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Sample records for la-icp-ms microanalytical workstation

  1. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. LIBS and LA-ICP-MS; Old techniques, new approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, P. A.; Foster, D. A.; Gonzalez, J.; Colucci, M.; Russo, R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade laser ablation in-situ solid sampling for chemical analysis with an ICP-MS analyzer (LA-ICP-MS, single and multi-collector) has become a generally accepted technique across a wide range of disciplines (geochemistry, forensic science, life sciences, etc). More recently, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) has developed into a complementary technique that offers full spectral analysis of the laser plasma without the need for a mass spectrometer. Both techniques provide in-situ solid sample elemental and isotopic analysis at high spatial resolution (<5 microns) with minimal sample preparation. LA-ICP-MS affords the analyst low detection limits (ppb) and the ability to optimize across a specific mass range for high precision element or isotope ratios. LIBS, while providing slightly higher detection limits (ppm), allows for simultaneous and near complete spectral coverage of the laser plasma. Both techniques are capable of producing semi-quantitative and quantitative data. Integration of a LA and LIBS system could be a powerful tool to allow full spectral element and isotope/element ratio data on the same laser plume (plasma and particulates). Although LIBS and LA typically operate under different conditions of pulse length, spot size, and energy, the ability to capture elemental abundance information from the light that is otherwise wasted during LA makes an important complement to the limited number of ions measured in multi-collector ICP-MS analyses. Such an approach would not require the compromises in sampled volume associated with either split-streams (two ICP-MS systems required; diluted aerosol streams) or with peak switching in the MS (magnetic or electrostatic) because extraction of light-based information does not impact the number of ions measured for isotope ratios. We present LIBS experiments with UV-nanosecond lasers at 17mJ energies delivered to spot sizes of <100 μm and light directed to an ICCD detection system on NIST

  3. Progress in LA-ICP-MS Microanalysis Using a 200 nm-femtosecond Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, K. P.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Jacob, D. E.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Andreae, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the performance of LA-ICP-MS for the microanalysis of a variety of samples of different matrices using the 200 nm Ti-sapphire based fs-laser ablation system NWR Femto200 combined with the sector-field ICP-MS Thermo Element2. For comparison, we conducted similar experiments with three ns lasers: 193 nm Nd:YAG, 213 nm Nd:YAG, 193 nm ArF excimer. Measurements were performed with different spot sizes (10 - 65 μm), pulse repetition rates (5 - 250 Hz) and energy densities (0.5 - 0.7 Jcm-2) in spot and line scan analysis modes. We applied those settings to well-characterized and homogeneous synthetic silicate, geological, carbonate and phosphate microanalytical reference materials from NIST, USGS, MPI-DING and others. Our investigations show that in the case of UV-fs laser ablation line scan analysis is much more appropriate than spot analysis. In contrast to the ns lasers, fs laser spot analysis is characterized by a strong decrease of ion intensities, presumably caused by the generation of color centers by fs laser pulses [1]. On the other hand, line scan analyses yield uniform and relative high ion intensities so that detection limits for the various elements are similar to ns laser ablation. In LA-ICP-MS, the major limitations regarding measurement accuracy are matrix effects. The experiments demonstrate that in each case the fs data are more reproducible and less matrix-dependent with respect to fractionation factors [2] and mass-load induced matrix effects [3] than the results obtained using the ns lasers. The fractionation factors of refractory, volatile, lithophile and chalcophile elements are unity for the line scan mode and agree within an uncertainty of 1 %, whereas significantly lower, but matrix-independent, values for the volatile elements Pb (0.93 × 0.03) and Zn (0.88 × 0.04) were observed using the spot analysis mode. This implies that calibration can be performed reliably for quite different matrices using certified silicate

  4. Trace element analysis of rough diamond by LA-ICP-MS: a case of source discrimination?

    PubMed

    Dalpé, Claude; Hudon, Pierre; Ballantyne, David J; Williams, Darrell; Marcotte, Denis

    2010-11-01

    Current profiling of rough diamond source is performed using different physical and/or morphological techniques that require strong knowledge and experience in the field. More recently, chemical impurities have been used to discriminate diamond source and with the advance of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) empirical profiling of rough diamonds is possible to some extent. In this study, we present a LA-ICP-MS methodology that we developed for analyzing ultra-trace element impurities in rough diamond for origin determination ("profiling"). Diamonds from two sources were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and were statistically classified by accepted methods. For the two diamond populations analyzed in this study, binomial logistic regression produced a better overall correct classification than linear discriminant analysis. The results suggest that an anticipated matrix match reference material would improve the robustness of our methodology for forensic applications. PMID:20681965

  5. Infra-red femtosecond laser ablation: Benefit for LA-ICP-MS elemental analysis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, F.; d'Abzac, F.; Freydier, R.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.; Chmeleff, J.; Chatel, B.

    2011-12-01

    Femtosecond (fs) laser ablation systems have now been used for about a decade for elemental analysis in chemical and geosciences laboratories. Published studies investigated the influence of various analytical parameters, such as laser pulsewidth, wavelength, energy or ablation duration, on the quality of the analytical data produced by fs Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). It was rapidly found that under comparable analytical conditions, chemical fractionation effects that may occur during laser-induced particle production, transport and/or decomposition in the ICP-MS plasma torch become negligible in the fs laser ablation regime under 300 fs laser pulsewidth. Another major benefit of fs laser ablation is its restricted matrix-sensitive nature compared to ns laser ablation, thereby facilitating greatly LA-ICP-MS calibration for chemical analysis with a reference material having completely different optical and chemical properties compared to the sample to be analyzed (e.g., a standard glass to calibrate analyses of a phosphate mineral). This effect is particularly remarkable as it can be stated from both UV and IR fs laser ablation studies. Reproducible laser ablations of optical quality quartz can also be produced using such an IR laser. Precise, accurate and reproducible chemical analyses may be obtained using ns laser ablation systems. However, this is achieved under carefully controlled analytical conditions using state of the art ablation cells. Instead, it appears that fs laser ablation is making LA-ICP-MS analyses more reliable. More recently, analytical studies combined with high spatial resolution microscopic techniques allowed us to understand better the nature of fs laser-matter interaction through the direct examination of the laser-induced craters and of the particles produced. These investigations have shown the dominance of mechanical over thermal effects on the solids ablated using a fs laser. Whatever the

  6. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  7. Mass spectrometric imaging - Quantification strategies for created bio-images measured by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, Johannes; Zitek, Andreas; Tschegg, Stefanie; Mingler, Bernhard; Weinberg, Annelie; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been an emerging methodology in the analysis of biological matrices. A challenging step is the quantification and data processing to generate quantitative displays (bio-images) by avoiding analytical artefacts derived from image processing. Moreover, the procedure gets more challenging when features to be monitored are in the range or even smaller as compared to the size of the laser spot as the spatial resolution of the laser ablation system typically lies in the µm range (2 - 300 µm spot size). Here, we present the application of LA-ICP-MSI to biological tissues (bones) for the investigation of the distribution of alloying elements in bone material after the implantation of a Mg-based pin into the femur of rats. For the quantification of the elemental content, in-house standards were prepared by co-precipitation of the alloying elements (Mg, Ca, P, Mn, Zn, Zr, and Yb) in a hydroxyapatite matrix. The capability of this quantification approach was validated by comparative measurements of certified reference materials (SRM 1486, pressed into pellets for direct LA-ICP-MS analysis). ArcGIS® was used for the first time as standard tool for the spatially distinct statistical analysis of chemical data in so called "zones of interest".

  8. The Approach to Reducing the Detection Limit for LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poteshin, S. S.; Sysoev, Alexey A.; Torbotryas, R.

    This work is a part of the RED-100 big project. The aim of the RED-100 experiment is to detect the presently undiscovered coherent neutrino scattering off xenon atomic nuclei. The manufacture of such detectors requires ultrapure materials with very low content of natural radioactive elements. So the pure titanium was selected to assay the uranium and thorium contaminations on 1 ng/g level. In this paper we investigate the possibility of reducing the LOD for LA-ICP-MS analysis by increasing the pulse repetition rate of solid-state laser irradiation up to 4,000 Hz and appropriate adjusting the irradiation power. LODs for U and Th in titanium matrix estimation fell in the sub 10-10 g g- 1 level.

  9. Analysis of ceramic layer for solid oxide fuel cells by LA-ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Westheide, J.; Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    1996-09-01

    Among the different analytical techniques, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is well established as a solid-state mass spectrometric method for the trace analysis of conducting and nonconducting material. Furthermore, LA-ICP-MS enables ceramic layers with thickness > few {mu}m and a lateral resolution of >10 {mu}m to be analyzed. In this paper, trace analysis on the ceramic layers of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) (e.g., La{sub y{center_dot}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, yttrium-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}) is described. Due to a lack of standard reference materials for the analysis of perovskites, the quantification of analytical results can be facilitated by the use of prepared synthetic standards. The synthetic standard samples were prepared by mixing powdered inorganic compounds of ultra-high-purity (e.g., preparation of a stoichiometric mixture of high-purity La{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3} and MnO{sub 2} mixed with ultrapure graphite as binder). In order to determine the relative sensitivity coefficients (RSC) or calibration curves elemental spikes (high-purity compounds of 30 elements in the concentration range of 50-2000 ppm) were added to these mixtures. The use of UV laser (frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser) improved the laser ablation process in regard to better reproducibility and accuracy in comparison with an infrared system. Results of quantitative measurements of trace elements of sintered La{sub y{center_dot}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} and yttrium-stabilized zirconia layers are presented and compared with those of other methods.

  10. Online Standard Additions Technique for La-ICP-MS Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J.; Asogan, D.; Moody, S.; Clarke, D.

    2014-12-01

    Historically, quantification with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been limited to the ability to matrix match both standards and samples. This can prove problematic when a particular matrix matched standard is not readily available. Liquid standard addition has been shown1-4 as an alternative technique for quantification that does not require matrix matching; however, further fundamental study is needed especially considering the different mass flow rates delivered to the plasma from traditional pneumatic nebulizers and laser ablation itself. In this work, the authors combine a specialized low-flow desolvating nebulizer system with LA-ICP-MS. This nebulizer system efficiently removes water vapour, thereby significantly reducing oxide based mass spectral interferences. For the instrument setup, the output from the laser is combined with the dried aerosol from the nebulizer system prior to entering the ICP-MS source. By using two sources of dry aerosol, mixing efficiency is improved whilst minimising plasma power lost to solvent (water vapour) processing. The method was applied to both USGS Green River Shale and an Arkansas Womble Shale. The results showed a number of elements that were correctly quantified using the technique as compared to reference values. References Gunther, D., Cousin, H., Magyar, B., Leopold, I., J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 1997, 12, 165 - 170. Leach, J.J., Allen, L. A., Aeschliman, D.B., Houk, R.S., Anal. Chem., 1999, 71, 440 - 445. O'Conner, C.J.P., Sharp, B.L, Evans, P.J., Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 2006, 21, 556. Yang, C.K., Chi, P.H., Lin, Y.C., Sun, Y.C., Yang, M.H., Talanta, 2010, 80, 1222 - 1227.

  11. Volatile Element Abundances in Chondrules Revisited: An LA-ICP-MS Study of QUE 97008 (LL3.05)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, J. N.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Ash, R. D.; McDonough, W. F.

    2007-03-01

    The interiors of chondrules from QUE 97008 (LL3.05) were analyzed for 36 elements, including Rb, Cs, Bi, Pb, Zn, and Se, by LA-ICP-MS. Even the type I chondrules show only modest depletions in volatiles, constraining models for their formation.

  12. LA-ICP-MS as Tool for Provenance Analyses in Arctic Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildau, Antje; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The hydraulic transport of sediments is a major geological process in terrestrial and marine systems and is responsible for the loss, redistribution and accumulation of minerals. Provenance analyses are a powerful tool for assessing the origin and dispersion of material in ancient and modern fluvial and marine sediments. Provenance-specific heavy minerals (e.g., zircon, rutile, tourmaline) can therefore be used to provide valuable information on the formation of ore deposits (placer deposits), and the reconstruction of paleogeography, hydrology, climate conditions and developments. The application of provenances analyses for the latter reason is of specific interest, since there is need for research on the progressing climate change, and heavy minerals represent good proxies for the evaluation of recent and past changes in the climate. The study of these fine particles provides information about potential regional or long distance transport paths, glacial / ice drift and current flows, freezing and melting events as well as depositional centers for the released sediments. Classic methods applied for provenance analyses are mapping of the presence / absence of diagnostic minerals, their grain size distribution, modal mineralogy and the analysis of variations in ratio of two or more heavy minerals. Electron microprobe has been established to discover changes in mineral chemistry of individual mineral phases, which can indicate fluctuations or differences in the provenance. All these methods bear the potential of high errors that lower the validity of the provenance analyses. These are for example the misclassification of mineral species due to undistinguishable optical properties or the limitations in the detection / variations of trace elements using the election microprobe. For this case study, marine sediments from the Arctic Ocean have been selected to test if LA-ICP-MS can be established as a key technique for precise and reliable provenance analyses. The Laptev

  13. Elemental bioimaging of Cisplatin in Caenorhabditis elegans by LA-ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Barbara; Aschner, Michael; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Karst, Uwe; Bornhorst, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (Cisplatin) is one of the most important and frequently used cytostatic drugs for the treatment of various solid tumors. Herein, a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method incorporating a fast and simple sample preparation protocol was developed for the elemental mapping of Cisplatin in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The method allows imaging of the spatially-resolved elemental distribution of platinum in the whole organism with respect to the anatomic structure in L4 stage worms at a lateral resolution of 5 µm. In addition, a dose- and time-dependent Cisplatin uptake was corroborated quantitatively by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) method, and the elemental mapping indicated that Cisplatin is located in the intestine and in the head of the worms. Better understanding of the distribution of Cisplatin in this well-established model organism will be instrumental in deciphering Cisplatin toxicity and pharmacokinetics. Since the cytostatic effect of Cisplatin is based on binding the DNA by forming intra- and interstrand crosslinks, the response of poly(ADP-ribose)metabolism enzyme 1 (pme-1) deletion mutants to Cisplatin was also examined. Loss of pme-1, which is the C. elegans ortholog of human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) led to disturbed DNA damage response. With respect to survival and brood size, pme-1 deletion mutants were more sensitive to Cisplatin as compared to wildtype worms, while Cisplatin uptake was indistinguishable. PMID:25996669

  14. Detecting art forgeries using LA-ICP-MS incorporating the in situ application of laser-based collection technology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kari; Horton, Kristin; Watling, R John; Scoullar, Natalie

    2005-08-15

    The nature of art lends itself to forgery as a skilled and determined forger can mimic the techniques and styles of an artist to a level where even an expert can be duped. The authentication of paintings is a subjective process, but modern techniques may provide the means to provenance artist pigments based on elemental composition. This study applies laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to the analysis of artist paints from different manufacturers to identify variation between the elemental association patterns of these materials. The technique facilitates comparison of the paints used by an artist with produced works of art to assist provenancing initiatives of questioned materials. The effects of the trace element profiles of the backing substrate and binder on analytical data were also identified. By applying the technique to paint scraped from real paintings, a limited database was created to allow comparison to be made with some of Australian artist, Kathleen O'Connor's artworks and assist in determining production chronology. Data from this study were able to facilitate comparison of blue paints from two different paintings and confirm their co-provenance consequently determining the relative production date of a separate painting of previously unknown age. Preliminary trials of a prototype collection device designed to reduce damage and allow for in situ sampling of artworks were also undertaken. The device, which allows direct laser-based sampling of a complete painting, was tested using a Francis Ryan painting. The prototype allows for the collection of debris directly generated by LA-ICP-MS of a predefined area of a painting prior to subsequent analysis using direct LA-ICP-MS. This collection method significantly minimizes the amount of damage produced by conventional sampling methods. Analyses of the debris collected, using the prototype, were found to be comparable to the scrapings of equivalent paint analysed using

  15. LA-ICP-MS-derived U-concentrations and microstructural domains within biogenic aragonite of Arctica islandica shell.

    PubMed

    Helama, Samuli; Heikkilä, Pasi; Rinne, Katja; Nielsen, Jan Kresten; Nielsen, Jesper Kresten

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of the uranium uptake processes (both in vivo and post-mortem) into the skeletal structures of marine calcifiers is a subject of multi-disciplinary interest. U-concentration changes within the molluscan shell may serve as a paleoceanographic proxy of the pH history. A proxy of this type is needed to track the effects of fossil fuel emissions to ocean acidification. Moreover, attaining reliable U-series dates using shell materials would be a geochronological breakthrough. Picturing the high-resolution changes of U-concentrations in shell profiles is now possible by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Here, we analyzed in situ U-concentration variations in sub-fossilized shells of ocean quahog (Arctica islandica), a commonly studied bivalve species in Quaternary geoscience, using LA-ICP-MS. Microstructural details of the shell profiles were achieved by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Comparison of the shell aragonite microstructure with the changes in U-concentration revealed that uranium of possibly secondary origin is concentrated into the porous granular layers of the shell. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that U-concentration variations can be linked with microstructural differences within the shell. A combination of LA-ICP-MS and SEM analyses is recommended as an interesting approach for understanding the U-concentration variations in similar materials. PMID:25877646

  16. Biomonitoring of hair samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sela, H.; Karpas, Z.; Zoriy, M.; Pickhardt, C.; Becker, J. S.

    2007-03-01

    An analytical method for determining essential elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) and toxic elements (Cr, Pb and U) on single hair strands by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-SFMS) using a double focusing sector field mass spectrometer was developed. Results obtained directly using LA-ICP-SFMS of hair were compared with those measured by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) of solutions of digested hair samples and the analytical methods were found to agree well. Different quantification strategies for trace element determination in hair samples such as external calibration, standard addition and isotope dilution were compared and demonstrated for uranium. For uranium determination in powdered hair by LA-ICP-MS solution-based calibration was applied by coupling the laser ablation chamber to an ultrasonic nebulizer. The significance of single hair analysis by LA-ICP-SFMS was demonstrated by a case study of a person who changed living environment. Differences in the uranium content observed along the single hair strand correlated with the changes in the level of uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in a single hair decreased from 212 to 18 ng g-1 with a change in the uranium concentration in drinking water from 2000 to 30 ng l-1. In addition, measurements of uranium isotope ratios showed a natural isotopic composition throughout the whole period in the drinking water, as well as in the hair samples. This paper demonstrates the potential use of laser ablation ICP-MS to provide measurements on a single hair strand and its potential to become a very powerful tool in hair analysis for biological monitoring.

  17. LA-ICP-MS for Pu source identification at Mayak PA, the Urals, Russia.

    PubMed

    Cagno, S; Hellemans, K; Lind, O C; Skipperud, L; Janssens, K; Salbu, B

    2014-02-01

    Information on Pu in environmental samples is traditionally based on the determination of the (240+239)Pu activity via Alpha Spectrometry (AS). A large number of alpha spectrometry sources (planchettes) containing radiochemically separated Pu are therefore stored worldwide and are available for further analyses. These archive samples represent a resource from which valuable information on isotopic composition of alpha emitters including Pu can be obtained. The relative abundances of Pu isotopes can be used to trace specific Pu sources and characterize the relative contributions of different Pu sources in a sample. Thus, in addition to the total (239+240)Pu activity, determination of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio can provide valuable information on the nature of the Pu emitting sources. The Pu isotopic ratios can be determined by mass spectrometry techniques such as Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) or Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) that require dissolution and complete destruction of the material deposited on the planchettes. In this study Laser Ablation (LA)-quadrupole-ICP-MS has been employed for the analysis of (239)Pu/(240)Pu ratios from alpha-planchettes prepared from samples originating from the Mayak PA nuclear facility, Russia. The results are compared with data from AMS and show that the (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios obtained by LA-ICP-MS can be utilized to distinguish weapons-grade Pu from civil reprocessing sources. Moreover, isotope ratio mapping can also be performed across the planchettes, allowing e.g. the visualization of possible inhomogeneities in the Pu-isotope distribution on their surface. Thus, this solid sample technique can be applied to extract additional information from existing archives of samples. PMID:24424783

  18. External calibration strategy for trace element quantification in botanical samples by LA-ICP-MS using filter paper.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Matheus A G; Voss, Mônica; Corazza, Gabriela; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L

    2016-01-28

    The use of reference solutions dispersed on filter paper discs is proposed for the first time as an external calibration strategy for matrix matching and determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The procedure is based on the use of filter paper discs as support for aqueous reference solutions, which are further evaporated, resulting in solid standards with concentrations up to 250 μg g(-1) of each element. The use of filter paper for calibration is proposed as matrix matched standards due to the similarities of this material with botanical samples, regarding to carbon concentration and its distribution through both matrices. These characteristics allowed the use of (13)C as internal standard (IS) during the analysis by LA-ICP-MS. In this way, parameters as analyte signal normalization with (13)C, carrier gas flow rate, laser energy, spot size, and calibration range were monitored. The calibration procedure using solution deposition on filter paper discs resulted in precision improvement when (13)C was used as IS. The method precision was calculated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) of botanical matrix, considering the RSD obtained for 5 line scans and was lower than 20%. Accuracy of LA-ICP-MS determinations were evaluated by analysis of four CRM pellets of botanical composition, as well as by comparison with results obtained by ICP-MS using solution nebulization after microwave assisted digestion. Plant samples of unknown elemental composition were analyzed by the proposed LA method and good agreement were obtained with results of solution analysis. Limits of detection (LOD) established for LA-ICP-MS were obtained by the ablation of 10 lines on the filter paper disc containing 40 μL of 5% HNO3 (v v(-1)) as calibration blank. Values ranged from 0.05 to 0.81  μg g(-1). Overall, the use of filter paper as support for dried aqueous

  19. Major to ultra trace element bulk rock analysis of nanoparticulate pressed powder pellets by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Daniel; Pettke, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    An efficient, clean procedure for bulk rock major to trace element analysis by 193 nm Excimer LA-ICP-MS analysis of nanoparticulate pressed powder pellets (PPPs) employing a binder is presented. Sample powders are milled in water suspension in a planetary ball mill, reducing average grain size by about one order of magnitude compared to common dry milling protocols. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is employed as a binder, improving the mechanical strength of the PPP and the ablation behaviour, because MCC absorbs 193 nm laser light well. Use of MCC binder allows for producing cohesive pellets of materials that cannot be pelletized in their pure forms, such as quartz powder. Rigorous blank quantification was performed on synthetic quartz treated like rock samples, demonstrating that procedural blanks are irrelevant except for a few elements at the 10 ng g‑1 concentration level. The LA-ICP-MS PPP analytical procedure was optimised and evaluated using six different SRM powders (JP-1, UB-N, BCR-2, GSP-2, OKUM, and MUH-1). Calibration based on external standardization using SRM 610, SRM 612, BCR-2G, and GSD-1G glasses allows for evaluation of possible matrix effects during LA-ICP-MS analysis. The data accuracy of the PPP LA-ICP-MS analytical procedure compares well to that achieved for liquid ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS glass analysis, except for element concentrations below ˜30 ng g‑1, where liquid ICP-MS offers more precise data and in part lower limits of detection. Uncertainties on the external reproducibility of LA-ICP-MS PPP element concentrations are of the order of 0.5 to 2 % (1σ standard deviation) for concentrations exceeding ˜1 μg g‑1. For lower element concentrations these uncertainties increase to 5-10% or higher when analyte-depending limits of detection (LOD) are approached, and LODs do not significantly differ from glass analysis. Sample homogeneity is demonstrated by the high analytical precision, except for very few elements where grain size

  20. The influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and particle size distribution in NIR fs-LA-ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Laser parameters, typically wavelength, pulse width, irradiance, repetition rate, and pulse energy, are critical parameters which influence the laser ablation process and thereby influence the LA-ICP-MS signal. In recent times, femtosecond laser ablation has gained popularity owing to the reduction in fractionation related issues and improved analytical performance which can provide matrix-independent sampling. The advantage offered by fs-LA is due to shorter pulse duration of the laser as compared to the phonon relaxation time and heat diffusion time. Hence the thermal effects are minimized in fs-LA. Recently, fs-LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved analytical performance as compared to ns-LA-ICP-MS, but detailed mechanisms and processes are still not clearly understood. Improvement of fs-LA-ICP-MS over ns-LA-ICP-MS elucidates the importance of laser pulse duration and related effects on the ablation process. In this study, we have investigated the influence of laser pulse width (40 fs to 0.3 ns) and energy on LA-ICP-MS signal intensity and repeatability using a brass sample. Experiments were performed in single spot ablation mode as well as rastering ablation mode to monitor the Cu/Zn ratio. The recorded ICP-MS signal was correlated with total particle counts generated during laser ablation as well as particle size distribution. Our results show the importance of pulse width effects in the fs regime that becomes more pronounced when moving from femtosecond to picosecond and nanosecond regimes. PMID:26664120

  1. High resolution minor and trace element measurements for mussel shells using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, N.; Paradis, G.; Martin, P. A.; Pfister, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The successively deposited calcium carbonate layers in mollusk shells could offer high resolution archives of the environmental conditions the mollusk has experienced during its life. Previous studies have shown that the elemental composition of mollusk shells is related to environmental parameters. Understanding the high resolution environmental conditions recorded in the mollusk shells requires a reliable high resolution analytical method of the trace and minor element composition in the shells. In this study, we investigated three methods using different instrumental configurations to generate high resolution records/time series of a suite of minor/ trace elements in mussel shells (Mytilus californianus) using laser ablation sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and compared their advantages and disadvantages. The three methods include running the ablated sample with dry plasma, running the ablated sample with diluted nitric acid blank solution and running the ablated sample with spiked solution. We concluded that running the ablated material with the spiked solution could yield the most reproducible signal and accurate data for Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, La/Ca, Ce/Ca and Nd/Ca. To better understand the features of the laser ablation analytical method, we did a series of tests, such as scanning at different speeds, different directions, and applying different sampling strategies and explored the possible complications that could be encountered in using the laser ablation analytical method. In addition, we compared the results from the micromilled samples analyzed by the solution based method to the those obtained from the laser ablation method. Our results demonstrate that applying the slow ablation speed and simultaneously introducing the spiked solution (i.e. along with the ablated sample in the He carrier gas) could yield high resolution and reproducible time series of element/Ca ratios throughout the life span of the mussel. An

  2. Quantification of Melt Inclusion Chemistry by LA-ICP-MS, EMP and SIMS: Advantages and Possible Limitations of Either Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettke, T.; Halter, W. E.; Aigner-Torres, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2002-05-01

    Laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has unique advantages for chemical analysis of melt inclusions (MI), because it allows bulk compositional reconstitution of heterogeneous (crystallized) MI without prior thermal homogenization. Quantification is possible even if chemically complex minerals such as plagioclase or amphibole host the MI. We have analyzed glassy MI in plagioclase in one sample using EMP, SIMS (exposed MI) and 193 nm ArF Excimer LA-ICP-MS (unexposed MI), and rigorously compared the results in order to test the analytical accuracy of the data obtained by the various methods. We used a basalt sample, ALV-3352-7 (MORB from the East Pacific Rise, 17 - 19° S, STOWA cruise) with plagioclase phenocrysts ( ~10 vol-%, An82) in a glassy matrix. Plagioclase contains abundant glassy MI (10 - 300 μ m) some of which show a shrinkage bubble. The plagioclase phenocrysts, the matrix glass and the MI are chemically uniform. For the matrix glass, major element analyses by EMP ( ~0.1 to 50 wt-%) and trace-element analyses by SIMS ( ~2 to 100 ppm) are in excellent agreement (+/- 3% RSD on average) with LA-ICP-MS results obtained with a single 40-element menu. This demonstrates analytical accuracy of the three methods. Using MgO or FeO analyses from EMP of exposed MI as an internal standard for the quantification of LA-ICP-MS data of unexposed MI provides identical composition, hence the numerical re-integration of inlcusion compositions (Halter et al., 2002, Chem. Geol. 183, 63-86) is also accurate. Careful evaluation of the EMP data of exposed MI and matrix glass demonstrates significant chemical differences between the two; the glass in the MI apparently fractionated more plagioclase than did the matrix glass. Using MgO of the matrix glass as an internal standard for the quantification of MI analyzed by LA-ICP-MS (i.e., assuming that the MI and the matrix glass originally contained the same MgO concentration) indicates that

  3. Non-denaturating isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis for uranium-protein complexes quantitative analysis with LA-ICP MS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Frelon, Sandrine; Simon, Olivier; Lobinski, Ryszard; Mounicou, Sandra

    2014-02-01

    A non-denaturating isoelectric focusing (ND-IEF) gel electrophoresis protocol has been developed to study and identify uranium (U)-protein complexes with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The ND-IEF-LA-ICP MS methodology set-up was initiated using in vitro U-protein complex standards (i.e., U-bovine serum albumin and U-transferrin) allowing the assessment of U recovery to 64.4 ± 0.4 %. This methodology enabled the quantification of U-protein complexes at 9.03 ± 0.23, 15.27 ± 0.36, and 177.31 ± 25.51 nmol U L(-1) in digestive gland cytosols of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, exposed respectively to 0, 0.12, and 2.5 μmol of waterborne depleted U L(-1) during 10 days. ND-IEF-LA-ICP MS limit of detection was 19.3 pmol U L(-1). Elemental ICP MS signals obtained both in ND-IEF electropherograms and in size exclusion chromatograms of in vivo U-protein complexes revealed interactions between U- and Fe- and Cu-proteins. Moreover, three proteins (hemocyanin, pseudohemocyanin-2, and arginine kinase) out of 42 were identified as potential uranium targets in waterborne-exposed crayfish cytosols by microbore reversed phase chromatography coupled to molecular mass spectrometry (µRPC-ESI-MS/MS) after ND-IEF separation. PMID:23665639

  4. Allanite from the El Muerto Pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Potential New Standard for 232Th-208Pb Dating by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Crowley, J. L.; Solari, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R.

    2012-12-01

    Allanite dating may be important to studies addressing tectonomagmatic evolution, provenance of monocyclic sediment, and mineral weathering. Obtaining accurate allanite ages by SIMS has been challenging and time-consuming due to the mineral's extreme chemical variability which often prevents finding adequately matrix-matched standards. Isotopic measurements by LA-ICP-MS minimize the need for standards of nearly identical composition to the unknown allanite being analyzed, and it is done relatively rapidly. Dating by LA-ICP-MS requires high quality standards for isotopic fractionation corrections. However, readily accessible and well characterized allanite standards are scarce. We investigated gemstone allanite from the El Muerto pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico, as a potential new geochronology standard for 232Th-208Pb allanite dating by LA-ICP-MS. Compositional homogeneity was thoroughly investigated by scanning and backscatter electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, quantitative and qualitative energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and LA-ICP-MS. The possibility of metamictization was investigated by extensive X-ray diffraction analyses. The El Muerto allanite was U-Pb dated by ID-TIMS, with common Pb ratios determined from cogenetic K-feldspar by ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS. Future work includes Th-Pb dating by ID-TIMS. The samples investigated are homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Major element compositional results are generally in agreement with published values, and no metamictization was identified despite the allanite being nearly 1 Ga. The only limitation of the El Muerto allanite is that it contains small, generally <100 μm, scarce inclusions of quartz, calciothorite, albite, calcite, and biotite. However, these grains are easily recognized and avoided during LA-ICP-MS analyses. Based on these results, the El Muerto allanite has the potential to serve as a standard for LA-ICP-MS dating.

