactivity, in particular, primary aldosteronism. PMID:25620733

  10. Stimulation of Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis by the Mental Disease Gene DISC1 is Mediated by N-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Willcyn; Thevathasan, Jervis Vermal; Lin, Qingshu; Lim, Kim Buay; Kuroda, Keisuke; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Bilger, Marcel; Soong, Tuck Wah; Fivaz, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Lesions and mutations of the DISC1 (Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1) gene have been linked to major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism, but the influence of DISC1 on synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Using two independent genetic approaches—RNAi and a DISC1 KO mouse—we examined the impact of DISC1 on the synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle by population imaging of the synaptic tracer vGpH in hippocampal neurons. DISC1 loss-of-function resulted in a marked decrease in SV exocytic rates during neuronal stimulation and was associated with reduced Ca2+ transients at nerve terminals. Impaired SV release was efficiently rescued by elevation of extracellular Ca2+, hinting at a link between DISC1 and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Accordingly, blockade of N-type Cav2.2 channels mimics and occludes the effect of DISC1 inactivation on SV exocytosis, and overexpression of DISC1 in a heterologous system increases Cav2.2 currents. Collectively, these results show that DISC1-dependent enhancement of SV exocytosis is mediated by Cav2.2 and point to aberrant glutamate release as a probable endophenotype of major psychiatric disorders. PMID:27378904

  11. Syntaxin-3 Binds and Regulates Both R- and L-Type Calcium Channels in Insulin-Secreting INS-1 832/13 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li; Dolai, Subhankar; Kang, Youhou; Liang, Tao; Xie, Huanli; Qin, Tairan; Yang, Lu; Chen, Liangyi; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2016-01-01

    Syntaxin (Syn)-1A mediates exocytosis of predocked insulin-containing secretory granules (SGs) during first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in part via its interaction with plasma membrane (PM)-bound L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav). In contrast, Syn-3 mediates exocytosis of newcomer SGs that accounts for second-phase GSIS. We now hypothesize that the newcomer SG Syn-3 preferentially binds and modulates R-type Cav opening, which was postulated to mediate second-phase GSIS. Indeed, glucose-stimulation of pancreatic islet β-cell line INS-1 induced a predominant increase in interaction between Syn-3 and Cavα1 pore-forming subunits of R-type Cav2.3 and to lesser extent L-type Cavs, while confirming the preferential interactions between Syn-1A with L-type (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) Cavs. Consistently, direct binding studies employing heterologous HEK cells confirmed that Syn-3 preferentially binds Cav2.3, whereas Syn-1A prefers L-type Cavs. We then used siRNA knockdown (KD) of Syn-3 in INS-1 to study the endogenous modulatory actions of Syn-3 on Cav channels. Syn-3 KD enhanced Ca2+ currents by 46% attributed mostly to R- and L-type Cavs. Interestingly, while the transmembrane domain of Syn-1A is the putative functional domain modulating Cav activity, it is the cytoplasmic domain of Syn-3 that appears to modulate Cav activity. We conclude that Syn-3 may mimic Syn-1A in the ability to bind and modulate Cavs, but preferring Cav2.3 to perhaps participate in triggering fusion of newcomer insulin SGs during second-phase GSIS. PMID:26848587

  12. Complex regulation of voltage-dependent activation and inactivation properties of retinal voltage-gated Cav1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels by Ca2+-binding protein 4 (CaBP4).

    PubMed

    Shaltiel, Lior; Paparizos, Christos; Fenske, Stefanie; Hassan, Sami; Gruner, Christian; Rötzer, Katrin; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian A

    2012-10-19

    Cav1.4 L-type Ca(2+) channels are crucial for synaptic transmission in retinal photoreceptors and bipolar neurons. Recent studies suggest that the activity of this channel is regulated by the Ca(2+)-binding protein 4 (CaBP4). In the present study, we explored this issue by examining functional effects of CaBP4 on heterologously expressed Cav1.4. We show that CaBP4 dramatically increases Cav1.4 channel availability. This effect crucially depends on the presence of the C-terminal ICDI (inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation) domain of Cav1.4 and is absent in a Cav1.4 mutant lacking the ICDI. Using FRET experiments, we demonstrate that CaBP4 interacts with the IQ motif of Cav1.4 and that it interferes with the binding of the ICDI domain. Based on these findings, we suggest that CaBP4 increases Cav1.4 channel availability by relieving the inhibitory effects of the ICDI domain on voltage-dependent Cav1.4 channel gating. We also functionally characterized two CaBP4 mutants that are associated with a congenital variant of human night blindness and other closely related nonstationary retinal diseases. Although both mutants interact with Cav1.4 channels, the functional effects of CaBP4 mutants are only partially preserved, leading to a reduction of Cav1.4 channel availability and loss of function. In conclusion, our study sheds new light on the functional interaction between CaBP4 and Cav1.4. Moreover, it provides insights into the mechanism by which CaBP4 mutants lead to loss of Cav1.4 function and to retinal disease. PMID:22936811

  13. Effect of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) on L-type calcium channel current and its pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Ying; Cai, Zheng-Xu; Li, Ping; Cai, Chun-Yu; Qu, Cheng-Long; Guo, Hui-Shu

    2010-09-24

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), a newly-described natriuretic peptide, relaxes gastrointestinal smooth muscle. L-type calcium channel currents play an important role in regulating smooth muscle contraction. The effect of DNP on L-type calcium channel currents in gastrointestinal tract is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effect of DNP on barium current (I(Ba)) through the L-type calcium channel in gastric antral myocytes of guinea pigs and cGMP-pathway mechanism. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record L-type calcium channel currents. The content of cGMP in guinea pig gastric antral smooth muscle and perfusion solution was measured using radioimmunoassay. DNP markedly enhanced cGMP levels in gastric antral smooth muscle tissue and in perfusion medium. DNP concentration-dependently inhibited I(Ba) in freshly isolated guinea pig gastric antral circular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of guinea pigs. DNP-induced inhibition of I(Ba) was partially blocked by LY83583, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. KT5823, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor, almost completely blocked DNP-induced inhibition of I(Ba). However, DNP-induced inhibition of I(Ba) was potentiated by zaprinast, an inhibitor of cGMP-sensitive phosphodiesterase. Taken together, DNP inhibits L-type calcium channel currents via pGC-cGMP-PKG-dependent signal pathway in gastric antral myocytes of guinea pigs. PMID:20594955

  14. AKAP-Anchored PKA Maintains Neuronal L-type Calcium Channel Activity and NFAT Transcriptional Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jonathan G.; Sanderson, Jennifer L.; Gorski, Jessica A.; Scott, John D.; Catterall, William A.; Sather, William A.; Dell’Acqua, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In neurons, Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LTCC) couples electrical activity to changes in transcription. LTCC activity is elevated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and depressed by the Ca2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), with both enzymes localized to the channel by A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 79/150. AKAP79/150 anchoring of CaN also promotes LTCC activation of transcription through dephosphorylation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). We report here that genetic disruption of PKA anchoring to AKAP79/150 also interferes with LTCC activation of CaN-NFAT signaling in neurons. Disruption of AKAP-PKA anchoring promoted redistribution of the kinase out of dendritic spines, profound decreases in LTCC phosphorylation and Ca2+ influx, and impaired NFAT movement to the nucleus and activation of transcription. Our findings support a model wherein basal activity of AKAP79/150-anchored PKA opposes CaN to preserve LTCC phosphorylation, thereby sustaining LTCC activation of CaN-NFAT signaling to the neuronal nucleus. PMID:24835999

  15. Voltage-Gated Hydrophobic Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrik, Nickolay V

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobicity is a fundamental property that is responsible for numerous physical and biophysical aspects of molecular interactions in water. Peculiar behavior is expected for water in the vicinity of hydrophobic structures, such as nanopores. Indeed, hydrophobic nanopores can be found in two distinct states, dry and wet, even though the latter is thermodynamically unstable. Transitions between these two states are kinetically hindered in long pores but can be much faster in shorter pores. As it is demonstrated for the first time in this paper, these transitions can be induced by applying a voltage across a membrane with a single hydrophobic nanopore. Such voltage-induced gating in single nanopores can be realized in a reversible manner through electrowetting of inner walls of the nanopores. The resulting I-V curves of such artificial hydrophobic nanopores mimic biological voltage-gated channels.

  16. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  17. A Blocker of N- and T-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Intoxication, Place Preference, Self-Administration, and Reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Philip M.; Zeng, Lily; Wang, Victoria; Connolly, Jacklyn; Wallace, Melisa J.; Kim, Chanki; Shin, Hee-Sup; Belardetti, Francesco; Snutch, Terrance P.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear need for new therapeutics to treat alcoholism. Here, we test our hypothesis that selective inhibitors of neuronal calcium channels will reduce ethanol consumption and intoxication, based on our previous studies using knock-out mice and cell culture systems. We demonstrate that pretreatment with the novel mixed N-type and T-type calcium channel antagonist 1-(6,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)hexyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)piperazine (NP078585) reduced ethanol intoxication. NP078585 also attenuated the reinforcing and rewarding properties of ethanol, measured by operant self-administration and the expression of an ethanol conditioned place preference, and abolished stress-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking. NP078585 did not affect alcohol responses in mice lacking N-type calcium channels. These results suggest that selective calcium channel inhibitors may be useful in reducing acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol consumption by human alcoholics. PMID:18987207

  18. L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Moreno, Cristian; Itfinca, Mircea; Altier, Christophe; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andres; Zamponi, Gerald W; Varela, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet been explored. In this work we study the role of Ca(v)β subunits and the intracellular signaling responsible for L-type calcium current modulation by Angiotensin II. In cardiomyocytes, Angiotensin II exposure induces rapid inhibition of L-type current with a magnitude that is correlated with the rate of current inactivation. Semi-quantitative PCR of cardiomyocytes at different days of culture reveals changes in the Ca(v)β subunits expression pattern that are correlated with the rate of current inactivation and with Angiotensin II effect. Over-expression of individual b subunits in heterologous systems reveals that the magnitude of Angiotensin II inhibition is dependent on the Ca(v)β subunit isoform, with Ca(v)β(1b) containing channels being more strongly regulated. Ca(v)β(2a) containing channels were insensitive to modulation and this effect was partially due to the N-terminal palmitoylation sites of this subunit. Moreover, PLC or diacylglycerol lipase inhibition prevents the Angiotensin II effect on L-type calcium channels, while PKC inhibition with chelerythrine does not, suggesting a role of arachidonic acid in this process. Finally, we show that in intact cardiomyocytes the magnitude of calcium transients on spontaneous beating cells is modulated by Angiotensin II in a Ca(v)β subunit-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that Ca(v)β subunits alter the magnitude of inhibition of L-type current by Angiotensin II. PMID:21525790

  19. Post-transcriptional modifications and “Calmodulation” of voltage-gated calcium channel function: Reflections by two collaborators of David T Yue

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Tuck Wah; Mori, Masayuki X

    2016-01-01

    This review article is written to specially pay tribute to David T. Yue who was an outstanding human being and an excellent scientist who exuded passion and creativity. He exemplified an inter-disciplinary scientist who was able to cross scientific boundaries effortlessly in order to provide amazing understanding on how calcium channels work. This article provides a glimpse of some of the research the authors have the privilege to collaborate with David and it attempts to provide the thinking behind some of the research done. In a wider context, we highlight that calcium channel function could be exquisitely modulated by interaction with a tethered calmodulin. Post-transcriptional modifications such as alternative splicing and RNA editing further influence the Ca2+-CaM mediated processes such as calcium dependent inhibition and/or facilitation. Besides modifications of electrophysiological and pharmacological properties, protein interactions with the channels could also be influenced in a splice-variant dependent manner. PMID:26054929

  20. Post-transcriptional modifications and "Calmodulation" of voltage-gated calcium channel function: Reflections by two collaborators of David T Yue.

    PubMed

    Soong, Tuck Wah; Mori, Masayuki X

    2016-01-01

    This review article is written to specially pay tribute to David T. Yue who was an outstanding human being and an excellent scientist who exuded passion and creativity. He exemplified an inter-disciplinary scientist who was able to cross scientific boundaries effortlessly in order to provide amazing understanding on how calcium channels work. This article provides a glimpse of some of the research the authors have the privilege to collaborate with David and it attempts to provide the thinking behind some of the research done. In a wider context, we highlight that calcium channel function could be exquisitely modulated by interaction with a tethered calmodulin. Post-transcriptional modifications such as alternative splicing and RNA editing further influence the Ca(2+)-CaM mediated processes such as calcium dependent inhibition and/or facilitation. Besides modifications of electrophysiological and pharmacological properties, protein interactions with the channels could also be influenced in a splice-variant dependent manner. PMID:26054929

  1. [Discovering L-type calcium channels inhibitors of antihypertensive drugs based on drug repositioning].

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying-xi; He, Yu-su; Jiang, Lu-di; Yue, Qiao-xin; Cui, Shuai; Bin, Li; Ye, Xiao-tong; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Yang-ling

    2015-09-01

    This study was amid to construct the pharmacophore model of L-type calcium channel antagonist in the application of screening Drugbank and TCMD. This paper repositions the approved drugs resulting from virtual screening and discusses the relocation-based drug discovery methods, screening antihypertensive drugs with L-type calcium channel function from TCMD. Qualitative hypotheses wre generated by HipHop separately on the basis of 12 compounds with antagonistic action on L-type calcium channel expressed in rabbit cardiac muscle. Datebase searching method was used to evaluate the generated hypotheses. The optimum hypothesis was used to search Drugbank and TCMD. This paper repositions the approved drugs and evaluates the antihypertensive effect of the chemical constituent of traditional Chinese medicine resulting from virtual screening by the matching score and literature. The results showed that optimum qualitative hypothesis is with six features, which were two hydrogen-bond acceptors, four hydrophobic groups, and the CAI value of 2.78. Screening Drugbank achieves 93 approved drugs. Screening TCMD achieves 285 chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicine. It was concluded that the hypothesis is reliable and can be used to screen datebase. The approved drugs resulting from virtual screening, such as pravastatin, are potentially L-type calcium channels inhibitors. The chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicine, such as Arctigenin III and Arctigenin are potentially antihypertensive drugs. It indicates that Drug Repositioning based on hypothesis is possible. PMID:26983215

  2. Isoforms of alpha1E voltage-gated calcium channels in rat cerebellar granule cells--detection of major calcium channel alpha1-transcripts by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Schramm, M; Vajna, R; Pereverzev, A; Tottene, A; Klöckner, U; Pietrobon, D; Hescheler, J; Schneider, T

    1999-01-01

    In primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells, transcripts of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels have been amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and identified by sequencing of subcloned polymerase chain reaction products. In these neurons cultured for six to eight days in vitro, fragments of the three major transcripts alpha1C, alpha1A, and alpha1E are detected using degenerated oligonucleotide primer pairs under highly stringent conditions. Whole-cell Ca2+ current recordings from six to eight days in vitro granule cells show that most of the current is due to L-type (25%), P-type (33%) and R-type (30%) Ca2+ channels. These data support the correlation between alpha1A and P-type Ca2+ channels (G1) and between alpha1E and R-type channels (G2 and G3). By including specific primer pairs for alpha1E the complimentary DNA fragments of indicative regions of alpha1E isoforms are amplified corresponding to the three most variable regions of alpha1E, the 5'-end, the II/III-loop, and the central part of the 3'-end. Although the complementary DNA fragments of the 5'-end of rat alpha1E yield a uniform reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction product, its structure is unusual in the sense that it is longer than in the cloned rat alpha1E complementary DNA. It corresponds to the alpha1E isoform reported for mouse and human brain and is also expressed in cerebellum and cerebrum of rat brain as the major or maybe even the only variant of alpha1E. While fragments of a new rat alpha1E isoform are amplified from the 5'-end, three known fragments of the II/III-loop and two known isoforms homologue to the 3'-coding region are detected, which in the last case are discriminated by a 129 base pair insertion. The shift of the alpha1E expression from a pattern seen in cerebellum (alpha1Ee) to a pattern identified in other regions of the brain (alpha1E-3) is discussed. These data show that: (i) alpha1E is expressed in rat brain as a structural homologue to the

  3. Altered expression of the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit α2δ-1: A comparison between two experimental models of epilepsy and a sensory nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Rostro, M.; Sandhu, G.; Bauer, C.S.; Jiruska, P.; Jefferys, J.G.R.; Dolphin, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The auxiliary α2δ-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is up-regulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons following peripheral somatosensory nerve damage, in several animal models of neuropathic pain. The α2δ-1 protein has a mainly presynaptic localization, where it is associated with the calcium channels involved in neurotransmitter release. Relevant to the present study, α2δ-1 has been shown to be the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs in their alleviation of neuropathic pain. These drugs are also used in the treatment of certain epilepsies. In this study we therefore examined whether the level or distribution of α2δ-1 was altered in the hippocampus following experimental induction of epileptic seizures in rats, using both the kainic acid model of human temporal lobe epilepsy, in which status epilepticus is induced, and the tetanus toxin model in which status epilepticus is not involved. The main finding of this study is that we did not identify somatic overexpression of α2δ-1 in hippocampal neurons in either of the epilepsy models, unlike the upregulation of α2δ-1 that occurs following peripheral nerve damage to both somatosensory and motor neurons. However, we did observe local reorganization of α2δ-1 immunostaining in the hippocampus only in the kainic acid model, where it was associated with areas of neuronal cell loss, as indicated by absence of NeuN immunostaining, dendritic loss, as identified by areas where microtubule-associated protein-2 immunostaining was missing, and reactive gliosis, determined by regions of strong OX42 staining. PMID:24641886

  4. The Fabry disease-associated lipid Lyso-Gb3 enhances voltage-gated calcium currents in sensory neurons and causes pain.

    PubMed

    Choi, L; Vernon, J; Kopach, O; Minett, M S; Mills, K; Clayton, P T; Meert, T; Wood, J N

    2015-05-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder characterised by accumulation of glycosphingolipids, and accompanied by clinical manifestations, such as cardiac disorders, renal failure, pain and peripheral neuropathy. Globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3), a deacylated form of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), has emerged as a marker of Fabry disease. We investigated the link between Gb3, lyso-Gb3 and pain. Plantar administration of lyso-Gb3 or Gb3 caused mechanical allodynia in healthy mice. In vitro application of 100nM lyso-Gb3 caused uptake of extracellular calcium in 10% of sensory neurons expressing nociceptor markers, rising to 40% of neurons at 1μM, a concentration that may occur in Fabry disease patients. Peak current densities of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels were substantially enhanced by application of 1μM lyso-Gb3. These studies suggest a direct role for lyso-Gb3 in the sensitisation of peripheral nociceptive neurons that may provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of Fabry disease-associated pain. PMID:25697597

  5. CaMKII associates with CaV1.2 L-type calcium channels via selected β subunits to enhance regulatory phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Abiria, Sunday A.; Colbran, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) facilitates L-type Calcium Channel (LTCC) activity physiologically, but may exacerbate LTCC-dependent pathophysiology. We previously showed that CaMKII forms stable complexes with voltage-gated calcium channel β1b or β2a subunits, but not with the β3 or β4 subunits (Grueter et al 2008, Biochemistry, 47:1760–1767). CaMKII-dependent facilitation of CaV1.2 LTCCs requires Thr498 phosphorylation in the β2a subunit (Grueter et al, 2006, Mol Cell, 23:641–650), but the relationship of this modulation to CaMKII interactions with LTCC subunits is unknown. Here we show that CaMKII co-immunoprecipitates with forebrain LTCCs that contain CaV1.2α1 and β1 or β2 subunits, but is not detected in LTCC complexes containing β4 subunits.4 CaMKIIα can be specifically tethered to the I/II linker of CaV1.2α1 subunits in vitro by the β1b or β2a subunits. Efficient targeting of CaMKIIα to the full-length CaV1.2α1 subunit in transfected HEK293 cells requires CaMKII binding to the β2a subunit. Moreover, disruption of CaMKII binding substantially reduced phosphorylation of β2a at Thr498 within the LTCC complex, without altering overall phosphorylation of Cav1.2α1 and β subunits. These findings demonstrate a biochemical mechanism underlying LTCC facilitation by CaMKII. PMID:19840220

  6. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF) aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Obayashi, Masato; Ishiguro, Taro; Sato, Nozomu; Niimi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Kokoro; Mogushi, Kaoru; Mahmut, Yasen; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Dolmetsch, Ricardo; Yamada, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takeo; Mori, Osamu; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ishikawa, Kinya

    2013-01-01

    The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1) is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C)-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q) tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF) containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (r)CTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range) than with Q13 (normal-length). Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei. PMID:23505410

  7. Spinal morphine but not ziconotide or gabapentin analgesia is affected by alternative splicing of voltage-gated calcium channel CaV2.2 pre-mRNA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Qiu; Andrade, Arturo; Lipscombe, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Presynaptic voltage-gated calcium Ca(V)2.2 channels play a privileged role in spinal level sensitization following peripheral nerve injury. Direct and indirect inhibitors of Ca(V)2.2 channel activity in spinal dorsal horn are analgesic in chronic pain states. Ca(V)2.2 channels represent a family of splice isoforms that are expressed in different combinations according to cell-type. A pair of mutually exclusive exons in the Ca(V)2.2 encoding Cacna1b gene, e37a and e37b, differentially influence morphine analgesia. In mice that lack exon e37a, which is enriched in nociceptors, the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal morphine against noxious thermal stimuli is reduced. Here we ask if sequences unique to e37a influence: the development of abnormal thermal and mechanical sensitivity associated with peripheral nerve injury; and the actions of two other classes of analgesics that owe part or all of their efficacy to Ca(V)2.2 channel inhibition. We find that: i) the analgesic efficacy of morphine, but not ziconotide or gabapentin, is reduced in mice lacking e37a, ii) the induction and maintenance of behaviors associated with sensitization that accompany peripheral nerve injury, do not require e37a-specific sequence, iii) intrathecal morphine, but not ziconotide or gabapentin analgesia to thermal stimuli is significantly lower in wild-type mice after peripheral nerve injury, iv) the analgesic efficacy of ziconotide and gabapentin to mechanical stimuli is reduced following nerve injury, and iv) intrathecal morphine analgesia to thermal stimuli in mice lacking e37a is not further reduced by peripheral nerve injury. Our findings show that the analgesic action of morphine, but not ziconotide or gabapentin, to thermal stimuli is linked to which Cacna1b exon, e37a or e37b, is selected during alternative pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:24369063

  8. Functional heterogeneity of the four voltage sensors of a human L-type calcium channel

    PubMed Central

    Pantazis, Antonios; Savalli, Nicoletta; Sigg, Daniel; Neely, Alan; Olcese, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Excitation-evoked Ca2+ influx is the fastest and most ubiquitous chemical trigger for cellular processes, including neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction, and gene expression. The voltage dependence and timing of Ca2+ entry are thought to be functions of voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels composed of a central pore regulated by four nonidentical voltage-sensing domains (VSDs I–IV). Currently, the individual voltage dependence and the contribution to pore opening of each VSD remain largely unknown. Using an optical approach (voltage-clamp fluorometry) to track the movement of the individual voltage sensors, we discovered that the four VSDs of CaV1.2 channels undergo voltage-evoked conformational rearrangements, each exhibiting distinct voltage- and time-dependent properties over a wide range of potentials and kinetics. The voltage dependence and fast kinetic components in the activation of VSDs II and III were compatible with the ionic current properties, suggesting that these voltage sensors are involved in CaV1.2 activation. This view is supported by an obligatory model, in which activation of VSDs II and III is necessary to open the pore. When these data were interpreted in view of an allosteric model, where pore opening is intrinsically independent but biased by VSD activation, VSDs II and III were each found to supply ∼50 meV (∼2 kT), amounting to ∼85% of the total energy, toward stabilizing the open state, with a smaller contribution from VSD I (∼16 meV). VSD IV did not appear to participate in channel opening. PMID:25489110

  9. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Castro, Héctor; Arenas, Isabel; García, David E; González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7), voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2), the A-type transient outward (IA) and delayed rectifier (IDR) currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:27164140

  10. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Castro, Héctor; Arenas, Isabel; García, David E.; González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7), voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2), the A-type transient outward (IA) and delayed rectifier (IDR) currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:27164140

  11. Activation of L-type calcium channels is required for gap junction-mediated intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne; Civitelli, Roberto; Sorensen, Ole Helmer; Steinberg, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of mechanically induced intercellular calcium waves (ICW) among osteoblastic cells occurs both by activation of P2Y (purinergic) receptors by extracellular nucleotides, resulting in "fast" ICW, and by gap junctional communication in cells that express connexin43 (Cx43), resulting in "slow" ICW. Human osteoblastic cells transmit intercellular calcium signals by both of these mechanisms. In the current studies we have examined the mechanism of slow gap junction-dependent ICW in osteoblastic cells. In ROS rat osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW were inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium, plasma membrane depolarization by high extracellular potassium, and the L-type voltage-operated calcium channel inhibitor, nifedipine. In contrast, all these treatments enhanced the spread of P2 receptor-mediated ICW in UMR rat osteoblastic cells. Using UMR cells transfected to express Cx43 (UMR/Cx43) we confirmed that nifedipine sensitivity of ICW required Cx43 expression. In human osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW also required activation of L-type calcium channels and influx of extracellular calcium.

  12. Expression of L-type calcium channels associated with postnatal development of skeletal muscle function in mouse.

    PubMed

    Mänttäri, S; Pyörnilä, A; Harjula, R; Järvilehto, M

    2001-01-01

    Several factors have an influence on the improvement of muscle activity and motor co-ordination of mammals during post-natal development. One of them is voltage sensitive L-type calcium channel function. In striated muscles of adult mammals these channels are located in T-tubule membranes thus linking the on-coming action potential to the molecular process of muscle contraction. The postnatal development of L-type calcium channels is therefore critical not only for contraction but also for all subsequent motor learning. We used high affinity enantiomer of dihydropyridine labelled with a fluorophore in order to show the relative amount of L-type calcium channels by histofluorescence in tissue. We found by qualitative microscopical analysis that the amount of L-type calcium channels increased during the postnatal development in the mouse skeletal muscle (m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius). We also noted variation between different fibre types in the increase of the amount of L-type calcium channels, as judged by the intensity of histofluorescence. We showed by histochemical staining and statistical analysis that the high density of L-type calcium channels in adult muscles is correlated with fast oxidative glycolytic fibre type of striated muscles rather than slow oxidative or fast glycolytic fibres. Based on this finding we propose that the development of L-type calcium channels can be considered as one of the factors determining the different physiological properties of fibre types. PMID:11563550

  13. Sex-dependent modulation of age-related cognitive decline by the L-type calcium channel gene Cacna1c (Cav 1.2).

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Bhat, Shambhu; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Smith, Robert J; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Gould, Todd D

    2015-10-01

    Increased calcium influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels has been implicated in the neuronal dysfunction underlying age-related memory declines. The present study aimed to test the specific role of Cacna1c (which encodes Cav 1.2) in modulating age-related memory dysfunction. Short-term, spatial and contextual/emotional memory was evaluated in young and aged, wild-type as well as mice with one functional copy of Cacna1c (haploinsufficient), using the novel object recognition, Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks, respectively. Hippocampal expression of Cacna1c mRNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Ageing was associated with object recognition and contextual/emotional memory deficits, and a significant increase in hippocampal Cacna1c mRNA expression. Cacna1c haploinsufficiency was associated with decreased Cacna1c mRNA expression in both young and old animals. However, haploinsufficient mice did not manifest an age-related increase in expression of this gene. Behaviourally, Cacna1c haploinsufficiency prevented object recognition deficits during ageing in both male and female mice. A significant correlation between higher Cacna1c levels and decreased object recognition performance was observed in both sexes. Also, a sex-dependent protective role of decreased Cacna1c levels in contextual/emotional memory loss has been observed, specifically in male mice. These data provide evidence for an association between increased hippocampal Cacna1c expression and age-related cognitive decline. Additionally, they indicate an interaction between the Cacna1c gene and sex in the modulation of age-related contextual memory declines. PMID:25989111

  14. Voltage-Gated R-Type Calcium Channel Inhibition via Human μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid Receptors Is Voltage-Independently Mediated by Gβγ Protein Subunits.

    PubMed

    Berecki, Géza; Motin, Leonid; Adams, David J

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms that modulate calcium channels via opioid receptor activation is fundamental to our understanding of both pain perception and how opioids modulate pain. Neuronal voltage-gated N-type calcium channels (Cav2.2) are inhibited by activation of G protein-coupled opioid receptors (ORs). However, inhibition of R-type (Cav2.3) channels by μ- or κ-ORs is poorly defined and has not been reported for δ-ORs. To investigate such interactions, we coexpressed human μ-, δ-, or κ-ORs with human Cav2.3 or Cav2.2 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and measured depolarization-activated Ba(2+) currents (IBa). Selective agonists of μ-, δ-, and κ-ORs inhibited IBa through Cav2.3 channels by 35%. Cav2.2 channels were inhibited to a similar extent by κ-ORs, but more potently (60%) via μ- and δ-ORs. Antagonists of δ- and κ-ORs potentiated IBa amplitude mediated by Cav2.3 and Cav2.2 channels. Consistent with G protein βγ (Gβγ) interaction, modulation of Cav2.2 was primarily voltage-dependent and transiently relieved by depolarizing prepulses. In contrast, Cav2.3 modulation was voltage-independent and unaffected by depolarizing prepulses. However, Cav2.3 inhibition was sensitive to pertussis toxin and to intracellular application of guanosine 5'-[β-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt and guanosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate tetralithium salt. Coexpression of Gβγ-specific scavengers-namely, the carboxyl terminus of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 or membrane-targeted myristoylated-phosducin-attenuated or abolished Cav2.3 modulation. Our study reveals the diversity of OR-mediated signaling at Cav2 channels and identifies neuronal Cav2.3 channels as potential targets for opioid analgesics. Their novel modulation is dependent on pre-existing OR activity and mediated by membrane-delimited Gβγ subunits in a voltage-independent manner. PMID:26490245

  15. Injury-specific functional alteration of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels in synaptic transmission of primary afferent C-fibers in the rat spinal superficial dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Keiko; Ogawa, Koichi; Minami, Kazuhisa; Shinohara, Shunji; Kato, Akira

    2016-02-01

    We investigated functional alterations of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in excitatory synaptic transmission from primary afferent A- and C-fibers after peripheral nerve injury. Patch-clamp recordings were performed on substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of spinal cord slices with an attached dorsal root, prepared from L5 spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) rats. The effects of neuronal VGCC blockers, ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTX) for N-type channels and ω-agatoxin IVA (ω-AgaIVA) for P/Q-type channels, on evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) by stimulation of A- or C-fibers were studied. Besides, electrophysiological assay using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and immunohistochemistry were done. In naïve rats, ω-CgTX (0.1-1μM) reduced more effectively A-fiber eEPSCs than C-fiber ones. After nerve injury, ω-CgTX produced great inhibition of C-fiber eEPSCs in slices with the injured L5 dorsal root of SNL model rats, as compared to sham-operated rats. By contrast, in slices with the non-injured L4 one, inhibitory effects of ω-CgTX were not changed. This occurred concurrently with increased expression of N-type VGCCs in L5 spinal dorsal horn and with enhanced Ca(2+) currents through N-type VGCCs in small-sized (C-type) L5 DRG. In terms of A-fiber eEPSCs, ω-CgTX elicited similar inhibition in nerve-injured and sham-operated rats. ω-AgaIVA (0.1μM) had less effect on A- or C-fiber eEPSCs. These results indicate that N-type, but not P/Q-type, VGCCs mainly contribute to excitatory synaptic transmission from A- and C-fibers in the spinal dorsal horn. More importantly, following nerve injury, the functional contribution of N-type VGCCs to nociceptive transmission is increased in the pre-synaptic terminals of injured C-fibers. PMID:26708163

  16. Attenuated response of L-type calcium current to nitric oxide in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Rozmaritsa, Nadiia; Christ, Torsten; Van Wagoner, David R.; Haase, Hannelore; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Matschke, Klaus; Ravens, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Aim Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by cardiomyocytes plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac function. Here, we studied the impact of NO signalling on calcium influx in human right atrial myocytes and its relation to atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods and results Right atrial appendages (RAAs) were obtained from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF. The biotin-switch technique was used to evaluate endogenous S-nitrosylation of the α1C subunit of L-type calcium channels. Comparing SR to AF, S-nitrosylation of Ca2+ channels was similar. Direct effects of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) on L-type calcium current (ICa,L) were studied in cardiomyocytes with standard voltage-clamp techniques. In SR, ICa,L increased with SNAP (100 µM) by 48%, n/N = 117/56, P < 0.001. The SNAP effect on ICa,L involved activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and protein kinase A. Specific inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE)3 with cilostamide (1 µM) enhanced ICa,L to a similar extent as SNAP. However, when cAMP was elevated by PDE3 inhibition or β-adrenoceptor stimulation, SNAP reduced ICa,L, pointing to cGMP–cAMP cross-regulation. In AF, the stimulatory effect of SNAP on ICa,L was attenuated, while its inhibitory effect on isoprenaline- or cilostamide-stimulated current was preserved. cGMP elevation with SNAP was comparable between the SR and AF group. Moreover, the expression of PDE3 and soluble guanylate cyclase was not reduced in AF. Conclusion NO exerts dual effects on ICa,L in SR with an increase of basal and inhibition of cAMP-stimulated current, and in AF NO inhibits only stimulated ICa,L. We conclude that in AF, cGMP regulation of PDE2 is preserved, but regulation of PDE3 is lost. PMID:24336332

  17. Mechanism of Electromechanical Coupling in Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Blunck, Rikard; Batulan, Zarah

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels play a central role in the generation of action potentials in the nervous system. They are selective for one type of ion – sodium, calcium, or potassium. Voltage-gated ion channels are composed of a central pore that allows ions to pass through the membrane and four peripheral voltage sensing domains that respond to changes in the membrane potential. Upon depolarization, voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) undergo conformational changes driven by positive charges in the S4 segment and aided by pairwise electrostatic interactions with the surrounding voltage sensor. Structure-function relations of Kv channels have been investigated in detail, and the resulting models on the movement of the voltage sensors now converge to a consensus; the S4 segment undergoes a combined movement of rotation, tilt, and vertical displacement in order to bring 3–4e+ each through the electric field focused in this region. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the voltage sensor movement leads to pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, is still not fully understood. Thus, recently, electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels has been investigated with a multitude of techniques including electrophysiology, 3D crystal structures, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. Evidently, the S4–S5 linker, the covalent link between the voltage sensor and pore, plays a crucial role. The linker transfers the energy from the voltage sensor movement to the pore domain via an interaction with the S6 C-termini, which are pulled open during gating. In addition, other contact regions have been proposed. This review aims to provide (i) an in-depth comparison of the molecular mechanisms of electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels; (ii) insight as to how the voltage sensor and pore domain influence one another; and (iii) theoretical predictions on the movement of the cytosolic face of the Kv channels during

  18. Forskolin Regulates L-Type Calcium Channel through Interaction between Actinin 4 and β3 Subunit in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lin; Hei, Hongya; Tian, Lulu; Peng, Wen; Cai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels that permit cellular calcium influx are essential in calcium-mediated modulation of cellular signaling. Although the regulation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels is linked to many factors including cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity and actin cytoskeleton, little is known about the detailed mechanisms underlying the regulation in osteoblasts. Our present study investigated the modulation of L-type calcium channel activities through the effects of forskolin on actin reorganization and on its functional interaction with actin binding protein actinin 4. The results showed that forskolin did not significantly affect the trafficking of pore forming α1c subunit and its interaction with actin binding protein actinin 4, whereas it significantly increased the expression of β3 subunit and its interaction with actinin 4 in osteoblast cells as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, pull-down assay, and immunostaining. Further mapping showed that the ABD and EF domains of actinin 4 were interaction sites. This interaction is independent of PKA phosphorylation. Knockdown of actinin 4 significantly decreased the activities of L-type calcium channels. Our study revealed a new aspect of the mechanisms by which the forskolin activation of adenylyl cyclase - cAMP cascade regulates the L-type calcium channel in osteoblast cells, besides the PKA mediated phosphorylation of the channel subunits. These data provide insight into the important role of interconnection among adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, PKA, the actin cytoskeleton, and the channel proteins in the regulation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels in osteoblast cells. PMID:25902045

  19. The action of calcium channel blockers on recombinant L-type calcium channel α1-subunits

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Nicole; Buryi, Vitali; Feron, Olivier; Gomez, Jean-Pierre; Christen, Marie-Odile; Godfraind, Théophile

    1998-01-01

    CHO cells expressing the α1C-a subunit (cardiac isoform) and the α1C-b subunit (vascular isoform) of the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel were used to investigate whether tissue selectivity of Ca2+ channel blockers could be related to different affinities for α1C isoforms.Inward current evoked by the transfected α1 subunit was recorded by the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration.Neutral dihydropyridines (nifedipine, nisoldipine, (+)-PN200-110) were more potent inhibitors of α1C-b-subunit than of α1C-a-subunit. This difference was more marked at a holding potential of −100 mV than at −50 mV. SDZ 207-180 (an ionized dihydropyridine) exhibited the same potency on the two isoforms.Pinaverium (ionized non-dihydropyridine derivative) was 2 and 4 fold more potent on α1C-a than on α1C-b subunit at Vh of −100 mV and −50 mV, respectively. Effects of verapamil were identical on the two isoforms at both voltages.[3H]-(+)-PN 200-110 binding experiments showed that neutral dihydropyridines had a higher affinity for the α1C-b than for the α1C-a subunit. SDZ 207-180 had the same affinity for the two isoforms and pinaverium had a higher affinity for the α1C-a subunit than for the α1C-b subunit.These results indicate marked differences among Ca2+ channel blockers in their selectivity for the α1C-a and α1C-b subunits of the Ca2+ channel. PMID:9846638

  20. The action of calcium channel blockers on recombinant L-type calcium channel alpha1-subunits.

    PubMed

    Morel, N; Buryi, V; Feron, O; Gomez, J P; Christen, M O; Godfraind, T

    1998-11-01

    1. CHO cells expressing the alpha(1C-a) subunit (cardiac isoform) and the alpha(1C-b) subunit (vascular isoform) of the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel were used to investigate whether tissue selectivity of Ca2+ channel blockers could be related to different affinities for alpha1C isoforms. 2. Inward current evoked by the transfected alpha1 subunit was recorded by the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration. 3. Neutral dihydropyridines (nifedipine, nisoldipine, (+)-PN200-110) were more potent inhibitors of alpha(1C-)b-subunit than of alpha(1C-a)-subunit. This difference was more marked at a holding potential of -100 mV than at -50 mV. SDZ 207-180 (an ionized dihydropyridine) exhibited the same potency on the two isoforms. 4. Pinaverium (ionized non-dihydropyridine derivative) was 2 and 4 fold more potent on alpha(1C-a) than on alpha(1C-b) subunit at Vh of -100 mV and -50 mV, respectively. Effects of verapamil were identical on the two isoforms at both voltages. 5. [3H]-(+)-PN 200-110 binding experiments showed that neutral dihydropyridines had a higher affinity for the alpha(1C-b) than for the alpha(1C-a) subunit. SDZ 207-180 had the same affinity for the two isoforms and pinaverium had a higher affinity for the alpha(1C-a) subunit than for the alpha(1C-b) subunit. 6. These results indicate marked differences among Ca2+ channel blockers in their selectivity for the alpha(1C-a) and alpha(1C-b) subunits of the Ca2+ channel. PMID:9846638

  1. Characterization of L-type calcium channel activity in atrioventricular nodal myocytes from rats with streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yuill, Kathryn H; Al Kury, Lina T; Howarth, Frank Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are common in patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. We have previously shown that spontaneous cellular electrical activity is altered in atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes, isolated from the streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of type-1 DM. In this study, utilizing the same model, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single AVN myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess the changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current. A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. L-type calcium channel current also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident, and a slowing of restitution parameters. These findings demonstrate that experimentally induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. These changes in ion channel activity may contribute to the abnormalities in cardiac electrical function that are associated with high mortality levels in patients with DM. PMID:26603460

  2. L-type calcium channel blockers, morphine and pain: Newer insights

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mehra, RD; Ray, S Basu

    2010-01-01

    Earlier, we had reported that co-administration of opioids and L-type calcium channel blockers (L-CCBs) like diltiazem could prove useful in the treatment of cancer pain. Much of this report was based upon earlier published work involving animal models of pain exposed to brief periods of noxious radiant heat without any tissue injury. However, pain in clinical situations usually result from tissue injury. Thus, the aim of the current investigation was to study the analgesic effect of this combination of drugs in the rat formalin test which is associated with actual tissue injury. Wistar rats (n=60) received either L-CCB (nifedipine/nimodipine/verapamil/diltiazem i.p.) or morphine (s.c.) or both drugs. The formalin test was done 30 min after morphine or placebo injection. The naloxone reversal test was also done. Administration of L-CCBs alone, particularly diltiazem, increased pain in the formalin test. In contrast, co-administration of these L-CCBs with morphine led to decreased pain response, though statistically significant decrease was noted only with nimodipine + morphine. Naloxone reversed this analgesic effect, indicating that it was primarily an opioid-mediated effect. The results show that administration of L-CCBs alone may prove counterproductive in the therapeutic management of pain (anti-analgesic effect). However, co-administration of both drugs (morphine and nimodipine) in quick succession could lead to adequate pain relief. PMID:20661350

  3. Voltage-gated proton channels: what' next?

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    This review is an attempt to identify and place in context some of the many questions about voltage-gated proton channels that remain unsolved. As the gene was identified only 2 years ago, the situation is very different than in fields where the gene has been known for decades. For the proton channel, most of the obvious and less obvious structure–function questions are still wide open. Remarkably, the proton channel protein strongly resembles the voltage-sensing domain of many voltage-gated ion channels, and thus offers a novel approach to study gating mechanisms. Another surprise is that the proton channel appears to function as a dimer, with two separate conduction pathways. A number of significant biological questions remain in dispute, unanswered, or in some cases, not yet asked. This latter deficit is ascribable to the intrinsic difficulty in evaluating the importance of one component in a complex system, and in addition, to the lack, until recently, of a means of performing an unambiguous lesion experiment, that is, of selectively eliminating the molecule in question. We still lack a potent, selective pharmacological inhibitor, but the identification of the gene has allowed the development of powerful new tools including proton channel antibodies, siRNA and knockout mice. PMID:18801839

  4. Pinaverium acts as L-type calcium channel blocker on smooth muscle of colon.

    PubMed

    Malysz, J; Farraway, L A; Christen, M O; Huizinga, J D

    1997-08-01

    The effect of pinaverium was electrophysiologically characterized and compared with the established L-type calcium channel blockers diltiazem, D600, and nitrendipine on canine colonic circular smooth muscle. Effects were studied on the electrical activity of the smooth muscle cells, in particular the spontaneously occurring slow wave. In addition, effects were examined on spontaneous contraction patterns and contractile activities generated by stimulation of cholinergic nerves or directly by stimulating muscarinic receptors. Effects were also examined on excitation of NO-releasing intrinsic nerves. Pinaverium bromide affected the slow wave by selectively inhibiting the plateau potential that is associated with generation of contractile activity. Pinaverium, similar to diltiazem and D600, produced reductions in cholinergic responses as well as spontaneous contractions. The IC50 values for inhibition of cholinergic responses for pinaverium, diltiazem, and D600 were 1.0 x 10(-6), 4.1 x 10(-7), and 5.3 x 10(-7) M, respectively. The IC50 values for inhibition of spontaneous contractile activity for pinaverium, diltiazem, and D600 were 3.8 x 10(-6), 9.7 x 10(-7), and 8.0 x 10(-7) M, respectively. Increases in contractility by carbachol were abolished by pretreatment with either pinaverium or D600. In addition, neither pinaverium nor D600 had any effects on the inhibitory NO-mediated relaxations. These data provide a rationale for the use of pinaverium in the treatment of colonic motor disorders where excessive contraction has to be suppressed. PMID:9360010

  5. Voltage-gated divalent currents in descending vasa recta pericytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Lin, Hai; Cao, Chunhua; Khurana, Sandeep; Pallone, Thomas L

    2010-10-01

    Multiple voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)) subtypes have been reported to participate in control of the juxtamedullary glomerular arterioles of the kidney. Using the patch-clamp technique, we examined whole cell Ca(V) currents of pericytes that contract descending vasa recta (DVR). The dihydropyridine Ca(V) agonist FPL64176 (FPL) stimulated inward Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) currents that activated with threshold depolarizations to -40 mV and maximized between -20 and -10 mV. These currents were blocked by nifedipine (1 μM) and Ni(2+) (100 and 1,000 μM), exhibited slow inactivation, and conducted Ba(2+) > Ca(2+) at a ratio of 2.3:1, consistent with "long-lasting" L-type Ca(V). In FPL, with 1 mM Ca(2+) as charge carrier, Boltzmann fits yielded half-maximal activation potential (V(1/2)) and slope factors of -57.9 mV and 11.0 for inactivation and -33.3 mV and 4.4 for activation. In the absence of FPL stimulation, higher concentrations of divalent charge carriers were needed to measure basal currents. In 10 mM Ba(2+), pericyte Ca(V) currents activated with threshold depolarizations to -30 mV, were blocked by nifedipine, exhibited voltage-dependent block by diltiazem (10 μM), and conducted Ba(2+) > Ca(2+) at a ratio of ∼2:1. In Ca(2+), Boltzmann fits to the data yielded V(1/2) and slope factors of -39.6 mV and 10.0 for inactivation and 2.8 mV and 7.7 for activation. In Ba(2+), V(1/2) and slope factors were -29.2 mV and 9.2 for inactivation and -5.6 mV and 6.1 for activation. Neither calciseptine (10 nM), mibefradil (1 μM), nor ω-agatoxin IVA (20 and 100 nM) blocked basal Ba(2+) currents. Calciseptine (10 nM) and mibefradil (1 μM) also failed to reverse ANG II-induced DVR vasoconstriction, although raising mibefradil concentration to 10 μM was partially effective. We conclude that DVR pericytes predominantly express voltage-gated divalent currents that are carried by L-type channels. PMID:20630935

  6. Salt Pumping by Voltage-Gated Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Mario; Szleifer, Igal

    2015-09-17

    This Letter investigates voltage-gated nanochannels, where both the potential applied to the conductive membrane containing the channel (membrane potential) and the potential difference between the solutions at both sides of the membrane (transmembrane potential) are independently controlled. The predicted conductance characteristics of these fixed-potential channels dramatically differ from those of the widely studied fixed-charge nanochannels, in which the membrane is insulating and has a fixed surface charge density. The difference arises because the transmembrane potential induces an inhomogeneous charge distribution on the surface of fixed-potential nanochannels. This behavior, related to bipolar electrochemistry, has some interesting and unexpected consequences for ion transport. For example, continuously oscillating the transmembrane potential, while holding the membrane potential at the potential for which it has zero charge in equilibrium, creates fluxes of neutral salt (fluxes of anions and cations in the same direction and number) through the channel, which is an interesting phenomenon for desalination applications. PMID:26722719

  7. Philosophy of voltage-gated proton channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.; Hosler, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    In this review, voltage-gated proton channels are considered from a mainly teleological perspective. Why do proton channels exist? What good are they? Why did they go to such lengths to develop several unique hallmark properties such as extreme selectivity and ΔpH-dependent gating? Why is their current so minuscule? How do they manage to be so selective? What is the basis for our belief that they conduct H+ and not OH–? Why do they exist in many species as dimers when the monomeric form seems to work quite well? It is hoped that pondering these questions will provide an introduction to these channels and a way to logically organize their peculiar properties as well as to understand how they are able to carry out some of their better-established biological functions. PMID:24352668

  8. Generation of slow wave type action potentials in the mouse small intestine involves a non-L-type calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Malysz, J; Richardson, D; Farraway, L; Christen, M O; Huizinga, J D

    1995-10-01

    Intrinsic electrical activities in various isolated segments of the mouse small intestine were recorded (i) to characterize action potential generation and (ii) to obtain a profile on the ion channels involved in initiating the slow wave type action potentials (slow waves). Gradients in slow wave frequency, resting membrane potential, and occurrence of spiking activity were found, with the proximal intestine exhibiting the highest frequency, the most hyperpolarized cell membrane, and the greatest occurrence of spikes. The slow waves were only partially sensitive to L-type calcium channel blockers. Nifedipine, verapamil, and pinaverium bromide abolished spikes that occurred on the plateau phase of the slow waves in all tissues. The activity that remained in the presence of L-type calcium channel blockers, the upstroke potential, retained a similar amplitude to the original slow wave and was of identical frequency. The upstroke potential was not sensitive to a reduction in extracellular chloride or to the sodium channel blockers tetrodotoxin and mexiletine. Abolishment of the Na+ gradient by removal of 120 mM extracellular Na+ reduced the upstroke potential frequency by 13 - 18% and its amplitude by 50 - 70% in the ileum. The amplitude was similarly reduced by Ni2+ (up to 5 mM), and by flufenamic acid (100 mu M), a nonspecific cation and chloride channel blocker. Gadolinium, a nonspecific blocker of cation and stretch-activated channels, had no effect. Throughout these pharmacological manipulations, a robust oscillation remained at 5 - 10 mV. This oscillation likely reflects pacemaker activity. It was rapidly abolished by removal of extracellular calcium but not affected by L-type calcium channel blockers. In summary, the mouse small intestine has been established as a model for research into slow wave generation and electrical pacemaker activity. The upstroke part of the slow wave has two components, the pacemaker component involves a non-L-type calcium channel

  9. Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

  10. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p < 0.05), (ii) elevation in ΔΨm (p < 0.05), (iii) increased OCR and ATP formation (p < 0.05), (iv) increased intracellular NO levels (p < 0.05), (v) increased mitochondrial ROS production (p < 0.05), and (vi) increased susceptibility to rotenone (p < 0.05). Treatment with isradipine was able to partially rescue these negative effects of CNTF-ACM (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity. PMID:27514537

  11. Molecular and functional characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels in human sperm

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Francisco M; Ravina, Cristina G; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel; Gallardo-Castro, Manuel; Cejudo-Román, Antonio; Candenas, Luz