  5. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  6. Uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia) using LA-ICP-MS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, E.; Camacho, A.; Yang, P.; Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Halden, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    Perovskite (CaTiO3) is a common early crystallizing accessory phase in a variety of alkaline rocks, and has been shown to contain enough U and Th for U-Pb dating. U and Pb analysis of perovskite has been primarily carried out using the SHRIMP or ID-TIMS techniques, and the resulting U-Pb dates commonly yield the emplacement age of the host rock. To our knowledge, only one U-Pb study of perovskite has been done using the LA-ICP-MS (Cox and Wilton, 2006). Some of the advantages of this method over the SHRIMP and ID-TIMS techniques include greater speed and lower cost of analysis. In this work, the U-Pb ages of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Russia) were obtained in situ using the LA-ICP-MS. The measured 238U/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios were corrected for time-dependent mass-bias using the well-calibrated zircon standard GJ-1 (608.5 ± 0.4 Ma; Jackson et al., 2004). On a Tera-Wasserburg diagram (Tera and Wasserburg, 1972) the analyses of perovskite from two magmatic phases (clinopyroxenite and carbonatite) plot in separate clusters. Although the variations in the 238U/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios within each group are small, there is enough dispersion between the two clusters to obtain a reasonably precise age of 375 ± 13 Ma (2; MSWD = 0.23), which strongly suggests that the carbonatitic rocks are broadly coeval with the clinopyroxenite. The only other isotopic study on the Afrikanda Complex was done on a clinopyroxenite using the Rb-Sr method and yielded a whole rock-mineral (perovskite, biotite, augite and apatite) isochron age of 364.0 ± 3.1 Ma (2; MSWD = 0.72). This age is within error of our U-Pb date, which demonstrates that LA-ICP-MS-based U-Pb dating of perovskite can serve as a reliable geochronological tool. References Cox, R.A. and Wilton, D.H.C. (2006) U-Pb dating of perovskite by LA-ICP-MS: An example from the Oka carbonatite, Quebec, Canada. Chem. Geol., 235, 21-32. Jackson, S.E., Pearson, N.J., Griffin, W.L. and Belousova, E.A. (2004

  7. Apatite U-Pb Thermochronology: A combined ID-TIMS and LA-ICP-MS study from southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, R.; Spikings, R.; Chew, D.; Wotzlaw, J.

    2012-04-01

    A combination of U-Pb LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS analyses of apatite has been used to investigate the high temperature (>450° C) thermal history of the Ecuadorian Andean margin. The rocks of the Eastern Cordillera of Ecuador evolved via terrane collision and accretion events, and active margin magmatism since the Early Jurassic. Low temperature (0.5) reveal periods of: i) rapid cooling (~240-220 Ma) through the Pb Partial Retention Zone (PRZ) shortly after crystallization, ii) residence at temperatures lower than the PRZ throughout the Jurassic, iii) reheating during 140-90 Ma, and iv) rapid cooling starting at 80-70 Ma. These findings corroborate conclusions based on geochronological and sedimentological data. Additional in-situ age transects and age-depth profiling of apatite are scheduled to determine the concentration distribution of radiogenic lead in the apatites, which will be used to constrain further the mechanisms of lead loss.

  8. LA-ICP-MS and Textural Analyses of Impact Spherules from the 2.54 Ga Bee Gorge Spherule Layer, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, A.; Metzler, K.; Berndt, J.; Langenhorst, F.

    2013-08-01

    We have analyzed spherules in thin sections from the 2.54 Bee Gorge ejecta layer with special emphasize on the origin of textural features. We try to constrain the geochemical composition of the target using trace element analysis with LA-ICP-MS.

  9. Recent applications on isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. Sabine; Sela, Hagit; Dobrowolska, Justina; Zoriy, Miroslav; Becker, J. Susanne

    2008-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) have proved themselves to be powerful and sensitive inorganic mass spectrometric techniques for analysing stable and radioactive isotopes in different application fields because of their high sensitivity, low detection limits, good accuracy and precision. New applications of ICP-MS focus on tracer experiments and the development of isotope dilution techniques together with nanoflow injections for the analysis of small volumes of biological samples. Today, LA-ICP-MS is the method of choice for direct determination of metals, e.g., on protein bands in gels after the gel electrophoresis of protein mixtures. Tracer experiments using highly enriched 65Cu were utilized in order to study the formation of metal-binding bovine serum proteins. A challenging task for LA-ICP-MS is its application as an imaging mass spectrometric technique for the production of isotope images (e.gE, from thin sections of brain tissues stained with neodymium). In this paper, we demonstrate the application of imaging mass spectrometry on single particles (zircon and uranium oxide). Single Precambrian zircon crystals from the Baltic Shield were investigated with respect to isotope ratios using LA-ICP-MS for age dating. The U-Pb age was determined from the isochrone with (1.48 ± 0.14) × 109 a. Using isotope ratio measurements on 10 nuclear uranium oxide single particles the 235U/238U isotope ratio was determined to be 0.032 ± 0.004. This paper describes recent developments and applications of isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles.

  10. Effective LA-ICP-MS dating of common-Pb bearing accessory minerals with new data reduction schemes in Iolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamber, Balz S.; Chew, David M.; Petrus, Joseph A.

    2014-05-01

    Compared to non-destructive geochemical analyses, LA-ICP-MS consumes ca. 0.1 μm of material per ablation pulse. It is therefore to be expected that the combined analyses of ca. 200 pulses will encounter geochemical and isotopic complexities in all but the most perfect minerals. Experienced LA-ICP-MS analysts spot down-hole complexities and choose signal integration areas accordingly. In U-Pb geochronology, the task of signal integration choice is complex as the analyst wants to avoid areas of common Pb and Pb-loss and separate true (concordant) age complexity. Petrus and Kamber (2012) developed VizualAge as a tool for reducing and visualising, in real time, U-Pb geochronology data obtained by LA-ICP-MS as an add-on for the freely available U-Pb geochronology data reduction scheme of Paton et al. (2010) in Iolite. The most important feature of VizualAge is its ability to display a live concordia diagram, allowing users to inspect the data of a signal on a concordia diagram as the integration area it is being adjusted, thus providing immediate visual feedback regarding discordance, uncertainty, and common lead for different regions of the signal. It can also be used to construct histograms and probability distributions, standard and Tera-Wasserburg style concordia diagrams, as well as 3D U-Th-Pb and total U-Pb concordia diagrams. More recently, Chew et al. (2014) presented a new data reduction scheme (VizualAge_UcomPbine) with much improved common Pb correction functionality. Common Pb is a problem for many U-bearing accessory minerals and an under-appreciated difficulty is the potential presence of (possibly unevenly distributed) common Pb in calibration standards, introducing systematic inaccuracy into entire datasets. One key feature of the new method is that it can correct for variable amounts of common Pb in any U-Pb accessory mineral standard as long as the standard is concordant in the U/Pb (and Th/Pb) systems after common Pb correction. Common Pb correction

  11. LA-ICP-MS analysis of isolated phosphatic grains indicates selective rare earth element enrichment during reworking and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a commonly used proxy to reconstruct water chemistry and oxygen saturation during the formation history of authigenic and biogenic phosphates in marine environments. In the modern ocean REE exhibit a distinct pattern with enrichment of heavy REE and strong depletion in Cerium. Studies of ancient phosphates and carbonates, however, showed that this 'modern' pattern is only rarely present in the geological past. Consequently, the wide range of REE enrichment patterns found in ancient marine phosphates lead to the proposition that water chemistry had to have been radically different in the earth's past. A wealth of studies has already shown that both early and late diagenesis can strongly affect REE signatures in phosphates and severely alter primary marine signals. However, no previous research was conducted on how alteration processes occurring prior to final deposition affect marine phosphates. Herein we present a dataset of multiple LA-ICP-MS measurements of REE signatures in isolated phosphate and carbonate grains deposited in a carbonate ramp setting in the central Mediterranean Sea during the middle Miocene "Monterey event". The phosphates are represented by authigenic, biogenic and detrital grains emplaced in bioclastic grain- to packstones dominated by bryozoan and echinoderm fragments, as well as abundant benthic and planktic foraminifers. The results of 39 grain specific LA-ICP-MS measurements in three discrete rock samples reveals four markedly different REE patterns (normalized to the Post Archean Australian Shale standard) in terms of total enrichment and pattern shape. Analyses of REE diagenesis proxies show that diagenetic alteration affected the samples only to a minor degree. Considering grain shape and REE patterns together indicate that authigenic, detrital and biogenic phosphates have distinct REE patterns irrespective of the sample. Our results show that the observed REE patterns in phosphates only broadly reflect

  12. Combining fs LA-ICP-MS, FIB and STXM-NEXAFS Methods for in-situ High-Spatial-Resolution Rock Varnish Analyses at the nm to µm Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macholdt, D.; Andreae, M. O.; Jochum, K. P.; Kappl, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Müller, M.; Pöhlker, C.; Stoll, B.; Weber, B.; Weigand, M.; Weis, U.

    2014-12-01

    Since over 200 years a number of studies debate the origin of the black or red, up to 250 µm thick coatings on desert rocks, referred to as rock varnish. The main components of varnish are poorly crystallized Mn and Fe oxides and clay minerals. Both biological and geological processes have been suggested for the genesis. We used a combination of 200 nm-femtosecond LA-ICP-MS, focused ion beam (FIB) slicing and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy - near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) for the high-spatial-resolution analysis of rock varnish from different locations (Negev, Israel; Knersvlakte, South Africa; Death Valley and Mojave Desert, California). Femtosecond LA-ICP-MS was used for the quantitative determination of major and trace element concentrations. In-situ measurements were conducted on thick sections with the advantages of non-matrix matched calibration, low ablation depth of ~10 µm for laser spot sizes of 10-40 µm and low detection limits of trace elements (< 0.01 - 1 µg g-1). Our results demonstrate that elements, such as Mn, Co, Pb, Ni and Cu, are highly enriched in varnish relative to the upper continental crust (up to a factor of 1000). Differences between varnishes from the various locations can be observed especially for the Mn/Fe (0.4-25.6), Mn/Ba (3-363) and Ni/Co (0.03-1.8) ratios. The REE patterns differ with LaN/YbN = 2-14 and positive Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 1.1 - 9.1). To study the internal structures of varnish, 100 - 200 nm thick FIB slices were prepared to perform mappings of Fe, Mn, O, N, CO3, K, Ca, and C at the nm scale. In addition, the oxidation stages of Mn and Fe were identified. Banded internal structures of Mn and organic C can be observed in some samples, and cavities that are partly filled by C and Mn rich material. Some coatings tend to incorporate bigger dust grains (> 1 µm), while others only show very fine grained material (< 0.1 µm). The results of the combined microanalytical

  13. U-Pb Dating of CA/non-CA Treated Zircons Obtained by LA-ICP-MS and CA-TIMS Techniques: Impact for their Geological Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Quadt, A.; Gallhofer, D.; Guillong, M.; Peytcheva, I.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical Abrasion Isotope-Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) is known as a high precision technique for resolving lead loss and improving the interpretation of U-Pb zircon age data. We argue that combining CA with the widely applied Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) improves the precision and accuracy of zircon dates, while removing the substantial parts with lead loss, reducing data scatter, and providing meaningful geological interpretations. The samples are magmatic rocks chosen from different geological time periods (Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic time). All zircon separates are analysed by LA-ICP-MS before and after CA, and all age data are compared with CA-ID-TIMS 206Pb/238U dates that are considered as the most accurately age. All CA-treated zircon crystals show up to 50% less data scatter compared to the non-CA treated zircon grains and thus a reduction of the calculated uncertainties is apparent. The obtained wt average LA-ICP-MS 206Pb/238U ages of the CA-treated zircon grains are up to 4-6% higher than those of the non-CA treated crystals, exceeding the analytical uncertainties of the LA-ICP-MS dating technique of 1-2%. The damaged crystal parts, caused by U-decay, with lead loss are removed, so that we can exclude younging from the possible geological scenarios. CA-LA-ICP-MS age data are in good agreement with the CA-ID-TIMS dates and suggest advantages of using CA-LA-ICP-MS in order to define accurate ages. The use of the CA technique for very young zircons (~0.2 Ma, Kos rhyolitic tuff, Greece) seems optional; as the obtained mean 206Pb/238U ages of non-CA and CA treated zircons coincide within the uncertainty. The negligible time to produce the lattice damage (based on alpha decay or spontaneous fission) makes lead loss less important for age dating and data interpretation of very young zircons (<1 Ma). Von Quadt, A. et al., 2014, JAAS, doi: 10.1039/c4ja00102h.

  14. Provenance determination of oriental porcelain using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Bartle, Emma K; Watling, R John

    2007-03-01

    The sale of fraudulent oriental ceramics constitutes a large proportion of the illegal artifact and antique trade and threatens to undermine the legitimate international market. The sophistication and skill of forgers has reached a level where, using traditional appraisal by eye and hand, even the most experienced specialist is often unable to distinguish between a genuine and fraudulent piece. In addition, current provenancing techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and thermoluminescence (TL) dating can result in significant damage to the artifact itself. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), a relatively nondestructive analytical technique, has been used for the provenance determination of materials based on geographical origin. The technique requires the production of a laser crater, c. 100 microm in diameter, which is essentially invisible to the naked eye. Debris from this crater is analyzed using ICP-MS, with the results forming the basis of the provenance establishment protocol. Chinese, Japanese, and English porcelain shards have been analyzed using this protocol and generic isotopic distribution patterns have been produced that enable the provenance establishment of porcelain artifacts to their country of production. Minor variations between elemental fingerprints of artifacts produced in the same country also indicate that it may be possible to further provenance oriental ceramics to a specific production region or kiln site. PMID:17316230

  15. Genesis of Augite-Bearing Ureilites: Evidence From LA-ICP-MS Analyses of Pyroxenes and Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, J. S.; Lee, C-T. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    Ureilites are ultramafic achondrites composed primarily of coarse-grained low-Ca pyroxene and olivine with interstitial carbonaceous material, but a number of them contain augite [1]. Ureilites are considered to be restites after partial melting of a chondritic precursor, although at least some augite-bearing ureilites may be partially cumulate [1, 2]. In this scenario, the augite is a cumulus phase derived from a melt that infiltrated a restite composed of typical ureilite material (olivine+low-Ca pyroxene) [2]. To test this hypothesis, we examined the major and trace element compositions of silicate minerals in select augite-bearing ureilites with differing mg#. Polished thick sections of the augite-bearing ureilites ALH 84136 , EET 87511, EET 96293, LEW 88201, and META78008 and augite-free typical ureilite EET 90019 were examined by EPMA for major and minor elements and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) for trace elements, REE in particular. Although EET 87511 is reported to contain augite, the polished section that we obtained did not.

  16. Coupling of Uranium and Thorium Series Isotope Systematics for Age Determination of Late Pleistocene Zircons using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, S.; Hirakawa, S.; Iwano, H.; Danhara, T.; Hirata, T.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon U-Th-Pb dating method is one of the most important tools for estimating the duration of magmatism by means of coupling of uranium, actinium and thorium decay series. Using U-Pb dating method, its reliability is principally guaranteed by the concordance between 238U-206Pb and 235U-207Pb ages. In case of dating Quaternary zircons, however, the initial disequilibrium effect on 230Th and 231Pa should be considered. On the other hands, 232Th-208Pb dating method can be a simple but powerful approach for investigating the age of crystallization because of negligible influence from initial disequilibrium effect. We have developed a new correction model for accurate U-Pb dating of the young zircon samples by taking into consideration of initial disequilibrium and a U-Pb vs Th-Pb concordia diagram for reliable age calibration was successfully established. Hence, the U-Th-Pb dating method can be applied to various zircons ranging from Hadean (4,600 Ma) to Quaternary (~50 ka) ages, and this suggests that further detailed information concerning the thermal history of the geological sequences can be made by the coupling of U-Th-Pb, fission track and Ar-Ar ages. In this presentation, we will show an example of U-Th-Pb dating for zircon samples from Sambe Volcano (3 to 100 ka), southwest Japan and the present dating technique using LA-ICP-MS.

  17. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size=30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r(2)=0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. PMID:26005744

  18. Quantitative imaging of 2 nm monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle distributions in tissues using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Elci, S Gokhan; Yan, Bo; Kim, Sung Tae; Saha, Krishnendu; Jiang, Ying; Klemmer, Gunnar A; Moyano, Daniel F; Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Rotello, Vincent M; Vachet, Richard W

    2016-04-21

    Functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have unique properties that make them important biomedical materials. Optimal use of these materials, though, requires an understanding of their fate in vivo. Here we describe the use of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to image the biodistributions of AuNPs in tissues from mice intravenously injected with AuNPs. We demonstrate for the first time that the distributions of very small (∼2 nm core) monolayer-protected AuNPs can be imaged in animal tissues at concentrations in the low parts-per-billion range. Moreover, the LA-ICP-MS images reveal that the monolayer coatings on the injected AuNPs influence their distributions, suggesting that the AuNPs remain intact in vivo and their surface chemistry influences how they interact with different organs. We also demonstrate that quantitative images of the AuNPs can be generated when the appropriate tissue homogenates are chosen for matrix matching. Overall, these results demonstrate the utility of LA-ICP-MS for tracking the fate of biomedically-relevant AuNPs in vivo, facilitating the design of improved AuNP-based therapeutics. PMID:26979648

  19. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2016-05-01

    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron. PMID:27305821

  20. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  1. Impact history of the Chelyabinsk meteorite: Electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS study of sulfides and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronikov, A. V.; Andronikova, I. E.; Hill, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS study of sulfides and metals from two fragments of the LL5 Chelyabinsk meteorite were conducted. The fragments are impact breccias, one fragment contains both chondritic and shock vein lithologies, and the other contains shock-darkened chondritic clasts and vesicular impact melts. The chondritic lithology and shock veins display very similar opaque mineral compositions. The mineral compositions in the impact-melt breccias are distinctly different. The brecciated state of the Chelyabinsk meteorite suggests strong involvement of shock-related processes during the evolution of the parent body. Multiple heavy impact events occurred on the parent asteroid and on the Chelyabinsk meteoroid itself over the time period from ca. 4.5 Ga until ca. 1.2 Ma. The shock veins were produced in situ on the parent body. The impact-melt breccias could have formed because of the dramatic impact to the parent LL-chondrite body that could be partly disintegrated. The fragment containing shock-darkened chondritic clasts and vesicular impact melt lithologies preserves a record of melting, volatilization, partial degassing, and quenching of the molten material. The abundance and size (up to 1 mm) of the vesicles suggest that the impact melt must have been buried at some depth after formation. After impact and subsequent melting occurred, the impact-induced pressure on the shallow asteroid interior was released that caused "boiling" of volatiles and generation of S-rich bubbles. Such an impact excavated down to depths of the body generating multiple fragments with complicated histories. These fragments reaccumulated into a gravitational aggregate and formed the parental meteoroid for the Chelyabinsk meteorite.

  2. U-Th-Pb in petroleum by LA-ICP-MS: Source rocks-crude oils comparison.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlan, Alexandra T.; Ricard, Estelle; Prinzhofer, Alain; Christophe, Pecheyran; Donard, Olivier X. C.

    2010-05-01

    The U, Th elemental and Pb isotopic ratios in petroleum source rocks have been determined for the first time and compared with crude oils from different regions in the World using a femtosecond laser ablation (high ablation rates) coupled to an ICP-MS and direct analysis of digested samples on ICP-MS. The advantage of femtosecond compared to nanosecond laser ablation is that it drastically reduces thermal effects, minimizes isotope and elemental fractionation and matrix effects during chemical analysis of solid samples. Fs-Laser Ablation coupled to an ICP-MS is therefore a potentially valuable tool for the determination of trace metals in crude oils as well as in solid samples such as source rocks. The principal problems encountered arise from the lack of isotopic lead standards in organic matrixes and the heterogeneity of source rocks which contain sulphides with high natural U and Th concentrations. Therefore, to determine exactly the U, Th and Pb contents in source rocks, two analytical techniques have to be compared. In one, the use of the laser ablation allows us to analyze in-situ small parts of the organic materials and to determine the proportions of two end members: pure kerogene and pure sulphides. In the other, the use of the conventional dissolution of the same pellets involves total consumption of the sample and gives an average value of the isotopic lead ratios and U, Th and Pb concentrations of the bulk sample. For the two cases a "sample-standard bracketing" procedure was applied using NIST 612 glass standard for ablation and NIST 981 in aqueous solution for the mineralization. Due to the lack of organic matrix standards, the fs-LA-ICP-MS technique produces only qualitative trace element (U, Th and Pb) and isotopic analysis of source rocks. Our results obtained on both crude oils and associated source rocks have shown that Th, U, Pb systematics determined using the two analytical methods (mineralization of kerogen directly analyzed on ICP-MS or MC

  3. High-Precision Measurement of Eu/Eu* in Geological Glasses via LA-ICP-MS Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Ming; McDonough, William F.; Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elemental fractionation during laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis has been historically documented between refractory and volatile elements. In this work, however, we observed fractionation between light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) when using ablation strategies involving large spot sizes (greater than 100 millimeters) and line scanning mode. In addition: (1) ion yields decrease when using spot sizes above 100 millimeters; (2) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) (i.e. Europium anomaly) positively correlates with carrier gas (He) flow rate, which provides control over the particle size distribution of the aerosol reaching the ICP; (3) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) shows a positive correlation with spot size, and (4) the changes in REE signal intensity, induced by the He flow rate change, roughly correlate with REE condensation temperatures. The REE fractionation is likely driven by the slight but significant difference in their condensation temperatures. Large particles may not be completely dissociated in the ICP and result in preferential evaporation of the less refractory LREEs and thus non-stoichiometric particle-ion conversion. This mechanism may also be responsible for Sm-Eu-Gd fractionation as Eu is less refractory than Sm and Gd. The extent of fractionation depends upon the particle size distribution of the aerosol, which in turn is influenced by the laser parameters and matrix. Ablation pits and lines defined by low aspect ratios produce a higher proportion of large particles than high aspect ratio ablation, as confirmed by measurements of particle size distribution in the laser induced aerosol. Therefore, low aspect ratio ablation introduces particles that cannot be decomposed and/or atomized by the ICP and thus results in exacerbated elemental fractionation. Accurate quantification of REE concentrations and Eu/Eu* requires reduction of large particle production during laser ablation. For the reference

  4. Refining LA-ICP-MS techniques for the exploration of ultra-thin layers in Alpine and Polar ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Nicole; Bohleber, Pascal; Mayewski, Paul; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Kurbatov, Andrei; Sneed, Sharon; Handley, Mike; Erhardt, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, (LA)-ICP-MS, offers minimally destructive ice core impurity analysis at unsurpassed sub-mm depth resolution. As such it is uniquely suited for exploring the closely spaced layers of ice cores collected in low accumulation sites or in regions of compressed and thinned ice. Here we present an updated characterization of the LA system developed at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute's Keck Laser Ice Facility, as determined through 1) experimentation with sticks of frozen distilled water and 2) exploitation of the exceptionally thin layers within a new ice core drilled at the Alpine glacier saddle Colle Gnifetti (4450m asl, Monte Rosa, Swiss-Italian Alps) and the variety of high-density chemical data collected from it. Colle Gnifetti (CG) is characterized by low net accumulation rates and strong vertical shear, which causes its annual layers to rapidly thin below the cm-resolution of conventional ice core analysis techniques. To best utilize its unique archive, LA measurements of Ca and Na were directly compared to those from continuous flow analysis. Through this comparison, we demonstrate that LA captures low frequency trends similar to traditional melting techniques while also emphasizing the benefits of its increased resolution. The resolution was itself verified through experimental determination of peak decay times, where peaks were created by spiking frozen distilled water at known interval with high concentration riverine water standards. Using ion chromatography and liquid-based ICP-MS measurements of discrete meltwater samples from CG we were also able to explore high-resolution profiles of S as measured by LA. The ability to resolve S at sub-mm resolution (a capability not yet demonstrated for LA analysis of ice cores) may allow more accurate determination of the character and timing of volcanic eruptions. We illustrate this finding using an exemplary S-anomaly, potentially of volcanic

  5. Cerebral bioimaging of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Matusch, Andreas; Depboylu, Candan; Palm, Christoph; Wu, Bei; Höglinger, Günter U; Schäfer, Martin K-H; Becker, J Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been established as a powerful technique for the determination of metal and nonmetal distributions within biological systems with high sensitivity. An imaging LA-ICP-MS technique for Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn was developed to produce large series of quantitative element maps in native brain sections of mice subchronically intoxicated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP) as a model of Parkinson's disease. Images were calibrated using matrix-matched laboratory standards. A software solution allowing a precise delineation of anatomical structures was implemented. Coronal brain sections were analyzed crossing the striatum and the substantia nigra, respectively. Animals sacrificed 2 h, 7 d, or 28 d after the last MPTP injection and controls were investigated. We observed significant decreases of Cu concentrations in the periventricular zone and the fascia dentata at 2 h and 7d and a recovery or overcompensation at 28 d, most pronounced in the rostral periventricular zone (+40%). In the cortex Cu decreased slightly to -10%. Fe increased in the interpeduncular nucleus (+40%) but not in the substantia nigra. This pattern is in line with a differential regulation of periventricular and parenchymal Cu, and with the histochemical localization of Fe, and congruent to regions of preferential MPTP binding described in the rodent brain. The LA-ICP-MS technique yielded valid and statistically robust results in the present study on 39 slices from 19 animals. Our findings underline the value of routine micro-local analytical techniques in the life sciences and affirm a role of Cu availability in Parkinson's disease. PMID:19892565

  6. LA-ICP-MS of rare earth elements concentrated in cation-exchange resin particles for origin attribution of uranium ore concentrate.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shiho; Limbeck, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) concentrated on cation-exchange resin particles were measured with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain chondrite-normalized REE plots. The sensitivity of REE increased in ascending order of the atomic number, according to the sensitivity trend in pneumatic nebulization ICP-MS (PN-ICP-MS). The signal intensities of REE were nearly proportional to the concentrations of REE in the immersion solution used for particle-preparation. Minimum measurable concentration calculated from the net signals of REE was approximately 1 ng/g corresponding to 0.1 ng in the particle-preparation solution. In LA analysis, formation of oxide and hydroxide of the light REE and Ba which causes spectral interferences in the heavy REE measurement was effectively attenuated due to the solvent-free measurement capability, compared to conventional PN-ICP-MS. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed method, the REE-adsorbed particles prepared by immersing them in a U-bearing solution (commercially available U standard solution) were measured with LA-ICP-MS. Aside from the LA analysis, each concentration of REE in the same U standard solution was determined with conventional PN-ICP-MS after separating REE by cation-exchange chromatography. The concentrations of REE were ranging from 0.04 (Pr) to 1.08 (Dy) μg/g-U. The chondrite-normalized plot obtained through LA-ICP-MS analysis of the U standard sample exhibited close agreement with that obtained through the PN-ICP-MS of the REE-separated solution within the uncertainties. PMID:25640124

  7. A new LA-ICP-MS method for Ti-in-Quartz: Implications and application to HP rutile-quartz veins from the Czech Erzgebirge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Uribe, A. M.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Zack, T.; Feineman, M. D.; Woods, G.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental determination of the pressure and temperature controls on Ti solubility in quartz provide a calibration of the Ti-in-quartz (TitaniQ) geothermometer applicable to geologic conditions up to ~20 kbar (Thomas et al. (2010) Contrib Mineral Petrol 160, 743-759). One of the greatest limitations to analyzing Ti in metamorphic quartz by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is the lack of a suitable matrix-matched reference material. Typically LA-ICP-MS analyses of Ti in minerals use 49Ti as a normalizing mass because of an isobaric interference from 48Ca, which is present in most well characterized reference glasses, on 48Ti. The benefit of using a matrix-matched reference material to analyze Ti in quartz is the opportunity to use 48Ti (73.8 % abundance) as a normalizing mass, which results in an order of magnitude increase in signal strength compared to the less abundant isotope 49Ti (5.5 % abundance), thereby increasing the analytical precision. Here we characterize Ti-bearing SiO2 glasses from Heraeus Quarzglas and natural quartz grains from the Bishop Tuff by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and LA-ICP-MS, in order to determine their viability as reference materials for Ti in quartz. Titanium contents in low-CL rims in the Bishop Tuff quartz grains were determined to be homogenous by EPMA (41 ± 2 µg/g Ti, 2σ), and are a potential natural reference material. We present a new method for determining 48Ti concentrations in quartz by LA-ICP-MS at the 1 µg/g level, relevant to quartz in HP-LT terranes. We suggest that natural quartz such as the homogeneous low-CL rims of the Bishop Tuff quartz are more suitable than NIST reference glasses as an in-house reference material for low Ti concentrations because matrix effects are limited and Ca isobaric interferences are avoided, thus allowing for the use of 48Ti as a normalizing mass. Titanium concentration from 33 analyses of low

  8. LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in glass spherules of the El'gygytgyn impact structure, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, Leonie; Deutsch, Alex

    2010-05-01

    The 3.58±0.04 Ma old El'gygytgyn impact structure (Central Chukotka, NE Siberia) with a diameter of 18 km (Gurov and Gurova 1979, Layer 2000) is one of only two terrestrial craters with a volcanic target; therefore, analysis of its target and impact lithologies is of basic interest for comparative planetology. Lake El'gygytgyn is a very valuable climate archive in the Arctic as it was neither covered by glaciers (Melles et al. 2007) nor has the lake ever fallen dry. Climate and impact research were the rationale for the ICDP drilling project that finished successfully in spring 2009. Impactites like melt rocks and breccias are rarely found in outcrops yet are present in the 80 m terrace of Lake El'gygytgyn (Gurov and Gurova 1979). Numerous investigations on petrography, shock metamorphism, and geochemistry of impactites from El'gygytgyn have been published so far (e.g. Gurov et al. 2007). We report the first trace element data for seven 30- to 760-μm-sized impact glass spherules that have been collected about10 km off the crater center from a terrace deposit of the Enmyvaam River outside the crater rim. The spherules are translucent with colors ranging from amber, dark brown to nearly black; they contain a few circular bubbles, schlieren, and very rarely mineral clasts and breccia fragments. Major elements were measured with the JEOL JXA 8600 MX Superprobe, 31 trace elements were analyzed with the Finnigan Element2 LA-ICP-MS with 5 Hz, 8-9 J/cm2 at with Si as internal, and NIST612 as external standard (Institut f. Mineralogie, WWU Münster). The spot size was 60 μm. All spherules show a very homogeneous major and trace element distribution yet clear differences exist between the samples in the SiO2 content (in weight percent) 53-68: four of the glasses are dacitic, two andesitic, and one basaltic-andesitic in composition. In addition, MgO (2.1-9.2), K2O (0.6-3.3), and (in ppm) Ni (317-1096), Co (25-79), Zr (100-169), Rb (18-107), and Ba (459-1092) display wide

  9. Possibilities of LA-ICP-MS technique for the spatial elemental analysis of the recent fish scales: Line scan vs. depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holá, Markéta; Kalvoda, Jiří; Nováková, Hana; Škoda, Radek; Kanický, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS and solution based ICP-MS in combination with electron microprobe are presented as a method for the determination of the elemental spatial distribution in fish scales which represent an example of a heterogeneous layered bone structure. Two different LA-ICP-MS techniques were tested on recent common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) scales: A line scan through the whole fish scale perpendicular to the growth rings. The ablation crater of 55 μm width and 50 μm depth allowed analysis of the elemental distribution in the external layer. Suitable ablation conditions providing a deeper ablation crater gave average values from the external HAP layer and the collagen basal plate. Depth profiling using spot analysis was tested in fish scales for the first time. Spot analysis allows information to be obtained about the depth profile of the elements at the selected position on the sample. The combination of all mentioned laser ablation techniques provides complete information about the elemental distribution in the fish scale samples. The results were compared with the solution based ICP-MS and EMP analyses. The fact that the results of depth profiling are in a good agreement both with EMP and PIXE results and, with the assumed ways of incorporation of the studied elements in the HAP structure, suggests a very good potential for this method.

  10. LA-ICP-MS Pb-U Dating of Young Zircons from the Kos-Nisyros Volcanic Centre, SE Aegean Arc (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Von Quadt, A.; Peytcheva, I.; Bachmann, O.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon Pb-U dating has become a key technique for answering many important questions in geosciences. This paper describes a new LA-ICP-MS approach. We show, using previously dated samples of a large quaternary rhyolitic eruption in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre (the 161 ka Kos Plateau Tuff), that the precision of our LA-ICP-MS method is as good as via SHRIMP, while ID-TIMS measurements confirm the accuracy. Gradational age distribution over >140 ka of the Kos zircons and the near-absence of inherited cores indicate near-continuous crystallisation in a growing magma reservoir with little input from wall rocks. Previously undated silicic eruptions from Nisyros volcano (Lower Pumice, Nikia Flow, Upper Pumice), which are stratigraphically constrained to have happened after the Kos Plateau Tuff, are dated to be younger than respectively 124 ± 35 ka, 111 ± 42 ka and 70 ± 24 ka. Samples younger than 1 Ma were corrected for initial thorium disequilibrium using a new formula that also accounts for disequilibrium in 230Th decay. Guillong, M. et al., 2014, JAAS, 29, p. 963-967; doi: 10.1039/c4ja00009a.

  11. Quantitative 3-D Elemental Mapping by LA-ICP-MS of a Basaltic Clast from the Hanford 300 Area, Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Peng; Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.

    2012-03-01

    Laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to measure elemental concentrations at the 100 {micro}m scale in a 3-dimensional manner in a basalt sample collected from the Hanford 300 Area in south-central Washington State. A modified calibration method was developed to quantify the LA-ICP-MS signal response using a constant-sum mass fraction of eight major elements; the method produced reasonable concentration measurements for both major and trace elements when compared to a standard basalt sample with known concentrations. 3-dimensional maps (stacked 2-D contour layers, each measuring 2100 {micro}m x 2100 {micro}m) show relatively uniform concentration with depth for intrinsic elements such as Si, Na, and Sr. However, U and Cu accumulation were observed near the rock surface, consistent with the site's release history of these pollutants. U and Cu show substantial heterogeneity in their concentration distributions in horizontal slices, while the intrinsic elements are essentially uniformly distributed. From measured U concentrations of this work and reported mass fractions, cobbles and gravels were estimated to contain from 0.6% to 7.5% of the contaminant U, implicating the coarse fraction as a long-term release source.

  12. Analysis of glass from the post-Roman settlement Tonovcov grad (Slovenia) by PIXE-PIGE and LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Milavec, T.; Fajfar, H.; Rehren, Th.; Lankton, J. W.; Gratuze, B.

    2013-09-01

    The combined PIXE-PIGE method was used for the analysis of 43 glass fragments from the archaeological site Tonovcov grad in western Slovenia, with 10 of these additionally being analysed by LA-ICP-MS. The glass objects were attributed to the Late Antique production of the 4th-7th c. AD, with two examples of early Roman glass and three glass beads, one of them presumably of oriental origin. The analysis showed typical natron-type glass, produced in the Levantine region around the river Belus, and a few examples of HIMT glass, which could be recognized also in several other recycled objects. Only one glass bead, found in Early Medieval context, was made of the ash of halophytic plants.

  13. Printing metal-spiked inks for LA-ICP-MS bioimaging internal standardization: comparison of the different nephrotoxic behavior of cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Moraleja, Irene; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Lázaro, Alberto; Humanes, Blanca; Neumann, Boris; Tejedor, Alberto; Luz Mena, M; Jakubowski, Norbert; Gómez-Gómez, M Milagros

    2016-03-01

    The study of the distribution of the cytostatic drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin along the kidney may help to understand their different nephrotoxic behavior. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) allows the acquisition of trace element images in biological tissues. However, results obtained are affected by several variations concerning the sample matrix and instrumental drifts. In this work, an internal standardization method based on printing an Ir-spiked ink onto the surface of the sample has been developed to evaluate the different distributions and accumulation levels of the aforementioned drugs along the kidney of a rat model. A conventional ink-jet printer was used to print fresh sagittal kidney tissue slices of 4 μm. A reproducible and homogenous deposition of the ink along the tissue was observed. The ink was partially absorbed on top of the tissue. Thus, this approach provides a pseudo-internal standardization, due to the fact that the ablation sample and internal standard take place subsequently and not simultaneously. A satisfactory normalization of LA-ICP-MS bioimages and therefore a reliable comparison of the kidney treated with different Pt-based drugs were achieved even for tissues analyzed on different days. Due to the complete ablation of the sample, the transport of the ablated internal standard and tissue to the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is practically taking place at the same time. Pt accumulation in the kidney was observed in accordance to the dosages administered for each drug. Although the accumulation rate of cisplatin and oxaliplatin is high in both cases, their Pt distributions differ. The strong nephrotoxicity observed for cisplatin and the absence of such side effect in the case of oxaliplatin could explain these distribution differences. The homogeneous distribution of oxaliplatin in the cortical and medullar areas could be related with its higher affinity for

  14. Extravasation of Pt-based chemotherapeutics - bioimaging of their distribution in resectates using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Egger, Alexander E; Kornauth, Christoph; Haslik, Werner; Hann, Stephan; Theiner, Sarah; Bayer, Günther; Hartinger, Christian G; Keppler, Bernhard K; Pluschnig, Ursula; Mader, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    Platinum-based drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin) are widely used in cancer treatment. They are administered intravenously, thus accidental extravasations of infusions can occur. This may cause severe complications for the patient as the toxic platinum compounds likely persist in subcutaneous tissue. At high concentrations, platinum toxicity in combination with local thrombosis may result in tissue necrosis, eventually requiring surgical intervention. To describe tissue distribution at the anatomic level, we quantified drug extravasation in cryosections of various tissues (muscle, nerve tissue, connective tissue, fat tissue) by means of quantitative laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and compared the resulting data with bulk analysis of microwave-assisted digestion of tissue samples followed by ICP-MS analysis. Samples of three patients receiving systemic chemotherapy either via peripheral venous access or central access via port-a-cath® were analyzed. Pt was enriched up to 50-times in connective tissue when compared with muscle tissue or drain samples collected over five days. The large areas of subcutaneous fat tissue showed areactive necrosis and average Pt concentrations (determined upon sample digestion) ranged from 0.2 μg g(-1) (therapy with 25 mg m(-2) cisplatin, four weeks after peripheral extravasation) to 10 μg g(-1) (therapy with 50 mg m(-2) oxaliplatin: four weeks after port-a-cath® extravasation). A peripheral nerve subjected to bioimaging by LA-ICP-MS showed a 5-times lower Pt concentration (0.2 μg g(-1)) than the surrounding connective tissue (1.0 μg g(-1)). This is in accordance with the patient showing no signs of neurotoxicity during recovery from extravasation side-effects. Thus, bioimaging of cutaneous nerve tissue may contribute to understand the risk of peripheral neurotoxic events. PMID:25659827

  15. LA-ICP-MS imaging in multicellular tumor spheroids - a novel tool in the preclinical development of metal-based anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Theiner, Sarah; Schreiber-Brynzak, Ekaterina; Jakupec, Michael A; Galanski, Markus; Koellensperger, Gunda; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-04-01

    A novel application of advanced elemental imaging offers cutting edge in vitro assays with more predictive power on the efficacy of anticancer drugs in preclinical development compared to two dimensional cell culture models. We propose LA-ICP-MS analysis of multicellular spheroids, which are increasingly being used as three dimensional (3D) models of tumors, for improving the in vitro evaluation of anticancer metallodrugs. The presented strategy is very well suited for screening drug-tumor penetration, a key issue for drug efficacy. A major advantage of tumor spheroid models is that they enable us to create a tissue-like structure and function. With respect to 2D culture on the one hand and in vivo models on the other, multicellular spheroids thus show intermediate complexity, still allowing high repeatability and adequate through-put for drug research. This strongly argues for the use of spheroids as bridging models in preclinical anticancer drug development. Probing the lateral platinum distribution within these tumor models allows visualizing the penetration depth and targeting of platinum-based complexes. In the present study, we show for the first time that spatially-resolved metal accumulation in tumor spheroids upon treatment with platinum compounds can be appropriately assessed. The optimized LA-ICP-MS setup allowed discerning the platinum localization in different regions of the tumor spheroids upon compound treatment at biologically relevant (low micromolar) concentrations. Predominant platinum accumulation was observed at the periphery as well as in the center of the spheroids. This corresponds to the proliferating outermost layers of cells and the necrotic core, respectively, indicating enhanced platinum sequestration in these regions. PMID:26806253

  16. Elemental mapping in fossil tooth root section of Ursus arctos by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Vašinová Galiová, M; Nývltová Fišáková, M; Kynický, J; Prokeš, L; Neff, H; Mason, A Z; Gadas, P; Košler, J; Kanický, V

    2013-02-15

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to map the matrix (Ca, P) and trace (Ba, Sr, Zn) elements in the root section of a fossilized brown bear (Ursus arctos) tooth. Multielemental analysis was performed on a (2.5 × 1.5)cm(2) area. For elemental distribution, a UP 213 laser ablation system was coupled either with a quadrupole or a time of flight ICP-MS. The cementum and dentine on the slice of the sample surface were clearly distinguishable, especially changes in elemental distribution in the summer and winter bands in the fossil root dentine. Migration and diet of U. arctos were determined on the basis of fluctuations in Sr/Zn ratio and their contents. Quantification was accomplished with standard reference material of bone meal (NIST 1486) and by the use of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). Changes in Sr/Zn and Sr/Ba ratios relating to the season, and composition of food during the lifetime of the animal are discussed on basis of analysis of light stable isotopes. It was observed that there was an increase in the Sr/Zn ratio during the winter season caused by a reduction of food intake during hibernation. Above mentioned inferences drawn from elemental data obtained by LA-ICP-MS were confirmed independently by determination of carbon, nitrogen and strontium isotopes. Moreover, diagenesis and its interfering influence on the biogenic composition of cementum and dentine were resolved. According to the distribution and/or content of the element of interest, post-mortem alterations were revealed. Namely, U, Na, Fe, Mg and F predicate about the suitability of the selected area for determination of migration and diet. PMID:23598013

  17. Trace element profiles in modern horse molar enamel as tracers of seasonality: Evidence from micro-XRF, LA-ICP-MS and stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    A combination of laboratory micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) and stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis shows that trace element profiles from modern horse molars reveal a seasonal pattern that co-varies with seasonality in the oxygen isotope records of enamel carbonate from the same teeth. A combination of six cheek teeth (premolars and molars) from the same individual yields a seasonal isotope and trace element record of approximately three years recorded during the growth of the molars. This record shows that reproducible measurements of various trace element ratios (e.g., Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca, Fe/Ca, K/Ca and S/Ca) lag the seasonal pattern in oxygen isotope records by 2-3 months. Laser Ablation-ICP-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis on a cross-section of the first molar of the same individual is compared to the bench-top tube-excitation μXRF results to test the robustness of the measurements and to compare both methods. Furthermore, trace element (e.g. Sr, Zn, Mg & Ba) profiles perpendicular to the growth direction of the same tooth, as well as profiles parallel to the growth direction are measured with LA-ICP-MS and μXRF to study the internal distribution of trace element ratios in two dimensions. Results of this extensive complementary line-scanning procedure shows the robustness of state of the art laboratory micro-XRF scanning for the measurement of trace elements in bioapatite. The comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for trace element analysis and illustrates their complementarity. Results of internal variation within the teeth shed light on the origins of trace elements in mammal teeth and their potential use for paleo-environmental reconstruction.

  18. Developing a Correction to Remove Systematic Bias in U-Pb LA-ICP-MS Zircon Ages Related to Zircon "Matrix Effects"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, W. A.; Angelo, T. V.; Guest, B.

    2014-12-01

    For more than a decade the occurrence of systematic discrepancies between the U-Pb ages of zircons determined by LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS has been acknowledged. Trace element concentrations, crystallographic orientation and damage to the crystal lattice by radioactive decay have all been cited as possible causes for the discrepancy termed the "matrix effect". Recent studies have concluded that differences in Laser Induced Elemental Fractionation (LIEF) between zircon reference materials results from variations in the ablation rate between the primary reference, which is used to build a model for LIEF during data reduction, and the unknowns. These variations are likely related to physical differences in the crystal lattice caused by alpha particle ejection. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the ablation rate for ~200 individual ablation pits in a variety of reference materials using an optical profilometer. Our data demonstrate a clear relationship between delta age (the difference between the age calculated by LA-ICP-MS and the accepted ID-TIMS age, expressed as a percentage) and ablation rate. The relationship between calculated alpha dosage for each ablation and delta age is less clear. This suggests that the zircon's thermal history may play an important role in controlling ablation rate through annealing of crystal lattice defects. However, alpha dosage is readily quantifiable during routine zircon U-Pb analyses and therefore its relationship to delta age may provide a useful first order correction to remove systematic biases from U-Pb ages. Raman spectroscopy could provide a more robust measure of radiation damage in the zircon lattice and could help to refine our understanding of the processes involved.

  19. "Invisible" gold and PGE elements in synthetic crystals of sphalerite and covellite: A EPMA, LA-ICP-MS and XAFS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkacheev, Dmitry; Chareev, Dmitry; Abramova, Vera; Tagirov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    Sphalerite and covellite are widespread minerals in the different genetic types of deposits and forms under the various conditions. The purpose of this work is to determine the possible range of concentration and chemical state of Au and PGE (Pt, Pd, Rh) in sphalerite (Zn,Fe) S and covellite (CuS). These minerals were synthesized using gas transport and salt flux techniques. The crystals of ZnS were grown using the gas transport method at 850°C and the salt flux one using NaCl/KCl, CsCl/NaCl/KCl, and LiCl/RbCl eutectic mixtures at 850, 645 and 470°C, respectively. CuS crystals were synthesized using the salt flux method in RbCl/LiCl melt at 470 and 340°C. The trace metal activity was always controlled by the presence of pure metal or its sulfide, and, therefore, the concentration of these elements in synthesized phases represent the maximum possible value for given T/f(S2) synthesis parameters. The LA-ICP-MS and/or EPMA techniques were used to determine the Au concentration in synthesized phases. The concentration of Au in sphalerite, synthesized at 850°C with admixture of Cd, Se, In, Fe, and Mn, reached 0.3wt%, whereas the sphalerite cell parameter extremely increased up to 5.4161Å relatively to 5.4060 Å for pure ZnS. It was found that the observed high Au concentration is caused by the presence of In (2091±46 ppm Au in sample with Fe and In in comparison with 14±7 for Se-bearing ZnS, 94±12 ppm for Fe-Mn-bearing sphalerite, and 96±46 for Fe-bearing sphalerite. The concentration of Au in Fe-bearing sphalerite synthesized at 645°C does not exceed 5 ppm. Therefore, increase of temperature results in the increase of Au concentration in sphalerite. The concentration of Au in another Fe-bearing-sphalerite series synthesized using gas transport method at 850°C various from 200 to 500 ppm and depends on the iron content. This fact could be related to the oxidation state or Fe in ZnS-FeS solid solution series. The concentration of Pt and Pd, Rh in sphalerite is

  20. High-Resolution Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca Records from Protothaca staminea Mollusc Shells Using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takesue, R. K.; van Geen, A.

    2001-12-01

    High resolutions records of past nearshore temperature, salinity, and nutrient enrichments at mid-latitudes would be valuable for reconstructing past changes in climate affecting coastal areas (e.g. changes in precipitation, the nature of wind-driven coastal upwelling or the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)). We present here a potential archive of such records in growth-banded mollusc shells. The potential paleo-temperature proxy Mg/Ca, as well as Sr/Ca and stable isotopes (δ 18O, δ 13C) were measured in shells of the clam Protothaca staminea. This bivalve appears favorable for nearshore paleoclimate reconstructions because it occurs over a wide geographic range (Alaska to central America), grows for nearly 10 years, and is present in archeological and geological deposits. P. staminea shells were obtained from a tidal flat in Humboldt Bay, CA (40.8° N; modern), and from the Duncan's Point Cave shell midden (CA Dept. Parks and Recreation site SON-348/H) near Bodega Bay, CA (39.6° N; ~3,000 and ~9,000 cal yr BP). High-resolution (monthly to weekly) Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca measurements were made by (UV Excimer) laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma (quadrupole) mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using a spot size of 90 μ m and sample spacing ranging from 100 to 300 μ m. The rapidity of LA-ICP-MS analysis made it possible to analyze a 4 cm-long section of shell within 1 day. Absolute scales for the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca LA-ICP-MS records were obtained from shell powders drilled with a 0.5 or 0.7 mm burr then dissolved and analyzed by flame atomic absorbtion. Stable isotopes were measured on splits of the shell powders. The Mg/Ca record during the final four years of shell growth in the Humboldt Bay shell shows a regular seasonal pattern with highest values (3.5 mmol/mol) during summer and lowest values (2.5 mmol/mol) during winter corresponding to a nearshore climatological temperature range of 6° C. An abrupt shift in shell Mg/Ca values toward the end of each year

  1. NanoSIMS mapping and LA-ICP-MS chemical and U-Th-Pb data in monazite from a xenolith enclosed in andesite (Central Slovakia Volcanic Field)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didier, A.; Bosse, V.; Bouloton, J.; Mostefaoui, S.; Viala, M.; Paquette, J. L.; Devidal, J. L.; Duhamel, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we use NanoSIMS element and isotope ratio mapping and LA-ICP-MS trace element measurements to elucidate the origins of monazites from a restitic xenolith enclosed in a 13.5 ± 0.3 Ma andesitic lava (Slovakia). The xenolith/lava interaction is mainly characterized by the growth of a plagioclase-bearing corona around the xenolith and magmatic garnet overgrowths on primary metamorphic garnets within the xenolith. NanoSIMS images (89Y, 139La, 208Pb, 232Th and 238U) and trace element analyses indicate that variations of HREE, Y and Eu contents in the monazite are correlated with the resorption and the following overgrowth of garnet and plagioclase in the xenolith. Three domains are distinguished in the monazite grains: the inherited Variscan core at ca. 310 Ma (M1 domain) characterized by low Y and HREE contents and a weak negative Eu anomaly; the inner rim (M2 domain) crystallized during the growth of the plagioclase magmatic corona (large negative Eu anomaly) and the resorption of metamorphic garnet (high HREE and Y contents); and the external rim (M3 domain) crystallized during the growth of the plagioclase corona (large negative Eu anomaly) and during the crystallization of magmatic garnet (low Y, HREE contents) at ~13 Ma, i.e. the age of the andesitic lava. The age and chemical zonation of the monazites attest to the preservation of primary monazite in the xenolith despite the interaction with the andesite lava. NanoSIMS imaging provides high-quality sub-µm scale images of the monazite that reveals chemical domains that were not distinguishable on WDS X-ray maps, especially for depleted elements such as U and Pb. Owing to its small size, the M2 domain could not be accurately dated by the LA-ICP-MS method. However, NanoSIMS isotopic maps reveal that the M2 domain has similar 208Pb/232Th isotope ratios to the M3 domain and thus similar ages. These results support the hypothesis that melt-assisted partial dissolution-precipitation in monazite

  2. Study of Infra Red femtosecond laser induced aerosols using Transmission Electron Microscopy and Low Pressure Impactor: implications for LA-ICP-MS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Abzac, F.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.; Poitrasson, F.; Freydier, R.; Datas, L.

    2009-12-01

    Processes linked to the creation of laser induced aerosols are not yet fully understood, especially in the Infra Red femtosecond regime. It is of great interest to understand these mechanisms in order to better constrain chemical fractionation observed on LA-ICP-MS signals. A meticulous study of particles produced by IR-fs laser ablation (λ=800nm, τ=60fs, E=0,1-1mJ/pulse, f=5Hz) has been conducted on a wide variety of samples (phosphate, silicates, oxides, glass and metals), using transmission electron microscopy (Bright field TEM and EDS). Afterwards, observations using TEM coupled with focused ion beam (FIB) preparation have been performed on craters, to study the laser induced redeposition structure and chemistry and bring comparison with related aerosols. Finally, quantitative data have been collected using a low pressure impactor (LPI) device. Observed aerosols always consist in amorphous dark beads (30-150nm diameter) and more or less developed clusters (>100nm) of smaller particles (10-15 nm diameter). Their composition differs from each other and from the initial sample. Counting reveals a decreasing density of particle over 10min of ablation, while size distribution appears Gaussian, monomodal and remains centered on 90-100nm. Craters in monazite (phosphate, Moacir, Itembe, Brazil) show two different domains. Strained areas, induced by very high pressure resulting from matter removal, and, on the top, a thin layer (~250nm in the single shot crater for E=0,1mJ/pulse) probably melted then annealed. Qualitative EDS data from the latter shows the same composition as unshocked sample. Data allows an advanced reconstruction of events driving matter from crater digging through plasma and finally into metastable particles. Numerous theoretical[1] and experimental[2,3] reports, focused on each successive stage, help putting forward the hypothesis of a single complex process of condensation/coalescence. Direct qualitative and quantitative measurements on aerosols

  3. Investigating Compositional Variation of Ceramic Materials during the Late Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain - Preliminary LA-ICP-MS Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, Danielle J.; Niziolek, Lisa C.

    2015-10-01

    Investigations have been undertaken to assess the extent to which compositional analysis can be used to determine trade and interaction on the Great Hungarian Plain during the Late Neolithic. Ceramic and clay samples in the Körös and Berettyó River Basins were analyzed at the Elemental Analysis Facilities (EAF) at The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, IL, USA. With the use of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), the aim of the project was to ascertain if micro-regional or site-specific compositional signatures could be determined in a region that is typically characterized as highly geologically homogenous. Identifying site-specific signatures enables archaeologists to model prehistoric interactions and, in turn, determine the relationship between interaction and various socio-cultural changes. This paper focuses on the preliminary compositional results of materials analyzed from three different sites across the Plain and the methodological implications for future anthropological research in the region.

  4. Rediscovering the palette of Alentejo (Southern Portugal) earth pigments: provenance establishment and characterization by LA-ICP-MS and spectra-colorimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Green, R.; Carvalho, M. L.; Seruya, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Mirão, J.

    2009-09-01

    Colored earth pigments sourced from Alentejo, Portugal, can be geologically categorized as either weathered carbonate rocks (terra rossas), schist units, or weathered iron ore deposits. The material was used until the mid-1900s by local residents as an ingredient in their traditional lime wash paintings and possibly in the production of artistic murals across the Alentejo region since pre-historic times. An integrated methodology incorporating laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and spectra-colorimetric analysis (CIELAB coordinates and reflectance curves), complemented by XRD, WDXRF, SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, and granulometric analysis, was used to characterize thirty-one Alentejo colored earths in an effort to correlate provenance with pigments properties. Data obtained from elemental analysis (major and trace) revealed a generic and similar elemental “fingerprint” that unable their distinction according to geographic provenance. Samples of weathered iron ore deposits derived from explored iron, copper, and sulfur mines are more easily discriminated using the chalcophilic (“sulfur-loving“) elements. Color analysis revealed a range of hues; olive-yellow to dark reddish-brown owing mainly to differences in the type and proportion of the color component present, independent of the accessory mineral.

  5. Breakdown of orthopyroxene contributing to melt pockets in mantle peridotite xenoliths from the Western Qinling, central China: constraints from in situ LA-ICP-MS mineral analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ben-Xun; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Yang, Yue-Heng; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Ying, Ji-Feng; Tang, Yan-Jie

    2012-03-01

    Major and trace element compositions of constituent minerals, partly decomposed rims of orthopyroxenes (DRO), `closed' melt pockets (CMP) and open melt pockets (OMP) in some Western Qinling peridotite xenoliths were obtained by LA-ICP-MS. Systematic core-to-rim compositional variations of garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene demonstrate that these minerals underwent variable degrees of subsolidus breakdown or partial melting. Both DROs and CMPs consist of similar mineral assemblages and are characterized by high TiO2, CaO + Na2O and low MgO contents; they are enriched in LREE and LILE compositions, have positive anomalies in Pb, Sr and particularly Ti, negative Th and U, and variable Zr and Hf anomalies. These chemical features are distinct and reflect reactions involving the orthopyroxenes. Compared to the CMPs, the OMPs, which are composed of a complex assemblage of minerals, display lower FeO and MgO contents, larger ranges in SiO2 and Na2O, higher TiO2, Al2O3, CaO and trace element concentrations, slightly negative Zr and Hf anomalies, and apparently negative Ti anomalies. Modeling calculations of partial fusion of orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes suggest that the CMPs most likely originated from the breakdown of orthopyroxenes with variably minor contribution of external melts from the melting of clinopyroxenes, whereas the OMPs were probably formed from the modification of the CMPs through the interaction with large amount of external melts.

  6. Title: The validation of Cryogenic Laser Ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS) methods by comparison to laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS and solution based ICP-MS methods, for the analysis of metals in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannigan, R.; Darrah, T. H.; Horton, M.

    2009-12-01

    ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) are well established techniques for the analysis of metals in geological and environmental samples. LA-ICP-MS is commonly used in geological applications to determine the spatial distribution of metal concentrations at small sampling intervals (as low as 10 microns). However, measurement of metals in water-rich, soft biological tissues typically requires samples to be digested into solutions, obfuscating spatial variations in metal concentrations. The cryogenic cell solidifies (by freezing) soft tissue, allowing these tissues to be analyzed by laser ablation for spatial variations in metal concentration. The cell is temperature programmable and capable of maintaining a sample at any temperature between -35C and 25C throughout prolonged analysis. We validate the cryogenic laser ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS) method using NIST Glass SRM 612. We also compare metal concentration data analyzed by cryogenic laser ablation ICP-MS (CLA-ICP-MS), LA-ICP-MS, and solution based ICP-MS, for human and rodent brain samples. The cryogenic laser ablation cell will expand analytical capabilities for measuring spatial distribution and concentration of metals incorporated into biological tissues.

  7. Evolution of garnet distribution, shape and composition in high-grade pelitic migmatites of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil: insights from LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Raimondo, Tom; Santos de Souza, Jailma

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is a widely used mineral in metamorphic petrology and more particularly for thermobarometric modelling to reconstruct the P-T-t evolution of Earth's crust. This is due to its ubiquity in high grade rocks (T > 450°C), its occurrence in many assemblages of interest for thermobarometry, and mostly to its ability to preserve chemical zoning. Two types of zoning are distinguished: growth and diffusion zoning. Growth zoning reflects crystallisation coeval with changes in P-T conditions or bulk composition. This type of zoning is therefore particularly useful to unravel the P-T evolution of open systems and determine the growth mechanisms involved. However, growth zoning in major elements is commonly altered by processes such as volume diffusion, which is particularly efficient at high temperatures and for elements like Fe or Mg that have high diffusion coefficients. In such cases, information that relates to the environmental conditions of garnet growth is either totally or partially obliterated. To minimise the impact of this process on growth zoning and retain useful information, trace elements are more appropriate because of their lower diffusion coefficients compared to major elements. In this study, the distribution of trace elements in garnet has been imaged using an emerging LA-ICP-MS mapping technique. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution, with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U) and minimal sample preparation required. This technique has been applied to high-grade pelitic gneisses and migmatites from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (adjacent to the Farol da Bara, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). Structurally, it is located in a steeply-dipping high strain zone that may have played a major role in the segregation and

  8. Construction of high-resolution trace element time-series in slow growth speleothems by LA-ICP-MS: Importance of parameter optimization and oriented band fabric imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. R.; Griffiths, R. E.; Banner, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Establishing high-resolution trace element time series in speleothems requires analytical techniques capable of representative sampling at sub-annual spatial resolution, but also possessing sufficient signal-to-noise to reliably discern potential season-to-season concentration variations. Growth rate is a major factor affecting both of these analytical challenges. To date, LA-ICP-MS, LA-MC-ICP-MS, SIMS, and μXRF techniques have been successfully applied to speleothem records, but nearly all studies have focused on speleothems with relatively fast growth rates of ≥ 100 μm/yr and which display well-defined banding. U-series dating of central Texas speleothems of the Edwards aquifer karst system demonstrate that calcite growth followed glacial-interglacial climate transitions spanning the past 70 ky. In contrast to previous high-resolution studies, central Texas speleothem growth rates seldom exceeded 25-50μm/yr and thus reside within a "slow-growth" (< 100 μm/yr) regime. Furthermore, seasonal banding is seldom revealed by conventional petrographic methods, thus complicating temporal/spatial sampling. To meet the analytical challenges posed by slow growth speleothems, we present an approach using LA-ICP-MS that integrates ablation and ionization parameters customized for speleothem calcite with oriented UV-fluorescence imagery. Ablation aerosol generation, transport, and ionization efficiency in the ICP are major interrelated factors affecting resolution of micro-scale, chemically-banded materials. To enhance chemical variations in finely banded materials, the aperture diameter must: (1) not exceed the critical sampling limit defined by the Nyquist frequency of the effective chemical waveform, whether sinusoidal or otherwise skewed with a higher frequency limb; and (2) must be capable of generating signals in excess of natural lateral heterogeneity and analytical noise components of measurement. Fabric-oriented, slow line scans, using narrow (5μm) rectangular

  9. Quantitative lead determination in coating paint on children's outwear by LA-ICP-MS: a practical calibration strategy for solid samples.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Selda; Ellez, Sevinç Zeynep; Türkmen, Zeynep; Yayla, Murat; Cengiz, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a hazardous compound that affects the central nervous system in people, particularly children, and may cause some reversible and irreversible diseases. Legal regulations try to prevent the exposure from products especially produced for children such as coating paints, jewelry, toys, bed linen, textile, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the lead levels of coating paints on children׳s outwear selling in district bazaar by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and to specify the percent of non-complying samples. Here we described the solid matrix calibration method and confirmed the results with the microwave-assisted acid digestion method. Both comparative methods were validated by analysis of the certified reference materials (NIST SRM-612 glass matrix, NIST SRM-2582 powdered paint and ERM-EC681k) and bias% for accuracy and RSD% for precision were calculated lower than 6.8% and 7.3%, respectively. The recovery ranges of laser ablation and microwave-assisted acid digestion method for Pb were found to be between 88.2-98.1% and 95.3-101.3%, respectively. The limits of detection values were determined as 0.162 mg kg(-1) for direct sampling in the ablation chamber and 0.002 ng mL(-1) for aqueous solutions. Correlation result of 16 samples (r=0.99) examined in both methods was satisfactory. In coating paint samples, 14.65% of 198 (n=29) did not comply with the 90 mg kg(-1) lead limit according to regulation. Validated quantitative laser ablation method may be preferred to quickly and reliably determine the Pb levels in other solid samples as well as coating paints. PMID:25476301

  10. LA-ICP-MS mineral chemistry of titanite and the geological implications for exploration of porphyry Cu deposits in the Jinshajiang - Red River alkaline igneous belt, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Leiluo; Bi, Xianwu; Hu, Ruizhong; Tang, Yongyong; Wang, Xinsong; Xu, Yue

    2015-04-01

    The Jinshajiang-Red River alkaline igneous belt in the eastern Indian-Asian collision zone, of southwestern China, hosts abundant, economically important Cu-Mo-Au mineralization of Cenozoic age. Major- and trace-element compositions of titanites from representative Cu-mineralized intrusions determined by LA-ICP-MS show higher values for Fe2O3/Al2O3, ΣREE + Y, LREE/HREE, Ce/Ce*, (Ce/Ce*)/(Eu/Eu*), U, Th, Ta, Nb and Ga, and lower values for Al2O3, CaO, Eu/Eu*, Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta and Sr than those for titanites from barren intrusions. Different ΣREE + Y, LREE/HREE, U, Th, Ta and Nb values of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were controlled mainly by the coexisting melt compositions. However, different Sr concentrations and negative Eu anomalies of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were most probably caused by different degrees of crystallization of feldspar from melts. In addition, different Ga concentrations and positive Ce anomalies of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were most likely caused by different magmatic fO2 conditions. Pronounced compositional differences of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions can provide a useful tool to help discriminate between ore-bearing and barren intrusions at an early stage of exploration, and, thus, have a potential application in exploration for porphyry Cu deposits in the Jinshajiang - Red River alkaline igneous belt, and to other areas.