    2009-01-01

    Background We have investigated the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels in human spermatozoa and characterized their role in sperm motility. Methods Freshly ejaculated semen was collected from thirty normozoospermic human donors, with each donor supplying 2 different samples. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence techniques were used to detect the mRNAs and proteins of interest. Sperm motility was measured by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system (CASA). Cytosolic free calcium was determined by fluorimetry in cells loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator Fura-2. Results The mRNAs that encode the different Nav alpha subunits (Nav1.1-1.9) were all expressed in capacitated human spermatozoa. The mRNAs of the auxiliary subunits beta1, beta3 and beta4 were also present. Immunofluorescence studies showed that, with the exception of Nav1.1 and Nav1.3, the Nav channel proteins were present in sperm cells and show specific and different sites of localization. Veratridine, a voltage-gated sodium channel activator, caused time- and concentration-dependent increases in progressive sperm motility. In sperm suspensions loaded with Fura-2, veratridine did not modify intracellular free calcium levels. Conclusion This research shows the presence of voltage-gated sodium channels in human sperm and supports a role for these channels in the regulation of mature sperm function. PMID:19607678

  12. L-type voltage-operated calcium channels contribute to astrocyte activation In vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheli, Veronica T; Santiago González, Diara A; Smith, Jessica; Spreuer, Vilma; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Paez, Pablo M

    2016-08-01

    We have found a significant upregulation of L-type voltage-operated Ca(++) channels (VOCCs) in reactive astrocytes. To test if VOCCs are centrally involved in triggering astrocyte reactivity, we used in vitro models of astrocyte activation in combination with pharmacological inhibitors, siRNAs and the Cre/lox system to reduce the activity of L-type VOCCs in primary cortical astrocytes. The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as high extracellular K(+) , glutamate, and ATP promote astrogliosis in vitro. L-type VOCC inhibitors drastically reduce the number of reactive cells, astrocyte hypertrophy, and cell proliferation after these treatments. Astrocytes transfected with siRNAs for the Cav1.2 subunit that conducts L-type Ca(++) currents as well as Cav1.2 knockout astrocytes showed reduce Ca(++) influx by ∼80% after plasma membrane depolarization. Importantly, Cav1.2 knock-down/out prevents astrocyte activation and proliferation induced by LPS. Similar results were found using the scratch wound assay. After injuring the astrocyte monolayer, cells extend processes toward the cell-free scratch region and subsequently migrate and populate the scratch. We found a significant increase in the activity of L-type VOCCs in reactive astrocytes located in the growing line in comparison to quiescent astrocytes situated away from the scratch. Moreover, the migration of astrocytes from the scratching line as well as the number of proliferating astrocytes was reduced in Cav1.2 knock-down/out cultures. In summary, our results suggest that Cav1.2 L-type VOCCs play a fundamental role in the induction and/or proliferation of reactive astrocytes, and indicate that the inhibition of these Ca(++) channels may be an effective way to prevent astrocyte activation. GLIA 2016. GLIA 2016;64:1396-1415. PMID:27247164

  13. The L-type calcium channel Cav1.3 is required for proper hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Marschallinger, Julia; Sah, Anupam; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Unger, Michael; Rotheneichner, Peter; Kharitonova, Maria; Waclawiczek, Alexander; Gerner, Philipp; Jaksch-Bogensperger, Heidi; Berger, Stefan; Striessnig, Jörg; Singewald, Nicolas; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Aigner, Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    L-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) are widely expressed within different brain regions including the hippocampus. The isoforms Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 have been shown to be involved in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, cognitive functions that require proper hippocampal neurogenesis. In vitro, functional LTCCs are expressed on neuronal progenitor cells, where they promote neuronal differentiation. Expression of LTCCs on neural stem and progenitor cells within the neurogenic regions in the adult brain in vivo has not been examined so far, and a contribution of the individual isoforms Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 to adult neurogenesis remained to be clarified. To reveal the role of these channels we first evaluated the expression patterns of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) in adult (2- and 3-month old) and middle-aged (15-month old) mice on mRNA and protein levels. We performed immunohistological analysis of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult and middle-aged Cav1.3(-/-) mice and finally addressed the importance of Cav1.3 for hippocampal function by evaluating spatial memory and depression-like behavior in adult Cav1.3(-/-) mice. Our results showed Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 expression at different stages of neuronal differentiation. While Cav1.2 was primarily restricted to mature NeuN(+) granular neurons, Cav1.3 was expressed in Nestin(+) neural stem cells and in mature NeuN(+) granular neurons. Adult and middle-aged Cav1.3(-/-) mice showed severe impairments in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, with significantly smaller dentate gyrus volume, reduced survival of newly generated cells, and reduced neuronal differentiation. Further, Cav1.3(-/-) mice showed impairment in the hippocampus dependent object location memory test, implicating Cav1.3 as an essential element for hippocampus-associated cognitive functions. Thus, modulation of LTCC activities may have a crucial impact on neurogenic responses and cognition, which should be

  14. L-Type Calcium Channels Do Not Play a Critical Role in Chest Blow Induced Ventricular Fibrillation: Commotio Cordis

    PubMed Central

    Madias, Christopher; Garlitski, Ann C.; Kalin, John; Link, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In a commotio cordis swine model, ventricular fibrillation (VF) can be induced by a ball blow to the chest believed secondary to activation of mechanosensitive ion channels. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate whether stretch induced activation of the L-type calcium channel may cause intracellular calcium overload and underlie the VF in commotio cordis. Method and Results. Anesthetized juvenile swine received 6 chest wall strikes with a 17.9 m/s lacrosse ball timed to the vulnerable period for VF induction. Animals were randomized to IV verapamil (n = 6) or placebo (n = 6). There was no difference in the observed frequency of VF between verapamil (19/26: 73%) and placebo (20/36: 56%) treated animals (p = 0.16). There was also no significant difference in the combined endpoint of VF or nonsustained VF (21/26: 81% in verapamil versus 24/36: 67% in controls, p = 0.22). Conclusions. In this experimental model of commotio cordis, verapamil did not prevent VF induction. Thus, in commotio cordis it is unlikely that stretch activation of the L-type calcium channel with resultant intracellular calcium overload plays a prominent role. PMID:26925288

  15. Functional role of voltage gated Ca2+ channels in heart automaticity

    PubMed Central

    Mesirca, Pietro; Torrente, Angelo G.; Mangoni, Matteo E.

    2015-01-01

    Pacemaker activity of automatic cardiac myocytes controls the heartbeat in everyday life. Cardiac automaticity is under the control of several neurotransmitters and hormones and is constantly regulated by the autonomic nervous system to match the physiological needs of the organism. Several classes of ion channels and proteins involved in intracellular Ca2+ dynamics contribute to pacemaker activity. The functional role of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in heart automaticity and impulse conduction has been matter of debate for 30 years. However, growing evidence shows that VGCCs are important regulators of the pacemaker mechanisms and play also a major role in atrio-ventricular impulse conduction. Incidentally, studies performed in genetically modified mice lacking L-type Cav1.3 (Cav1.3−/−) or T-type Cav3.1 (Cav3.1−/−) channels show that genetic inactivation of these channels strongly impacts pacemaking. In cardiac pacemaker cells, VGCCs activate at negative voltages at the beginning of the diastolic depolarization and importantly contribute to this phase by supplying inward current. Loss-of-function of these channels also impairs atrio-ventricular conduction. Furthermore, inactivation of Cav1.3 channels promotes also atrial fibrillation and flutter in knockout mice suggesting that these channels can play a role in stabilizing atrial rhythm. Genomic analysis demonstrated that Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels are widely expressed in pacemaker tissue of mice, rabbits and humans. Importantly, human diseases of pacemaker activity such as congenital bradycardia and heart block have been attributed to loss-of-function of Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels. In this article, we will review the current knowledge on the role of VGCCs in the generation and regulation of heart rate and rhythm. We will discuss also how loss of Ca2+ entry through VGCCs could influence intracellular Ca2+ handling and promote atrial arrhythmias. PMID:25698974

  16. Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutations W1684R and V1696I alter G protein-mediated regulation of Ca(V)2.1 voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Garza-López, Edgar; Sandoval, Alejandro; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Gandini, María A; Van den Maagdenberg, Arn; De Waard, Michel; Felix, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM-1) is a monogenic form of migraine with aura that is characterized by recurrent attacks of a typical migraine headache with transient hemiparesis during the aura phase. In a subset of patients, additional symptoms such as epilepsy and cerebellar ataxia are part of the clinical phenotype. FHM-1 is caused by missense mutations in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the pore-forming subunit of Ca(V)2.1 voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Although the functional effects of an increasing number of FHM-1 mutations have been characterized, knowledge on the influence of most of these mutations on G protein regulation of channel function is lacking. Here, we explored the effects of G protein-dependent modulation on mutations W1684R and V1696I which cause FHM-1 with and without cerebellar ataxia, respectively. Both mutations were introduced into the human Ca(V)2.1α(1) subunit and their functional consequences investigated after heterologous expression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells using patch-clamp recordings. When co-expressed along with the human μ-opioid receptor, application of the agonist [d-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) inhibited currents through both wild-type (WT) and mutant Ca(V)2.1 channels, which is consistent with the known modulation of these channels by G protein-coupled receptors. Prepulse facilitation, which is a way to characterize the relief of direct voltage-dependent G protein regulation, was reduced by both FHM-1 mutations. Moreover, the kinetic analysis of the onset and decay of facilitation showed that the W1684R and V1696I mutations affect the apparent dissociation and reassociation rates of the Gβγ dimer from the channel complex, suggesting that the G protein-Ca(2+) channel affinity may be altered by the mutations. These biophysical studies may shed new light on the pathophysiology underlying FHM-1. PMID:22549042

  17. Deletion of the L-type Calcium Channel CaV1.3 but not CaV1.2 Results in a Diminished sAHP in Mouse CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gamelli, Amy E.; McKinney, Brandon C.; White, Jessica A.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Trains of action potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons are followed by a prolonged calcium-dependent post-burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that serves to limit further firing to a sustained depolarizing input. A reduction in the AHP accompanies acquisition of several types of learning and increases in the AHP are correlated with age-related cognitive impairment. The AHP develops primarily as the result of activation of outward calcium-activated potassium currents; however the precise source of calcium for activation of the AHP remains unclear. There is substantial experimental evidence suggesting that calcium influx via voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (L-VGCCs) contributes to the generation of the AHP. Two L-VGCC subtypes are predominately expressed in the hippocampus, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3, however it is not known which L-VGCC subtype is involved in generation of the AHP. This ambiguity is due in large part to the fact that at present there are no subunit-specific agonists or antagonists. Therefore, using mice in which the gene encoding CaV1.2 or CaV1.3 was deleted, we sought to determine the impact of alterations in levels of these two L-VCGG subtypes on neuronal excitability. No differences in any AHP measure were seen between neurons from CaV1.2 knockout mice and controls. However, the total area of the AHP was significantly smaller in neurons from CaV1.3 knockout mice as compared to neurons from wildtype controls. A significant reduction in the amplitude of the AHP was also seen at the 1 sec time point in neurons from CaV1.3 knockout mice as compared to those from controls. Reductions in both the area and 1 sec amplitude suggest the involvement of calcium influx via CaV1.3 in the slow AHP (sAHP). Thus, the results of our study demonstrate that deletion of CaV1.3, but not CaV1.2, significantly impacts the generation of the sAHP. PMID:20014384

  18. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Frolova, Sheyda R.; Gaiko, Olga; Tsvelaya, Valeriya A.; Pimenov, Oleg Y.; Agladze, Konstantin I.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB) to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav), calcium (ICav), and potassium (IKv) currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+) currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential. PMID:27015602

  19. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Frolova, Sheyda R; Gaiko, Olga; Tsvelaya, Valeriya A; Pimenov, Oleg Y; Agladze, Konstantin I

    2016-01-01

    The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB) to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav), calcium (ICav), and potassium (IKv) currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+) currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential. PMID:27015602

  20. L-type calcium channel mediates anticonvulsant effect of cannabinoids in acute and chronic murine models of seizure.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Nima; Ahmad-Molaei, Leila; Mazar-Atabaki, Ali; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Shirazi-zand, Zahra; Motiei-Langroudi, Seyed Mehrdad; Eslahkar, Somayeh

    2012-02-01

    The anticonvulsant activities of cannabinoid compounds have been shown in various models of seizure and epilepsy. At least, part of antiseizure effects of cannabinoid compounds is mediated through calcium (Ca(2+)) channels. The L-type Ca(2+) channels have been shown to be important in various epilepsy models. However, there is no data regarding the role of L-type Ca(2+) channels in protective action of cannabinoids on acute and chronic models of seizure. In this study, the effects of cannabinoid compounds and L-type Ca(2+) channels blockers, either alone or in combination were investigated using acute model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice and chronic model electrical kindling of amygdala in rats. Pretreatment of mice with both cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and endocannabinoid degradating enzyme inhibitor cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597) produced a protective effect against PTZ-induced seizure. Administration of various doses of the two L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem did not alter PTZ-induced seizure threshold. However, co-administration of verapamil and either ACEA or URB597 attenuated the protective effect of cannabinoid compounds against PTZ-induced seizure. Also, pretreatment of mice with diltiazem blocked the anticonvulsant activity of both ACEA and URB597. Moreover, (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate (WIN55,212-2), the non-selective cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist showed anticonvulsant effect in amygdala-kindled rats. However, co-administration of WIN55,212-2 and verapamil attenuated the protective properties of WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the anticonvulsant activity of cannabinoid compounds is mediated, at least in part, by L-type Ca(2+) channels in these two models of convulsion and epilepsy. PMID:21928146

  1. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  2. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease. PMID:27488468

  3. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease. PMID:27488468

  4. Short-term exposure to L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil, alters the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins in the brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Palande, Nikhil V; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G

    2015-01-01

    The influx of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) is responsible for various physiological events including neurotransmitter release and synaptic modulation. The L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-type VDCCs) transport Ca(2+) across the membrane. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) bind free cytosolic Ca(2+) and prevent excitotoxicity caused by sudden increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The present study was aimed to understand the regulation of expression of neuronal CaBPs, namely, calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) following blockade of L-type VDCCs in the CNS of Carassius auratus. Verapamil (VRP), a potent L-type VDCC blocker, selectively blocks Ca(2+) entry at the plasma membrane level. VRP present in the aquatic environment at a very low residual concentration has shown ecotoxicological effects on aquatic animals. Following acute exposure for 96h, median lethal concentration (LC50) for VRP was found to be 1.22mg/L for goldfish. At various doses of VRP, the behavioral alterations were observed in the form of respiratory difficulty and loss of body balance confirming the cardiovascular toxicity caused by VRP at higher doses. In addition to affecting the cardiovascular system, VRP also showed effects on the nervous system in the form of altered expression of PV. When compared with controls, the pattern of CR expression did not show any variations, while PV expression showed significant alterations in few neuronal populations such as the pretectal nucleus, inferior lobes, and the rostral corpus cerebellum. Our result suggests possible regulatory effect of calcium channel blockers on the expression of PV. PMID:26215640

  5. Aging Decreases L-Type Calcium Channel Currents and Pacemaker Firing Fidelity in Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Sarah Y.; Sharma, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Substantia nigra dopamine neurons are involved in behavioral processes that include cognition, reward learning, and voluntary movement. Selective deterioration of these neurons is responsible for the motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aging is the leading risk factor for PD, suggesting that adaptations occurring in dopamine neurons during normal aging may predispose individuals to the development of PD. Previous studies suggest that the unique set of ion conductances that drive spontaneous, rhythmic firing of action potentials could predispose substantia nigra dopamine neurons to selective neurodegeneration. Here we show, using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in brain slices, that substantia nigra dopamine neurons from mice 25–30 months of age (old) have comparable membrane capacitance and input resistance to neurons from mice 2–7 months of age (young). However, neurons from old mice exhibit slower firing rates, narrower spike widths, and more variable interspike intervals compared with neurons from young mice. Dopamine neurons from old mice also exhibit smaller L-type calcium channel currents, providing a plausible mechanism that likely contributes to the changes in impulse activity. Age-related decrements in the physiological function of dopamine neurons could contribute to the decrease in voluntary movement and other dopamine-mediated behaviors observed in aging populations. Furthermore, as pharmacological antagonism of L-type calcium channels has been proposed as a potential treatment for the early stages of PD, our results could point to a limited temporal window of opportunity for this therapeutic intervention. PMID:25009264

  6. Regulation of L-type calcium current by intracellular magnesium in rat cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Tashiro, Michiko; Berlin, Joshua R

    2004-01-01

    The effects of changing cytosolic [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]i) on l-type Ca2+ currents were investigated in rat cardiac ventricular myocytes voltage-clamped with patch pipettes containing salt solutions with defined [Mg2+] and [Ca2+]. To control [Mg2+]i and cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i), the pipette solution included 30 mm citrate and 10 mm ATP along with 5 mm EGTA (slow Ca2+ buffer) or 15 mm EGTA plus 5 mm BAPTA (fast Ca2+ buffer). With pipette [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]p) set at 100 nm using a slow Ca2+ buffer and pipette [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]p) set at 0.2 mm, peak l-type Ca2+ current density (ICa) was 17.0 ± 2.2 pA pF−1. Under the same conditions, but with [Mg2+]p set to 1.8 mm, ICa was 5.6 ± 1.0 pA pF−1, a 64 ± 2.8% decrease in amplitude. This decrease in ICa was accompanied by an acceleration and a –8 mV shift in the voltage dependence of current inactivation. The [Mg2+]p-dependent decrease in ICa was not significantly different when myocytes were preincubated with 10 μm forskolin and 300 μm 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and voltage-clamped with pipettes containing 50 μm okadaic acid, to maximize Ca2+ channel phosphorylation. However, when myocytes were voltage-clamped with pipettes containing protein phosphatase 2A, to promote channel dephosphorylation, ICa decreased only 25 ± 3.4% on changing [Mg2+]p from 0.2 to 1.8 mm. In the presence of 0.2 mm[Mg2+]p, changing channel phosphorylation conditions altered ICa over a 4-fold range; however, with 1.8 mm[Mg2+]p, these same manoeuvres had a much smaller effect on ICa. These data suggest that [Mg2+]i can antagonize the effects of phosphorylation on channel gating kinetics. Setting [Ca2+]p to 1, 100 or 300 nm also showed that the [Mg2+]p-induced reduction of ICa was smaller at the lowest [Ca2+]p, irrespective of channel phosphorylation conditions. This interaction between [Ca2+]i and [Mg2+]i to modulate ICa was not significantly affected by ryanodine, fast Ca2+ buffers or inhibitors of calmodulin, calmodulin-dependent kinase and

  7. Voltage-gated proton channel is expressed on phagosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Iwasaki, Hirohide; Okamura, Yasushi

    2009-05-01

    Voltage-gated proton channel has been suggested to help NADPH oxidase activity during respiratory burst of phagocytes through its activities of compensating charge imbalance and regulation of pH. In phagocytes, robust production of reactive oxygen species occurs in closed membrane compartments, which are called phagosomes. However, direct evidence for the presence of voltage-gated proton channels in phagosome has been lacking. In this study, the expression of voltage-gated proton channels was studied by Western blot with the antibody specific to the voltage-sensor domain protein, VSOP/Hv1, that has recently been identified as the molecular correlate for the voltage-gated proton channel. Phagosomal membranes of neutrophils contain VSOP/Hv1 in accordance with subunits of NADPH oxidases, gp91, p22, p47 and p67. Superoxide anion production upon PMA activation was significantly reduced in neutrophils from VSOP/Hv1 knockout mice. These are consistent with the idea that voltage-gated proton channels help NADPH oxidase in phagocytes to produce reactive oxygen species.

  8. Oxidative Modulation of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Nirakar; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated K+ channels are a large family of K+-selective ion channel protein complexes that open on membrane depolarization. These K+ channels are expressed in diverse tissues and their function is vital for numerous physiological processes, in particular of neurons and muscle cells. Potentially reversible oxidative regulation of voltage-gated K+ channels by reactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents a contributing mechanism of normal cellular plasticity and may play important roles in diverse pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: Studies using various protocols of oxidative modification, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural and kinetic modeling provide a broader phenomenology and emerging mechanistic insights. Critical Issues: Physicochemical mechanisms of the functional consequences of oxidative modifications of voltage-gated K+ channels are only beginning to be revealed. In vivo documentation of oxidative modifications of specific amino-acid residues of various voltage-gated K+ channel proteins, including the target specificity issue, is largely absent. Future Directions: High-resolution chemical and proteomic analysis of ion channel proteins with respect to oxidative modification combined with ongoing studies on channel structure and function will provide a better understanding of how the function of voltage-gated K+ channels is tuned by ROS and the corresponding reducing enzymes to meet cellular needs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 933–952. PMID:24040918

  9. The influence of lipids on voltage-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiu-Xing; Gonen, Tamir

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are responsible for transmitting electrochemical signals in both excitable and non-excitable cells. Structural studies of voltage-gated potassium and sodium channels by X-ray crystallography have revealed atomic details on their voltage-sensor domains and pore domains, and were put in context of disparate mechanistic views on the voltage-driven conformational changes in these proteins. Functional investigation of voltage-gated channels in membranes, however, showcased a mechanism of lipid-dependent gating for voltage-gated channels, suggesting that the lipids play an indispensible and critical role in the proper gating of many of these channels. Structure determination of membrane-embedded voltage-gated ion channels appears to be the next frontier in fully addressing the mechanism by which the voltage sensor domains control channel opening. Currently electron crystallography is the only structural biology method in which a membrane protein of interest is crystallized within a complete lipid-bilayer mimicking the native environment of a biological membrane. At a sufficiently high resolution, an electron crystallographic structure could reveal lipids, the channel and their mutual interactions at the atomic level. Electron crystallography is therefore a promising avenue toward understanding how lipids modulate channel activation through close association with the voltage sensor domains. PMID:22483432

  10. Lateral Mobility of Presynaptic L-Type Calcium Channels at Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Aaron J.; Chen, Minghui; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2011-01-01

    At most synapses, presynaptic Ca2+ channels are positioned near vesicle release sites, and increasing this distance reduces synaptic strength. We examined the lateral membrane mobility of presynaptic L-type Ca2+ channels at photoreceptor ribbon synapses of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina. Movements of individual Ca2+ channels were tracked by coupling quantum dots to an antibody against the extracellular α2δ4 Ca2+ channel subunit. α2δ4 antibodies labeled photoreceptor terminals and co-localized with antibodies to synaptic vesicle protein SV2 and Ca2+ channel CaV1.4 α1 subunits. The results show that Ca2+ channels are dynamic and move within a confined region beneath the synaptic ribbon. The size of this confinement area is regulated by actin and membrane cholesterol. Fusion of nearby synaptic vesicles caused jumps in Ca2+ channel position, propelling them towards the outer edge of the confinement domain. Channels rebounded rapidly towards the center. Thus, although CaV channels are mobile, molecular scaffolds confine them beneath the ribbon to maintain neurotransmission even at high release rates. PMID:21430141

  11. Population Density and Moment-based Approaches to Modeling Domain Calcium-mediated Inactivation of L-type Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Hardcastle, Kiah; Weinberg, Seth H; Smith, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    We present a population density and moment-based description of the stochastic dynamics of domain [Formula: see text]-mediated inactivation of L-type [Formula: see text] channels. Our approach accounts for the effect of heterogeneity of local [Formula: see text] signals on whole cell [Formula: see text] currents; however, in contrast with prior work, e.g., Sherman et al. (Biophys J 58(4):985-995, 1990), we do not assume that [Formula: see text] domain formation and collapse are fast compared to channel gating. We demonstrate the population density and moment-based modeling approaches using a 12-state Markov chain model of an L-type [Formula: see text] channel introduced by Greenstein and Winslow (Biophys J 83(6):2918-2945, 2002). Simulated whole cell voltage clamp responses yield an inactivation function for the whole cell [Formula: see text] current that agrees with the traditional approach when domain dynamics are fast. We analyze the voltage-dependence of [Formula: see text] inactivation that may occur via slow heterogeneous domain [[Formula: see text

  12. Intracellular calcium store filling by an L-type calcium current in the basolateral amygdala at subthreshold membrane potentials

    PubMed Central

    Power, John M; Sah, Pankaj

    2005-01-01

    The long-term changes that underlie learning and memory are activated by rises in intracellular Ca2+ that activate a number of signalling pathways and trigger changes in gene transcription. Ca2+ rises due to influx via L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (L-VDCCs) and release from intracellular Ca2+ stores have been consistently implicated in the biochemical cascades that underlie the final changes in memory formation. Here, we show that pyramidal neurones in the basolateral amygdala express an L-VDCC that is active at resting membrane potentials. Subthreshold depolarization of neurones either by current injection or summating synaptic potentials led to a sustained rise in cytosolic Ca2+ that was blocked by the dihydropyridine nicardipine. Activation of metabotropic receptors released Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores. At hyperpolarized potentials, metabotropic-evoked store release ran down with repeated stimulation. Depolarization of cells to −50 mV, or maintaining them at the resting membrane potential, restored release from intracellular Ca2+ stores, an effect that was blocked by nicardipine. These results show that Ca2+ influx via a low-voltage-activated L-type Ca2+ current refills inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores, and maintains Ca2+ release and wave generation by metabotropic receptor activation. PMID:15550460