  11. LA-ICP-MS heavy metal analyses of fish scales from sediments of the Oxbow Lake Certak of the Morava River (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holá, M.; Kalvoda, J.; Bábek, O.; Brzobohatý, R.; Holoubek, I.; Kanický, V.; Skoda, R.

    2009-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were studied in the scales of recent and subrecent (2-25 years old) fish buried in the oxbow lake sediments of the Morava River. The samples were taken from two cores up to 4-m deep and analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and an electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). The results were compared with heavy metal concentrations of bulk samples of the embedding sediment. The study has revealed substantial differences in heavy metal contents existing between the recent and subrecent fish scales documenting an extreme rapidity of the diagenesis/fossilization processes. The most apparent features of the early fossilization include the quick loss of the mucous envelope, collagen and magnesium and an enormous increase in the heavy metal concentrations in particular iron, which is connected with a colour change. The variations in heavy metal contents in fish scales within a sample are attributed to variations in heavy metal content in the environment and variable amounts of organic matter in the embedding sediment. In contrast to the contamination of the embedding sediment, no general increase in heavy metal concentrations in fish scales was observed down to the cores. It is inferred that the rapid sorption stabilizes the biologic hydroxyapatite of the fish scales, which thus rapidly attain a thermodynamic equilibrium with the embedding water-saturated sediment. The results show that the processes of sorption, fossilization and stabilization of hydroxyapatite can act very quickly over a time scale of several years and represent thus a great advantage in the preservation of the original signals of the ancient environments.

  12. Tubular textures in pillow lavas from a Caledonian west Norwegian ophiolite: A combined TEM, LA-ICP-MS, and STXM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliegel, Daniel; Wirth, Richard; Simonetti, Antonio; Schreiber, Anja; Furnes, Harald; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2011-02-01

    Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, in glassy rims of pillow lavas from a Norwegian ophiolite (Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite complex (SSOC)) are described and characterized by a multimethod approach. Tubular alteration textures, mineralized by titanite, have been previously proposed to result from bioalteration. The microstructure of the titanite and the tubes is investigated using focused ion beam milling in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These indicate an assemblage of submicrometer-sized (about 500 nm) titanite single crystals with no organic film or residue in between the grains. In situ U-Pb radiometric dating of the titanite, using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS), yielded a metamorphic age of 442 ± 13 Ma. An isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometric age obtained previously for zircons from the SSOC plutonic rocks yielded a magmatic age of 443 ± 3 Ma. The overlap in ages indicates that subseafloor metamorphism, responsible for titanite formation, occurred during seafloor or subseafloor formation of the tubular alteration textures. The rare earth element contents of the titanite were determined using LA-ICP-MS and chondrite-normalized patterns are similar to those of the SSOC volcanics; hence these do not reflect hydrothermal or seawater influence. The Y/Ho ratio of ˜20-30 in the titanite is also consistent with an upper mantle-derived origin. The sum of all of the spatial resolved data reported here neither supports nor refutes a biogenic origin for the tubular textures.

  13. Coupling thermodynamic modeling and high-resolution in situ LA-ICP-MS monazite geochronology: evidence for Barrovian metamorphism late in the Grenvillian history of southeastern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarron, Travis; Gaidies, Fred; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.; Easton, R. Michael; Jones, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The Flinton Group is a greenschist to upper amphibolite facies package of metasediments in southeastern Ontario that was metamorphosed during the Ottawan Orogeny. Thermodynamic modeling of metapelitic mineral assemblages suggests an increase in peak conditions of metamorphism across the 40 km wide study area from 3.5 to 7.9 kbar and 540 to 715 °C. Garnet isopleth thermobarometry applied to the cores of compositionally zoned porphyroblasts reveals remarkably similar P-T conditions of initial crystallization at approximately 3.7-4.0 kbar and 512-520 °C, corresponding to a relatively high geothermal gradient of ca. 34-45 °C km-1. It is inferred from modeling and reaction textures that metamorphism was along Barrovian P-T paths. Major and trace element zoning in garnet from one sample records a complex growth history as evidenced by major and trace element zoning and the distribution of xenotime, allanite and monazite inclusions. High-resolution (6 μm) LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology performed on monazite in the rock matrix and included in the outer 150 μm of garnet rim-ward of a Y annulus revealed an age of 976 ± 4 Ma. The age is interpreted to reflect monazite growth at the expense of allanite and apatite late in garnet's growth history over the P-T interval 4.5-6.8 kbar and 540-640 °C. This new age estimate for near peak metamorphism fits well into the regional framework but is significantly younger than previously reported ages for Ottawan metamorphism. Based on microstructures this new age suggests that compressional tectonics were operating much later in the history of the Grenville of southeastern Ontario than previously thought.

  14. Trace-element study and uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex, Kola Peninsula (Russia) using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, Ekaterina P.; Camacho, Alfredo; Yang, Panseok; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Halden, Norman M.

    2010-11-01

    The U-Pb geochronology of perovskite is a powerful tool in constraining the emplacement age of silica-undersaturated rocks. The trace-element and U-Pb isotopic compositions of perovskite from clinopyroxenite and silicocarbonatite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola, Russia) were determined by laser-ablation inductively-coupled mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In addition, the Sr isotopic composition of perovskite was measured by isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry to better constrain the relations between its host rocks. Perovskite from the two rock types shows a different degree of enrichment in Na, Mg, Mn, Pb, Fe, Al, V, rare-earth elements, Zr, Hf, Th, U and Ta. The perovskite 87Sr/86Sr values are within analytical uncertainty of one another and fall within the range of mantle values. The 206Pb/238U ages (corrected for common lead using 207Pb-method) of perovskite from silicocarbonatite statistically yield a single population with a weighted mean of 371 ± 8 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.071). This age is indistinguishable, within uncertainty, to the clinopyroxenite weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 374 ± 10 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.18). Our data are in good agreement with the previous geochronological study of the Afrikanda complex. The observed variations in trace-element composition of perovskite from silicocarbonatite and clinopyroxenite indicate that these rocks are not related by crystal fractionation. The Sr isotopic ratios and the fact that the two rocks are coeval suggest that they were either produced from a single parental melt by liquid immiscibility, or from two separate magmas derived at different degrees of partial melting from an isotopically equilibrated, but modally complex mantle source.

  15. Liquid immiscibility between arsenide and sulfide melts: evidence from a LA-ICP-MS study in magmatic deposits at Serranía de Ronda (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Barnes, S.-J.; Ortega, L.; Lunar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The chromite-Ni arsenide (Cr-Ni-As) and sulfide-graphite (S-G) deposits from the Serranía de Ronda (Málaga, South Spain) contain an arsenide assemblage (nickeline, maucherite and nickeliferous löllingite) that has been interpreted to represent an arsenide melt and a sulfide-graphite assemblage (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and graphite) that has been interpreted to represent a sulfide melt, both of which have been interpreted to have segregated as immiscible liquids from an arsenic-rich sulfide melt. We have determined the platinum-group element (PGE), Au, Ag, Se, Sb, Bi and Te contents of the arsenide and sulfide assemblages using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to establish their partitioning behaviour during the immiscibility of an arsenide melt from a sulfide melt. Previous experimental work has shown that PGE partition more strongly into arsenide melts than into sulfide melts and our results fit with this observation. Arsenide minerals are enriched in all PGE, but especially in elements with the strongest affinity for the arsenide melt, including Ir, Rh and Pt. In contrast and also in agreement with previous studies, Se and Ag partition preferentially into the sulfide assemblage. The PGE-depleted nature of sulfides in the S-G deposits along with the discordant morphologies of the bodies suggest that these sulfides are not mantle sulfides, but that they represent the crystallization product of a PGE-depleted sulfide melt due to the sequestering of PGE by an arsenide melt.

  16. Elemental analysis of soils using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with multivariate discrimination: tape mounting as an alternative to pellets for small forensic transfer specimens.

    PubMed

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2014-01-01

    Elemental analysis of soil is a useful application of both laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in geological, agricultural, environmental, archeological, planetary, and forensic sciences. In forensic science, the question to be answered is often whether soil specimens found on objects (e.g., shoes, tires, or tools) originated from the crime scene or other location of interest. Elemental analysis of the soil from the object and the locations of interest results in a characteristic elemental profile of each specimen, consisting of the amount of each element present. Because multiple elements are measured, multivariate statistics can be used to compare the elemental profiles in order to determine whether the specimen from the object is similar to one of the locations of interest. Previous work involved milling and pressing 0.5 g of soil into pellets before analysis using LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. However, forensic examiners prefer techniques that require smaller samples, are less time consuming, and are less destructive, allowing for future analysis by other techniques. An alternative sample introduction method was developed to meet these needs while still providing quantitative results suitable for multivariate comparisons. The tape-mounting method involved deposition of a thin layer of soil onto double-sided adhesive tape. A comparison of tape-mounting and pellet method performance is reported for both LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. Calibration standards and reference materials, prepared using the tape method, were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. As with the pellet method, linear calibration curves were achieved with the tape method, as well as good precision and low bias. Soil specimens from Miami-Dade County were prepared by both the pellet and tape methods and analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. Principal components analysis and linear discriminant analysis were applied to the multivariate data

  17. Extreme enrichment of Se, Te, PGE and Au in Cu sulfide microdroplets: evidence from LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwell, David A.; Keays, Reid R.; McDonald, Iain; Williams, Megan R.

    2015-12-01

    The Platinova Reef, in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, is an example of a magmatic Cu-PGE-Au sulfide deposit formed in the latter stages of magmatic differentiation. As is characteristic with such deposits, it contains a low volume of sulfide, displays peak metal offsets and is Cu rich but Ni poor. However, even for such deposits, the Platinova Reef contains extremely low volumes of sulfide and the highest Pd and Au tenor sulfides of any magmatic ore deposit. Here, we present the first LA-ICP-MS analyses of sulfide microdroplets from the Platinova Reef, which show that they have the highest Se concentrations (up to 1200 ppm) and lowest S/Se ratios (190-700) of any known magmatic sulfide deposit and have significant Te enrichment. In addition, where sulfide volume increases, there is a change from high Pd-tenor microdroplets trapped in situ to larger, low tenor sulfides. The transition between these two sulfide regimes is marked by sharp peaks in Au, and then Te concentration, followed by a wider peak in Se, which gradually decreases with height. Mineralogical evidence implies that there is no significant post-magmatic hydrothermal S loss and that the metal profiles are essentially a function of magmatic processes. We propose that to generate these extreme precious and semimetal contents, the sulfides must have formed from an anomalously metal-rich package of magma, possibly formed via the dissolution of a previously PGE-enriched sulfide. Other processes such as kinetic diffusion may have also occurred alongside this to produce the ultra-high tenors. The characteristic metal offset pattern observed is largely controlled by partitioning effects, producing offset peaks in the order Pt+Pd>Au>Te>Se>Cu that are entirely consistent with published D values. This study confirms that extreme enrichment in sulfide droplets can occur in closed-system layered intrusions in situ, but this will characteristically form ore deposits that are so low in sulfide that they do

  18. Detrital zircon geochronology by LA-ICP-MS of the Neoarchean Manjeri Formation in the Archean Zimbabwe craton- the disappearance of Eoarchean crust by 2.7 Ga?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hikaru; Maruyama, Shigenori; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    For the ca. 2.7 Ga (Neoarchean) clastic rocks in the Belingwe greenstone belt (Manjeri Formation), U-Pb age of detrital zircon grains were analyzed by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The Manjeri Formation, composed of sandstone, quartzite, and limestone with stromatolites, was deposited in a shallow marine setting along the ancient passive continental margin of the Zimbabwe craton. Nearly 100 detrital zircon grains, for each from two sandstone samples in central Zimbabwe, were separated for U-Pb dating. Age spectra of detrital zircon grains of two analyzed sandstones of the Manjeri Formation show more or less the same multiple age clusters: i.e., ca. 2.9 Ga, ca. 3.15 Ga, ca. 3.3 Ga, and ca. 3.5 Ga. These age spectra reflect nature of the provenance of proto-Zimbabwe, which was considerably different from that of the modern Zimbabwe craton. The age clusters of ca. 2.9 Ga, ca. 3.3 Ga, and ca. 3.5 Ga are correlated with those of extant basement rocks of the present Zimbabwe craton, whereas the ca. 3.15 Ga cluster has no corresponding unit within the craton, except for detrital zircons from the 2.65 Ga Shamvaian Group in a neighboring area of the Zimbabwe craton. The extremely old (3.85 Ga; Eoarchean) detrital zircon grains, previously reported from the ca. 2.9 Ga and ca. 3.4 Ga sandstones elsewhere in the craton, were not detected at all in the present two analyzed samples. As no Eoarchean (>3.8 Ga) basement rocks remain in the Zimbabwe craton at present either, the present study confirmed that the Eoarchean crustal rocks once occurred in the proto-Zimbabwe craton but they had been removed secondarily from the provenance of Neoarchean and younger basins prior to 2.7 Ga. Possible geologic processes for such disappearance of older crusts may include the physiological separation by continental rifting, subduction erosion, and/or other crustal recycling processes.

  19. Temporal and Spatial Fluctuations in Ancestral Northern Cascade Arc Magmatism from New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Zircon Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, I. S.; Mullen, E.; Jean-Louis, P.; Tepper, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Mt. Baker and the adjacent Chilliwack batholith (MBC focus) in NW Washington preserve the longest magmatic record in the Cascade Arc, providing an excellent natural laboratory for examining the spatial, temporal and geochemical evolution of Cascade magmatism and links to tectonic processes. We present new U-Pb zircon LA-ICP-MS ages for 14 samples from MBC and neighboring regions of the north Cascades. The new results are up to 8 Myr different from previous K-Ar ages, illustrating the need for new age determinations in the Cascades. A maximum age of 34.74±0.24 Ma (2σ) (Post Creek stock) is consistent with 35-40 Ma ages for arc inception in the southern Cascades. The most voluminous MBC plutons cluster at 32-29 Ma, consistent with an early flare-up that also coincides with intrusion of the Index batholith farther south (2 samples at 33.26±0.19, 33.53±0.15 Ma). This flare-up is absent in the northernmost Cascades where the oldest pluton (Fall Creek stock) is 6.646±0.046 Ma, 4 Myr younger than previously cited. Earliest Cascade magmatism is progressively younger to the north of MBC, possibly tracing the northerly passage of the slab edge. MBC activity was continuous to 22.75±0.17 Ma (Whatcom Arm), marking the initiation of an 11 Myr hiatus. Magmatism resumed at 11.33±0.08 Ma (Indian Creek) and continued to the modern Mt. Baker cone, defining a pattern of southwesterly migration over ~55 km that may be attributable to slab rollback and arc rotation (e.g. Wells & McCaffrey 2013). Uniformity of the rate and direction of migration implies that rollback and rotation began at least 11 Myr ago. Post-hiatus magmas show distinct geochemical and petrologic characteristics including a major Pb isotopic shift. The 2.430±0.016 Ma Lake Ann stock contains 4.2 Ma zircon antecrysts, recording prolonged activity in that area. The 1.165±0.013 Ma Kulshan caldera ignimbrite contains ~200 Ma inherited zircons that may provide the first direct record of Wrangellian basement beneath

  20. Did the massive magnetite "lava flows" of El Laco (Chile) form by magmatic or hydrothermal processes? New constraints from magnetite composition by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges

    2015-06-01

    The El Laco magnetite deposits consist of more than 98 % magnetite but show field textures remarkably similar to mafic lava flows. Therefore, it has long been suggested that they represent a rare example of an effusive Fe oxide liquid. Field and petrographic evidence, however, suggest that the magnetite deposits represent replacement of andesite flows and that the textures are pseudomorphs. We determined the trace element content of magnetite by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) from various settings at El Laco and compared them with magnetite from both igneous and hydrothermal environments. This new technique allows us to place constraints on the conditions under which magnetite in these supposed magnetite "lava flows" formed. The trace element content of magnetite from the massive magnetite samples is different to any known magmatic magnetite, including primary magnetite phenocrysts from the unaltered andesite host rocks at El Laco. Instead, the El Laco magnetite is most similar in composition to hydrothermal magnetite from high-temperature environments (>500 °C), such as iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and porphyry-Cu deposits. The magnetite trace elements from massive magnetite are characterised by (1) depletion in elements considered relatively immobile in hydrothermal fluids (e.g. Ti, Al, Cr, Zr, Hf and Sc); (2) enrichment in elements that are highly incompatible with magmatic magnetite (rare earth elements (REE), Si, Ca, Na and P) and normally present in very low abundance in magmatic magnetite; (3) high Ni/Cr ratios which are typical of magnetite from hydrothermal environments; and (4) oscillatory zoning of Si, Ca, Mg, REE and most high field strength elements, and zoning truncations indicating dissolution, similar to that formed in hydrothermal Fe skarn deposits. In addition, secondary magnetite in altered, brecciated host rock, forming disseminations and veins, has the same composition as magnetite from the massive

  1. Comparison of LA-ICP-MS analyses of melt inclusions and their host olivine from the 1959 eruption of Kilauea Iki, Hawaii: Insights into picrite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, R. W.; Kent, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    and LA-ICP-MS. Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Ni analyzed by both techniques correlate well with one another, although there are systematic deviations up to 10-35%, these are most likely due to calibration challenges of one or both techniques. Ti and Cr do not correlate well, probably due to difficulty measuring these at low concentrations by EMPA. An empirical formula for calculating olivine forsterite content using Fe/Si ratios was also calibrated, which will allow the Fo content to be estimated using only the laser ablation data.

  2. Mid-Paleozoic arc granitoids in SW Japan with Neoproterozoic xenocrysts from South China: New zircon U-Pb ages by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kazumasa; Isozaki, Yukio; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Kurosegawa belt in SW Japan preserves fragments of Early-Middle Paleozoic granitoids traditionally called the Mitaki igneous rocks and previously dated ca. 470-435 Ma by several isotope analyses such as Rb-Sr, K-Ar and U-Pb, together with high-grade metamorphic rocks and Silurian strata, in a narrow belt. However, the timing of the oldest arc-related plutonism in Japan is constrained by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages of zircon from Mitaki granitoids in 3 areas in SW Japan; i.e. Kyushu, Shikoku, and Kii Peninsula. Weighted mean U-Pb ages of these zircons are 431.8 ± 3.9 for a granodiorite from the Mt. Mitaki area in Shikoku, 444.1 ± 5.8 Ma for a granodiorite from Kuraoka area in central Kyushu, and 444.5 ± 7.6 Ma for a quartzdiorite from the Nabaenohana area in western Kii peninsula, respectively. These ages confirm that the Mitaki igneous rocks have ca. 445-435 Ma (late Ordovician to mid-Silurian) ages. They are some of the oldest subduction-related plutonic rocks in SW Japan. Particularly noteworthy is a "tonalite" from the Nabaenohana area, which has a unique spectrum of zircon U-Pb ages with distinct 3 clusters; ca. 700-500 Ma (Neoproterozoic-Cambrian), ca. 1350-830 Ma (Meo-Neoproterozoic), and ca. 3230-1560 Ma (Paleoarchean-Mesoproterozoic). Of the 44 dated zircon grains, the youngest (possibly xenocrystic) grains are ca. 500 Ma. Older zircon grains with ages >500 Ma range up to 3230 Ma and are interpreted as inherited xenocrysts in the "tonalite". The Mitaki igneous rocks are interpreted to have been derived by melting of post-500 Ma terrigenous sedimentary rocks that yielded a unique tonalitic S-type granitoid magma. From the presence of abundant 1350-700 Ma (Meso- to Neoproterozoic) zircon grains in the "tonalite" we conclude that during the Early Paleozoic, proto-Japan was located close to the Cathaysian margin of South China.

  3. LA ICP MS U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from Russia largest rivers: Implications for major granitoid events in Eurasia and global episodes of supercontinent formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, Inna; Maruyama, Shige; Hirata, Takafumi; Kon, Yoshiaki; Rino, Shuji

    2010-09-01

    The paper presents LA ICP MS U-Pb age data on detrital zircons from sands of major Russian rivers: the Don, Volga, Ob', Yenisey and Amur. The obtained data are discussed in terms of major episodes of granitic magmatism, which are recorded in the continental blocks that form the modern Eurasian continent. Results are compared with published igneous and detrital zircon age data obtained from parental and sedimentary rocks of the river basins under consideration and worldwide. The U-Pb age results allowed us to confirm (i) the episodic character of continent formation; (ii) the Neoarchean global magmatic event and, possibly, formation of the Kenorland supercontinent; (iii) the global episode of crust formation at 2.0-1.8 Ga, which formed the Columbia supercontinent; (iv) the breakup of Columbia at 1.3-1.2 Ga; (v) the major period of Phanerozoic crustal growth in Central Asia which is likely to be a result of the Altaid orogeny. On the other hand, our data did not unambiguously confirm previous idea about the global character of the Grenvillian and Pan-African orogenies as a result of the assembly of Rodinia and Gondwana, respectively. The "Rodinia" peak is not observed in the histograms of the Ob', Yenisey and Amur, whereas the "Gondwana" signature is not obvious in the histograms of the Don, Volga and Amur. Of special interest are the 2.7-2.5 Ga and 2.0-1.7 Ga peaks in the Ob' zircon age spectrum in spite of the absence of so far identified Archean and Paleoproterozoic parental rocks in the Ob' catchment area. The obtained age spectra were joined into three groups based on statistics: Baltica (Don and Volga), Siberia (Ob' and Yenisey) and East Asia (Amur). For future reconstructions we suggest to include all the available results on Don and Volga rivers into a North America-Baltica Group corresponding to Laurentia-derived continental blocks, and to consider a Siberia Group (Siberian Craton; Ob', Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka rivers) and an East Asia Group (North and South

  4. Reply to Comment on "Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on the 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Guillong et al. (2015) mentioned that corrections for abundance sensitivity for 232Th and molecular zirconium sesquioxide ions (Zr2O3+) are critical for reliable determination of 230Th abundances in zircon for LA-ICP-MS analyses. There is no denying that more rigorous treatments are necessary to obtain more reliable ages than those in Ito (2014). However, as shown in Fig. 2 in Guillong et al. (2015), the uncorrected (230Th)/(238U) for reference zircons except for Mud Tank are only 5-20% higher than unity. Since U abundance of Toya Tephra zircons that have U-Pb ages < 1 Ma is in-between that of FCT and Plesovice, the overestimation of 230Th by both abundance sensitivity and molecular interferences is expected to be 5-20% for the Toya Tephra. Moreover Ito (2014) obtained U-Th ages of the Toya Tephra by comparison with Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) data. Because both the FCT and the Toya Tephra have similar trends of overestimation of 230Th, the effect of overestimation of 230Th to cause overestimation of U-Th age should be cancelled out or negligible. Therefore the pivotal conclusion in Ito (2014) that simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating using LA-ICP-MS is possible and useful for Quaternary zircons holds true.

  5. Comment on "Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan" by Hisatoshi Ito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Schmitt, A. K.; Bachmann, O.

    2015-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of eight zircon reference materials and synthetic zircon-hafnon end-members indicate that corrections for abundance sensitivity and molecular zirconium sesquioxide ions (Zr2O3+) are critical for reliable determination of 230Th abundances in zircon. Other polyatomic interferences in the mass range 223-233 amu are insignificant. When corrected for abundance sensitivity and interferences, activity ratios of (230Th)/(238U) for the zircon reference materials we used average 1.001 ± 0.010 (1σ error; mean square of weighted deviates MSWD = 1.45; n = 8). This includes the 91500 and Plešovice zircons, which were deemed unsuitable for calibration of (230Th)/(238U) by Ito (2014). Uranium series zircon ages generated by LA-ICP-MS without mitigating (e.g., by high mass resolution) or correcting for abundance sensitivity and molecular interferences on 230Th such as those presented by Ito (2014) are potentially unreliable.

  6. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life. PMID:17429616

  7. Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on the 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th zircon dating using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was performed on the ~ 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Hokkaido, Japan. The method employs the concurrent measurement of 206Pb, 230Th, and 238U signals, which enables the determination of 238U-206Pb (U-Pb) and 238U-230Th (U-Th) ages simultaneously. The U-Pb ages revealed that the Toya Tephra contains zircons with ages that cluster at ~ 0.1 Ma (0.11 ± 0.01 Ma: error shown as 95% confidence level) and xenocrysts with ages > 2 Ma. Excluding zircons > 2 Ma, the U-Th method also gave an isochron age of ~ 0.1 Ma (108 ± 19 ka or 0.11 ± 0.02 Ma; error shown as 2σ). Therefore, both U-Pb and U-Th methods result in similar ages of ~ 0.1 Ma for the Toya Tephra, in agreement with the quartz TL age (104 ± 30 to 118 ± 30 ka) of Ganzawa and Ike (2011). It was revealed that the simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th zircon dating technique using LA-ICP-MS is easy to apply and is useful for Quaternary tephras in that it can give age information on the tephra itself and xenocrystic zircons in a quick and cost-effective manner. The double dating technique employed here has the merit that zircons yielding Quaternary U-Pb ages can be immediately cross-checked by the U-Th method. It was also revealed that the Toya Tephra magma crystallized zircons and experienced eruptions instantaneously at ~ 0.1 Ma, which is an important implication to decipher magmatic and eruptive processes for caldera-forming large volcanic systems.

  8. LA-ICP-MS analyses of minor and trace elements and bulk Ge isotopes in zoned Ge-rich sphalerites from the Noailhac - Saint-Salvy deposit (France): Insights into incorporation mechanisms and ore deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belissont, Rémi; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Luais, Béatrice; Cathelineau, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The increasing worldwide demand in germanium (Ge) is driving renewed research for understanding its geological cycle and the factors controlling its concentration in minerals. The advent of accurate, high-resolution trace element analysis by LA-ICP-MS, as well as the advances in MC-ICP-MS technique for Ge isotopes in sulphides, has enhanced studies in this field. Ge isobaric interferences, standard calibration and data interpretation remain outstanding issues needing to be addressed for more precise and comprehensive LA-ICP-MS analyses. An integrated mineralogical and geochemical study was carried out on typical sphalerite (ZnS) samples from the main Ge deposit in western Europe: the vein-type Zn-Ge-Ag-(Pb-Cd) deposit of Noailhac - Saint-Salvy (Tarn, France). In situ coupled measurements of trace elements and S isotopes were performed using LA-ICP-MS and SIMS, respectively, together with bulk Ge isotopes by MC-ICP-MS. Principal component analyses revealed element clusters antithetically distributed within distinct zoning types in sphalerite: sector zonings are enriched in Cu, Ge, Ga, Sb and As, whereas rhythmic bandings (dark brown bands primarily) are enriched in Fe, Cd, In and Sn. This typical distribution points to crystallographic controls on trace element uptake during sphalerite growth, occurring with concomitant microscale variations in fluid compositions at the fluid-crystal interface. Regardless of the zoning type, in all spots, Cu contents approach the sum of tri- and tetravalent cations (Ge, Ga, In, etc.) so that Cu could provide charge-balance for the entire set of coupled substitution mechanisms responsible for the incorporation of the whole range of trace elements in this sphalerite. Strong binary correlations suggest direct substitutions as Zn2+ ↔ (Fe2+, Cd2+) and coupled substitutions as 2Zn2+ ↔ Cu+ + Sb3+, 3Zn2+ ↔ Ge4+ + 2Ag+, and 3Zn2+ ↔ In3+ + Sn3+ + □ (vacancy) despite no clear evidence for the presence of Sn4+. δ74GeNIST3120a in bulk

  9. Provenance of lateritic bauxite deposits in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen area, Northern Guizhou Province, China: LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jing; Huang, Zhilong; Fan, Hongpeng; Ye, Lin; Jin, Zhongguo

    2013-07-01

    The provenance of the large and super-large scale bauxite deposits developed in the Wuchuan-Zheng'an-Daozhen (WZD) alumina metallogenic province in the Yangtze Block of South China is poorly understood. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from bauxite ores and the underlying Hanjiadian Group in the WZD area provide new constrains on the provenance of the WZD bauxite and provide new insight on the bauxite ore-forming process. The ages of the detrital zircons in the bauxites and the zircons in the Hanjiadian Group are similar suggesting that the bauxites are genetically related to the Hanjiadian sediments. The detrital zircon populations of the four samples studied show four primary age peaks: 2600-2400 Ma, 1900-1700 Ma, 1300-700 Ma and 700-400 Ma. The age distribution of detrital zircons indicates that they are probably derived from various sources including Neoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, Paleoproterozoic, Archean and some minor Paleozoic sources. The most abundant age population contains a continuous range of ages from 1300 to 700 Ma, ages consistent with subduction-related magmatic activities (1000-740 Ma) along the western margin of the Yangtze Block and the worldwide Grenville orogenic events (1300-1000 Ma). Thus, it is suggested that the main provenances of the WZD bauxite and the Hanjiadian Group are the Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the western Yangtze Block and the Grenville-age igneous rocks in the southern Cathaysia Block. In addition, this work verifies that the global Grenville orogenic events and subduction-related magmatic activities associated with the Yangtze Block had a significant influence on the formation of the WZD bauxite deposits.

  10. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating, trace element and Hf isotope geochemistry of the Heyu granite batholith, eastern Qinling, central China: Implications for Mesozoic tectono-magmatic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nuo; Chen, Yan-Jing; Pirajno, Franco; Gong, Hu-Jun; Mao, Shi-Dong; Ni, Zhi-Yong

    2012-06-01

    Mesozoic granitoids are widespread in the southern margin of the North China Craton, and of particular geological interests because of their indication for lithospheric evolution and close association with porphyry Mo mineralization. In this contribution, in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb, Hf isotope and trace element analyses of zircon crystals have been combined to constrain the emplacement time and petrogenesis of the Heyu granitic batholith which hosts the Yuchiling porphyry Mo system, Henan Province, China. As inferred from field investigations, the concentrically zoned Heyu batholith mainly consists of four texturally distinguishable phases, and displays a pattern of monotonically decreasing U-Pb age from 143.0 ± 1.6 Ma for Phase 1, through 138.4 ± 1.5 Ma for Phase 2, through to ca. 135 Ma for Phase 3, and to 133.6 ± 1.3 Ma for the Mo-mineralized Yuchiling granite porphyry (Phase 4). The ɛHf(t) values (- 27.7 to - 3.4) and the two stage Hf model ages (1403 to 2924 Ma) of zircon grains, together with the ages of local strata, suggest that the magmas forming the Heyu batholith were dominantly sourced from the crust, with input of a mantle component. The higher Ce/Ce* ratios of the zircon crystals in the mineralized Yuchiling porphyry compared to those in the Mo-barren phases suggests that fluids exsolved from oxidic magmas might be more favorable for Mo enrichment. A regional synthesis suggests that intensive lithospheric thinning in the southern margin of the North China Craton should not be earlier than 130 Ma.