  13. Benzonatate inhibition of voltage-gated sodium currents.

    PubMed

    Evans, M Steven; Maglinger, G Benton; Fletcher, Anita M; Johnson, Stephen R

    2016-02-01

    Benzonatate was FDA-approved in 1958 as an antitussive. Its mechanism of action is thought to be anesthesia of vagal sensory nerve fibers that mediate cough. Vagal sensory neurons highly express the Nav1.7 subtype of voltage-gated sodium channels, and inhibition of this channel inhibits the cough reflex. Local anesthetics inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels, but there are no reports of whether benzonatate affects these channels. Our hypothesis is that benzonatate inhibits Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channels. We used whole cell voltage clamp recording to test the effects of benzonatate on voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) currents in two murine cell lines, catecholamine A differentiated (CAD) cells, which express primarily Nav1.7, and N1E-115, which express primarily Nav1.3. We found that, like local anesthetics, benzonatate strongly and reversibly inhibits voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Benzonatate causes both tonic and phasic inhibition. It has greater effects on channel inactivation than on activation, and its potency is much greater at depolarized potentials, indicating inactivated-state-specific effects. Na(+) currents in CAD cells and N1E-115 cells are similarly affected, indicating that benzonatate is not Na(+) channel subtype-specific. Benzonatate is a mixture of polyethoxy esters of 4-(butylamino) benzoic acid having varying degrees of hydrophobicity. We found that Na(+) currents are inhibited most potently by a benzonatate fraction containing the 9-ethoxy component. Detectable effects of benzonatate occur at concentrations as low as 0.3 μM, which has been reported in humans. We conclude that benzonatate has local anesthetic-like effects on voltage-gated sodium channels, including Nav1.7, which is a possible mechanism for cough suppression by the drug. PMID:26386152

  14. Voltage-gated sodium channels in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Mohamed; Chatelier, Aurélien; Babich, Olga; Krupp, Johannes J

    2008-04-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels play an essential biophysical role in many excitable cells such as neurons. They transmit electrical signals through action potential (AP) generation and propagation in the peripheral (PNS) and central nervous systems (CNS). Each sodium channel is formed by one alpha-subunit and one or more beta-subunits. There is growing evidence indicating that mutations, changes in expression, or inappropriate modulation of these channels can lead to electrical instability of the cell membrane and inappropriate spontaneous activity observed during pathological states. This review describes the biochemical, biophysical and pharmacological properties of neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) and their implication in several neurological disorders. PMID:18537643

  15. Voltage-gated sodium channels contribute to action potentials and spontaneous contractility in isolated human lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    Telinius, Niklas; Majgaard, Jens; Kim, Sukhan; Katballe, Niels; Pahle, Einar; Nielsen, Jørn; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Donna Briggs

    2015-07-15

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) play a key role for initiating action potentials (AP) in excitable cells. VGSC in human lymphatic vessels have not been investigated. In the present study, we report the electrical activity and APs of small human lymphatic collecting vessels, as well as mRNA expression and function of VGSC in small and large human lymphatic vessels. The VGSC blocker TTX inhibited spontaneous contractions in six of 10 spontaneously active vessels, whereas ranolazine, which has a narrower VGSC blocking profile, had no influence on spontaneous activity. TTX did not affect noradrenaline-induced contractions. The VGSC opener veratridine induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner (0.1-30 μm) eliciting a stable tonic contraction and membrane depolarization to -18 ± 0.6 mV. Veratridine-induced depolarizations and contractions were reversed ∼80% by TTX, and were dependent on Ca(2+) influx via L-type calcium channels and the sodium-calcium exchanger in reverse mode. Molecular analysis determined NaV 1.3 to be the predominantly expressed VGSC isoform. Electrophysiology of mesenteric lymphatics determined the resting membrane potential to be -45 ± 1.7 mV. Spontaneous APs were preceded by a slow depolarization of 5.3 ± 0.6 mV after which a spike was elicited that almost completely repolarized before immediately depolarizing again to plateau. Vessels transiently hyperpolarized prior to returning to the resting membrane potential. TTX application blocked APs. We have shown that VGSC are necessary for initiating and maintaining APs and spontaneous contractions in human lymphatic vessels and our data suggest the main contribution from comes NaV 1.3. We have also shown that activation of these channels augments the contractile activity of the vessels. PMID:25969124

  16. Immunohistological demonstration of CaV3.2 T-type voltage-gated calcium channel expression in soma of dorsal root ganglion neurons and peripheral axons of rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Rose, K E; Lunardi, N; Boscolo, A; Dong, X; Erisir, A; Jevtovic-Todorovic, V; Todorovic, S M

    2013-10-10

    Previous behavioral studies have revealed that CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels support peripheral nociceptive transmission and electrophysiological studies have established the presence of T-currents in putative nociceptive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). To date, however, the localization pattern of this key nociceptive channel in the soma and peripheral axons of these cells has not been demonstrated due to lack of isoform-selective anti-CaV3.2 antibodies. In the present study a new polyclonal CaV3.2 antibody is used to localize CaV3.2 expression in rodent DRG neurons using different staining techniques including confocal and electron microscopy (EM). Confocal microscopy of both acutely dissociated cells and short-term cultures demonstrated strong immunofluorescence of anti-CaV3.2 antibody that was largely confined to smaller diameter DRG neurons where it co-localized with established immuno-markers of unmyelinated nociceptors, such as, CGRP, IB4 and peripherin. In contrast, a smaller proportion of these CaV3.2-labeled DRG cells also co-expressed neurofilament 200 (NF200), a marker of myelinated sensory neurons. In the rat sciatic nerve preparation, confocal microscopy demonstrated anti-CaV3.2 immunofluorescence which was co-localized with both peripherin and NF200. Further, EM revealed immuno-gold labeling of CaV3.2 preferentially in association with unmyelinated sensory fibers from mouse sciatic nerve. Finally, we demonstrated the expression of CaV3.2 channels in peripheral nerve endings of mouse hindpaw skin as shown by co-localization with Mrgpd-GFP-positive fibers. The CaV3.2 expression within the soma and peripheral axons of nociceptive sensory neurons further demonstrates the importance of this channel in peripheral pain transmission. PMID:23867767

  17. Supramolecular Assemblies and Localized Regulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shuiping; Hall, Duane D.; Hell, Johannes W.

    2009-01-01

    This review addresses the localized regulation of voltage-gated ion channels by phosphorylation. Comprehensive data on channel regulation by associated protein kinases, phosphatases, and related regulatory proteins are mainly available for voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which form the main focus of this review. Other voltage-gated ion channels and especially Kv7.1-3 (KCNQ1-3), the large- and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels BK and SK2, and the inward-rectifying K+ channels Kir3 have also been studied to quite some extent and will be included. Regulation of the L-type Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 by PKA has been studied most thoroughly as it underlies the cardiac fight-or-flight response. A prototypical Cav1.2 signaling complex containing the β2 adrenergic receptor, the heterotrimeric G protein Gs, adenylyl cyclase, and PKA has been identified that supports highly localized via cAMP. The type 2 ryanodine receptor as well as AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors are in close proximity to Cav1.2 in cardiomyocytes and neurons, respectively, yet independently anchor PKA, CaMKII, and the serine/threonine phosphatases PP1, PP2A, and PP2B, as is discussed in detail. Descriptions of the structural and functional aspects of the interactions of PKA, PKC, CaMKII, Src, and various phosphatases with Cav1.2 will include comparisons with analogous interactions with other channels such as the ryanodine receptor or ionotropic glutamate receptors. Regulation of Na+ and K+ channel phosphorylation complexes will be discussed in separate papers. This review is thus intended for readers interested in ion channel regulation or in localization of kinases, phosphatases, and their upstream regulators. PMID:19342611

  18. Effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate on L-type calcium current and Ca(2+) transient in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Egom, Emmanuel Eroume-A; Bae, James S H; Capel, Rebecca; Richards, Mark; Ke, Yunbo; Pharithi, Rebabonye B; Maher, Vincent; Kruzliak, Peter; Lei, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Modulation of Ca(2+) homoeostasis in cardiac myocytes plays a major role in beat-to-beat regulation of heart function. Previous studies suggest that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a biologically active sphingomyelin metabolite, regulates Ca(2+) handling in cardiac myocytes, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that S1P-induced functional alteration of intracellular Ca(2+) handling includes the L-type calcium channel current (ICa,L) via a signalling pathway involving P21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1). Our results show that, in rat ventricular myocytes, S1P (100 nM) does not affect the basal activity of ICa,L but is able to partially reverse the effect of the β-adrenergic agonist Isoproterenol (ISO, 100 nM) on ICa,L. S1P (25 nM) also significantly prevents ISO (5 nM)-induced Ca(2+) waves and diastolic Ca(2+) release in these cells. Our further molecular characterisation demonstrates that Pak1 activity is increased in myocytes treated with S1P (25 nM) compared with those myocytes without treatment of S1P. By immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that Pak1 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are associated in ventricular tissue indicating their functional interaction. Thus the results indicate that S1P attenuates β-adrenergic stress-induced alteration of intracellular Ca(2+) release and L-type Ca(2+) channel current at least in part via Pak1-PP2A-mediated signalling. PMID:27372350

  19. Bradykinin induced a positive chronotropic effect via stimulation of T- and L-type calcium currents in heart cells.

    PubMed

    El-Bizri, Nesrine; Bkaily, Ghassan; Wang, Shimin; Jacques, Danielle; Regoli, Domenico; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Sukarieh, Rami

    2003-03-01

    Using Fluo-3 calcium dye confocal microscopy and spontaneously contracting embryonic chick heart cells, bradykinin (10(-10) M) was found to induce positive chronotropic effects by increasing the frequency of the transient increase of cytosolic and nuclear free Ca2+. Pretreatment of the cells with either B1 or B2 receptor antagonists (R126 and R817, respectively) completely prevented bradykinin (BK) induced positive chronotropic effects on spontaneously contracting single heart cells. Using the whole-cell voltage clamp technique and ionic substitution to separate the different ionic current species, our results showed that BK (10(-6) M) had no effect on fast Na+ inward current and delayed outward potassium current. However, both L- and T-type Ca2+ currents were found to be increased by BK in a dose-dependent manner (10(-10)-10(-7) M). The effects of BK on T- and L-type Ca2+ currents were partially blocked by the B1 receptor antagonist [Leu8]des-Arg9-BK (R592) (10(-7) M) and completely reversed by the B2 receptor antagonist D-Arg[Hyp3,D-Phe7,Leu8]BK (R-588) (10(-7) M) or pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX). These results demonstrate that BK induced a positive chronotropic effect via stimulation of T- and L-type Ca2+ currents in heart cells mainly via stimulation of B2 receptor coupled to PTX-sensitive G-proteins. The increase of both types of Ca2+ current by BK in heart cells may explain the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of this hormone. PMID:12733823

  20. Local postsynaptic voltage-gated sodium channel activation in dendritic spines of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    PubMed

    Bywalez, Wolfgang G; Patirniche, Dinu; Rupprecht, Vanessa; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V M; Pálfi, Dénes; Rózsa, Balázs; Egger, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal dendritic spines have been speculated to function as independent computational units, yet evidence for active electrical computation in spines is scarce. Here we show that strictly local voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) activation can occur during excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the spines of olfactory bulb granule cells, which we mimic and detect via combined two-photon uncaging of glutamate and calcium imaging in conjunction with whole-cell recordings. We find that local Nav activation boosts calcium entry into spines through high-voltage-activated calcium channels and accelerates postsynaptic somatic depolarization, without affecting NMDA receptor-mediated signaling. Hence, Nav-mediated boosting promotes rapid output from the reciprocal granule cell spine onto the lateral mitral cell dendrite and thus can speed up recurrent inhibition. This striking example of electrical compartmentalization both adds to the understanding of olfactory network processing and broadens the general view of spine function. PMID:25619656

  1. Amino acid substitutions in the FXYD motif enhance phospholemman-induced modulation of cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Xianming; Gao, Guofeng; Huang, Congxin; Elmslie, Keith S; Peterson, Blaise Z

    2010-11-01

    We have found that phospholemman (PLM) associates with and modulates the gating of cardiac L-type calcium channels (Wang et al., Biophys J 98: 1149-1159, 2010). The short 17 amino acid extracellular NH(2)-terminal domain of PLM contains a highly conserved PFTYD sequence that defines it as a member of the FXYD family of ion transport regulators. Although we have learned a great deal about PLM-dependent changes in calcium channel gating, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed changes. Therefore, we investigated the role of the PFTYD segment in the modulation of cardiac calcium channels by individually replacing Pro-8, Phe-9, Thr-10, Tyr-11, and Asp-12 with alanine (P8A, F9A, T10A, Y11A, D12A). In addition, Asp-12 was changed to lysine (D12K) and cysteine (D12C). As expected, wild-type PLM significantly slows channel activation and deactivation and enhances voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). We were surprised to find that amino acid substitutions at Thr-10 and Asp-12 significantly enhanced the ability of PLM to modulate Ca(V)1.2 gating. T10A exhibited a twofold enhancement of PLM-induced slowing of activation, whereas D12K and D12C dramatically enhanced PLM-induced increase of VDI. The PLM-induced slowing of channel closing was abrogated by D12A and D12C, whereas D12K and T10A failed to impact this effect. These studies demonstrate that the PFXYD motif is not necessary for the association of PLM with Ca(V)1.2. Instead, since altering the chemical and/or physical properties of the PFXYD segment alters the relative magnitudes of opposing PLM-induced effects on Ca(V)1.2 channel gating, PLM appears to play an important role in fine tuning the gating kinetics of cardiac calcium channels and likely plays an important role in shaping the cardiac action potential and regulating Ca(2+) dynamics in the heart. PMID:20720179

  2. CLOCK-BMAL1 regulate the cardiac L-type calcium channel subunit CACNA1C through PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanhong; Zhu, Didi; Yuan, Jiamin; Han, Zhonglin; Wang, Yao; Qian, Zhiyong; Hou, Xiaofeng; Wu, Tingting; Zou, Jiangang

    2016-09-01

    The heterodimerized transcription factors CLOCK-BMAL1 regulate the cardiomyocyte circadian rhythms. The L-type calcium currents play important role in the cardiac electrogenesis and arrhythmogenesis. Whether and how the CLOCK-BMAL1 regulate the cardiac L-type calcium channels are yet to be determined. The functions of the L-type calcium channels were evaluated with patch clamping techniques. Recombinant adenoviruses of CLOCK and BMAL1 were used in the expression experiments. We reported that the expressions and functions of CACNA1C (the α-subunit of the L-type calcium channels) showed circadian rhythms, with the peak at zeitgeber time 3 (ZT3). The endocardial action potential durations 90 (APD90) were correspondingly longer at ZT3. The protein levels of the phosphorylated Akt at threonine 308 (pAkt T308) also showed circadian rhythms. Overexpressions of CLOCK-BMAL1 significantly reduced the levels of CACNA1C while increasing the levels of pAkt T308 and pik3r1. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of CLOCK-BMAL1 on CACNA1C could be abolished by the Akt inhibitor MK2206 or the PDK1 inhibitor GSK2334470. Collectively, our findings suggested that the expressions of the cardiac CACNA1C were under the CLOCK-BMAL1 regulation, probably through the PI3K-Akt signal pathway. PMID:27376484

  3. Characterisation of marrubenol, a diterpene extracted from Marrubium vulgare, as an L-type calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    El-Bardai, Sanae; Wibo, Maurice; Hamaide, Marie-Christine; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Morel, Nicole

    2003-12-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of marrubenol, a diterpenoid extracted from Marrubium vulgare. In rat aorta, marrubenol was a more potent inhibitor of the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl (IC50: 11.8+/-0.3 microM, maximum relaxation: 93+/-0.6%) than of the contraction evoked by noradrenaline (maximum relaxation: 30+/-1.5%). 2. In fura-2-loaded aorta, marrubenol simultaneously inhibited the Ca2+ signal and the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl, and decreased the quenching rate of fura-2 fluorescence by Mn2+. 3. Patch-clamp data obtained in aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) indicated that marrubenol inhibited Ba2+ inward current in a voltage-dependent manner (KD: 8+/-2 and 40+/-6 microM at holding potentials of -50 and -100 mV, respectively). 4. These results showed that marrubenol inhibits smooth muscle contraction by blocking L-type calcium channels. PMID:14597602

  4. Voltage-gated calcium channel and antisense oligonucleotides thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruska, Keith A. (Inventor); Friedman, Peter A. (Inventor); Barry, Elizabeth L. R. (Inventor); Duncan, Randall L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An antisense oligonucleotide of 10 to 35 nucleotides in length that can hybridize with a region of the .alpha..sub.1 subunit of the SA-Cat channel gene DNA or mRNA is provided, together with pharmaceutical compositions containing and methods utilizing such antisense oligonucleotide.

  5. Involvement of PKC and PKA in the enhancement of L-type calcium current by GABAB receptor activation in neonatal hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Jennifer G.; Mynlieff, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In the early neonatal period activation of GABAB receptors attenuates calcium current through N-type calcium channels while enhancing current through L-type calcium channels in rat hippocampal neurons. The attenuation of N-type calcium current has been previously demonstrated to occur through direct interactions of the βγ subunits of Gi/o G-proteins, but the signal transduction pathway for the enhancement of L-type calcium channels in mammalian neurons remains unknown. In the present study, calcium currents were elicited in acute cultures from postnatal day 6–8 rat hippocampi in the presence of various modulators of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways. Overnight treatment with an inhibitor of Gi/o (pertussis toxin, 200 ng/ml) abolished the attenuation of calcium current by the GABAB agonist, baclofen (10 μM) with no effect on the enhancement of calcium current. These data indicate that while the attenuation of N-type calcium current is mediated by the Gi/o subtype of G-protein, the enhancement of L-type calcium current requires activation of a different G-protein. The enhancement of the sustained component of calcium current by baclofen was blocked by PKC inhibitors, GF-109203X (500 nM), chelerythrine chloride (5 μM), and PKC fragment 19–36 (2 μM) and mimicked by the PKC activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (1 μM). The enhancement of the sustained component of calcium current was blocked by PKA inhibitors H-89 (1 μM) and PKA fragment 6–22 (500 nM) but not Rp-cAMPS (30 μM) and it was not mimicked by the PKA activator, 8-Br-cAMP (500 μM – 1 mM). The data suggest that activation of PKC alone is sufficient to enhance L-type calcium current but that PKA may also be involved in the GABAB receptor mediated effect. PMID:21277353

  6. Clustered voltage-gated Na+ channels in Aplysia axons.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W L; Dyer, J R; Castellucci, V F; Dunn, R J

    1996-03-01

    Clustering of voltage-gated Na+ channels is critical for the fast saltatory conduction of action potentials in vertebrate myelinated axons. However, the mechanisms responsible for the generation and maintenance of Na+ channel clustering are not well understood. In this study we have raised an antibody against the cloned SCAP-1 voltage-gated Na+ channel of the marine invertebrate Aplysia californica and used it to examine Na+ channel localization in Aplysia ganglia and in cultured Aplysia sensory neurons. Our results show that there is a large cytoplasmic pool of Na+ channels in the soma of Aplysia neurons. Furthermore, we show that Na+ channels in Aplysia axons are not homogeneously distributed but, rather, are present in distinct clusters. Theoretical considerations indicate that Na+ channel clustering may enhance action potential conduction. We propose that clustered Na+ channels may be a fundamental property of many axons, and perhaps of many membranes that conduct Na(+)-dependent action potentials. PMID:8774441

  7. Combined chronic blockade of hyper-active L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors ameliorates HIV-1 associated hyper-excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Khodr, Christina E; Chen, Lihua; Dave, Sonya; Al-Harthi, Lena; Hu, Xiu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection induces neurological and neuropsychological deficits, which are associated with dysregulation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other vulnerable brain regions. We evaluated the impact of HIV infection in the mPFC and the therapeutic potential of targeting over-active voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (L-channel) and NMDA receptors (NMDAR), as modeled in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to assess the membrane properties and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) potentials (Ca(2+) influx) in mPFC pyramidal neurons. Neurons from HIV-1 Tg rats displayed reduced rheobase, spike amplitude and inwardly-rectifying K(+) influx, increased numbers of action potentials, and a trend of aberrant firing compared to those from non-Tg control rats. Neuronal hyper-excitation was associated with abnormally-enhanced Ca(2+) influx (independent of NMDAR), which was eliminated by acute L-channel blockade. Combined chronic blockade of over-active L-channels and NMDARs with open-channel blockers abolished HIV effects on spiking, aberrant firing and Ca(2+) potential half-amplitude duration, though not the reduced inward rectification. In contrast, individual chronic blockade of over-active L-channels or NMDARs did not alleviate HIV-induced mPFC hyper-excitability. These studies demonstrate that HIV alters mPFC neuronal activity by dysregulating membrane excitability and Ca(2+) influx through the L-channels. This renders these neurons more susceptible and vulnerable to excitatory stimuli, and could contribute to HIV-associated neuropathogenesis. Combined targeting of over-active L-channels/NMDARs alleviates HIV-induced dysfunction of mPFC pyramidal neurons, emphasizing a potential novel therapeutic strategy that may effectively decrease HIV-induced Ca(2+) dysregulation in the mPFC. PMID:27326669

  8. Unusual Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents as Targets for Pain.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C; Cummins, T R

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a serious health problem that impacts the lives of many individuals. Hyperexcitability of peripheral sensory neurons contributes to both acute and chronic pain syndromes. Because voltage-gated sodium currents are crucial to the transmission of electrical signals in peripheral sensory neurons, the channels that underlie these currents are attractive targets for pain therapeutics. Sodium currents and channels in peripheral sensory neurons are complex. Multiple-channel isoforms contribute to the macroscopic currents in nociceptive sensory neurons. These different isoforms exhibit substantial variations in their kinetics and pharmacology. Furthermore, sodium current complexity is enhanced by an array of interacting proteins that can substantially modify the properties of voltage-gated sodium channels. Resurgent sodium currents, atypical currents that can enhance recovery from inactivation and neuronal firing, are increasingly being recognized as playing potentially important roles in sensory neuron hyperexcitability and pain sensations. Here we discuss unusual sodium channels and currents that have been identified in nociceptive sensory neurons, describe what is known about the molecular determinants of the complex sodium currents in these neurons. Finally, we provide an overview of therapeutic strategies to target voltage-gated sodium currents in nociceptive neurons. PMID:27586296

  9. Voltage-sensing domain of voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 shares mechanism of block with pore domains

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Liang; Pathak, Medha M.; Kim, Iris H.; Ta, Dennis; Tombola, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels are made of a pore domain (PD) controlled by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). The PD contains the ion permeation pathway and the activation gate located on the intracellular side of the membrane. A large number of small molecules are known to inhibit the PD by acting as open channel blockers. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is made of two VSDs and lacks the PD. The location of the activation gate in the VSD is unknown and open channel blockers for VSDs have not yet been identified. Here we describe a class of small molecules which act as open channel blockers on the Hv1 VSD and find that a highly conserved phenylalanine in the charge transfer center of the VSD plays a key role in blocker binding. We then use one of the blockers to show that Hv1 contains two intracellular and allosterically-coupled gates. PMID:23352164

  10. Voltage-gated proton (H(v)1) channels, a singular voltage sensing domain.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Karen; Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Contreras, Gustavo F; Morera, Francisco J; Neely, Alan; Latorre, Ramon; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2015-11-14

    The main role of voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) is to extrude protons from the intracellular milieu when, mediated by different cellular processes, the H(+) concentration increases. Hv1 are exquisitely selective for protons and their structure is homologous to the voltage sensing domain (VSD) of other voltage-gated ion channels like sodium, potassium, and calcium channels. In clear contrast to the classical voltage-dependent channels, Hv1 lacks a pore domain and thus permeation necessarily occurs through the voltage sensing domain. Hv1 channels are activated by depolarizing voltages, and increases in internal proton concentration. It has been proposed that local conformational changes of the transmembrane segment S4, driven by depolarization, trigger the molecular rearrangements that open Hv1. However, it is still unclear how the electromechanical coupling is achieved between the VSD and the potential pore, allowing the proton flux from the intracellular to the extracellular side. Here we provide a revised view of voltage activation in Hv1 channels, offering a comparative scenario with other voltage sensing channels domains. PMID:26296320

  11. Fendiline inhibits L-type calcium channels in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes: a whole-cell patch-clamp study.