  11. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to explore geochemical taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the upper cretaceous two medicine and Judith River formations of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, R.R.; Fricke, H.C.; Addona, V.; Canavan, R.R.; Dwyer, C.N.; Harwood, C.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Murray, R.; Thole, J.T.; Williams, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine rare earth element (REE) content of 76 fossil bones collected from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine (TMF) and Judith River (JRF) Formations of Montana. REE content is distinctive at the formation scale, with TMF samples exhibiting generally higher overall REE content and greater variability in REE enrichment than JRF samples. Moreover, JRF bones exhibit relative enrichment in heavy REE, whereas TMF bones span heavy and light enrichment fields in roughly equal proportions. TMF bones are also characterized by more negative Ce anomalies and greater U enrichment than JRF bones, which is consistent with more oxidizing diagenetic conditions in the TMF. Bonebeds in both formations show general consistency in REE content, with no indication of spatial or temporal mixing within sites. Previous studies, however, suggest that the bonebeds in question are attritional assemblages that accumulated over considerable time spans. The absence of geochemical evidence for mixing is consistent with diagenesis transpiring in settings that remained chemically and hydrologically stable during recrystallization. Lithology-related patterns in REE content were also compared, and TMF bones recovered from fluvial sandstones show relative enrichment in heavy REE when compared with bones recovered from fine-grained floodplain deposits. In contrast, JRF bones, regardless of lithologic context (sandstone versus mudstone), exhibit similar patterns of REE uptake. This result is consistent with previous reconstructions that suggest that channel-hosted microfossil bonebeds of the JRF developed via the reworking of preexisting concentrations embedded in the interfluve. Geochemical data further indicate that reworked elements were potentially delivered to channels in a recrystallized condition, which is consistent with rapid adsorption of REE postmortem. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for

  12. Tectonic attribution of the Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia and implications for the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Western North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the Langshan basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Han, Bao-Fu; Feng, Li-Xia; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Bo; Kong, Ling-Jie

    2016-09-01

    The Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia, China, is situated on the conjunction of the Alxa Block in the west, the northern North China Craton (NCC) in the east, and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the north, but its tectonic attribution has long been in debate, because the Alxa Block may be an independent Precambrian block from the NCC and the boundary between the two blocks may lie along the Bayanwulashan, to the west of the Langshan, instead of around the Helanshan area, to the east of the Langshan. In this study, new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of four gneisses, one amphibolite, and three granites, combined with previously published age data from Langshan basement rocks, indicate that the Langshan area may be subdivided into the Main Langshan, to the north of a series of NNW-trending faults, and the Southern Langshan in the south. The Main Langshan basement rocks were mainly formed during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, with five major stages of ~ 2.7 Ga (2686 Ma), ~ 2.6 Ga (2619-2563 Ma), ~ 2.5 Ga (2534-2491 Ma), ~ 1.95 Ga (1969-1938 Ma), and ~ 1.7 Ga (1672 Ma). These stages are largely consistent with the major tectonothermal events of the northern NCC during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic but significantly different from the principal formation period (ca. 2.5-1.9 Ga) of Alxa basement rocks. The Southern Langshan is characterized by the presence of late Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.9 Ga) and Neoproterozoic (~ 0.9 Ga) rocks, and the latter is consistent with the Neoproterozoic magmatism in central Alxa Block, which might be formed in a orogenesis-related compressional environment, in contrast to contemporaneous rift-related extensional tectonic setting within the NCC. Therefore, the Main Langshan and the Southern Langshan are most likely closely related to the northern NCC and the Alxa Block, respectively.

  13. Characterization of depositional age and structure of sedimentary successions by U-Pb TIMS and LA-ICP-MS dating of volcanic horizons and detrital zircons: an example from the western Trondheim Nappe Complex, Scandinavian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, Deta; Grenne, Tor; Corfu, Fernando; Eivind Augland, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Revealing the absolute depositional age of non-fossiliferous sedimentary successions represents a long-lasting challenge in Earth Sciences. Lacking age control hampers the correct interpretation of the temporal evolution of depositional systems, and, if deformed, of the architecture of fold-and-thrust belts. Dating of detrital zircons within clastic sedimentary successions has over the past decades become a popular method to approximate the absolute depositional age and to characterize the source areas of such rocks. If combined with other geochronological information, such as dating of contemporaneous volcanic horizons, a much better resolution of the stratigraphy and structure of non-fossiliferous sedimentary successions can be achieved. The western Trondheim nappe complex in the central Scandinavian Caledonides is a classical area in this respect. On top of Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician ophiolitic fragments, various volcanic, volcano-clastic and clastic successions tell a complex story of island-arc formation, ocean closure and continent collision. Several famous fossil horizons indicate deposition during the Middle to Upper Ordovician (ca. 470-445 Ma), but large areas lack an absolute age control and several contrasting stratigraphic schemes and structural interpretations have been presented in the past. In this contribution we present the results of LA-ICP-MS detrital U-Pb zircon dating of clastic horizons as well as U-Pb TIMS zircon dating of volcanic horizons and magmatic clasts in conglomerates in order to characterize the depositional age and structure of the western Trondheim nappe complex in more detail. Together with field observations, including way up criteria, the zircon data enable significant revisions of existing stratigraphic and structural models. At least four (volcano-)sedimentary successions can be distinguished above the ca. 480-485 Ma greenstones: (1) ca. 470-463 Ma shales, limestones and andesitic porphyrites (Hølonda and Fanabekken

  14. Zircon provinces from Cadomia, Avalonia, Baltica, and West Africa as a tool for the reconstruction of Gondwanan Europe - Constraints from LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analysis of detrital and magmatic zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Ulf

    2013-04-01

    Sediment provenances and magmatic events of Late Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) and Lower Palaeozoic rock complexes from the Central European Variscides zone and adjoining palaeo-continents are constrained by new LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of detrital and magmatic zircons. These results in combination with the analysis of the plate-tectonic setting constrained from field observations, sedimentological and geochemical data, and trends of the basin development are used to reconstruct Cadomian and Avalonian orogenic processes during the Late Neoproterozoic and the earliest Palaeozoic. The fingerprint of Avalonia- and Cadomia-derived zircon provinces gives the chance for the reconstruction of the fragmentation and the spatial arrangement of peri-Gondwanan crustal domains during the Variscan orogeny. The geotectonic history of Gondwanan Europe started with a plate tectonic interplay of Baltica, Amazonia, and West Africa at c. 750-800 Ma. Thus, initial input of detrital zircon was delivered from these cratons. Major crustal growth during the Pan-African events occurred during the time span of c.650 to c. 540 Ma and resulted in the formation of the Gondwana supercontinent. Most important crustal growth was finished at the end of the Precambrian. Palaeozoic orogenies mostly recycle the Precambrian-Early Cambrian crust and new crust is rare. Thus, the Palaeo-continents relevant to the formation of Gondwanan Europe are characterized by distinct zircon populations. Basically we can distinguish a West African, Amazonian, and Baltica zircon province. Zircons derived from Cadomian arc rocks form together with West African zircons form the Cadomian zircon province. Amazonian zircons mixed with Avalonian arc material are mirrored in the Avalonian zircon province. The Avalonian zircon province plus zircons from the docking of Avalonia onto Baltica at c. 450 Ma and, in addition, plus zircons from the Iapetus closure at c. 420 Ma are refelced in the Rheno-Hercynian zircon province. The Saxo

  15. Sands of West Gondwana: An archive of secular magmatism and plate interactions — A case study from the Cambro-Ordovician section of the Tassili Ouan Ahaggar (Algerian Sahara) using U-Pb-LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Ulf; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Drareni, Amar; Hofmann, Mandy; Becker, Sindy; Gärtner, Andreas; Sagawe, Anja

    2011-04-01

    Enormous masses of highly mature quartz sands were deposited in Western Gondwana during the Cambrian-Ordovician time, and provide a wide range of information concerning magmatic events through time, provenance, paleoclimate, and basin history. We present a provenance study based on 630 U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) ages of detrital zircon from the latest Cambrian to Ordovician siliciclastic rocks of the Tassili Ouan Ahaggar basin situated in the Algerian Sahara. Most authors suggest local sources only for the sandstones. Instead, we demonstrate that the detritus is derived from different cratons and terranes which contributed to the deposition of a Cambrian-Ordovician overstep sequence covering western and northern Africa. Most zircon ages (61.0%) fall in the range of ~ 540 to 740 Ma and are interpreted to have been derived from Pan-African orogenic belts such as the Trans-Saharan Belt of NW Africa and previously from the Brazila belt of South America. Other potential sources for this zircon population are terranes of Cadomian affinity situated marginal to West Africa. The second-largest zircon population (20.2%) is 2.0 to 2.2 Ga, and is attributed to sources in the West African craton, such as the Birimian basement and the Eburnean orogenic belt, with possible partial input from the Amazonian craton. A zircon population of 7.1% yields Mesoproterozoic and early Paleoproterozoic ages in the range of ~ 1.3 to ~ 1.8 Ga and was probably derived from source rocks outside of the West African basement, the Tuareg shield and other adjoining areas. The Amazonian craton is a potential source region. A population of 6.7% of all zircon ages scatter from ~ 750 Ma to ~ 980 Ma and may reflect input from latest stages of the formation of Rodinia and its subsequent dispersal. A smaller population (3.2%) of zircon ages lie between ~ 2.3 and 2.65 Ga, and may be derived from late Paleoproterozoic to early Archaean rocks from the West African craton and possibly from Amazonia. Less than 1% of all

  16. Telescience workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert L.; Doyle, Dee; Haines, Richard F.; Slocum, Michael

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Telescience Testbed Pilot Program, the Universities Space Research Association/ Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (USRA/RIACS) proposed to support remote communication by providing a network of human/machine interfaces, computer resources, and experimental equipment which allows: remote science, collaboration, technical exchange, and multimedia communication. The telescience workstation is intended to provide a local computing environment for telescience. The purpose of the program are as follows: (1) to provide a suitable environment to integrate existing and new software for a telescience workstation; (2) to provide a suitable environment to develop new software in support of telescience activities; (3) to provide an interoperable environment so that a wide variety of workstations may be used in the telescience program; (4) to provide a supportive infrastructure and a common software base; and (5) to advance, apply, and evaluate the telescience technolgy base. A prototype telescience computing environment designed to bring practicing scientists in domains other than their computer science into a modern style of doing their computing was created and deployed. This environment, the Telescience Windowing Environment, Phase 1 (TeleWEn-1), met some, but not all of the goals stated above. The TeleWEn-1 provided a window-based workstation environment and a set of tools for text editing, document preparation, electronic mail, multimedia mail, raster manipulation, and system management.

  17. LA ICP MS and Ion Probe U-Pb dating of igneous and metasedimentary units in the NE Pontides, NE Turkey: evidence of Peri-Gondwanan terrane accretion, Late Palaeozoic magmatism/metamorphism and Early Mesozoic extension along the S Eurasian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Ayda Ustaömer, P.

    2010-05-01

    The Artvin area is critical to an understanding of the tectonic development of the S margin of Eurasia and Tethys to the south. We have supplemented recent MTA mapping with 1/25,000-scale mapping of a critical area, combined with integrated stratigraphical, sedimentary, geochemical and geochronological studies. Here, we focus on U-Pb zircon dating of igneous and detrital zircons derived from basement units of the Pontide Autocthon and from overlying slice complexes, carried out by LA ICP MS at Frankfurt University and by Ion Probe at Edinburgh University. The Eastern Pontide Autocthon is overlain by north-vergent thrust sheets, mostly of continental margin origin, whereas Mesozoic (Neotethyan) ophiolites form the uppermost thrust sheet. The Autochton basement (Çamlıkaya pluton) is mainly tonalite, cut by granitic dykes. Both intrusions are of within-plate type, without a chemically identifiable subduction influence. The pluton yielded a concordant age of 330.4 ± 4.2 Ma (Visean), while crosscutting dykes gave an age of 156.3 ± 2.0 Ma (Oxfordian). The overlying lower slice complex (Slice 1) begins with a low-grade meta-clastic basement unit, intruded by coarse-grained granite. Detrital zircons from the meta-clastics yielded late Neoproterozoic (579-700), early Neoproterozoic (0.9 Ga) and Kibaran/Grenvillian (1.1-1.3 Ga) zircon populations. The oldest known zircon has an age of 2719 Ma. Slice 2 above this (Demirkent Intrusive Complex) is represented by foliated amphibolites, cut by granitic veins and, together, cut by swarms of basic-silicic dykes that postdate regional metamorphism and related deformation. A granitic vein yielded a concordia age of 325.4 ± 2.8 Ma (Visean-Serpukhovian). Slice 2 was intruded by two small tonalitic bodies, one of which yielded a concordant age of 179.8 ± 1 Ma (Toarcian). Slice 3 above this begins with granulite-facies gneiss and schist (Karadağ Metamorphics). A representative 1 m-wide meta-granitic stock within paragneiss

  18. Characterisation of a natural quartz crystal as a reference material for microanalytical determination of Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Audetat, Andreas; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Kronz, Andreas; Pettke, Thomas; Rusk, Brian G.; Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A natural smoky quartz crystal from Shandong province, China, was characterised by laser ablation ICP-MS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and solution ICP-MS to determine the concentration of twenty-four trace and ultra trace elements. Our main focus was on Ti quantification because of the increased use of this element for titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry. Pieces of a uniform growth zone of 9 mm thickness within the quartz crystal were analysed in four different LA-ICP-MS laboratories, three EPMA laboratories and one solution-ICP-MS laboratory. The results reveal reproducible concentrations of Ti (57 ± 4 μg g-1), Al (154 ± 15 μg g-1), Li (30 ± 2 μg g-1), Fe (2.2 ± 0.3 μg g-1), Mn (0.34 ± 0.04 μg g-1), Ge (1.7 ± 0.2 μg g-1) and Ga (0.020 ± 0.002 μg g-1) and detectable, but less reproducible, concentrations of Be, B, Na, Cu, Zr, Sn and Pb. Concentrations of K, Ca, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Ba and Au were below the limits of detection of all three techniques. The uncertainties on the average concentration determinations by multiple techniques and laboratories for Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge are low; hence, this quartz can serve as a reference material or a secondary reference material for microanalytical applications involving the quantification of trace elements in quartz.

  19. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Johnson, B.; Swaminathan, N.

    1989-01-01

    Software and hardware assembled to support specific engineering activities. Stellar Inertial Navigation Workstation (SINW) is integrated computer workstation providing systems and engineering support functions for Space Shuttle guidance and navigation-system logistics, repair, and procurement activities. Consists of personal-computer hardware, packaged software, and custom software integrated together into user-friendly, menu-driven system. Designed to operate on IBM PC XT. Applied in business and industry to develop similar workstations.

  20. Workstations in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, William; Gage, John

    1985-01-01

    Workstations are microprocessor-based desktop computers with the hardware architecture of superminicomputers, combining virtual memory with sophisticated operating systems, communications protocols, advanced languages, and high-resolution graphics. The development of workstations and their uses in scientific environments are discussed. (JN)

  1. Engineering workstation: Sensor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M; Sweet, B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the engineering workstation is to provide an environment for rapid prototyping and evaluation of fusion and image processing algorithms. Ideally, the algorithms are designed to optimize the extraction of information that is useful to a pilot for all phases of flight operations. Successful design of effective fusion algorithms depends on the ability to characterize both the information available from the sensors and the information useful to a pilot. The workstation is comprised of subsystems for simulation of sensor-generated images, image processing, image enhancement, and fusion algorithms. As such, the workstation can be used to implement and evaluate both short-term solutions and long-term solutions. The short-term solutions are being developed to enhance a pilot's situational awareness by providing information in addition to his direct vision. The long term solutions are aimed at the development of complete synthetic vision systems. One of the important functions of the engineering workstation is to simulate the images that would be generated by the sensors. The simulation system is designed to use the graphics modeling and rendering capabilities of various workstations manufactured by Silicon Graphics Inc. The workstation simulates various aspects of the sensor-generated images arising from phenomenology of the sensors. In addition, the workstation can be used to simulate a variety of impairments due to mechanical limitations of the sensor placement and due to the motion of the airplane. Although the simulation is currently not performed in real-time, sequences of individual frames can be processed, stored, and recorded in a video format. In that way, it is possible to examine the appearance of different dynamic sensor-generated and fused images.

  2. CEM reporting workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Caulfield, C.; Dene, C.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe the Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEM) Reporting Workstation. The authors explore the uses for the CEM Reporting Workstation, look at the technical challenges, summarize the CEM Reporting Workstation solutions and describe the CEM Reporting Workstation architecture and development aspects. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was formed to apply advanced science and technology to the benefit of member utilities and their customers. Funded through annual membership dues from some 660 member utilities, EPRI`s work covers a wide range of technologies related to the generation, delivery, and use of electricity, with special attention paid to cost-effectiveness and environmental concerns. Texas Utilities and Pennsylvania Electric approached EPRI to look at their concerns about reporting emissions data to the EPA and making the emissions information available to many people within the utility. EPRI contracted Electric Software Products to research the utility market to find out specific needs of the utilities and to develop the CEM Reporting Workstation.

  3. Automated software development workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering software development was automated using an expert system (rule-based) approach. The use of this technology offers benefits not available from current software development and maintenance methodologies. A workstation was built with a library or program data base with methods for browsing the designs stored; a system for graphical specification of designs including a capability for hierarchical refinement and definition in a graphical design system; and an automated code generation capability in FORTRAN. The workstation was then used in a demonstration with examples from an attitude control subsystem design for the space station. Documentation and recommendations are presented.

  4. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L N; Weber, P K; Grant, R P; Ghosal, S; Michael, J R

    2006-02-10

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent. This talk will describe the coordinated use of microanalytical techniques such as SEM-EDX, STEM-EDX, and NanoSIMS for generating compositional signatures for bio-forensics investigations. These analytical techniques span length scales from the 50 {micro}m range to the 5nm range. The range of analytical sensitivities spans from {approx}.5wt% for EDX down to parts per billion for SIMS techniques. In addition, we will discuss the use of spectrum imaging techniques for rapidly extracting the key elemental signatures from large scale data sets. Spectrum imaging techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis allow for the collection and interrogation or enormous quantities of data without pre-biasing the answer.[1] Spectrum imaging has been used successfully in EDX microanalysis[1] (both in the SEM and TEM) and TOF-SIMS[2]. In this study, a set of test biological agents, ?-irradiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined using the aforementioned microanalytical techniques. The sample set included a number of processing conditions to gauge the ability of these techniques to identify the production methods of these simulated agents. Complementary but distinct forensic signatures were obtained by all three analytical techniques. Figure 1 shows two types of silicate particles observed among the spore material itself. At this length scale, the spores themselves cannot be resolved, but the presence of these silicates is key marker for distinguishing this production route. A STEM-EDX spectrum image from

  5. Bio-photonics workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Dam, Jeppe S.; Palima, Darwin Z.

    2007-01-01

    We outline the specifications of a portable Bio-photonics Workstation we have developed that utilizes just a single spatial light modulator to generate an array of up to 100 reconfigurable laser-traps with adjustable power ratios making 3D real-time optical manipulation possible with the click of a laptop mouse. We employ a simple patented optical mapping approach from a fast spatial light modulator to obtain reconfigurable intensity patterns corresponding to two independently addressable regions relayed to the sample volume where the optical manipulation of a plurality of nano-featured micro-objects takes place. The stand-alone Biophotonics Workstation is currently being tested by external partners with micro-biologic and chemistry expertise.

  6. An innovative workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James

    1987-01-01

    A workstation was developed which uses the operator's eye movements and position to determine the placement of the cursor on a computer screen. A brainwave sensing technology overview and an introduction to the known rhythms or signals generated by the brain are given. This is followed by a descriptive explanation of the Ocular Attention Interface System (OASIS) and its intended integration into the proposed testbed.

  7. A graphical ICU workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, S. B.; Jiang, K.; Swindell, B. B.; Bernard, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A workstation designed to facilitate electronic charting in the intensive care unit is described. The system design incorporates a graphical, windows-based user interface. The system captures all data formerly recorded on the paper flowsheet including direct patient measurements, nursing assessment, patient care procedures, and nursing notes. It has the ability to represent charted data in a variety of graphical formats, thereby providing additional insights to facilitate the management of the critically ill patient. Initial nursing evaluation is described. PMID:1807712

  8. Novel calibration for LA-ICP-MS-based fission-track thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, C. J.; Guedes, S.; Hadler, J. C.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Zack, T.; Iunes, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel age-equation calibration for fission-track age determinations by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This new calibration incorporates the efficiency factor of an internal surface, [ ηq]is, which is obtained by measuring the projected fission-track length, allowing the determination of FT ages directly using the recommended spontaneous fission decay constant. Also, the uranium concentrations in apatite samples are determined using a Durango (Dur-2, 7.44 μg/g U) crystal and a Mud Tank (MT-7, 6.88 μg/g U) crystal as uranium reference materials. The use of matrix-matched reference materials allows a reduction in the uncertainty of the uranium measurements to those related to counting statistics, which are ca. 1 % taking into account that no extra source of uncertainty has to be considered. The equations as well as the matrix-matched reference materials are evaluated using well-dated samples from Durango, Fish Canyon Tuff, and Limberg as unknown samples. The results compare well with their respective published ages determined through other dating methods. Additionally, the results agree with traditional fission-track ages using both the zeta approach and the absolute approach, suggesting that the calibration presented in this work can be robustly applied in geological context. Furthermore, considering that fission-track ages can be determined without an age standard sample, the fission-track thermochronology approach presented here is assumed to be a valuable dating tool.

  9. LA-ICP-MS Study of Trace Elements in the Chanuskij Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petaev, Michail I.

    2005-01-01

    This progress report covers work done during the second year of the 3-year proposal. During this year we resolved many issues relevant to the analytical technique developed by us for measuring trace elements in meteoritic metals. This technique was used to measure concentrations of Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Sb, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in eight large (120 - 160 microns) metal grains from both "igneous" and "metamorphic" lithologies of the Chanuskij silicate inclusions. The first application of OUT technique to metal grains from thin sections showed some limitations. Small thickness of metal grains in the thin section limited the signal to 3-4 time-slices instead of 10- 1 1 ones in polished sections of iron meteorites studied before.

  10. Microanalytic Coding versus Global Rating of Maternal Parenting Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Basha, Allison; Adamson, Michelle; Winter, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between microanalytic coding and global rating systems when coding maternal parenting behaviour in two contexts. Observational data from 55 mother--child interactions with two- to four-year-old children, in either a mealtime (clinic; N?=?20 or control; N?=?20) or a playtime context (community; N?=?15), were…

  11. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  12. Telerobotic workstation design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

    1989-01-01

    Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

  13. Firefly: A multiprocessor workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, C.P.; Stewart, L.C.; Satterthwaite, E.H.

    1988-08-01

    Firefly is a shared memory multiprocessor workstation developed at the Digital Equipment Corporation Systems Research Center (SRC). A Firefly system consists of from one to nine VLSI VAX processors, each with a floating point accelerator and a cache. The caches are coherent, so that all processors see a consistent view of main memory. The Firefly runs a software system that emulates the Ultrix system call interface, and in addition provides support for multiprocessing through multiple threads of control in a single address space. Communication is provided uniformly through the use of remote procedure call. The authors describe the goals, hardware, software system, and performance of the Firefly, and discuss the extent to which SRC has been successful in providing software to take advantage of multi-processing.

  14. Computer workstation speeds

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, J.F.

    1996-06-01

    This report compares the performance of several computers. Some of the machines are discontinued, and some are anticipated, but most are currently installed at Sandia Laboratories. All the computers are personal workstations or departmental servers, except for comparison, one is a Cray C90 mainframe supercomputer (not owned by the Laboratories). A few of the computers have multiple processors, but parallelism is not tested. The time to run three programs is reported for every computer. Unlike many benchmarks, these are complete application programs. They were written and are used at Sandia Laboratories. Also SPECmarks are reported for many computers. These are industry standard performance ratings. They are in general agreement with the speeds of running the Sandia programs. This report concludes with some background material and notes about specific manufacturers.

  15. Automated Analysis Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs of work done at Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assisted DiaSys Corporation in manufacturing their first product, the R/S 2000. Since then, the R/S 2000 and R/S 2003 have followed. Recently, DiaSys released their fourth workstation, the FE-2, which automates the process of making and manipulating wet-mount preparation of fecal concentrates. The time needed to read the sample is decreased, permitting technologists to rapidly spot parasites, ova and cysts, sometimes carried in the lower intestinal tract of humans and animals. Employing the FE-2 is non-invasive, can be performed on an out-patient basis, and quickly provides confirmatory results.

  16. Voice control of complex workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scruggs, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a speaker-dependent connected word recognition system to control an Air Traffic Control (ATC) demonstration workstation is described, also the work that went into developing that speech system. The workstation with speech recognition was demonstrated live at an Air Traffic Controller's Association convention in 1987. The purpose of the demonstration workstation is discussed, with the development of the speech interface highlighted. Included are: a brief description of the speech hardware and software, and overview of the speech driven workstation functions, a description of the speech vocabulary/grammer, and details that the enrollment and training procedures used in preparing the controllers for the demonstrations. Although no quantitative results are available, the potential benefits of using voice as an interface to this type of workstation are discussed and limitations of current speech technology and areas where more work is required are highlighted.

  17. Zero-G Workstation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundersen, R. T.; Bond, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Zero-g workstations were designed throughout manned spaceflight, based on different criteria and requirements for different programs. The history of design of these workstations is presented along with a thorough evaluation of selected Skylab workstations (the best zero-g experience available on the subject). The results were applied to on-going and future programs, with special emphasis on the correlation of neutral body posture in zero-g to workstation design. Where selected samples of shuttle orbiter workstations are shown as currently designed and compared to experience gained during prior programs in terms of man machine interface design, the evaluations were done in a generic sense to show the methods of applying evaluative techniques.

  18. Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.

  19. Transportable telemetry workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Aaron S.

    1989-01-01

    The goal was to complete the design of a prototype for a Transportable Telemetry Workstation (TTW). The Macintosh 2 is used to provide a low-cost system which can house real-time cards mounted on the NuBus inside the Macintosh 2 plus provide a standardized user interface on the Macintosh 2 console. Prior to a telemetry run, the user will be able to configure his real-time telemetry processing functions from the Macintosh 2 console. During a telemetry run, the real-time cards will store the telemetry data directly on a hard disk while permitting viewing of the data cards on the Macintosh 2 console on various selectable formats. The user will view the cards in terms of the functions they perform and the selectable paths through the cards, it is not required to become involved directly in hardware issue except in terms of the functional configuration of the system components. The TTW will accept telemetry data from an RS422 serial input data bus, pass it through a frame synchronizer card and on to a real time controller card via a telemetry backplane bus. The controller card will then route the data to a hard disk through a SCSI interface, and/or to a user interface on the Macintosh 2 console by way of the Macintosh 2 NuBus. The three major components to be designed, therefore, are the TTW Controller Card, the TTW Synchronizer Card, and the NuBus/Macintosh 2 User Interface. Design and prototyping of this state-of-the-art, transportable, low-cost, easy-to-use multiprocessor telemetry system is continuing. Other functions are planned for the future.

  20. Transportable telemetry workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Aaron S.

    1989-09-01

    The goal was to complete the design of a prototype for a Transportable Telemetry Workstation (TTW). The Macintosh 2 is used to provide a low-cost system which can house real-time cards mounted on the NuBus inside the Macintosh 2 plus provide a standardized user interface on the Macintosh 2 console. Prior to a telemetry run, the user will be able to configure his real-time telemetry processing functions from the Macintosh 2 console. During a telemetry run, the real-time cards will store the telemetry data directly on a hard disk while permitting viewing of the data cards on the Macintosh 2 console on various selectable formats. The user will view the cards in terms of the functions they perform and the selectable paths through the cards, it is not required to become involved directly in hardware issue except in terms of the functional configuration of the system components. The TTW will accept telemetry data from an RS422 serial input data bus, pass it through a frame synchronizer card and on to a real time controller card via a telemetry backplane bus. The controller card will then route the data to a hard disk through a SCSI interface, and/or to a user interface on the Macintosh 2 console by way of the Macintosh 2 NuBus. The three major components to be designed, therefore, are the TTW Controller Card, the TTW Synchronizer Card, and the NuBus/Macintosh 2 User Interface. Design and prototyping of this state-of-the-art, transportable, low-cost, easy-to-use multiprocessor telemetry system is continuing. Other functions are planned for the future.

  1. Workshop on NASA workstation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    RIACS hosted a workshop which was designed to foster communication among those people within NASA working on workstation related technology, to share technology, and to learn about new developments and futures in the larger university and industrial workstation communities. Herein, the workshop is documented along with its conclusions. It was learned that there is both a large amount of commonality of requirements and a wide variation in the modernness of in-use technology among the represented NASA centers.

  2. Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, C.; Whitmore, M.; Mount, F.

    1999-01-01

    Confined workstations, where the operator has limited visibility and physical access to the work area, may cause prolonged periods of unnatural posture. Impacts on performance, in terms of fatigue and posture, may occur especially if the task is tedious and repetitive or requires static muscle loading. The glovebox design is a good example of the confined workstation concept. Within the scope of the 'Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation' project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations in ground, KC-135 and Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as gloveboxes, and also including crew restraint requirements. As part of the proposed integrated evaluations, two Shuttle Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs) were manifested; one on Space Transportation System (STS)-90 and one on STS-88. The DSO on STS-90 evaluated use of the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS). The STS-88 mission was planned to evaluate a restraint system at the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). In addition, KC- 1 35 flights were conducted to investigate user/workstation/restraint integration for long-duration microgravity use. The scope of these evaluations included workstations and restraints to be utilized in the ISS environment, but also incorporated other workstations/ restraints in an attempt to provide findings/requirements with broader applications across multiple programs (e.g., Shuttle, ISS, and future Lunar-Mars programs). In addition, a comprehensive electronic questionnaire has been prepared and is under review by the Astronaut Office which will compile crewmembers' lessons learned information concerning glovebox and restraint use following their missions. These evaluations were intended to be complementary and were coordinated with hardware developers, users (crewmembers), and researchers. This report is intended to provide a summary of the

  3. The Modern Integrated Anaesthesia Workstation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijaya P; Shetmahajan, Madhavi G; Divatia, Jigeeshu V

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the conventional anaesthesia machine has evolved into an advanced carestation. The new machines use advanced electronics, software and technology to offer extensive capabilities for ventilation, monitoring, inhaled agent delivery, low-flow anaesthesia and closed-loop anaesthesia. They offer integrated monitoring and recording facilities and seamless integration with anaesthesia information systems. It is possible to deliver tidal volumes accurately and eliminate several hazards associated with the low pressure system and oxygen flush. Appropriate use can result in enhanced safety and ergonomy of anaesthetic delivery and monitoring. However, these workstations have brought in a new set of limitations and potential drawbacks. There are differences in technology and operational principles amongst the new workstations. Understand the principles of operation of these workstations and have a thorough knowledge of the operating manual of the individual machines. PMID:24249877

  4. Arusha Rover Deployable Medical Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boswell, Tyrone; Hopson, Sonya; Marzette, Russell; Monroe, Gilena; Mustafa, Ruqayyah

    2014-01-01

    The NSBE Arusha rover concept offers a means of human transport and habitation during long-term exploration missions on the moon. This conceptual rover calls for the availability of medical supplies and equipment for crew members in order to aid in mission success. This paper addresses the need for a dedicated medical work station aboard the Arusha rover. The project team investigated multiple options for implementing a feasible deployable station to address both the medical and workstation layout needs of the rover and crew. Based on layout specifications and medical workstation requirements, the team has proposed a deployable workstation concept that can be accommodated within the volumetric constraints of the Arusha rover spacecraft

  5. Laser-machined components for microanalytical and chemical separation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    1998-10-01

    Excimer lasers have proven to be powerful tools for machining polymeric components used in microanalytical and microchemical separation devices. We report the use of laser machining methods to produce microfluidic channels and liquid/liquid contact membranes for a number of devices fabricated at our laboratory. Microchannels 50- to 100- micrometers -wide have been produced directly in bulk polycarbonate chips using a direct-write laser micromachining system. Wider microchannels have been produced by laser machining paths through sheets of polyimide film, then sandwiching the patterned piece between solid chips of polycarbonate stock. A comparison of direct-write and mask machining processes used to produce some of the microfluidic features is made. Examples of microanalytical devices produced using these methods are presented. Included are microdialysis units used to remove electrolytes from liquid samples and electrophoretic separation devices, both used for extremely low volume samples intended for mass spectrometric analysis. A multilayered microfluidic device designed to analyze low volume groundwater samples for hazardous metals and a fluidics motherboard are also described. Laser machining processes have also been explored for producing polymeric membranes suitable for use in liquid/liquid contactors used for removal of soluble hazardous components from waste streams. A step-and-repeat mask machining process was used to produce 0.5 X 8 cm membranes in 25- and 50-micrometers -thick polyimide. Pore diameters produced using this method were five and ten micrometers. The laser machined membranes were sputter coated with PTFE prior to use to improve fluid breakthrough characteristics.