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, O.; Schreibmayer, W.; Tritthart, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    1. Fendiline, a diphenylalkylamine type of antianginal drug, was examined for its effects on L-type calcium channels in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. 2. Fendiline (0.3-100 microM) applied extracellularly inhibited the calcium channel current (ICa) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 of fendiline was 17.0 +/- 2.43 microM and the Hill slope was 1.39 +/- 0.23. 3. Inhibition of ICa by fendiline appeared with an onset of less than 3 s. 4. Fendiline inhibited ICa at all the membrane potentials tested and shifted the current-voltage curve upwards. The overall calcium channel conductance (gCa) of the cell was reduced and conductance-voltage curve was shifted to the left in the presence of fendiline. 5. Isoprenaline (0.5-1 microM), a beta-adrenoceptor agonist, partially reversed the inhibitory effect of fendiline on ICa. 6. It is suggested that fendiline applied extracellularly blocks L-type calcium channels and reduces calcium channel conductance of the cell. The calcium channels thus inhibited are, nevertheless, still available for beta-adrenoceptor stimulation. PMID:8485628

  12. An Improved Targeted cAMP Sensor to Study the Regulation of Adenylyl Cyclase 8 by Ca2+ Entry through Voltage-Gated Channels

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Katy L.; Cooper, Dermot M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe an improved sensor with reduced pH sensitivity tethered to adenylyl cyclase (AC) 8. The sensor was used to study cAMP dynamics in the AC8 microdomain of MIN6 cells, a pancreatic β-cell line. In these cells, AC8 was activated by Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-gated channels following depolarisation. This activation could be reconstituted in HEK293 cells co-expressing AC8 and either the α1C or α1D subunit of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The development of this improved sensor opens the door to the study of cAMP microdomains in excitable cells that have previously been challenging due to the sensitivity of fluorescent proteins to pH changes. PMID:24086669

  13. Inorganic polyphosphate regulates neuronal excitability through modulation of voltage-gated channels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a highly charged polyanion capable of interacting with a number of molecular targets. This signaling molecule is released into the extracellular matrix by central astrocytes and by peripheral platelets during inflammation. While the release of polyP is associated with both induction of blood coagulation and astrocyte extracellular signaling, the role of secreted polyP in regulation of neuronal activity remains undefined. Here we test the hypothesis that polyP is an important participant in neuronal signaling. Specifically, we investigate the ability of neurons to release polyP and to induce neuronal firing, and clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process by studying the action of polyP on voltage gated channels. Results Using patch clamp techniques, and primary hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion cell cultures, we demonstrate that polyP directly influences neuronal activity, inducing action potential generation in both PNS and CNS neurons. Mechanistically, this is accomplished by shifting the voltage sensitivity of NaV channel activation toward the neuronal resting membrane potential, the block KV channels, and the activation of CaV channels. Next, using calcium imaging we found that polyP stimulates an increase in neuronal network activity and induces calcium influx in glial cells. Using in situ DAPI localization and live imaging, we demonstrate that polyP is naturally present in synaptic regions and is released from the neurons upon depolarization. Finally, using a biochemical assay we demonstrate that polyP is present in synaptosomes and can be released upon their membrane depolarization by the addition of potassium chloride. Conclusions We conclude that polyP release leads to increased excitability of the neuronal membrane through the modulation of voltage gated ion channels. Together, our data establishes that polyP could function as excitatory neuromodulator in both the PNS and CNS. PMID:24886461

  14. Biophysical properties of the voltage gated proton channel HV1

    PubMed Central

    Musset, Boris; DeCoursey, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the voltage gated proton channel (HV1) are the key elements of its physiological function. The voltage gated proton channel is a unique molecule that in contrast to all other ion channels is exclusively selective for protons. Alone among proton channels, it has voltage and time dependent gating like other “classical” ion channels. HV1 is furthermore a sensor for the pH in the cell and the surrounding media. Its voltage dependence is strictly coupled to the pH gradient across the membrane. This regulation restricts opening of the channel to specific voltages at any given pH gradient, therefore allowing HV1 to perform its physiological task in the tissue it is expressed in. For HV1 there is no known blocker. The most potent channel inhibitor is zinc (Zn2+) which prevents channel opening. An additional characteristic of HV1 is its strong temperature dependence of both gating and conductance. In contrast to single-file water filled pores like the gramicidin channel, HV1 exhibits pronounced deuterium effects and temperature effects on conduction, consistent with a different conduction mechanism than other ion channels. These properties may be explained by the recent identification of an aspartate in the pore of HV1 that is essential to its proton selectivity. PMID:23050239

  15. Mechanism of voltage-gated channel formation in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Guidelli, Rolando; Becucci, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    Although several molecular models for voltage-gated ion channels in lipid membranes have been proposed, a detailed mechanism accounting for the salient features of experimental data is lacking. A general treatment accounting for peptide dipole orientation in the electric field and their nucleation and growth kinetics with ion channel formation is provided. This is the first treatment that explains all the main features of the experimental current-voltage curves of peptides forming voltage-gated channels available in the literature. It predicts a regime of weakly voltage-dependent conductance, followed by one of strong voltage-dependent conductance at higher voltages. It also predicts values of the parameters expressing the exponential dependence of conductance upon voltage and peptide bulk concentration for both regimes, in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Most importantly, the only two adjustable parameters involved in the kinetics of nucleation and growth of ion channels can be varied over broad ranges without affecting the above predictions to a significant extent. Thus, the fitting of experimental current-voltage curves stems naturally from the treatment and depends only slightly upon the choice of the kinetic parameters. PMID:26768224

  16. Voltage-Gated Proton Channel in Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Luisa; Queiroz, Fernanda Oliveira; da Silva, Annielle Mendes Brito; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel

    2016-07-20

    Solid tumors tend to have a more glycolytic metabolism leading to an accumulation of acidic metabolites in their cytosol, and consequently, their intracellular pH (pHi) turns critically lower if the cells do not handle the acid excess. Recently, it was proposed that the voltage gated proton channels (HV1) can regulate the pHi in several cancers. Here we report the functional expression of voltage gated proton channels in a human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell line, the most common and lethal brain tumor. T98G cells presented an outward, slow activating voltage-dependent proton current, which was also ΔpH-dependent and inhibited by ZnCl2, characterizing it as being conducted by HV1 channels. Furthermore, blocking HV1 channels with ZnCl2 significantly reduced the pHi, cell survival, and migration, indicating an important role for HV1 for tumor proliferation and progression in GBM. Overall, our results suggest that HV1 channels can be a new therapeutic target for GBM. PMID:27225904

  17. Novel Activation of Voltage-gated K+ Channels by Sevoflurane*

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Annika F.; Liang, Qiansheng; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are modulated by halogenated inhaled general anesthetics, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. Alkanols and halogenated inhaled anesthetics such as halothane and isoflurane inhibit the archetypical voltage-gated Kv3 channel homolog K-Shaw2 by stabilizing the resting/closed states. By contrast, sevoflurane, a more heavily fluorinated ether commonly used in general anesthesia, specifically activates K-Shaw2 currents at relevant concentrations (0.05–1 mm) in a rapid and reversible manner. The concentration dependence of this modulation is consistent with the presence of high and low affinity interactions (KD = 0.06 and 4 mm, respectively). Sevoflurane (<1 mm) induces a negative shift in the conductance-voltage relation and increases the maximum conductance. Furthermore, suggesting possible roles in general anesthesia, mammalian Kv1.2 and Kv1.5 channels display similar changes. Quantitative description of the observations by an economical allosteric model indicates that sevoflurane binding favors activation gating and eliminates an unstable inactivated state outside the activation pathway. This study casts light on the mechanism of the novel sevoflurane-dependent activation of Kv channels, which helps explain how closely related inhaled anesthetics achieve specific actions and suggests strategies to develop novel Kv channel activators. PMID:23038249

  18. Contribution of phosphodiesterase isozymes to the regulation of the L-type calcium current in human cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Kasanuki, Hiroshi; Hosoda, Saichi

    1997-01-01

    To determine the contribution of the various phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes to the regulation of the L-type calcium current (ICa(L)) in the human myocardium, we investigated the effect of selective and non-selective PDE inhibitors on ICa(L) in single human atrial cells by use of the whole-cell patch-clamp method. We repeated some experiments in rabbit atrial myocytes, to make a species comparison. In human atrial cells, 100 μM pimobendan increased ICa(L) (evoked by depolarization to +10 mV from a holding potential of −40 mV) by 250.4±45.0% (n=15), with the concentration for half-maximal stimulation (EC50) being 1.13 μM. ICa(L) was increased by 100 μM UD-CG 212 by 174.5±30.2% (n=10) with an EC50 value of 1.78 μM in human atrial cells. These two agents inhibit PDE III selectively. A selective PDE IV inhibitor, rolipram (1–100 μM), did not itself affect ICa(L) in human atrial cells. However, 100 μM rolipram significantly enhanced the effect of 100 μM UD-CG 212 on ICa(L) (increase with UD-CG 212 alone, 167.9±33.9, n=5; increase with the two agents together, 270.0±52.2%; n=5, P<0.05). Rolipram also enhanced isoprenaline (5 nM)-stimulated ICa(L) by 52.9±9.3% (n=5) in human atrial cells. In rabbit atrial cells, ICa(L) at +10 mV was increased by 22.1±9.0% by UD-CG 212 (n=10) and by 67.4±12.0% (n=10) by pimobendan (each at 100 μM). These values were significantly lower than those obtained in human atrial cells (P<0.0001). Rolipram (1–100 μM) did not itself affect ICa(L) in rabbit atrial cells. However, ICa(L) was increased by 215.7±65.2% (n=10) by the combination of 100 μM UD-CG 212 and 100 μM rolipram. This value was almost 10 times larger than that obtained for the effect of 100 μM UD-CG 212 alone. These results imply a species difference: in the human atrium, the PDE III isoform seems dominant, whereas PDE IV may be more important in the rabbit atrium for regulating ICa(L). However, PDE IV might contribute

  19. Inhibition of voltage-gated potassium channels mediates uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingying; Zhong, Xiangqin; Ding, Yaqin; Bai, Tao; Wang, Hui; Wu, Hongbin; Liu, Yunfeng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-15

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is important to maintain glucose homeostasis and is regulated by electrical activities. Uncarboxylated osteocalcin, a bone-derived protein, has been reported to regulate glucose metabolism by increasing insulin secretion, stimulating β cell proliferation and improving insulin sensitivity. But the underlying mechanisms of uncarboxylated osteocalcin-modulated insulin secretion remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion and voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, voltage-gated calcium channels in rat β cells. Insulin secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay. Channel currents and membrane action potentials were recorded using the conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Calcium imaging system was used to analyze intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). The data show that under 16.7mmol/l glucose conditions uncarboxylated osteocalcin alone increased insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i, but with no such effects on insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i in the presence of a KV channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride. In the patch-clamp experiments, uncarboxylated osteocalcin lengthened action potential duration and significantly inhibited KV currents, but had no influence on the characteristics of voltage-gated calcium channels. These results indicate that KV channels are involved in uncarboxylated osteocalcin-regulated insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β cells. By inhibiting KV channels, uncarboxylated osteocalcin prolongs action potential duration, increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and finally promotes insulin secretion. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of osteocalcin-modulated insulin secretion. PMID:26927753

  20. Golli myelin basic proteins regulate oligodendroglial progenitor cell migration through voltage-gated Ca++ influx

    PubMed Central

    Paez, Pablo M.; Fulton, Daniel J.; Spreuer, Vilma; Handley, Vance; Campagnoni, Celia W.; Macklin, Wendy B.; Colwell, Christopher; Campagnoni, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    Migration of OL progenitor cells (OPCs) from proliferative zones to their final location in the brain is an essential step in nervous system development. Golli proteins, products of the myelin basic protein gene, can modulate voltage-gated Ca++ uptake in OPCs during process extension and retraction. Given the importance of process extension/retraction on movement, the consequences of golli expression on OPC migration were examined in vivo and in vitro using time-lapse imaging of isolated OPCs and acute brain slice preparations from golli KO and golli overexpressing mice (JOE). The results indicated that golli stimulated migration, and this enhanced motility was associated with increases in the activity of voltage operated Ca++ channels (VOCCs). Activation of VOCCs by high K+ resulted in a significant increase in the migration speed of JOE OPCs vs control cells and golli-mediated modulation of OPC migration disappeared in the presence of VOCC antagonists. During migration, OPCs generated Ca++ oscillations that were dependent on voltage-calcium influx and both the amplitude and frequency of these Ca++ transients correlated positively with the rate of cell movement under a variety of pharmacological treatments. The Ca++ transient amplitude and the rate of cell movement were significantly lower in KO cells and significantly higher in JOE cells suggesting that the presence of golli promotes OPC migration by increasing the size of voltage-mediated Ca++ oscillations. These data define a new molecule that regulates Ca++ homeostasis in OPCs, and are the first to demonstrate that voltage-gated Ca++ channels can regulate an OPC function, such as migration. PMID:19458236

  1. Neurotoxins and Their Binding Areas on Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Marijke; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are large transmembrane proteins that conduct sodium ions across the membrane and by doing so they generate signals of communication between many kinds of tissues. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells, in close collaboration with other channels like potassium channels. Therefore, genetic defects in sodium channel genes can cause a wide variety of diseases, generally called “channelopathies.” The first insights into the mechanism of action potentials and the involvement of sodium channels originated from Hodgkin and Huxley for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1963. These concepts still form the basis for understanding the function of VGSCs. When VGSCs sense a sufficient change in membrane potential, they are activated and consequently generate a massive influx of sodium ions. Immediately after, channels will start to inactivate and currents decrease. In the inactivated state, channels stay refractory for new stimuli and they must return to the closed state before being susceptible to a new depolarization. On the other hand, studies with neurotoxins like tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) also contributed largely to our today’s understanding of the structure and function of ion channels and of VGSCs specifically. Moreover, neurotoxins acting on ion channels turned out to be valuable lead compounds in the development of new drugs for the enormous range of diseases in which ion channels are involved. A recent example of a synthetic neurotoxin that made it to the market is ziconotide (Prialt®, Elan). The original peptide, ω-MVIIA, is derived from the cone snail Conus magus and now FDA/EMA-approved for the management of severe chronic pain by blocking the N-type voltage-gated calcium channels in pain fibers. This review focuses on the current status of research on neurotoxins acting on VGSC, their contribution to further unravel the structure and

  2. Neurotoxins and their binding areas on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Marijke; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are large transmembrane proteins that conduct sodium ions across the membrane and by doing so they generate signals of communication between many kinds of tissues. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells, in close collaboration with other channels like potassium channels. Therefore, genetic defects in sodium channel genes can cause a wide variety of diseases, generally called "channelopathies." The first insights into the mechanism of action potentials and the involvement of sodium channels originated from Hodgkin and Huxley for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1963. These concepts still form the basis for understanding the function of VGSCs. When VGSCs sense a sufficient change in membrane potential, they are activated and consequently generate a massive influx of sodium ions. Immediately after, channels will start to inactivate and currents decrease. In the inactivated state, channels stay refractory for new stimuli and they must return to the closed state before being susceptible to a new depolarization. On the other hand, studies with neurotoxins like tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) also contributed largely to our today's understanding of the structure and function of ion channels and of VGSCs specifically. Moreover, neurotoxins acting on ion channels turned out to be valuable lead compounds in the development of new drugs for the enormous range of diseases in which ion channels are involved. A recent example of a synthetic neurotoxin that made it to the market is ziconotide (Prialt(®), Elan). The original peptide, ω-MVIIA, is derived from the cone snail Conus magus and now FDA/EMA-approved for the management of severe chronic pain by blocking the N-type voltage-gated calcium channels in pain fibers. This review focuses on the current status of research on neurotoxins acting on VGSC, their contribution to further unravel the structure and function of

  3. Calciseptine, a peptide isolated from black mamba venom, is a specific blocker of the L-type calcium channel.

    PubMed Central

    de Weille, J R; Schweitz, H; Maes, P; Tartar, A; Lazdunski, M

    1991-01-01

    The venom of the black mamba contains a 60-amino acid peptide called calciseptine. The peptide has been fully sequenced. It is a smooth muscle relaxant and an inhibitor of cardiac contractions. Its physiological action resembles that of drugs, such as the 1,4-dihydropyridines, which are important in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Calciseptine, like the 1,4-dihydropyridines, selectively blocks L-type Ca2+ channels and is totally inactive on other voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels such as N-type and T-type channels. To our knowledge, it is the only natural polypeptide that has been shown to be a specific inhibitor of L-type Ca2+ channels. Images PMID:1848702

  4. Voltage gated sodium channels as drug discovery targets

    PubMed Central

    Bagal, Sharan K; Marron, Brian E; Owen, Robert M; Storer, R Ian; Swain, Nigel A

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are a family of transmembrane ion channel proteins. They function by forming a gated, water-filled pore to help establish and control cell membrane potential via control of the flow of ions between the intracellular and the extracellular environments. Blockade of NaVs has been successfully accomplished in the clinic to enable control of pathological firing patterns that occur in a diverse range of conditions such as chronic pain, epilepsy, and cardiac arrhythmias. First generation sodium channel modulator drugs, despite low inherent subtype selectivity, preferentially act on over-excited cells which reduces undesirable side effects in the clinic. However, the limited therapeutic indices observed with the first generation demanded a new generation of sodium channel inhibitors. The structure, function and the state of the art in sodium channel modulator drug discovery are discussed in this chapter. PMID:26646477

  5. Neurological perspectives on voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Linley, John E.; Baker, Mark D.; Minett, Michael S.; Cregg, Roman; Werdehausen, Robert; Rugiero, François

    2012-01-01

    The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels has long been linked to disorders of neuronal excitability such as epilepsy and chronic pain. Recent genetic studies have now expanded the role of sodium channels in health and disease, to include autism, migraine, multiple sclerosis, cancer as well as muscle and immune system disorders. Transgenic mouse models have proved useful in understanding the physiological role of individual sodium channels, and there has been significant progress in the development of subtype selective inhibitors of sodium channels. This review will outline the functions and roles of specific sodium channels in electrical signalling and disease, focusing on neurological aspects. We also discuss recent advances in the development of selective sodium channel inhibitors. PMID:22961543

  6. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xunxun; Li, Tingting; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management. PMID:24287955

  7. Biophysical Adaptations of Prokaryotic Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    PubMed

    Vien, T N; DeCaen, P G

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the adaptive features found in voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These two families are distinct, having diverged early in evolutionary history but maintain a surprising degree of convergence in function. While prokaryotic NaVs are required for growth and motility, eukaryotic NaVs selectively conduct fast electrical currents for short- and long-range signaling across cell membranes in mammalian organs. Current interest in prokaryotic NaVs is stoked by their resolved high-resolution structures and functional features which are reminiscent of eukaryotic NaVs. In this chapter, comparisons between eukaryotic and prokaryotic NaVs are made to highlight the shared and unique aspects of ion selectivity, voltage sensitivity, and pharmacology. Examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic NaV convergent evolution will be discussed within the context of their structural features. PMID:27586280

  8. Molecular identity of dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Lorincz, Andrea; Nusser, Zoltan

    2010-05-14

    Active invasion of the dendritic tree by action potentials (APs) generated in the axon is essential for associative synaptic plasticity and neuronal ensemble formation. In cortical pyramidal cells (PCs), this AP back-propagation is supported by dendritic voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels, whose molecular identity is unknown. Using a highly sensitive electron microscopic immunogold technique, we revealed the presence of the Nav1.6 subunit in hippocampal CA1 PC proximal and distal dendrites. Here, the subunit density is lower by a factor of 35 to 80 than that found in axon initial segments. A gradual decrease in Nav1.6 density along the proximodistal axis of the dendritic tree was also detected without any labeling in dendritic spines. Our results reveal the characteristic subcellular distribution of the Nav1.6 subunit, identifying this molecule as a key substrate enabling dendritic excitability. PMID:20466935

  9. Voltage Sensor in Voltage-gated ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are intrinsic membrane proteins that play a fundamental role in the generation and propagation of the nerve impulse. Their salient characteristic is that the probability of the ion channel of being open depends steeply on the voltage across the membrane where those channels are inserted. Thus, in a membrane containing many channels, the ionic conductance is controlled by the membrane potential. The voltage exerts its control on the channel by reorienting intrinsic charges in the protein, generally arginine or lysine residues located in the 4th transmembrane segment of the channel protein, a region that has been called the voltage sensor. Upon changing the membrane potential, the charged groups reorient in the field generating a transient current (gating current). The properties of the gating current may be studied with a small number of channels to infer the operation of the sensor at the single molecule level by noise analysis or with a large number of channels to infer the details of the energy landscape the sensor traverses in opening the pore. This information is global in nature and cannot pinpoint the exact origin of the charge movement that generates the gating current. The movement of physical charges in the protein has been inferred with site-directed mutagenesis of the charged residues to histidine that allows the study of proton accessibility. The actual movement has been studied with fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The combined information of site-directed mutagenesis, gating currents, fluorescence studies and emerging crystal structures have started to delineate a physical representation of the conformational changes responsible for voltage sensing that lead to the opening of the conduction pore in voltage-gated ion channels.

  10. Inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels by sumatriptan bioisosteres

    PubMed Central

    Carbonara, Roberta; Carocci, Alessia; Roussel, Julien; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Buonavoglia, Canio; Franchini, Carlo; Lentini, Giovanni; Camerino, Diana Conte; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are known to play a pivotal role in perception and transmission of pain sensations. Gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the peripheral neuronal sodium channels, hNav1.7–1.9, cause human painful diseases. Thus while treatment of chronic pain remains an unmet clinical need, sodium channel blockers are considered as promising druggable targets. In a previous study, we evaluated the analgesic activity of sumatriptan, an agonist of serotonin 5HT1B/D receptors, and some new chiral bioisosteres, using the hot plate test in the mouse. Interestingly, we observed that the analgesic effectiveness was not necessarily correlated to serotonin agonism. In this study, we evaluated whether sumatriptan and its congeners may inhibit heterologously expressed hNav1.7 sodium channels using the patch-clamp method. We show that sumatriptan blocks hNav1.7 channels only at very high, supratherapeutic concentrations. In contrast, its three analogs, namely 20b, (R)-31b, and (S)-22b, exert a dose and use-dependent sodium channel block. At 0.1 and 10 Hz stimulation frequencies, the most potent compound, (S)-22b, was 4.4 and 1.7 fold more potent than the well-known sodium channel blocker mexiletine. The compound induces a negative shift of voltage dependence of fast inactivation, suggesting higher affinity to the inactivated channel. Accordingly, we show that (S)-22b likely binds the conserved local anesthetic receptor within voltage-gated sodium channels. Combining these results with the previous ones, we hypothesize that use-dependent sodium channel blockade contributes to the analgesic activity of (R)-31b and (S)-22b. These later compounds represent promising lead compounds for the development of efficient analgesics, the mechanism of action of which may include a dual action on sodium channels and 5HT1D receptors. PMID:26257653

  11. Modulation of intracellular Ca2+ via L-type calcium channels in heart cells by the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of the alpha1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Bkaily, Ghassan; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Bui, Michel; Sukarieh, Rami; Jacques, Danielle; Fu, Michael L X

    2003-03-01

    The effects of methoxamine, a selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor agonist, and the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of alpha1-adrenoceptors were studied on intracellular free Ca2+ levels using confocal microscopy and ionic currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in single cells of 10-day-old embryonic chick and 20-week-old fetal human hearts. We observed that like methoxamine, the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of alpha1-adrenoreceptors significantly increased the L-type calcium current (I(Ca(L))) but had no effect on the T-type calcium current (I(Ca(T))), the delayed outward potassium current, or the fast sodium current. This effect of the autoantibody was prevented by a prestimulation of the receptors with methoxamine and vice versa. Moreover, treating the cells with prazosin, a selective alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist blocked the methoxamine and the autoantibody-induced increase in I(Ca(L)), respectively. In absence of prazosin, both methoxamine and the autoantibody showed a substantial enhancement in the frequency of cell contraction and that of the concomitant cytosolic and nuclear free Ca2+ variations. The subsequent addition of nifedipine, a specific L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, reversed not only the methoxamine or the autoantibody-induced effect but also completely abolished cell contraction. These results demonstrated that functional alpha1-adrenoceptors exist in both 10-day-old embryonic chick and 20-week-old human fetal hearts and that the autoantibody directed against the second extracellular loop of this type of receptors plays an important role in stimulating their activity via activation of L-type calcium channels. This loop seems to have a functional significance by being the target of alpha1-receptor agonists like methoxamine. PMID:12733822

  12. Voltage Gated Proton Channels Find Their Dream Job Managing the Respiratory Burst in Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The voltage gated proton channel bears surprising resemblance to the voltage-sensing domain (S1–S4) of other voltage gated ion channels, but is a dimer with two conduction pathways. The proton channel seems designed for efficient proton extrusion from cells. In phagocytes, it facilitates the production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase. PMID:20134026

  13. Dynamin Is Required for GnRH Signaling to L-Type Calcium Channels and Activation of ERK.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian S; Dang, An K; Murtazina, Dilyara A; Dozier, Melissa G; Whitesell, Jennifer D; Khan, Shaihla A; Cherrington, Brian D; Amberg, Gregory C; Clay, Colin M; Navratil, Amy M

    2016-02-01

    We have shown that GnRH-mediated engagement of the cytoskeleton induces cell movement and is necessary for ERK activation. It also has previously been established that a dominant negative form of the mechano-GTPase dynamin (K44A) attenuates GnRH activation of ERK. At present, it is not clear at what level these cellular events might be linked. To explore this, we used live cell imaging in the gonadotrope-derived αT3-1 cell line to determine that dynamin-green fluorescent protein accumulated in GnRH-induced lamellipodia and plasma membrane protrusions. Coincident with translocation of dynamin-green fluorescent protein to the plasma membrane, we demonstrated that dynamin colocalizes with the actin cytoskeleton and the actin binding protein, cortactin at the leading edge of the plasma membrane. We next wanted to assess the physiological significance of these findings by inhibiting dynamin GTPase activity using dynasore. We find that dynasore suppresses activation of ERK, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase, after exposure to GnRH agonist. Furthermore, exposure of αT3-1 cells to dynasore inhibited GnRH-induced cyto-architectural rearrangements. Recently it has been discovered that GnRH induced Ca(2+) influx via the L-type Ca(2+) channels requires an intact cytoskeleton to mediate ERK phosphorylation. Interestingly, not only does dynasore attenuate GnRH-mediated actin reorganization, it also suppresses Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels visualized in living cells using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Collectively, our data suggest that GnRH-induced membrane remodeling events are mediated in part by the association of dynamin and cortactin engaging the actin cytoskeleton, which then regulates Ca(2+) influx via L-type channels to facilitate ERK phosphorylation. PMID:26696122

  14. A novel dihydropyridine with 3-aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution blocks L-type calcium channels in rat cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis-Pareja, David; Zapata-Torres, Gerald; Hidalgo, Jorge; Ayala, Pedro; and others

    2014-08-15

    Rationale: Dihydropyridines are widely used for the treatment of several cardiac diseases due to their blocking activity on L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels and their renowned antioxidant properties. Methods: We synthesized six novel dihydropyridine molecules and performed docking studies on the binding site of the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel. We used biochemical techniques on isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes to assess the efficacy of these molecules on their Ca{sup 2+} channel-blocking activity and antioxidant properties. The Ca{sup 2+} channel-blocking activity was evaluated by confocal microscopy on fluo-3AM loaded cardiomyocytes, as well as using patch clamp experiments. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by flow cytometry using the ROS sensitive dye 1,2,3 DHR. Results: Our docking studies show that a novel compound with 3-OH substitution inserts into the active binding site of the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel previously described for nitrendipine. In biochemical assays, the novel meta-OH group in the aryl in C4 showed a high blocking effect on L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel as opposed to para-substituted compounds. In the tests we performed, none of the molecules showed antioxidant properties. Conclusions: Only substitutions in C2, C3 and C5 of the aryl ring render dihydropyridine compounds with the capacity of blocking LTCC. Based on our docking studies, we postulate that the antioxidant activity requires a larger group than the meta-OH substitution in C2, C3 or C5 of the dihydropyridine ring. - Highlights: • Dihydropyridine (DHP) molecules are widely used in cardiovascular disease. • DHPs block Ca{sup 2+} entry through LTCC—some DHPs have antioxidant activity as well. • We synthesized 6 new DHPs and tested their Ca{sup 2+} blocking and antioxidant activities. • 3-Aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution strongly increases their Ca{sup 2+} blocking activity. • 3-Aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution did not affect the antioxidant properties.