  6. Computational Control Workstation: Users' perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Straube, Timothy M.; Tave, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    A Workstation has been designed and constructed for rapidly simulating motions of rigid and elastic multibody systems. We examine the Workstation from the point of view of analysts who use the machine in an industrial setting. Two aspects of the device distinguish it from other simulation programs. First, one uses a series of windows and menus on a computer terminal, together with a keyboard and mouse, to provide a mathematical and geometrical description of the system under consideration. The second hallmark is a facility for animating simulation results. An assessment of the amount of effort required to numerically describe a system to the Workstation is made by comparing the process to that used with other multibody software. The apparatus for displaying results as a motion picture is critiqued as well. In an effort to establish confidence in the algorithms that derive, encode, and solve equations of motion, simulation results from the Workstation are compared to answers obtained with other multibody programs. Our study includes measurements of computational speed.

  7. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  8. Challenges in Developing Clinical Workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Venkatesh; Vedula, Venumadhav

    2008-09-26

    Over the years, medical imaging has become very common and data intensive. New technology is needed to help visualize and analyze these large, complex data sets, especially in an acute care situation where time is of the essence. Also it is very important to present the data in an efficient and simple manner to aid the clinical decision making processes. There is a need for a clinical workstation that handles data from different modalities and performs the necessary post- processing operations on the data in order to enhance the image quality and improve the reliability of diagnosis. This paper briefly explains clinical workstation, emphasizing the requirements and challenges in design and architecture for the development of such systems.

  9. Designing diagnostic workstations for neuroradiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Daniel J.; Bhushan, Vikas; Johnson, Sandra L.; Bentsen, John R.

    1995-05-01

    Despite over a decade of development, diagnostic radiology workstations have not gained popular acceptance by radiologists. Among the requirements for a clinically acceptable workstation are good image quality, a well designed user-interface, and access to ancillary diagnostic information. The user-interface should reflect radiologists' film reading habits and encourage new reading methods that take advantage of the electronic environment. We documented neuroradiologists' reading habits and used software engineering tools to design interfaces that could provide rapid access to common diagnostic tasks in neuroradiology. We used an embedded configuration tool to prototype layouts for specific clinical cases on a commercial workstation, and database integration and user-interface design tools to develop interfaces for browsing medical records. We then designed an image presentation model using the concept of a `virtual view box' for the rapid browsing and pairwise comparison of images. We used the interface design tools to prototype the `virtual view box' on commercially available hardware and tested it with experienced neuroradiologists.

  10. Age and Growth of Endangered Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) Verified with LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Scharer, Rachel M.; Patterson III, William F.; Carlson, John K.; Poulakis, Gregg R.

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n = 15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L∞, 0.219 y−1for k, and −0.81 y for t0. Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae. PMID:23082225

  11. Determination of bromine and tin compounds in plastics using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    İzgi, Belgin; Kayar, Murat

    2015-07-01

    The polybrominated flame retardants and organotin compounds were screened in terms of bromine and tin content using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in plastics. The calibration standards were prepared using the fused-disk technique, and all samples were investigated under optimal conditions. Using a central composite experimental design, laser parameters, laser energy, pulse rate, scan rate and spot size were identified. The detection limits of the method were 1000 mgkg(-1) and 1600 mgkg(-1) for bromide and tin, whereas the relative standard deviation (%) values of the analysis were 9% and 6% (n=3) for ERM EC681k with 770 ± 70 mgkg(-1) Br and 86 ± 6 mgkg(-1) Sn respectively, and 106-115% of Br and 102-104% of Sn were observed for the tetrabromobisphenol A and butyltin trichloride spike plastics, respectively. PMID:25882416

  12. Workstation experience with RELAP5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.S.; Wagner, R.J.

    1993-08-01

    One of the major improvements in the progress from RELAP5/MOD2 to RELAP5/MOD3 was the modification to improve portability. The use of the code was thus extended from the 60 and 64 bit work mainframe computers to 32 bit workstations and PC`s. This has taken RELAP5 from a few types of mainframes` environmentally controlled computer rooms to many smaller machines running under several different operating systems, with different compilers, and running on, beside, and under engineers desks.

  13. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Beuscart, R. J.; Molenda, S.; Souf, N.; Foucher, C.; Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by using local ETHERNET or public ISDN Networks. A detailed ergonomic task analysis studies the cognitive functioning of the physicians involved, compares their behaviour in the normal and the mediatized situations, and leads to an interpretation of the likely causes for success or failure of CSCW tools. PMID:8947764

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Workstation Test Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David A.; Canham, Timothy K.; Chang, Johnny T.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the Workstation TestSet (WSTS) is a computer program that enables flight software development on virtual MSL avionics. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC.

  15. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested. PMID:17599795

  16. Microanalytical systems for separations of stratum corneum ceramides.

    PubMed

    Quinton, Loïc; Gaudin, Karen; Baillet, Arlette; Chaminade, Pierre

    2006-02-01

    The small amount of lipids from human skin obtained with noninvasive sampling method led us to investigate microanalytical separation techniques. The lipid class analysis was performed with a micro polyvinyl alcohol-silica (PVA-Sil) column. The gradient elution was from heptane to acetone/butanol 90:10 v/v in 4%/min at 78 microL/min. In addition an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was modified for micro-LC. All solvents contained 0.1% of triethylamine and formic acid in stoichiometric amount, which increased the ELSD response. In these conditions, the cholesterol eluted before free fatty acid, and squalene and triglycerides close to the dead volume. The various ceramide classes eluted following the order of the increased number of hydroxyl groups. The LOD for ceramides was 2.2 ng. The advantages of this method are the use of a normal stationary phase more reliable due to its chemical stability, its surface homogeneity and its development in microchromatography without chlorinated solvents which offers small LOD and the whole profile of lipids present in stratum corneum (SC). A method using a narrow-bore PVA-Sil column was used to collect ceramide fraction. Then the molecular species were analysed with a porous graphitic carbon column in capillary LC using a gradient from CH3OH/CHCl3 70:30 v/v to CHCl3 at 2%/min with a flow rate at 5 microL/min. The LOD obtained for ceramide was 1 ng. Both methods were assessed with SC samples obtained by rinsing a 5.7 cm2 area of the forearm with 25 mL of ethanol. PMID:16544881

  17. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  18. Evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Dean G.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations are presented. The human-computer computer software environment modules are described. The following topics are addressed: command and control workstation concept; cupola workstation concept; Japanese experiment module RMS workstation concept; remote devices controlled from workstations; orbital maneuvering vehicle free flyer; remote manipulator system; Japanese experiment module exposed facility; Japanese experiment module small fine arm; flight telerobotic servicer; human-computer interaction; and workstation/robotics related activities.

  19. The human factors of workstation telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Smith, Karl U.

    1990-01-01

    The term workstation telepresence has been introduced to describe human-telerobot compliance, which enables the human operator to effectively project his/her body image and behavioral skills to control of the telerobot itself. Major human-factors considerations for establishing high fidelity workstation telepresence during human-telerobot operation are discussed. Telerobot workstation telepresence is defined by the proficiency and skill with which the operator is able to control sensory feedback from direct interaction with the workstation itself, and from workstation-mediated interaction with the telerobot. Numerous conditions influencing such control have been identified. This raises the question as to what specific factors most critically influence the realization of high fidelity workstation telepresence. The thesis advanced here is that perturbations in sensory feedback represent a major source of variability in human performance during interactive telerobot operation. Perturbed sensory feedback research over the past three decades has established that spatial transformations or temporal delays in sensory feedback engender substantial decrements in interactive task performance, which training does not completely overcome. A recently developed social cybernetic model of human-computer interaction can be used to guide this approach, based on computer-mediated tracking and control of sensory feedback. How the social cybernetic model can be employed for evaluating the various modes, patterns, and integrations of interpersonal, team, and human-computer interactions which play a central role is workstation telepresence are discussed.

  20. Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Parseghian, Zareh; Hogue, Jeffrey R.

    1988-01-01

    This project was devoted to the development of a software package, called the Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation, for working with the OFQ Archives which are specially selected sets of space shuttle entry flight data relevant to flight control and flying qualities. The basic approach to creation of the workstation software was to federate and extend commercial software products to create a low cost package that operates on personal computers. Provision was made to link the workstation to large computers, but the OFQ Archive files were also converted to personal computer diskettes and can be stored on workstation hard disk drives. The primary element of the workstation developed in the project is the Interactive Data Handler (IDH) which allows the user to select data subsets from the archives and pass them to specialized analysis programs. The IDH was developed as an application in a relational database management system product. The specialized analysis programs linked to the workstation include a spreadsheet program, FREDA for spectral analysis, MFP for frequency domain system identification, and NIPIP for pilot-vehicle system parameter identification. The workstation also includes capability for ensemble analysis over groups of missions.

  1. Flow visualization of CFD using graphics workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasinski, Thomas; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Rogers, Stuart; Bancroft, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    High performance graphics workstations are used to visualize the fluid flow dynamics obtained from supercomputer solutions of computational fluid dynamic programs. The visualizations can be done independently on the workstation or while the workstation is connected to the supercomputer in a distributed computing mode. In the distributed mode, the supercomputer interactively performs the computationally intensive graphics rendering tasks while the workstation performs the viewing tasks. A major advantage of the workstations is that the viewers can interactively change their viewing position while watching the dynamics of the flow fields. An overview of the computer hardware and software required to create these displays is presented. For complex scenes the workstation cannot create the displays fast enough for good motion analysis. For these cases, the animation sequences are recorded on video tape or 16 mm film a frame at a time and played back at the desired speed. The additional software and hardware required to create these video tapes or 16 mm movies are also described. Photographs illustrating current visualization techniques are discussed. Examples of the use of the workstations for flow visualization through animation are available on video tape.

  2. Automated Software Development Workstation (ASDW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernie

    1990-01-01

    Software development is a serious bottleneck in the construction of complex automated systems. An increase of the reuse of software designs and components has been viewed as a way to relieve this bottleneck. One approach to achieving software reusability is through the development and use of software parts composition systems. A software parts composition system is a software development environment comprised of a parts description language for modeling parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, a composition editor that aids a user in the specification of a new application from existing parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates an implementation of a new application in a target language. The Automated Software Development Workstation (ASDW) is an expert system shell that provides the capabilities required to develop and manipulate these software parts composition systems. The ASDW is now in Beta testing at the Johnson Space Center. Future work centers on responding to user feedback for capability and usability enhancement, expanding the scope of the software lifecycle that is covered, and in providing solutions to handling very large libraries of reusable components.

  3. Advanced Software Development Workstation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation Project, funded by Johnson Space Center, is investigating knowledge-based techniques for software reuse in NASA software development projects. Two prototypes have been demonstrated and a third is now in development. The approach is to build a foundation that provides passive reuse support, add a layer that uses domain-independent programming knowledge, add a layer that supports the acquisition of domain-specific programming knowledge to provide active support, and enhance maintainability and modifiability through an object-oriented approach. The development of new application software would use specification-by-reformulation, based on a cognitive theory of retrieval from very long-term memory in humans, and using an Ada code library and an object base. Current tasks include enhancements to the knowledge representation of Ada packages and abstract data types, extensions to support Ada package instantiation knowledge acquisition, integration with Ada compilers and relational databases, enhancements to the graphical user interface, and demonstration of the system with a NASA contractor-developed trajectory simulation package. Future work will focus on investigating issues involving scale-up and integration.

  4. Ergonomic Evaluations of Microgravity Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.

  5. Relationship between Rock Varnish and Adjacent Mineral Dust Compositions Using Microanalytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macholdt, D.; Jochum, K. P.; Otter, L.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Müller, M.; Kappl, M.; Weber, B.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Weigand, M.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Rock varnishes are up to 250 μm thick, Mn- and Fe-rich, dark black to brownish-orange lustrous rock coatings. Water and aeolian dust (60-70%), in combination with biological oxidation or inorganic precipitation processes, or even a combination of both, induce varnish growth rates of a few μm per 1000 a, indicating that element enrichment and aging processes are of major importance for the varnish formation. A combination of 200 nm-fs laser- and 213 nm-ns laser ablation- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), focused ion beam (FIB) slicing, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) was chosen for high-spatial-resolution analyses. The aim was to identify provenance, chemistry, and dynamics of the varnishes, and their formation over the millennia. To this end, mineral dust and adjacent varnishes were sampled in six arid to semi-arid deserts, in Israel, South Africa, California, and Saudi Arabia. Dust minerals incorporated in the varnishes were examined by STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopic and element mapping at the nm scale. Varnishes from different locations can be distinguished by element ratio plots of Pb/Ni vs. Mn/Ba. A comparison of dust element ratios of particles <50 μm to ratios of adjacent varnishes reveals much lower values for dust. However, the factors between the element ratios of dust and of varnish are similar for four of six regions (Mn/Ba: 6 ± 2; Pb/Ni: 4 ± 3). Two of the six regions diverge, which are South African (Mn/Ba: 20, Pb/Ni: 0.5) and Californian (Anza Borrego Desert: Mn/Ba: 4.5; Pb/Ni: 16.5) varnishes.The results indicate that the enrichment and degradation processes might be similar for most locations, and that Mn and Pb are preferably incorporated and immobilized in most varnishes compared to Ba and Ni. The Pb/Ni ratios of the South African varnishes are indicators for either a preferred incorporation of Ni compared to Pb from available dust, and

  6. Conversion of the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riveras, Nykkita L.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I am working in the Educational Programs Office. My task is to convert the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation from a Macintosh (Mac) platform to a Personal Computer (PC) platform. The Aeronautics Interactive Workstation is a workstation in the Aerospace Educational Laboratory (AEL), which is one of the three components of the Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA). The AEL is a state-of-the-art, electronically enhanced, computerized classroom that puts cutting-edge technology at the fingertips of participating students. It provides a unique learning experience regarding aerospace technology that features activities equipped with aerospace hardware and software that model real-world challenges. The Aeronautics Interactive Workstation, in particular, offers a variety of activities pertaining to the history of aeronautics. When the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation was first implemented into the AEL it was designed with Macromedia Director 4 for a Mac. Today it is being converted to Macromedia DirectorMX2004 for a PC. Macromedia Director is the proven multimedia tool for building rich content and applications for CDs, DVDs, kiosks, and the Internet. It handles the widest variety of media and offers powerful features for building rich content that delivers red results, integrating interactive audio, video, bitmaps, vectors, text, fonts, and more. Macromedia Director currently offers two programmingkripting languages: Lingo, which is Director's own programmingkripting language and JavaScript. In the workstation, Lingo is used in the programming/scripting since it was the only language in use when the workstation was created. Since the workstation was created with an older version of Macromedia Director it hosted significantly different programming/scripting protocols. In order to successfully accomplish my task, the final product required correction of Xtra and programming/scripting errors. I also had to convert the Mac platform

  7. Semiconductor device modeling on a workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.

    1985-09-01

    We choose to move from large mainframe computers to workstations to gain the interactive graphics we need to prepare and to analyze semiconductor device modeling problems. Given this much on a workstation, it is convenient to attempt to solve the entire problem there. We find that a top-of-the-line Apollo 660 workstation, with bit-slice processor, pipelined arithmetic processor, and 4 megabytes of real memory, is surprisingly effective in finding solutions when running the Pisces II device modeling code. In our experiment we find where the workstation bogs down when running these problems. We both analyze the Pisces CPU time log and we sample the executing program to accumulate a histogram of execution time as distributed over the source code. Results suggest how Pisces could be adapted to solve somewhat larger problems entirely on the workstation. Evolution of a trusted derivative of Pisces, to be used on supercomputers without interactivity, is suggested to complement our success with Pisces on workstations. 4 refs.

  8. Negotiating Story Entry: A Micro-Analytic Study of Storytelling Projection in English and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a micro-analytic study of the use of language and body during storytelling in American English and Japanese conversations. Specifically, I focus on its beginning and explore how a story is "projected." A beginning of an action or activity is where an incipient speaker negotiates the floor with co-participants; they…

  9. Integrated telemedicine workstation for intercontinental grand rounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Charles E.; Leckie, Robert G.; Brink, Linda; Goeringer, Fred

    1995-04-01

    The Telemedicine Spacebridge to Moscow was a series of intercontinental sessions sponsored jointly by NASA and the Moscow Academy of Medicine. To improve the quality of medical images presented, the MDIS Project developed a workstation for acquisition, storage, and interactive display of radiology and pathology images. The workstation was based on a Macintosh IIfx platform with a laser digitizer for radiographs and video capture capability for microscope images. Images were transmitted via the Russian Lyoutch Satellite which had only a single video channel available and no high speed data channels. Two workstations were configured -- one for use at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences in Bethesda, MD. and the other for use at the Hospital of the Interior in Moscow, Russia. The two workstations were used may times during 16 sessions. As clinicians used the systems, we modified the original configuration to improve interactive use. This project demonstrated that numerous acquisition and output devices could be brought together in a single interactive workstation. The video images were satisfactory for remote consultation in a grand rounds format.

  10. Multifunction Habitat Workstation/OLED Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Shawn; Salazar, George; Schmidt, Oron

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a general outline of both a multifunction habitat workstation and the research put into an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) device. It first covers the tests that the OLED device will go through to become flight ready along with reasoning. Guidelines for building an apparatus to house the display and its components are given next, with the build of such following. The three tests the OLED goes through are presented (EMI, Thermal/Vac, Radiation) along with the data recovered. The second project of a multifunction workstation is then discussed in the same pattern. Reasoning for building such a workstation with telepresence in mind is offered. Build guidelines are presented first, with the build timeline following. Building the workstation will then be shown in great detail along with accompanying photos. Once the workstation has been discussed, the versatility of its functions are given. The paper concludes with future views and concepts that can added when the time or technology presents itself.

  11. Computational Controls Workstation: Algorithms and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venugopal, R.; Kumar, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Computational Controls Workstation provides an integrated environment for the modeling, simulation, and analysis of Space Station dynamics and control. Using highly efficient computational algorithms combined with a fast parallel processing architecture, the workstation makes real-time simulation of flexible body models of the Space Station possible. A consistent, user-friendly interface and state-of-the-art post-processing options are combined with powerful analysis tools and model databases to provide users with a complete environment for Space Station dynamics and control analysis. The software tools available include a solid modeler, graphical data entry tool, O(n) algorithm-based multi-flexible body simulation, and 2D/3D post-processors. This paper describes the architecture of the workstation while a companion paper describes performance and user perspectives.

  12. Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Carberry, David M.; Whyte, Graeme; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Jackson, Joseph C.; Robert, Daniel; Miles, Mervyn; Padgett, Miles

    2008-04-01

    We report a holographic assembler workstation for optical trapping and micro-manipulation. The workstation is based on a titanium sapphire laser, making it particularly suited for biomaterials and incorporates a choice of user interfaces for different applications. The system is designed around a commercial inverted microscope and is configured such that it can be easily used by the non-specialist. We demonstrate the bio-capabilities of our system by manipulating a group of yeast cells, a single red blood cell and a single cell of the green algae colony Volvox.

  13. Development of Aspen: A microanalytic simulation model of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, R.J.; Basu, N.; Quint, T.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the development of an agent-based microanalytic simulation model of the US economy. The microsimulation model capitalizes on recent technological advances in evolutionary learning and parallel computing. Results are reported for a test problem that was run using the model. The test results demonstrate the model`s ability to predict business-like cycles in an economy where prices and inventories are allowed to vary. Since most economic forecasting models have difficulty predicting any kind of cyclic behavior. These results show the potential of microanalytic simulation models to improve economic policy analysis and to provide new insights into underlying economic principles. Work already has begun on a more detailed model.

  14. Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

  15. Technical Services Workstations. SPEC Kit 213.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugger, Judith M., Comp.; And Others

    Technical services workstations (TSWs) are personal computers that have been customized for use in technical services departments. To gather information on their use and prevalence in research libraries, the Program for Cooperative Cataloging Standing Committee on Automation surveyed the 119 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL)…

  16. Human Visual Perception--Learning at Workstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, Stefen; Bogner, Franz X.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares two methods of instruction in practical school biology. The content remains the same but two teaching methods are used, one based on workstations (Group 1) and the other a conventional approach (Group 2). The content was a regular 9th grade syllabus issue: visual perception. Method 1 included a phenomenological introduction,…

  17. The Microcomputer as an Educational Laboratory Workstation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciociolo, James M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory workstations which provide direct connection for monitoring and control of analytical instruments such as pH meters, spectrophotometers, temperature, and chromatographic instruments. This is accomplished through analog/digital and digital/analog converters for analog signals and input/output devices for on/off signals.…

  18. Workstations and gloveboxes for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junge, Maria

    1990-01-01

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Company is responsible for designing, developing, and building the Life Sciences Glovebox, the Laboratory Sciences Workbench, and the Maintenance Workstation plus 16 other pieces of equipment for the U.S. Laboratory Module of the Space Station Freedom. The Laboratory Sciences Workbench and the Maintenance Workstation were functionally combined into a double structure to save weight and volume which are important commodities on the Space Station Freedom. The total volume of these items is approximately 180 cubic feet. These workstations and the glovebox will be delivered to NASA in 1994 and will be launched in 1995. The very long lifetime of 30 years presents numerous technical challenges in the areas of design and reliability. The equipment must be easy to use by international crew members and also easy to maintain on-orbit. For example, seals must be capable of on-orbit changeout and reverification. The stringent contamination requirements established for Space Station Freedom equipment also complicate the zero gravity glovebox design. The current contamination control system for the Life Sciences Glovebox and the Maintenance Workstation is presented. The requirement for the Life Sciences Glovebox to safely contain toxic, reactive, and radioactive materials presents challenges. Trade studies, CAD simulation techniques and design challenges are discussed to illustrate the current baseline conceptual designs. Areas which need input from the user community are identified.

  19. Planning and Implementing Technical Services Workstations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Michael, Ed.

    The job of the library cataloger has grown increasingly complex. Catalogers must draw from a vast pool of dynamic information as they handle traditional and new forms of media. Technical Services Workstations (TSWs) provide catalogers the network data, application programs, and standard hardware required to catalog all types of media quickly and…

  20. Microcomputers and Workstations in Libraries: Trends and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, Erwin K.

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes opinions of scholars in various disciplines on workstation history, definition, and functions. Networks and configurations for library workstations, including hardware and software recommendations, are described. The impact of workstations on the workplace resulting in task, process, and institutional transformation, is also considered.…

  1. Integrated Design of a Telerobotic Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Clarke, John-Paul

    2001-01-01

    The experiments described in this paper are part of a larger joint MIT/NASA research effort that focuses on the development of a methodology for designing and evaluating integrated interfaces for highly dexterous and multi-functional telerobots. Specifically, a telerobotic workstation is being designed for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) anthropomorphic space station telerobot. Previous researchers have designed telerobotic workstations based upon performance of discrete subsets of tasks (for example, peg-in-hole, tracking, etc.) without regard for transitions that operators go through between tasks performed sequentially in the context of larger integrated tasks. The exploratory research experiments presented here took an integrated approach and assessed how subjects operating a full-immersion telerobot perform during the transitions between sub-tasks of two common EVA tasks. Preliminary results show that up to 30% of total task time is spent gaining and maintaining Situation Awareness (SA) of their task space and environment during transitions. Although task performance improves over the two trial days, the percentage of time spent on SA remains the same. This method identifies areas where workstation displays and feedback mechanisms are most needed to increase operator performance and decrease operator workload - areas that previous research methods have not been able to address.

  2. Workstation-assisted education at MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, George A.

    1992-06-01

    MIT launched a major new initiative called Project Athena in 1983 to improve the quality of education through the introduction of a high-quality computing infrastructure throughout the campus. Implementation of the Project Athena computing environment required eight years, cost about 100 million, and was sponsored by Digital Equipment and IBM in addition to MIT. The Athena computing environment is based almost entirely on workstations from these two vendors using the Unix operating system. Project Athena is now complete. The resulting computer system has been turned over to the campus computing organization for ongoing operation and maintenance. The computing environment available at MIT for education has been significantly improved. Students are graduating today that have never known life at MIT without the ubiquitous availability of high-quality computing. This article provides an overview of the initial objectives and strategies of Project Athena at MIT relative to its educational use. The specific strategies that MIT employed in the use of work-stations in educational are then described. These strategies are contrasted with other available strategies. Specific examples of the use of workstations are presented. An important element in current and future education delivery is multimedia. Athena in conjunction with the MIT Media Lab has one of the largest efforts in multimedia development of any of the universities, and MIT is using multimedia in education on a daily basis. A new laboratory, the Center for Educational Computing Initiatives, has been established with a major focus on multimedia. Finally the lessons learned from Athena relative to its primary objective — that of improving education — are reviewed.

  3. An open architecture for medical image workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiangyun

    2005-04-01

    Dealing with the difficulties of integrating various medical image viewing and processing technologies with a variety of clinical and departmental information systems and, in the meantime, overcoming the performance constraints in transferring and processing large-scale and ever-increasing image data in healthcare enterprise, we design and implement a flexible, usable and high-performance architecture for medical image workstations. This architecture is not developed for radiology only, but for any workstations in any application environments that may need medical image retrieving, viewing, and post-processing. This architecture contains an infrastructure named Memory PACS and different kinds of image applications built on it. The Memory PACS is in charge of image data caching, pre-fetching and management. It provides image applications with a high speed image data access and a very reliable DICOM network I/O. In dealing with the image applications, we use dynamic component technology to separate the performance-constrained modules from the flexibility-constrained modules so that different image viewing or processing technologies can be developed and maintained independently. We also develop a weakly coupled collaboration service, through which these image applications can communicate with each other or with third party applications. We applied this architecture in developing our product line and it works well. In our clinical sites, this architecture is applied not only in Radiology Department, but also in Ultrasonic, Surgery, Clinics, and Consultation Center. Giving that each concerned department has its particular requirements and business routines along with the facts that they all have different image processing technologies and image display devices, our workstations are still able to maintain high performance and high usability.

  4. Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Howe, Alan S.; Tores, Recaredo J.; Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Hambuchen, Kimberly A.; Demel, Matthew; Chapman, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    On medium- to long-duration human spaceflight missions, latency in communications from Earth could reduce efficiency or hinder local operations, control, and monitoring of the various mission vehicles and other elements. Regardless of the degree of autonomy of any one particular element, a means of monitoring and controlling the elements in real time based on mission needs would increase efficiency and response times for their operation. Since human crews would be present locally, a local means for monitoring and controlling all the various mission elements is needed, particularly for robotic elements where response to interesting scientific features in the environment might need near- instantaneous manipulation and control. One of the elements proposed for medium- and long-duration human spaceflight missions, the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), is intended to be used as a remote residence and working volume for human crews. The proposed solution for local monitoring and control would be to provide a workstation within the DSH where local crews can operate local vehicles and robotic elements with little to no latency. The Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) is a multi-display computer workstation mounted in a dedicated location within the DSH that can be adjusted for a variety of configurations as required. From an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) location, the TRWS uses the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) control environment through the local network to remotely monitor and control vehicles and robotic assets located outside the pressurized volume in the immediate vicinity or at low-latency distances from the habitat. The multiple display area of the TRWS allows the crew to have numerous windows open with live video feeds, control windows, and data browsers, as well as local monitoring and control of the DSH and associated systems.

  5. Xplot: XY plotting software for Sun Workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, B.V.

    1991-06-01

    A user friendly XY plotting package for Sun Workstations has been developed. Xplot is X-windows based and Open Look compliant. Running under an Open Look window manager, it supports the Drag Drop metaphor allowing the user to simply drag and drop a file icon into the plot window to create XY plots of multi-column ASCII data files. It supports color and monochrome PostScript hardcopy and re-sizeable windows. It has been designed to provide simple XY plots with minimal effort from the user. 7 figs.

  6. The console password feature for DEC workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lehn, A.L.

    1993-10-01

    New VAXstations and all DECstations offer a ``hardware`` password feature that, when enabled, restricts unauthorized access to your system console terminal when turned on or restarted. VAXstation 3100s shipped after July, 1989 offer this feature. A description of this feature should be part of the Hardware User Guide for your workstation; however, some of the early systems did not document this security enhancement. This document is based on the author`s investigation as well as information provided by the Digital Equipment Corporation.

  7. Videoconferencing using workstations in the ATLAS collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Onions, C.

    1994-12-31

    The ATLAS collaboration consists of about 1000 physicists from close to 100 institutes around the world. This number is expected to grow over the coming years. The authors realized that they needed to do something to allow people to participate in meetings held at CERN without having to travel and hence they started a pilot project in July, 1993 to look into this. Colleagues from Nikhef already had experience of international network meetings (e.g. RIPE) using standard UNIX workstations and public domain software tools using the MBONE, hence they investigated this as a first priority.

  8. Heterogenous database integration in a physician workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Annevelink, J.; Young, C. Y.; Tang, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the integration of a variety of data and information sources in a Physician Workstation (PWS), focusing on the integration of data from DHCP, the Veteran Administration's Distributed Hospital Computer Program. We designed a logically centralized, object-oriented data-schema, used by end users and applications to explore the data accessible through an object-oriented database using a declarative query language. We emphasize the use of procedural abstraction to transparently integrate a variety of information sources into the data schema. PMID:1807624

  9. Efficient Parallel Engineering Computing on Linux Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    A C software module has been developed that creates lightweight processes (LWPs) dynamically to achieve parallel computing performance in a variety of engineering simulation and analysis applications to support NASA and DoD project tasks. The required interface between the module and the application it supports is simple, minimal and almost completely transparent to the user applications, and it can achieve nearly ideal computing speed-up on multi-CPU engineering workstations of all operating system platforms. The module can be integrated into an existing application (C, C++, Fortran and others) either as part of a compiled module or as a dynamically linked library (DLL).

  10. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  11. One-step polymer surface modification for minimizing drug, protein, and DNA adsorption in microanalytical systems.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Larsen, Niels B

    2013-02-21

    The non-specific adsorption of dissolved analytes strongly reduces the sensitivity and reliability in polymer microanalytical systems. Here, a one-step aqueous phase procedure modifies polymer material surfaces to strongly reduce their non-specific adsorption of a broad range of organic analytes including hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs (0.23 < ClogP < 8.95), small and large proteins (insulin, albumin, IgG), and DNA. The coating is shown to limit the adsorption of even highly hydrophobic drugs (ClogP > 8) in their pharmaceutically relevant concentration range ≤100 nM. The low adsorption is mediated by photochemical conjugation, where polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers in aqueous solution are covalently bound to the surface by UV illumination of dissolved benzophenone and a functionalized PEG. The method can coat the interior of polymer systems made from a range of materials commonly used in microanalytical systems, including polystyrene (PS), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), liquid crystalline polymer (LCP), and polyimide (PI). PMID:23254780

  12. Advanced satellite workstation: An integrated workstation environment for operational support of satellite system planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Stewart A.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), is described that has been developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central mission of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysts of complex systems such as satellites. There have been many workstation implementations recently which incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems. ASW is a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based upon the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets. A variety of tools have been constructed in support of this prototype environment including: an automated pass planner for scheduling vehicle support activities, architectural modeler for hierarchical simulation and analysis of satellite vehicle subsystems, multimedia-based information systems that provide an intuitive and easily accessible interface to Orbit Operations Handbook and other relevant support documentation, and a data analysis architecture that integrates user modifiable telemetry display systems, expert systems for background data analysis, and interfaces to the multimedia system via inter-process communication.

  13. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  14. Earthbound applications for NASA's physician workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, R.; Yu, F. S.; Li, B.; Iddings, E.; Fiorentino, R.; Shao, S.; Wang, L.; Broughton, H.