  15. Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-yuan; Zhang, Man; Huang, Tao; Yang, Li-ling; Fu, Hai-bo; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda LD; Mu, Huai-xue; Shi, Xiao-ke; Leung, Christina FP; Fan, Bao-min; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Ai-ping; Zhu, Li-xin; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    A novel neuropeptide spexin was found to be broadly expressed in various endocrine and nervous tissues while little is known about its functions. This study investigated the role of spexin in bowel movement and the underlying mechanisms. In functional constipation (FC) patients, serum spexin levels were significantly decreased. Consistently, in starved mice, the mRNA of spexin was significantly decreased in intestine and colon. Spexin injection increased the velocity of carbon powder propulsion in small intestine and decreased the glass beads expulsion time in distal colon in mice. Further, spexin dose-dependently stimulated the intestinal/colonic smooth muscle contraction. Galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) antagonist M871, but not Galanin receptor 3 (GALR3) antagonist SNAP37899, effectively suppressed the stimulatory effects of spexin on intestinal/colonic smooth muscle contraction, which could be eliminated by extracellular [Ca2+] removal and L-type voltage-dependentCa2+ channel (VDCC) inhibitor nifedipine. Besides, spexin dramatically increased the [Ca2+]i in isolated colonic smooth muscle cells. These data indicate that spexin can act on GALR2 receptor to regulate bowel motility by activating L-type VDCC. Our findings provide evidence for important physiological roles of spexin in GI functions. Selective action on spexin pathway might have therapeutic effects on GI diseases with motility disorders. PMID:26160593

  16. Pharmacological Inhibition of Voltage-gated Ca2+ Channels for Chronic Pain Relief

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungkyu

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major therapeutic problem as the current treatment options are unsatisfactory with low efficacy and deleterious side effects. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), which are multi-complex proteins consisting of α1, β, γ, and α2δ subunits, play an important role in pain signaling. These channels are involved in neurogenic inflammation, excitability, and neurotransmitter release in nociceptors. It has been previously shown that N-type VGCCs (Cav2.2) are a major pain target. U.S. FDA approval of three Cav2.2 antagonists, gabapentin, pregabalin, and ziconotide, for chronic pain underlies the importance of this channel subtype. Also, there has been increasing evidence that L-type (Cav1.2) or T-type (Cav3.2) VGCCs may be involved in pain signaling and chronic pain. In order to develop novel pain therapeutics and to understand the role of VGCC subtypes, discovering subtype selective VGCC inhibitors or methods that selectively target the inhibitor into nociceptors would be essential. This review describes the various VGCC subtype inhibitors and the potential of utilizing VGCC subtypes as targets of chronic pain. Development of VGCC subtype inhibitors and targeting them into nociceptors will contribute to a better understanding of the roles of VGCC subtypes in pain at a spinal level as well as development of a novel class of analgesics for chronic pain. PMID:24396337

  17. Pharmacological Inhibition of Voltage-gated Ca(2+) Channels for Chronic Pain Relief.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungkyu

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pain is a major therapeutic problem as the current treatment options are unsatisfactory with low efficacy and deleterious side effects. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), which are multi-complex proteins consisting of α1, β, γ, and α2δ subunits, play an important role in pain signaling. These channels are involved in neurogenic inflammation, excitability, and neurotransmitter release in nociceptors. It has been previously shown that N-type VGCCs (Cav2.2) are a major pain target. U.S. FDA approval of three Cav2.2 antagonists, gabapentin, pregabalin, and ziconotide, for chronic pain underlies the importance of this channel subtype. Also, there has been increasing evidence that L-type (Cav1.2) or T-type (Cav3.2) VGCCs may be involved in pain signaling and chronic pain. In order to develop novel pain therapeutics and to understand the role of VGCC subtypes, discovering subtype selective VGCC inhibitors or methods that selectively target the inhibitor into nociceptors would be essential. This review describes the various VGCC subtype inhibitors and the potential of utilizing VGCC subtypes as targets of chronic pain. Development of VGCC subtype inhibitors and targeting them into nociceptors will contribute to a better understanding of the roles of VGCC subtypes in pain at a spinal level as well as development of a novel class of analgesics for chronic pain. PMID:24396337

  18. Isolation, synthesis and characterization of ω-TRTX-Cc1a, a novel tarantula venom peptide that selectively targets L-type Cav channels.

    PubMed

    Klint, Julie K; Berecki, Géza; Durek, Thomas; Mobli, Mehdi; Knapp, Oliver; King, Glenn F; Adams, David J; Alewood, Paul F; Rash, Lachlan D

    2014-05-15

    Spider venoms are replete with peptidic ion channel modulators, often with novel subtype selectivity, making them a rich source of pharmacological tools and drug leads. In a search for subtype-selective blockers of voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels, we isolated and characterized a novel 39-residue peptide, ω-TRTX-Cc1a (Cc1a), from the venom of the tarantula Citharischius crawshayi (now Pelinobius muticus). Cc1a is 67% identical to the spider toxin ω-TRTX-Hg1a, an inhibitor of CaV2.3 channels. We assembled Cc1a using a combination of Boc solid-phase peptide synthesis and native chemical ligation. Oxidative folding yielded two stable, slowly interconverting isomers. Cc1a preferentially inhibited Ba(2+) currents (IBa) mediated by L-type (CaV1.2 and CaV1.3) CaV channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 825nM and 2.24μM, respectively. In rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, Cc1a inhibited IBa mediated by high voltage-activated CaV channels but did not affect low voltage-activated T-type CaV channels. Cc1a exhibited weak activity at NaV1.5 and NaV1.7 voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels stably expressed in mammalian HEK or CHO cells, respectively. Experiments with modified Cc1a peptides, truncated at the N-terminus (ΔG1-E5) or C-terminus (ΔW35-V39), demonstrated that the N- and C-termini are important for voltage-gated ion channel modulation. We conclude that Cc1a represents a novel pharmacological tool for probing the structure and function of L-type CaV channels. PMID:24561180

  19. Voltage gating and anions, especially phosphate: a model system.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Padmanava; Ghose, Ranajeet; Green, Michael E

    2005-11-30

    The voltage sensor of voltage gated sodium and potassium channels consists of four sets of transmembrane segments, of which one, called S4, contains at least four arginines; these are presumed to each carry positive charges. The channel opening is usually attributed to the outward (i.e., toward the extracellular side of the membrane) motion of S4. The evidence for this motion is based on certain experiments that appear to show differential access to parts of S4 from the intracellular and extracellular sides of the membrane in the open and closed states. A newly available structure [S.B. Long, E.B. Campbell and R. MacKinnon, Crystal structure of a mammalian voltage-dependent Shaker family K(+) channel. Science 309 (2005) 897-903; S.B. Long, E.B. Campbell, R. MacKinnon, Voltage sensor of Kv1.2: structural basis of electromechanical coupling. Science 309 (2005) 903-908][1,2] has now been used to argue for a large scale motion, although, as a static structure, it is not conclusive. In this paper, we consider the effect of anions in the surrounding medium. Phosphate is present in the intracellular as well as the extracellular fluid, apparently at hundreds of micromolar concentration, or more. There is evidence in the literature suggesting that phosphate-arginine complexes are rather strong. In a recent calculation one of us [M.E. Green, A possible role for phosphate in complexing the arginines of S4 in voltage gated channels J. Theor. Biol. 233 (2005) 337-341][3] has shown that a model peptide with a 2:1 arg:phosphate complex should have a favorable geometry. Here, we present NMR evidence of the existence of phosphate complexes of a model peptide with two arginines separated by two hydrophobic residues, the same spacing as in S4 segments. The complexes (there are different complexes for HPO(4)(2-) and for H(2)PO(4)(-) [3]) form with concentrations of peptide in the range of hundreds of micromolar, making it significant in the biological context. NMR spectra provide

  20. Linalool suppresses voltage-gated currents in sensory neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Narusuye, K; Kawai, F; Matsuzaki, K; Miyachi, E

    2005-02-01

    Linalool is a major component of essential oils and possesses various biological effects in sensory or central nervous systems. To investigate the pharmacological and biophysical effects of linalool on voltage-gated currents in sensory neurons, we used the whole-cell patch clamp and the Ca(2+) imaging techniques. Under the voltage clamp, membrane depolarization generated time- and voltage-dependent current responses in newt olfactory receptor cells (ORCs). Linalool significantly and reversibly suppressed the voltage-gated currents in ORCs. The dose-suppression relation of linalool for the voltage-gated Na(+) current could be fitted by the Hill equation with a half-blocking concentration of 0.56 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.2. To test whether linalool suppresses voltage-gated currents in ORCs specifically or suppresses currents in other neurons generally, we next examined the effects of linalool on voltage-gated currents in newt retinal neurons and rat cerebellar Purkinje cells. Linalool suppressed the voltage-gated currents not only in retinal horizontal cells and ganglion cells but also in Purkinje cells. Furthermore, bath application of linalool inhibited the KCl-induced [Ca(2+)](i) response of ORCs, suggesting that linalool suppresses Ca(2+) currents in ORCs. These results suggest that linalool non-selectively suppresses the voltage-gated currents in newt sensory neurons and rat cerebellar Purkinje cells. PMID:15365786

  1. Resurgent current of voltage-gated Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda H; Raman, Indira M

    2014-01-01

    Resurgent Na+ current results from a distinctive form of Na+ channel gating, originally identified in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In these neurons, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channels responsible for action potential firing have specialized mechanisms that reduce the likelihood that they accumulate in fast inactivated states, thereby shortening refractory periods and permitting rapid, repetitive, and/or burst firing. Under voltage clamp, step depolarizations evoke transient Na+ currents that rapidly activate and quickly decay, and step repolarizations elicit slower channel reopening, or a ‘resurgent’ current. The generation of resurgent current depends on a factor in the Na+ channel complex, probably a subunit such as NaVβ4 (Scn4b), which blocks open Na+ channels at positive voltages, competing with the fast inactivation gate, and unblocks at negative voltages, permitting recovery from an open channel block along with a flow of current. Following its initial discovery, resurgent Na+ current has been found in nearly 20 types of neurons. Emerging research suggests that resurgent current is preferentially increased in a variety of clinical conditions associated with altered cellular excitability. Here we review the biophysical, molecular and structural mechanisms of resurgent current and their relation to the normal functions of excitable cells as well as pathophysiology. PMID:25172941

  2. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Biophysics, Pharmacology, and Related Channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    Savio-Galimberti, Eleonora; Gollob, Michael H.; Darbar, Dawood

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are multi-molecular protein complexes expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. They are primarily formed by a pore-forming multi-spanning integral membrane glycoprotein (α-subunit) that can be associated with one or more regulatory β-subunits. The latter are single-span integral membrane proteins that modulate the sodium current (INa) and can also function as cell adhesion molecules. In vitro some of the cell-adhesive functions of the β-subunits may play important physiological roles independently of the α-subunits. Other endogenous regulatory proteins named “channel partners” or “channel interacting proteins” (ChiPs) like caveolin-3 and calmodulin/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) can also interact and modulate the expression and/or function of VGSC. In addition to their physiological roles in cell excitability and cell adhesion, VGSC are the site of action of toxins (like tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin), and pharmacologic agents (like antiarrhythmic drugs, local anesthetics, antiepileptic drugs, and newly developed analgesics). Mutations in genes that encode α- and/or β-subunits as well as the ChiPs can affect the structure and biophysical properties of VGSC, leading to the development of diseases termed sodium “channelopathies”.  This review will outline the structure, function, and biophysical properties of VGSC as well as their pharmacology and associated channelopathies and highlight some of the recent advances in this field. PMID:22798951

  3. Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels: Not Just for Conduction.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Larisa C; Isom, Lori L

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), composed of a pore-forming α subunit and up to two associated β subunits, are critical for the initiation of the action potential (AP) in excitable tissues. Building on the monumental discovery and description of sodium current in 1952, intrepid researchers described the voltage-dependent gating mechanism, selectivity of the channel, and general structure of the VGSC channel. Recently, crystal structures of bacterial VGSC α subunits have confirmed many of these studies and provided new insights into VGSC function. VGSC β subunits, first cloned in 1992, modulate sodium current but also have nonconducting roles as cell-adhesion molecules and function in neurite outgrowth and neuronal pathfinding. Mutations in VGSC α and β genes are associated with diseases caused by dysfunction of excitable tissues such as epilepsy. Because of the multigenic and drug-resistant nature of some of these diseases, induced pluripotent stem cells and other novel approaches are being used to screen for new drugs and further understand how mutations in VGSC genes contribute to pathophysiology. PMID:27252364

  4. Marine Toxins That Target Voltage-gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabi, Ahmed; McArthur, Jeff; Ostroumov, Vitaly; French, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic, voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are large membrane proteins which underlie generation and propagation of rapid electrical signals in nerve, muscle and heart. Nine different NaV receptor sites, for natural ligands and/or drugs, have been identified, based on functional analyses and site-directed mutagenesis. In the marine ecosystem, numerous toxins have evolved to disrupt NaV channel function, either by inhibition of current flow through the channels, or by modifying the activation and inactivation gating processes by which the channels open and close. These toxins function in their native environment as offensive or defensive weapons in prey capture or deterrence of predators. In composition, they range from organic molecules of varying size and complexity to peptides consisting of ~10–70 amino acids. We review the variety of known NaV-targeted marine toxins, outlining, where known, their sites of interaction with the channel protein and their functional effects. In a number of cases, these natural ligands have the potential applications as drugs in clinical settings, or as models for drug development.

  5. Mechanism of Inactivation in Voltage-Gated Na(+) Channels.

    PubMed

    Gawali, V S; Todt, H

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) initiate action potentials thereby giving rise to rapid transmission of electrical signals along cell membranes and between cells. Depolarization of the cell membrane causes VGSCs to open but also gives rise to a nonconducting state termed inactivation. Inactivation of VGSCs serves a critical physiologic function as it determines the extent of excitability of neurons and of muscle cells. Depending on the time course of development and removal of inactivation both "fast-" and "slow"-inactivated states have been described. Evidence from mutagenesis studies suggests that fast inactivation is produced by a block of the internal vestibule by a tethered inactivation particle that has been mapped to the internal linker between domains III and IV. The motion of this linker may be regulated by parts of the internal C-terminus. The molecular mechanism of slow inactivation is less clear. However, aside from a high number of mutagenesis studies, the recent availability of 3D structures of crystallized prokaryotic VGSCs offers insights into the molecular motions associated with slow inactivation. One possible scenario is that slow movements of the voltage sensors are transmitted to the external vestibule giving rise to a conformational change of this region. This molecular rearrangement is transmitted to the S6 segments giving rise to collapse of the internal vestibule. PMID:27586291

  6. Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Cancer Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vidhya R.; Perez-Neut, Mathew; Kaja, Simon; Gentile, Saverio

    2015-01-01

    Changes of the electrical charges across the surface cell membrane are absolutely necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. The opening of ion channels alter the charge distribution across the surface membrane as they allow the diffusion of ions such as K+, Ca++, Cl−, Na+. Traditionally, voltage-gated ion channels (VGIC) are known to play fundamental roles in controlling rapid bioelectrical signaling including action potential and/or contraction. However, several investigations have revealed that these classes of proteins can also contribute significantly to cell mitotic biochemical signaling, cell cycle progression, as well as cell volume regulation. All these functions are critically important for cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, a variety of distinct VGICs are expressed in different cancer cell types, including metastasis but not in the tissues from which these tumors were generated. Given the increasing evidence suggesting that VGIC play a major role in cancer cell biology, in this review we discuss the role of distinct VGIC in cancer cell proliferation and possible therapeutic potential of VIGC pharmacological manipulation. PMID:26010603

  7. Regulation of Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Currents by Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II in Resting Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kostic, Sandra; Pan, Bin; Guo, Yuan; Yu, Hongwei; Sapunar, Damir; Kwok, Wai-Meng; Hudmon, Andy; Wu, Hsiang-En; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is recognized as a key element in encoding depolarization activity of excitable cells into facilitated voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) function. Less is known about the participation of CaMKII in regulating VGCCs in resting cells. We examined constitutive CaMKII control of Ca2+ currents in peripheral sensory neurons acutely isolated from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of adult rats. The small molecule CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 (1.0μM) reduced depolarization-induced ICa by 16 – 30% in excess of the effects produced by the inactive homolog KN-92. The specificity of CaMKII inhibition on VGCC function was shown by efficacy of the selective CaMKII blocking peptide autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide in a membrane-permeable myristoylated form, which also reduced VGCC current in resting neurons. Loss of VGCC currents is primarily due to reduced N-type current, as application of mAIP selectively reduced N-type current by approximately 30%, and prior N-type current inhibition eliminated the effect of mAIP on VGCCs, while prior block of L-type channels did not reduce the effect of mAIP on total ICa. T-type currents were not affected by mAIP in resting DRG neurons. Transduction of sensory neurons in vivo by DRG injection of an adeno-associated virus expressing AIP also resulted in a loss of N-type currents. Together, these findings reveal a novel molecular adaptation whereby sensory neurons retain CaMKII support of VGCCs despite remaining quiescent. PMID:25064143

  8. Regulation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in resting sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Sandra; Pan, Bin; Guo, Yuan; Yu, Hongwei; Sapunar, Damir; Kwok, Wai-Meng; Hudmon, Andy; Wu, Hsiang-En; Hogan, Quinn H

    2014-09-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is recognized as a key element in encoding depolarization activity of excitable cells into facilitated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) function. Less is known about the participation of CaMKII in regulating VGCCs in resting cells. We examined constitutive CaMKII control of Ca(2+) currents in peripheral sensory neurons acutely isolated from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of adult rats. The small molecule CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 (1.0μM) reduced depolarization-induced ICa by 16-30% in excess of the effects produced by the inactive homolog KN-92. The specificity of CaMKII inhibition on VGCC function was shown by the efficacy of the selective CaMKII blocking peptide autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide in a membrane-permeable myristoylated form, which also reduced VGCC current in resting neurons. Loss of VGCC currents is primarily due to reduced N-type current, as application of mAIP selectively reduced N-type current by approximately 30%, and prior N-type current inhibition eliminated the effect of mAIP on VGCCs, while prior block of L-type channels did not reduce the effect of mAIP on total ICa. T-type currents were not affected by mAIP in resting DRG neurons. Transduction of sensory neurons in vivo by DRG injection of an adeno-associated virus expressing AIP also resulted in a loss of N-type currents. Together, these findings reveal a novel molecular adaptation whereby sensory neurons retain CaMKII support of VGCCs despite remaining quiescent. PMID:25064143

  9. Seizure suppression through manipulating splicing of a voltage-gated sodium channel

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Hsiang; He, Miaomiao

    2015-01-01

    Seizure can result from increased voltage-gated persistent sodium current expression. Although many clinically-approved antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated persistent sodium current, none exclusively repress this current without also adversely affecting the transient voltage-gated sodium current. Achieving a more selective block has significant potential for the treatment of epilepsy. Recent studies show that voltage-gated persistent sodium current amplitude is regulated by alternative splicing offering the possibility of a novel route for seizure control. In this study we identify 291 splicing regulators that, on knockdown, alter splicing of the Drosophila voltage-gated sodium channel to favour inclusion of exon K, rather than the mutually exclusive exon L. This change is associated with both a significant reduction in voltage-gated persistent sodium current, without change to transient voltage-gated sodium current, and to rescue of seizure in this model insect. RNA interference mediated knock-down, in two different seizure mutants, shows that 95 of these regulators are sufficient to significantly reduce seizure duration. Moreover, most suppress seizure activity in both mutants, indicative that they are part of well conserved pathways and likely, therefore, to be optimal candidates to take forward to mammalian studies. We provide proof-of-principle for such studies by showing that inhibition of a selection of regulators, using small molecule inhibitors, is similarly effective to reduce seizure. Splicing of the Drosophila sodium channel shows many similarities to its mammalian counterparts, including altering the amplitude of voltage-gated persistent sodium current. Our study provides the impetus to investigate whether manipulation of splicing of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels may be exploitable to provide effective seizure control. PMID:25681415

  10. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Evolutionary History and Distinctive Sequence Features.

    PubMed

    Kasimova, M A; Granata, D; Carnevale, V

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) are responsible for the rising phase of the action potential. Their role in electrical signal transmission is so relevant that their emergence is believed to be one of the crucial factors enabling development of nervous system. The presence of voltage-gated sodium-selective channels in bacteria (BacNav) has raised questions concerning the evolutionary history of the ones in animals. Here we review some of the milestones in the field of Nav phylogenetic analysis and discuss some of the most important sequence features that distinguish these channels from voltage-gated potassium channels and transient receptor potential channels. PMID:27586287

  11. S-nitrosothiols dilate the mesenteric artery more potently than the femoral artery by a cGMP and L-type calcium channel-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J; Zhang, Meijuan; Wilson, Sean M; Terry, Michael H; Longo, Lawrence D; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2016-08-31

    S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are metabolites of NO with potent vasodilatory activity. Our previous studies in sheep indicated that intra-arterially infused SNOs dilate the mesenteric vasculature more than the femoral vasculature. We hypothesized that the mesenteric artery is more responsive to SNO-mediated vasodilation, and investigated various steps along the NO/cGMP pathway to determine the mechanism for this difference. In anesthetized adult sheep, we monitored the conductance of mesenteric and femoral arteries during infusion of S-nitroso-l-cysteine (L-cysNO), and found mesenteric vascular conductance increased (137 ± 3%) significantly more than femoral conductance (26 ± 25%). Similar results were found in wire myography studies of isolated sheep mesenteric and femoral arteries. Vasodilation by SNOs was attenuated in both vessel types by the presence of ODQ (sGC inhibitor), and both YC-1 (sGC agonist) and 8-Br-cGMP (cGMP analog) mediated more potent relaxation in mesenteric arteries than femoral arteries. The vasodilatory difference between mesenteric and femoral arteries was eliminated by antagonists of either protein kinase G or L-type Ca(2+) channels. Western immunoblots showed a larger L-type Ca(2+)/sGC abundance ratio in mesenteric arteries than in femoral arteries. Fetal sheep mesenteric arteries were more responsive to SNOs than adult mesenteric arteries, and had a greater L-Ca(2+)/sGC ratio (p = 0.047 and r = -0.906 for correlation between Emax and L-Ca(2+)/sGC). These results suggest that mesenteric arteries, especially those in fetus, are more responsive to SNO-mediated vasodilation than femoral arteries due to a greater role of the L-type calcium channel in the NO/cGMP pathway. PMID:27235767

  12. Voltage-Gated Channel Mechanosensitivity: Fact or Friction?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    The heart is a continually active pulsatile fluid pump. It generates appropriate forces by precisely timed and spaced engagement of its contractile machinery. Largely, it makes its own control signals, the most crucial of which are precisely timed and spaced fluxes of ions across the sarcolemma, achieved by the timely opening and closing of diverse voltage-gated channels (VGC). VGCs have four voltage sensors around a central ion-selective pore that opens and closes under the influence of membrane voltage. Operation of any VGC is secondarily tuned by the mechanical state (i.e., structure) of the bilayer in which it is embedded. Rates of opening and closing, in other words, vary with bilayer structure. Thus, in the intensely mechanical environment of the myocardium and its vasculature, VGCs kinetics might be routinely modulated by reversible and irreversible nano-scale changes in bilayer structure. If subtle bilayer deformations are routine in the pumping heart, VGCs could be subtly transducing bilayer mechanical signals, thereby tuning cardiac rhythmicity, collectively contributing to mechano-electric feedback. Reversible bilayer deformations would be expected with changing shear flows and tissue distension, while irreversible bilayer restructuring occurs with ischemia, inflammation, membrane remodeling, etc. I suggest that tools now available could be deployed to help probe whether/how the inherent mechanosensitivity of VGCs – an attribute substantially reflecting the dependence of voltage sensor stability on bilayer structure – contributes to cardiac rhythmicity. Chief among these tools are voltage sensor toxins (whose inhibitory efficacy varies with the mechanical state of bilayer) and arrhythmia-inducing VGC mutants with distinctive mechano-phenotypes. PMID:21660289

  13. Ion permeation and glutamate residues linked by Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory in L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Nonner, W; Eisenberg, B

    1998-09-01

    L-type Ca channels contain a cluster of four charged glutamate residues (EEEE locus), which seem essential for high Ca specificity. To understand how this highly charged structure might produce the currents and selectivity observed in this channel, a theory is needed that relates charge to current. We use an extended Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP2) theory to compute (mean) Coulombic interactions and thus to examine the role of the mean field electrostatic interactions in producing current and selectivity. The pore was modeled as a central cylinder with tapered atria; the cylinder (i.e., "pore proper") contained a uniform volume density of fixed charge equivalent to that of one to four carboxyl groups. The pore proper was assigned ion-specific, but spatially uniform, diffusion coefficients and excess chemical potentials. Thus electrostatic selection by valency was computed self-consistently, and selection by other features was also allowed. The five external parameters needed for a system of four ionic species (Na, Ca, Cl, and H) were determined analytically from published measurements of thre limiting conductances and two critical ion concentrations, while treating the pore as a macroscopic ion-exchange system in equilibrium with a uniform bath solution. The extended PNP equations were solved with these parameters, and the predictions were compared to currents measured in a variety of solutions over a range of transmembrane voltages. The extended PNP theory accurately predicted current-voltage relations, anomalous mole fraction effects in the observed current, saturation effects of varied Ca and Na concentrations, and block by protons. Pore geometry, dielectric permittivity, and the number of carboxyl groups had only weak effects. The successful prediction of Ca fluxes in this paper demonstrates that ad hoc electrostatic parameters, multiple discrete binding sites, and logistic assumptions of single-file movement are all unnecessary for the prediction of permeation in

  14. Gain-of-function nature of Cav1.4 L-type calcium channels alters firing properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Knoflach, Dagmar; Schicker, Klaus; Glösmann, Martin; Koschak, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Proper function of Cav1.4 L-type calcium channels is crucial for neurotransmitter release in the retina. Our understanding about how different levels of Cav1.4 channel activity affect retinal function is still limited. In the gain-of-function mouse model Cav1.4-IT we expected a reduction in the photoreceptor dynamic range but still transmission toward retinal ganglion cells. A fraction of Cav1.4-IT ganglion cells responded to light stimulation in multielectrode array recordings from whole-mounted retinas, but showed a significantly delayed response onset. Another significant number of cells showed higher activity in darkness. In addition to structural remodeling observed at the first retinal synapse of Cav1.4-IT mice the functional data suggested a loss of contrast enhancement, a fundamental feature of our visual system. In fact, Cav1.4-IT mouse retinas showed a decline in spatial response and changes in their contrast sensitivity profile. Photoreceptor degeneration was obvious from the nodular structure of cone axons and enlarged pedicles which partly moved toward the outer nuclear layer. Loss of photoreceptors was also expressed as reduced expression of proteins involved in chemical and electrical transmission, as such metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR6 and the gap junction protein Connexin 36. Such gross changes in retinal structure and function could also explain the diminished visual performance of CSNB2 patients. The expression pattern of the plasma-membrane calcium ATPase 1 which participates in the maintenance of the intracellular calcium homeostasis in photoreceptors was changed in Cav1.4-IT mice. This might be part of a protection mechanism against increased calcium influx, as this is suggested for Cav1.4-IT channels. PMID:26274509

  15. Gain-of-function nature of Cav1.4 L-type calcium channels alters firing properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Knoflach, Dagmar; Schicker, Klaus; Glösmann, Martin; Koschak, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Proper function of Cav1.4 L-type calcium channels is crucial for neurotransmitter release in the retina. Our understanding about how different levels of Cav1.4 channel activity affect retinal function is still limited. In the gain-of-function mouse model Cav1.4-IT we expected a reduction in the photoreceptor dynamic range but still transmission toward retinal ganglion cells. A fraction of Cav1.4-IT ganglion cells responded to light stimulation in multielectrode array recordings from whole-mounted retinas, but showed a significantly delayed response onset. Another significant number of cells showed higher activity in darkness. In addition to structural remodeling observed at the first retinal synapse of Cav1.4-IT mice the functional data suggested a loss of contrast enhancement, a fundamental feature of our visual system. In fact, Cav1.4-IT mouse retinas showed a decline in spatial response and changes in their contrast sensitivity profile. Photoreceptor degeneration was obvious from the nodular structure of cone axons and enlarged pedicles which partly moved toward the outer nuclear layer. Loss of photoreceptors was also expressed as reduced expression of proteins involved in chemical and electrical transmission, as such metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR6 and the gap junction protein Connexin 36. Such gross changes in retinal structure and function could also explain the diminished visual performance of CSNB2 patients. The expression pattern of the plasma-membrane calcium ATPase 1 which participates in the maintenance of the intracellular calcium homeostasis in photoreceptors was changed in Cav1.4-IT mice. This might be part of a protection mechanism against increased calcium influx, as this is suggested for Cav1.4-IT channels. PMID:26274509

  16. L-Type Calcium Channels Play a Critical Role in Maintaining Lens Transparency by Regulating Phosphorylation of Aquaporin-0 and Myosin Light Chain and Expression of Connexins

    PubMed Central

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Nagendran, Tharkika; de Ridder, Gustaaf G.; Schey, Kevin L.; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Homeostasis of intracellular calcium is crucial for lens cytoarchitecture and transparency, however, the identity of specific channel proteins regulating calcium influx within the lens is not completely understood. Here we examined the expression and distribution profiles of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and explored their role in morphological integrity and transparency of the mouse lens, using cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, immunoblot, pharmacological inhibitors and immunofluorescence analyses. The results revealed that Ca (V) 1.2 and 1.3 channels are expressed and distributed in both the epithelium and cortical fiber cells in mouse lens. Inhibition of LTCCs with felodipine or nifedipine induces progressive cortical cataract formation with time, in association with decreased lens weight in ex-vivo mouse lenses. Histological analyses of felodipine treated lenses revealed extensive disorganization and swelling of cortical fiber cells resembling the phenotype reported for altered aquaporin-0 activity without detectable cytotoxic effects. Analysis of both soluble and membrane rich fractions from felodipine treated lenses by SDS-PAGE in conjunction with mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses revealed decreases in β-B1-crystallin, Hsp-90, spectrin and filensin. Significantly, loss of transparency in the felodipine treated lenses was preceded by an increase in aquaporin-0 serine-235 phosphorylation and levels of connexin-50, together with decreases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and the levels of 14-3-3ε, a phosphoprotein-binding regulatory protein. Felodipine treatment led to a significant increase in gene expression of connexin-50 and 46 in the mouse lens. Additionally, felodipine inhibition of LTCCs in primary cultures of mouse lens epithelial cells resulted in decreased intracellular calcium, and decreased actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, without detectable cytotoxic response. Taken together, these observations reveal a crucial

  17. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1/VSOP inhibits neutrophil granule release.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Yoshifumi; Aratani, Yasuaki; Adissu, Hibret A; Miyawaki, Nana; Sasaki, Mari; Suzuki, Kazuo; Okamura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil granule exocytosis is crucial for host defense and inflammation. Neutrophils contain 4 types of granules, the exocytotic release of which is differentially regulated. This exocytosis is known to be driven by diverse mediators, including calcium and nucleotides, but the precise molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We show in the present study that voltage-gated proton (Hv) channels are necessary for the proper release of azurophilic granules in neutrophils. On activation of NADPH oxidase by PMA and IgG, neutrophils derived from Hvcn1 gene knockout mouse exhibited greater secretion of MPO and elastase than WT cells. In contrast, release of LTF enriched in specific granules was not enhanced in these cells. The excess release of azurophilic granules in Hv1/VSOP-deficient neutrophils was suppressed by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity and, in part, by valinomycin, a potassium ionophore. In addition, Hv1/VSOP-deficient mice exhibited more severe lung inflammation after intranasal Candida albicans infection than WT mice. These findings suggest that the Hv channel acts to specifically dampen the release of azurophilic granules through, in part, the suppression of increased positive charges at the plasma membrane accompanied by the activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils. PMID:25990245

  18. Cloning, chromosomal localization, and functional expression of the alpha 1 subunit of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel from normal human heart.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, D; Mikala, G; Yatani, A; Engle, D B; Iles, D E; Segers, B; Sinke, R J; Weghuis, D O; Klöckner, U; Wakamori, M

    1993-01-01

    A unique structural variant of the cardiac L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha 1 subunit cDNA was isolated from libraries derived from normal human heart mRNA. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to other calcium channel alpha 1 subunits. However, differences from the rabbit heart alpha 1 include a shortened N-terminus, a unique C-terminal insertion, and both forms of an alternatively spliced motif IV S3 region. The shortened N-terminus provides optimal access to consensus sequences thought to facilitate translation. Northern blot analysis revealed a single hybridizing mRNA species of 9.4 kb. The gene for the human heart alpha 1 subunit was localized specifically to the distal region of chromosome 12p13. The cloned alpha 1 subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and single-channel analyses revealed native-like pharmacology and channel properties. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8392192

  19. Voltage-gated sodium channels in the mammalian heart

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Thomas; Haufe, Volker; Blechschmidt, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian species express nine functional voltage-gated Na+ channels. Three of them, the cardiac-specific isoform Nav1.5 and the neuronal isoforms Nav1.8 and Nav1.9, are relatively resistant to the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; IC50 ≥ 1 μM). The other six isoforms are highly sensitive to TTX with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. These isoforms are expressed in the central nervous system (Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6), in the skeletal muscle (Nav1.4), and in the peripheral nervous system (Nav1.6, Nav1.7). The isoform Nav1.5, encoded by the SCN5A gene, is responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in the heart. Mutations in SCN5A are associated with a variety of life-threatening arrhythmias, like long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3), Brugada syndrome (BrS) or cardiac conduction disease (CCD). Previous immunohistochemical and electrophysiological assays demonstrated the cardiac expression of neuronal and skeletal muscle Na+ channels in the heart of various mammals, which led to far-reaching speculations on their function. However, when comparing the Na+ channel mRNA patterns in the heart of various mammalian species, only minute quantities of transcripts for TTX-sensitive Na+ channels were detectable in whole pig and human hearts, suggesting that these channels are not involved in cardiac excitation phenomena in higher mammals. This conclusion is strongly supported by the fact that mutations in TTX-sensitive Na+ channels were associated with epilepsy or skeletal muscle diseases, rather than with a pathological cardiac phenotype. Moreover, previous data from TTX-intoxicated animals and from cases of human tetrodotoxication showed that low TTX dosages caused at most little alterations of both the cardiac output and the electrocardiogram. Recently, genome-wide association studies identified SCN10A, the gene encoding Nav1.8, as a determinant of cardiac conduction parameters, and mutations in SCN10A have been associated with BrS. These novel findings opened a

  20. Perturbed atrial calcium handling in an ovine model of heart failure: potential roles for reductions in the L-type calcium current.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jessica D; Caldwell, Jessica L; Horn, Margaux A; Bode, Elizabeth F; Richards, Mark A; Hall, Mark C S; Graham, Helen K; Briston, Sarah J; Greensmith, David J; Eisner, David A; Dibb, Katharine M; Trafford, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) is commonly associated with reduced cardiac output and an increased risk of atrial arrhythmias particularly during β-adrenergic stimulation. The aim of the present study was to determine how HF alters systolic Ca(2+) and the response to β-adrenergic (β-AR) stimulation in atrial myocytes. HF was induced in sheep by ventricular tachypacing and changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration studied in single left atrial myocytes under voltage and current clamp conditions. The following were all reduced in HF atrial myocytes; Ca(2+) transient amplitude (by 46% in current clamped and 28% in voltage clamped cells), SR dependent rate of Ca(2+) removal (kSR, by 32%), L-type Ca(2+) current density (by 36%) and action potential duration (APD90 by 22%). However, in HF SR Ca(2+) content was increased (by 19%) when measured under voltage-clamp stimulation. Inhibiting the L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa-L) in control cells reproduced both the decrease in Ca(2+) transient amplitude and increase of SR Ca(2+) content observed in voltage-clamped HF cells. During β-AR stimulation Ca(2+) transient amplitude was the same in control and HF cells. However, ICa-L remained less in HF than control cells whilst SR Ca(2+) content was highest in HF cells during β-AR stimulation. The decrease in ICa-L that occurs in HF atrial myocytes appears to underpin the decreased Ca(2+) transient amplitude and increased SR Ca(2+) content observed in voltage-clamped cells. PMID:25463272

  1. L-type calcium channels and MAP kinase contribute to thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced depolarization in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kolaj, Miloslav; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    In rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances neuronal excitability via concurrent decrease in a G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K (GIRK)-like conductance and opening of a cannabinoid receptor-sensitive transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-like conductance. Here, we investigated the calcium (Ca2+) contribution to the components of this TRH-induced response. TRH-induced membrane depolarization was reduced in the presence of intracellular BAPTA, also in media containing nominally zero [Ca2+]o, suggesting a critical role for both intracellular Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx. TRH-induced inward current was unchanged by T-type Ca2+ channel blockade, but was decreased by blockade of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (HVACCs). Both the pharmacologically isolated GIRK-like and the TRPC-like components of the TRH-induced response were decreased by nifedipine and increased by BayK8644, implying Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channels. Only the TRPC-like conductance was reduced by either thapsigargin or dantrolene, suggesting a role for ryanodine receptors and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in this component of the TRH-induced response. In pituitary and other cell lines, TRH stimulates MAPK. In PVT neurons, only the GIRK-like component of the TRH-induced current was selectively decreased in the presence of PD98059, a MAPK inhibitor. Collectively, the data imply that TRH-induced depolarization and inward current in PVT neurons involve both a dependency on extracellular Ca2+ influx via opening of L-type Ca2+ channels, a sensitivity of a TRPC-like component to intracellular Ca2+ release via ryanodine channels, and a modulation by MAPK of a GIRK-like conductance component. PMID:27009047

  2. Molecular Determinants of Cav1.2 Calcium Channel Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Soldatov, Nikolai M.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated L-type Cav1.2 calcium channels couple membrane depolarization to transient increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration that initiates a number of essential cellular functions including cardiac and vascular muscle contraction, gene expression, neuronal plasticity, and exocytosis. Inactivation or spontaneous termination of the calcium current through Cav1.2 is a critical step in regulation of these processes. The pathophysiological significance of this process is manifested in hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmia, and a number of other diseases where acceleration of the calcium current decay should present a benefit function. The central issue of this paper is the inactivation of the Cav1.2 calcium channel mediated by multiple determinants.

  3. Differential neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of L-type voltage dependent calcium channel and ryanodine receptor antagonists in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Sarah C; Royer, Sarah E; D'Angelo, Heather M; Kaercher, Roxanne M; Fisher, David A; Wenk, Gary L

    2015-03-01

    Neuroinflammation and degeneration of catecholaminergic brainstem nuclei occur early in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Neuroinflammation increases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal calcium (Ca(+2)) homoeostasis via L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-VDCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Alterations in Ca(+2) channel activity in the SN and LC can lead to disruption of normal pacemaking activity in these areas, contributing to behavioral deficits. Here, we utilized an in vivo model of chronic neuroinflammation: rats were infused intraventricularly with a continuous small dose (0.25 μg/h) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) for 28 days. Rats were treated with either the L-VDCC antagonist nimodipine or the RyR antagonist dantrolene. LPS-infused rats had significant motor deficits in the accelerating rotarod task as well as abnormal behavioral agitation in the forced swim task and open field. Corresponding with these behavioral deficits, LPS-infused rats also had significant increases in microglia activation and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and locus coeruleus (LC). Treatment with nimodipine or dantrolene normalized LPS-induced abnormalities in the rotarod and forced swim, restored the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the LC, and significantly reduced microglia activation in the SNpc. Only nimodipine significantly reduced microglia activation in the LC, and neither drug increased TH immunoreactivity in the SNpc. These findings demonstrate that the Ca(+2) dysregulation in the LC and SN brainstem nuclei is differentially altered by chronic neuroinflammation. Overall, targeting Ca + 2 dysregulation may be an important target for ameliorating neurodegeneration in the SNpc and LC. PMID:25318607

  4. Use-dependent effects of the class III antiarrhythmic agent NE-10064 (azimilide) on cardiac repolarization: block of delayed rectifier potassium and L-type calcium currents.

    PubMed

    Fermini, B; Jurkiewicz, N K; Jow, B; Guinosso, P J; Baskin, E P; Lynch, J J; Salata, J J

    1995-08-01

    We studied the effects of NE-10064 (azimilide), a new antiarrhythmic agent reported to be a selective blocker of the slowly activating component of the delayed rectifier, IKs. In ferret papillary muscles, NE-10064 increased effective refractory period (ERP) and decreased isometric twitch tension in a concentration-dependent manner (0.3-30 microM). Increases in ERP showed reverse use-dependence, and were greater at 1 than at 3 Hz. In contrast, changes in tension were use dependent, with larger decreases observed at 3 than at 1 Hz. In guinea pig ventricular myocytes, NE-10064 (0.3-3 microM) significantly prolonged action potential duration (APD) at 1 Hz. At 3 Hz, NE-10064 (0.3-1 microM) increased APD only slightly, and at 10 microM decreased APD and the plateau potential. NE-10064 potently blocked the rapidly activating component of the delayed rectifier, IKr (IC50 0.4 microM), and inhibited IKs (IC50 3 microM) with nearly 10-fold less potency. NE-10064 (10 microM) did not block the inward rectifier potassium current (IKl). NE-10064 (10 microM) blocked the L-type calcium current (ICa) in a use-dependent manner; block was greater at 3 than at 1 Hz. We conclude that (a) NE-10064's block of potassium currents is relatively selective for IKr over IKs, (b) NE-10064 inhibits ICa in a use-dependent fashion, and (c) NE-10064's effects on ERP and tension in papillary muscle as well as APD and action potential plateau level in myocytes may be explained by its potassium and calcium channel blocking properties. PMID:7475051

  5. Renal-protective effect of T-and L-type calcium channel blockers in hypertensive patients: an Amlodipine-to-Benidipine Changeover (ABC) study.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Mitsuru; Takagi, Takashi; Ito, Norihisa; Terai, Minako; Tatara, Yuji; Hayashi, Norihiro; Shiota, Atsushi; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Ogihara, Toshio

    2007-09-01

    Both strict blood pressure control and efferent artery dilatation are critical in reducing proteinuria, which in turn helps to regulate blood pressure. Benidipine, an L- and T-type calcium channel blocker, has the potential for increased effectiveness compared with L-type-dominant calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine. Therefore, we evaluated blood pressure and proteinuria after changeover from amlodipine to benidipine in poorly controlled hypertensive patients. Fifty-eight hypertensive outpatients undergoing amlodipine treatment and unable to achieve optimal blood pressure as determined by Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertention (JSH 2004) were changed over to benidipine treatment. We measured blood pressure and pulse rate and assessed urinary protein excretion before and after changeover. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure dropped from 151/90 mmHg to 140/81 mmHg (p<0.0001). Mean blood pressure (p<0.0001) and pulse pressure (p=0.0069) were also reduced, but pulse rate increased from 75 bpm to 78 bpm (p=0.0047). Urinary protein excretion adjusted for urinary creatinine was reduced from 0.35 +/- 0.82 to 0.22 +/- 0.55 g/g creatinine (p=0.0119). The urinary protein reduction was observed only in patients with renin-angiotensin inhibition (p=0.0216). By switching from amlodipine to benidipine treatment, more than 80% of patients reduced their blood pressure, and more than 40% achieved optimal blood pressure. Higher urinary protein excretion (p<0.0001), lower glomerular filtration rate (p=0.0011) and presence of diabetes (p=0.0284) were correlated with reduction of urinary proteins during changeover. Taken together, our results suggest that benidipine may have greater efficacy than amlodipine in reducing blood pressure and proteinuria. PMID:18037772

  6. Effect of Charge Substitutions at Residue His-142 on Voltage Gating of Connexin43 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Shibayama, Junko; Gutiérrez, Cristina; González, Daniel; Kieken, Fabien; Seki, Akiko; Requena Carrión, Jesus; Sorgen, Paul L.; Taffet, Steven M.; Barrio, Luis C.; Delmar, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the carboxyl terminal of connexin43 (Cx43CT) is involved in fast transjunctional voltage gating. Separate studies support the notion of an intramolecular association between Cx43CT and a region of the cytoplasmic loop (amino acids 119–144; referred to as “L2”). Structural analysis of L2 shows two α-helical domains, each with a histidine residue in its sequence (H126 and H142). Here, we determined the effect of H142 replacement by lysine, alanine, and glutamate on the voltage gating of Cx43 channels. Mutation H142E led to a significant reduction in the frequency of occurrence of the residual state and a prolongation of dwell open time. Macroscopically, there was a large reduction in the fast component of voltage gating. These results resembled those observed for a mutant lacking the carboxyl terminal (CT) domain. NMR experiments showed that mutation H142E significantly decreased the Cx43CT-L2 interaction and disrupted the secondary structure of L2. Overall, our data support the hypothesis that fast voltage gating involves an intramolecular particle-receptor interaction between CT and L2. Some of the structural constrains of fast voltage gating may be shared with those involved in the chemical gating of Cx43. PMID:16963503

  7. Simulated microgravity inhibits L-type calcium channel currents partially by the up-regulation of miR-103 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongyang; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Hu, Zebing; Zhang, Lianchang; Wang, Han; Zhou, Hua; Li, Dongtao; Zhang, Shu; Xie, Manjiang

    2015-01-01

    L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (LTCCs), particularly Cav1.2 LTCCs, play fundamental roles in cellular responses to mechanical stimuli in osteoblasts. Numerous studies have shown that mechanical loading promotes bone formation, whereas the removal of this stimulus under microgravity conditions results in a reduction in bone mass. However, whether microgravity exerts an influence on LTCCs in osteoblasts and whether this influence is a possible mechanism underlying the observed bone loss remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that simulated microgravity substantially inhibited LTCC currents and suppressed Cav1.2 at the protein level in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. In addition, reduced Cav1.2 protein levels decreased LTCC currents in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, simulated microgravity increased miR-103 expression. Cav1.2 expression and LTCC current densities both significantly increased in cells that were transfected with a miR-103 inhibitor under mechanical unloading conditions. These results suggest that simulated microgravity substantially inhibits LTCC currents in osteoblasts by suppressing Cav1.2 expression. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Cav1.2 expression and the inhibition of LTCCs caused by mechanical unloading in osteoblasts are partially due to miR-103 up-regulation. Our study provides a novel mechanism for microgravity-induced detrimental effects on osteoblasts, offering a new avenue to further investigate the bone loss induced by microgravity. PMID:25627864

  8. A Novel Role of the L-Type Calcium Channel α1D Subunit as a Gatekeeper for Intracellular Zinc Signaling: Zinc Wave

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Satoru; Hasegawa, Aiko; Hojyo, Shintaro; Ohashi, Wakana; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Nishida, Keigo; Hirano, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that zinc ion (Zn) can behave as an intracellular signaling molecule. We previously demonstrated that mast cells stimulated through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) rapidly release intracellular Zn from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and we named this phenomenon the “Zn wave”. However, the molecules responsible for releasing Zn and the roles of the Zn wave were elusive. Here we identified the pore-forming α1 subunit of the Cav1.3 (α1D) L-type calcium channel (LTCC) as the gatekeeper for the Zn wave. LTCC antagonists inhibited the Zn wave, and an agonist was sufficient to induce it. Notably, α1D was mainly localized to the ER rather than the plasma membrane in mast cells, and the Zn wave was impaired by α1D knockdown. We further found that the LTCC-mediated Zn wave positively controlled cytokine gene induction by enhancing the DNA-binding activity of NF- κB. Consistent with this finding, LTCC antagonists inhibited the cytokine-mediated delayed-type allergic reaction in mice without affecting the immediate-type allergic reaction. These findings indicated that the LTCC α1D subunit located on the ER membrane has a novel function as a gatekeeper for the Zn wave, which is involved in regulating NF-κB signaling and the delayed-type allergic reaction. PMID:22745805