    1993-01-01

    The dream of a space probe to Mars or an astronaut colony on the moon persists. Despite years of setbacks and delays, NASA continues to lay the foundation for a new frontier in space. The necessity of a self contained health maintenance facility is an integral part of this stellar venture. As a subsystem of this health maintenance facility, the physician or astronaut workstation was envisioned as the vehicle of interface between the computer resources of the space station and the care provider. Our efforts to define and build this interface have resulted in a series of programs which can now be tested and refined using earth-based applications. The modules which have dual-use application from the NASA workstation include: patient scheduling and master patient index, pharmacy, laboratory, medical library, problem list/progress notes, and digital medical records. Our current plan is to develop these tools as objects that can be assembled in a variety of configurations. This will allow the technology to be used by the private sector where each doctor can select the starting point of his outpatient office system and add modules as he makes progress in system integration and training.

  15. Trace Element Study of MORB Glasses from 14¡ã-16¡ãN along Mid-Atlantic Ridge by LA-ICP- MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzoi, C. A.; Casey, J. F.; Gao, Y.; Lapen, T.

    2007-12-01

    A comparison of 20 MORB glasses from 14°-16° N along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge using both solution-based and in situ laser ablation-based ICP-MS trace element analyses on the same samples was conducted. Li, Be, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb,Lu, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, and U were analyzed using the Varian 810 quadrupole ICP-MS. The instrument features a 90 degree ion mirror and low noise double-off-axis quadrupole that allows high sensitivity and low backgrounds. Precision in term of relative standard deviation (RSD) of the measurements for both methods based on repeated analyses of USGS BIR-1G and BHVO-2G glass standards and Max Planck KL-2G glass standard is within 5 % for all trace elements with the exception of Pb, which averaged 12 %. Measured trace element abundances are within 2% of recommended standard values using both solution and laser ablation methods. Comparison between the analyte concentrations obtained by solution-based ICP-MS and in situ microanalysis by laser ablation reveals little systematic differences in abundances(<5% for all elements). The two-method correlation and strong repeatability of the results indicate that rapid in situ trace element analysis by laser ablation ICP-MS is likely to become a preferred method of trace element analysis for MORB glasses. Our geochemical results and previous studies of MORB glasses in the region of the MAR between 14°-16°N show that basalts are characterized isotopic and incompatible element enrichment.The nature of the enrichment has been the topic of significant discussion and speculation because a specific mantle plume is not well defined in the region. Likewise the magma supply is probably small in the region as the magmatic crust is interpreted to be very thin in most of the area studied. Integrated studies of major element, trace element, and isotopic variations among basalts, gabbroic rocks and igneous and residual ultramafic rocks in the region indicate that 1) the enriched basalts have positive Ta-Nb anomalies, enriched relative to U, Th, and La 2) basalts have relatively high SiO2 abundances compared to the global average, 3) basalts show a HIMU isotopic signature, and 4) bulk major element abundances and mineral chemistry in mantle rocks indicate that they are among the most depleted,although variably refertilized, residual mantle assemblages sampled to date along MORs.We suggest that much of the regional variation in major and trace element data, as well as isotopic data and the unusual regional geology (multiple core complexes) can be explained by melting of a sub-axial mantle that contains two end members, one highly depleted and the other enriched. These components appear to involve ancient recycled ocean crust and lithospheric mantle.

  16. Relating surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals of cells to gold nanoparticle aggregation as determined by LA-ICP-MS micromapping.

    PubMed

    Büchner, Tina; Drescher, Daniela; Traub, Heike; Schrade, Petra; Bachmann, Sebastian; Jakubowski, Norbert; Kneipp, Janina

    2014-11-01

    The cellular response to nanoparticle exposure is essential in various contexts, especially in nanotoxicity and nanomedicine. Here, 14-nm gold nanoparticles in 3T3 fibroblast cells are investigated in a series of pulse-chase experiments with a 30-min incubation pulse and chase times ranging from 15 min to 48 h. The gold nanoparticles and their aggregates are quantified inside the cellular ultrastructure by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry micromapping and evaluated regarding the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. In this way, both information about their localization at the micrometre scale and their molecular nanoenvironment, respectively, is obtained and can be related. Thus, the nanoparticle pathway from endocytotic uptake, intracellular processing, to cell division can be followed. It is shown that the ability of the intracellular nanoparticles and their accumulations and aggregates to support high SERS signals is neither directly related to nanoparticle amount nor to high local nanoparticle densities. The SERS data indicate that aggregate geometry and interparticle distances in the cell must change in the course of endosomal maturation and play a critical role for a specific gold nanoparticle type in order to act as efficient SERS nanoprobe. This finding is supported by TEM images, showing only a minor portion of aggregates that present small interparticle spacing. The SERS spectra obtained after different chase times show a changing composition and/or structure of the biomolecule corona of the gold nanoparticles as a consequence of endosomal processing. PMID:25120183

  17. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably during black smoker growth) is enriched in Te relative to pyrite. These higher Te concentrations may be related to higher fluid temperature.

  18. Association of glass fragments by their trace elemental content using ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS in the analysis scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almirall, Jose R.; Montero, Shirly; Furton, Kenneth G.

    2002-08-01

    The importance of glass as evidence of association between a crime event and a suspect has been recognized for some time. Glass is a fragile material that is often found at the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, hit-and-run accidents and violent crime offenses. The physical and chemical properties of glass can be used to differentiate between possible sources and as evidence of association between two fragments of glass thought to originate from the same source. Refractive index (RI) comparisons have been used for this purpose but due to the improved control over glass manufacturing processes, RI values often cannot differentiate glasses, even if the glass originates from different sources. Elemental analysis methods such as NAA, XRF, ICP-AES, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) have also been used for the comparison of trace elemental compositions and these techniques have been shown to provide an improvement in the discrimination of glass fragments over RI comparisons alone. The multi-element capability and the sensitivity of ICP-MS combined with the simplified sample introduction of laser ablation prior to ion detection provides for an excellent and relatively non-destructive technique for elemental analysis of glass fragments. The methodology for solution analysis (digestion procedure) and solid sample analysis (laser ablation) of glass is reported and the analytical results are compared. An isotope dilution method is also reported as a high precision technique for elemental analysis of glass fragments. The optimum sampling parameters for laser ablation, for semi-quantitative analysis and element ratio comparisons are also presented. Finally, the results of a case involving the breaking of 15 vehicle windows in an airport parking lot and the association of a suspect to the breakings by the glass fragments found on his person are also presented.

  19. Importance of LA-ICP-MS Zircon Geochronology and Geochemistry in Determining the History of Magmatic Systems: Insights from the Graciosa A-type Province, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S.; Gualda, G. A.; Bream, B. R.; Vlach, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Graciosa Province comprises more than 20 A-type granitic and syenitic plutons in southern Brazil. This province was emplaced during a period of tectonic change, with A-type magmatism post-dating syntectonic I- and S-type magmatism to the east. Dating the age of magmatism has proven challenging, with current published results showing a wide range of ages (550-590 Ma), most of which with low analytical resolution (2σ errors >15 Ma). We use Laser Ablation ICP-MS to determine U-Pb ages and trace element compositions of zircon crystals in-situ. We analyzed zircon from ten samples representative of the petrographic diversity observed in the 5 plutons located in the Serra da Graciosa region1, which include monzodiorites, granites, and alkali-feldspar granites and syenites. The graintoids include rocks with aluminous affinity (biotite-bearing), and others with alkaline affinity (sodic amphibole-bearing). Our results show three age populations with concordant ages at ~633±6, 581±3, and 539±4 Ma (all errors 2σ): - The oldest zircon ages come from analyses of zircon cores that display overgrowth and resorption textures. - The majority of zircon grains analyzed yield ages ~581 Ma. Zircons of this age can be found in all but two samples analyzed. Spots yielding these ages come from rim regions free of fractures or inclusions. REE patterns show enrichment in HREE, and pronounced positive Ce anomaly, as typically seen in magmatic zircons. - Strongly altered grains from alkali-feldspar granites with biotite dominate the youngest zircon population. These grains have myriad inclusions of thorite, REE fluorides (fluocerite, CeF3 - confirmed by EBSD), and REE phosphates. A few analyses in other rocks yield similar ages. REE patterns are much less steep for these zircons, and Ce anomalies are much more subdued, as characteristic of hydrothermal zircons. Further, these zircons are enriched in high field-strength elements such as Nb and Hf, as well as in Th and U. Based on textural and geochemical evidence, we interpret these 3 age populations as being representative of inheritance (>620 Ma), magmatism (~581 Ma), and hydrothermal alteration (~540 Ma). In light of these results, it is not surprising that previous age determinations using whole-zircon TIMS U/Pb and whole-rock Rb/Sr found a wide range of ages. Our study highlights the benefits of in-situ LA-ICPMS zircon geochronology as a method to deconvolve the evolution of igneous provinces, and shows that adequate precision (~0.5%) can be achieved in favorable circumstances. 1 GAR Gualda & SRF Vlach (2007) Anais Acad. Bras. Ciências, 79: 405-430

  20. Geochemical and Lu/Hf isotopic (LA-ICP-MS) signature of detrital zircons from sandstones of the basal levels of the Riphean stratotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, T. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Maslov, A. V.; Belousova, E. A.; Krupenin, M. T.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Gorozhanin, V. M.; Gorozhanina, E. N.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the results of selective study of trace elements (29 analyses) and the Lu/Hf isotopic system (41 analyses) in preliminarily dated (U-Pb) detrital zircons (dZrs) from sandstones of the Ai Formation of the Burzyan Group of the Bashkirian Anticlinorium, which compose the basal horizons of the typical Riphean section of the Southern Urals. The statistically processed trace-element patterns of dZrs showed that "diorites" were dominant over "syenites" among the source rocks of dZrs. The rock types estimated by trace-element patterns for the cores and rims of two large grains ("diorite" and "syenite") coincided. The analysis of the Lu/Hf isotopic system of dZrs revealed a wide dispersion of the ɛHf value from +7.1 to -20.1 at the T {DM/C} model age of the substrate from 2.25 to 3.95 Ga. Four grains (in one case with the core and rim studied) from the population of the large transparent cherry zircons (TCZ) are characterized by the "syenitic" rock type and extremely ancient T {DM/C} values of 3.22, 3.45, 3.64, 3.66, and 3.75 Ga at ages of zircons of 2486, 2784, 2873, 1977, and 1984 Ma, respectively. Two "dioritic" grains from the TCZ population have significantly distinct parameters: 2.37 and 2.51 Ga at 2049 and 2057 Ma, respectively. It is evident that this specific population of dZrs was formed with a significant contribution of very ancient crustal material, which became active under "syenitic" magmatism and provided the T {DM/C} value of >3.5 Ga. Numerous juvenile dZrs form a compact cluster, which correspond to the rocks of the southern part of the Volga-Sarmatian orogen (age of 2.1-2.0 Ga, T {DM/C} = 2.1-2.4 Ga). The complexes of the entire the Volga-Uralia, the Volga-Sarmatian orogen, and adjacent areas could be the provenance areas for the Ai sandstones in contrast to the northeastern areas of the East-European Platform with dominant "granitic" source rocks and T {DM/C} values lower than 3.5 Ga.

  1. Provenance of quartz-rich metamorphic tectonite pebbles from the “Black Flysch” (W Pyrenees, N Spain): An EBSD and detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puelles, P.; Ábalos, B.; García de Madinabeitia, S.; Sánchez-Lorda, M. E.; Fernández-Armas, S.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2014-09-01

    Metasandstone and quartz-tectonite conglomerate pebbles from the Albian Black Flysch encapsulate evidence of pre-Mesozoic igneous and metamorphic events. Quartz deformation microstructures and crystallographic fabrics characterize plastic flow under sub-greenschists (250-300 °C) to high-grade metamorphic conditions (above 550-600 °C). Detrital zircon grains from the pebbles provide concordant 206Pb/238U radiometric ages ranging from 473 ± 26 Ma to 2261 ± 59 Ma, with four major populations clustered in the intervals 1.96-1.80 Ga (Paleoproterozoic), 1.11-0.93 Ga (Stenian-Tonian), 765-571 Ma (Neoproterozoic), and 500-475 Ma (Cambro-Ordovician). The youngest zircons and the probability distribution of the studied population permit us to establish an Early Ordovician maximum depositional age for tectonite pebble protoliths and relate them with the Armorican Quartzite detrital zircon signature. We identify the currently submerged Landes Massif of the Armorican platform as the most likely candidate to being the source of Black Flysch metamorphic conglomerate pebbles.

  2. Silurian U-Pb zircon age (LA-ICP-MS) of granitoids from the Zelenodol Cu-porphyry deposit, Southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabezhev, A. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Puchkov, V. N.; Shardakova, G. Yu.; Azovskova, O. B.; Gerdes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Zelenodol porphyry Cu-(Au, Mo) deposit located about 65 km SSW of the city of Chelyabinsk is confined to the western part of the West Uralian Volcanogenic Megazone. The concordant U-Pb age of zircons from ore-bearing island-arc diorite porphyryis 418.3 Â ± 2.9 Ma.

  3. New Sakmarian ages for the Rio Bonito formation (Paraná Basin, southern Brazil) based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb radiometric dating of zircons crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagliari, Joice; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Tognoli, Francisco Manoel Wohnrath; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

    2014-12-01

    Two ash fall beds (tonstein) sampled from the post-glacial Permian deposits of the Paraná Basin have provided new U-Pb radiometric age constraints for this stratigraphic interval. The zircon grains were recovered from tonstein layers interbedded with fine-grained and carbonaceous lithologies in the middle portion of the Rio Bonito Formation. In both samples, the dominant population is interpreted as generated by explosive volcanism, as having formed immediately before the eruption. Based on 238U/206Pb, the selected zircon grains from the dominant population have weighted mean ages of 290.6 ± 2.8 Ma and 281.7 ± 3.2 Ma, corresponding to the Sakmarian and Kungurian ages in the Cisuralian epoch, respectively. These ages constrain the time of the deposition of the tonstein horizons and have important stratigraphic implications for the Late Paleozoic evolution of both the Paraná Basin and the southwestern region of Gondwana. The results presented here and the radiometric data already published suggest that deposition of the post-glacial coal-bearing deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation was probably initiated before the Early Permian. Thus, we infer that the climate had already ameliorated by this period in order to allow for the formation and accumulation of peat in this region of Gondwana.

  4. "Sands of Pangea"-analysing the supercontinent formation and the Mesozoic sedimentary record using LA ICP MS U Pb zircon dating on samples from Germany-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf; Gerdes, Axel; Voigt, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The Elbe Zone at the northern Bohemian Massif (part of the Central European Variscides, Saxony, Germany) contains important structures and outcrops that help to understand the final pulse of the Variscan Orogeny in Europe leading to the formation of supercontinent Pangea. We will present zircon U-Pb data from that area that allow the timing of the final stage of these movements and of related plutonic, volcano-sedimentary and tectonic processes. In addition, we will show U-Pb detrital zircon ages of sandstones from the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretatceous of Germany to draw conclusions about the sedimentary record and the source areas (provenance analyses) of these "sands of Pangea". We have analysed detrital zircon grains from the Buntsandstein (Lower Triassic) and the Keuper (Upper Triassic) regarding their U-Pb ages. These analyses indicate different zircon ages with a main peak at ca. 250 Ma to ca. 700 Ma. Distinct zircon grains of Meso- and Paleoproterozoic ages were found. In addition to the Triassic samples we analysed detrital zircon grains from the Middle Jurassic (Dogger) and the Cretaceous. The Cretaceous samples show similar ages as the Triassic ones: the main peak of zircon ages lies between ca. 240 Ma and 700 Ma. Also, there are a few isolated zircon grains with Meso- to Paleoproterozoic ages. A real change shows the Jurassic Sandstone, as the zircons of this sample have main ages at ca. 950 Ma to 1900 Ma. The zircon ages show, that the source areas for the Mesozoic sedimentary record changed clearly. We interpret the Paleozoic to Neoproterozoic ages of all samples as the influx of reworked local material, such as the Avalonian/Armorican basement units and the Variscan Basement. In our interpretation, the enormous amounts of Mesoproterozoic to upper Paleoproterozoic zircon ages in the Jurassic sample originated in the oceanic connection between Middle Europe and Baltica, as these specific zircon ages are typical for Baltica. This oceanic connection was due to the ongoing break-up of Pangea.

  5. Compositional evolution of grossular garnet from leucotonalitic pegmatite at Ruda nad Moravou, Czech Republic; a complex EMPA, LA-ICP-MS, IR and CL study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadas, Petr; Novák, Milan; Talla, Dominik; Vašinová Galiová, Michaela

    2013-04-01

    Five distinct paragenetic, morphological and compositional types of grossular garnet (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5) were distinguished within the individual (sub)units of the zoned leucotonalitic pegmatite cutting serpentinized lherzolite with rodingite dikes at Žďár near Ruda nad Moravou, Staré Město Unit, Northern Moravia. Detailed study using Electron Microprobe Analysis, Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Cathodoluminiscence and Infrared Spectroscopy revealed distinct compositional trends in major, minor and trace elements. The contents of Fe3+, Mn, Mg and Ti increase from early garnet (G1) in the outermost grossular subunit through the interstitial garnet (G2) in the leucocratic subunit to graphic intergrowths of quartz+garnet (G3) in the coarse-grained unit. Then these constituents decrease in inclusions of garnet (G4) from the blocky unit and large crystals of garnet (G5) from the quartz core. Some trace elements (V, Ni, Y) exhibit the same trends, only Be evidently increases in garnet from border zone to the centre. Fluorine has negative correlation with Fe3+ as well as some trace elements (Ta, Pb). Concentrations of H2O in garnets, up to 0.22 wt.% H2O, are comparable with spessartine-almandine garnets from the Rutherford No. 2 pegmatite, Virginia, and grossular garnets from high-temperature calc-silicate rocks (skarns). Water contents correlate positively with Fe3+, but inversely with F. The use of water contents in garnet to elucidate the fluctuations of activity of H2O during the pegmatite formation is only limited; the incorporation of hydrous defects seems to be controlled instead by crystal-structural constraints. However, the sum of all volatile components (H2O + F) increases about twice from the outermost subunit to the centre of the pegmatite body.

  6. Scheelite geochemical signatures by LA-ICP-MS and potential for rare earth elements from Hutti Gold Mines and fingerprinting ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. V. S.; Hart, Craig J. R.; Sangurmath, P.

    2016-02-01

    Scheelite (CaWO4), with gold and REE enrichments, is found in appreciable concentrations in the world class Hutti Gold deposit, Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), India. We used in situ Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to determine the rare earth elements in scheelite and utilize results to fingerprint the extensions/continuity of auriferous ore shoots/lodes/reefs. The Hutti Gold deposit is briefly compared to southern African gold deposits and corroborates in terms of geochemistry, structural, chemical alterations and REE contents in scheelite etc… The scheelite samples from Hutti are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) up to 11 ppm and depleted in heavy rare earth elements(HREE) up to 6.50 ppm with positive to negative europium anomaly. The total REE (∑ REE + Y) of the scheelite samples is up to 35 ppm. The ratio of LREE/HREE values is 1.80. The results for the REEs indicate: (1) considerable differences in the ΣREEs amongst the sample suite (2) most samples are dominated by a single chondrite-normalized (CN) pattern, but rarely a second pattern is present; 3) although the type of CN REE patterns vary (e.g., convex MREE, LREE enrichment), there is a similarity among deposit types; and 4) both positive and negative 'Eu' anomalies are observed; 5) positive correlations between MREE and HREE suggesting a strong influence of magmatic fluids. These initial results suggest that the minor and trace-element chemistry of scheelite may offer the potential to discriminate and identify deposit types based on its geochemical fingerprinting.

  7. Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppesen, David M.; Trellue, Ron

    1997-07-01

    Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical realtime situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule- based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all- source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

  8. HERMES: a health care workstation integration architecture.

    PubMed

    van Mulligen, E M; Timmers, T; Brand, J; Cornet, R; van den Heuvel, F; Kalshoven, M; van Bemmel, J H

    1994-01-01

    An architecture is described that facilitates integration of existing databases and applications without modifying them. By means of this architecture, data from different sources dispersed in a network can be combined and directly used in existing applications or applications that have been developed specially for integration. This feature of combining data from different sources into one workstation is viewed as the enabling technology on which computer-based patient records can be built. The abstraction of computer-, network- and application-specific details is completely dealt with by the integration architecture. This integration architecture has been developed with extendibility and flexibility in mind, and allows for a growth-path towards application of the open system paradigm in medicine. PMID:8125638

  9. Personal telepresence: an interactive multimedia workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlman, Mike; Farrell, Renee E.

    1994-04-01

    Personal Telepresence is an interactive multimedia tool that allows individuals or groups to, affordably, meet with remotely located individuals or groups--from their desktop--as if they were all in the same location. A Personal Telepresence workstation would include telephony, computer, desktop videoconferencing, groupware, and graphics capability on a single platform. The user interface presented will allow natural, face-to-face interaction between all those involved in `virtual' meeting, classroom, office or manufacturing problem solving sessions. Files could be opened and placed on a virtual `conference table' where changes could be made interactively by any or all the `meeting' participants. `Copies' of the files can be made, `stapled' together, and given to each of the attendees. The desktop would include a `whiteboard' for brainstorming sessions and a `projector screen' to display movies, video mail, and/or the results of a simulation program. This paper discusses desktop collaboration needs and the Personal Telepresence project at LLNL.

  10. Application development environment for advanced digital workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Daniel J.; Harreld, Michael R.; Liu, Brent J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Huang, Lu J.

    1998-06-01

    One remaining barrier to the clinical acceptance of electronic imaging and information systems is the difficulty in providing intuitive access to the information needed for a specific clinical task (such as reaching a diagnosis or tracking clinical progress). The purpose of this research was to create a development environment that enables the design and implementation of advanced digital imaging workstations. We used formal data and process modeling to identify the diagnostic and quantitative data that radiologists use and the tasks that they typically perform to make clinical decisions. We studied a diverse range of radiology applications, including diagnostic neuroradiology in an academic medical center, pediatric radiology in a children's hospital, screening mammography in a breast cancer center, and thoracic radiology consultation for an oncology clinic. We used object- oriented analysis to develop software toolkits that enable a programmer to rapidly implement applications that closely match clinical tasks. The toolkits support browsing patient information, integrating patient images and reports, manipulating images, and making quantitative measurements on images. Collectively, we refer to these toolkits as the UCLA Digital ViewBox toolkit (ViewBox/Tk). We used the ViewBox/Tk to rapidly prototype and develop a number of diverse medical imaging applications. Our task-based toolkit approach enabled rapid and iterative prototyping of workstations that matched clinical tasks. The toolkit functionality and performance provided a 'hands-on' feeling for manipulating images, and for accessing textual information and reports. The toolkits directly support a new concept for protocol based-reading of diagnostic studies. The design supports the implementation of network-based application services (e.g., prefetching, workflow management, and post-processing) that will facilitate the development of future clinical applications.

  11. Debris analysis workstation: from concept to reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, David B.; Maethner, Scott R.; Shubert, Ann J.; Yates, Ken W.

    1995-06-01

    Determining the hazards from debris generating events is a design and safety consideration for a number of space systems, both currently operating and planned. To meet these and other requirements, the US Air Force Phillips Laboratory Space Debris Research Program is developing a simulation platform called the Debris Analysis Workstation (DAW) which provides an analysis capability for assessing a wide variety of debris studies. DAW integrates several component debris analysis models and data visualization tools into a single analysis platform that meets the needs for DoD space debris analysis, and is both user friendly and modular. This allows for studies to be performed expeditiously by analysts that are not debris experts. DAW has gone from concept to reality with the recent deliveries of Versions 0.1 to 0.4 to a number of customers. The current version of DAW incorporates a spacecraft break-up model, drag inclusive propagator, a collision dispersion model, a graphical user interface, and data visualization routines, which together provide capabilities to conduct missile intercept range safety analyses. Work is progressing to add new capabilities with the incorporation of additional models and improved designs. The existing tools are in their initial integrated form, but the 'glue' that will ultimately bring them together into an integrated, user-friendly system, is an object oriented language layer that is scheduled to be added in 1995. Other candidate component models that are under consideration for incorporation include additional orbital propagators, error estimation routines, dispersion models, and other breakup models. At present, DAW resides on a SUN workstation, although future versions could be tailored for other platforms, depending on the need.

  12. Expanding capabilities of the debris analysis workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, David B.; Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.; Shubert, Ann J.; Gerhart, Charlotte M.; Yates, Ken W.; Leake, Michael

    1996-10-01

    Determining the hazards from debris-generating events is a design and safety consideration for a number of space systems, both currently operating and planned. To meet these and other requirements, the United States Air Force (USAF) Phillips Laboratory (PL) Space Debris Research Program has developed a simulation software package called the Debris Analysis Workstation (DAW). This software provides an analysis capability for assessing a wide variety of debris hazards. DAW integrates several component debris analysis models and data visualization tools into a single analysis platform that meets the needs for Department of Defense space debris analysis, and is both user friendly and modular. This allows for studies to be performed expeditiously by analysts who are not debris experts. The current version of DAW includes models for spacecraft breakup, debris orbital lifetime, collision hazard risk assessment, and collision dispersion, as well as a satellite catalog database manager, a drag inclusive propagator, a graphical user interface, and data visualization routines. Together they provide capabilities to conduct several types of analyses, ranging from range safety assessments to satellite constellation risk assessment. Work is progressing to add new capabilities with the incorporation of additional models and improved designs. The existing tools are in their initial integrated form, but the 'glue' that will ultimately bring them together into an integrated system is an object oriented language layer scheduled to be added soon. Other candidate component models under consideration for incorporation include additional orbital propagators, error estimation routines, other dispersion models, and other breakup models. At present, DAW resides on a SUNR workstation, although future versions could be tailored for other platforms, depending on the need.

  13. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.

    1995-12-01

    An important question for consideration is, {open_quotes}Are office equipment plug loads increasing?{close_quotes} Data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in May 1990 from the Forrestal Building, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters in Washington, DC, are desegregated by end use including: plug loads, lights, HVAC, large dedicated computers, and elevators. This study was repeated in November 1993, and there was a 3.8%/yr increase in plug loads in a building of approximately 1.75 million sq ft. Subsequent to this measurement, the plug loads were measured continuously by PNL over a 10-month period from November 1993 through September 1994, and the results showed another increase of 3.9%, nearly the same increase as in the previous three years. The energy use of personal computers (PCs) was measured by setting up a mobile outlet module (MOM), a replacement for a strip outlet, with current transformers (CTs) and potential transformers. The MOM was connected to a set of dataloggers, allowing for the monitoring of up to four PCs at a time. The PCs were plugged in through the MOM to a C180 datalogger, the data collected to a laptop, and the individual 24-hour profiles were then reduced to a standard profile. About 200 workstations were studied, including the PC, monitor, printer, modem, external disk drives, and CAD systems with their own peripherals. Also monitored were an additional collection of printers, photocopiers, facsimile machines, and monitor controllers. The end result was a set of profiles for energy use during working hours for five different buildings. There was a wide variation in these profiles from daytime to nighttime, since 16 to 35% of the computers remain on at night. Therefore, the needs for computers left on at night vary, along with the attitudes of people. Another area of energy consumption concern is the type of PC, such as IBM- or Macintosh-compatible, and there are many different kinds of workstations.

  14. Public Access Workstations in the Library: New Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputer-based workstations that are provided for public access in libraries. Criteria for workstations are discussed, including standard hardware, open-design software, scalable interface, and connectivity options for networking; systems that provide full-text access are described; and the need for standards is…

  15. Z39.50 and the Scholar's Workstation Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary Lee

    1992-01-01

    Examines the potential application of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Z39.50 library networking protocol as a client/server environment for a scholar's workstation. Computer networking models are described, and linking the workstation to an online public access catalog (OPAC) is…

  16. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  17. ANL statement of site strategy for computing workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Boxberger, L.M.; Amiot, L.W.; Bretscher, M.E.; Engert, D.E.; Moszur, F.M.; Mueller, C.J.; O'Brien, D.E.; Schlesselman, C.G.; Troyer, L.J.

    1991-11-01

    This Statement of Site Strategy describes the procedure at Argonne National Laboratory for defining, acquiring, using, and evaluating scientific and office workstations and related equipment and software in accord with DOE Order 1360.1A (5-30-85), and Laboratory policy. It is Laboratory policy to promote the installation and use of computing workstations to improve productivity and communications for both programmatic and support personnel, to ensure that computing workstations acquisitions meet the expressed need in a cost-effective manner, and to ensure that acquisitions of computing workstations are in accord with Laboratory and DOE policies. The overall computing site strategy at ANL is to develop a hierarchy of integrated computing system resources to address the current and future computing needs of the laboratory. The major system components of this hierarchical strategy are: Supercomputers, Parallel computers, Centralized general purpose computers, Distributed multipurpose minicomputers, and Computing workstations and office automation support systems. Computing workstations include personal computers, scientific and engineering workstations, computer terminals, microcomputers, word processing and office automation electronic workstations, and associated software and peripheral devices costing less than $25,000 per item.

  18. Implementing Accessible Workstations in a Large Diverse University Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christierson, Eric; Marota, Cindy; Radwan, Neveen; Wydeven, Julie

    This paper describes how San Jose State University installed adaptive and accessible computer workstations for students with disabilities. It begins by discussing factors crucial to the installation of such workstations, including the importance of understanding legal and budgetary constraints, applying standards which meet diverse disability…

  19. Characterization and speciation of depleted uranium in individual soil particles using microanalytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, S.; Osán, J.; Vincze, L.; Kurunczi, S.; Tamborini, G.; Betti, M.

    2004-05-01

    Microanalytical techniques for elemental composition and nuclide-specific analysis have been used to identify the origin and the leachability of depleted uranium particles. The soil particle samples were collected from Kosovo area a few years after the war, the presence of fine particles with depleted uranium as major component was easily identified by EPMA and SIMS. The ultrafine uranium particles were often attached to larger soil particles and contained Ti and Al, being typical components of the penetrator and its cladding. The oxidation state of uranium in the single particles was measured by micro-XANES and found to be in the less soluble form IV while every particle contained a small fraction of mobile uranium VI as well.

  20. A Microanalytical (TEM) Study of Fine-grained Chondrule Rims in NWA 5717

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigolski, J. N.; Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Rahman, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5717 is a highly primitive ordinary chondrite of petrologic type 3.05 with ubiquitous fine-grained chondrule rims [1, 2]. Rims appear around approximately 60% of chondrules and are comprised of micron-sized mineral and lithic fragments and microchondrules that are embdedded in an FeO-rich submicron groundmass that compositionally resembles fayalitic olivine. Some rim clasts appear overprinted with FeO-rich material, suggesting secondary alteration that postdates rim formation. Here we present a microanalytical (TEM) study of the submicron component (i.e. the groundmass) of the rims in order to determine the crystal structures and compositions of their constituent phases and decipher the accretion and alteration history recorded in rims.

  1. High-resolution workstations for primary and secondary radiology readings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Simons, Margaret A.; Razavi, Mahmood; Kangarloo, Hooshang; Boechat, Maria I.; Hall, Theodore R.; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Huang, H. K.; Eldredge, Sandra L.

    1990-08-01

    We have implemented two high resolution workstations within our pediatric radiology PACS module: a two-monitor 2K x 2K station and a six-monitor 1K x 1K station. The 2K x 2K workstation is under evaluation for primary reading of pediatric radiographs from a computed radiography unit. System implementation and evaluation methods are described. Operational efficiency measures of both film and digital systems are reported. This study is our first attempt to integrate a primary viewing station into a busy clinical environment. The 1K x 1K workstation is available 24-hours a day, 7 days a week for fast reviews by referring physicians. Images from a compated radiography system are available at the workstation in about 8 minutes. A digital voice reporting system is being developed to communicate radiology reports from the 2K x 2K workstation to the 1K x 1K secondary review station.

  2. Development of a Pamphlet Targeting Computer Workstation Ergonomics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faraci, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    With the increased use of computers throughout Goddard Space Flight Center, the Industrial Hygiene Office (IHO) has observed a growing trend in the number of health complaints attributed to poor computer workstation setup. A majority of the complaints has centered around musculoskeletal symptoms, including numbness, pain, and tingling in the upper extremities, shoulders, and neck. Eye strain and headaches have also been reported. In some cases, these symptoms can lead to chronic conditions such as repetitive strain injuries (RSI's). In an effort to prevent or minimize the frequency of these symptoms among the GSFC population, the IHO conducts individual ergonomic workstation evaluations and ergonomics training classes upon request. Because of the extensive number of computer workstations at GSFC, and the limited amount of manpower which the Industrial Hygiene staff could reasonably allocate to conduct workstation evaluations and employee training, a pamphlet was developed with a two-fold purpose: (1) to educate the GSFC population about the importance of ergonomically-correct computer workstation setup and the potential effects of a poorly configured workstation; and (2) to enable employees to perform a general assessment of their own workstations and make any necessary modifications for proper setup.

  3. Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppesen, D.; Trellue, R.

    1997-04-01

    Effective utilization of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) in a theater reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and kill assessment environment requires that a human operator be able to interpret, and collectively assess, the significance of real time data obtained from UGS emplacements over large geographical regions of interest. The products of this UGS data interpretation and assessment activity can then be used in the decision support process for command level evaluation of appropriate courses of action. Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical real time situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule-based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all-source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

  4. User metaphors for health care professional workstations.

    PubMed

    Esterhay, R J

    1994-01-01

    The problem encountered by health care professionals and software developers has been a lack of demonstrable visions (prototypes) for Computer-based Patient Record (CPR) and Clinical Information System (CIS) applications. This deficiency has resulted in a quest for and consideration of models, metaphors, and mind maps for the Healthcare Professional Workstation (HPW)--the access mechanism for the CPR and the CIS. The familiar physician desktop and traditional paper-based metaphors are not adequate for all aspects of clinical information processes. In the clinical care environment, the flowsheet is a transporting metaphor because many different applications and tasks can be 'transported' into the flowsheet. 3D Rooms, Gopher and Genes are familiar and transporting metaphors to be exploited for HPWs. Using transporting metaphors for HPW software emphasizes commonality and de-emphasizes diversity. Each model and metaphor has an associated mind map. Only the mental model, mental metaphor or mind map for HPW software is important. Metaphors communicate real-world analogies, and communication is at the core of what defines usability. A mind map facilitates communication by building a model in the user's mind. The barriers to HPWs are not technical; they are related to economics, ownership of patient information, liability and information standards. PMID:8125658

  5. The advanced software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Pitman, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) task is researching and developing the technologies required to support Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) with the emphasis on those advanced methods, tools, and processes that will be of benefit to support all NASA programs. Immediate goals are to provide research and prototype tools that will increase productivity, in the near term, in projects such as the Software Support Environment (SSE), the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and the Flight Analysis and Design System (FADS) which will be used to support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Goals also include providing technology for development, evolution, maintenance, and operations. The technologies under research and development in the ASDW project are targeted to provide productivity enhancements during the software life cycle phase of enterprise and information system modeling, requirements generation and analysis, system design and coding, and system use and maintenance. On-line user's guides will assist users in operating the developed information system with knowledge base expert assistance.

  6. Graphical workstation capability for reliability modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to computational capabilities, software tools for estimating the reliability of fault-tolerant digital computer systems must also provide a means of interfacing with the user. Described here is the new graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP), a software package that implements advanced reliability modeling techniques. The graphics oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault-tree gates, including sequence-dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. By using this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain, which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the graphical kernal system (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing stages.

  7. The anesthesia workstation of the future.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R J

    1994-09-01

    This team's concern is that technology is not the primary limitation to developing the anesthesia workstation to its full potential. In some ways, medical equipment lags far behind other industries in technological sophistication, standardization, miniaturization, and human factors engineering. Real obstacles appear to be economic and conceptual. The anesthetic process has not been reduced to a series of rigorously derived equations; what the user does is still poorly understood. Manufacturers whose design engineers do not spend a significant part of their work week in the operating room seem to be so ignorant of the real needs of the clinician that their products are doomed to fail or to be mediocre. Clinicians need to encourage their industrial counterparts in the development process to become partners in developing the anesthesia systems of the future. Progress can only be made by having clinicians and developers spend time with one another. Can this inconvenient and frustrating process possibly be worse than the everyday torment caused by manufacturers building what the clinicians do not need, because the clinicians cannot tell them? PMID:7983491

  8. A Portable Image Workstation/Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, R. D.; Tom, V. T.; Walton, G.

    1986-11-01

    This paper describes a PC-based workstation for the acquisition, enhancement, transmission and reception of image and text data. The system was designed to provide both ease of use and reasonable performance using IBM PC technology with a 512 X 512 monochrome frame grabber board (PCVISION). The system allows the user to annotate an image with text legends and graphics. The system utilizes some unique methods for achieving eye pleasing two pixel graphics. An image may also be enhanced in two ways: globally with look up table alterations and locally with contrast and edge enhancing operations. Performance enhancement is achieved by implementing primarily integer operations, thereby elimating floating point operations, and radically increasing the apparent processor speed. We show that designing a system for ease of use may also significantly enhance its responsiveness and speed. For example, the edge enhancement technique only allows selection of low, medium, and high levels of enhancement, simplifying user choices and speeding up process operations. In addition, all look up table enhancements are precalculated and stored, allowing the user to alter the contrast with keystroke rapidity without being concerned about the applicability of the algorithm to a particular image.

  9. A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

  10. The fetal imaging workstation demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Lee, W

    1996-01-01

    Congenital birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality. Early detection of fetal anomalies by prenatal ultrasound may improve clinical outcome in selected cases. However, many training programs are hindered by curriculum weaknesses which include: (1) limited physician exposure to ultrasound anomalies; (2) inadequate postnatal correlation with prenatal findings; (3) constraints imposed by static images for ultrasound training; and (4) difficulty with understanding complex three-dimensional anatomy. The Fetal Imaging Workstation Demonstration Project addresses these problems by illustrating how computers can supplement traditional prenatal ultrasound training through interactive multimedia. The project uses a laserdisc library of ultrasound video images as source material for a variety of interactive software tutorials. An educational testing module has been developed that can evaluate diagnostic skills through simulated ultrasound studies provided by the laserdisc library. An interactive three-dimensional fetal heart model also provides a new way for physicians to better understand their two-dimensional ultrasound studies. A survey suggests that this prototype has been widely accepted by housestaff physicians and that there is a perceived need for this supplementary training. Future work will address the educational effectiveness of these materials and will consider cost-effective ways to disseminate the software for other institutions. However, future development must be implemented against a background of rapidly emerging technologies involving faster computers, digital video, and virtual reality applications. PMID:9007213

  11. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. A software engineering approach for medical workstations development.

    PubMed

    Jean, F C; Lavril, M; Lemaitre, D; Sauquet, D; Degoulet, P

    1994-01-01

    Multimedia medical workstations represent the natural tool for accessing the hospital information system environment. They are complex medical systems that have to gather, in a single framework, a large collection of components dealing with multimedia medical objects. To remain current with both medical practice and with advances in the computer science field, they have to allow the iterative addition of new functions to the set of existing ones. In this paper, after a survey of commonly required medical workstation functional components, we shall try to discuss how a software engineering approach can streamline the development of a medical workstation. Different software engineering tools needed to build the functional components of a workstation are described. Their integration in a single dedicated environment is considered through four perspectives: data, presentation, communication and control. Benefits and limitations of an object-oriented approach are discussed. PMID:8125636

  13. Setting Up Computer Workstations in Classrooms and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Explains the benefits of computer workstations in schools and describes various components, including projection tools such as LCD (liquid crystal display) projectors, printers, Internet connections, tape drives, digitizers, scanners, laserdisc players, and CD-i (interactive) players. (LRW)

  14. Cyber-Workstation for Computational Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C.; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface. PMID:20126436

  15. Cyber-workstation for computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Digiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C

    2010-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface. PMID:20126436

  16. C.A.D. and ergonomic workstations conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keravel, Francine

    1986-07-01

    Computer Aided Design is able to perform workstation's conception. An ergonomic data could be complete this view and warrant a coherent fiability conception. Complexe form representation machines, anthropometric data and environment factors are allowed to perceive the limit points between humain and new technology situation. Work ability users, safety, confort and human efficiency could be also included. Such a programm with expert system integration will give a complete listing appreciation about workstation's conception.

  17. Insights into the varnishes of historical musical instruments using synchrotron micro-analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echard, J.-P.; Cotte, M.; Dooryhee, E.; Bertrand, L.

    2008-07-01

    Though ancient violins and other stringed instruments are often revered for the beauty of their varnishes, the varnishing techniques are not much known. In particular, very few detailed varnish analyses have been published so far. Since 2002, a research program at the Musée de la musique (Paris) is dedicated to a detailed description of varnishes on famous ancient musical instruments using a series of novel analytical methods. For the first time, results are presented on the study of the varnish from a late 16th century Venetian lute, using synchrotron micro-analytical methods. Identification of both organic and inorganic compounds distributed within the individual layers of a varnish microsample has been performed using spatially resolved synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microscopy. The univocal identification of the mineral phases is obtained through synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The materials identified may be of utmost importance to understand the varnishing process and its similarities with some painting techniques. In particular, the proteinaceous binding medium and the calcium sulfate components (bassanite and anhydrite) that have been identified in the lower layers of the varnish microsample could be related, to a certain extent, to the ground materials of earlier Italian paintings.

  18. Micro-analytical determination of pH, calcium, and phosphate in plaque fluid.

    PubMed

    Rankine, C A; Moreno, E C; Vogel, G L; Margolis, H C

    1985-11-01

    Micro-analytical techniques for the determination of calcium, phosphate, and pH in a small volume (less than 0.25 microliter) of plaque fluid are described and evaluated. The accuracy and the precision of the techniques were compared with those for standard macrotechniques applied to a large pooled plaque fluid sample. The results obtained for the micro-analysis of pooled plaque fluid were in excellent agreement with those obtained by macromethods. The described techniques were also used to analyze plaque fluid obtained from single quadrants of the oral cavities of five individuals. In this fashion, it was determined that, although a significant variation in plaque fluid composition exists between the quadrants, a greater variation exists between subjects. Analyses of plaque fluid obtained from six individuals, following sucrose exposure, were also conducted. The pH value of the fluid changed with time, following a typical Stephan curve, with a minimum value occurring between 15 and 30 minutes; following this, the pH increased to a value near that for resting plaque. An inverse relationship between pH and calcium and phosphorus concentrations was observed. It is noted that the described techniques are sensitive enough to carry out the above analyses both accurately and precisely using plaque obtained from a single quadrant. PMID:3867684

  19. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. PMID:26546967

  20. Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentiev-Jr, Mikhail; Marchuk, Andrey; Romanenko, Alexey; Simonov, Konstantin; Titov, Vasiliy

    2010-05-01

    We present general structure and functionality of the proposed Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring (CWTHM). The tool allows interactive monitoring of hazard, tsunami risk assessment, and mitigation - at all stages, from the period of strong tsunamigenic earthquake preparation to inundation of the defended coastal areas. CWTHM is a software-hardware complex with a set of software applications, optimized to achieve best performance on hardware platforms in use. The complex is calibrated for selected tsunami source zone(s) and coastal zone(s) to be defended. The number of zones (both source and coastal) is determined, or restricted, by available hardware resources. The presented complex performs monitoring of selected tsunami source zone via the Internet. The authors developed original algorithms, which enable detection of the preparation zone of the strong underwater earthquake automatically. For the so-determined zone the event time, magnitude and spatial location of tsunami source are evaluated by means of energy of the seismic precursors (foreshocks) analysis. All the above parameters are updated after each foreshock. Once preparing event is detected, several scenarios are forecasted for wave amplitude parameters as well as the inundation zone. Estimations include the lowest and the highest wave amplitudes and the least and the most inundation zone. In addition to that, the most probable case is calculated. In case of multiple defended coastal zones, forecasts and estimates can be done in parallel. Each time the simulated model wave reaches deep ocean buoys or tidal gauge, expected values of wave parameters and inundation zones are updated with historical events information and pre-calculated scenarios. The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package is used for mathematical simulation. The authors suggest code acceleration for deep water wave propagation. As a result, performance is 15 times faster compared to MOST, original version

  1. PACS workstation for computer-assisted image diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoba, Minoru; Horino, Masato; Takemura, Kunihiko; Wani, Hidenobu; Hidaka, Akinari; Hatabu, Hiroto; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji

    1990-08-01

    Major two functions that a PACS workstation is considered to be equipped with are 1) efficient retrieval of image data and 2) supporting or consultation of writing reports, as radiologists have to diagnose increasing number of digital images in routine clinical studies. The authors developed a prototype PACS workstation with high speed image retrieving architecture and computer aided diagnosis and reporting function by using an artificial intelligence technology (AIPACS workstation). When physician selects the patient and his studies, the system performs feature extraction and generates diagnostic report by the inference engine with backward reasoning using the knowledge installed as production rules. Clinical application to the system for thyroid diagnosis showed good correlation with the diagnosis done by the physician.

  2. Rebuilding a clinical workstation with spider's silk of the Web.

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, F; Morgenweck, L

    1999-01-01

    The Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH) clinical workstation came into existence in 1993 to provide a simple menu-driven interface to high use information systems that would be easily accessible on the wards and in the intensive care units. Direct Internet access, advances in Web-based software, and greater cooperation between Yale-New Haven Hospital and Yale School of Medicine network technology groups have enabled the clinical workstations to become an integral tool for providing clinical care. The workstation provides bedside access to an expanding array of internal and external resources to support patient care and has the potential to become the basis for an interface that will be utilized throughout the multi-location Yale-New Haven Healthcare System. Images PMID:10550023

  3. The transition of GTDS to the Unix workstation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D.; Metzinger, R.; Proulx, R.; Cefola, P.

    1995-01-01

    Future Flight Dynamics systems should take advantage of the possibilities provided by current and future generations of low-cost, high performance workstation computing environments with Graphical User Interface. The port of the existing mainframe Flight Dynamics systems to the workstation environment offers an economic approach for combining the tremendous engineering heritage that has been encapsulated in these systems with the advantages of the new computing environments. This paper will describe the successful transition of the Draper Laboratory R&D version of GTDS (Goddard Trajectory Determination System) from the IBM Mainframe to the Unix workstation environment. The approach will be a mix of historical timeline notes, descriptions of the technical problems overcome, and descriptions of associated SQA (software quality assurance) issues.

  4. Task-analytic evaluations of Space Station Freedom workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1991-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will be a permanently manned multipurpose facility in low Earth orbit by the late 1990's. Integral to Space Station Freedom will be Data Management System workstations. These workstations will provide the human-machine interface for controlling such systems as Guidance, Navigation and Control, Propulsion, and Environmental Control and Life Support. In addition, they will be used by crewmembers in the space station's pressurized shirt-sleeve environment to control remote manipulator systems and free-flyer devices. This paper presents an overview of proposed workstations and current task-analytic evaluations being used to assess their adequacy in supporting Space Station Freedom operations. Particular emphasis is placed on the results and conclusions of the analysis.

  5. Classroom evaluation of the Arlyn Arm robotic workstation.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, S P; Osborne, J; Rahman, T

    2000-01-01

    High school and junior high school students with neuromuscular weakness and other disorders of the arms evaluated a recently commercialized robotic workstation, the Arlyn Arm, to carry out art projects and science experiments. These tasks were designed for independent execution with the workstation using standard or custom-designed tools. Each task was divided into subtasks, and the execution time of each subtask was determined as a measure of efficiency. Special attention was given to the causes of required experimenter intervention. While subjects easily accomplished some subtasks, others required considerable intervention. Most of these interventions could be avoided by further customizing accessories. It is concluded that the Arlyn Arm workstation could be of considerable benefit in a classroom setting to persons with severe neuromuscular disorders. PMID:11508403

  6. EVA crew workstation provisions for Skylab and Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.; Saenger, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A synopsis of scheduled extravehicular activities (EVA) for a nominal Skylab mission is presented with an overview of EV workstation equipment developed for the program. Also included are the unprogrammed extravehicular activities and supporting equipment that was quickly developed and retrofitted in a series of successful operations to salvage the crippled Skylab Cluster during the Skylab 1 Mission. Because EVA appears to be a requirement for the Space Shuttle Program, candidate EV workstations are discussed in terms of effective and economical Shuttle payload servicing and maintenance. Several such concepts, which could provide a versatile, portable EV support system, are presented.

  7. The Ames Virtual Environment Workstation: Implementation issues and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.; Jacoby, R.; Bryson, S.; Stone, P.; Mcdowall, I.; Bolas, M.; Dasaro, D.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Coler, C.; Kerr, D.

    1991-01-01

    This presentation describes recent developments in the implementation of a virtual environment workstation in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA's Ames Research Center. Introductory discussions are presented on the primary research objectives and applications of the system and on the system's current hardware and software configuration. Principle attention is then focused on unique issues and problems encountered in the workstation's development with emphasis on its ability to meet original design specifications for computational graphics performance and for associated human factors requirements necessary to provide compelling sense of presence and efficient interaction in the virtual environment.

  8. Iterative usability testing: ensuring a usable clinical workstation.

    PubMed

    Coble, J M; Karat, J; Orland, M J; Kahn, M G

    1997-01-01

    Once the users' needs are determined, how does one ensure that the resulting software meets the users' needs? This paper describes our application of a process, usability testing, that is used to measure the usability of systems as well as guide modifications to address usability problems. Usability testing is not a method to elicit opinions about software, but rather a method to determine scientifically a product's level of usability. Our application of usability testing is designed to determine the current usability level of a workstation designed for the clinician's use, determine specific problems with the Clinical Workstation's usability, and then evaluate the effectiveness of changes that address those problems. PMID:9357724

  9. Vertical interferometer workstation for testing large spherical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, B.

    2013-09-01

    The design of an interferometer workstation for the testing of large concave and convex spherical optics is presented. The workstation handles optical components and mounts up to 425 mm in diameter with mass of up to 40 kg with 6 axes of adjustment. A unique method for the implementation of focus, roll and pitch was used allowing for extremely precise adjustment. The completed system includes transmission spheres with f-numbers from f/1.6 to f/0.82 incorporating reference surface diameters of up to 306 mm and surface accuracies of better than 63 nm PVr. The design challenges and resulting solutions are discussed. System performance results are presented.

  10. The knowledge workstation: an electronic environment for knowledge management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, R E; Matheson, N W; Butter, K A; Reynolds, R E

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the creation of the IAIMS workstation in the context of the outcomes of a year-long IAIMS strategic planning process at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI). These outcomes include a long-term institutional vision for a functional knowledge management environment, a JHMI IAIMS model, a strategic plan, and two model prototypes. The functional requirements and specific implementation strategies for the IAIMS workstation, the prototype for managing the knowledge base of the published biomedical literature, are discussed in detail. PMID:3416102

  11. WorkstationJ: workstation emulation software for medical image perception and technology evaluation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartz, Kevin M.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Caldwell, Robert T.; Madsen, Mark T.

    2007-03-01

    We developed image presentation software that mimics the functionality available in the clinic, but also records time-stamped, observer-display interactions and is readily deployable on diverse workstations making it possible to collect comparable observer data at multiple sites. Commercial image presentation software for clinical use has limited application for research on image perception, ergonomics, computer-aids and informatics because it does not collect observer responses, or other information on observer-display interactions, in real time. It is also very difficult to collect observer data from multiple institutions unless the same commercial software is available at different sites. Our software not only records observer reports of abnormalities and their locations, but also inspection time until report, inspection time for each computed radiograph and for each slice of tomographic studies, window/level, and magnification settings used by the observer. The software is a modified version of the open source ImageJ software available from the National Institutes of Health. Our software involves changes to the base code and extensive new plugin code. Our free software is currently capable of displaying computed tomography and computed radiography images. The software is packaged as Java class files and can be used on Windows, Linux, or Mac systems. By deploying our software together with experiment-specific script files that administer experimental procedures and image file handling, multi-institutional studies can be conducted that increase reader and/or case sample sizes or add experimental conditions.

  12. A methodology to emulate and evaluate a productive virtual workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krubsack, David; Haberman, David

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Display and Computer Augmented Control (ADCACS) Program at ACT is sponsored by NASA Ames to investigate the broad field of technologies which must be combined to design a 'virtual' workstation for the Space Station Freedom. This program is progressing in several areas and resulted in the definition of requirements for a workstation. A unique combination of technologies at the ACT Laboratory have been networked to effectively create an experimental environment. This experimental environment allows the integration of nonconventional input devices with a high power graphics engine within the framework of an expert system shell which coordinates the heterogeneous inputs with the 'virtual' presentation. The flexibility of the workstation is evolved as experiments are designed and conducted to evaluate the condition descriptions and rule sets of the expert system shell and its effectiveness in driving the graphics engine. Workstation productivity has been defined by the achievable performance in the emulator of the calibrated 'sensitivity' of input devices, the graphics presentation, the possible optical enhancements to achieve a wide field of view color image and the flexibility of conditional descriptions in the expert system shell in adapting to prototype problems.

  13. Validation and evaluation of a workstation for monitoring sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Neil; Boardman, Diane; Darwin, David; Sullivan, Ken

    1994-12-01

    Demand for reliable sea ice information comes from many quarters including ship routing and resource exploitation companies, weather forecasting agencies and glaciological research institution. For operational purposes, this information is typically required for local regions on short timescales. To explore this market a prototype sea ice workstation has been developed. The workstation uses data from several current earth observation sensors, combining the advantages of regional survey, all-weather capability and high-resolution imagery. The output from the workstation is an integrated sea ice chart which can be used to display combinations of ice edge, ice type, ice concentrations, ice motion vectors and sea surface temperatures. During the course of its development significant new progress in automated ice classification has been achieved together with the enhancement of existing ice motion algorithms. The quality of the sea ice information from each geophysical algorithm was assessed through validation campaigns which collected independent datasets. The results of this analysis show the ice type classification to be most accurate in identifying multi-year ice; this is probably the most critical ice category for navigational purposes. A program of end-user evaluation has also been started in which sea ice charts are supplied to operational organizations and value-added services. This will continue during 1994 and provide feedback on the use of the workstation in a semi-operational environment.

  14. Accessible Microscopy Workstation for Students and Scientists with Mobility Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerstock, Bradley S.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated accessible microscopy workstation was designed and developed to allow persons with mobility impairments to control all aspects of light microscopy with minimal human assistance. This system, named AccessScope, is capable of performing brightfield and fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and tissue morphometry requisite for…

  15. An open systems architecture for development of a physician's workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Young, C. Y.; Tang, P. C.; Annevelink, J.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a physician's workstation consisting of highly integrated information management tools for use by physicians in patient care. We have designed and implemented an open systems, client/server architecture as a development platform which allows new applications to be easily added to the system. Applications cooperate by exchanging messages via a broadcast message server. PMID:1807649

  16. High Performance Diskless Linux Workstations in AX-Division

    SciTech Connect

    Councell, E; Busby, L

    2003-09-30

    AX Division has recently installed a number of diskless Linux workstations to meet the needs of its scientific staff for classified processing. Results so far are quite positive, although problems do remain. Some unusual requirements were met using a novel, but simple, design: Each diskless client has a dedicated partition on a server disk that contains a complete Linux distribution.

  17. 6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE BEING CONSTRUCTED FOR FOUNDRY PROCESSES IN MODULE A. (10/6/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. MDIS (medical diagnostic imaging support) workstation issues: clinical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald V.; Smith, Suzy; Cawthon, Michael A.

    1991-05-01

    A joint DoD effort is in the final stages of contract acquisition to achieve a ''filmless'' hospital environment in the near future. Success of implementation lays to a large degree on an effective image workstation. This paper will discuss soft copy image display (SCID) of the MDIS system including hardware and software.

  19. First Year's Experience of the MAClinical Computer Workstations Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stair, Thomas O.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Computerized workstations at a teaching hospital were developed so that physicians in training could integrate and automate some of their information management tasks. The project is part of the National Library of Medicine's Integrated Academic Information Management Systems program at Georgetown University School of Medicine. (Author/MLW)

  20. In situ characterization of organic matter in two primitive chondrites through correlated microanalytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wende, A. M.; Nittler, L.; Steele, A.; Herd, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    Primitive meteorites contain up to 2 wt % C, much of it in the form of insoluble organic matter (IOM). Bulk analyses have revealed the IOM to be marked by large D and 15N enrichments relative to terrestrial values. Isotopic imaging studies have revealed the presence of `hotspots’, sub-μm to μm-sized regions of IOM exhibiting extreme isotope enrichments. An interesting subpopulation of organic grains, ’nanoglobules’, which have hollow, spherical morphologies, is known to account for a portion of these hot spots. Previous work has suggested that nanoglobules can be identified in situ by native UV fluorescence. The isotopic enrichments are believed to point to low-T chemical fractionations either in the interstellar medium (ISM) or the outer regions of the early Solar System. As part of a larger study investigating the origin and evolution of IOM in the Solar System, a correlated, in situ, microanalytical approach was employed to characterize local isotopic and morphological heterogeneities in IOM in the highly primitive chondrites QUE 99177 (CR3) and Tagish Lake (C-ung). Previous NanoSIMS ion imaging of a QUE 99177 section revealed the spatial and isotopic distribution of C in the matrix with a spatial resolution of 200 nm. Manual definition of >3300 C-rich regions in the NanoSIMS images indicates that grains smaller than 1 μm across, which account for 80% of the IOM area, have a size distribution that is similar to estimates of the size distribution of carbonaceous dust in the diffuse ISM, supporting an interstellar origin for the IOM. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, which is highly sensitive to the degree of disorder in carbonaceous materials, was attempted on the same regions analyzed by NanoSIMS in QUE 99177. Unfortunately, surface damage due to both the prior SIMS analyses and removal of a prior C coat precluded acquisition of useful Raman spectra. Consequently, future correlated work will entail performing Raman analyses on uncoated samples prior to SIMS

  1. Exploring clinical reasoning in novices: a self-regulated learning microanalytic assessment approach

    PubMed Central

    Artino, Anthony R; Cleary, Timothy J; Dong, Ting; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary objectives of this study were to examine the regulatory processes of medical students as they completed a diagnostic reasoning task and to examine whether the strategic quality of these regulatory processes were related to short-term and longer-term medical education outcomes. Methods A self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic assessment was administered to 71 second-year medical students while they read a clinical case and worked to formulate the most probable diagnosis. Verbal responses to open-ended questions targeting forethought and performance phase processes of a cyclical model of SRL were recorded verbatim and subsequently coded using a framework from prior research. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between the SRL processes and several outcomes. Results Most participants (90%) reported focusing on specific diagnostic reasoning strategies during the task (metacognitive monitoring), but only about one-third of students referenced these strategies (e.g. identifying symptoms, integration) in relation to their task goals and plans for completing the task. After accounting for prior undergraduate achievement and verbal reasoning ability, strategic planning explained significant additional variance in course grade (ΔR2 = 0.15, p < 0.01), second-year grade point average (ΔR2 = 0.14, p < 0.01), United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score (ΔR2 = 0.08, p < 0.05) and National Board of Medical Examiner subject examination score in internal medicine (ΔR2 = 0.10, p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that most students in the formative stages of learning diagnostic reasoning skills are aware of and think about at least one key diagnostic reasoning process or strategy while solving a clinical case, but a substantially smaller percentage set goals or develop plans that incorporate such strategies. Given that students who developed more strategic plans

  2. An Analysis of Computer Workstation and Handwriting Use by ESP Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, John

    A study at the University of Aizu (Japan) investigated characteristics of technical writing assignments composed in English as a second language on computer workstations and by hand. The in-class workstation essays and hand-written essays of 24 students revealed that while all were of similar overall quality, the workstation essays were not as…

  3. Progress report on the clinical workstation and clinical data repository at UNC Hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, J. E.; Berger, R. G.; Carey, T. S.; Fakhry, S. M.; Rutledge, R.; Kichak, J. P.; Cleveland, T. J.; Dempsey, M. J.; Tsongalis, N. M.; Ayscue, C. F.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, we demonstrated a prototype version of the Clinical Workstation at SCAMC. At the present time 48 workstations have been implemented in the ambulatory care areas of the Hospital. We describe the present functionality of the workstation and the work done to date on the clinical data repository. PMID:8130470

  4. How Well Do Microanalytic Measures of Academic Self-Regulation Predict Teacher Ratings of Student Self-Regulated Learning in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBenedetto, Maria K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to establish the validity of microanalytic measures used to assess students' self-regulation of an academic science task, not only in terms of immediate achievement, but also in terms of a well-established "person" measure of self-regulated learning. Person measures are designed to capture enduring…

  5. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  6. Physics and detector simulation facility Type O workstation specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, G.; Cormell, L.R.; Hahn, R.; Jacobson, D.; Johnstad, H.; Leibold, P.; Marquez, M.; Ramsey, B.; Roberts, L.; Scipioni, B.; Yost, G.P.

    1990-11-01

    This document specifies the requirements for the front-end network of workstations of a distributed computing facility. This facility will be needed to perform the physics and detector simulations for the design of Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors, and other computations in support of physics and detector needs. A detailed description of the computer simulation facility is given in the overall system specification document. This document provides revised subsystem specifications for the network of monitor-less Type 0 workstations. The requirements specified in this document supersede the requirements given. In Section 2 a brief functional description of the facility and its use are provided. The list of detailed specifications (vendor requirements) is given in Section 3 and the qualifying requirements (benchmarks) are described in Section 4.

  7. Stratigraphic interpretation of seismic data on the workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Bahorich, M.; Van Bemmel, P.

    1994-12-31

    Until recently, interpretation of seismic data in the workstation environment has been restricted primarily to horizon and attribute maps. Interpreters have not had the ability to make various types of notations on seismic data and subsequent map views as has been done for years on paper. New thinking in the industry is leading to the development of software which provides the geoscientist with a broader range of interpretive functionality on seismic and subsequent map views. This new functionality reduces the tedious bookkeeping tasks associated with seismic sequence stratigraphy and facies analysis. Interpreters may now perform stratigraphic analysis in more detail in less time by employing the power of the interpretive workstation. A data set over a deep-water fan illustrates the power of this technology.

  8. ARAC`s site workstation final design and deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Abriam, R.O.; Moore, R.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Center located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provides real-time estimates of the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity or other hazardous materials into the atmosphere anywhere in the world. ARAC`s expertise includes integrating a suite of local, regional and global dispersion models into a highly automated system. Since 1979, on-site computers have provided the link between DOE and DOD facilities around the U.S. and the ARAC Center. Beginning in 1993, these facilities have been replacing their personal computers with UNIX workstations running ARAC`s Site Workstation Systems (SWS) software. The SWS consists of a collection of applications that help sites prepare for and respond to incidents involving an atmospheric release. The SWS can be used either as a real-time emergency-response tool or to make historical or hypothetical assessments of releases.

  9. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Elizabeth; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems (called the DAWN Project, for Design Assistant Workstation), incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulation such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components are discussed.

  10. An integrated distributed processing interface for supercomputers and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.; McGavran, L.

    1989-01-01

    Access to documentation, communication between multiple processes running on heterogeneous computers, and animation of simulations of engineering problems are typically weak in most supercomputer environments. This presentation will describe how we are improving this situation in the Computer Research and Applications group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have developed a tool using UNIX filters and a SunView interface that allows users simple access to documentation via mouse driven menus. We have also developed a distributed application that integrated a two point boundary value problem on one of our Cray Supercomputers. It is controlled and displayed graphically by a window interface running on a workstation screen. Our motivation for this research has been to improve the usual typewriter/static interface using language independent controls to show capabilities of the workstation/supercomputer combination. 8 refs.