  9. Impact of phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable mutations of phospholemman on L-type calcium channels gating in HEK 293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Yue-Peng; Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Jiang, Yi-Bo; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Meng; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phospholemman (PLM) is an important phosphorylation substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart. Until now, the association between PLM phosphorylation status and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) gating has not been fully understood. We investigated the kinetics of LTCCs in HEK 293T cells expressing phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants. Methods: The LTCCs gating was measured in HEK 293T cells transfected with LTCC and wild-type (WT) PLM, phosphomimetic or nonphosphorylatable PLM mutants: 6263AA, 6869AA, AAAA, 6263DD, 6869DD or DDDD. Results: WT PLM significantly slowed LTCCs activation and deactivation while enhanced voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). PLM mutants 6869DD and DDDD significantly increased the peak of the currents. 6263DD accelerated channel activation, while 6263AA slowed it more than WT PLM. 6869DD significantly enhanced PLM-induced increase of VDI. AAAA slowed the channel activation more than 6263AA, and DDDD accelerated the channel VDI more than 6869DD. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that phosphomimetic PLM could stimulate LTCCs and alter their dynamics, while PLM nonphosphorylatable mutant produced the opposite effects. PMID:25656605

  10. Psychiatric presentation of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    PARTHASARATHI, U. D.; HARROWER, T.; TEMPEST, M.; HODGES, J. R.; WALSH, C.; McKENNA, P. J.; FLETCHER, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody encephalopathy, a rare cause of limbic encephalopathy, typically presents with memory impairment and seizures. Psychiatric symptoms have not been emphasised in the literature. Here we describe a 58-year-old man who presented with panic attacks and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and, later on, developed delusions and hallucinations and then confusion.He was found to have antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels.Treatment with immuno-modulatory therapy resulted in almost complete recovery. PMID:16880491

  11. An evolutionarily-unique heterodimeric voltage-gated cation channel found in aphids

    PubMed Central

    Amey, Joanna S.; O’Reilly, Andrias O.; Burton, Mark J.; Puinean, Alin M.; Mellor, Ian R.; Duce, Ian R.; Field, Linda M.; Wallace, B.A.; Williamson, Martin S.; Davies, T.G. Emyr

    2015-01-01

    We describe the identification in aphids of a unique heterodimeric voltage-gated sodium channel which has an atypical ion selectivity filter and, unusually for insect channels, is highly insensitive to tetrodotoxin. We demonstrate that this channel has most likely arisen by adaptation (gene fission or duplication) of an invertebrate ancestral mono(hetero)meric channel. This is the only identifiable voltage-gated sodium channel homologue in the aphid genome(s), and the channel’s novel selectivity filter motif (DENS instead of the usual DEKA found in other eukaryotes) may result in a loss of sodium selectivity, as indicated experimentally in mutagenised Drosophila channels. PMID:25637326

  12. Compensatory T-type Ca2+ channel activity alters D2-autoreceptor responses of Substantia nigra dopamine neurons from Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channel KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Poetschke, Christina; Dragicevic, Elena; Duda, Johanna; Benkert, Julia; Dougalis, Antonios; DeZio, Roberta; Snutch, Terrance P.; Striessnig, Joerg; Liss, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The preferential degeneration of Substantia nigra dopamine midbrain neurons (SN DA) causes the motor-symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), especially the Cav1.3-subtype, generate an activity-related oscillatory Ca2+ burden in SN DA neurons, contributing to their degeneration and PD. While LTCC-blockers are already in clinical trials as PD-therapy, age-dependent functional roles of Cav1.3 LTCCs in SN DA neurons remain unclear. Thus, we analysed juvenile and adult Cav1.3-deficient mice with electrophysiological and molecular techniques. To unmask compensatory effects, we compared Cav1.3 KO mice with pharmacological LTCC-inhibition. LTCC-function was not necessary for SN DA pacemaker-activity at either age, but rather contributed to their pacemaker-precision. Moreover, juvenile Cav1.3 KO but not WT mice displayed adult wildtype-like, sensitised inhibitory dopamine-D2-autoreceptor (D2-AR) responses that depended upon both, interaction of the neuronal calcium sensor NCS-1 with D2-ARs, and on voltage-gated T-type calcium channel (TTCC) activity. This functional KO-phenotype was accompanied by cell-specific up-regulation of NCS-1 and Cav3.1-TTCC mRNA. Furthermore, in wildtype we identified an age-dependent switch of TTCC-function from contributing to SN DA pacemaker-precision in juveniles to pacemaker-frequency in adults. This novel interplay of Cav1.3 L-type and Cav3.1 T-type channels, and their modulation of SN DA activity-pattern and D2-AR-sensitisation, provide new insights into flexible age- and calcium-dependent activity-control of SN DA neurons and its pharmacological modulation. PMID:26381090

  13. L-type calcium channel blockers and substance P induce angiogenesis of cortical vessels associated with beta-amyloid plaques in an Alzheimer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Daschil, Nina; Kniewallner, Kathrin M.; Obermair, Gerald J.; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Windisch, Manfred; Marksteiner, Josef; Humpel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) are expressed in astroglia. However, their functional role is still speculative, especially under pathologic conditions. We recently showed that the α1 subunit-like immunoreactivity of the CaV1.2 channel is strongly expressed in reactive astrocytes around beta-amyloid plaques in 11-month-old Alzheimer transgenic (tg) mice with the amyloid precursor protein London and Swedish mutations. The aim of the present study was to examine the cellular expression of all LTCC subunits around beta-amyloid plaques by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled oligonucleotides. Our data show that messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of the LTCC CaV1.2 α1 subunit as well as all auxiliary β and α2δ subunits, except α2δ-4, were expressed in the hippocampus of age-matched wild-type mice. It was unexpected to see, that cells directly located in the plaque core in the cortex expressed mRNAs for CaV1.2 α1, β2, β4, and α2δ-1, whereas no expression was detected in the halo. Furthermore, cells in the plaque core also expressed preprotachykinin-A mRNA, the precursor for substance P. By means of confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that collagen-IV-stained brain vessels in the cortex were associated with the plaque core and were immunoreactive for substance P. In cortical organotypic brain slices of adult Alzheimer mice, we could demonstrate that LTCC blockers increased angiogenesis, which was further potentiated by substance P. In conclusion, our data show that brain vessels associated with beta-amyloid plaques express substance P and an LTCC and may play a role in angiogenesis. PMID:25619662

  14. Direct Evidence for Microdomain-Specific Localization and Remodeling of Functional L-Type Calcium Channels in Rat and Human Atrial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Glukhov, Alexey V.; Balycheva, Marina; Sanchez-Alonso, Jose L.; Ilkan, Zeki; Alvarez-Laviada, Anita; Bhogal, Navneet; Diakonov, Ivan; Schobesberger, Sophie; Sikkel, Markus B.; Bhargava, Anamika; Faggian, Giuseppe; Punjabi, Prakash P.; Houser, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Distinct subpopulations of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) with different functional properties exist in cardiomyocytes. Disruption of cellular structure may affect LTCC in a microdomain-specific manner and contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiac diseases, especially in cells lacking organized transverse tubules (T-tubules) such as atrial myocytes (AMs). Methods and Results— Isolated rat and human AMs were characterized by scanning ion conductance, confocal, and electron microscopy. Half of AMs possessed T-tubules and structured topography, proportional to cell width. A bigger proportion of myocytes in the left atrium had organized T-tubules and topography than in the right atrium. Super-resolution scanning patch clamp showed that LTCCs distribute equally in T-tubules and crest areas of the sarcolemma, whereas, in ventricular myocytes, LTCCs primarily cluster in T-tubules. Rat, but not human, T-tubule LTCCs had open probability similar to crest LTCCs, but exhibited ≈40% greater current. Optical mapping of Ca2+ transients revealed that rat AMs presented ≈3-fold as many spontaneous Ca2+ release events as ventricular myocytes. Occurrence of crest LTCCs and spontaneous Ca2+ transients were eliminated by either a caveolae-targeted LTCC antagonist or disrupting caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, with an associated ≈30% whole-cell ICa,L reduction. Heart failure (16 weeks post–myocardial infarction) in rats resulted in a T-tubule degradation (by ≈40%) and significant elevation of spontaneous Ca2+ release events. Although heart failure did not affect LTCC occurrence, it led to ≈25% decrease in T-tubule LTCC amplitude. Conclusions— We provide the first direct evidence for the existence of 2 distinct subpopulations of functional LTCCs in rat and human AMs, with their biophysical properties modulated in heart failure in a microdomain-specific manner. PMID:26450916

  15. Genotype phenotype associations across the voltage-gated sodium channel family.

    PubMed

    Brunklaus, Andreas; Ellis, Rachael; Reavey, Eleanor; Semsarian, Christopher; Zuberi, Sameer M

    2014-10-01

    Mutations in genes encoding voltage-gated sodium channels have emerged as the most clinically relevant genes associated with epilepsy, cardiac conduction defects, skeletal muscle channelopathies and peripheral pain disorders. Geneticists in partnership with neurologists and cardiologists are often asked to comment on the clinical significance of specific mutations. We have reviewed the evidence relating to genotype phenotype associations among the best known voltage-gated sodium channel related disorders. Comparing over 1300 sodium channel mutations in central and peripheral nervous system, heart and muscle, we have identified many similarities in the genetic and clinical characteristics across the voltage-gated sodium channel family. There is evidence, that the level of impairment a specific mutation causes can be anticipated by the underlying physico-chemical property change of that mutation. Across missense mutations those with higher Grantham scores are associated with more severe phenotypes and truncating mutations underlie the most severe phenotypes. Missense mutations are clustered in specific areas and are associated with distinct phenotypes according to their position in the protein. Inherited mutations tend to be less severe than de novo mutations which are usually associated with greater physico-chemical difference. These findings should lead to a better understanding of the clinical significance of specific voltage-gated sodium channel mutations, aiding geneticists and physicians in the interpretation of genetic variants and counselling individuals and their families. PMID:25163687

  16. Mechanisms of closed-state inactivation in voltage-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Bähring, Robert; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Inactivation of voltage-gated ion channels is an intrinsic auto-regulatory process necessary to govern the occurrence and shape of action potentials and establish firing patterns in excitable tissues. Inactivation may occur from the open state (open-state inactivation, OSI) at strongly depolarized membrane potentials, or from pre-open closed states (closed-state inactivation, CSI) at hyperpolarized and modestly depolarized membrane potentials. Voltage-gated Na+, K+, Ca2+ and non-selective cationic channels utilize both OSI and CSI. Whereas there are detailed mechanistic descriptions of OSI, much less is known about the molecular basis of CSI. Here, we review evidence for CSI in voltage-gated cationic channels (VGCCs) and recent findings that shed light on the molecular mechanisms of CSI in voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels. Particularly, complementary observations suggest that the S4 voltage sensor, the S4S5 linker and the main S6 activation gate are instrumental in the installment of CSI in Kv4 channels. According to this hypothesis, the voltage sensor may adopt a distinct conformation to drive CSI and, depending on the stability of the interactions between the voltage sensor and the pore domain, a closed-inactivated state results from rearrangements in the selectivity filter or failure of the activation gate to open. Kv4 channel CSI may efficiently exploit the dynamics of the subthreshold membrane potential to regulate spiking properties in excitable tissues. PMID:21098008

  17. Lipid-dependent gating of a voltage-gated potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Liu, Weiran; Anderson, Lingyan Y.; Jiang, Qiu-Xing

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies hypothesized that phospholipids stabilize two voltage-sensing arginine residues of certain voltage-gated potassium channels in activated conformations. It remains unclear how lipids directly affect these channels. Here, by examining the conformations of the KvAP in different lipids, we showed that without voltage change, the voltage-sensor domains switched from the activated to the resting state when their surrounding lipids were changed from phospholipids to nonphospholipids. Such lipid-determined conformational change was coupled to the ion-conducting pore, suggesting that parallel to voltage gating, the channel is gated by its annular lipids. Our measurements recognized that the energetic cost of lipid-dependent gating approaches that of voltage gating, but kinetically it appears much slower. Our data support that a channel and its surrounding lipids together constitute a functional unit, and natural nonphospholipids such as cholesterol should exert strong effects on voltage-gated channels. Our first observation of lipid-dependent gating may have general implications to other membrane proteins. PMID:21427721

  18. Surface dynamics of voltage-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Heine, Martin; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna; Voigt, Andreas; Heck, Jennifer; Bikbaev, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    Neurons encode information in fast changes of the membrane potential, and thus electrical membrane properties are critically important for the integration and processing of synaptic inputs by a neuron. These electrical properties are largely determined by ion channels embedded in the membrane. The distribution of most ion channels in the membrane is not spatially uniform: they undergo activity-driven changes in the range of minutes to days. Even in the range of milliseconds, the composition and topology of ion channels are not static but engage in highly dynamic processes including stochastic or activity-dependent transient association of the pore-forming and auxiliary subunits, lateral diffusion, as well as clustering of different channels. In this review we briefly discuss the potential impact of mobile sodium, calcium and potassium ion channels and the functional significance of this for individual neurons and neuronal networks. PMID:26891382

  19. Anaesthetic Tricaine Acts Preferentially on Neural Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels and Fails to Block Directly Evoked Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Attili, Seetharamaiah; Hughes, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Movements in animals arise through concerted action of neurons and skeletal muscle. General anaesthetics prevent movement and cause loss of consciousness by blocking neural function. Anaesthetics of the amino amide-class are thought to act by blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In fish, the commonly used anaesthetic tricaine methanesulphonate, also known as 3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, metacaine or MS-222, causes loss of consciousness. However, its role in blocking action potentials in distinct excitable cells is unclear, raising the possibility that tricaine could act as a neuromuscular blocking agent directly causing paralysis. Here we use evoked electrical stimulation to show that tricaine efficiently blocks neural action potentials, but does not prevent directly evoked muscle contraction. Nifedipine-sensitive L-type Cav channels affecting movement are also primarily neural, suggesting that muscle Nav channels are relatively insensitive to tricaine. These findings show that tricaine used at standard concentrations in zebrafish larvae does not paralyse muscle, thereby diminishing concern that a direct action on muscle could mask a lack of general anaesthesia. PMID:25090007

  20. Anaesthetic tricaine acts preferentially on neural voltage-gated sodium channels and fails to block directly evoked muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Attili, Seetharamaiah; Hughes, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Movements in animals arise through concerted action of neurons and skeletal muscle. General anaesthetics prevent movement and cause loss of consciousness by blocking neural function. Anaesthetics of the amino amide-class are thought to act by blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In fish, the commonly used anaesthetic tricaine methanesulphonate, also known as 3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, metacaine or MS-222, causes loss of consciousness. However, its role in blocking action potentials in distinct excitable cells is unclear, raising the possibility that tricaine could act as a neuromuscular blocking agent directly causing paralysis. Here we use evoked electrical stimulation to show that tricaine efficiently blocks neural action potentials, but does not prevent directly evoked muscle contraction. Nifedipine-sensitive L-type Cav channels affecting movement are also primarily neural, suggesting that muscle Nav channels are relatively insensitive to tricaine. These findings show that tricaine used at standard concentrations in zebrafish larvae does not paralyse muscle, thereby diminishing concern that a direct action on muscle could mask a lack of general anaesthesia. PMID:25090007

  1. Measuring Ca2+-Dependent Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels in HEK-293T Cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jessica R; Lee, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) (Cav) channels regulate a variety of biological processes, such as muscle contraction, gene expression, and neurotransmitter release. Cav channels are subject to diverse forms of regulation, including those involving the Ca(2+) ions that permeate the pore. High voltage-activated Cav channels undergo Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (CDI) and facilitation (CDF), which can regulate processes such as cardiac rhythm and synaptic plasticity. CDI and CDF differ slightly between Cav1 (L-type) and Cav2 (P/Q-, N-, and R-type) channels. Human embryonic kidney cells transformed with SV40 large T-antigen (HEK-293T) are advantageous for studying CDI and CDF of a particular type of Cav channel. HEK-293T cells do not express endogenous Cav channels, but Cav channels can be expressed exogenously at high levels in these cells by transient transfection. This protocol describes how to characterize and analyze Ca(2+)-dependent modulation of recombinant Cav channels in HEK-293T cells. PMID:27587775

  2. L-type calcium channels play a crucial role in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Li; Wang, Yu; Wang, Huan; Kong, Lingmin; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Xin; Ding, Yin

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detect the functional Ca{sup 2+} currents and mRNA expression of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blockage of VDCC{sub L} exert antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on rMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting VDCC{sub L} can suppress the ability of rMSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}1C of VDCC{sub L} may be a primary functional subunit in VDCC{sub L}-regulating rMSCs. -- Abstract: L-type voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channels (VDCC{sub L}) play an important role in the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, and influence multiple cellular processes. They have been confirmed to contribute to the functional activities of osteoblasts. Recently, VDCC{sub L} expression was reported in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but the role of VDCC{sub L} in MSCs is still undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether VDCC{sub L} may be regarded as a new regulator in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat MSC (rMSCs). In this study, we examined functional Ca{sup 2+} currents (I{sub Ca}) and mRNA expression of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs, and then suppressed VDCC{sub L} using nifedipine (Nif), a VDCC{sub L} blocker, to investigate its role in rMSCs. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were analyzed by MTT, flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alizarin Red S staining, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR assays. We found that Nif exerts antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on rMSCs. ALP activity and mineralized nodules were significantly decreased after Nif treatment. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the osteogenic markers, osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), were also down-regulated. In addition, we transfected {alpha}1C-siRNA into the cells to further confirm the role of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs, and a similar effect on osteogenesis was found. These

  3. The role of voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of mouse uterine contractility

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C; McClure, Marisa C; Smith, Margaret A; Abel, Peter W; Bradley, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Background Uterine smooth muscle cells exhibit ionic currents that appear to be important in the control of uterine contractility, but how these currents might produce the changes in contractile activity seen in pregnant myometrium has not been established. There are conflicting reports concerning the role of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels and large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels in the regulation of uterine contractility. In this study we provide molecular and functional evidence for a role for Kv channels in the regulation of spontaneous contractile activity in mouse myometrium, and also demonstrate a change in Kv channel regulation of contractility in pregnant mouse myometrium. Methods Functional assays which evaluated the effects of channel blockers and various contractile agonists were accomplished by quantifying contractility of isolated uterine smooth muscle obtained from nonpregnant mice as well as mice at various stages of pregnancy. Expression of Kv channel proteins in isolated uterine smooth muscle was evaluated by Western blots. Results The Kv channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) caused contractions in nonpregnant mouse myometrium (EC50 = 54 micromolar, maximal effect at 300 micromolar) but this effect disappeared in pregnant mice; similarly, the Kv4.2/Kv4.3 blocker phrixotoxin-2 caused contractions in nonpregnant, but not pregnant, myometrium. Contractile responses to 4-AP were not dependent upon nerves, as neither tetrodotoxin nor storage of tissues at room temperature significantly altered these responses, nor were responses dependent upon the presence of the endometrium. Spontaneous contractions and contractions in response to 4-AP did not appear to be mediated by BK, as the BK channel-selective blockers iberiotoxin, verruculogen, or tetraethylammonium failed to affect either spontaneous contractions or 4-AP-elicited responses. A number of different Kv channel alpha subunit proteins were found in isolated myometrium

  4. CaBP1 regulates voltage-dependent inactivation and activation of Ca(V)1.2 (L-type) calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Oz, Shimrit; Tsemakhovich, Vladimir; Christel, Carl J; Lee, Amy; Dascal, Nathan

    2011-04-22

    CaBP1 is a Ca(2+)-binding protein that regulates the gating of voltage-gated (Ca(V)) Ca(2+) channels. In the Ca(V)1.2 channel α(1)-subunit (α(1C)), CaBP1 interacts with cytosolic N- and C-terminal domains and blunts Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. To clarify the role of the α(1C) N-terminal domain in CaBP1 regulation, we compared the effects of CaBP1 on two alternatively spliced variants of α(1C) containing a long or short N-terminal domain. In both isoforms, CaBP1 inhibited Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation but also caused a depolarizing shift in voltage-dependent activation and enhanced voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). In binding assays, CaBP1 interacted with the distal third of the N-terminal domain in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. This segment is distinct from the previously identified calmodulin-binding site in the N terminus. However, deletion of a segment in the proximal N-terminal domain of both α(1C) isoforms, which spared the CaBP1-binding site, inhibited the effect of CaBP1 on VDI. This result suggests a modular organization of the α(1C) N-terminal domain, with separate determinants for CaBP1 binding and transduction of the effect on VDI. Our findings expand the diversity and mechanisms of Ca(V) channel regulation by CaBP1 and define a novel modulatory function for the initial segment of the N terminus of α(1C). PMID:21383011

  5. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels: A Structural Examination of Selectivity and Gating.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dorothy M; Nimigean, Crina M

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels play a fundamental role in the generation and propagation of the action potential. The discovery of these channels began with predictions made by early pioneers, and has culminated in their extensive functional and structural characterization by electrophysiological, spectroscopic, and crystallographic studies. With the aid of a variety of crystal structures of these channels, a highly detailed picture emerges of how the voltage-sensing domain reports changes in the membrane electric field and couples this to conformational changes in the activation gate. In addition, high-resolution structural and functional studies of K(+) channel pores, such as KcsA and MthK, offer a comprehensive picture on how selectivity is achieved in K(+) channels. Here, we illustrate the remarkable features of voltage-gated potassium channels and explain the mechanisms used by these machines with experimental data. PMID:27141052

  6. Dehydration of Ions in Voltage-Gated Carbon Nanopores Observed by in Situ NMR.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Xiang; Xing, Yun-Zhao; Liu, Shubin; Ling, Yan-Chun; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue

    2015-12-17

    Ion transport through nanochannels is of fundamental importance in voltage-gated protein ion channels and energy storage devices. Direct microscopic observations are critical for understanding the intricacy of ionic processes in nanoconfinement. Here we report an in situ nuclear magnetic resonance study of ion hydration in voltage-gated carbon nanopores. Nucleus-independent chemical shift was employed to monitor the ionic processes of NaF aqueous electrolyte in nanopores of carbon supercapacitors. The state of ion hydration was revealed by the chemical shift, which is sensitive to the hydration number. A large energy barrier was observed for ions to enter nanopores smaller than the hydrated ion size. Increasing the gating voltage above 0.4 V overcomes this barrier and brings F(-) into the nanopores without dehydration. Partial dehydration of F(-) occurs only at gating voltage above 0.7 V. No dehydration was observed for Na(+) cations, in agreement with their strong ion hydration. PMID:26629712

  7. Cellular defibrillation: interaction of micro-scale electric fields with voltage-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Kargol, Armin; Malkinski, Leszek; Eskandari, Rahmatollah; Carter, Maya; Livingston, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We study the effect of micro-scale electric fields on voltage-gated ion channels in mammalian cell membranes. Such micro- and nano-scale electric fields mimic the effects of multiferroic nanoparticles that were recently proposed [1] as a novel way of controlling the function of voltage-sensing biomolecules such as ion channels. This article describes experimental procedures and initial results that reveal the effect of the electric field, in close proximity of cells, on the ion transport through voltage-gated ion channels. We present two configurations of the whole-cell patch-clamping apparatus that were used to detect the effect of external stimulation on ionic currents and discuss preliminary results that indicate modulation of the ionic currents consistent with the applied stimulus. PMID:26067055

  8. Trafficking Mechanisms Underlying Neuronal Voltage-gated Ion Channel Localization at the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Vacher, Helene; Trimmer, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Voltage-gated ion channels are diverse and fundamental determinants of neuronal intrinsic excitability. Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) and Na+ (Nav) channels play complex yet fundamentally important roles in determining intrinsic excitability. The Kv and Nav channels located at the axon initial segment (AIS) play a unique and especially important role in generating neuronal output in the form of anterograde axonal and backpropagating action potentials, Aberrant intrinsic excitability in individual neurons within networks contributes to synchronous neuronal activity leading to seizures. Mutations in ion channel genes gives rise to a variety of seizure-related “Channelopathies”, and many of the ion channel subunits associated with epilepsy mutations are localized at the AIS, making this a hotspot for epileptogenesis. Here we review the cellular mechanisms that underlie the trafficking of Kv and Nav channels found at the AIS, and how Kv and Nav channel mutations associated with epilepsy can alter these processes. PMID:23216576

  9. Strategies for Investigating G-Protein Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Van B; Ikeda, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor modulation of voltage-gated ion channels is a common means of fine-tuning the response of channels to changes in membrane potential. Such modulation impacts physiological processes such as synaptic transmission, and hence therapeutic strategies often directly or indirectly target these pathways. As an exemplar of channel modulation, we examine strategies for investigating G-protein modulation of CaV2.2 or N-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. We focus on biochemical and genetic tools for defining the molecular mechanisms underlying the various forms of CaV2.2 channel modulation initiated following ligand binding to G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:27140924

  10. Suppression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and neuronal excitability by imperatorin.

    PubMed

    Wu, King-Chuen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Cheng, Ka-Shun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yang, Chin-Tsang; Wong, Kar-Lok; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Chan, Paul; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2013-12-01

    Imperatorin is a naturally occurring furocoumarin compound isolated from plants such as Angelica archangelica and Cnidium monnieri. It has multiple pharmacological effects including anticonvulsant effects. Here we determined the effects of imperatorin on voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) using whole-cell patch clamp techniques in differentiated neuronal NG108-15 cells. We showed that imperatorin inhibited VGSC; such inhibition did not show state-dependence. Imperatorin caused a left shift in the steady-state inactivation curve without affecting activation gating. The inhibition of VGSC by imperatorin displayed a mild frequency-dependence. Imperatorin was also shown to inhibit VGSC and action potential amplitude without affecting voltage-gated K(+) channels in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. In conclusion, our results suggest that imperatorin dampens neuronal excitability by inhibiting VGSC. PMID:24113522